WorldWideScience

Sample records for ad hoc network

  1. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  2. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  3. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  4. Intellectual mobile Ad Hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sova, Oleg; Romanjuk, Valeriy; Bunin, Sergey; Zhuk, Pavlo

    2012-01-01

    In this article intellectualization of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks resources management is offered. It was proposed decomposition of the primary goal of MANET functioning into easy subgoals, and fragment of the MANET node target structure is presented.

  5. ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Alicia Correa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos de agrupamiento permiten que las MANET (redes móviles ad hoc presenten un mejor desempeño en cuanto a la rapidez de conexión, el enrutamiento y el manejo de la topología. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión sobre las técnicas de agrupamiento para MANET. Se introducen algunos temas preliminares que forman la base para el desarrollo de los algoritmos de agrupamiento, tales como: la topología de la red, el enrutamiento, la teoría de grafos y los algoritmos de movilidad. Adicionalmente, se describen algunas de las técnicas de agrupamiento más conocidas como Lowest-ID heuristic, Highest degree heuristic, DMAC (distributed mobility-adaptive clustering, WCA (weighted clustering algorithm, entre otros. El propósito central es ilustrar los conceptos principales respecto a las técnicas de agrupamiento en MANET.

  6. Service placement in ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenburg, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Service provisioning in ad hoc networks is challenging given the difficulties of communicating over a wireless channel and the potential heterogeneity and mobility of the devices that form the network. Service placement is the process of selecting an optimal set of nodes to host the implementation of a service in light of a given service demand and network topology. The key advantage of active service placement in ad hoc networks is that it allows for the service configuration to be adapted continuously at run time. ""Service Placement in Ad Hoc Networks"" proposes the SPi service placement fr

  7. Trust Based Routing in Ad Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Mikita V.; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.

    Ad Hoc network often termed as an infrastructure-less, self- organized or spontaneous network.The execution and survival of an ad-hoc network is solely dependent upon the cooperative and trusting nature of its nodes. However, this naive dependency on intermediate nodes makes the ad-hoc network vulnerable to passive and active attacks by malicious nodes and cause inflict severe damage. A number of protocols have been developed to secure ad-hoc networks using cryptographic schemes, but all rely on the presence of trust authority. Due to mobility of nodes and limitation of resources in wireless network one interesting research area in MANET is routing. This paper offers various trust models and trust based routing protocols to improve the trustworthiness of the neighborhood.Thus it helps in selecting the most secure and trustworthy route from the available ones for the data transfer.

  8. Multilevel security model for ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Changda; Ju Shiguang

    2008-01-01

    Modern battlefield doctrine is based on mobility, flexibility, and rapid response to changing situations.As is well known, mobile ad hoc network systems are among the best utilities for battlefield activity. Although much research has been done on secure routing, security issues have largely been ignored in applying mobile ad hoc network theory to computer technology. An ad hoc network is usually assumed to be homogeneous, which is an irrational assumption for armies. It is clear that soldiers, commanders, and commanders-in-chief should have different security levels and computation powers as they have access to asymmetric resources. Imitating basic military rank levels in battlefield situations, how multilevel security can be introduced into ad hoc networks is indicated, thereby controlling restricted classified information flows among nodes that have different security levels.

  9. Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Aldabbas, Hamza; Janicke, Helge; Al-Bayatti, Ali; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4117

    2012-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis. These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours' data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters) and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nod...

  10. Ad hoc networks telecommunications and game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Benslama, Malek; Batatia, Hadj

    2015-01-01

    Random SALOHA and CSMA protocols that are used to access MAC in ad hoc networks are very small compared to the multiple and spontaneous use of the transmission channel. So they have low immunity to the problems of packet collisions. Indeed, the transmission time is the critical factor in the operation of such networks. The simulations demonstrate the positive impact of erasure codes on the throughput of the transmission in ad hoc networks. However, the network still suffers from the intermittency and volatility of its efficiency throughout its operation, and it switches quickly to the satura

  11. Context discovery in ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are more and more present in our daily life. Such networks are often composed of mobile and battery-supplied devices, like laptops and PDAs. With no requirement for infrastructure support, MANETs can be used as temporary networks, such as for conference and office env

  12. Secure Clustering in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Nayyar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A vehicular Ad-hoc network is composed of moving cars as nodes without any infrastructure. Nodes self-organize to form a network over radio links. Security issues are commonly observed in vehicular ad hoc networks; like authentication and authorization issues. Secure Clustering plays a significant role in VANETs. In recent years, various secure clustering techniques with distinguishing feature have been newly proposed. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of these techniques are designed for VANETs and pave the way for the further research, a survey of the secure clustering techniques is discussed in detail in this paper. Qualitatively, as a result of highlighting various techniques of secure clustering certain conclusions are drawn which will enhance the availability and security of vehicular ad hoc networks. Nodes present in the clusters will work more efficiently and the message passing within the nodes will also get more authenticated from the cluster heads.

  13. Vehicular ad hoc network security and privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, X

    2015-01-01

    Unlike any other book in this area, this book provides innovative solutions to security issues, making this book a must read for anyone working with or studying security measures. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Security and Privacy mainly focuses on security and privacy issues related to vehicular communication systems. It begins with a comprehensive introduction to vehicular ad hoc network and its unique security threats and privacy concerns and then illustrates how to address those challenges in highly dynamic and large size wireless network environments from multiple perspectives. This book is richly illustrated with detailed designs and results for approaching security and privacy threats.

  14. Intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jamalipour, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been extensive research activity in the emerging area of Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (ICMANs). By considering the nature of intermittent connectivity in most real word mobile environments without any restrictions placed on users' behavior, ICMANs are eventually formed without any assumption with regard to the existence of a end-to-end path between two nodes wishing to communicate. It is different from the conventional Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs), which have been implicitly viewed as a connected graph with established complete paths betwe

  15. DAWN: Dynamic Ad-hoc Wireless Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-19

    Wireless Networks, , ( ): . doi: Ning Li, Jennifer C. Hou. Localized Topology Control Algorithms for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks, IEEE ...Multi-User Diversity in Single-Radio OFDMA AdHoc Networks Based on Gibbs Sampling, IEEE Milcom . 03-NOV-10, . : , TOTAL: 1 Number of Peer-Reviewed...Networks, ( ) Hui Xu, , Xianren Wu, , Hamid R. Sadjadpour, , J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, . A Unified Analysis of Routing Protocols inMANETs, IEEE

  16. Overlaid Cellular and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Kaibin; Chen, Bin; Yang, Xia; Lau, Vincent K N

    2008-01-01

    In cellular systems using frequency division duplex, growing Internet services cause unbalance of uplink and downlink traffic, resulting in poor uplink spectrum utilization. Addressing this issue, this paper considers overlaying an ad hoc network onto a cellular uplink network for improving spectrum utilization and spatial reuse efficiency. Transmission capacities of the overlaid networks are analyzed, which are defined as the maximum densities of the ad hoc nodes and mobile users under an outage constraint. Using tools from stochastic geometry, the capacity tradeoff curves for the overlaid networks are shown to be linear. Deploying overlaid networks based on frequency separation is proved to achieve higher network capacities than that based on spatial separation. Furthermore, spatial diversity is shown to enhance network capacities.

  17. Evolutionary algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dorronsoro, Bernabé; Danoy, Grégoire; Pigné, Yoann; Bouvry, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Describes how evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to identify, model, and minimize day-to-day problems that arise for researchers in optimization and mobile networking. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), vehicular networks (VANETs), sensor networks (SNs), and hybrid networks—each of these require a designer’s keen sense and knowledge of evolutionary algorithms in order to help with the common issues that plague professionals involved in optimization and mobile networking. This book introduces readers to both mobile ad hoc networks and evolutionary algorithms, presenting basic concepts as well as detailed descriptions of each. It demonstrates how metaheuristics and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to help provide low-cost operations in the optimization process—allowing designers to put some “intelligence” or sophistication into the design. It also offers efficient and accurate information on dissemination algorithms topology management, and mobility models to address challenges in the ...

  18. Constrained Delaunay Triangulation for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Satyanarayana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometric spanners can be used for efficient routing in wireless ad hoc networks. Computation of existing spanners for ad hoc networks primarily focused on geometric properties without considering network requirements. In this paper, we propose a new spanner called constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT which considers both geometric properties and network requirements. The CDT is formed by introducing a small set of constraint edges into local Delaunay triangulation (LDel to reduce the number of hops between nodes in the network graph. We have simulated the CDT using network simulator (ns-2.28 and compared with Gabriel graph (GG, relative neighborhood graph (RNG, local Delaunay triangulation (LDel, and planarized local Delaunay triangulation (PLDel. The simulation results show that the minimum number of hops from source to destination is less than other spanners. We also observed the decrease in delay, jitter, and improvement in throughput.

  19. Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Aldabbas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis.These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours’ data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nodes. We evaluate our framework using the Network Simulator (NS-2 to check whether the privacy and confidentiality of the originator are met. For this we implemented the Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs, as NS-2 agents that manage and enforce the policies attached to packets at every node in the MANET.

  20. Ad Hoc网络%Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛

    2005-01-01

    首先介绍了Ad Hoc网络的基本概念、技术特点以及关键技术等,然后较为全面地归纳了Ad Hoc网络的典型应用,最后讨论了Ad Hoc网络的发展趋势和有待解决的问题.

  1. Transmission Strategies in MIMO Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakih Khalil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Precoding problem in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO ad hoc networks is addressed in this work. Firstly, we consider the problem of maximizing the system mutual information under a power constraint. In this context, we give a brief overview of the nonlinear optimization methods, and systematically we compare their performances. Then, we propose a fast and distributed algorithm based on the quasi-Newton methods to give a lower bound of the system capacity of MIMO ad hoc networks. Our proposed algorithm solves the maximization problem while diminishing the amount of information in the feedback links needed in the cooperative optimization. Secondly, we propose a different problem formulation, which consists in minimizing the total transmit power under a quality of signal constraint. This novel problem design is motivated since the packets are captured in ad hoc networks based on their signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR values. We convert the proposed formulation into semidefinite optimization problem, which can be solved numerically using interior point methods. Finally, an extensive set of simulations validates the proposed algorithms.

  2. Mobility Prediction in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks using Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaniche, Heni

    2010-01-01

    Mobility prediction allows estimating the stability of paths in a mobile wireless Ad Hoc networks. Identifying stable paths helps to improve routing by reducing the overhead and the number of connection interruptions. In this paper, we introduce a neural network based method for mobility prediction in Ad Hoc networks. This method consists of a multi-layer and recurrent neural network using back propagation through time algorithm for training.

  3. Varying Overhead Ad Hoc on Demand Vector Routing in Highly Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An inherent feature of mobile ad hoc networks is the frequent change of network topology leading to stability and reliability problems of the network. Highly dynamic and dense network have to maintain acceptable level of service to data packets and limit the network control overheads. This capability is closely related as how quickly the network protocol control overhead is managed as a function of increased link changes. Dynamically limiting the routing control overheads based on the network topology improves the throughput of the network. Approach: In this study we propose Varying Overhead - Ad hoc on Demand Vector routing protocol (VO-AODV for highly dynamic mobile Ad hoc network. The VO-AODV routing protocol proposed dynamically modifies the active route time based on the network topology. Results and Conclusion: Simulation results prove that the proposed model decreases the control overheads without decreasing the QOS of the network.

  4. Intrusion detection in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge research, Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks explores the security aspects of the basic categories of wireless ad-hoc networks and related application areas. Focusing on intrusion detection systems (IDSs), it explains how to establish security solutions for the range of wireless networks, including mobile ad-hoc networks, hybrid wireless networks, and sensor networks.This edited volume reviews and analyzes state-of-the-art IDSs for various wireless ad-hoc networks. It includes case studies on honesty-based intrusion detection systems, cluster oriented-based

  5. Fundamental Properties of Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekmat, R.

    2005-01-01

    Wireless mobile ad-hoc networks are formed by mobile devices that set up a possibly short-lived network for communication needs of the moment. Ad-hoc networks are decentralized, self-organizing networks capable of forming a communication network without relying on any fixed infrastructure. Each nod

  6. Spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes.

  7. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv

  8. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar; Puttamadappa, C

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc mobile wireless networks have seen increased adaptation in a variety of disciplines because they can be deployed with simple infrastructures and virtually no central administration. In particular, the development of ad hoc wireless and sensor networks provides tremendous opportunities in areas including disaster recovery, defense, health care, and industrial environments. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols and Applications explains the concepts, mechanisms, design, and performance of these systems. It presents in-depth explanations of the latest wireless technologies

  9. ITMAN: An Inter Tactical Mobile Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Grandhomme, Florian; Guette, Gilles; Ksentini, Adlen; Plesse, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    International audience; New generation radio equipment, used by soldiers and vehicles on the battlefield, constitute ad hoc networks and specifically, Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANET). The battlefield where these equipment are deployed includes a majority of coalition communication. Each group on the battleground may communicate with other members of the coalition and establish inter-MANETs links. Operational communications tend to provide tactical ad hoc networks some capacities. There is a be...

  10. High Secure Fingerprint Authentication in Ad hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    P.Velayutham

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the methodology proposed is an novel robust approach on secure fingerprint authentication and matching techniques to implement in ad-hoc wireless networks. This is a difficult problem in ad-hoc network, as it involves bootstrapping trust between the devices. This journal would present a solution, which providesfingerprint authentication techniques to share their communication in ad-hoc network. In this approach, devices exchange a corresponding fingerprint with master device fo...

  11. CAPACITY EVALUATION OF MULTI-CHANNEL WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jiandong; Zygmunt J. Haas; Min Sheng

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the capacity of multi-channel, multi-hop ad hoc network is evaluated.In particular, the performance of multi-hop ad hoc network with single channel IEEE 802.11MAC utilizing different topologies is shown. Also the scaling laws of throughputs for large-scale ad hoc networks and the theoretical guaranteed throughput bounds for multi-channel gridtopology systems are proposed. The results presented in this work will help researchers to choosethe proper parameter settings in evaluation of protocols for multi-hop ad hoc networks.

  12. IP ADDRESS AUTOCONFIGURATION FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿姆贾德

    2002-01-01

    A novel mechanism was specified by which a node in ad hoc network may autoconfigure an IP address which is unique throughout the mobile ad hoc network. This new algorithm imposes less and constant overhead and delay in obtaining an IP address, and fully utilizes the available addresses space of an ad hoc network, and independent of the existing routing protocol, and less prone to security threats. Moreover, a new Join/Leave mechanism was proposed as an enhancement to the new IP address autoconfiguration algorithm, to support the overall operation of the existing routing protocol of wireless ad hoc networks.

  13. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Mobility Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Rahmadya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of developing countries with high land traffic density. This traffic density could cause traffic jam, traffic accidents and other disturbances. This research had developed a simulator that could calculate the traffic density of roads in urban areas. With the use of this simulator, the researcher could calculate the time needed if the source node transports the message to the destination node by using the ad hoc network communication facility. In this research, every vehicle utilizes multi-hop communication in a communication network. The vehicle sends the message through flooding message and passes on the received message to other vehicles. Based on the simulation done on map size 10 km x 10 km with a total of 20 vehicles on the road, it was calculated that the simulator could transmit the message to its destination on the 106th second from node 3 and with the total of 200 vehicles on the road, the simulator could transmit the message to its destination on the 22nd second from node 5. 

  14. A NOVEL ROUTING ATTACK IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. N. SATYANARAYANA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks will often be deployed in environments where the nodes of the networks are unattended and have little or no physical protection against tampering. The nodes of mobile ad hoc networks are thus susceptible to compromise. The networks are particularly vulnerable to denial of service (DOS attacks launched through compromised nodes or intruders. In this paper, we present a new DOS attack and its defense in ad hoc networks. The new DOS attack, called Ad Hoc Flooding Attack (AHFA, can result in denial of service when used against on-demand routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, such as AODV, DSR. The intruder broadcasts mass Route Request packets to exhaust the communication bandwidth and node resource so that the valid communication cannot be kept. After analyzed Ad Hoc Flooding Attack, we develop Flooding Attack Prevention (FAP, a generic defense against the Ad Hoc Flooding Attack in mobile ad hoc networks. When the intruder broadcasts exceeding packets of Route Request, the immediate neighbors of the intruder record the rate of Route Request. Once the threshold is exceeded, nodes deny any future request packets from the intruder. The results of our implementation show FAP can prevent the Ad Hoc Flooding attack efficiently.

  15. Modeling Terrain Impact on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Modeling Terrain Impact on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks ( MANET ) Connectivity Lance Joneckis Corinne Kramer David Sparrow David Tate I N S T I T U T E F...SUBTITLE Modeling Terrain Impact on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks ( MANET ) Connectivity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...1882 ljonecki@ida.org Abstract—Terrain affects connectivity in mobile ad hoc net- works ( MANET ). Both average pairwise link closure and the rate

  16. Multihost ad-hoc network with the clustered Security networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Manikandan,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Security has becomes a primary concern in order to provide protected communication between mobile nodes in a host environment .Unlike the wire line network, the unique characteristics mobile ad-hoc networkpose a collection on autonomous nodes of terminals. Which ommunication with each other by forming multihost radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. Node in Ad-hoc network path is dynamic network topology. These challenges clearly make a case for building multifence security selection that achieve both protection and describe network performance. In this paper we focus on the fundamental security of protection. the multihost network connectivity between mobile nodes in a MANET.we Identify thesecurity issues related to this problem, disuse the challenges to security design and review the security proposals the protect multihost wireless networks. Some security mechanism used in wired network cannot simply is applied to protocol an ad-hoc network. After analyzing various type attacks ad-hoc network, a security for thefamous routing protocol, DSR (Dynamic sources routing is proposed the complete security solutions should cluster nodes and MANET encompass the security components of prevention, detection and reactions.

  17. Decentralized Network-level Synchronization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voulgaris, Spyros; Dobson, Matthew; Steen, van Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Energy is the scarcest resource in ad hoc wireless networks, particularly in wireless sensor networks requiring a long lifetime. Intermittently switching the radio on and off is widely adopted as the most effective way to keep energy consumption low. This, however, prevents the very goal of communic

  18. Flooding attack and defence in Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ping; Hou Yafei; Zhong Yiping; Zhang Shiyong; Dai Zhoulin

    2006-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks are particularly vulnerable to denial of service (DOS) attacks launched through compromised nodes or intruders. In this paper, we present a new DOS attack and its defense in ad hoc networks. The new DOS attack, called Ad hoc Flooding Attack(AHFA), is that intruder broadcasts mass Route Request packets to exhaust the communication bandwidth and node resource so that the valid communication can not be kept. After analyzed Ad hoc Flooding Attack, we develop Flooding Attack Prevention (FAP), a generic defense against the Ad hoc Flooding Attack. When the intruder broadcasts exceeding packets of Route Request, the immediate neighbors of the intruder record the rate of Route Request. Once the threshold is exceeded, nodes deny any future request packets from the intruder. The results of our implementation show FAP can prevent the Ad hoc Flooding attack efficiently.

  19. Enhanced Weight based DSR for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Samant; Jain, Sweta

    2011-12-01

    Routing in ad hoc network is a great problematic, since a good routing protocol must ensure fast and efficient packet forwarding, which isn't evident in ad hoc networks. In literature there exists lot of routing protocols however they don't include all the aspects of ad hoc networks as mobility, device and medium constraints which make these protocols not efficient for some configuration and categories of ad hoc networks. Thus in this paper we propose an improvement of Weight Based DSR in order to include some of the aspects of ad hoc networks as stability, remaining battery power, load and trust factor and proposing a new approach Enhanced Weight Based DSR.

  20. Cognitive Radio-Based Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jalil Piran, Mohammad; Cho, Yongwoo; Yun, Jihyeok; Ali, Amjad; Suh, Doug Young

    2014-01-01

    ... the spectrum scarcity issue. We have already proposed vehicular ad hoc and sensor networks (VASNET) as a new networking paradigm for vehicular communication by utilizing wireless sensor nodes in two mobile and stationary modes...

  1. A Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Zougagh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a collection of mobile nodes in which the wireless links are frequently broken down due to mobility and dynamic infrastructure. Routing is a significant issue and challenge in ad hoc networks. Many routing protocols have been proposed like OLSR, AODV so far to improve the routing performance and reliability. In this paper, we describe the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR and the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV. We evaluate their performance through exhaustive simulations using the Network Simulator 2 (ns2 by varying conditions (node mobility, network density.

  2. Broadcast design in cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief investigates the special challenges of broadcast design in cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc networks. It introduces two broadcast protocols in CR ad hoc networks: a quality-of-service based broadcast protocol under blind information and a fully-distributed broadcast protocol with collision avoidance. A novel unified analytical model is also presented to analyze the performance of the broadcast protocols. This is the first book dedicated to the unique broadcast design challenges in CR ad hoc networks. The authors also discuss the recent research on the performance analysis of broa

  3. A Discovery Process for Initializing Ad Hoc Underwater Acoustic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    1 The route establishment process is very similar to Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) routing protocol except that AODV does not...research in network routing protocols . 3 Chapter III provides an overview of the challenges posed by the physical ocean medium on acoustic communications...network routing strategies. A. RELATED WORK While discovery and routing protocols for terrestrial ad hoc and wireless sensor networks have been

  4. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Toqeer Mahmood; Tabbassam Nawaz; Rehan Ashraf; Syed M. Adnan Shah

    2012-01-01

    A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed id...

  5. Routing in Highly Dynamic Ad Hoc Networks: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun G Menon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to analyze the various issues and challenges involved in routing of data packets in highly mobile ad hoc networks. Routing in ad hoc networks has always been a challenging and tough task due to the dynamic topology and error prone wireless channel. There are a number of issues like lack of centralized control, constantly moving nodes etc that has to be considered while routing a data packet from the source to the destination in the ad hoc network. Routing of data packets becomes much more difficult with increased mobility of nodes. This paper analyses the various issues in routing of data packets from the source to the destination node and also lists down the parameters that has to be considered while designing and selecting a routing protocol for highly mobile ad hoc networks.

  6. Reliable adaptive multicast protocol in wireless Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc network environments, every link is wireless and every node is mobile. Those features make data lost easily as well as multicasting inefficient and unreliable. Moreover, Efficient and reliable multicast in wireless ad hoc network is a difficult issue. It is a major challenge to transmission delays and packet losses due to link changes of a multicast tree at the provision of high delivery ratio for each packet transmission in wireless ad hoc network environment.In this paper, we propose and evaluate Reliable Adaptive Multicast Protocol (RAMP) based on a relay node concept. Relay nodes are placed along the multicast tree. Data recovery is done between relay nodes. RAMP supports a reliable multicasting suitable for mobile ad hoc network by reducing the number of packet retransmissions. We compare RAMP with SRM (Scalable Reliable Multicast). Simulation results show that the RAMP has high delivery ratio and low end-to-end delay for packet transmission.

  7. An Efficient Proactive RSA Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui-shan; CHEN Ke-fei

    2007-01-01

    A proactive threshold signature scheme is very important to tolerate mobile attack in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient proactive threshold RSA signature scheme for ad hoc networks. The scheme consists of three protocols: the initial secret share distribution protocol, the signature generation protocol and the secret share refreshing protocol. Our scheme has three advantages. First, the signature generation protocol is efficient. Second, the signature generation protocol is resilient. Third, the share refreshing protocol is efficient.

  8. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks Routing Protocols - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Jayakumar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks(MANET represent complex distributed systems that comprise wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self organize into arbitrary and temporary ad-hoc network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internet work in areas with no preexisting communication infrastructure e.g., disaster recovery environments. An ad-hoc network is not a new one, having been around in various forms for over 20 years. Traditionally, tactical networks have been the only communication networking application that followed the ad-hoc paradigm. Recently the introduction of new technologies such as Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11 and hyperlan are helping enable eventual commercial MANET deployments outside the military domain. These recent revolutions have been generating a renewed and growing interest in the research and development of MANET. To facilitate communication within the network a routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. The goal of the routing protocol is to have an efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes, so that messages can be delivered in a timely manner. Bandwidth and power constraints are the important factors to be considered in current wireless network because multi-hop ad-hoc wireless relies on each node in the network to act as a router and packet forwarder. This dependency places bandwidth, power computation demands on mobile host to be taken into account while choosing the protocol. Routing protocols used in wired network cannot be used for mobile ad-hoc networks because of node mobility. The ad-hoc routing protocols are divided into two classes: table driven and demand based. This paper reviews and discusses routing protocol belonging to each category.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Important Ad Hoc Network Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless ad hoc network is a collection of specific infrastructureless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without any centralized administration. A user can move anytime in an ad hoc scenario and, as a result, such a network needs to have routing protocols which can adopt dynamically changing topology. To accomplish this, a number of ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed and implemented, which include dynamic source routing (DSR, ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing, and temporally ordered routing algorithm (TORA. Although considerable amount of simulation work has been done to measure the performance of these routing protocols, due to the constant changing nature of these protocols, a new performance evaluation is essential. Accordingly, in this paper, we analyze the performance differentials to compare the above-mentioned commonly used ad hoc network routing protocols. We also analyzed the performance over varying loads for each of these protocols using OPNET Modeler 10.5. Our findings show that for specific differentials, TORA shows better performance over the two on-demand protocols, that is, DSR and AODV. Our findings are expected to lead to further performance improvements of various ad hoc networks in the future.

  10. Multiagent Based Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Manvi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs are a compelling application of ad hoc networks, because of the potential to access specific context information (e.g. traffic conditions, service updates, route planning and deliver multimedia services (Voice over IP, in-car entertainment, instant messaging, etc.. This paper proposes an agent based information dissemination model for VANETs. A two-tier agent architecture is employed comprising of the following: 1 'lightweight', network-facing, mobile agents; 2 'heavyweight', application-facing, norm-aware agents. The limitations of VANETs lead us to consider a hybrid wireless network architecture that includes Wireless LAN/Cellular and ad hoc networking for analyzing the proposed model. The proposed model provides flexibility, adaptability and maintainability for traffic information dissemination in VANETs as well as supports robust and agile network management. The proposed model has been simulated in various network scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.

  11. Auto-configuration protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity.

  12. Survey on Security Issues in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Mokhtar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks are special case of ad hoc networks that, besides lacking infrastructure, communicating entities move with various accelerations. Accordingly, this impedes establishing reliable end-to-end communication paths and having efficient data transfer. Thus, VANETs have different network concerns and security challenges to get the availability of ubiquitous connectivity, secure communications, and reputation management systems which affect the trust in cooperation and negotiation between mobile networking entities. In this survey, we discuss the security features, challenges, and attacks of VANETs, and we classify the security attacks of VANETs due to the different network layers.

  13. Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. B. Nogales

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth is a cutting-edge technology used for implementing wireless ad hoc networks. In order to provide an overall scheme for mobile ad hoc networks, this paper deals with scatternet topology formation and routing algorithm to form larger ad hoc wireless Networks. Scatternet topology starts by forming a robust network, which is less susceptible to the problems posed by node mobility. Mobile topology relies on the presence of free nodes that create multiple connections with the network and on their subsequently rejoining the network. Our routing protocol is a proactive routing protocol, which is tailor made for the Bluetooth ad hoc network. The connection establishment connects nodes in a structure that simplifies packet routing and scheduling. The design allows nodes to arrive and leave arbitrarily, incrementally building the topology and healing partitions when they occur. We present simulation results that show that the algorithm presents low formation latency and also generates an efficient topology for forwarding packets along ad-hoc wireless networks.

  14. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  15. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Al-Nahari

    Full Text Available Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV, which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  16. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  17. Robust message routing for mobile (wireless) ad hoc networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Johnson, Michael M.; Kilman, Dominique Marie (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bierbaum, Neal Robert; Chen, Helen Y.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.; Tsang, Rose P.; Nicol, David M. (University of Illinois, Urbana, IL)

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of research targeting improvements in the robustness of message transport in wireless ad hoc networks. The first section of the report provides an analysis of throughput and latency in the wireless medium access control (MAC) layer and relates the analysis to the commonly used 802.11 protocol. The second section describes enhancements made to several existing models of wireless MAC and ad hoc routing protocols; the models were used in support of the work described in the following section. The third section of the report presents a lightweight transport layer protocol that is superior to TCP for use in wireless networks. In addition, it introduces techniques that improve the performance of any ad hoc source routing protocol. The fourth section presents a novel, highly scalable ad hoc routing protocol that is based on geographic principles but requires no localization hardware.

  18. Link Perdurability Based Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xuebin; Zhou Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Ad Hoc networks are prone to link failures due to mobility. In this letter, a link perdurability based routing scheme is proposed to try dealing with this problem. This scheme uses signal strength measurements to estimate the route life time and hence chooses a stable route, and is implemented in two typical ad hoc routing protocols to evaluate its performance. The simulation results have shown that this scheme can improve these protocols' packet delivery ratio in cases where there are frequent link failures.

  19. Innovative research of AD HOC network mobility model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin

    2017-08-01

    It is difficult for researchers of AD HOC network to conduct actual deployment during experimental stage as the network topology is changeable and location of nodes is unfixed. Thus simulation still remains the main research method of the network. Mobility model is an important component of AD HOC network simulation. It is used to describe the movement pattern of nodes in AD HOC network (including location and velocity, etc.) and decides the movement trail of nodes, playing as the abstraction of the movement modes of nodes. Therefore, mobility model which simulates node movement is an important foundation for simulation research. In AD HOC network research, mobility model shall reflect the movement law of nodes as truly as possible. In this paper, node generally refers to the wireless equipment people carry. The main research contents include how nodes avoid obstacles during movement process and the impacts of obstacles on the mutual relation among nodes, based on which a Node Self Avoiding Obstacle, i.e. NASO model is established in AD HOC network.

  20. A Study On OFDM In Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Nasereldin Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is the physical layer in emerging wireless local area networks that are also being targeted for ad hoc networking. OFDM can be also exploited in ad hoc networks to improve the energy performance of mobile devices. It is important in wireless networks because it can be used adaptively in a dynamically changing channel. This study gives a detailed view about OFDM and how it is useful to increase the bandwidth. This paper also gives an idea about how OFDM can be a promising technology for high capacity wireless communication.

  1. A Survey of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRADIP M. JAWANDHIYA,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Security is an essential requirement in mobile ad hoc network (MANETs. Compared to wired networks, MANETs are more vulnerable to security attacks due to the lack of a trusted centralized authority and limited resources. Attacks on ad hoc networks can be classified as passive and active attacks, depending on whether the normal operation of the network is disrupted or not. In this paper, we are describing the all prominent attacks described in literature in a consistent manner to provide a concise comparison on attack types. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that studies all the existing attacks on MANETs.

  2. Dynamic Mobile IP routers in ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, B.A.; Schmidt, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a concept combining mobile IP and ad hoc routing to create a robust mobile network. In this network all nodes are mobile and globally and locally reachable under the same IP address. Essential for implementing this network are the dynamic mobile IP routers. They act as gateways

  3. A survey of TCP over ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Altman, Eitan; Nain, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) was designed to provide reliable end-to-end delivery of data over unreliable networks. In practice, most TCP deployments have been carefully designed in the context of wired networks. Ignoring the properties of wireless ad hoc networks can lead to TCP implemen

  4. Dynamic Mobile IP routers in ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, B.A.; Schmidt, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a concept combining mobile IP and ad hoc routing to create a robust mobile network. In this network all nodes are mobile and globally and locally reachable under the same IP address. Essential for implementing this network are the dynamic mobile IP routers. They act as gateways

  5. ANALYSIS OF ROUTING IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An ad-hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any standalone infrastructure or centralized administration. Routing in Ad hoc networks is a challenging problem because nodes are mobile and links are continuously being created and broken.In this model we not only improves the reputation of the network but also provide a routing approach for reliable data transmission and also avoid the loop occurs in the communication. The mobile network is the dynamicnetwork that provides the solution for the inclusion and exclusion of dynamic nodes in the network. AODV and DSR are the two most popular routing protocols for ad-hoc network that we discussed here. In this paper we describe the way to find the node having packet loss and to perform the elimination of node from the network withoutperforming the rerouting and provide the reliable data transfer over the network. In this paper, we design and evaluate cooperative caching techniques to efficiently support data access in the ad-hoc network.

  6. Reliable routing algorithm in marine ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Wei; YANG Yong-Tian

    2004-01-01

    A routing algorithm called DNH for increasing efficiency of mobile ad hoc network is presented, which is based on a new criterion called TSS ( Temporarily Steady State) , combining with wireless transmission theory that makes networks topology correspondingly stabilization. Also the DNH algorithm has the characteristics of giving up queuing in a node, but selecting another idle node instead of the node for forwarding data packets if the node has a full throughput. Simulation evaluation shows that selecting another node is better than queuing in a full throughout node if some conditions are satisfied, especially during a sea battle, every warship in ad hoc network wants to contest time and increase propagation reliability. The DNH algorithm can help decrease routing time, and raise efficiency of marine ad hoc networks.

  7. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

  8. Voice Service Support in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Hai; Poor, H Vincent; Zhuang, Weihua

    2007-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks are expected to support voice traffic. The requirement for small delay and jitter of voice traffic poses a significant challenge for medium access control (MAC) in such networks. User mobility makes it more complex due to the associated dynamic path attenuation. In this paper, a MAC scheme for mobile ad hoc networks supporting voice traffic is proposed. With the aid of a low-power probe prior to DATA transmissions, resource reservation is achieved in a distributed manner, thus leading to small delay and jitter. The proposed scheme can automatically adapt to dynamic path attenuation in a mobile environment. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  9. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed idea shows that it is a better approach based on gossip routing.

  10. Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Rakesh Kumar,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available hoc networks are self configuring network and by a random and quickly changing network topology; thus the need for a robust dynamic routing protocol can accommodate such an environment. Different protocols govern the mobile ad hoc networks and to improve the packet delivery ratio of Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks with high mobility, a message exchange scheme for its invalid route reconstruction is being used. Three protocols AODV, DSDV and I-DSDV were simulated using NS-2 package and were compared in terms of packet delivery ratio, end to end delay routing overhead in different environment; varying number of nodes, speed and pause time. Simulation results show that IDSDVcompared with DSDV, it reduces the number of dropped data packets with little increased overhead at higher rates of node mobility but still compete with AODV in higher node speed and number of node.

  11. Distribution of Information in Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    2.4. MACA Protocol ...................................20 Figure 2.5. Route discovery in AODV (From [32]).............28 Figure 2.6. Creation of a...2.5. Route discovery in AODV (From [32]) The DSR (Dynamic Source Routing ) protocol [33], proposed by Johnson and Maltz, is very similar to AODV ...Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing ( AODV ) [30] and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [48] version unicast are reactive protocols (the paths are built

  12. Comparative Analysis of Routing Attacks in Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Syam Purkayastha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the mobile ad hoc networks the major role is played by the routing protocols in order to route the data from one mobile node to another mobile node. But in such mobile networks, routing protocols are vulnerable to various kinds of security attacks such as blackhole node attacks. The routing protocols of MANET are unprotected and hence resulted into the network with the malicious mobile nodes in the network. These malicious nodes in the network are basically acts as attacks in the network. In this paper, we modify the existing DSR protocol with the functionality of attacks detection without affecting overall performance of the network. Also, we are considering the various attacks on mobile ad hoc network called blackhole attack, flooding attack and show the comparative analysis of these attacks using network simulator ns-2.

  13. Evaluating Self-Addressing Protocols for Ad-Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Ricardo de O.; Pras, Aiko; Gomes, Reinaldo

    2011-01-01

    Ad-hoc networks are supposed to operate autonomously and, therefore, self-* technologies are fundamental to their deployment. Many of these so- lutions have been proposed during the last few years, covering several layers and functionalities of network- ing systems. Addressing can be considered as o

  14. Neighbor-Aware Control in Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Neighbor-Aware Contention Resolution Channel access problem in ad hoc networks is a special dynamic leader - election prob- lem in which multiple leaders are...message coordinations. However, the network throughput may drastically degrade when the leader election becomes increasingly competitive due to the

  15. Wireless sensor and ad hoc networks under diversified network scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Due to significant advantages, including convenience, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the implementation and use of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks have gained steep growth in recent years. This timely book presents the current state-of-the-art in these popular technologies, providing you with expert guidance for your projects in the field. You find broad-ranging coverage of important concepts and methods, definitions of key terminology, and a look at the direction of future research. Supported with nearly 150 illustrations, the book discusses a variety of critical topics, from topology

  16. The 11th Annual Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (Med-Hoc-Net 2012 )

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitsillides, A.; Douligeris, C.; Vassiliou, V.; Heijenk, Gerhard J.; Cavalcante de Oliveira, J.; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Message from the General Chairs Welcome to the 2012 Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop in Ayia Napa, Cyprus. We are excited to host Med-Hoc-Net. As a major annual international workshop, following recent successful workshops in Sicily (2006), Corfu (2007), Palma de Mallorca (2008), Haifa (2009

  17. The 11th Annual Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (Med-Hoc-Net 2012 )

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitsillides, A.; Douligeris, C.; Vassiliou, V.; Heijenk, Geert; Cavalcante de Oliveira, J.

    Message from the General Chairs Welcome to the 2012 Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop in Ayia Napa, Cyprus. We are excited to host Med-Hoc-Net. As a major annual international workshop, following recent successful workshops in Sicily (2006), Corfu (2007), Palma de Mallorca (2008), Haifa

  18. Performance Evaluation of TCP over Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Foez; Islam, Nayeema; Debnath, Sumon Kumar

    2010-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing devices, the demand for continuous network connectivity regardless of physical location has spurred interest in the use of mobile ad hoc networks. Since Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the standard network protocol for communication in the internet, any wireless network with Internet service need to be compatible with TCP. TCP is tuned to perform well in traditional wired networks, where packet losses occur mostly because of congestion. However, TCP connections in Ad-hoc mobile networks are plagued by problems such as high bit error rates, frequent route changes, multipath routing and temporary network partitions. The throughput of TCP over such connection is not satisfactory, because TCP misinterprets the packet loss or delay as congestion and invokes congestion control and avoidance algorithm. In this research, the performance of TCP in Adhoc mobile network with high Bit Error rate (BER) and mobility is studied and investigated. Simulation model is implement...

  19. Virtual reality mobility model for wireless ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ziyue; Gong Bo; He Xingui

    2008-01-01

    For wireless ad hoc networks simulation.node's mobility pattern and traffic pattern are two key elements.A new simulation model is presented based on the virtual reality collision detection algorithm in obstacle environment,and the model uses the path planning method to avoid obstacles and to compute the node's moving path.Obstacles also affect node's signal propagation.Considering these factors,this study implements the mobility model for wireless ad hoc networks.Simulation results show that the model has a significant impact on the performance of protocols.

  20. Flying Ad-Hoc Networks: Routing Protocols, Mobility Models, Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Muneer Bani Yassein; “Nour Alhuda” Damer

    2016-01-01

    Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs) is a group of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) which completed their work without human intervention. There are some problems in this kind of networks: the first one is the communication between (UAVs). Various routing protocols introduced classified into three categories, static, proactive, reactive routing protocols in order to solve this problem. The second problem is the network design, which depends on the network mobility, in which is the process of cooperati...

  1. Interference in wireless ad hoc networks with smart antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of directional antennas in wireless ad hoc networks can actually increase interference due to limitations of virtual carrier sensing. We derive a simple mathematical expression for interference in both physical and virtual carrier sense networks, which reveals counter-intuitively that receivers in large dense networks with directional antennas can experience larger interference than in omnidirectional networks unless the beamwidth is sufficiently small. Validity of mathematical analysis is confirmed using simulations.

  2. Security Challenges and Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH.V. Raghavendran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile nodes that form a temporary network without of any existing network infrastructure or central access point. The popularity of these networks created security challenges as an important issue. The traditional routing protocols perform well with dynamically changing topology but are not designed to defense against security challenges. In this paper we discuss about current challenges in an ad hoc environment which includes the different types of potential attacks that are possible in the Mobile Ad hoc Networks that can harm its working and operation. We have done literature study and gathered information relating to various types of attacks. In our study, we have found that there is no general algorithm that suits well against the most commonly known attacks. But the complete security solution requires the prevention, detection and reaction mechanisms applied in MANET. To develop suitable security solutions for such environments, we must first understand how MANETs can be attacked. This paper provides a comprehensive study of attacks against mobile ad hoc networks. We present a detailed classification of the attacks against MANETs.

  3. Study on Sinkhole Attacks in Wireless Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAGANDEEP

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically self-organize in arbitrary and temporary network topologies. As compared to conventional network, wireless ad hocnetwork are more vulnerable to the security attacks. The nature and structure of wireless ad hoc network makes it very attractive to attackers, because there is no fixed infrastructure and administrativeapproach in it. “Sinkhole attack” is one of the severe attacks in this type of network; this makes trustable nodes to malicious nodes that result in loss of secure information. This paper focuses on sinkhole attacks on routing protocols such as DSR, AODV. To overcome the problems occur due to sinkhole we discuss about Security-aware routing (SAR which helps to reduce the impact of such attack.

  4. BCR Routing for Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RAMESH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless and the Mobile Networks appear to provide a wide range of applications. Following these, the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET aid in wide development of many applications. The achievement of the real world applications are attained through effective routing. The Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad hoc Network (ICMANET is a sparse network where a full connectivity is never possible. ICMANET is a disconnected MANET and is also a Delay Tolerant Network (DTN that sustains for higher delays. The routing in a disseminated network is a difficult task. A new routing scheme called Bee Colony Routing (BCR is been proposed with a motto of achieving optimal result in delivering the data packet towards the destined node. BCR is proposed with the basis of Bee Colony Optimization technique (BCO. The routing in ICMNAET is done by means of Bee routing protocol. This paper enchants a novel routing methodology for data transmission in ICMANET.

  5. Energy management in wireless cellular and ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Imran, Muhammad; Qaraqe, Khalid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates energy management approaches for energy efficient or energy-centric system design and architecture and presents end-to-end energy management in the recent heterogeneous-type wireless network medium. It also considers energy management in wireless sensor and mesh networks by exploiting energy efficient transmission techniques and protocols. and explores energy management in emerging applications, services and engineering to be facilitated with 5G networks such as WBANs, VANETS and Cognitive networks. A special focus of the book is on the examination of the energy management practices in emerging wireless cellular and ad hoc networks. Considering the broad scope of energy management in wireless cellular and ad hoc networks, this book is organized into six sections covering range of Energy efficient systems and architectures; Energy efficient transmission and techniques; Energy efficient applications and services. .

  6. ON THE CAPACITY REGION OF WIRELESS AD HOC RELAY NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Qinyun; Yao Wangsheng; Peng Jianmin; Su Gang

    2006-01-01

    Network capacity is a key characteristic to evaluate the performance of wireless networks. The goal of this paper is to study the capacity of wireless ad hoc relay network. In the model, there is at most ns source nodes transmitting signal simultaneously in the network and the arbitrarily complex network coding is allowed. The upper capacity bound of the network model are derived from the max-flow min-cut theorem and the lower capacity bound are obtained by the rate-distortion function for the Gaussian source. Finally, simulation results show that the upper network capacity will decrease as the number of source nodes is increased.

  7. Providing Location Security in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gongjun

    2010-01-01

    Location is fundamental information in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). Almost all VANET applications rely on location information. Therefore it is of importance to ensure location information integrity, meaning that location information is original (from the generator), correct (not bogus or fabricated) and unmodified (value not changed). We…

  8. Adaptive Resource Control in 2-hop Ad-Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Heijenk, Gerhard J.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a simple resource control mechanism with traffic scheduling for 2-hop ad-hoc networks, in which the Request-To-Send (RTS) packet is utilized to deliver feedback information. With this feedback information, the Transmission Opportunity (TXOP) limit of the sources can be controlled

  9. Challenges of evidence acquisition in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutanga, MB

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available a big challenge. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explore the challenges of acquiring live evidence in wireless ad-hoc networks. We also give some legal requirements of evidence admissibility as outlined in the Communications and Transactions Act...

  10. Internet Connectivity using Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim Ali; Aamir Saeed; Syed Rohullah Jan; Asadullah; Ahsan Khawaja

    2012-01-01

    Although a mobile Ad-Hoc network (MANET) can be used in many cases but the most preferable is a MANET connected to the internet. This is achieved by using gateways which act as bridges between a MANET and the internet. To communicate in-between, a mobile node needs to find a valid route to the gateway which requires gateway discovery mechanism. In this paper Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is altered to achieve the interconnection between a MANET and the Internet. Furthermore, the pap...

  11. Dynamic Encryption Technology in Ad-hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhao-hui; WANG Shun-man; XU Kai; LIANG Qing

    2007-01-01

    A new dynamic encryption application in ad-hoc networks is proposed. The advantages of this method are its being able to use the previous ciphertext as a seed of a new encryption process, rendering the encryption process effective in all communication process by continuous dynamic key generation together with synchronization, and its capability to cut back on system bandages to a greater extent, which is valuable for the ad-hoc circumstance. In addition, the rationality and effectiveness of this novel encryption method have been verified by the test results.

  12. A Secure Multi-Routing Platform for Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU She-jie; CHEN Jing; XIONG Zai-hong

    2008-01-01

    In an ad hoc network, it is usually difficult to optimize the assignment of network routing resources using a single type of routing protocol due to the differences in network scale, node moving mode and node distribution. Therefore, it is desirable to have nodes run multiple routing protocols simultaneously so that more than one protocols can be chosen to work jointly. For this purpose,a multiple routing platform for Ad hoc networks is proposed on a higher level of current routing protocols. In order to ensure the security of the platform, a security mechanism and its formal analysis by BAN logic is given. The simulation results of the network performance demonstrate that the proposed multi-routing platform is practicable in some complex applications.

  13. Distributed Reinforcement Learning Approach for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Celimuge; Kumekawa, Kazuya; Kato, Toshihiko

    In Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), general purpose ad hoc routing protocols such as AODV cannot work efficiently due to the frequent changes in network topology caused by vehicle movement. This paper proposes a VANET routing protocol QLAODV (Q-Learning AODV) which suits unicast applications in high mobility scenarios. QLAODV is a distributed reinforcement learning routing protocol, which uses a Q-Learning algorithm to infer network state information and uses unicast control packets to check the path availability in a real time manner in order to allow Q-Learning to work efficiently in a highly dynamic network environment. QLAODV is favored by its dynamic route change mechanism, which makes it capable of reacting quickly to network topology changes. We present an analysis of the performance of QLAODV by simulation using different mobility models. The simulation results show that QLAODV can efficiently handle unicast applications in VANETs.

  14. Simulator for Energy Efficient Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The research on various issues in Mobile ad hoc networks is getting popular because of its challenging nature and all time connectivity to communicate. Network simulators provide the platform to analyse and imitate the working of the nodes in the networks along with the traffic and other entities. The current work proposes the design of a simulator for the mobile ad hoc networks that provides a test bed for the energy efficient clustering in the dynamic network. Node parameters like degree of connectivity and average transmission power are considered for calculating the energy consumption of the mobile devices. Nodes that consume minimum energy among their 1-hop neighbours are selected as the cluster heads.

  15. AHBP: An Efficient Broadcast Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭伟; 卢锡城

    2001-01-01

    Broadcast is an important operation in many network protocols. It is utilized to discover routes to unknown nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and is the key factor in scaling on-demand routing protocols to large networks. This paper presents the Ad Hoc Broadcast Protocol (AHBP) and its performance is discussed. In the protocol, messages are only rebroadcast by broadcast relay gateways that constitute a connected dominating set of the network. AHBP can efficiently reduce the redundant messages which make flooding-like protocols perform badly in large dense networks. Simulations are conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the protocol. The simulation results have shown excellent reduction of broadcast redundancy with AHBP. It also contributes to a reduced level of broadcast collision and congestion.

  16. Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jungeblut

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a real-time Multiprocessor System-On-Chip (MPSoC for low power wireless applications. The multiprocessor is based on eight 32bit RISC processors that are connected via an Network-On-Chip (NoC. The NoC follows a novel approach with guaranteed bandwidth to the application that meets hard realtime requirements. At a clock frequency of 100 MHz the total power consumption of the MPSoC that has been fabricated in 180 nm UMC standard cell technology is 772 mW.

  17. Spaceborne Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcada, Ignasi; Strauss, Adi

    2010-08-01

    Reliable global networking is essential for a rapidly growing mobile and interactive communication. Satellite communication plays already a significant role in this subject. However, the classical space-based data transmission requires an appropriate infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. This paper discusses the potential of a self-organising distributed satellite system in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) to achieve a seamless integration in already existing infrastructures. The communication approach is based on dynamic Inter Satellite Links (ISL) not controlled nor coordinated on an individual basis from the ground-based stations.

  18. Authentication Based on Multilayer Clustering in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Heyi-Sook

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a secure cluster-routing protocol based on a multilayer scheme in ad hoc networks. This work provides scalable, threshold authentication scheme in ad hoc networks. We present detailed security threats against ad hoc routing protocols, specifically examining cluster-based routing. Our proposed protocol, called "authentication based on multilayer clustering for ad hoc networks" (AMCAN, designs an end-to-end authentication protocol that relies on mutual trust between nodes in other clusters. The AMCAN strategy takes advantage of a multilayer architecture that is designed for an authentication protocol in a cluster head (CH using a new concept of control cluster head (CCH scheme. We propose an authentication protocol that uses certificates containing an asymmetric key and a multilayer architecture so that the CCH is achieved using the threshold scheme, thereby reducing the computational overhead and successfully defeating all identified attacks. We also use a more extensive area, such as a CCH, using an identification protocol to build a highly secure, highly available authentication service, which forms the core of our security framework.

  19. Auto-Configuration Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity. PMID:22163814

  20. Auto-Configuration Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián García Matesanz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity.

  1. Analyzing Reactive Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Kamaljit I. Lakhtaria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous mobile nodes forming network in an infrastructure less environment and has dynamic topology. MANET reactive protocols always not have low control overhead. The control overhead for reactive protocols is more sensitive to the traffic load, in terms of the number of traffic rows, and mobility, in terms of link connectivity change rates, than other protocols. Therefore, reactive protocols may only be suitable for MANETs with small number of traffic loads and small link connectivity change rates. It is already proved that, it is more feasible to maintain full network topology in a MANET with low control overhead. In this Research Paper through simulations that were carried out by using Network Simulator-2 (NS-2 we had analyze Reactive/ On-demand protocols such as Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV, Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR,

  2. Implementing Smart Antenna System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Kulkarni P

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the necessity of exchanging and sharing data increases, users demand easy connectivity, and fast networks whether they are at work, at home, or on the move. Nowadays, users are interested in interconnecting all their personal electronic devices (PEDs in an ad hoc fashion on the move. This type of network is referred to as Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET. When in such network a smart antenna System (SAS is implemented then we can achieve maximum capacity and improve the quality and coverage. So we are intended to implement such a SAS in the MANET. In this paper we have shown significance of Throughput and Bit Error Rate by implementing SAS in MANET using MATLABR2010a.

  3. A Simplified Mobile Ad Hoc Network Structure for Helicopter Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldime Mohamed Salih Abdelgader

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of volunteer and statutory organizations who are capable of conducting an emergency response using helicopters. Rescue operations require a rapidly deployable high bandwidth network to coordinate necessary relief efforts between rescue teams on the ground and helicopters. Due to massive destruction and loss of services, ordinary communication infrastructures may collapse in these situations. Consequently, information exchange becomes one of the major challenges in these circumstances. Helicopters can be also employed for providing many services in rugged environments, military applications, and aerial photography. Ad hoc network can be used to provide alternative communication link between a set of helicopters, particularly in case of significant amount of data required to be shared. This paper addresses the ability of using ad hoc networks to support the communication between a set of helicopters. A simplified network structure model is presented and extensively discussed. Furthermore, a streamlined routing algorithm is proposed. Comprehensive simulations are conducted to evaluate the proposed routing algorithm.

  4. Efficient Resource Management for Multicast Ad Hoc Networks: Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chopra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Group communication over multicast ad hoc network suffers from insufficient utilization of limited resources, i.e. shared channel, battery, data processing capabilities and storage space etc. Multicast routing protocol should be able to manage all these resources because their consumption depends upon different factors, i.e. Unicast/Multicast network operations, dynamic topology due to mobility, control overhead due to scalability, packet loss and retransmission due to collision and congestion etc. All these factors may cause unnecessary network load, delay and unfair resource utilization. However, multicast ad hoc routing protocols are more efficient than Unicast routing protocols, but they also suffer from performance degradation factors discussed above. Researchers have developed various layer wise solutions for resource optimization. In this paper, we will explore the different schemes for fair utilization of network resources.

  5. Power Control in Multi-cluster Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINYanliang; YANGYuhang

    2003-01-01

    Power control gives us many advantages including power saving, lower interference, and efficient channel utilization. We proposed two clustering algorithms with power control for multl-cluster mobile ad hoc networks in this paper. They improve the network throughput and the network stability as compared to other ad hoc networks in which all mobile nodes use the same transmission power. Furthermore, they help in reducing the system power consumption. We compared the performances of the two approaches. Simulation results show that the DCAP (Distributed clustering algorithm with power control) would achieve a better throughput performance and lower power consumption than the CCAP (Centralized clustering algorithm with power control), but it is complicated and liable to be affected by node velocity.

  6. Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeone O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.

  7. Multicost Routing Approach in Wireless Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ramamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A Wireless ad hoc network is a collection of autonomous movable nodes that communicate with each other over wireless links without any static infrastructure. In these networks there is no fixed topology because of the mobility of nodes, interference, multipath propagation and path loss. A variety of routing protocols and algorithm with varying network settings are analyzed to link between the nodes and communicate packets to their destinations. Most of these algorithms are single cost, in the logic that they consign a scalar cost parameter to every link and compute the path that has minimum cost. Although multicost routing, a vector of cost parameters is consigned to each link and the cost vector of a path is well-defined based on the cost vectors of the links that embrace it. Adjustable transmission power control of the nodes with multi cost routing algorithm can support optimizeto acquire the reduced interference and improve the ad hoc network performance. Approach: The link and path of the wireless network is consigned with several cost parameters. Hop count, total interference, node link delay, residual energy of a node and the node transmission power are the cost parameters assigned for link and path of the ad hoc networks. Multicost parameters are combined in different optimization function with respect to various routing algorithm. Results: Simulation and optimization shows multicost SUM/MIN Energy-Interference algorithm with variable transmission power can lead to decrease the interference and improves the overall network performance. Conclusion: The function optimized for wireless ad hoc networks that the Multicost SUM/MIN Energy-Interference algorithm achieves improved performance over than the single cost algorithm.

  8. A new traffic allocation algorithm in Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; MIAO Jian-song; SUN Dan-dan; ZHOU Li-gang; DING Wei

    2006-01-01

    A dynamic traffic distribution algorithm based on the minimization product of packet delay and packet energy consumption is proposed. The algorithm is based on packet delay and energy consumption in allocating traffic, which can optimize the network performance. Simulation demonstrated that the algorithm could dynamically adjust to the traffic distribution between paths, which can minimize the product of packet delay and energy consumption in mobile Ad hoc networks.

  9. Journey from Mobile Ad Hoc Networks to Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfang; Xie, Bin; Agrawal, Dharma P.

    A wireless mesh network (WMN) is a particular type of mobile ad hoc network (MANET), which aims to provide ubiquitous high bandwidth access for a large number of users. A pure MANET is dynamically formed by mobile devices without the requirement of any existing infrastructure or prior network configuration. Similar to MANETs, a WMN also has the ability of self-organization, self-discovering, self-healing, and self-configuration. However, a WMN is typically a collection of stationary mesh routers (MRs) with each employing multiple radios. Some MRs have wired connections and act as the Internet gateways (IGWs) to provide Internet connectivity for other MRs. These new features of WMNs over MANETs enable them to be a promising alternative for high broadband Internet access. In this chapter, we elaborate on the evolution from MANETs to WMNs and provide a comprehensive understanding of WMNs from theoretical aspects to practical protocols, while comparing it with MANETs. In particular, we focus on the following critical issues with respect to WMN deployment: Network Capacity, Positioning Technique, Fairness Transmission and Multiradio Routing Protocols. We end this chapter with some open problems and future directions in WMNs.

  10. Bandwidth Estimation For Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presents bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET, which uses some components of the two methods for the bandwidth estimation: 'Hello Bandwidth Estimation 'Listen Bandwidth Estimation. This paper also gives the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed method is based on the comparison of these two methods. Bandwidth estimation is an important issue in the Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET because bandwidth estimation in MANET is difficult, because each host has imprecise knowledge of the network status and links change dynamically. Therefore, an effective bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET is highly desirable. Ad hoc networks present unique advanced challenges, including the design of protocols for mobility management, effective routing, data transport, security, power management, and quality-of-service (QoS provisioning. Once these problems are solved, the practical use of MANETs will be realizable.

  11. A Novel Routing Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Chand

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a collection of mobile users without any support of fixed infrastructure. The nodes in these networks have several constraints such as transmission power, bandwidth and processing capability. In addition to it an important parameter of interest is the residual battery power of the nodes. Conventional routing schemes do not take this aspect into consideration. Therefore this paper proposes a routing strategy that takes this aspect into consideration by modifying the Route Request (RREQ packet of the Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol. The protocol chooses a threshold below which a node is not allowed to relay data/control packets. The results show a remarkable improvement in the value of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR, throughput and at the same time the network lifetime is not affected.

  12. Beamforming in Ad Hoc Networks: MAC Design and Performance Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Fakih

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine in this paper the benefits of beamforming techniques in ad hoc networks. We first devise a novel MAC paradigm for ad hoc networks when using these techniques in multipath fading environment. In such networks, the use of conventional directional antennas does not necessarily improve the system performance. On the other hand, the exploitation of the potential benefits of smart antenna systems and especially beamforming techniques needs a prior knowledge of the physical channel. Our proposition performs jointly channel estimation and radio resource sharing. We validate the fruitfulness of the proposed MAC and we evaluate the effects of the channel estimation on the network performance. We then present an accurate analytical model for the performance of IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. We extend the latter model, by introducing the fading probability, to derive the saturation throughput for our proposed MAC when the simplest beamforming strategy is used in real multipath fading ad hoc networks. Finally, numerical results validate our proposition.

  13. Cost management based security framework in mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Security issues are always difficult to deal with in mobile ad hoc networks. People seldom studied the costs of those security schemes respectively and for some security methods designed and adopted beforehand, their effects are often investigated one by one. In fact, when facing certain attacks, different methods would respond individually and result in waste of resources.Making use of the cost management idea, we analyze the costs of security measures in mobile ad hoc networks and introduce a security framework based on security mechanisms cost management. Under the framework, the network system's own tasks can be finished in time and the whole network's security costs can be decreased. We discuss the process of security costs computation at each mobile node and in certain nodes groups. To show how to use the proposed security framework in certain applications, we give examples of DoS attacks and costs computation of defense methods. The results showed that more secure environment can be achieved based on the security framework in mobile ad hoc networks.

  14. Recent development in wireless sensor and ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolong; Yang, Yeon-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of numerous physically distributed autonomous devices used for sensing and monitoring the physical and/or environmental conditions. A WSN uses a gateway that provides wireless connectivity to the wired world as well as distributed networks. There are many open problems related to Ad-Hoc networks and its applications. Looking at the expansion of the cellular infrastructure, Ad-Hoc network may be acting as the basis of the 4th generation wireless technology with the new paradigm of ‘anytime, anywhere communications’. To realize this, the real challenge would be the security, authorization and management issues of the large scale WSNs. This book is an edited volume in the broad area of WSNs. The book covers various chapters like Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks, its Coverage, Connectivity as well as Deployment. It covers comparison of various communication protocols and algorithms such as MANNET, ODMRP and ADMR Protocols for Ad hoc Multicasting, Location Based C...

  15. Wireless ad hoc and sensor networks management, performance, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Although wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been employed across a wide range of applications, there are very few books that emphasize the algorithm description, performance analysis, and applications of network management techniques in WSNs. Filling this need, Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Management, Performance, and Applications summarizes not only traditional and classical network management techniques, but also state-of-the-art techniques in this area. The articles presented are expository, but scholarly in nature, including the appropriate history background, a review of current

  16. Performance Comparisons of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Manickam, P; Girija, M; Manimegalai, Dr D; 10.5121/ijwmn.2011.3109

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically form a network temporarily without any support of central administration. Moreover, Every node in MANET moves arbitrarily making the multi-hop network topology to change randomly at unpredictable times. There are several familiar routing protocols like DSDV, AODV, DSR, etc...which have been proposed for providing communication among all the nodes in the network. This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR based on metrics such as throughput, packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay by using the NS-2 simulator.

  17. Network Size and Connectivity in Mobile and Stationary Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    mobile ad hoc networks ( MANETs ) is that routes consisting of multiple hops will be available to connect those nodes that lack line-of- sight connectivity...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT One of the assumptions behind tactical mobile ad hoc networks ( MANETs ) is that routes consisting of multiple hops will be...Network Size and Connectivity in Mobile and Stationary Ad Hoc Networks Lance Joneckis Corinne Kramer David Sparrow David Tate I N S T I T U T E

  18. Safety Message Power Transmission Control for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Samara, Ghassan; Al-Salihy, Wafaa A H

    2010-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is one of the most challenging research area in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. In this research we proposed a dynamic power adjustment protocol that will be used for sending the periodical safety message. (Beacon)based on the analysis of the channel status depending on the channel congestion and the power used for transmission. The Beacon Power Control (BPC) protocol first sensed and examined the percentage of the channel congestion, the result obtained was used to adjust the transmission power for the safety message to reach the optimal power. This will lead to decrease the congestion in the channel and achieve good channel performance and beacon dissemination.

  19. Proposal of interference reduction routing for ad-hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Naito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an interference reduction routing protocol for ad-hoc networks. The interference is one of the degradation factors in wireless communications. In the ad-hoc network, some nodes communicate simultaneously. Therefore, these communications cause interference each other, and some packets are corrupted due to interference from another node. In the proposed protocol, each node estimates required transmission power according to hello messages. Therefore, the node can transmit a data packet with minimum required transmission power. Consequently, the interference against neighbor nodes can be reduced. From simulation results, we can find that the proposed protocol can reduce the number of control messages and can improve the throughput performance.

  20. Proposal of interference reduction routing for ad-hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Naito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an interference reduction routing protocol for ad-hoc networks. The interference is one of the degradation factors in wireless communications. In the ad-hoc network, some nodes communicate simultaneously. Therefore, these communications cause interference each other, and some packets are corrupted due to interference from another node. In the proposed protocol, each node estimates required transmission power according to hello messages. Therefore, the node can transmit a data packet with minimum required transmission power. Consequently, the interference against neighbor nodes can be reduced. From simulation results, we can find that the proposed protocol can reduce the number of control messages and can improve the throughput performance.

  1. Secure Ad Hoc Networking on an Android Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    describes a proto- type implementation of a secure ad hoc networking system for Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Android platforms with a focus on...TN–1390 UNCLASSIFIED 6 Future Work 18 References 19 Appendices A Certificate Authority Key Generation 22 B CSR to CA Signed Certificate 23 C SE...Authority COTS Commercial Off The Shelf CPU Central Processing Unit CSR Certificate Signing Request DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DIA

  2. Enhanced Reputation Mechanism for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jinshan; Issarny, Valérie

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Interactions between entities unknown to each other are inevitable in the ambient intelligence vision of service access anytime, anywhere. Trust management through a reputation mechanism to facilitate such interactions is recognized as a vital part of mobile ad hoc networks, which features lack of infrastructure, autonomy, mobility and resource scarcity of composing light-weight terminals. However, the design of a reputation mechanism is faced by challenges of how to e...

  3. Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking on Android Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    done to take advantage of High Performance Computer ( HPC ) resources seeded within the mobile ad-hoc network. Having access to HPC resources allows the...are provided by the device manufacturers . Because of this, we could enable IBSS with the same modified kernel. Unfortunately, using the same chipset and...source project called MANET Manager (9), which ports the OLSR daemon to Android devices. With this additional software we were able to successfully

  4. Towards More Realistic Mobility Model in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Dhananjay S. Gaikwad; Mahesh Lagad; Prashant Suryawanshi; Vaibhav Maske

    2012-01-01

    Mobility models or the movement patterns of nodes communicating wirelessely, play a vital role in the simulation-based evaluation of vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). Even though recent research has developed models that better corresponds to real world mobility, we still have a limited understanding of the level of the required level of mobility details for modeling and simulating VANETs. In this paper, we propose a new mobility model for VANETs that works on the city area and map the topo...

  5. An Algorithm for Localization in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Barani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Positioning a node in Vehicular Ad-Hoc networks is one of the most interested research areas in recent years. In many Ad-Hoc networks such as Vehicular Ad-Hoc networks in which the nodes are considered as vehicles, move very fast in streets and highways. So, to have a safe and fast transport system, any vehicle should know where a traffic problem such as a broken vehicle occurs. GPS is one of the equipments which have been widely used for positioning service. Problem statement: Vehicle can use a GPS receiver to determine its position. But, all vehicles have not been equipped with GPS or they cannot receive GPS signals in some places such as inside of a tunnel. In these situations, the vehicle should use a GPS free method to find its location. Approach: In this study, a new method based on transmission range had been suggested. Results: This algorithm had been compared with a similar algorithm ODAM in same situations. The best performance for Optimized Disseminating Alarm Message (ODAM is when 40% of nodes are equipped with GPS. Conclusion: We executed our algorithm on this situation and compared it with ODAM results. At the end of this study, we can see our algorithm in compare to ODAM has better results.

  6. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Elizarraras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15% compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput.

  7. High Secure Fingerprint Authentication in Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Velayutham

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the methodology proposed is an novel robust approach on secure fingerprint authentication and matching techniques to implement in ad-hoc wireless networks. This is a difficult problem in ad-hoc network, as it involves bootstrapping trust between the devices. This journal would present a solution, which providesfingerprint authentication techniques to share their communication in ad-hoc network. In this approach, devices exchange a corresponding fingerprint with master device for mutual communication, which will then allow them to complete an authenticated key exchange protocol over the wireless link. The solution based on authenticating user fingerprint through the master device, and this master device handshakes with the corresponding slave device for authenticating the fingerprint all attacks on the wireless link, and directly captures the user's device that was proposed to talk to a particular unknown device mentioned previously in their physical proximity. The system is implemented in C# and the user node for a variety of different devices with Matlab.

  8. Mobile ad hoc networking the cutting edge directions

    CERN Document Server

    Basagni, Stefano; Giordano, Silvia; Stojmenovic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    ""An excellent book for those who are interested in learning the current status of research and development . . . [and] who want to get a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art.""-E-Streams This book provides up-to-date information on research and development in the rapidly growing area of networks based on the multihop ad hoc networking paradigm. It reviews all classes of networks that have successfully adopted this paradigm, pointing out how they penetrated the mass market and sparked breakthrough research. Covering both physical issues and applica

  9. Power-Aware Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Sevil; Clark, John A.; Tapiador, Juan E.

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a highly promising new form of networking. However they are more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. In addition, conventional intrusion detection systems (IDS) are ineffective and inefficient for highly dynamic and resource-constrained environments. Achieving an effective operational MANET requires tradeoffs to be made between functional and non-functional criteria. In this paper we show how Genetic Programming (GP) together with a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) can be used to synthesise intrusion detection programs that make optimal tradeoffs between security criteria and the power they consume.

  10. EXTENDED DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Kumari Sharma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available MANET is a collection of self-configurable mobile nodes. Several routing protocols are proposed for ad hoc network among which DSR and AODV On demand routing protocols are mostly used. Existing Dynamic source routing protocol is not suitable for large network because packet size gets increased according to the number of nodes travelled by route discovery packet. In this paper, extended DSR routing protocol is proposed to eliminate the above limitation of existing DSR. Proposed protocol will be suitable for small and large both types of networks.

  11. Connectivity analysis of one-dimensional ad-hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    Applications and communication protocols in dynamic ad-hoc networks are exposed to physical limitations imposed by the connectivity relations that result from mobility. Motivated by vehicular freeway scenarios, this paper analyzes a number of important connectivity metrics for instantaneous...... hop-count; (3) the connectivity distance, expressing the geographic distance that a message can be propagated in the network on multi-hop paths; (4) the connectivity hops, which corresponds to the number of hops that are necessary to reach all nodes in the connected network. The paper develops...

  12. Scalable Overlay Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (SOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariza Kamboj

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many crucial applications of MANETs like the battlefield, conference and disaster recovery defines the needs for group communications either one-to-many or many-to-many form. Multicast plays an important role in bandwidth scarce multihop mobile ad hoc networks comprise of limited battery power mobile nodes. Multicast protocols in MANETs generate many controls overhead for maintenance of multicast routingstructures due to frequent changes of network topology. Bigger multicast tables for the maintenance of network structures resultsin inefficient consumption of bandwidth of wireless links andbattery power of anemic mobile nodes, which in turn, pose thescalability problems as the network size is scaled up. However,many MANET applications demands scalability from time to time. Multicasting for MANETs, therefore, needs to reduce the state maintenance. As a remedy to these shortcomings, this paper roposes an overlay multicast protocol on application layer. In the proposed protocol titled “Scalable Overlay Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (SOM” the network nodes construct overlay hierarchical framework to reduce the protocols states and constrain their distribution within limited scope. Based on zone around each node, it constructs a virtual structure at application layer mapped with the physical topology at network layer, thus formed two levels of hierarchy. The concept of two level hierarchies reduces the protocol state maintenance and hence supports the vertical scalability. Protocol depends on the location information obtained using a distributed location service, which effectively reduces the overhead for route searching and updating the source based multicast tree.

  13. Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks; Principles and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Piran, Mohammad Jalil; Babu, G Praveen

    2011-01-01

    The rapid increase of vehicular traffic and congestion on the highways began hampering the safe and efficient movement of traffic. Consequently, year by year, we see the ascending rate of car accidents and casualties in most of the countries. Therefore, exploiting the new technologies, e.g. wireless sensor networks, is required as a solution of reduction of these saddening and reprehensible statistics. This has motivated us to propose a novel and comprehensive system to utilize Wireless Sensor Networks for vehicular networks. We coin the vehicular network employing wireless Sensor networks as Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Network, or VASNET in short. The proposed VASNET is particularly for highway traffic .VASNET is a self-organizing Ad Hoc and sensor network comprised of a large number of sensor nodes. In VASNET there are two kinds of sensor nodes, some are embedded on the vehicles-vehicular nodes- and others are deployed in predetermined distances besides the highway road, known as Road Side Sensor nodes (RSS...

  14. Minimum Process Coordinated Checkpointing Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tuli, Ruchi

    2011-01-01

    The wireless mobile ad hoc network (MANET) architecture is one consisting of a set of mobile hosts capable of communicating with each other without the assistance of base stations. This has made possible creating a mobile distributed computing environment and has also brought several new challenges in distributed protocol design. In this paper, we study a very fundamental problem, the fault tolerance problem, in a MANET environment and propose a minimum process coordinated checkpointing scheme. Since potential problems of this new environment are insufficient power and limited storage capacity, the proposed scheme tries to reduce the amount of information saved for recovery. The MANET structure used in our algorithm is hierarchical based. The scheme is based for Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) which belongs to a class of Hierarchical Reactive routing protocols. The protocol proposed by us is nonblocking coordinated checkpointing algorithm suitable for ad hoc environments. It produces a consistent set of...

  15. Analysis of Multipath Routing in Random Ad Hoc Networks Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Das

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed a multipath routing protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Multipath routing overcomes various problems that occur in data delivery through a single path. The proposed protocol selects multiple neighbor nodes of source node to establish multiple paths towards destination. These nodes are selected based on their minimum remaining distance from destination. We have computed the length of various paths and average hops count for different node density in the network. We have considered only three paths for our evaluation. The results show that path-2 gives better results in term of hop count and path length among three paths.

  16. A framework for reactive optimization in mobile ad hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClary, Dan; Syrotiuk, Violet; Kulahci, Murat

    2008-01-01

    We present a framework to optimize the performance of a mobile ad hoc network over a wide range of operating conditions. It includes screening experiments to quantify the parameters and interactions among parameters influential to throughput. Profile-driven regression is applied to obtain a model...... of the non-linear behaviour of throughput. The intermediate models obtained in this modelling effort are used to adapt the parameters as the network conditions change, in order to maximize throughput. The improvements in throughput range from 10-26 times the use of the default parameter settings...

  17. Escape probability based routing for ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xuanping; Qin Zheng; Li Xin

    2006-01-01

    Routes in an ad hoc network may fail frequently because of node mobility. Stability therefore can be an important element in the design of routing protocols. The node escape probability is introduced to estimate the lifetime and stability of link between neighboring nodes and the escape probability based routing (EPBR) scheme to discover stable routes is proposed. Simulation results show that the EPBR can discover stable routes to reduce the number of route rediscovery, and is applicable for the situation that has highly dynamic network topology with broad area of communication.

  18. A Timed Calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengying Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop a timed calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks embodying the peculiarities of local broadcast, node mobility and communication interference. We present a Reduction Semantics and a Labelled Transition Semantics and prove the equivalence between them. We then apply our calculus to model and study some MAC-layer protocols with special emphasis on node mobility and communication interference. A main purpose of the semantics is to describe the various forms of interference while nodes change their locations in the network. Such interference only occurs when a node is simultaneously reached by more than one ongoing transmission over the same channel.

  19. Adaptive Weighted Clustering Algorithm for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwan Yasin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new algorithm for clustering MANET by considering several parameters. This is a new adaptive load balancing technique for clustering out Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET. MANET is special kind of wireless networks where no central management exits and the nodes in the network cooperatively manage itself and maintains connectivity. The algorithm takes into account the local capabilities of each node, the remaining battery power, degree of connectivity and finally the power consumption based on the average distance between nodes and candidate cluster head. The proposed algorithm efficiently decreases the overhead in the network that enhances the overall MANET performance. Reducing the maintenance time of broken routes makes the network more stable, reliable. Saving the power of the nodes also guarantee consistent and reliable network.

  20. Simulation study for Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using DMAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Sejwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of deafness problem in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs using directional antennas. Directional antennas arebeneficial for wireless ad hoc networks consisting of a collection of wireless hosts. A suitable Medium Access Control (MAC protocol must be designed to best utilize directional antennas. Deafness is caused whentwo nodes are in ongoing transmission and a third node (Deaf Node wants to communicate with one of that node. But it get no response because transmission of two nodes are in process. Though directional antennas offer better spatial reuse, but this problem can have a serious impact on network performance. A New DMAC (Directional Medium Access Control protocol uses flags in DNAV (Directional Network Allocation Vector tables to maintain information regarding the transmissionbetween the nodes in the network and their neighbor’s location. Two performance matrices have been used to show the impact of New DMAC algorithm on Deafness problem using simulator. These are RTS Failure Ratio and RTS Retransmission due to timeout

  1. Energy Efficient Probabilistic Broadcasting for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2016-08-01

    In mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs) flooding method is used for broadcasting route request (RREQ) packet from one node to another node for route discovery. This is the simplest method of broadcasting of RREQ packets but it often results in broadcast storm problem, originating collisions and congestion of packets in the network. A probabilistic broadcasting is one of the widely used broadcasting scheme for route discovery in MANETs and provides solution for broadcasting storm problem. But it does not consider limited energy of the battery of the nodes. In this paper, a new energy efficient probabilistic broadcasting (EEPB) is proposed in which probability of broadcasting RREQs is calculated with respect to remaining energy of nodes. The analysis of simulation results clearly indicate that an EEPB route discovery scheme in ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) can increase the network lifetime with a decrease in the average power consumption and RREQ packet overhead. It also decreases the number of dropped packets in the network, in comparison to other EEPB schemes like energy constraint gossip (ECG), energy aware gossip (EAG), energy based gossip (EBG) and network lifetime through energy efficient broadcast gossip (NEBG).

  2. Analysis on Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N.Renjith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Outlook of wireless communication system marked an extreme transform with the invention of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. WSN is a promising technolog y for enabling a variety of applications like environmental monitoring, security and applications that save our lives and assets. In WSN, large numbers of sensor nodes are deployed to sensing and gathering information and forward them to the base station with the help of routing protocol. Routing protocols plays a major role by identifying and maintaining the routes in the network. Competence o f sensor networks relay on the strong and effective routing protocol used. In this paper, we present a simulation based performance evaluation of differen t Ad hoc routing protocols like AODV, DYMO, FSR, LANM AR, RIP and ZRP in Wireless Sensor Networks. Based on the study, the future research areas and k ey challenges for routing protocol in WSN are to optimize network performance for QoS support and en ergy conservation

  3. On service differentiation in mobile Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺亮; 叶澄清

    2004-01-01

    A network model is proposed to support service differentiation for mobile Ad Hoc networks by combining a fully distributed admission control approach and the DIFS based differentiation mechanism of IEEE802.11. It can provide different kinds of QoS (Quality of Service) for various applications. Admission controllers determine a committed bandwidth based on the reserved bandwidth of flows and the source utilization of networks. Packets are marked when entering into networks by markers according to the committed rate. By the mark in the packet header, intermediate nodes handle the Received packets in different manners to provide applications with the QoS corresponding to the pre-negotiated profile.Extensive simulation experiments showed that the proposed mechanism can provide QoS guarantee to assured service traffic and increase the channel utilization of networks.

  4. On service differentiation in mobile Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺亮; 叶澄清

    2004-01-01

    A network model is proposed to support service differentiation for mobile Ad Hoc networks by combining a fully distributed admission control approach and the DIFS based differentiation mechanism of IEEE802.11. It can provide different kinds of QoS (Quality of Service) for various applications. Admission controllers determine a committed bandwidth based on the reserved bandwidth of flows and the source utilization of networks. Packets are marked when entering into networks by markers according to the committed rate. By the mark in the packet header, intermediate nodes handle the received packets in different manners to provide applications with the QoS corresponding to the pre-negotiated profile. Extensive simulation experiments showed that the proposed mechanism can provide QoS guarantee to assured service traffic and increase the channel utilization of networks.

  5. Autonomous Power Control MAC Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy limitation has become a performance bottleneck for mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE 802.11 has been adopted as the current standard MAC protocol for ad hoc networks. However, it was developed without considering energy efficiency. To solve this problem, many modifications on IEEE 802.11 to incorporate power control have been proposed in the literature. The main idea of these power control schemes is to use a maximum possible power level for transmitting RTS/CTS and the lowest acceptable power for sending DATA/ACK. However, these schemes may degrade network throughput and reduce the overall energy efficiency of the network. This paper proposes autonomous power control MAC protocol (APCMP, which allows mobile nodes dynamically adjusting power level for transmitting DATA/ACK according to the distances between the transmitter and its neighbors. In addition, the power level for transmitting RTS/CTS is also adjustable according to the power level for DATA/ACK packets. In this paper, the performance of APCMP protocol is evaluated by simulation and is compared with that of other protocols.

  6. Identification of node behavior for Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyati Choure , Sanjay Sharma

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In present scenario, in ad-hoc network, the behavior of nodes are not very stable. They do not work properly and satisfactory. They are not cooperative and acting selfishly. They show their selfishness to share their resources like bandwidth to save life of battery, they are not hasitate to block thepackets sent by others for forwarding and transmit their own packets. Due to higher Mobility of the different nodes makes the situation even more complicated. Multiple routing protocols especially for these conditions have been developed during the last few years, to find optimized routes from a source to some destination.But it is still difficult to know the actual shortest path without attackers or bad nodes. Ad-hoc network suffer from the lot of issues i.e. congestion, Throughput, delay, security, network overhead. Packet delivery ratio is the issues of ongoing research. Cause of node failure may be either natural failure of node links or it may be due to act of an attacker or bad node which may degrade performance of network slowly or drastically, which also need to identify or determined. In this paper, we identify the good and bad nodes. A simulation has been performed to achieve better performance of modified AODV. Good result has been obtained in terms of Throughout, Packet Delivery Ratio.

  7. LAMAN: Load Adaptable MAC for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realp Marc

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc radio networks, mechanisms on how to access the radio channel are extremely important in order to improve network efficiency. In this paper, the load adaptable medium access control for ad hoc networks (LAMAN protocol is described. LAMAN is a novel decentralized multipacket MAC protocol designed following a cross-layer approach. Basically, this protocol is a hybrid CDMA-TDMA-based protocol that aims at throughput maximization in multipacket communication environments by efficiently combining contention and conflict-free protocol components. Such combination of components is used to adapt the nodes' access priority to changes on the traffic load while, at the same time, accounting for the multipacket reception (MPR capability of the receivers. A theoretical analysis of the system is developed presenting closed expressions of network throughput and packet delay. By simulations the validity of our analysis is shown and the performances of a LAMAN-based system and an Aloha-CDMA-based one are compared.

  8. Securing Zone Routing Protocol in Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a contribution in the field of security analysis on mobile ad-hoc networks, and security requirements of applications. Limitations of the mobile nodes have been studied in order to design a secure routing protocol that thwarts different kinds of attacks. Our approach is based on the Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP; the most popular hybrid routing protocol. The importance of the proposed solution lies in the fact that it ensures security as needed by providing a comprehensive architecture of Secure Zone Routing Protocol (SZRP based on efficient key management, secure neighbor discovery, secure routing packets, detection of malicious nodes, and preventing these nodes from destroying the network. In order to fulfill these objectives, both efficient key management and secure neighbor mechanisms have been designed to be performed prior to the functioning of the protocol.To validate the proposed solution, we use the network simulator NS-2 to test the performance of secure protocol and compare it with the conventional zone routing protocol over different number of factors that affect the network. Our results evidently show that our secure version paragons the conventional protocol in the packet delivery ratio while it has a tolerable increase in the routing overhead and average delay. Also, security analysis proves in details that the proposed protocol is robust enough to thwart all classes of ad-hoc attacks.

  9. Distributed intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ping; Jiang Xinghao; Wu Yue; Liu Ning

    2008-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking(MANET)has become an exciting and important technology in recent years,because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices.Mobile ad hoc networks is highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium,dynamically changing network topology,cooperative algorithms,and lack of centralized monitoring and management point.The traditional way of protecting networks with firewalls and encryption software is no longer sufficient and effective for those features.A distributed intrusion detection approach based on timed automata is given.A cluster-based detection scheme is presented,where periodically a node is elected as the monitor node for a cluster.These monitor nodes can not only make local intrusion detection decisions,but also cooperatively take part in global intrusion detection.And then the timed automata is constructed by the way of manually abstracting the correct behaviours of the node according to the routing protocol of dynamic source routing(DSR).The monitor nodes can verify the behaviour of every nodes by timed automata,and validly detect real-time attacks without signatures of intrusion or trained data.Compared with the architecture where each node is its own IDS agent,the approach is much more efficient while maintaining the same level of effectiveness.Finally,the intrusion detection method is evaluated through simulation experiments.

  10. Distributed optimization of a multisubchannel Ad Hoc cognitive radio network

    KAUST Repository

    Leith, Alex

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we study the distributed-duality-based optimization of a multisubchannel ad hoc cognitive radio network (CRN) that coexists with a multicell primary radio network (PRN). For radio resource allocation in multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MU-OFDM) systems, the orthogonal-access-based exclusive subchannel assignment (ESA) technique has been a popular method, but it is suboptimal in ad hoc networks, because nonorthogonal access between multiple secondary-user links by using shared subchannel assignment (SSA) can bring a higher weighted sum rate. We utilize the Lagrangian dual composition tool and design low-complexity near-optimal SSA resource allocation methods, assuming practical discrete-rate modulation and that the CRN-to-PRN interference constraint has to strictly be satisfied. However, available SSA methods for CRNs are either suboptimal or involve high complexity and suffer from slow convergence. To address this problem, we design fast-convergence SSA duality schemes and introduce several novel methods to increase the speed of convergence and to satisfy various system constraints with low complexity. For practical implementation in ad hoc CRNs, we design distributed-duality schemes that involve only a small number of CRN local information exchanges for dual update. The effects of many system parameters are presented through simulation results, which show that the near-optimal SSA duality scheme can perform significantly better than the suboptimal ESA duality and SSA-iterative waterfilling schemes and that the performance loss of the distributed schemes is small, compared with their centralized counterparts. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Studies on urban vehicular ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongzi

    2013-01-01

    With the advancement of wireless technology, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a promising approach to realizing 'smart cities' and addressing many important transportation problems such as road safety, efficiency, and convenience.This brief provides an introduction to the large trace data set collected from thousands of taxis and buses in Shanghai, the largest metropolis in China. It also presents the challenges, design issues, performance modeling and evaluation of a wide spectrum of VANET research topics, ranging from realistic vehicular mobility models and opportunistic ro

  12. An Efficient Routing Algorithm in Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShuqiao; LIHongyan; LIJiandong

    2005-01-01

    The Dynamic source routing protocol(DSR) is an on-demand routing protocol, designed specifically for use in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks of mobile nodes. In this paper, some mechanisms such as the route's lifetime prediction, route’s creation time and an adaptive gratuitous route reply mode are introduced into DSR to get an efficient routing algorithm which is refered to E-DSR. The simulation results show that E-DSR can improve the packet delivery rate and reduce the routing overhead compared with hop-based DSR.

  13. Connectivity analysis of one-dimensional ad-hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgsted, Martin; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Application and communication protocols in dynamic ad-hoc networks are exposed to physical limitations imposed by the connectivity relations that result from mobility. Motivated by vehicular freeway scenarios, this paper analyzes a number of important connectivity metrics for instantaneous...... snapshots of stochastic geographic movement patterns: (1) The single-hop connectivity number, corresponding to the number of single-hop neighbors of a mobile node; (2) the multi-hop connectivity number, expressing the number of nodes reachable via multi-hop paths of arbitrary hop-count; (3) the connectivity...

  14. Recovery from Wormhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xiao-jun; TIAN Chang; ZHANG Yu-sen

    2006-01-01

    Wormhole attack is a serious threat against MANET (mobile ad hoc network) and its routing protocols.A new approach-tunnel key node identification (TKNI) was proposed. Based on tunnel-key-node identification and priority-based route discovery, TKNI can rapidly rebuild the communications that have been blocked by wormhole attack. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed approach aims at both static and dynamic topology environment, involves addressing visible and invisible wormhole attack modes, requires no extra hardware, has a low overhead, and can be easily applied to MANET.

  15. Complex Threshold Key Management for Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; XIONG Zhong-wei; LI Zhi-tang

    2005-01-01

    A complex threshold key management framework has been proposed, which can address the challenges posed by the unique nature of Ad hoc network. Depending on the cooperation of the controller and participation nodes, this scheme should be efficient in the operation environmental alteration and tolerant faults of node, which take the advantages of the benefits of both key management approaches and alleviate their limitations. For the cooperation of the controller and participation nodes, a (t,n) threshold Elliptic curve sign-encryption scheme with the specified receiver also has been proposed. Using this threshold signencryption scheme, the key management distributes the trust between a controller and a set of participation nodes.

  16. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK ROUTING PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur Gulati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is an infrastructure less and decentralized network which need a robust dynamic routing protocol. Many routing protocols for such networks have been proposed so far to find optimized routes from source to the destination and prominent among them are Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV routing protocols. The performance comparison of these protocols should be considered as the primary step towards the invention of a new routing protocol. This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive routing protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR based on QoS metrics (packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay, throughput, jitter, normalized routing overhead and normalized MAC overhead by using the NS-2 simulator. The performance comparison is conducted by varying mobility speed, number of nodes and data rate. The comparison results show that AODV performs optimally well not the best among all the studied protocols.

  17. Evaluating And Comparison Of Intrusion In Mobile AD HOC Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zougagh Hicham

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile ad hoc network (MANETs has been widespread in many applications.Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The absolute security in the mobile ad hoc network is very hard to achieve because of its fundamental characteristics, such as dynamic topology, open medium, absence of infrastructure, limited power and limited bandwidth. The Prevention methods like authentication and cryptography techniques alone are not able to provide the security to these types of networks. However, these techniques have a limitation on the effects of prevention techniques in general and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to prevent newer attacks that are designed for circumventing the existing security measures. For this reason, there is a need of second mechanism to “detect and response” these newer attacks. Therefore, efficient intrusion detection must be deployed to facilitate the identification and isolation of attacks. In this article we classify the architecture for IDS that have so far been introduced for MANETs, and then existing intrusion detection techniques in MANETs presented and compared. We then provide some directions for future researches.

  18. SEMAN: A Novel Secure Middleware for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the particularities of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs, such as dynamic topology and self-organization, the implementation of complex and flexible applications is a challenge. To enable the deployment of these applications, several middleware solutions were proposed. However, these solutions do not completely consider the security requirements of these networks. Based on the limitations of the existing solutions, this paper presents a new secure middleware, called Secure Middleware for Ad Hoc Networks (SEMAN, which provides a set of basic and secure services to MANETs aiming to facilitate the development of distributed, complex, and flexible applications. SEMAN considers the context of applications and organizes nodes into groups, also based on these contexts. The middleware includes three modules: service, processing, and security. Security module is the main part of the middleware. It has the following components: key management, trust management, and group management. All these components were developed and are described in this paper. They are supported by a cryptographic core and behave according to security rules and policies. The integration of these components provides security guarantees against attacks to the applications that usethe middleware services.

  19. Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Ad hoc Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nawaz Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc network resource restrictions on bandwidth, processing capabilities, battery life and memory of mobile devices lead tradeoff between security and resources consumption. Due to some unique properties of MANETs, proactive security mechanism like authentication, confidentiality, access control and non-repudiation are hard to put into practice. While some additional security requirements are also needed, like cooperation fairness, location confidentiality, data freshness and absence of traffic diversion. Traditional security mechanism i.e. authentication and encryption, provide a security beach to MANETs. But some reactive security mechanism is required who analyze the routing packets and also check the overall network behavior of MANETs. Here we propose a local-distributed intrusion detection system for ad hoc mobile networks. In the proposed distributed-ID, each mobile node works as a smart agent. Data collect by node locally and it analyze that data for malicious activity. If any abnormal activity discover, it informs the surrounding nodes as well as the base station. It works like a Client-Server model, each node works in collaboration with server, updating its database each time by server using Markov process. The proposed local distributed- IDS shows a balance between false positive and false negative rate. Re-active security mechanism is very useful in finding abnormal activities although proactive security mechanism present there. Distributed local-IDS useful for deep level inspection and is suited with the varying nature of the MANETs.

  20. Maximizing the Effective Lifetime of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. Julius; Dewan, M. Ali Akber; Chae, Oksam

    This paper presents a new routing approach to extend the effective lifetime of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) considering both residual battery energy of the participating nodes and routing cost. As the nodes in ad hoc networks are limited in power, a power failure occurs if a node has insufficient remaining energy to send, receive or forward a message. So, it is important to minimize the energy expenditure as well as to balance the remaining battery power among the nodes. Cost effective routing algorithms attempt to minimize the total power needed to transmit a packet which causes a large number of nodes to loose energy quickly and die. On the other hand, lifetime prediction based routing algorithms try to balance the remaining energies among the nodes in the networks and ignore the transmission cost. These approaches extend the lifetime of first few individual nodes. But as nodes spend more energy for packet transfer, power failures occurs, within short interval resulting more number of total dead node earlier. This reduces the effective lifetime of the network, as at this stage successful communication is not possible due to the lack of forwarding node. The proposed method keeps the transmission power in modest range and at the same time tries to reduce the variance of the residual energy of the nodes more effectively to obtain the highest useful lifetime of the networks in the long run. Nonetheless, movement of nodes frequently creates network topology changes via link breaks and link creation and thus effects on the stability of the network. So, the pattern of the node movement is also incorporated in our route selection procedure.

  1. Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Principles and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalil Piran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of vehicular traffic and congest ion on the highways began hampering the safe and efficient movement of traffic. Consequently, year b y year, we see the ascending rate of car accidents and casualties in most of the countries. Therefore, exp loiting the new technologies, e.g. wireless sensor networks, is required as a solution of reduction of these sad dening and reprehensible statistics. This has motiv ated us to propose a novel and comprehensive system to utilize Wireless Sensor Networks for vehicular networks. W e coin the vehicular network employing wireless Senso r networks as Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Network, or VASNET in short. The proposed VASNET is particularl y for highway traffic .VASNET is a self-organizing Ad Hoc and sensor network comprised of a large number of sensor nodes. In VASNET there are two kinds of sensor nodes, some are embedded on the vehicles-veh icular nodes- and others are deployed in predetermi ned distances besides the highway road, known as Road S ide Sensor nodes (RSS. The vehicular nodes are use d to sense the velocity of the vehicle for instance. We can have some Base Stations (BS such as Police Tra ffic Station, Firefighting Group and Rescue Team. The ba se stations may be stationary or mobile. VASNET provides capability of wireless communication betwe en vehicular nodes and stationary nodes, to increas e safety and comfort for vehicles on the highway road s. In this paper we explain main fundamentals and challenges of VASNET

  2. Probabilistic Models and Process Calculi for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei

    Due to the wide use of communicating mobile devices, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have gained in popularity in recent years. In order that the devices communicate properly, many protocols have been proposed working at different levels. Devices in an MANET are not stationary but may keep moving......, thus the network topology may undergo constant changes. Moreover the devices in an MANET are loosely connected not depending on pre-installed infrastructure or central control components, they exchange messages via wireless connections which are less reliable compared to wired connections. Therefore...... issues in MANETs e.g. mobility and unreliable connections. Specially speaking, 1. We first propose a discrete probabilistic process calculus with which we can model in an MANET that the wireless connection is not reliable, and the network topology may undergo changes. We equip each wireless connection...

  3. Vehicular ad hoc networks standards, solutions, and research

    CERN Document Server

    Molinaro, Antonella; Scopigno, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This book presents vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) from the their onset, gradually going into technical details, providing a clear understanding of both theoretical foundations and more practical investigation. The editors gathered top-ranking authors to provide comprehensiveness and timely content; the invited authors were carefully selected from a list of who’s who in the respective field of interest: there are as many from Academia as from Standardization and Industry sectors from around the world. The covered topics are organized around five Parts starting from an historical overview of vehicular communications and standardization/harmonization activities (Part I), then progressing to the theoretical foundations of VANETs and a description of the day-one standard-compliant solutions (Part II), hence going into details of vehicular networking and security (Part III) and to the tools to study VANETs, from mobility and channel models, to network simulators and field trial methodologies (Part IV), and fi...

  4. Integrating Mobile Ad Hoc Network to the Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mao-ning

    2005-01-01

    A novel scheme is presented to integrate mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) with the Internet and support mobility across wireless local area networks (WLANs) and MANETs. The mobile nodes, connected as a MANET, employ the optimize d link state routing (OLSR) protocol for routing within the MANET. Mobility management across WLANs and MANETs is achieved through the hierarchical mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) protocol. The performance is evaluated on a HMIPv6 based test-bed composed of WLANs and MANETs. The efficiency gain obtained from using HMIPv6 in such a hybrid network is investigated. The investigation result shows that the use of HMIPv6 can achieve up to 27% gain on reducing the handoff latency when a mobile roams within a domain. Concerning the reduction of the signaling load on the Internet, the use of HMIPv6 can achieve at least a 54% gain and converges to 69%.

  5. Mobile Advertisement in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Advertisement is a location-aware dissemination solution built on top of a vehicular ad-hoc network. We envision a network of WiFi access points that dynamically disseminate data to clients running on the car's smart device. The approach can be considered an alternative to the static advertisement billboards and can be useful to business companies wanting to dynamically advertise their products and offers to people driving their car. The clients can subscribe to information based on specific topics. We present design solutions that use access points as emitters for transmitting messages to wireless-enabled devices equipped on vehicles. We also present implementation details for the evaluation of the proposed solution using a simulator designed for VANET application. The results show that the application can be used for transferring a significant amount of data even under difficult conditions, such as when cars are moving at increased speeds, or the congested Wi-Fi network causes significant packet loss...

  6. Congestion Reduction Using Ad hoc Message Dissemination in Vehicular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hewer, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITS) and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad-hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through the network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to the receivers of this information. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols for influencing traffic flow, reducing congestion in road networks. The computational experiments presented in this paper show how an intelligent driver model (IDM) and car-following model can be adapted to 'react' to the reception of information. This model also presents the advantages of coupling together traffic modelling tools and network simulation tools.

  7. TRUSTWORTHY ENABLED RELIABLE COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURE IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Dhavamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks are widely used in military and other scientific area. There are various kind of routing protocols are available to establish the route, with the proper analyzation one can choose the routing protocol to form their own network with respect to number of nodes and security considerations. The mobility of nodes makes the environment infrastructure less. It also has a certain number of characteristics which makes the security difficult. A trust recommendation mechanism has designed to keep track of node’s behavior to establish the trustworthiness of the network. Meanwhile with this trustworthiness a node can make objective judgment among another node’s trustworthiness to maintain whole system at a certain security level. The motivation of the work is to understanding the behavior or routing protocol and the trustworthiness.

  8. A Holistic Approach to Information Distribution in Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Casetti, Claudio; Fiore, Marco; La, Chi-Anh; Michiardi, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the problem of spreading information contents in a wireless ad hoc network with mechanisms embracing the peer-to-peer paradigm. In our vision, information dissemination should satisfy the following requirements: (i) it conforms to a predefined distribution and (ii) it is evenly and fairly carried by all nodes in their turn. In this paper, we observe the dissemination effects when the information moves across nodes according to two well-known mobility models, namely random walk and random direction. Our approach is fully distributed and comes at a very low cost in terms of protocol overhead; in addition, simulation results show that the proposed solution can achieve the aforementioned goals under different network scenarios, provided that a sufficient number of information replicas are injected into the network. This observation calls for a further step: in the realistic case where the user content demand varies over time, we need a content replication/drop strategy to adapt the number of inform...

  9. Comparative Study of Cooperation Tools for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Molina-Gil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks are formed spontaneously to use the wireless medium for communication among nodes. Each node in this type of network is its own authority and has an unpredictable behaviour. These features involve a cooperation challenge that has been addressed in previous proposals with methods based on virtual currencies. In this work, those methods have been simulated in NS-2 and the results have been analyzed, showing several weaknesses. In particular, it has been concluded that existent methods do not provide significant advances compared with networks without any mechanism for promoting cooperation. Consequently, this work presents three new proposals that try to solve those problems. The obtained results show that the new proposals offer significant improvements over previous schemes based on virtual currencies.

  10. Secure Routing and Data Transmission in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed S. Alnumay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an identity (ID based protocol that secures AODV and TCP so that it can be used in dynamic and attack prone environments of mobile ad hoc networks. The proposed protocol protects AODV using Sequential Aggregate Signatures (SAS based on RSA. It also generates a session key for each pair of source-destination nodes of a MANET for securing the end-to-end transmitted data. Here each node has an ID which is evaluated from its public key and the messages that are sent are authenticated with a signature/ MAC. The proposed scheme does not allow a node to change its ID throughout the network lifetime. Thus it makes the network secure against attacks that target AODV and TCP in MANET. We present performance analysis to validate our claim.

  11. Topology for efficient information dissemination in ad-hoc networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, E.; Okino, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the information dissemination problem in ad-hoc wirless networks. First, we analyze the probability of successful broadcast, assuming: the nodes are uniformly distributed, the available area has a lower bould relative to the total number of nodes, and there is zero knowledge of the overall topology of the network. By showing that the probability of such events is small, we are motivated to extract good graph topologies to minimize the overall transmissions. Three algorithms are used to generate topologies of the network with guaranteed connectivity. These are the minimum radius graph, the relative neighborhood graph and the minimum spanning tree. Our simulation shows that the relative neighborhood graph has certain good graph properties, which makes it suitable for efficient information dissemination.

  12. Two Algorithms for Network Size Estimation for Master/Slave Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Redouane; Rio, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptation of two network size estimation methods: random tour and gossip-based aggregation to suit master/slave mobile ad hoc networks. We show that it is feasible to accurately estimate the size of ad hoc networks when topology changes due to mobility using both methods. The algorithms were modified to account for the specific constraints of master/slave ad hoc networks and the results show that the proposed modifications perform better on these networks than the original protocols. Each of the two algorithms presents strengths and weaknesses and these are outlined in this paper.

  13. Location Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubin Sebastian E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : Most existing ad hoc routing protocols are susceptible to node mobility, especially for large-scale networks. This paper proposes a Location Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol (LOR to addresses the problem of delivering data packets for highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks in a reliable and timely manner.This protocol takes advantage of the stateless property of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. When a data packet is sent out, some of the neighbor nodes that have overheard the transmission will serve as forwarding candidates, and take turn to forward the packet if it is not relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period of time. By utilizing such in-the-air backup, communication is maintained without being interrupted. The additional latency incurred by local route recovery is greatly reduced and the duplicate relaying caused by packet reroute is also decreased. Simulation results on NS2 verified the effectiveness of the proposed protocol with improvement in throughput by 28%.

  14. Dynamic Carpooling Using Wireless Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek V. Potnis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase in awareness about the conservation of natural resources in today’s world, has led to carpooling becoming a widely followed practice. Carpooling refers to sharing of a vehicle with other passengers, thus reducing the fuel costs endured by the passengers, had they traveled individually. Carpooling helps reduce fuel consumption, thereby helping conserve the natural resources. Conventional Carpooling Portals require the users to register themselves and input their desired departure and destination points. These portals maintain a database of the users and map them with the users, who have registered for their cars to be pooled. This paper proposes a decentralized method of dynamic carpooling using the Wireless Ad-hoc Network, instead of having the users to register on a Web Portal. The user’s device, requesting for the carpool service can directly talk to another user’s device, providing the pooled car, using the Wireless Ad-hoc Network, thereby eliminating the need for the user to connect to the internet to access the web portal.

  15. Reliable Multicast Error Recovery Algorithm in Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Abdullah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile nodes characterized by wireless links. The major challenge in ad hoc networks lies in adapting multicast communication to several environments, where mobility is unlimited and failures are frequent. Reliable multicast delivery requires a multicast message to be received by all mobile nodes in the communication group. The recovery mechanism requires feedback messages from each one of the receivers. In the tree-based recovery protocols, a group of nodes into recovery regions designate a forwarding node per region for retransmitting lost messages. In this study, local error recovery algorithm is applied within these relatively smaller regions, where the repaired packets are retransmitted only to the requested receivers in the local group. These receivers create a sub group from the local group which itself is a subgroup of the global multicast group. By applying local error recovery algorithm, the number of duplicated packets, due to packets retransmission, decreases which lead to improving the system performance. Simulation results demonstrate the scalability of the proposed algorithm in comparison to Source Tree Reliable Multicast (STRM protocol. The algorithm achieved up to 2.33% improvement on the percentage of duplicated packets in stable mobility speed without incurring any further communication or intense computation overhead.

  16. SPM: Source Privacy for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Jian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Source privacy plays a key role in communication infrastructure protection. It is a critical security requirement for many mission critical communications. This is especially true for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs due to node mobility and lack of physical protection. Existing cryptosystem-based techniques and broadcasting-based techniques cannot be easily adapted to MANET because of their extensive cryptographic computation and/or large communication overhead. In this paper, we first propose a novel unconditionally secure source anonymous message authentication scheme (SAMAS. This scheme enables message sender to transmit messages without relying on any trusted third parties. While providing source privacy, the proposed scheme can also provide message content authenticity. We then propose a novel communication protocol for MANET that can ensure communication privacy for both message sender and message recipient. This protocol can also protect end-to-end routing privacy. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is secure against various attacks. The theoretical analysis and simulation show that the proposed scheme is efficient and can provide high message delivery ratio. The proposed protocol can be used for critical infrastructure protection and secure file sharing in mobile ad hoc networks where dynamic groups can be formed.

  17. Trust recovery model of Ad Hoc network based on identity authentication scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Huan, Shuiyuan

    2017-05-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc network trust model is widely used to solve mobile Ad Hoc network security issues. Aiming at the problem of reducing the network availability caused by the processing of malicious nodes and selfish nodes in mobile Ad Hoc network routing based on trust model, an authentication mechanism based on identity authentication mobile Ad Hoc network is proposed, which uses identity authentication to identify malicious nodes, And trust the recovery of selfish nodes in order to achieve the purpose of reducing network congestion and improving network quality. The simulation results show that the implementation of the mechanism can effectively improve the network availability and security.

  18. Reliability analysis of cluster-based ad-hoc networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jason L. [Quality Engineering and System Assurance, Armament Research Development Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States); Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel [School of Systems and Enterprises, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)], E-mail: Jose.Ramirez-Marquez@stevens.edu

    2008-10-15

    The mobile ad-hoc wireless network (MAWN) is a new and emerging network scheme that is being employed in a variety of applications. The MAWN varies from traditional networks because it is a self-forming and dynamic network. The MAWN is free of infrastructure and, as such, only the mobile nodes comprise the network. Pairs of nodes communicate either directly or through other nodes. To do so, each node acts, in turn, as a source, destination, and relay of messages. The virtue of a MAWN is the flexibility this provides; however, the challenge for reliability analyses is also brought about by this unique feature. The variability and volatility of the MAWN configuration makes typical reliability methods (e.g. reliability block diagram) inappropriate because no single structure or configuration represents all manifestations of a MAWN. For this reason, new methods are being developed to analyze the reliability of this new networking technology. New published methods adapt to this feature by treating the configuration probabilistically or by inclusion of embedded mobility models. This paper joins both methods together and expands upon these works by modifying the problem formulation to address the reliability analysis of a cluster-based MAWN. The cluster-based MAWN is deployed in applications with constraints on networking resources such as bandwidth and energy. This paper presents the problem's formulation, a discussion of applicable reliability metrics for the MAWN, and illustration of a Monte Carlo simulation method through the analysis of several example networks.

  19. A Distributed Mutual Exclusion Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Dagdeviren

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a distributed mutual exclusion algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks. This algorithm requires a ring of cluster coordinators as the underlying topology. The topology is built by first providing clusters of mobile nodes in the first step and then forming a backbone consisting of the cluster heads in a ring as the second step. The modified version of the Ricart-Agrawala Algorithm on top of this topologyprovides analytically and experimentally an order of decrease in message complexity with respect to the original algorithm. We analyze the algorithm, provide performance results of the implementation, discuss the fault tolerance and the other algorithmic extensions, and show that this architecture can be used for other middleware functions in mobile networks.

  20. An Adaptive Replica Allocation Algorithm in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingZheng; JinshuSu; KanYang

    2004-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), nodes move freely and the distribution of access requests changes dynamically. Replica allocation in such a dynamic environment is a significant challenge. In this paoer, a dynamic adaptive replica allocation algorithm that can adapt to the nodes motion is proposed to minimize the communication cost of object access. When changes occur in the access requests of the object or the network topology, each replica node collects access requests from its neighbors and makes decisions locally to expand replica to neighbors or to relinquish the replica. The algorithm dynamically adapts the replica allocation scheme to a local optimal one. Simulation results show that our algorithms efficiently reduce the communication cost of object access in MANET environment.

  1. FDAN: Failure Detection Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkaouha, Haroun; Abdelli, Abdelkrim; Bouyahia, Karima; Kaloune, Yasmina

    This work deals with fault tolerance in distributed MANET (Mobile Ad hoc Networks) systems. However, the major issue for a failure detection protocol is to confound between a fault and a voluntary or an involuntary disconnection of nodes, and therefore to suspect correct nodes to be failing and conversely. Within this context, we propose in this paper a failure detection protocol that copes with MANET systems constraints. The aim of this work is to allow to the system to launch recovery process. For this effect, our protocol, called FDAN, is based on the class of heartbeat protocols. It takes into account: no preliminary knowledge of the network, the nodes disconnection and reconnection, resources limitation...Hence, we show that by using temporary lists and different timeout levels, we achieve to reduce sensibly the number of false suspicions.

  2. Capacity Scaling of Ad Hoc Networks with Spatial Diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Andrew M; Weber, Steven P

    2007-01-01

    This paper derives the exact outage probability and transmission capacity of ad hoc wireless networks with nodes employing multiple antenna diversity techniques. The analysis enables a direct comparison of the number of simultaneous transmissions achieving a certain data rate under different diversity techniques. Preliminary results derive the outage probability and transmission capacity for a general class of signal distributions which facilitates quantifying the gain for fading or non-fading environments. The transmission capacity is then given for uniformly random networks with path loss exponent $\\alpha>2$ in which nodes: (1) use static beamforming through $M$ sectorized antennas for which the gain is shown to be $\\Theta(M^2)$ if the antennas are without sidelobes, but less in the event of a nonzero sidelobe level; (2) dynamic eigen-beamforming (maximal ratio transmission/combining) in which the gain is shown to be $\\Theta(M^{\\frac{2}{\\alpha}})$; (3) various transmit antenna selection and receive antenna ...

  3. A Survey: variants of TCP in Ad-hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Zaman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc network forms a temporary network of wireless mobile nodes without any infrastructure where all nodes are allowed to move freely, configure themselves and interconnect with its neighbors to perform peer to peer communication and transmission. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol offers reliable, oriented connection and mechanism of end to end delivery. This article provides the review and comparison of existing variants of TCP for instance: The TCP Tahoe, The TCP Reno, The TCP New Reno, The Lite, The Sack, The TCP Vegas, Westwood and The TCP Fack. TCP’s performance depends on the type of its variants due to missing of congestion control or improper activation procedures such as Slow Start, Fast Retransmission, and Congestion Avoidance, Retransmission, Fast Recovery, Selective Acknowledgement mechanism and Congestion Control. This analysis is essential to be aware about a better TCP implementation for a specific scenario and then nominated a suitable one.

  4. M-BOARD IN AN AD-HOC NETWORK ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Panth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Notice Board is very essential part of any organization. This paper presents the design and implementation of M-Board (Mobile Notice Board for Ad-hoc Network Environment that can be established and made available for an educational or industry environment. The cost-free communication among the mobile phone clients and server takes place with the help of Bluetooth wireless technology. M-Board is particularly developed as an informative application environment to provide the basic information like daily events or timetable to the users. The design is based on the amalgamation of Java ME with other technologies like Java SE, Java EE, PHP and MySQL. The system is designed to provide simple, easy-to-use, cost-free solution in a ubiquitous environment. The system design is easily implemented and extensible allowing the number of clients in Personal Area Network (PAN for information exchange with the hotspot-server.

  5. Collaboration Layer for Robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz; Broberg, Jacob Honor´e

    2009-01-01

    In many applications multiple robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are required to collaborate in order to solve a task. This paper shows by proof of concept that a Collaboration Layer can be modelled and designed to handle the collaborative communication, which enables robots in small to medium size...... networks to solve tasks collaboratively. In this proposal the Collaboration Layer is modelled to handle service and position discovery, group management, and synchronisation among robots, but the layer is also designed to be extendable. Based on this model of the Collaboration Layer, generic services....... A prototype of the Collaboration Layer has been developed to run in a simulated environment and tested in an evaluation scenario. In the scenario five robots solve the tasks of vacuum cleaning and entrance guarding, which involves the ability to discover potential co-workers, form groups, shift from one group...

  6. Parameterized Verification of Safety Properties in Ad Hoc Network Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Delzanno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the main results proved in recent work on the parameterized verification of safety properties for ad hoc network protocols. We consider a model in which the communication topology of a network is represented as a graph. Nodes represent states of individual processes. Adjacent nodes represent single-hop neighbors. Processes are finite state automata that communicate via selective broadcast messages. Reception of a broadcast is restricted to single-hop neighbors. For this model we consider a decision problem that can be expressed as the verification of the existence of an initial topology in which the execution of the protocol can lead to a configuration with at least one node in a certain state. The decision problem is parametric both on the size and on the form of the communication topology of the initial configurations. We draw a complete picture of the decidability and complexity boundaries of this problem according to various assumptions on the possible topologies.

  7. Malware-Propagative Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Asymptotic Behavior Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasileios Karyotis; Anastasios Kakalis; Symeon Papavassiliou

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the spreading of malicious software over ad hoe networks, where legitimate nodes are prone to propagate the infections they receive from either an attacker or their already infected neighbors, is analyzed. Considering the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) node infection paradigm we propose a probabilistic model, on the basis of the theory of closed queuing networks, that aims at describing the aggregated behavior of the system when attacked by malicious nodes. Because of its nature, the model is also able to deal more effectively with the stochastic behavior of attackers and the inherent probabilistic nature of the wireless environment. The proposed model is able to describe accurately the asymptotic behavior of malware-propagative large scale ad hoc networking environments. Using the Norton equivalent of the closed queuing network, we obtain analytical results for its steady state behavior, which in turn is used for identifying the critical parameters affecting the operation of the network. Finally, through modeling and simulation, some additional numerical results are obtained with respect to the behavior of the system when multiple attackers are present, and regarding the time-dependent evolution and impact of an attack.

  8. Experimental Evaluation of the Usage of Ad Hoc Networks as Stubs for Multiservice Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Almeida

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental evaluation of a multiservice ad hoc network, aimed to be interconnected with an infrastructure, operator-managed network. This network supports the efficient delivery of services, unicast and multicast, legacy and multimedia, to users connected in the ad hoc network. It contains the following functionalities: routing and delivery of unicast and multicast services; distributed QoS mechanisms to support service differentiation and resource control responsive to node mobility; security, charging, and rewarding mechanisms to ensure the correct behaviour of the users in the ad hoc network. This paper experimentally evaluates the performance of multiple mechanisms, and the influence and performance penalty introduced in the network, with the incremental inclusion of new functionalities. The performance results obtained in the different real scenarios may question the real usage of ad-hoc networks for more than a minimal number of hops with such a large number of functionalities deployed.

  9. Experimental Evaluation of the Usage of Ad Hoc Networks as Stubs for Multiservice Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental evaluation of a multiservice ad hoc network, aimed to be interconnected with an infrastructure, operator-managed network. This network supports the efficient delivery of services, unicast and multicast, legacy and multimedia, to users connected in the ad hoc network. It contains the following functionalities: routing and delivery of unicast and multicast services; distributed QoS mechanisms to support service differentiation and resource control responsive to node mobility; security, charging, and rewarding mechanisms to ensure the correct behaviour of the users in the ad hoc network. This paper experimentally evaluates the performance of multiple mechanisms, and the influence and performance penalty introduced in the network, with the incremental inclusion of new functionalities. The performance results obtained in the different real scenarios may question the real usage of ad-hoc networks for more than a minimal number of hops with such a large number of functionalities deployed.

  10. A Smart Booster Approach In Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzar Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc network is upcoming next generation technology. The foremost reason to be the popularity of MANET is its infrastructure less nature. MANET is a group of wireless mobile nodes which are connected wirelessly. Nodes may be highly mobile because the beauty of wireless network (like MANET or cellular system lies in mobility. But due to this mobility of nodes, the topology of the node and network changed frequently. This frequent change topology affect to the communication between nodes. If nodes are within the range of each other they can communicate properly but if nodes are not in the range of each other, communication will not be possible smoothly or even ongoing communication may be disrupt or lost. So there is a need to develop and design a mechanism or system that can handle such types of situation and prevent communication failure or frequent link failure. In the present work a novel booster mechanism approach is proposed to overcome such situation or Link failure. In the proposed Approach, the level of the Power at both the Transmitter as well as Receiver is measured in order to maintain communication smooth between the nodes. If one node is moving away from the communicating node then both moving node will measure its receiving power with respect to the distance and if its current power level reaches the threshold level it switched “ON” its Booster and at the same time it send a message to source node which contains received power level of moving node due to this ,that source node also “ON” its Booster and thus both nodes connect together to protect the link failure during that mobility. The Booster Approach is a novel concept in the direction of smooth communication in dynamic or wireless environment in Mobile Ad hoc Network.

  11. Preferential survival in models of complex ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Joseph S.; Roychowdhury, Vwani P.

    2008-05-01

    There has been a rich interplay in recent years between (i) empirical investigations of real-world dynamic networks, (ii) analytical modeling of the microscopic mechanisms that drive the emergence of such networks, and (iii) harnessing of these mechanisms to either manipulate existing networks, or engineer new networks for specific tasks. We continue in this vein, and study the deletion phenomenon in the web by the following two different sets of websites (each comprising more than 150,000 pages) over a one-year period. Empirical data show that there is a significant deletion component in the underlying web networks, but the deletion process is not uniform. This motivates us to introduce a new mechanism of preferential survival (PS), where nodes are removed according to the degree-dependent deletion kernel, D(k)∝k, with α≥0. We use the mean-field rate equation approach to study a general dynamic model driven by Preferential Attachment (PA), Double PA (DPA), and a tunable PS (i.e., with any α>0), where c nodes ( cdynamics reported in this work can be used to design and engineer stable ad hoc networks and explain the stability of the power-law exponents observed in real-world networks.

  12. TCP Issues in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Qiang Xu; Tie-Jun Wu

    2006-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a kind of very complex distributed communication systems with wireless mobile nodes that can be freely and dynamically self-organized into arbitrary and temporary network topologies. MANETs inherit several limitations of wireless networks, meanwhile make new challenges arising from the specificity of MANETs, such as route failures, hidden terminals and exposed terminals. When TCP is applied in a MANET environment, a number of tough problems have to be dealt with. In this paper, a comprehensive survey on this dynamic field is given. Specifically, for the first time all factors impairing TCP performance are identified based on network protocol hierarchy, I.e., lossy wireless channel at the physical layer; excessive contention and unfair access at the MAC layer; frail routing protocol at the network layer, the MAC layer and the network layer related mobile node; unfit congestion window size at the transport layer and the transport layer related asymmetric path. How these factors degrade TCP performance is clearly explained. Then, based on how to alleviate the impact of each of these factors listed above, the existing solutions are collected as comprehensively as possible and classified into a number of categories, and their advantages and limitations are discussed. Based on the limitations of these solutions, a set of open problems for designing more robust solutions is suggested.

  13. Flying Ad-Hoc Networks: Routing Protocols, Mobility Models, Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Bani Yassein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs is a group of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs which completed their work without human intervention. There are some problems in this kind of networks: the first one is the communication between (UAVs. Various routing protocols introduced classified into three categories, static, proactive, reactive routing protocols in order to solve this problem. The second problem is the network design, which depends on the network mobility, in which is the process of cooperation and collaboration between the UAV. Mobility model of FANET is introduced in order to solve this problem. In Mobility Model, the path and speed variations of the UAV and represents their position are defined. As of today, Random Way Point Model is utilized as manufactured one for Mobility in the greater part of recreation situations. The Arbitrary Way Point model is not relevant for the UAV in light of the fact that UAV do not alter their course and versatility, speed quickly at one time because of this reason, we consider more practical models, called Semi-Random Circular Movement (SRCM Mobility Model. Also, we consider different portability models, Mission Plan-Based (MPB Mobility Model, Pheromone-Based Model. Moreover, Paparazzi Mobility Model (PPRZM. This paper presented and discussed the main routing protocols and main mobility models used to solve the communication, cooperation, and collaboration in FANET networks.

  14. Securing Mobile Ad hoc Networks:Key Management and Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Kamal Kumar; 10.5121/ijans.2012.2207

    2012-01-01

    Secure communication between two nodes in a network depends on reliable key management systems that generate and distribute keys between communicating nodes and a secure routing protocol that establishes a route between them. But due to lack of central server and infrastructure in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), this is major problem to manage the keys in the network. Dynamically changes in network's topology causes weak trust relationship among the nodes in the network. In MANETs a mobile node operates as not only end terminal but also as an intermediate router. Therefore, a multi-hop scenario occurs for communication in MANETs; where there may be one or more malicious nodes in between source and destination. A routing protocol is said to be secure that detects the detrimental effects of malicious node(s in the path from source to destination). In this paper, we proposed a key management scheme and a secure routing protocol that secures on demand routing protocol such as DSR and AODV. We assume that MANETs ...

  15. Random Time Identity Based Firewall In Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Patel, R. B.; Singh, Parvinder

    2010-11-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-organizing network of mobile routers and associated hosts connected by wireless links. MANETs are highly flexible and adaptable but at the same time are highly prone to security risks due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, and lack of centralized control. Firewall is an effective means of protecting a local network from network-based security threats and forms a key component in MANET security architecture. This paper presents a review of firewall implementation techniques in MANETs and their relative merits and demerits. A new approach is proposed to select MANET nodes at random for firewall implementation. This approach randomly select a new node as firewall after fixed time and based on critical value of certain parameters like power backup. This approach effectively balances power and resource utilization of entire MANET because responsibility of implementing firewall is equally shared among all the nodes. At the same time it ensures improved security for MANETs from outside attacks as intruder will not be able to find out the entry point in MANET due to the random selection of nodes for firewall implementation.

  16. An Efficient Channel Access Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Asad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs are getting more popularity due to the potential Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS technology. It provides many efficient network services such as safety warnings (collision warning, entertainment (video and voice, maps based guidance, and emergency information. VANETs most commonly use Road Side Units (RSUs and Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V referred to as Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I mode for data accessing. IEEE 802.11p standard which was originally designed for Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs is modified to address such type of communication. However, IEEE 802.11p uses Distributed Coordination Function (DCF for communication between wireless nodes. Therefore, it does not perform well for high mobility networks such as VANETs. Moreover, in RSU mode timely provision of data/services under high density of vehicles is challenging. In this paper, we propose a RSU-based efficient channel access scheme for VANETs under high traffic and mobility. In the proposed scheme, the contention window is dynamically varied according to the times (deadlines the vehicles are going to leave the RSU range. The vehicles with shorter time deadlines are served first and vice versa. Simulation is performed by using the Network Simulator (NS-3 v. 3.6. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better in terms of throughput, backoff rate, RSU response time, and fairness.

  17. Adaptive Probabilistic Broadcasting over Dense Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an idle probability-based broadcasting method, iPro, which employs an adaptive probabilistic mechanism to improve performance of data broadcasting over dense wireless ad hoc networks. In multisource one-hop broadcast scenarios, the modeling and simulation results of the proposed iPro are shown to significantly outperform the standard IEEE 802.11 under saturated condition. Moreover, the results also show that without estimating the number of competing nodes and changing the contention window size, the performance of the proposed iPro can still approach the theoretical bound. We further apply iPro to multihop broadcasting scenarios, and the experiment results show that within the same elapsed time after the broadcasting, the proposed iPro has significantly higher Packet-Delivery Ratios (PDR than traditional methods.

  18. Realistic Mobility Modeling for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Hilal; Tugcu, Tuna

    2009-08-01

    Simulations used for evaluating the performance of routing protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) are mostly based on random mobility and fail to consider individual behaviors of the vehicles. Unrealistic assumptions about mobility produce misleading results about the behavior of routing protocols in real deployments. In this paper, a realistic mobility modeling tool, Mobility for Vehicles (MOVE), which considers the basic mobility behaviors of vehicles, is proposed for a more accurate evaluation. The proposed model is tested against the Random Waypoint (RWP) model using AODV and OLSR protocols. The results show that the mobility model significantly affects the number of nodes within the transmission range of a node, the volume of control traffic, and the number of collisions. It is shown that number of intersections, grid size, and node density are important parameters when dealing with VANET performance.

  19. Parallel routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Khaled; Arafeh, Bassel; Alzeidi, Nasser; 10.5121/ijcnc.2011.3506

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes and evaluates a new position-based Parallel Routing Protocol (PRP) for simultaneously routing multiple data packets over disjoint paths in a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) for higher reliability and reduced communication delays. PRP views the geographical region where the MANET is located as a virtual 2-dimensional grid of cells. Cell-disjoint (parallel) paths between grid cells are constructed and used for building pre-computed routing tables. A single gateway node in each grid cell handles routing through that grid cell reducing routing overheads. Each node maintains updated information about its own location in the virtual grid using GPS. Nodes also keep track of the location of other nodes using a new proposed cell-based broadcasting algorithm. Nodes exchange energy level information with neighbors allowing energy-aware selection of the gateway nodes. Performance evaluation results have been derived showing the attractiveness of the proposed parallel routing protocol from different resp...

  20. Opportunistic Channel Scheduling for Ad Hoc Networks with Queue Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Wang, Yongchao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a distributed opportunistic channel access strategy in ad hoc network is proposed. We consider the multiple sources contend for the transmission opportunity, the winner source decides to transmit or restart contention based on the current channel condition. Owing to real data assumption at all links, the decision still needs to consider the stability of the queues. We formulate the channel opportunistic scheduling as a constrained optimization problem which maximizes the system average throughput with the constraints that the queues of all links are stable. The proposed optimization model is solved by Lyapunov stability in queueing theory. The successive channel access problem is decoupled into single optimal stopping problem at every frame and solved with Lyapunov algorithm. The threshold for every frame is different, and it is derived based on the instantaneous queue information. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed strategy.

  1. Remote Upload of Evidence over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Indrajit

    In this work, we report on one aspect of an autonomous robot-based digital evidence acquisition system that we are developing. When forensic investigators operate within a hostile environment they may use remotely operated unmanned devices to gather digital evidence. These systems periodically upload the evidence to a remote central server using a mobile ad hoc network. In such cases, large pieces of information need to be fragmented and transmitted in an appropriate manner. To support proper forensic analysis, certain properties must ensured for each fragment of evidence — confidentiality during communication, authenticity and integrity of the data, and, most importantly, strong evidence of membership for fragments. This paper describes a framework to provide these properties for the robot-based evidence acquisition system under development.

  2. SECURITY CHALLENGES IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dorri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MANET is a kind of Ad Hoc network with mobile, wireless nodes. Because of its special characteristics like dynamic topology, hop-by-hop communications and easy and quick setup, MANET faced lots of challenges allegorically routing, security and clustering. The security challenges arise due to MANET’s selfconfiguration and self-maintenance capabilities. In this paper, we present an elaborate view of issues in MANET security. Based on MANET’s special characteristics, we define three security parameters for MANET. In addition we divided MANET security into two different aspects and discussed each one in details. A comprehensive analysis in security aspects of MANET and defeating approaches is presented. In addition, defeating approaches against attacks have been evaluated in some important metrics. After analyses and evaluations, future scopes of work have been presented.

  3. Precise positioning systems for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Samir A Elsagheer; Ansari, Gufran Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a very promising research venue that can offers many useful and critical applications including the safety applications. Most of these applications require that each vehicle knows precisely its current position in real time. GPS is the most common positioning technique for VANET. However, it is not accurate. Moreover, the GPS signals cannot be received in the tunnels, undergrounds, or near tall buildings. Thus, no positioning service can be obtained in these locations. Even if the Deferential GPS (DGPS) can provide high accuracy, but still no GPS converge in these locations. In this paper, we provide positioning techniques for VANET that can provide accurate positioning service in the areas where GPS signals are hindered by the obstacles. Experimental results show significant improvement in the accuracy. This allows when combined with DGPS the continuity of a precise positioning service that can be used by most of the VANET applications.

  4. Enhancing the performance of ad hoc wireless networks with smart antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Somprakash; Ueda, Tetsuro

    2006-01-01

    A large portion of the network capacity of an ad hoc network can be wasted by the medium access mechanisms of omni-directional antennas. To overcome this problem, researchers propose the use of directional or adaptive antennas that largely reduce radio interference, improving the utilization of wireless medium and the resulting network throughput.Enhancing the Performance of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks with Smart Antennas discusses these issues and challenges. Following an introduction to ad hoc networks, it presents an overview of basic Media Access Control (MAC) and routing protocols in ad hoc

  5. Cluster-based Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Wu; Zhisheng Liu; Yongxin Feng; Guangxing Wang

    2004-01-01

    There are inherent vulnerabilities that are not easily preventable in the mobile Ad-Hoc networks.To build a highly secure wireless Ad-Hoc network,intrusion detection and response techniques need to be deployed;The intrusion detection and cluster-based Ad-Hoc networks has been introduced,then,an architecture for better intrusion detection based on cluster using Data Mining in wireless Ad-Hoc networks has been shown. A statistical anomaly detection approach has been used.The anomaly detection and trace analysis have been done locally in each node and possibly through cooperation with clusterhead detection in the network.

  6. Reliable Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Routing Using Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Jinil Persis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Routing in Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET is a contemporary graph problem that is solved using various shortest path search techniques. The routing algorithms employed in modern routers use deterministic algorithms that extract an exact non-dominated set of solutions from the search space. The search efficiency of these algorithms is found to have an exponential time complexity in the worst case. Moreover this problem is a multi-objective optimization problem in nature for MANET and it is required to consider changing topology layout. This study attempts to employ a formulation incorporating objectives viz., delay, hop-distance, load, cost and reliability that has significant impact on network performance. Simulation with different random topologies has been carried out to illustrate the implementation of an exhaustive search algorithm and it is observed that the algorithm could handle small-scale networks limited to 15 nodes. A random search meta-heuristic that adopts the nature of firefly swarm has been proposed for larger networks to yield an approximated non-dominated path set. Firefly Algorithm is found to perform better than the exact algorithm in terms of scalability and computational time.

  7. Enhancing Node Cooperation in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kami Makki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET have been a research interest over the past few years, yet, node cooperation has continually been a recognized issue for researchers. Because of their lack of infrastructure, MANETS depend on the cooperation of intermediate nodes in order to forward or send packets of their own to other nodes in the network. Therefore, nodes located in the central area of the network are used more frequently than the nodes located on the outer boundary. The inner nodes have to forward the packets of other nodes and if there is no payoff for forwarding the packets, the nodes may start to refrain from forwarding the packets of others to save their energy. The Community Enforcement Mechanism has been proposed to force the cooperation of among the nodes and reduce their misbehavior. Although, it provides cooperation among the nodes, it does not essentially increase the network life. In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm to improve the longevity of a MANET based upon more structured nodes cooperation.

  8. Design of the next generation cognitive mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Ali; Wang, Huiqiang; Chen, Xiaoming

    Cognition capability has been seen by researchers as the way forward for the design of next generation of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). The reason why a cognitive paradigm would be more suited to a MANET is because MANETs are highly dynamic networks. The topology may change very frequently during the operation of a MANET. Traffic patterns in MANETs can vary from time to time depending on the need of the users. The size of a MANET and node density is also very dynamic and may change without any predictable pattern. In a MANET environment, most of these parameters may change very rapidly and keeping track of them manually would be very difficult. Previous studies have shown that the performance of a certain routing approach in MANETs is dependent on the size of the network and node density. The choice of whether to use a reactive or proactive routing approach comes down to the network size parameter. Static or offline approaches to fine tune a MANET to achieve certain performance goals is hence not very productive as a lot of these parameters keep changing during the course of operation of MANETs. Similarly, the performance of MANETs would improve greatly if the MAC layer entity could operate in a more flexible manner. In this paper we propose a cognitive MANET design that will ensure that all these dynamic parameters are automatically monitored and decisions are based on the current status of these parameters.

  9. Data management issues in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARA, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Research on mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) has become a hot research topic since the middle 1990’s. Over the first decade, most research focused on networking techniques, ignoring data management issues. We, however, realized early the importance of data management in MANETs, and have been conducting studies in this area for 15 years. In this review, we summarize some key technical issues related to data management in MANETs, and the studies we have done in addressing these issues, which include placement of data replicas, update management, and query processing with security management. The techniques proposed in our studies have been designed with deep considerations of MANET features including network partitioning, node participation/disappearance, limited network bandwidth, and energy efficiency. Our studies published in early 2000’s have developed a new research field as data management in MANETs. Also, our recent studies are expected to be significant guidelines of new research directions. We conclude the review by discussing some future directions for research. PMID:28496052

  10. Ad Hoc Network Security Technology%Ad hoc网络安全技术简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 李鑫; 黄红伟

    2011-01-01

    Ad hoc network is a kind of mobile network without fixed infrastructure;all nodes are composed of mobile host.As the mobility of the node leads to network topology changing quickly and node communication is based on wireless links,Ad hoc network is facing greater challenges more than cane network about security.In this paper,according to Ad hoe network security issues,we analysis common attacks in the Ad hoe network,focused on secure routing,key management and other key issues.%Ad hoc网络是一种没有有线基础设施支持的移动网络,网络中的节点均由移动主机构成。由于节点的移动性导致网络拓扑结构不断变化,节点通信完全依靠无线链路,相对于有线网络在安全性上面临更大的挑战。本文根据Ad hoc网络面临的安全问题,分析了Ad hoc网络中常见的攻击方式,并集中讨论了Ad hoc网络的安全路由、密钥管理等关键问题。

  11. Extending Service Area of IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2012-06-01

    According to the current IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN standards, IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks have the limitation that all STAs (Stations) are in the one-hop transmission range of each other. In this paper, to alleviate the limitation of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks we propose the efficient method for selecting the most appropriate pseudo AP (Access Point) from among the set of ad hoc STAs and extending the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks by the pseudo AP's relaying the internal traffic of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Numerical examples show that the proposed method significantly extends the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks.

  12. Efficient Load Balancing Routing Technique for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Abdulkader Salem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mobile ad hoc network (MANET is nothing but the wireless connection of mobile nodes which provides the communication and mobility among wireless nodes without the need of any physical infrastructure or centralized devices such as access point or base station. The communication in MANET is done by routing protocols. There are different categories of routing protocols introduced with different goals and objectives for MANETs such as proactive routing protocols (e.g. DSDV, reactive routing protocols (e.g. ADOV, geographic routing protocols (e.g. GRP, hybrid routing protocols etc. There are two important research problems with such routing protocols to address such as efficient load balancing and energy efficiency. In this paper, we are focusing on evaluation and analysis of efficient load balancing protocol design for MANET. Inefficient load balancing technique results in increasing routing overhead, poor packet delivery ratio, and other Quality of Service (QoS parameters. In literature, there are a number of different methods proposed for improving the performance of routing protocols by efficient load balancing among mobile nodes communication. However, most of the methods suffer from various limitations. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for improved the QoS performance of load balancing approach as well as increasing the network lifetime. Evaluation of Network lifetime is out of scope of this paper.

  13. QUEUEING MODELS IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baskar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs has gain an essential part of the attention of researchers and become very well-liked in last few years. MANETs can operate with no fixed communications and can live rapid changes in the network topology. They can be studied officially as graphs in which the set of boundaries varies in time. One of the main methods to determine the presentation of MANETs is simulation. This study proposes Enhanced Probabilistic Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector (EPAODV routing protocol, which solves the broadcast storm problem of Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV. Our evaluation of MANETs is based on the evaluation of the throughput, end to end delay and packet delivery ratio. We evaluated the end to end delay as it is one of the most important characteristic evaluation metric in computer networks. In our proposed algorithm, using a queueing model M/M/C: ∞/FIFO, we are able to enhance that better results are obtained in the case EPAODV protocol such as increasing throughput, data delivery ratio and then decreasing the end delay compare to the existing protocols.

  14. Utilization of AODV in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad M. Alfawaer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AODV is a mature and widely accepted routing protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET, it has low processing and memory overhead and low network utilization, and works well even in high mobility situation. We modified AODV to use these dominating sets, resulting in the AODV-DS protocol. Our contribution in addressing the fragility of a minimum connected dominating set in the presence of mobility and cross-traffic. We develop three heuristics to fortify the dominating set process against loss by re-introducing some redundancy using a least-first set cover rather than a greedy set cover. AODV-DS exhibits about a 70% savings in RREQ traffic while maintaining the same or better latency and delivery ratio for 30 source nodes in a graph of 50 nodes. It was also about as fair as conventional AODV in distributing the RREQ burden among all nodes, except in cases of low-mobility and few source nodes. For low-mobility networks, it was not as fair to forwarding nodes as AODV, but better than AODV with Dominant Pruning (DP.

  15. Metric-Based Cooperative Routing in Multihop Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative communication fully leverages the broadcast nature of wireless channels and exploits time/spatial diversity in a distributed manner, thereby achieving significant improvements in system capacity and transmission reliability. Cooperative diversity has been well studied from the physical layer perspective. Thereafter, cooperative MAC design has also drawn much attention recently. However, very little work has addressed cooperation at the routing layer. In this paper, we propose a simple yet efficient scheme for cooperative routing by using cooperative metrics including packet delivery ratio, throughput, and energy consumption efficiency. To make a routing decision based on our scheme, a node needs to first determine whether cooperation on each link is necessary or not, and if necessary, select the optimal cooperative scheme as well as the optimal relay. To do so, we calculate and compare cooperative routing metric values for each potential relay for each different cooperative MAC scheme (C-ARQ and CoopMAC in this study, and further choose the best value and compare it with the noncooperative link metric. Using the final optimal metric value instead of the traditional metric value at the routing layer, new optimal paths are set up in multihop ad hoc networks, by taking into account the cooperative benefits from the MAC layer. The network performance of the cooperative routing solution is demonstrated using a simple network topology.

  16. ADAPTIVE SERVICE PROVISIONING FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Jayapal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing efficient and scalable service provisioning in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is a big research challenge. In adaptive service provisioning mechanism an adaptive election procedure is used to select a coordinator node. The role of a service coordinator is crucial in any distributed directory based service provisioning scheme. The existing coordinator election schemes use either the nodeID or a hash function to choose the coordinator. In these schemes, the leader changes are more frequent due to node mobility. We propose an adaptive scheme that makes use of an eligibility factor that is calculated based on the distance to the zone center, remaining battery power and average speed to elect a core node that change according to the network dynamics. We also retain the node with the second highest priority as a backup node. Our algorithm is compared with the existing solution by simulation and the result shows that the core node selected by us is more stable and hence reduces the number of handoffs. This in turn improves the service delivery performance by increasing the packet delivery ratio and decreasing the delay, the overhead and the forwarding cost.

  17. Two Dimensional Connectivity for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Farivar, Masoud; Ashtiani, Farid

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on two-dimensional connectivity in sparse vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). In this respect, we find thresholds for the arrival rates of vehicles at entrances of a block of streets such that the connectivity is guaranteed for any desired probability. To this end, we exploit a mobility model recently proposed for sparse VANETs, based on BCMP open queuing networks and solve the related traffic equations to find the traffic characteristics of each street and use the results to compute the exact probability of connectivity along these streets. Then, we use the results from percolation theory and the proposed fast algorithms for evaluation of bond percolation problem in a random graph corresponding to the block of the streets. We then find sufficiently accurate two dimensional connectivity-related parameters, such as the average number of intersections connected to each other and the size of the largest set of inter-connected intersections. We have also proposed lower bounds for the case ...

  18. A Comparision Study of Common Routing Protocols Used In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Alhadidi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze and compare performance of both reactive and proactive Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs routing protocols using different environments. Wireless networks are divided into two types: infrastructure and ad hoc network. In wireless ad hoc networks each node can be a sender, router and receiver, so these types of network are less structure compared to infrastructure network. Therefore wireless ad hoc networks need special routing protocols to overcome the limitations of wireless ad hoc networks. Wireless ad hoc networks routing protocols can be categorized into two types: reactive (on demand routing protocols and proactive routing protocols. In proactive routing protocols the nodes periodically send control messages across the network to build routing table. Different routing protocols have been simulated using GloMoSim (Global Mobile Information system simulation library and PARSEC compiler. Five multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols have been simulated to cover a range of design choices: Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP, Fisheye State Routing (FSR, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV and Location Aided Routing (LAR. The protocols are evaluated in different environments to investigate performance metrics. Performance metric includes the following aspects: packets deliver ratio, end-to-end delay and end-to-end throughput.

  19. Performance Analysis of Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols using Network Simulator – 2

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    S. Manikandan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is a network which consists of nodes that use a wireless interface to send packet data. Since the nodes in a network of this kind can serve as routers and hosts, they can forward packets on behalf of other nodes and run user application. A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is probably the most well-known example of this networking paradigm have been around for over twenty years, mainly exploited to design tactical networks. Furthermore, the multi-hop ad-hoc networking paradigm is often used for building sensor networks to study, control, monitor events and phenomena. To exploit these potentialities, modeling, simulation and theoretical analyses have to be complemented by real experiences, which provide both a direct evaluation of ad-hoc networks and at the same time precious information for a realistic modeling of these systems. Different routing protocols namely Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocol and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV protocol in MANET are compared and the performance are evaluated based on various metrics like Packet Delivery ratio, Avg. end-to-end delay, throughput, etc. For this purpose, a discrete event simulator known as NS2 is used.

  20. High Throughput via Cross-Layer Interference Alignment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    hoc networks ( MANETS ) under practical assumptions. Several problems were posed and solved that provide insight into when and how interference alignment...REPORT High Throughput via Cross-Layer Interference Alignment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Recent...investigations into the fundamental limits of mobile ad hoc networks have produced a physical layer method for approaching their capacity. This strategy, known

  1. SIMULATION STUDY OF BLACKHOLE ATTACK IN THE MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEENU SHARMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A wireless ad hoc network is a temporary network set up by wireless nodes usually moving randomly and communicating without a network infrastructure. Due to security vulnerabilities of the routing protocols, however, wireless ad hoc networks may be unprotected against attacks by the malicious nodes. In this study we investigated the effects of Blackhole attacks on the network performance. We simulated Blackhole attacks in Qualnet Simulator and measured the packet loss in the network with and without a blackhole. The simulation is done on AODV (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol. The network performance in the presence of a blackhole is reduced up to 26%.

  2. Anomaly detection using clustering for ad hoc networks -behavioral approach-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belacel Madani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile   ad   hoc   networks   (MANETs   are   multi-hop   wireless   networks   ofautonomous  mobile  nodes  without  any  fixed  infrastructure.  In  MANETs,  it  isdifficult to detect malicious nodes because the network topology constantly changesdue  to  node  mobility.  Intrusion  detection  is  the  means  to  identify  the  intrusivebehaviors and provide useful information to intruded systems to respond fast and toavoid  or  reduce  damages.  The  anomaly  detection  algorithms  have  the  advantagebecause  they  can  detect  new  types  of  attacks  (zero-day  attacks.In  this  paper,  wepresent  a  Intrusion  Detection  System  clustering-based  (ID-Cluster  that  fits  therequirement of MANET. This dissertation addresses both routing layer misbehaviorsissues,  with  main  focuses  on  thwarting  routing  disruption  attack  Dynamic  SourceRouting  (DSR.  To  validate  the  research,  a  case  study  is  presented  using  thesimulation with GloMoSum at different mobility levels. Simulation results show thatour  proposed  system  can  achieve  desirable  performance  and  meet  the  securityrequirement of MANET.

  3. Intelligent Information Dissemination Scheme for Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs, a hotspot, such as a parking lot, is an information source and will receive inquiries from many vehicles for seeking any possible free parking space. According to the routing protocols in literature, each of the vehicles needs to flood its route discovery (RD packets to discover a route to the hotspot before sending inquiring packets to the parking lot. As a result, the VANET nearby an urban area or city center may incur the problem of broadcast storm due to so many flooding RD packets during rush hours. To avoid the broadcast storm problem, this paper presents a hotspot-enabled routing-tree based data forwarding method, called the intelligent information dissemination scheme (IID. Our method can let the hotspot automatically decide when to build the routing-tree for proactive information transmissions under the condition that the number of vehicle routing discoveries during a given period exceeds a certain threshold which is calculated through our developed analytical packet delivery model. The routing information will be dynamically maintained by vehicles located at each intersection near the hotspot if the maintaining cost is less than that of allowing vehicles to discover routes themselves. Simulation results show that this method can minimize routing delays for vehicles with lower packets delivery overheads.

  4. Performance improvement in geographic routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiwartya, Omprakash; Kumar, Sushil; Lobiyal, D K; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Hassan, Ahmed Nazar

    2014-11-25

    Geographic routing is one of the most investigated themes by researchers for reliable and efficient dissemination of information in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). Recently, different Geographic Distance Routing (GEDIR) protocols have been suggested in the literature. These protocols focus on reducing the forwarding region towards destination to select the Next Hop Vehicles (NHV). Most of these protocols suffer from the problem of elevated one-hop link disconnection, high end-to-end delay and low throughput even at normal vehicle speed in high vehicle density environment. This paper proposes a Geographic Distance Routing protocol based on Segment vehicle, Link quality and Degree of connectivity (SLD-GEDIR). The protocol selects a reliable NHV using the criteria segment vehicles, one-hop link quality and degree of connectivity. The proposed protocol has been simulated in NS-2 and its performance has been compared with the state-of-the-art protocols: P-GEDIR, J-GEDIR and V-GEDIR. The empirical results clearly reveal that SLD-GEDIR has lower link disconnection and end-to-end delay, and higher throughput as compared to the state-of-the-art protocols. It should be noted that the performance of the proposed protocol is preserved irrespective of vehicle density and speed.

  5. Algorithmic aspects of topology control problems for ad hoc networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, R. (Rui); Lloyd, E. L. (Errol L.); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Ramanathan, R. (Ram); Ravi, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    Topology control problems are concerned with the assignment of power values to nodes of an ad hoc network so that the power assignment leads to a graph topology satisfying some specified properties. This paper considers such problems under several optimization objectives, including minimizing the maximum power and minimizing the total power. A general approach leading to a polynomial algorithm is presented for minimizing maximum power for a class of graph properties, called monotone properties. The difficulty of generalizing the approach to properties that are not monoione is pointed out. Problems involving the minimization of total power are known to be NP-complete even for simple graph properties. A general approach that leads to an approximation algorithm for minimizing the total power for some monotone properties is presented. Using this approach, a new approximation algorithm for the problem of minimizing the total power for obtaining a 2-node-connected graph is obtained. It is shown that this algorithm provides a constant performance guarantee. Experimental results from an implementation of the approximation algorithm are also presented.

  6. Ad-hoc network DOA tracking via sequential Monte Carlo filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li; GUO Yan; LIN Jia-ru; LI Ning

    2007-01-01

    A novel sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithm is provided for the multiple maneuvering Ad-hoc network terminals direction of arrival (DOA) tracking. A nonlinear mobility and observation model is adopted, which can describe the motion features of the Ad-hoc network terminal more practically. The algorithm does not need any additional measurement equipment. Simulation result shows its significant tracking accuracy.

  7. A peer-to-peer file search and download protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, H.; Tekkalmaz, M.; Korpeoglu, I.

    2009-01-01

    Deployment of traditional peer-to-peer file sharing systems on a wireless ad-hoc network introduces several challenges. Information and workload distribution as well as routing are major problems for members of a wireless ad-hoc network, which are only aware of their immediate neighborhood. In this

  8. An Efficient Quality of Service Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Godder

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is set up with multiple wireless devices without any infrastructure. Its employment is favored in many environments. Quality of Service (QoS is one of the main issues for any network and due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS is extremely a challenging task. It is modeled as a multi-layer problem and is considered in both Medium Access Control (MAC and routing layers for ad hoc networks. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol is one of the most used and popular reactive routing protocols in ad-hoc networks. This paper proposed a new protocol QoS based AODV (QAODV which is a modified version of AODV.

  9. Performance modeling of data dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaqfeh, Moumena; Lakas, Abderrahmane; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    ad hoc nature which does not require fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. However, designing scalable information dissemination techniques for VANET applications remains a challenging task due to the inherent nature of such highly dynamic environments. Existing dissemination techniques...... often resort to simulation for performance evaluation and there are only few studies that offer mathematical modeling. In this paper we provide a comparative study of existing performance modeling approaches for data dissemination techniques designed for different VANET applications....

  10. An Enhanced Route Recovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangkyung; Park, Noyeul; Kim, Changhwa; Choi, Seung-Sik

    In case of link failures, many ad hoc routing protocols recover a route by employing source-initiated route re-discovery, but this approach can degrade system performance. Some use localized route recovery, which may yield non-optimal paths. Our proposal provides a mechanism that can enhance the overall routing performance by initiating route recovery at the destination node. We elucidate the effects through simulations including comparisons with AODV and AODV with local repair.

  11. Key Establishment Protocols in Ad-Hoc Networks%Ad-Hoc网络中的密钥建立协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎文华; 周明天

    2002-01-01

    In Ad-hoc networks, key establishment protocol is mainly contributory ,Diffie-Hellman based key agree ment protocol. In this paper, Several typical protocols are analysed and evaluated, and then, their suitability is discussed from the point of view of Ad-Hoc networks.

  12. Design and Implementation of Anycast Services in Ad Hoc Networks Connected to IPv6 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a communication model of implementing an Anycast service in an Ad Hoc network which is connected to IPv6 networks where IPv6 nodes can obtain the Anycast service provided by the Ad hoc network. In this model when an Anycast mobile member in an Ad hoc network moves it can keep the existing communications with its corresponding nodes to continue providing the Anycast services with good quality of service to IPv6 nodes. This model creates a new kind of IPv6 address auto-configuration scheme which does not need the address duplication detection. This paper deeply discusses and analyzes the model and the experimental data prove its validity and efficiency.

  13. Contribution to design a communication framework for vehicular ad hoc networks in urban scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp Barba, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The constant mobility of people, the growing need to be always connected, the large number of vehicles that nowadays can be found in the roads and the advances in technology make Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) be a major area of research. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks are a special type of wireless Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), which allow a group of mobile nodes configure a temporary network and maintain it without the need of a fixed infrastructure. A vehicular network presents some spec...

  14. 可信链在Ad Hoc网络的传递%Transitive trusted chain in Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 王赜

    2012-01-01

    To further enhance the security of Ad Hoc networks, it presents a novel transitive trusted chain with Trusted Platform Module (TPM) in Ad Hoc networks. A scheme which extends the trusted relationships from the node of Ad Hoc networks to Ad Hoc networks as its design objective is proposed, and the trusted relationships between peers can be evaluated with a trusted model in Ad Hoc networks. Authenticated Routing for Ad hoc Networks (ARAN) is improved by introduction of trusted level and then it selects the routing of highest trusted level. The trusted transfer model in Ad Hoc networks is analyzed.%为了进一步提高Ad Hoc网络的安全性,提出一种利用可信平台模块传递信任链的方案.该方案以将信任关系从Ad Hoc网络节点扩展至Ad Hoc网络为设计目标,利用信任模型评估每个节点的信任度,在ARAN安全路由协议的基础上,结合信任度对ARAN安全路由协议进行了改进,选出一条可信度最高的路由,对可信链传递方案进行性能分析.

  15. The effect of DAD timeout period on address autoconfiguration in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutanga, MB

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lack of manual management mechanisms in wireless ad-hoc networks means that automatic configuration of IP addresses and other related network parameters are very crucial. Many IP address autoconfiguration mechanisms have been proposed in literature...

  16. A novel technique for node authentication in mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Aluvala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of nodes in mobility that communicate to one another forming a network through wireless links, in which each node acts a router and forward packets to destinations. The dynamic topology and self-organizing of the nodes make them more vulnerable to the network. In MANET, the major challenging task is to provide security during the routing of data packets. Various kinds of attacks have been studied in ad hoc networks, but no proper solution found for these attacks. So, preventing the malicious nodes from destroying the network plays vital role in ad hoc networks. In this paper, a novel technique has been proposed to provide node authentication while a new node joining into the network and before initiating route discovery process in mobile ad hoc networks. Also shown how the proposed technique mitigates the impact of attacks on nodes.

  17. A Novel Approach for Attacks Mitigation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Cellular Automatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri Nath Saha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many security schemes for mobile ad-hoc network(MANET have been proposed so far but none of them has been successful in combating the different types of attacks that a mobile ad-hoc network often faces. This paper is providing one way of mitigating attacks in mobile ad-hoc networks by authenticating the node who tries to access this network .This scheme has been applied by using cellular automata (CA. Our simulation results show how cellular automata(CA is implemented for user authentication and secure transmission in MANET.

  18. Clustering in mobile ad hoc network based on neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ai-bin; CAI Zi-xing; HU De-wen

    2006-01-01

    An on-demand distributed clustering algorithm based on neural network was proposed. The system parameters and the combined weight for each node were computed, and cluster-heads were chosen using the weighted clustering algorithm, then a training set was created and a neural network was trained. In this algorithm, several system parameters were taken into account, such as the ideal node-degree, the transmission power, the mobility and the battery power of the nodes. The algorithm can be used directly to test whether a node is a cluster-head or not. Moreover, the clusters recreation can be speeded up.

  19. Analysis of Fuzzy Logic Based Intrusion Detection Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advancement in wireless technologies, many of new paradigms have opened for communications. Among these technologies, mobile ad hoc networks play a prominent role for providing communication in many areas because of its independent nature of predefined infrastructure. But in terms of security, these networks are more vulnerable than the conventional networks because firewall and gateway based security mechanisms cannot be applied on it. That’s why intrusion detection systems are used as keystone in these networks. Many number of intrusion detection systems have been discovered to handle the uncertain activity in mobile ad hoc networks. This paper emphasized on proposed fuzzy based intrusion detection systems in mobile ad hoc networks and presented their effectiveness to identify the intrusions. This paper also examines the drawbacks of fuzzy based intrusion detection systems and discussed the future directions in the field of intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks.

  20. Ad Hoc Network Architecture for Multi-Media Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    On-demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) The AODV routing protocol is an improvement to the previously mentioned DSDV algorithm. In AODV , a node is not...The routing protocol adopted by Sun SPOT is the AODV routing protocol . 1. Star Topology In the star network topology, the simulation begins with...9 e. Energy Efficiency......................................................................9 B. ROUTING PROTOCOL

  1. NDN-CRAHNs: Named Data Networking for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Asif Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Named data networking (NDN is a newly proposed paradigm for future Internet, in which communication among nodes is based on data names, decoupling from their locations. In dynamic and self-organized cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs, it is difficult to maintain end-to-end connectivity between ad hoc nodes especially in the presence of licensed users and intermittent wireless channels. Moreover, IP-based CRAHNs have several issues like scalability, inefficient-mapping, poor resource utilization, and location dependence. By leveraging the advantages of NDN, in this paper, we propose a new cross layer fine-grained architecture called named data networking for cognitive radio ad hoc networks (NDN-CRAHNs. The proposed architecture provides distinct features such as in-networking caching, security, scalability, and multipath routing. The performances of the proposed scheme are evaluated comparing to IP-based scheme in terms of average end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is effective in terms of average contents download time and packet delivery ratios comparing to conventional cognitive radio ad hoc networks.

  2. Research on multihop wireless ad hoc network and its routing protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zhu, Qiuping

    2004-04-01

    An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without using any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Because of its acentric, self-organized, fast deployable and mobile property, people are paying more attention to the using of ad hoc network in the emergency. In such an environment, multiple networks "hops" may be needed for one node to exchange data with another across the network, due to the limited range of each mobile node"s wireless transmissions. So for an ad hoc network, a rational routing protocol is especially important. The paper will analyze the character of ad hoc network and the special requirement for communication protocols. Toward the routing protocols, this paper presents four multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols that cover a range of design choices: DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector), TORA (Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm), DSR (Dynamic Source Routing), and AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector). After thoroughly analyzed the network structure and routing protocols, the paper gives the proposal of a new hybrid routing protocol and the view for future work.

  3. Beamspace Multiple Input Multiple Output. Part II: Steerable Antennas in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Networks with Beamforming Antennas.” Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing (pp. 95–105). October...4–5, Long Beach, CA. ACM . 19. Choudhury, R. R., X. Yang, R. Ramanathan, and N. H. Vaidya. 2002. “Using Directional Antennas for Medium Access...Atlanta, GA. ACM . 20. Ramanathan, R., J. Redi, J., C. Santivanez, D. Wiggins, and S. Polit. 2005. “Ad Hoc Networking with Directional Antennas: A

  4. Ad-hoc Network Based on ARM-Linux%基于ARM-Linux的Ad-hoc组网

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓华; 贾继洋

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to solve the problem of the contemporary communication system in the absence of any network, a new scheme of the Ad-hoc network based on ARM-Linux system is designed. Firstly, this paper introduces the transportation of the Linux2.6.36 and the driver of RT3070 on ARM11 platform. Then based on socket programming in TCP/IP, program designing of communication and tests are conducted on the ARM-Linux platform. Results have proved that the Ad-hoc network can use the least resources and costs to achieve reliable high rate communication. It is significant for practical application.%针对传统通信系统不能满足在无任何网络情况下的通信需求现状,设计并实现了一种由 ARM-Linux 系统及其外围部件组成的无线自组网(Ad-hoc)的通信方案.在 ARM11平台上完成了 Linux2.6.36操作系统和RT3070无线通信模块的驱动程序移植.利用基于TCP/IP协议的socket编程,编写测试程序,进行节点间无线通信传输实验.实验结果表明:本文搭建的Ad-hoc网络,可以用最少的资源和成本,实现节点间可靠的无线高速率通信,具有现实应用意义.

  5. Implement DUMBO as a Network Based on Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are a large variety of wireless access networks. One of these networksis Digital Ubiquitous Mobile Broadband OLSR (DUMBO which has been stronglymotivated by the fact that large scale natural disasters can wipe out terrestrialcommunication infrastructure. DUMBO routers can automatically form one or more selfconfiguring,self-healing networks called Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. VehicleAd hoc Network (VANETs is an advanced version of MANETs. VANETs is offered tobe used by network service providers for managing connection to get a high performanceat real time, high bandwidth and high availability in networks such as WLAN, UMTS,Wi-MAX and etc. In this paper surveying DUMBONET Routers with relevant algorithm,approaches and solutions from the literature, will be consider.

  6. A NOVEL APPROACH FOR INFORMATION SECURITY IN AD HOC NETWORKS THROUGH SECURE KEY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suma Christal Mary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks provide flexible and adaptive networks with no fixed infrastructure and dynamic topology. Owe to the vulnerability nature of ad hoc network, there are lots of security threats that diminish the development of ad hoc networks. Therefore, to provide security for information of users and to preserve their privacy, it becomes mandatory to use cryptographic techniques to set up secure mobile ad hoc network. Earlier cryptographic method based on computational complexity ruins with the advent of fast computing computers. In this proposal, we proposed Secure Key Management (SKM framework. We make use of McEliece algorithm embedded with Dispense Key designed for key generation and for the key distribution and it is highly scalable with respect to memory. The experimental result shows that our framework provides a high-performance platform to execute key generation, key distribution scenarios. SKM framework reduces execution time of encryption and decryption by minimizing the number of keys.

  7. HEAD: A Hybrid Mechanism to Enforce Node Cooperation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUO Jianli; LIU Hongwei; DONG Jian; YANG Xiaozong

    2007-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks rely on the cooperation of nodes for routing and forwarding. However, it may not be advantageous for individual nodes to cooperate. In order to make the mobile ad hoc network more robust, we propose a scheme called HEAD (a hybrid mechanism to enforce node cooperation in mobile ad hoc networks) to make the misbehavior unattractive. HEAD is an improvement to OCEAN (observation-based cooperation enforcement in ad hoc networks). It employs only first hand information and works on the top of DSR (dynamic source routing) protocol. By interacting with the DSR, HEAD can detect the misbehavior nodes in the packet forwarding process and isolate them in the route discovery process. In order to detect the misbehavior nodes quickly, HEAD introduces the warning message. In this paper, we also classify the misbehavior nodes into three types: malicious nodes, misleading nodes, and selfish nodes. They all can be detected by HEAD, and isolated from the network.

  8. Mobile Codes Localization in Ad hoc Networks: a Comparative Study of Centralized and Distributed Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Zafoune, Youcef; kanawati, Rushed; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2213

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach in the management of mobile ad hoc networks. Our alternative, based on mobile agent technology, allows the design of mobile centralized server in ad hoc network, where it is not obvious to think about a centralized management, due to the absence of any administration or fixed infrastructure in these networks. The aim of this centralized approach is to provide permanent availability of services in ad hoc networks which are characterized by a distributed management. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, we apply it to solve the problem of mobile code localization in ad hoc networks. A comparative study, based upon a simulation, of centralized and distributed localization protocols in terms of messages number exchanged and response time shows that the centralized approach in a distributed form is more interesting than a totally centralized approach.

  9. Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Santi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks: Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks provides the reader with an overview of mobility modelling, encompassing both theoretical and practical aspects related to the challenging mobility modelling task. It also: Provides up-to-date coverage of mobility models for next generation wireless networksOffers an in-depth discussion of the most representative mobility models for major next generation wireless network application scenarios, including WLAN/mesh networks, vehicular networks, wireless sensor networks, and

  10. Voice Communications over 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks: Modeling, Optimization and Call Admission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changchun; Xu, Yanyi; Liu, Gan; Liu, Kezhong

    Supporting quality-of-service (QoS) of multimedia communications over IEEE 802.11 based ad hoc networks is a challenging task. This paper develops a simple 3-D Markov chain model for queuing analysis of IEEE 802.11 MAC layer. The model is applied for performance analysis of voice communications over IEEE 802.11 single-hop ad hoc networks. By using the model, we finish the performance optimization of IEEE MAC layer and obtain the maximum number of voice calls in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks as well as the statistical performance bounds. Furthermore, we design a fully distributed call admission control (CAC) algorithm which can provide strict statistical QoS guarantee for voice communications over IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Extensive simulations indicate the accuracy of the analytical model and the CAC scheme.

  11. Mitigating Malicious Attacks Using Trust Based Secure-BEFORE Routing Strategy in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shah, Rutuja; Subramaniam, Sumathy; Lekala Dasarathan, Dhinesh Babu

    2016-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc Networks (MANET), being infrastructureless and dynamic in nature, are predominantly susceptible to attacks such as black hole, worm hole, cunning gray hole attack at source or destination...

  12. DESAIN ALGORITMA DAN SIMULASI ROUTING UNTUK GATEWAY AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixson Meok

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available   Routing protocol to the wireless ad hoc networks is very needed in the communication process between some terminals, to send the data packet through one or several node(s to the destination address where the network typology is always changing. Many previous works that discussed about routing ad hoc both for manet (mobile ad hoc networks and wireless networks, but the emphasis have more focus on comparing the performance of several routing ad hoc. While in this work, there is a bulding of routing algorithm model to gateway in land to the nodes that analogized as a boat that move on the sea. With the assumption that the communication inter terminals to radio band of Very High Frequency, thus algorithm that built in the simulation based on the range gap of the HF frequency. The result of this simulation will be developed as the platform to implement the service development of multiuser communication

  13. A MOBILE AGENT BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Kumar Pattanayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs have become extensively popular over the years among the researchers. However, the dynamic nature of MANETs imposes a set of challenges to its efficient implementation in practice. One of such challenges represents intrusion detection and prevention procedures that are intended to provide secured performance of ad hoc applications. In this study, we introduce a mobile agent based intrusion detection and prevention architecture for a clustered MANET. Here, a mobile agent resides in each cluster of the ad hoc network and each cluster runs a specific application at any point of time. This application specific approach makes the network more robust to external intrusions directed at the nodes in an ad hoc network.

  14. A Group Based Key Sharing and Management Algorithm for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Shafi Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs are one special type of ad hoc networks that involves vehicles on roads. Typically like ad hoc networks, broadcast approach is used for data dissemination. Blind broadcast to each and every node results in exchange of useless and irrelevant messages and hence creates an overhead. Unicasting is not preferred in ad-hoc networks due to the dynamic topology and the resource requirements as compared to broadcasting. Simple broadcasting techniques create several problems on privacy, disturbance, and resource utilization. In this paper, we propose media mixing algorithm to decide what information should be provided to each user and how to provide such information. Results obtained through simulation show that fewer number of keys are needed to share compared to simple broadcasting. Privacy is also enhanced through this approach.

  15. User-centred and context-aware identity management in mobile ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Arabo, Abdullahi

    2013-01-01

    The emergent notion of ubiquitous computing makes it possible for mobile devices to communicate and provide services via networks connected in an ad-hoc manner. These have resulted in the proliferation of wireless technologies such as Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANets), which offer attractive solutions for services that need flexible setup as well as dynamic and low cost wireless connectivity. However, the growing trend outlined above also raises serious concerns over Identity Management (IM) du...

  16. On-Demand Key Distribution for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    ON-DEMAND KEY DISTRIBUTION FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS THESIS Mr. Daniel F . Graham AFIT...for the Degree of Master of Science in Computer Science Mr. Daniel F . Graham, BS March 2007 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...UNLIMITED AFIT/GCS/ENG/07-12 ON-DEMAND KEY DISTRIBUTION FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS Mr. Daniel F . Graham, BS

  17. Review Strategies and Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Network- Internet Integration Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The desire to be connected anytime and anywhere has led to the development of wireless networks, opening new vista of research in pervasive and ubiquitous computing. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs use portable devices such as mobile phones, laptops or personal digital assistants (PDAs for spontaneous establishment of communication. Most existing research in the area of mobile Ad Hoc Networks is limited to stand-alone isolated networks. But connectivity of a mobile Ad Hoc network to the Internet is also desirable as more and more applications and services in our society now depend on fixed infrastructure networks. It is therefore important that dynamically deployed wireless Ad Hoc networks should also gain access to these fixed networks and their services. The integration of MANETs into Internet increases the networking flexibility and coverage of existing infrastructure networks. Although researchers have proposed many solutions, but it is still unclear which one offer the best performance compared to the others. When an Ad Hoc network is connected to Internet, it is important for the mobile nodes to detect efficiently available Internet gateways providing access to the Internet. Internet gateway discovery time and handover delay have strong influence on packet delay and throughput. The key challenge in providing connectivity is to minimize the overhead of mobile IP and Ad Hoc routing protocol between Internet and Ad Hoc networks. There, this paper focuses on proposed technical solutions on Internet gateway discovery and also we briefly describe different ways to provide global Internet access for MANETs. Finally, some challenges are also mentioned which need in depth investigation.

  18. LINK STABILITY WITH ENERGY AWARE AD HOC ON DEMAND MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Murugan Tamilarasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network is one of the wireless network in which mobile nodes are communicate with each other and have no infrastructure because no access point. The MANET protocols can be classified as proactive and reactive routing protocol. The proactive routing protocols, all nodes which participated in network have routing table. This table updated periodically and is used to find the path between source and destination. The reactive routing protocol, nodes are initiate route discovery procedure when on-demand routes. In order to find the better route in MANET, many routing protocols are designed in the recent years. But those protocols are not concentrating about communication links and battery energy. Communication links between nodes and energy of nodes are very important factor for improving quality of routing protocols. This study presents innovative Link Stability with Energy Aware (LSEA multipath routing protocol. The key idea of the protocol is find the link quality, maximum remaining energy and lower delay. Reflections of these factors are increasing the qualities like packet delivery ratio, throughputs and reduce end-to-end delay. The LSEAMRP was simulated on NS-2 and evaluation results also shown.

  19. Towards Trust-based Cognitive Networks: A Survey of Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Coast, Australia, 21-26 May 2006. [4] P. Albers , O. Camp, J.-M. Percher, B. Jouga, L. Mé, and R. Puttini, “Security in Ad Hoc Networks: a General...10th Euromicro Workshop on Parallel, Distributed, and Network-based Processing, Canary Islands, Spain, Jan . 2002, pp. 403-410. [7] S. Buchegger and...DETECTION Albers et al.(2002) [4] -Direct observation for anomaly detection or misuse detection -General misbehaving nodes No experimental results

  20. Handbook on theoretical and algorithmic aspects of sensor, ad hoc wireless, and peer-to-peer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jie

    2005-01-01

    PrefaceAD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKSA Modular Cross Layer Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks, M. Conti, J. Crowcroft, G. Maselli, and G. TuriRouting Scalability in MANETs, J. Eriksson, S. Krishnamurthy and M. FaloutsosUniformly Distributed Algorithm for Virtual Backbone Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, D.S. KimMaximum Necessary Hop Count for Packet Routing in MANET, X. Chen and J. ShenEfficient Strategyproof Multicast in Selfish Wireless Networks, X.-Yang LiGeocasting in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, I. StojmenovicTopology Control for Ad hoc Networks: Present Solutions and Open Issues, C.-C. Shen a

  1. Service for fault tolerance in the Ad Hoc Networks based on Multi Agent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalem Belalem

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ad hoc networks are distributed networks, self-organized and does not require infrastructure. In such network, mobile infrastructures are subject of disconnections. This situation may concern a voluntary or involuntary disconnection of nodes caused by the high mobility in the Ad hoc network. In these problems we are trying through this work to contribute to solving these problems in order to ensure continuous service by proposing our service for faults tolerance based on Multi Agent Systems (MAS, which predict a problem and decision making in relation to critical nodes. Our work contributes to study the prediction of voluntary and involuntary disconnections in the Ad hoc network; therefore we propose our service for faults tolerance that allows for effective distribution of information in the Network by selecting some objects of the network to be duplicates of information.

  2. A Comparison of the TCP Variants Performance over different Routing Protocols on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Biradar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a variant of TCP (Tahoe, Vegas, TCP is most widely used transport protocol in both wired and wireless networks. In mobile ad hoc networks, the topology changes frequently due to mobile nodes, this leads to significant packet losses and network throughput degradation. This is due to the fact that TCP fails to distinguish the path failure and network congestion. In this paper, the performances of TCP over different routing (DSR, AODV and DSDV protocols in ad hoc networks wasstudied by simulation experiments and results are reported.

  3. Contribution to design a communication framework for vehicular ad hoc networks in urban scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp Barba, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    La movilidad constante de las personas y la creciente necesidad de estar conectados en todo momento ha hecho de las redes vehiculares un área cuyo interés ha ido en aumento. La gran cantidad de vehículos que hay en la actualidad, y los avances tecnológicos han hecho de las redes vehiculares (VANETS, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks) un gran campo de investigación. Las redes vehiculares son un tipo especial de redes móviles ad hoc inalámbricas, las cuales, al igual que las redes MANET (Mobile Ad hoc ...

  4. An implementation of traffic light system using multi-hop Ad hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-08-01

    In ad hoc networks nodes cooperate with each other to form a temporary network without the aid of any centralized administration. No wired base station or infrastructure is supported, and each host communicates via radio packets. Each host must act as a router, since routes are mostly multi-hop, due to the limited power transmission set by government agencies, (e.g. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is 1 Watt in Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The natures of wireless mobile ad hoc networks depend on batteries or other fatiguing means for their energy. A limited energy capacity may be the most significant performance constraint. Therefore, radio resource and power management is an important issue of any wireless network. In this paper, a design for traffic light system employing ad hoc networks is proposed. The traffic light system runs automatically based on signals sent through a multi-hop ad hoc network of \\'n\\' number of nodes utilizing the Token Ring protocol, which is efficient for this application from the energy prospective. The experiment consists of a graphical user interface that simulates the traffic lights and laptops (which have wireless network adapters) are used to run the graphical user interface and are responsible for setting up the ad hoc network between them. The traffic light system has been implemented utilizing A Mesh Driver (which allows for more than one wireless device to be connected simultaneously) and Java-based client-server programs. © 2009 IEEE.

  5. Review of Artificial Immune System to Enhance Security in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Dalal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Networks consist of wireless host that communicate with each other. The routes in a Mobile Ad-hoc Network may consist of many hops through other hosts between source and destination. The hosts are not fixed in a Mobile Adhoc Network; due to host mobility topology can change any time. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are much more vulnerable to security attacks. Current research works on securing Mobile Adhoc Networks mainly focus on confidentiality, integrity,authentication, availability, and fairness. Design of routingprotocols is very much crucial in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. There are various techniques for securing Mobile Ad-hoc Network i.e. cryptography. Cryptography provides efficient mechanism to provide security, but it creates very much overhead. So, an approach is used which is analogous to Biological Immune System, known as Artificial Immune System (AIS. There is a reason of AIS to be used for security purposes because the Human Immune System (HIS protects the body against damage from an extremely large number of harmfulbacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi, termed pathogens. It doesthis largely without prior knowledge of the structure of thesepathogens. AIS provide security by determining non-trusted nodes and eliminate all non-trusted nodes from the network.

  6. Location Based Throughput Maximization Routing in Energy Constrained Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sumathy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless Ad-hoc network, power consumption becomes an important issue due to limited battery power. One of the reasons for energy expenditure in this network is irregularly distributed node pattern, which impose large interference range in certain area. To maximize the lifetime of ad-hoc mobile network, the power consumption rate of each node must be evenly distributed and the over all transmission range of each node must be minimized. Our protocol, Location based throughput maximization routing in energy constrained Ad-hoc network finds routing paths, which maximize the lifetime of individual nodes and minimize the total transmission energy consumption. The life of the entire network is increased and the network throughput is also increased. The reliability of the path is also increased. Location based energy constrained routing finds the distance between the nodes. Based on the distance the transmission power required is calculated and dynamically reduces the total transmission energy.

  7. SURVEI TEKNIK CLUSTERING ROUTING BERDASARKAN MOBILITAS PADA WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Trisna Wirawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad-hoc merupakan sebuah skema jaringan yang didesain supaya mampu beroperasi tanpa membutuhkan infrastruktur tetap serta bersifat otonom. Teknik flooding pada proses path discovery dalam kasus wireless ad-hoc network dapat menimbulkan masalah beban jaringan yang berlebihan. Oleh karena itu, sebuah skema clustering diusulkan untuk mengurangi adanya flooding paket yang berlebihan dengan membagi node-node dalam jaringan menjadi beberapa bagian berdasarkan parameter tertentu. Teknik ini efektifuntuk mengurangi paket yang harus dilewatkan dalam jaringan. Namun masalah muncul ketika sebuah jaringan wireless ad-hoc harus membentuk sebuah cluster dengan mempertimbangkan beberapa parameter khusus. Parameter tersebut harus disesuaikan dengan kasus yang dihadapi. Pada tulisan ini akan dibahas secara khusus mengenai penerapan skema clustering dalam lingkungan wireless ad-hoc network, baik pada MANETdan penyesuaian skema clustering yang harus dilakukan pada VANET berdasarkan mobilitasnya.

  8. Performance evaluation of fingerprint image processing for high Security Ad-hoc network

    OpenAIRE

    P.Velayutham; Dr.T.G.Palanivelu

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless technology, various mobile devices have been developed for military and civilian applications. Defense research and development has shown increasing interest in ad-hoc networks because a military has to be mobile peer-to-peer is a good architecture for mobile communication in coalition operations. In this paper, the methodology proposed is an novel robust approach on secure fingerprint authentication and matching techniques to implement in ad-hoc wireles...

  9. An Energy-Aware On-Demand Routing Protocol for Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Veerayya, Mallapur

    2008-01-01

    An ad-hoc wireless network is a collection of nodes that come together to dynamically create a network, with no fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. An ad-hoc network is characterized by energy constrained nodes, bandwidth constrained links and dynamic topology. With the growing use of wireless networks (including ad-hoc networks) for real-time applications, such as voice, video, and real-time data, the need for Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees in terms of delay, bandwidth, and packet loss is becoming increasingly important. Providing QoS in ad-hoc networks is a challenging task because of dynamic nature of network topology and imprecise state information. Hence, it is important to have a dynamic routing protocol with fast re-routing capability, which also provides stable route during the life-time of the flows. In this thesis, we have proposed a novel, energy aware, stable routing protocol named, Stability-based QoS-capable Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (SQ-AODV), which is an enhancement...

  10. QoS-aware multicast routing protocol for Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    Ad hoc wireless networks consist of mobile nodes interconnected by multihop communication paths. Unlike conventional wireless networks, ad hoc networks have no fixed network infrastructure or administrative support. Due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS) is an inherently complex, difficult issue and very important research issue. MAODV (Multicast Ad hoc Ondemand Distance Vector) routing protocol provides fast and efficient route establishment between mobile nodes that need to communicate with each other. MAODV has minimal control overhead and route acquisition latency. In addition to unicast routing, MAODV supports multicast and broadcast as well.The multicast routing problem with multiple QoS constraints, which may deal with the delay, bandwidth and packet loss measurements is discussed, and a network model for researching the ad hoc network QoS multicast routing problem is described. It presents a complete solution for QoS multicast routing based on an extension of the MAODV routing protocol that deals with delay, bandwidth and packet loss measurements. The solution is based on lower layer specifics. Simulation results show that, with the proposed QoS multicast routing protocol, end-to-end delay, bandwidth and packet loss on a route can be improved in most of cases. It is an available approach to multicast routing decision with multiple QoS constraints.

  11. Specification and Validation of an Edge Router Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Jensen, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    We present an industrial project at Ericsson Telebit A/S where Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPNs) have been used for the design and specification of an edge router discovery protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. The Edge Router Discovery Protocol (ERDP) supports an edge router in a stationary...... core network in assigning network address prefixes to gateways in mobile ad-hoc networks. This paper focuses on how CP-nets and the CPN computer tools have been applied in the development of ERDP. A CPN model has been constructed that constitutes a formal executable specification of ERDP. Simulation...

  12. Deny-by-Default Distributed Security Policy Enforcement in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicherry, Mansoor; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Stavrou, Angelos

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are increasingly employed in tactical military and civil rapid-deployment networks, including emergency rescue operations and ad hoc disaster-relief networks. However, this flexibility of MANETs comes at a price, when compared to wired and base station-based wireless networks: MANETs are susceptible to both insider and outsider attacks. This is mainly because of the lack of a well-defined defense perimeter preventing the effective use of wired defenses including firewalls and intrusion detection systems.

  13. The Evolution of IDS Solutions in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks To Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novarun Deb

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The domain of wireless networks is inherently vulnerable to attacks due to the unreliable wireless medium. Such networks can be secured from intrusions using either prevention or detection schemes. This paper focuses its study on intrusion detection rather than prevention of attacks. As attackers keep onimprovising too, an active prevention method alone cannot provide total security to the system. Here in lies the importance of intrusion detection systems (IDS that are solely designed to detect intrusions in real time. Wireless networks are broadly classified into Wireless Ad-hoc Networks (WAHNs, Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and the most recent Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs. Several IDS solutions have been proposed for these networks. This paper is an extension to a survey of IDS solutions for MANETs and WMNs published earlier in the sense that the present survey offers a comparative insight of recent IDS solutions for all the sub domains of wireless networks.

  14. A Survey of Congestion Control in Proactive Source Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashree S kayarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET congestion can take place between the two intermediate nodes, when the packet is transferred from the source to the destination. The congestion in MANET is mainly due to frequent change to topology and high mobility of nodes, which lead to high loss of packet. In ad hoc network the congestion control techniques with TCP becomes difficult to handle since in ad hoc network there is high density of nodes in the network and there is frequent change to topology in the network. In this paper to control the congestion in proactive source routing protocol an error message is generated by the receiver to reduce the packet sending rate. We are using a new control message i.e., Packet Error Announcing Message called (PEAM messages.

  15. A Decentralized VPN Service over Generalized Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Sho; Shima, Keiichi; Uo, Yojiro; Esaki, Hiroshi

    We present a decentralized VPN service that can be built over generalized mobile ad-hoc networks (Generalized MANETs), in which topologies can be represented as a time-varying directed multigraph. We address wireless ad-hoc networks and overlay ad-hoc networks as instances of Generalized MANETs. We first propose an architecture to operate on various kinds of networks through a single set of operations. Then, we design and implement a decentralized VPN service on the proposed architecture. Through the development and operation of a prototype system we implemented, we found that the proposed architecture makes the VPN service applicable to each instance of Generalized MANETs, and that the VPN service makes it possible for unmodified applications to operate on the networks.

  16. A SURVEY OF CONGESTION CONTROL IN PROACTIVE SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashree S kayarkar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET congestion can take place between the two intermediate nodes, when the packet is transferred from the source to the destination. The congestion in MANET is mainly due to frequent change to topology and high mobility of nodes, which lead to high loss of packet. In ad hoc network the congestion control techniques with TCP becomes difficult to handle since in ad hoc network there is high density of nodes in the network and there is frequent change to topology in the network. In this paper to control the congestion in proactive source routing protocol an error message is generated by the receiver to reduce the packet sending rate. We are using a new control message i.e., Packet Error Announcing Message called (PEAM messages.

  17. Hybrid Packet-Pheromone-Based Probabilistic Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashkouli Nejad, Keyvan; Shawish, Ahmed; Jiang, Xiaohong; Horiguchi, Susumu

    Ad-Hoc networks are collections of mobile nodes communicating using wireless media without any fixed infrastructure. Minimal configuration and quick deployment make Ad-Hoc networks suitable for emergency situations like natural disasters or military conflicts. The current Ad-Hoc networks can only support either high mobility or high transmission rate at a time because they employ static approaches in their routing schemes. However, due to the continuous expansion of the Ad-Hoc network size, node-mobility and transmission rate, the development of new adaptive and dynamic routing schemes has become crucial. In this paper we propose a new routing scheme to support high transmission rates and high node-mobility simultaneously in a big Ad-Hoc network, by combining a new proposed packet-pheromone-based approach with the Hint Based Probabilistic Protocol (HBPP) for congestion avoidance with dynamic path selection in packet forwarding process. Because of using the available feedback information, the proposed algorithm does not introduce any additional overhead. The extensive simulation-based analysis conducted in this paper indicates that the proposed algorithm offers small packet-latency and achieves a significantly higher delivery probability in comparison with the available Hint-Based Probabilistic Protocol (HBPP).

  18. Mitigate DoS and DDoS attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    in such networks. The second part presents a multiplayer game that takes place between the nodes of an ad hoc network and based on fundamental principles of game theory. By combining computational problems with puzzles, improvement occurs in the efficiency and latency of the communicating nodes and resistance......This paper proposes a technique to defeat Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks in Ad Hoc Networks. The technique is divided into two main parts and with game theory and cryptographic puzzles. Introduced first is a new client puzzle to prevent DoS attacks...... in DoS and DDoS attacks. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the approach for devices with limited resources and for environments like ad hoc networks where nodes must exchange information quickly....

  19. Efficient Packet Forwarding Approach in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Using EBGR Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Prasanth, K; Jayasudha, K; Chandrasekar, C

    2010-01-01

    VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks) are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks and will play an important role in public safety communications and commercial applications. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Conventional routing protocols in MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc Networks) are unable to fully address the unique characteristics in vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose EBGR (Edge Node Based Greedy Routing), a reliable greedy position based routing approach to forward packets to the node present in the edge of the transmission range of source/forwarding node as most suitable next hop, with consideration of nodes moving in the direction of the destination. We propose Revival Mobility model (RMM) to evaluate the performance of our routing technique. This paper presents a detailed description of our approach and simulation results show that packet delivery ratio is improved considerably compared to other routing techniques of V...

  20. Efficient Packet Forwarding Approach in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Using EBGR Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayasudha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks and will play an important role in public safety communications and commercial applications. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Conventional routing protocols in MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc Networks are unable to fully address the unique characteristics in vehicular networks. In this paper, we propose EBGR (Edge Node Based Greedy Routing, a reliable greedy position based routing approach to forward packets to the node present in the edge of the transmission range of source/forwarding node as most suitable next hop, with consideration of nodes moving in the direction of the destination. We propose Revival Mobility model (RMM to evaluate the performance of our routing technique. This paper presents a detailed description of our approach and simulation results show that packet delivery ratio is improved considerably compared to other routing techniques of VANET.

  1. A Secure and Pragmatic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    An ad hoc network is a group of wireless mobile computers (or nodes), in which individual nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other to allow nodes to communicate beyond direct wireless transmission range. Because of node mobility and power limitations, the network topology changes frequently. Routing protocol plays an important role in the ad hoc network. A recent trend in ad hoc network routing is the reactive on-demand philosophy where routes are established only when required. As an optimization for the current Dynamic Source Routing Protocol, a secure and pragmatic routes selection scheme based on Reputation Systems was proposed. We design the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol and implement simulation models using GloMoSim. Simulation results show that the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol provides better experimental results on packet delivery ratio, power consumption and system throughput than Dynamic Source Routing Protocol.

  2. Novel multi-path routing scheme for UWB Ad hoc network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ping-ping; YANG Cai-yu; SONG Shu-qing; BI Guang-guo

    2005-01-01

    The routing protocols play an important role for ad hoc networks performance. As some problems with DSR,SMR, and AMR protocols were analyzed, a new routing protocol suitable for UWB Ad hoc networks was proposed in this paper. The new routing protocol utilize an act of orientation of UWB and tries to get sufficient route information and decrease the network load caused by route discovery at the same time. Simulation results show that the routing load of the new protocol is lower and throughput is higher than that of DSR. While the node's mobility increases, these advantages become more obvious.

  3. Topology-Transparent Transmission Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-lei; WANG Chun-jiang; LIU Yuan-an; MA Lei-lei

    2005-01-01

    In order to maximize the average throughput and minimize the transmission slot delay in wireless Ad Hoc networks,an optimal topology-transparent transmission scheduling algorithm-multichannel Time-Spread Multiple Access(TSMA)is proposed.Further analysis is shown that the maximum degree is very sensitive to the network performance for a wireless Ad Hoc networks with N mobile nodes.Moreover,the proposed multichannel TSMA can improve the average throughput M times and decrease the average transmission slot delay M times,as compared with singlechannel TSMA when M channels are available.

  4. Decentralized cooperative spectrum sensing for ad-hoc disaster relief network clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    Disaster relief networks need to be highly adaptable and resilient in order to encompass the emergency service demands. Cognitive Radio enhanced ad-hoc architecture have been put forward as candidate to enable such networks. Spectrum sensing, the cornerstone of the Cognitive Radio paradigm, has...... been the target of intensive research, of which the main common conclusion was that the achievable spectrum sensing accuracy can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. When considering applying Cognitive Radio to ad-hoc disaster relief networks, the use of spectrum sensing...

  5. Centralized cooperative spectrum sensing for ad-hoc disaster relief network clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    Disaster relief networks have to be highly adaptable and resilient. Cognitive radio enhanced ad-hoc architecture have been put forward as a candidate to enable such networks. Spectrum sensing is the cornerstone of the cognitive radio paradigm, and it has been the target of intensive research....... The main common conclusion was that the achievable spectrum sensing accuracy can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. When considering applying Cognitive Radio to ad-hoc disaster relief networks, spectrum sensing cooperative schemes are paramount. A centralized cluster...

  6. Convergence of Secure Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network and Cloud in Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkarni, Nandkumar P.; Prasad, Neeli R.; Lin, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is a highly mobile autonomous and self-organizing network of vehicles. VANET is a particular case of Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET). With the recent advances in the arena of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and computing, the researchers have envisioned...... of the challenges in VANET are less computing capability, smaller onboard storage, safety, reliability, etc. Among the number of solutions proposed recently, Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC) is one of them. VCC is a technology that provides on-demand services namely Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Storage...

  7. The Study of Routing Strategies in Vehicular Ad- Hoc Network to Enhance Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In VANET, or Intelligent Vehicular Ad-HocNetworking, defines an intelligent way of usingVehicular Networking. In VANET integrates onmultiple ad-hoc networking technologies such as WIFIIEEE 802.11p, WAVE IEEE 1609, WIMAX IEEE802.16, Bluetooth, IRA, and ZIGBEE for easy,accurate, effective and simple communication betweenvehicles on dynamic mobility. Effective measuressuch as media communication between vehicles canbe enabled as well as methods to track the automotivevehicles. In VANET helps in defining safety measuresin vehicles, streaming communication betweenvehicles, infotainment and TELEMATICS.

  8. Analysing the Behaviour and Performance of Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Highly Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun G Menon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wireless networks have enabled us to deploy and use mobile ad hoc networks for communication between the rescue officers in disaster recovery and reconstruction operations. This highly dynamic network does not require any infrastructure or centralized control. As the topology of the network remain dynamic, severe performance limitations incur with traditional routing strategies. Recently a new routing paradigm known as opportunistic routing protocols have been proposed to overcome these limitations and to provide efficient delivery of data in these highly dynamic ad hoc networks. Using the broadcasting nature of the wireless medium, this latest routing technique tries to address two major issues of varying link quality and unpredictable node mobility in ad hoc networks. Unlike conventional IP forwarding, where an intermediate node looks up a forwarding table for a suitable next hop, opportunistic routing brings in opportunistic data forwarding that allows multiple candidate nodes in the forwarding area to act on the broadcasted data packet. This increases the reliability of data delivery in the network with reduced delay. One of the most important issues that have not been studied so far is the varying performance of opportunistic routing protocols in wireless networks with highly mobile nodes. This research paper analyses and compares the various advantages, disadvantages and the performance of the latest opportunistic routing protocols in wireless ad hoc networks with highly mobile nodes.

  9. A Prototype System for Using Multiple Radios in Directional MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network): A NISE Funded Applied Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Technical Document 3276 September 2013 A Prototype System for using Multiple Radios in Directional MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network) A...point, it is difficult to employ directional antennas in a mobile ad hoc network ( MANET ) as most current radio and wireless networking protocols were...September 2013 Final A Prototype System for Using Multiple Radios in Directional MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network) A NISE funded Applied Research

  10. Minimization of energy consumption in ad hoc networks; Minimisation de la consommation d'energie dans les reseaux ad hoc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senouci, S.M.; Pujolle, G. [Paris-6 Univ., Lab. LIP6, 75 (France)

    2005-04-01

    An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless devices forming a temporary network independently of any administration or fixed infrastructure. The main benefits of this new generation of mobile networks are flexibility and their low cost. Wireless devices have maximum utility when they can be used 'anywhere at anytime'. However, one of the greatest limitations to that goal is the finite power supplies. Since batteries provide limited power, a general constraint of wireless communication is the short continuous operation time of mobile terminals. This constraint is more important for the ad hoc networks, since every terminal has to perform the functions of a router. Therefore, energy consumption should be a crucial issue while designing new communication protocols and particularly ad hoc routing protocols. We propose, in this paper, some extensions to the most important on-demand routing algorithm, AODV (Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector). The discovery mechanism in these extensions uses energy as a routing metric. These algorithms improve the network survivability by maintaining the network connectivity, which is the strong requirement for a high-quality communication. They carry out this objective with low message overhead for computing routes and without affecting the other network protocol layers. (authors)

  11. A Globally Accessible List (GAL Based Recovery Concept In Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Daniel,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network is a mobile, multi-hop wireless network which is capable of autonomous operation whose primary role is to provide a reliable end to end communication between nodes in the network.However achieving reliable transmission in mobile wireless network is crucial due to change in the network topology caused by node mobility. Modern communication network is becoming increasing & diverse. This is the consequence of an increasing array of devices & services both wired & wireless. There are various protocols to facilitate communication in ad hoc network like DSR and TORA. However these approaches end up in the inefficient utilization of resources after link failure and congestion. This paper proposes an approach to get over this problem .We have added some static nodes which only keeps information related to the current working path and also helps in quick recovery in case of link failure .

  12. Design and analysis of a network coding algorithm for ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远; 徐华; 贾培发

    2015-01-01

    Network coding is proved to have advantages in both wireline and wireless networks. Especially, appropriate network coding schemes are programmed for underlined networks. Considering the feature of strong node mobility in aviation communication networks, a hop-by-hop network coding algorithm based on ad hoc networks was proposed. Compared with COPE-like network coding algorithms, the proposed algorithm does not require overhearing from other nodes, which meets confidentiality requirements of aviation communication networks. Meanwhile, it does save resource consumption and promise less processing delay. To analyze the performance of the network coding algorithm in scalable networks with different traffic models, a typical network was built in a network simulator, through which receiving accuracy rate and receiving delay were both examined. The simulation results indicate that, by virtue of network coding, the proposed algorithm works well and improves performance significantly. More specifically, it has better performance in enhancing receiving accuracy rate and reducing receiving delay, as compared with any of the traditional networks without coding. It was applied to both symmetric and asymmetric traffic flows and, in particular, it achieves much better performance when the network scale becomes larger. Therefore, this algorithm has great potentials in large-scale multi-hop aviation communication networks.

  13. Energy Research and Development Administration Ad Hoc Computer Networking Group: experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, I.

    1975-03-19

    The Ad Hoc Computer Networking Group was established to investigate the potential advantages and costs of newer forms of remote resource sharing and computer networking. The areas of research and investigation that are within the scope of the ERDA CNG are described. (GHT)

  14. Multipath routing and multiple description coding in ad-hoc networks: A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz, I.F.; Epema, D.; Jongh, J. de

    2004-01-01

    The nature of wireless multihop ad-hoc networks makes it a challenge to offer connections of an assured quality. In order to improve the performance of such networks, multipath routing in combination with Multiple Description Coding (MDC) has been proposed. By splitting up streams of multimedia traf

  15. Performance of Ad Hoc Networks with Two-Hop Relay Routing and Limited Packet Lifetime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Nain, Philippe; Altman, Eitan

    2006-01-01

    Considered is a mobile ad hoc network consisting of three types of nodes (source, destination and relay nodes) and using the two-hop relay routing protocol. Packets at relay nodes are assumed to have a limited lifetime in the network. All nodes are moving inside a bounded region according to some ra

  16. On the Evaluation of Self-Addressing Strategies for Ad-Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Ricardo de O.; Pras, Aiko; Gomes, Reinaldo; Lehnert, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Ad-hoc networks are supposed to operate autonomously and, therefore, self-* technologies are fundamental to their deployment. Several of these solutions have been proposed during the last few years, covering most layers and functionalities of networking systems. Addressing is one of the critical net

  17. Fostering Sociability in Learning Networks through Ad-Hoc Transient Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2009). Fostering Sociability in Learning Networks through Ad-Hoc Transient Communities. In M. Purvis & B. T. R. Savarimuthu (Eds.), Computer-Mediated Social Networking. First International Conference, ICCMSN 2008, LNAI 5322 (pp. 62-75). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. June, 11-13, 2008,

  18. Fostering Sociability in Learning Networks through Ad-Hoc Transient Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2009). Fostering Sociability in Learning Networks through Ad-Hoc Transient Communities. In M. Purvis & B. T. R. Savarimuthu (Eds.), Computer-Mediated Social Networking. First International Conference, ICCMSN 2008, LNAI 5322 (pp. 62-75). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. June, 11-13, 2008,

  19. Abiding Geocast for Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Qiangyuan; Heijenk, Geert

    2008-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a new network environment for intelligent transportation systems (ITS). In many applications envisaged for VANETs, traffic information needs to be disseminated to a group of relevant vehicles and maintained for a duration of time. Here a system of a

  20. New grid based test bed environment for carrying out ad-hoc networking experiments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available and the third is to do analysis on a real test bed network which has implemented the ad-hoc networking protocol. This paper concerns the third option. Most researchers who have done work on test bed environments have used either indoor Wifi inter-office links...

  1. Using Real-World Car Traffic Dataset in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Rivoirard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networking is an emerging paradigm which is gaining much interest with the development of new topics such as the connected vehicle, the autonomous vehicle, and also new high-speed mobile communication technologies such as 802.11p and LTE-D. This paper presents a brief review of different mobility models used for evaluating performance of routing protocols and applications designed for vehicular ad hoc networks. Particularly, it describes how accurate mobility traces can be built from a real-world car traffic dataset that embeds the main characteristics affecting vehicle-to-vehicle communications. An effective use of the proposed mobility models is illustrated in various road traffic conditions involving communicating vehicles equipped with 802.11p. This study shows that such dataset actually contains additional information that cannot completely be obtained with other analytical or simulated mobility models, while impacting the results of performance evaluation in vehicular ad hoc networks.

  2. Cross-Layer Interaction in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: A Practical Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Vincent; Marot, Michel; Becker, Monique

    This paper presents the design and the performance evaluation of a joined process between the PHY (PHYsical) layer and routing layer in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks. This cross-layer interaction between the PHY and routing layers allows each node in an ad hoc network to evaluate the performance of each path in its routing table in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER) and to classify each path accordingly. Routing information from poor quality links are not forwarded leading to the selection of high quality links during the routing process. An implementation of our cross-layer algorithm based on Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) is presented along with simulation results showing significant improvements in terms of additional throughput and lower BER. Furthermore, inherent of our mechanism's design, the network overhead introduced by routing protocols is reduced..

  3. Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Raminder P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc sensor networks differ from wireless ad hoc networks from the following perspectives: low energy, lightweight routing protocols, and adaptive communication patterns. This paper proposes an energy-aware routing protocol (EARP suitable for ad hoc wireless sensor networks and presents an analysis for its energy consumption in various phases of route discovery and maintenance. Based on the energy consumption associated with route request processing, EARP advocates the minimization of route requests by allocating dynamic route expiry times. This paper introduces a unique mechanism for estimation of route expiry time based on the probability of route validity, which is a function of time, number of hops, and mobility parameters. In contrast to AODV, EARP reduces the repeated flooding of route requests by maintaining valid routes for longer durations.

  4. Throughput Enhancement Using Multiple Antennas in OFDM-based Ad Hoc Networks under Transceiver Impairments

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Pengkai

    2010-01-01

    Transceiver impairments, including phase noise, residual frequency offset, and imperfect channel estimation, significantly affect the performance of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) system. However, these impairments are not well addressed when analyzing the throughput performance of MIMO Ad Hoc networks. In this paper, we present an analytical framework to evaluate the throughput of MIMO OFDM system under the impairments of phase noise, residual frequency offset, and imperfect channel estimation. Using this framework, we evaluate the Maximum Sum Throughput (MST) in Ad Hoc networks by optimizing the power and modulation schemes of each user. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate not only the improvement in the MST from using multiple antennas, but also the loss in the MST due to the transceiver impairments. The proposed analytical framework is further applied for the distributed implementation of MST in Ad Hoc networks, where the loss caused by impairments is also evaluated.

  5. Study of Impact of Mobile Ad hoc Networking and its Future Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashema Hasti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many people carry numerous portable devices, such as laptops, mobile phones, PDAs and mp3 players, for use in their professional and private lives. For the most part, these devices are used separately-that is, their applications do not interact. Imagine, however, if they could interact directly: participants at a meeting could share documents or presentations; all communication could automatically be routed through the wireless corporate campus network. These examples of spontaneous, ad hoc wireless communication between devices might be loosely defined as a scheme, often referred to as ad hoc networking, which allows devices to establish communication, anytime and anywhere without the aid of a central infrastructure. This paper describes the concept of mobile ad hoc networking (MANET and points out some of its applications that can be envisioned for future. Also, the paper presents two of the technical challenges MANET poses, which include Geocasting and QoS.

  6. Performance Analysis of QoS Multicast Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Directional Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available in this paper, a quality of service (QoS multicast routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs by using directional antennas has been presented. Many important applications, such as audio/video conferencing, require the quality of service guarantee. Directional antenna technology provides the capability for considerable increase in spatial reuse, which increases the efficiency of communication. This paper studies TDMA-based timeslot allocation and directional antennas, and presents an effective algorithm for calculating bandwidth of a multicast tree. We also propose a novel on-demand QoS multicasting routing algorithm in TDMA-based mobile ad hoc networks using directional antennas. The simulation result shows the performance of this QoS multicast routing algorithm in TDMA-based mobile ad hoc networks using directional antennas.

  7. Wireless Ad-hoc Network Model for Video Transmission in the Tunnel of Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc networks have been widely used for its flexibility and quick development, especially in emergent conditions. Recently they are introduced to coal mines underground for rescuing after disasters such as gas explosions. Significantly, we construct a network model named Chain Model to simulate the special circumstance in the tunnel of the mine. Moreover, for studying effects of different routing protocols used in this model when transmitting video data, Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector (DSDV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV are compared with each other in the experiment based on our model. The result indicates that AODV performs best among the three protocols in this model in terms of packet loss ratio, end-to-end delay time and throughput, which is significant for our future research on ad hoc networks for rescuing in coal mines underground.

  8. A Distributed Authentication Algorithm Based on GQ Signature for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jun; ZENG Gui-hua

    2006-01-01

    Identity authentication plays an important role in ad hoc networks as a part of the secure mechanism. On the basis of GQ signature scheme, a new GQ threshold group signature scheme was presented, by which a novel distributed algorithm was proposed to achieve the multi-hop authentication for mobile ad hoc networks. In addition, a protocol verifying the identity with zero knowledge proofs was designed so that the reuse of certificates comes into truth. Moreover, the security of this algorithm was proved through the random oracle model. With the lower cost of computation and communication, this algorithm is efficient, secure and especially suitable for mobile ad hoc networks characterized by distributed computing, dynamic topology and multi-hop communications.

  9. Reliable and Efficient Broadcasting in Asymmetric Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Minimized Forward Node List Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Murugesan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Network wide broadcasting is a fundamental operation in ad hoc networks. In broadcasting, a source node sends a message to all the other nodes in the network. Unlike in a wired network, a packet transmitted by a node in ad hoc wireless network can reach all neighbors. Therefore, the total number of transmissions (Forwarding nodes used as the cost criterion for broadcasting. Approach: This study proposes a reliable and efficient broadcasting algorithm using minimized forward node list algorithm which uses 2-hop neighborhood information more effectively to reduce redundant transmissions in asymmetric Mobile Ad hoc networks that guarantees full delivery. Among the 1-hop neighbors of the sender, only selected forwarding nodes retransmit the broadcast message. Forwarding nodes are selected such a way that to cover the uncovered 2-hop neighbors. Results: Simulation results show that the proposed broadcasting algorithm provides high delivery ratio, low broadcast forward ratio, low overhead and minimized delay. Conclusion: In this study, reliable and efficient broadcasting algorithm in asymmetric Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using minimized forward node list algorithm has been proposed which provides low forward ratio, high delivery ratio while suppressing broadcast redundancy.

  10. Calculation and Analysis of Destination Buffer for Multimedia Service in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhong; MAO Yu-ming; JIANG Zhi-qong

    2005-01-01

    Jitter is one of the most important issues for multimedia real time services in future mobile ad hoc networks(MANET). A thorough theoretical analysis of the destination buffer for smoothing the jitter of the real time service in MANET is given. The theoretical results are applied in moderate populated ad hoc networks in our simulation, the simulation results show that by predicting and adjusting destination buffer in our way, Jitter will be alleviated in large part and this will contribute much to the quality of service (QOS) in MANET.

  11. Energy Efficient and QoS sensitive Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed Tanoli, Tariq; Khalid Khan, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Efficient routing is an important part of wireless ad hoc networks. Since in ad hoc networks we have limited resources, there are many limitations like bandwidth, battery consumption, and processing cycle etc. Reliability is also necessary since there is no allowance for invalid or incomplete information (and expired data is useless). There are various protocols that perform routing by considering one parameter but ignoring other parameters. In this paper we present a protocol that finds route on the basis of bandwidth, energy and mobility of the nodes participating in the communication.

  12. An Effective Capacity Estimation Scheme in IEEE802.11-based Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zafar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Capacity estimation is a key component of any admission control scheme required to support quality of serviceprovision in mobile ad hoc networks. A range of schemes have been previously proposed to estimate residualcapacity that is derived from window-based measurements of channel estimation. In this paper a simple and improvedmechanism to estimate residual capacity in IEEE802.11-based ad hoc networks is presented. The scheme proposesthe use of a ‘forgiveness’ factor to weight these previous measurements and is shown through simulation-basedevaluation to provide accurate utilizations estimation and improved residual capacity based admission control.

  13. Comparative study of Attacks on AODV-based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsa De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs has been widespread in many applications, The lack of infrastructures in MANETs makes the detection and control of security hazards allthe more difficult. The security issue is becoming a major concern and bottle neck in the application of MANET. In this paper, an attempt has been made to thoroughly study the blackhole attack which is one ofthe possible attacks in ad hoc networks in routing protocol AODV with possible solution to blackhole attack detection.

  14. Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networking Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gavrilovska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc and sensor networks are becoming an increasingly popular wireless networking concepts lately. This paper analyzes and compares prominent routing schemes in these networking environments. The knowledge obtained can serve users to better understand short range wireless network solutions thus leading to options for implementation in various scenarios. In addition, it should aid researchers develop protocol improvements reliable for the technologies of interest.

  15. Cognitive radio network in vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Mun-Yee Lim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio network and Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET are recent emerging concepts in wireless networking. Cognitive radio network obtains knowledge of its operational geographical environment to manage sharing of spectrum between primary and secondary users, while VANET shares emergency safety messages among vehicles to ensure safety of users on the road. Cognitive radio network is employed in VANET to ensure the efficient use of spectrum, as well as to support VANET’s deployment. Random increase and decrease of spectrum users, unpredictable nature of VANET, high mobility, varying interference, security, packet scheduling and priority assignment are the challenges encountered in a typical cognitive VANET environment. This paper provides survey and critical analysis on different challenges of cognitive radio VANET, with discussion on the open issues, challenges and performance metrics, for different cognitive radio VANET applications.

  16. Inter-Cluster Routing Authentication for Ad Hoc Networks by a Hierarchical Key Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueh-Min Huang; Hua-Yi Lin; Tzone-I Wang

    2006-01-01

    Dissimilar to traditional networks, the features of mobile wireless devices that can actively form a network without any infrastructure mean that mobile ad hoc networks frequently display partition due to node mobility or link failures. These indicate that an ad hoc network is difficult to provide on-line access to a trusted authority server. Therefore,applying traditional Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) security framework to mobile ad hoc networks will cause insecurities.This study proposes a scalable and elastic key management scheme integrated into Cluster Based Secure Routing Protocol (CBSRP) to enhance security and non-repudiation of routing authentication, and introduces an ID-Based internal routing authentication scheme to enhance the routing performance in an internal cluster. Additionally, a method of performing routing authentication between internal and external clusters, as well as inter-cluster routing authentication, is developed.The proposed cluster-based key management scheme distributes trust to an aggregation of cluster heads using a threshold scheme faculty, provides Certificate Authority (CA) with a fault tolerance mechanism to prevent a single point of compromise or failure, and saves CA large repositories from maintaining member certificates, making ad hoc networks robust to malicious behaviors and suitable for numerous mobile devices.

  17. Time synchronization in ad-hoc wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nishant

    2013-06-01

    Advances in micro-electronics and developments in the various technologies have given birth to this era of wireless sensor networks. A sensor network is the one which provides information about the surrounding environment by sensing it and clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks plays a vital role to maintain the integrity of entire network. In this paper two major low energy consumption clock synchronization algorithms, Reference Broadcast Synchronization (RBS) and Timing-Sync Protocol for Sensor Networks (TPSN) are simulated, which result in high level of accuracy, reliability, handles substantially greater node densities, supports mobility, and hence perform well under all possible conditions.

  18. Performance Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communication Networks with Directional Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ilah Alshbatat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have the potential of creating an ad hoc communication network in the air. Most UAVs used in communication networks are equipped with wireless transceivers using omnidirectional antennas. In this paper, we consider a collection of UAVs that communicate through wireless links as a mobile ad-hoc network using directional antennas. The network design goal is to maximize the throughput and minimize the end-to-end delay. In this respect, we propose a new medium access control protocol for a network of UAVs with directional antennas. We analyze the communication channel between the UAVs and the effect of aircraft attitude on the network performance. Using the optimized network engineering tool (OPNET, we compare our protocol with the IEEE 802.11 protocol for omnidirectional antennas. The simulation results show performance improvement in end-to-end delay as well as throughput.

  19. Simulation of Efficiency in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using OMNeT++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Manchikalapudi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A network is a group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of computer networks which are categorized based on topology, protocol and architecture. A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a self-configuring infrastructure less network of mobile devices connected by wireless. Ad hoc networks maintain an unfair behavior in flow control especially when considered in the case of IEEE 802.11 Mac layer. Introducing efficiency in 802.11 is not an easy task. It reduces the overall global throughput. The network is to be designed in such a way that it deals with the fairness and throughput by maximizing aggregate throughput. Such kind of network design can be efficiently implemented on an evolving simulation tool named OMNet++.

  20. Enhancements for distributed certificate authority approaches for mobile wireless ad hoc networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Michalski, John T.; Anderson, William Erik

    2003-12-01

    Mobile wireless ad hoc networks that are resistant to adversarial manipulation are necessary for distributed systems used in military and security applications. Critical to the successful operation of these networks, which operate in the presence of adversarial stressors, are robust and efficient information assurance methods. In this report we describe necessary enhancements for a distributed certificate authority (CA) used in secure wireless network architectures. Necessary cryptographic algorithms used in distributed CAs are described and implementation enhancements of these algorithms in mobile wireless ad hoc networks are developed. The enhancements support a network's ability to detect compromised nodes and facilitate distributed CA services. We provide insights to the impacts the enhancements will have on network performance with timing diagrams and preliminary network simulation studies.

  1. A Multiobjective Optimization Framework for Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffrès-Runser, Katia; Gorce, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks are seldom characterized by one single performance metric, yet the current literature lacks a flexible framework to assist in characterizing the design tradeoffs in such networks. In this work, we address this problem by proposing a new modeling framework for routing in ad hoc networks, which used in conjunction with metaheuristic multiobjective search algorithms, will result in a better understanding of network behavior and performance when multiple criteria are relevant. Our approach is to take a holistic view of network management and control that captures the cross-interactions among interference management techniques implemented at various layers of the protocol stack. We present the Pareto optimal sets for an example sensor network when delay, robustness and energy are considered as performance criteria for the network.

  2. A QoS Routing Protocol based on Available Bandwidth Estimation for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaniche, Heni; Frikha, Mounir; Kamoun, Farouk

    2011-01-01

    At the same time as the emergence of multimedia in mobile Ad hoc networks, research for the introduction of the quality of service (QoS) has received much attention. However, when designing a QoS solution, the estimation of the available resources still represents one of the main issues. This paper suggests an approach to estimate available resources on a node. This approach is based on the estimation of the busy ratio of the shared canal. We consider in our estimation the several constraints related to the Ad hoc transmission mode such as Interference phenomena. This approach is implemented on the AODV routing protocol. We call AODVwithQOS our new routing protocol. We also performed a performance evaluation by simulations using NS2 simulator. The results confirm that AODVwithQoS provides QoS support in ad hoc wireless networks with good performance and low overhead.

  3. A reliable routing algorithm based on fuzzy Petri net in mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhi-gang; MA Hao; WANG Guo-jun; LIAO Lin

    2005-01-01

    A novel reliable routing algorithm in mobile ad hoc networks using fuzzy Petri net with its reasoning mechanism was proposed to increase the reliability during the routing selection. The algorithm allows the structured representation of network topology, which has a fuzzy reasoning mechanism for finding the routing sprouting tree from the source node to the destination node in the mobile ad hoc environment. Finally, by comparing the degree of reliability in the routing sprouting tree, the most reliable route can be computed. The algorithm not only offers the local reliability between each neighboring node, but also provides global reliability for the whole selected route. The algorithm can be applied to most existing on-demand routing protocols, and the simulation results show that the routing reliability is increased by more than 80% when applying the proposed algorithm to the ad hoc on demand distance vector routing protocol.

  4. Directed Dynamic Small-World Network Model for Worm Epidemics in Mobile ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chen-Ping; WANG Li; LIU Xiao-Ting; YAN Zhi-Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the worm spreading process in mobile ad hoc networks with a susceptible-infected-recovered model on a two-dimensional plane.A medium access control mechanism operates within it,inhibiting transmission and relaying a message by using other nodes inside the node's transmitting circle during speaking.We measure the rewiring probability p with the transmitting range r and the average relative velocity (v) of the moving nodes,and map the problem into a directed dynamic small-world network.A new scaling relation for the recovered portion of the nodes reveals the effect caused by geometric distance,which has been ignored by previous models.%We investigate the worm spreading process in mobile ad hoc networks with a susceptible-infected-recovered model on a two-dimensional plane. A medium access control mechanism operates within it, inhibiting transmission and relaying a message by using other nodes inside the node's transmitting circle during speaking. We measure the rewiring probability p with the transmitting range r and the average relative velocity (v) of the moving nodes, and map the problem into a directed dynamic small-world network. A new scaling relation for the recovered portion of the nodes reveals the effect caused by geometric distance, which has been ignored by previous models.

  5. E2AODV Protocol for Load Balancing in Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S.D. Wahida Banu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile ad hoc networks there are a number of challenges in providing quality of service routing with energy efficiency and load balancing. Most routing protocols do not consider the problem of load balance. A routing protocol called energy Efficient Ad-hoc on Demand Vector (E2AODV is proposed. It addresses the quality of service issues such as throughput, end to end delay, load distribution and energy. Approach: This study presents a scheme to balance the load with energy efficiency considering both congestion and the nodes energy usage. A threshold value was used to judge if intermediate node was overloaded, variable and changing along with nodes interface queue length around the backward path. Results: The routing protocol called energy Efficient Ad hoc on Demand Vector (E2AODV that is intended to provide a reliable transmission with low energy consumption was compared with Ad-hoc on Demand Vector (AODV in terms of the packet delivery ratio, average end to end delay, load distribution and node energy consumption. Conclusion/Recommendation: E2AODV protocol chooses an optimum path with low energy usage. It provides a better scheme to balance the load with energy efficiency and packet delivery ratio. It can be further enhanced as a secure routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks.

  6. Intelligent Routing using Ant Algorithms for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Menaka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless network is one of the niche areas and has been a growing interest owing to their ability to control the physical environment even from remote locations. Intelligent routing, bandwidth allocation and power control techniques are the known critical factors for this network communication. It is customary to find a feasible path between the communication end point which is a challenging task in this type of network. The present study proposes an Ant Mobility Model (AMM, an on-demand, multi-path routing algorithm that exercises power control and coordinate the nodes to communicate with one another in wireless network. The main goal of this protocol is to reduce the overhead, congestion, and stagnation, while increasing the throughput of the network. It can be realized from the simulation results that AMM proves to be a promising solution for the mobility pattern in wireless networks like MANETs.

  7. Rate adaptation in ad hoc networks based on pricing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Awuor, F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available to transmit at high power leading to abnormal interference in the network hence degrades network performance (i.e. low data rates, loss of connectivity among others). In this paper, the authors propose rate adaptation based on pricing (RAP) algorithm...

  8. A Novel Metric For Detection of Jellyfish Reorder Attack on Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Jayasingh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad Hoc networks are susceptible to many attacks due to its unique characteristics such as open network architecture, stringent resource constraints, shared wireless medium and highly dynamic topology. The attacks can be of different types out of which denial of service is one of the most difficult attacks to detect and defend. Jellyfish is a new denial of service attack that exploits the end to end congestion control mechanism of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol which has a very devastating effect on the throughput. The architecture for detection of such attack should be both distributed and cooperative to suit the needs of wireless ad-hoc networks that is every node in the wireless ad-hoc network should participate in the intrusion detection. We intend to develop an algorithm that detects the jellyfish attack at a single node and that can be effectively deployed at all other nodes in the ad hoc network. We propose the novel metric that detects the Jellyfish reorder attack based on the Reorder Density which is a basis for developing a metric. The comparison table shows the effectiveness of novel metric, it also helps protocol designers to develop the counter strategies for the attack.

  9. A Survey of Clustering Approaches for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Mehta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In MANET, Clustering is the most significant research area now days. Clustering offers several advantages like it improves stability of network, enhances routing in network, efficient resource allocation among mobile nodes in network and hierarchical routing structure. This survey paper analyzes number of clustering approaches which are widely used for partitioning mobile nodes into different virtual groups. Each clustering algorithm considers different parameters for selection of Cluster Head in Cluster. Cluster Head election is invoked on demand and it is aimed to decrease the computation and communication cost in MANET. Each approach has its own pros and cons.

  10. Topology-aware peer-to-peer overlay network for Ad-hoc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-guo; JI Hong; LI Ting; MEI Jing-qing

    2009-01-01

    The mismatch between the structured peer-to-peer (P2P) overlay network, which is based on Hashing, and the actual physical network, leads to query repeatedly passing through some nodes in the actual route when it is applied in Ad-hoc networks. An approach of getting an appropriate node identifier (ID) bearing its local physical information is proposed, in which the traditional theory of getting node ID through Hashing the node's Internet protocol (IP) address is abandoned, and a topology-aware overlay network suiting Ad-hoc networks is constructed. The simulation results show that the overlay network constructed in the proposed method can avoid the route being iteratively accessed. Meanwhile, it can effectively minimize the latency and improve the load balance.

  11. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WORMHOLE SECURITY APPROACHES FOR AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Hababeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks are talented but are exposed to the risk of wormhole attacks. However, a wormhole attack can be mounted easily and forms stern menaces in networks, particularly against various ad-hoc wireless networks. The Wormhole attack distorts the network topology and decrease the network systems performance. Therefore, identifying the possibility of wormhole attacks and recognizing techniques to defend them are central to the security of wireless networks as a whole. In this study, we will summarize state of the art wormhole defense approaches, categories most of the existing typical approaches and discuss both the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. We will also point out some unfulfilled areas in the wormhole problem and provide some directions for future exploring.

  12. Cluster head Election for CGSR Routing Protocol Using Fuzzy Logic Controller for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkata Subbaiah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nodes in the mobile ad hoc networks act as router and host, the routing protocol is the primary issue and has to be supported before any applications can be deployed for mobile ad hoc networks. In recent many research protocols are proposed for finding an efficient route between the nodes. But most of the protocol’s that uses conventional techniques in routing; CBRP is a routing protocol that has a hierarchical-based design. This protocol divides the network area into several smaller areas called cluster. We propose a fuzzy logic based cluster head election using energy concept forcluster head routing protocol in MANET’S. Selecting an appropriate cluster head can save power for the whole mobile ad hoc network. Generally, Cluster Head election for mobile ad hoc network is based on the distance to the centroid of a cluster, and the closest one is elected as the cluster head'; or pick a node with the maximum battery capacity as the cluster head. In this paper, we present a cluster head election scheme using fuzzy logic system (FLS for mobile ad hoc networks. Three descriptors are used: distance of a node to the cluster centroid, its remaining battery capacity, and its degree of mobility. The linguistic knowledge of cluster head election based on these three descriptors is obtained from a group of network experts. 27 FLS rules are set up based on the linguistic knowledge. The output of the FLS provides a cluster head possibility, and node with the highest possibility is elected as the cluster head. The performance of fuzzy cluster head selection is evaluated using simulation, and is compared to LEACH protocol with out fuzzy cluster head election procedures and showed the proposed work is efficient than the previous one.

  13. Beamforming in Ad Hoc Networks: MAC Design and Performance Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fakih, Khalil; Diouris, Jean-Francois; Andrieux, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    .... Our proposition performs jointly channel estimation and radio resource sharing. We validate the fruitfulness of the proposed MAC and we evaluate the effects of the channel estimation on the network performance...

  14. SPIZ: An Effective Service Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noh Donggeon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs require special care in the handling of service advertisement and discovery (Ad/D. In this paper, we propose a noble service Ad/D technique for MANETs. Our scheme avoids redundant flooding and reduces the system overhead by integrating Ad/D with routing layer. It also tracks changing conditions, such as traffic and service popularity levels. Based on a variable zone radius, we have combined push-based Ad/D with a pull-based Ad/D strategy.

  15. SPIZ: An Effective Service Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeon Noh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs require special care in the handling of service advertisement and discovery (Ad/D. In this paper, we propose a noble service Ad/D technique for MANETs. Our scheme avoids redundant flooding and reduces the system overhead by integrating Ad/D with routing layer. It also tracks changing conditions, such as traffic and service popularity levels. Based on a variable zone radius, we have combined push-based Ad/D with a pull-based Ad/D strategy.

  16. Reinforcement Learning for Routing in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan A. A. Al-Rawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio (CR enables unlicensed users (or secondary users, SUs to sense for and exploit underutilized licensed spectrum owned by the licensed users (or primary users, PUs. Reinforcement learning (RL is an artificial intelligence approach that enables a node to observe, learn, and make appropriate decisions on action selection in order to maximize network performance. Routing enables a source node to search for a least-cost route to its destination node. While there have been increasing efforts to enhance the traditional RL approach for routing in wireless networks, this research area remains largely unexplored in the domain of routing in CR networks. This paper applies RL in routing and investigates the effects of various features of RL (i.e., reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate through simulation. New approaches and recommendations are proposed to enhance the features in order to improve the network performance brought about by RL to routing. Simulation results show that the RL parameters of the reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate, must be well regulated, and the new approaches proposed in this paper improves SUs’ network performance without significantly jeopardizing PUs’ network performance, specifically SUs’ interference to PUs.

  17. Reinforcement learning for routing in cognitive radio ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawi, Hasan A A; Yau, Kok-Lim Alvin; Mohamad, Hafizal; Ramli, Nordin; Hashim, Wahidah

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) enables unlicensed users (or secondary users, SUs) to sense for and exploit underutilized licensed spectrum owned by the licensed users (or primary users, PUs). Reinforcement learning (RL) is an artificial intelligence approach that enables a node to observe, learn, and make appropriate decisions on action selection in order to maximize network performance. Routing enables a source node to search for a least-cost route to its destination node. While there have been increasing efforts to enhance the traditional RL approach for routing in wireless networks, this research area remains largely unexplored in the domain of routing in CR networks. This paper applies RL in routing and investigates the effects of various features of RL (i.e., reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate) through simulation. New approaches and recommendations are proposed to enhance the features in order to improve the network performance brought about by RL to routing. Simulation results show that the RL parameters of the reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate, must be well regulated, and the new approaches proposed in this paper improves SUs' network performance without significantly jeopardizing PUs' network performance, specifically SUs' interference to PUs.

  18. Adaptation of mobile ad-hoc network protocols for sensor networks to vehicle control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenya; Matsui, Yosuke; Koita, Takahiro

    2005-12-01

    As sensor network applications to monitor and control the physical environment from remote locations, a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) has been the focus of many recent research and development efforts. A MANET, autonomous system of mobile hosts, is characterized by multi-hop wireless links, absence of any cellular infrastructure, and frequent host mobility. Many kinds of routing protocols for ad-hoc network have been proposed and still actively updated, because each application has different characteristics and requirements. Since the current studies show it is almost impossible to design an efficient routing protocol to be adapted for all kinds of applications. We, therefore, have focused a certain application, inter-vehicle communication for ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems), to evaluate the routing protocols. In our experiment, we defined several traffic flow models for inter-vehicle communication applications. By using simulation, we evaluated end-to-end delay and throughput performance of data transmission for inter-vehicle communications with the existing routing protocols. The result confirms the feasibility of using some routing protocols for inter-vehicle communication services.

  19. Distributed geolocation algorithm in mobile ad hoc networks using received signal strength differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shanzeng; Tang, Helen

    2012-05-01

    Future military wireless communication in a battlefield will be mobile ad hoc in nature. The ability to geolocate and track both friendly forces and enemies is very important in military command and control operations. However, current mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) have no capabilities to geolocate radio emitters that belong to enemy mobile ad hoc networks. This paper presents a distributed geolocation algorithm using received signal strength differences to geolocate enemy radio emitters by leveraging friendly force MANET infrastructure, and proposes a communication protocol for radio emitter geolocation applications. An enemy's radio emitter signal is detected, and its signal strength is measured by the nodes in a friendly mobile ad hoc network. The identity of the enemy radio emitter is extracted from the decoded message header of the medium access control layer. By correlating and associating the enemy's radio emitter identity with its received signal strength, the enemy radio emitter is identified. The enemy's radio emitter identity and its received signal strength are distributed and shared among friendly mobile ad hoc nodes. Using received signal strength differences, a master friendly node can calculate the enemy's radio emitter geolocation, and build a recognized MANET picture (RMP). This MANET picture is then distributed to all friendly nodes for effective command and control operations. An advantage of this method is that mobile ad hoc nodes do not need special RF antennas to geolocate the enemy radio emitter as conventional electronic warfare techniques do. MATLAB-based simulations are presented to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed distributed geolocation algorithm under different MANET placements.

  20. On Throughput Improvement of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Hidden Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hong-Seok; Lim, Jong-Tae

    In this letter, we present the throughput analysis of the wireless ad hoc networks based on the IEEE 802.11 MAC (Medium Access Control). Especially, our analysis includes the case with the hidden node problem so that it can be applied to the multi-hop networks. In addition, we suggest a new channel access control algorithm to maximize the network throughput and show the usefulness of the proposed algorithm through simulations.

  1. Asymptotic Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Realistic Links under a Honey Comb Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Asnani, Himanshu

    2007-01-01

    We consider the effects of Rayleigh fading and lognormal shadowing in the physical interference model for all the successful transmissions of traffic across the network. New bounds are derived for the capacity of a given random ad hoc wireless network that reflect packet drop or capture probability of the transmission links. These bounds are based on a simplified network topology termed as honey-comb topology under a given routing and scheduling scheme.

  2. Simulation and evaluation of routing protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)

    OpenAIRE

    Kioumourtzis, Georgios A.

    2005-01-01

    Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are of much interest to both the research community and the military because of the potential to establish a communication network in any situation that involves emergencies. Examples are search-and-rescue operations, military deployment in hostile environment, and several types of police operations. One critical open issue is how to route messages considering the characteristics of these networks. The nodes act as routers in an environment without a fixed...

  3. Weighted cooperative routing for wireless mobile Ad-hoc network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xian-jing; ZHENG Bao-yu; CHEN Chao

    2007-01-01

    A novel weighted cooperative routing algorithm (WCRA) is proposed in this article, which was on the basis of a weighted metric with maximal remaining energy (MRE) of the relays and the maximal received SNR (MRS) of the nodes.Moreover, a cooperative routing protocol was implemented on the basis of WCRA. Then simulation is done on network simulation (NS-2) platform to compare the performances of MRS, MRE and WCRA with that of noncooperative destination-sequenced destination-sequenced distance-vector (DSDV) protocol. The simulative results show that WCRA obtains a performance tradeoff between MRE and MRS in terms of delivery ratio and network lifetime, which can effectively improve the network lifetime at an acceptable loss of delivery ratio.

  4. Context discovery using attenuated Bloom filters in ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Heijenk, Gerhard J.

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach to performing context discovery in ad-hoc networks based on the use of attenuated Bloom filters is proposed in this paper. A Bloom filter is an efficient spacesaving data structure to represent context information. Attenuated Bloom filters are used to advertise the availability of c

  5. Trust-based hexagonal clustering for efficient certificate management scheme in mobile ad hoc networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S JANANI; M S K MANIKANDAN

    2016-10-01

    The wireless and dynamic nature of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) render them more vulnerable to security attacks. However, providing a security mechanism implicitly has been a major challenge in such an ad-hoc environment. Certificate management plays an important role in securing an ad-hoc network.Certificate assignment, verification, and revocation complexity associated with the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) framework is significantly large. Smaller the size of the network lesser will be the certificate management complexity. However, smaller the size, large will be the overall infrastructural cost, and also larger will be the overall redundant certificates due to multiple certificate assignment at the boundary regions, that in turn affects the prompt and accurate certificate revocation. By taking these conflicting requirements into consideration, we propose the trust-based hexagonal clustering for an efficient certificate management (THCM) scheme, to bear an absolutely protected MANET Disparate to the existing clustering techniques, we present a hexagonal geographicclustering model with Voronoi technique where trust is accomplished. In particular, to compete against attackers, we initiate a certificate management strategy in which certificate assignment, verification, and revocation are carried out efficiently. The performance of THCM is evaluated by both simulation and empirical analysis in terms of effectiveness of revocation scheme (with respect to revocation rate and time), security, and communication cost. Besides, we conduct a mathematical analysis of measuring the parameters obtained from the two platforms in multiple times. Relevant results demonstrate that our design is efficient to guarantee a secured mobile ad hoc network.

  6. A Fuzzy Logic Approach to Beaconing for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Bakar, Kamalrulnizam Abu; Eenennaam, van Martijn; Khokhar, Rashid Hafeez; Gonzalez, Alberto J.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) is an emerging field of technology that allows vehicles to communicate together in the absence of fixed infrastructure. The basic premise of VANET is that in order for a vehicle to detect other vehicles in the vicinity. This cognizance, awareness of other vehicles, c

  7. Bottlenecks in Two-Hop Ad Hoc Networks - Dividing Radio Capacity in a Smart Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Cloth, L.; Mandjes, M.; van der Mei, R.; Nunez Queija, R.

    In two-hop ad hoc networks the available radio capacity tends to be equally shard among the contending stations, which may lead to bottleneck situations in case of unbalanced traffic routing. We propose a generic model for evaluating adaptive capacity sharing strategies. We use infinite-state

  8. Ad-hoc transient communities in Learning Networks Connecting and supporting the learner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Brouns, F. (2009). Ad-hoc transient communities in Learning Networks Connecting and supporting the learner. Presentation given for Korean delegation of Chonnam National University and Dankook University (researchers dr. Jeeheon Ryu and dr. Minjeong Kim and a Group of PhD and Master students). August

  9. PUCA: a pseudonym scheme with user-controlled anonymity for vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, David; Kargl, Frank; Löhr, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Envisioned vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET) standards use pseudonym certificates to provide secure and privacy-friendly message authentication. Revocation of long-term credentials is required to remove participants from the system, e.g. in case of vehicle theft. However, the current approach to rev

  10. Mitigate DoS and DDoS attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a technique to defeat Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks in Ad Hoc Networks. The technique is divided into two main parts and with game theory and cryptographic puzzles. Introduced first is a new client puzzle to prevent DoS attacks...

  11. Preventive Aspect of Black Hole Attack in Mobile AD HOC Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Roshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is infrastructure less type of network. In this paper we present the prevention mechanism for black hole in mobile ad hoc network. The routing algorithms are analyzed and discrete properties of routing protocols are defined. The discrete properties support in distributed routing efficiently. The protocol is distributed and not dependent upon the centralized controlling node. Important features of Ad hoc on demand vector routing (AODV are inherited and new mechanism is combined with it to get the multipath routing protocol for Mobile ad hoc network (MANET to prevent the black hole attack. When the routing path is discovered and entered into the routing table, the next step is taken by combined protocol to search the new path with certain time interval. The old entered path is refreshed into the routing table. The simulation is taken on 50 moving nodes in the area of 1000 x 1000 square meter and the maximum speed of nodes are 5m/sec. The result is calculated for throughput verses number of black hole nodes with pause time of 0 sec. to 40 sec., 120 sec. and 160 sec. when the threshold value is 1.0.

  12. A survey of message diffusion portocols in mobile ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, A.M.; Ibrahim, M.; Simon, V.; Varga, E.; Carreras, I.

    2008-01-01

    For the last twenty years, mobile communications have experienced an explosive growth. In particular, one area of mobile communication, the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), has attracted significant attention due to its multiple applications and its challenging research problems. On the other hand,

  13. Performance Modeling of a Bottleneck Node in an IEEE 802.11 Ad-hoc Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Hans; Roijers, Frank; Mandjes, Michel R.H.; Kunz, T.; Ravi, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, often used in ad-hoc networks, has the tendency to share the capacity equally amongst the active nodes, irrespective of their loads. An inherent drawback of this fair-sharing policy is that a node that serves as a relay-node for multiple flows is likely to become a bott

  14. Performance modelieg of a bottleneck node in an IEEE 802.11 ad-hoc network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.L. van den; Mandjes, M.; Roijers, F.

    2006-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11 MAC-protocol, often used in ad-hoc networks, has the tendency to share the capacity equally amongst the active nodes, irrespective of their loads. An inherent drawback of this fair-sharing policy is that a node that serves as a relay-node for multiple flows is likely to become a bott

  15. A Fuzzy Logic Approach to Beaconing for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Bakar, Kamalrulnizam Abu; van Eenennaam, Martijn; Khokhar, Rashid Hafeez; Gonzalez, Alberto J.

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) is an emerging field of technology that allows vehicles to communicate together in the absence of fixed infrastructure. The basic premise of VANET is that in order for a vehicle to detect other vehicles in the vicinity. This cognizance, awareness of other vehicles,

  16. Facilitating community building in Learning Networks through peer tutoring in ad hoc transient communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Brouns, Francis; Koné, Malik; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    De volledige referentie is: Kester, L., Sloep, P. B., Van Rosmalen, P., Brouns, F., Koné, M., & Koper, R. (2007). Facilitating Community Building in Learning Networks Through Peer-Tutoring in Ad Hoc Transient Communities. International Journal of Web based Communities, 3(2), 198-205.

  17. Trust Management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for Bias Minimization and Application Performance Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-26

    Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, Anaheim, California , USA, 1994, pp. 442–448. [46] I.R. Chen, F.B. Bastani, T.W. Tsao, On the reliability of AI...Cunha, O.C. Duarte , G. Pujolle, Trust management in mobile ad hoc networks using a scalable maturity- based model, IEEE Trans. Netw. Serv. Manage. 7

  18. Sybil Attack on Lowest Id Clustering Algorithm in The Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Sood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is quite a challenging task to achieve security in a mobile ad hoc network because of its open nature,dynamically changing topology, lack of infrastructure and central management. A particular harmfulattack that takes the advantage of these characteristics is the Sybil attack, in which a malicious nodeillegitimately claims multiple identities. This attack can exceedingly disrupt various operations of themobile ad hoc networks such as data aggregation, voting, fair resource allocation scheme, misbehaviordetection and routing mechanisms etc. Two routing mechanisms known to be vulnerable to the Sybilattack in the mobile ad hoc networks are multi-path routing and geographic routing. In addition to theserouting protocols, we show in this paper that the Sybil attack can also disrupt the head selectionmechanism of the lowest ID cluster-based routing protocol. To the best of our knowledge, this is for thefirst time that a Sybil attack is shown to disrupt this cluster based routing protocol. To achieve this, weillustrate to have introduced a category of Sybil attack in which the malicious node varies itstransmission power to create a number of virtual illegitimate nodes called Sybil nodes, for the purpose ofcommunication with legitimate nodes of the Mobile Ad Hoc Network. The variation in the transmissionpower makes the Sybil attack more deadly and difficult to be detected.

  19. Performance evaluation of fingerprint image processing for high Security Ad-hoc network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Velayutham

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of wireless technology, various mobile devices have been developed for military and civilian applications. Defense research and development has shown increasing interest in ad-hoc networks because a military has to be mobile peer-to-peer is a good architecture for mobile communication in coalition operations. In this paper, the methodology proposed is an novel robust approach on secure fingerprint authentication and matching techniques to implement in ad-hoc wireless networks. This is a difficult problem in ad-hoc network, as it involves bootstrapping trust between the devices. This journal would present a solution, which provides fingerprint authentication techniques to share their communication in ad-hoc network. In this approach, devices exchange a corresponding fingerprint with master device for mutual communication, which will then allow them to complete an authenticated key exchange protocol over the wireless link. The solution based on authenticating user fingerprint through the master device, and this master device handshakes with the corresponding slave device for authenticating the fingerprint all attacks on the wireless link, and directly captures the user's device that was proposed to talk to a particular unknown device mentioned previously in their physical proximity. The system is implemented in C# and the user node for a variety of different devices with Matlab.

  20. A Layer-Cluster Key Agreement Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-ping; CUI Guo-hua; LEI Jian-yun; XU Jing-fang; LU She-jie

    2008-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks create additional challenges for implementing the group key establishment due to resource constraints on nodes and dynamic changes on topology. The nodes in mobile ad hoc networks are usually low power devices that run on battery power. As a result, the costs of the node resources should be minimized when constructing a group key agreement protocol so that the battery life could be prolonged. To achieve this goal, in this paper we propose a security efficient group key agreement protocol based on Burmester-Desmedt (BD) scheme and layer-cluster group model, referred to as LCKM-BD, which is appropriate for large mobile ad hoc networks. In the layer-cluster group model, BD scheme is employed to establish group key, which can not only meet security demands of mobile ad hoc networks but also improve executing performance. Finally, the proposed protocol LCKM-BD are compared with BD, TGDH (tree-based group Diffe-Hellman), and GDH (group Diffie-Hellman) group key agreement protocols. The analysis results show that our protocol can significantly decrease both the computational overhead and communication costs with respect to these comparable protocols.

  1. Multiplayer Game for DDoS Attacks Resilience in Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiplayer game to prevent Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS) in ad hoc networks. The multiplayer game is based on game theory and cryptographic puzzles. We divide requests from nodes into separate groups which decreases the ability of malicious nodes to cooperate...... with one another in order to effectively make a DDoS attack. Finally, through our experiments we have shown that the total overhead of the multiplayer game as well as the the total time that each node needs to be served is affordable for devices that have limited resources and for environments like ad hoc...

  2. Multiplayer Game for DDoS Attacks Resilience in Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiplayer game to prevent Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS) in ad hoc networks. The multiplayer game is based on game theory and cryptographic puzzles. We divide requests from nodes into separate groups which decreases the ability of malicious nodes to cooperate...... with one another in order to effectively make a DDoS attack. Finally, through our experiments we have shown that the total overhead of the multiplayer game as well as the the total time that each node needs to be served is affordable for devices that have limited resources and for environments like ad hoc...

  3. Address autoconfiguration in wireless ad hoc networks: protocols and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cempaka Wangi, N.I.; Prasad, R.V.; Jacobsson, M.; Niemegeers, I.

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of smaller devices having higher computational capacity and wireless communication capabilities, the world is becoming completely networked. Although, the mobile nature of these devices provides ubiquitous services, it also poses many challenges. In this article, we look in depth at

  4. Credible Mobile and Ad Hoc Network Simulation-Based Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-26

    packet radio. In Proceed- ings of the 9th ARRL /CRRL Amateur Radio Computer Networking Conference, pages 134-140, 1990. [45] H. Kee. NAM support for...Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC), pages 1335-1346, 2004. [102] P. Welch. The Computer Performance Modeling Handbook , chapter The Statis- tical

  5. Computing Nash Equilibrium in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Peter E.; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of computing Nash equilibrium in wireless networks modeled by Weighted Timed Automata. Such formalism comes together with a logic that can be used to describe complex features such as timed energy constraints. Our contribution is a method for solving this problem us...

  6. The Cost of Parameterized Reachability in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Delzanno, Giorgio; Traverso, Riccardo; Zavattaro, Gianluigi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the impact of spontaneous movement in the complexity of verification problems for an automata-based protocol model of networks with selective broadcast communication. We first consider reachability of an error state and show that parameterized verification is decidable with polynomial complexity. We then move to richer queries and show how the complexity changes when considering properties with negation or cardinality constraints.

  7. Cross-Layer Design Approach for Power Control in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarfaraz Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, communication among mobile nodes occurs through wireless medium The design of ad hoc network protocol, generally based on a traditional “layered approach”, has been found ineffective to deal with receiving signal strength (RSS-related problems, affecting the physical layer, the network layer and transport layer. This paper proposes a design approach, deviating from the traditional network design, toward enhancing the cross-layer interaction among different layers, namely physical, MAC and network. The Cross-Layer design approach for Power control (CLPC would help to enhance the transmission power by averaging the RSS values and to find an effective route between the source and the destination. This cross-layer design approach was tested by simulation (NS2 simulator and its performance over AODV was found to be better.

  8. An Optimal CDS Construction Algorithm with Activity Scheduling in Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penumalli, Chakradhar; Palanichamy, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    A new energy efficient optimal Connected Dominating Set (CDS) algorithm with activity scheduling for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is proposed. This algorithm achieves energy efficiency by minimizing the Broadcast Storm Problem [BSP] and at the same time considering the node's remaining energy. The Connected Dominating Set is widely used as a virtual backbone or spine in mobile ad hoc networks [MANETs] or Wireless Sensor Networks [WSN]. The CDS of a graph representing a network has a significant impact on an efficient design of routing protocol in wireless networks. Here the CDS is a distributed algorithm with activity scheduling based on unit disk graph [UDG]. The node's mobility and residual energy (RE) are considered as parameters in the construction of stable optimal energy efficient CDS. The performance is evaluated at various node densities, various transmission ranges, and mobility rates. The theoretical analysis and simulation results of this algorithm are also presented which yield better results. PMID:26221627

  9. Relay movement control for maintaining connectivity in aeronautical ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 孙志强; 师博浩; 宫二玲; 谢红卫

    2016-01-01

    As a new sort of mobile ad hoc network (MANET), aeronautical ad hoc network (AANET) has fleet-moving airborne nodes (ANs) and suffers from frequent network partitioning due to the rapid-changing topology. In this work, the additional relay nodes (RNs) is employed to repair the network and maintain connectivity in AANET. As ANs move, RNs need to move as well in order to re-establish the topology as quickly as possible. The network model and problem definition are firstly given, and then an online approach for RNs’ movement control is presented to make ANs achieve certain connectivity requirement during run time. By defining the minimum cost feasible moving matrix (MCFM), a fast algorithm is proposed for RNs’ movement control problem. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms other control approaches in the highly-dynamic environment and is of great potential to be applied in AANET.

  10. A Distributed Protocol for Detection of Packet Dropping Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip; Balamuralidhar, P; G., Harihara S; Reddy, Harish

    2011-01-01

    In multi-hop mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs),mobile nodes cooperate with each other without using any infrastructure such as access points or base stations. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. Among the various attacks to which MANETs are vulnerable, malicious packet dropping attack is very common where a malicious node can partially degrade or completely disrupt communication in the network by consistently dropping packets. In this paper, a mechanism for detection of packet dropping attack is presented based on cooperative participation of the nodes in a MANET. The redundancy of routing information in an ad hoc network is utilized to make the scheme robust so that it works effectively even in presence of transient network partitioning and Byzantine failure of nodes. The proposed scheme is fully cooperative an...

  11. PNNI routing support for ad hoc mobile networking: A flat architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1997-12-01

    This contribution extends the Outside Nodal Hierarchy List (ONHL) procedures described in ATM Form Contribution 97-0766. These extensions allow multiple mobile networks to form either an ad hoc network or an extension of a fixed PNNI infrastructure. This contribution covers the simplest case where the top-most Logical Group Nodes (LGNs), in those mobile networks, all reside at the same level in a PNNI hierarchy. Future contributions will cover the general case where those top-most LGNs reside at different hierarchy levels. This contribution considers a flat ad hoc network architecture--in the sense that each mobile network always participates in the PNNI hierarchy at the preconfigured level of its top-most LGN.

  12. PNNI routing support for ad hoc mobile networking: The multilevel case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution extends the Outside Nodal Hierarchy List (ONHL) procedures described in ATM Forum Contributions 97-0766 and 97-0933. These extensions allow multiple mobile networks to form either an ad hoc network or an extension of a fixed PNNI infrastructure. A previous contribution (97-1073) covered the simplest case where the top-most Logical Group Nodes (LGNs), in those mobile networks, all resided at the same level in a PNNI hierarchy. This contribution covers the more general case wherein those top-most LGNs may reside at different PNNI hierarchy levels. Both of the SNL contributions consider flat ad hoc network architectures in the sense that each mobile network always participates in the PNNI hierarchy at the pre-configured level of its top-most LGN.

  13. Fuzzy Multiple Metrics Link Assessment for Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Ai Luang; Tan, Chong Eng; Tay, Kai Meng

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we investigate on the use of Sugeno fuzzy inference system (FIS) in route selection for mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs). Sugeno FIS is introduced into Ad-Hoc On Demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol, which is derived from its predecessor, Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV). Instead of using the conventional way that considering only a single metric to choose the best route, our proposed fuzzy decision making model considers up to three metrics. In the model, the crisp inputs of the three parameters are fed into an FIS and being processed in stages, i.e., fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification. Finally, after experiencing all the stages, a single value score is generated from the combination metrics, which will be used to measure all the discovered routes credibility. Results obtained from simulations show a promising improvement as compared to AOMDV and AODV.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Reactive Protocols for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi A Bichkar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The requirement for good Quality of Service in Mobile Ad Hoc Network is that, better protocols should be used. To improve protocol efficiency, the two key issues to be considered are, low control overhead and low energy consumption. For reducing energy consumption and routing overhead, an enhanced routing algorithm, EEDSR (Energy Efficient Dynamic Source Routing with local route enhancement model for DSR (Dynamic Source Routing is implemented. Comparisons based on routing overhead, energy and throughput is done between EEDSR and EEAODV (Energy Efficient Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector and AODV (Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector protocols. For all protocols, NS-2.34 Simulator is used. This paper presents the simulation results in order to choose the best routing protocol to give highest performance. The simulations have shown that EEDSR protocol performs well as it consumes 12�0less energy than EEAODV and AODV

  15. Computing Nash Equilibrium in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Peter E.; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of computing Nash equilibrium in wireless networks modeled by Weighted Timed Automata. Such formalism comes together with a logic that can be used to describe complex features such as timed energy constraints. Our contribution is a method for solving this problem...... using Statistical Model Checking. The method has been implemented in UPPAAL model checker and has been applied to the analysis of Aloha CSMA/CD and IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA/CA protocols....

  16. Enabling content distribution in vehicular ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Luan, Tom H; Bai, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents key enabling technologies and state-of-the-art research on delivering efficient content distribution services to fast moving vehicles. It describes recent research developments and proposals towards the efficient, resilient and scalable content distribution to vehicles through both infrastructure-based and infrastructure-less vehicular networks. The authors focus on the rich multimedia services provided by vehicular environment content distribution including vehicular communications and media playback, giving passengers many infotainment applications. Common problem

  17. Multiple Metrics Gateway Selection Scheme in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) and Infrastructure Network Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Fudhiyanto Pranata; Bouk, Safdar H.; Sasase, Iwao

    This paper proposes a scheme to select an appropriate gateway based on multiple metrics such as remaining energy, mobility or speed, and number of hops in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) and the infrastructure network integration. The Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method called Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) is used to rank and to select the gateway node. SAW method calculates the weights of gateway node candidates by considering these three metrics. The node with the highest weight will be selected as the gateway. Simulation results show that our scheme can reduce the average energy consumption of MANET nodes, and improve throughput performance, gateway lifetime, Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) of the MANET and the infrastructure network.

  18. A Survey on Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    measure trust of other nodes when they cooperate with each other to detect malicious nodes. Albers et al. [95] proposed a general architecture for an...Issues and Evaluation Considerations,” RFC 2501, Jan . 1999. [2] J. Jubin and J. Tornow, “The DARPA Packet Radio Network Protocols,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 75...no. 1, Jan . 1987, pp. 21-32. [3] A. J. Tardiff and J.W. Gowens, Editors, “ARL Advanced Telecom- munication and Information Distribution Research

  19. Security Challenges in Multicast Communication for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gunasekaran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Multicasting communication network accepted a single message from an application and delivered copies of the message to multiple recipients at different locations. Recently, there has been an explosion of research literature on multicast communication environment. The objective of this study were to contribute the complexity of supporting current multicast applications, (i the lack of reliable multicast transport mechanisms at the network level and (ii the lack of network support for large scale multicast communication. The scaling problem of secure multicast key distribution compounded for the case where sender-specific keys need to be distributed to a group and required for sender-specific authentication of data traffic and minimize control overhead (iii compare RC4, AES-128,RS(2 and RS(3 computation time of both algorithms. Approach: Algorithms were collected and performed computation time. In general the multicast key distribution scheme implemented for distributing 128 bit session keys. Thus the Maximum Distance Separable Codes (MDS Codes needed for their encoding and decoding process. In rekeying scheme errors were occurred during over period of time or at a particular point of time and to eliminate all these errors in the level of encryption and decryption mechanism. The MDS codes played an important role in providing security services for multicast, such as traffic, integrity, authentication and confidentiality, is particularly problematic since it requires securely distributing a group (session key to each of a group’s receivers. Results: First we showed that internet multicasting algorithms based on reverse path forwarding were inherently unreliable and present a source-tree-based reliable multicasting scheme also. The new scheme proposed and used as an inter-gateway protocol and worked on top of the previously developed distance vector and link state internet routing schemes. Next, to support large scale

  20. Ad hoc networking scheme for mobile cyber-physical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-08-17

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide techniques for packet routing. In an embodiment, when a transmitting communication device injects a packet into a communication network, a receiving communication device that is closer to a sink or destination than the transmitting communication device relays the packet in a first hop. In a subsequent hop, a receiving communication device evaluates position information conveyed by the transmitting communication device of the first hop to determine whether to forward the packet. Accordingly, a receiving communication device receiver that offers progress towards the sink can elect to forward the packet.

  1. Survivability analysis of wireless Ad hoc network using stochastic reward nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; CUI Gang; LIU Hong-wei; WANG Hui-qiang

    2008-01-01

    To provide services in presence of failures or attacks in a timely manner, the network survivability was analyzed. Based on stochastic Petri nets, we put forward an effective model for ad hec network and adopt a two-phase approach consisting of the steady-state availability analysis and the system transient performance anal-ysis, then provide a quantitative approach for analysis of the network survivability. The results show that the proposed model is useful for the design and evaluation of the wireless ad hoc network.

  2. Condensation-Based Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Palmieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of efficient broadcast containment schemes that can dynamically cope with frequent topology changes and limited shared channel bandwidth, is one of the most challenging research topics in MANETs, and is crucial to the basic operations of networks serving fully mobile devices within areas having no fixed communication infrastructure. This problem particularly impacts the design of dynamic routing protocol that can efficiently establish routes to deliver data packets among mobile nodes with minimum communication overhead, and at the same time, ensure high throughput and low end-to-end delay. Accordingly, this work exploits and analyzes an adaptive probabilistic broadcast containment technique based on a particular condensation phenomenon borrowed from Quantum Mechanics and transposed in self-organizing random networks, that has the potential to effectively drive the on-demand route discovery process. Simulation-based performance analysis has shown that the proposed technique can introduce significant benefits on the general performance of broadcast-based reactive routing protocols in MANETs.

  3. Comparison of Analytical and Measured Performance Results on Network Coding in IEEE 802.11 Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Fang; Médard, Muriel; Hundebøll, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Network coding is a promising technology that has been shown to improve throughput in wireless mesh networks. In this paper, we compare the analytical and experimental performance of COPE-style network coding in IEEE 802.11 ad-hoc networks. In the experiments, we use a lightweight scheme called...

  4. A Comprehensive Performance Comparison of On-Demand Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahangir; Hayder, Syed Irfan

    Mobile ad hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves on a fly. In this paper we focus on the performance of the on-demand routing protocols such as DSR and AODV in ad-hoc networks. We have observed the performance change of each protocol through simulation with varying the data in intermediate nodes and to compare data throughput in each mobile modes of each protocol to analyze the packet fraction for application data. The objective of this work is to evaluate two routing protocols such as On-demand behavior, namely, Ad hoc Demand Distance vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), for wireless ad hoc networks based on performance of intermediate nodes for the delivery of data form source to destination and vice versa in order to compare the efficiency of throughput in the neighbors nodes. To overcome we have proposed OPNET simulator for performance comparison of hop to hop delivery of data packet in autonomous system.

  5. Survey: Comparison Estimation of Various Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanshu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes attached by wireless links. It represents a complex and dynamic distributed systems that consist of mobile wireless nodes that can freely self organize into an ad-hoc network topology. The devices in the network may have limited transmission range therefore multiple hops may be needed by one node to transfer data to another node in network. This leads to the need for an effective routing protocol. In this paper we study various classifications of routing protocols and their types for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks like DSDV, GSR, AODV, DSR, ZRP, FSR, CGSR, LAR, and Geocast Protocols. In this paper we also compare different routing protocols on based on a given set of parameters Scalability, Latency, Bandwidth, Control-overhead, Mobility impact.

  6. Distributed QoS multicast routing protocol in ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    Quality of service (QoS) routing and multicasting protocols in ad hoc networks are face with the challenge of delivering data to destinations through multihop routes in the presence of node movements and topology changes. The multicast routing problem with multiple QoS constraints is discussed, which may deal with the delay, bandwidth and cost metrics, and describes a network model for researching the ad hoc networks QoS multicast routing problem. It presents a distributed QoS multicast routing protocol (DQMRP). The proof of correctness and complexity analysis of the DQMRP are also given. Simulation results show that the multicast tree optimized by DQMRP is better than other protocols and is fitter for the network situations with frequently changed status and the real-time multimedia application. It is an available approach to multicast routing decision with ultiple QoS constraints.

  7. SD-AODV: A Protocol for Secure and Dynamic Data Dissemination in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Rajender

    2011-01-01

    Security remains as a major concern in the mobile ad hoc networks. This paper presents a new protocol SD-AODV, which is an extension of the exiting protocol AODV. The proposed protocol is made secure and dynamic against three main types of routing attacks- wormhole attack, byzantine attack and blackhole attack. SD-AODV protocol was evaluated through simulation experiments done on Glomosim and performance of the network was measured in terms of packet delivery fraction, average end-to-end delay, global throughput and route errors of a mobile ad hoc network where a defined percentage of nodes behave maliciously. Experimentally it was found that the performance of the network did not degrade in the presence of the above said attacks indicating that the proposed protocol was secure against these attacks.

  8. Multi-Hop Bandwidth Management Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pattanayak, Binod Kumar; Jagadev, Alok Kumar; Nayak, Manojranjan

    2010-01-01

    An admission control scheme should play the role of a coordinator for flows in a data communication network, to provide the guarantees as the medium is shared. The nodes of a wired network can monitor the medium to know the available bandwidth at any point of time. But, in wireless ad hoc networks, a node must consume the bandwidth of neighboring nodes, during a communication. Hence, the consumption of bandwidth by a flow and the availability of resources to any wireless node strictly depend upon the neighboring nodes within its transmission range. We present a scalable and efficient admission control scheme, Multi-hop Bandwidth Management Protocol (MBMP), to support the QoS requirements in multi-hop ad hoc networks. We simulate several options to design MBMP and compare the performances of these options through mathematical analysis and simulation results, and compare its effectiveness with the existing admission control schemes through extensive simulations. KEYWORDS

  9. Multipath Routing Protocol for Effective Local Route Recovery in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Srivatsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile ad hoc networks, frequent mobility during the transmission of data causes route failure which results in route rediscovery. In this, we propose multipath routing protocol for effective local route recovery in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. In this protocol, each source and destination pair establishes multiple paths in the single route discovery and they are cached in their route caches. Approach: The cached routes are sorted on the basis of their bandwidth availability. In case of route failure in the primary route, a recovery node which is an overhearing neighbor, detects it and establishes a local recovery path with maximum bandwidth from its route cache. Results: By simulation results, we show that the proposed approach improves network performance. Conclusion: The proposed route recovery management technique prevents the frequent collision and degradation in the network performance.

  10. GBP-WAHSN: A Group-Based Protocol for Large Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaime Lloret; Miguel Garcia; Jesus Tomás; Fernando Boronat

    2008-01-01

    Grouping nodes gives better performance to the whole network by diminishing the average network delay and avoiding unnecessary message for warding and additional overhead. Many routing protocols for ad-hoc and sensor network shave been designed but none of them are based on groups. In this paper, we will start defining group-based topologies,and then we will show how some wireless ad hoc sensor networks (WAHSN) routing protocols perform when the nodes are arranged in groups. In our proposal connections between groups are established as a function of the proximity of the nodes and the neighbor's available capacity (based on the node's energy). We describe the architecture proposal, the messages that are needed for the proper operation and its mathematical description. We have also simulated how much time is needed to propagate information between groups. Finally, we will show a comparison with other architectures.

  11. Bandwidth Estimation Problem & Solutions in IEEE 802.11 based Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rise in multimedia applications in ad hoc networks it is necessary to ensure the quality of service support from network. The routers which may be mobile nodes in ad hoc networks should be able to evaluate the resources available in the network, prior to offering guarantees on delay, bandwidth or any other metric. Estimating the available bandwidth is often required before performing admission control, flows management, congestion control or routing based on bandwidth constraints so that before any new flow is admitted the existing flow does not degrade. Lot of work in terms of various tools and techniques has been proposed to evaluate the available bandwidth in last decade; no consensus has yet been arrived. We present a comprehensive review on the various state of art work proposed carried out in this area

  12. Load Balancing In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks With Low Forwarding Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Dadhich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless ad-hoc network comprises of a set of wireless nodes and requires no fixed infrastructure. Forefficient communication between nodes, ad-hoc networks are typically grouped in to clusters, whereeach cluster has a clusterhead (or Master. In our study, we will take a communication model that isderived from that of BlueTooth. Clusterhead nodes are responsible for the formation of clusters eachconsisting of a number of nodes (analog to cells in a cellular network and maintenance of the topologyof the network. Consequently, the clusterhead tend to become potential points of failures and naturally,there will be load imbalanced. Thus, it is important to consider load balancing in any clusteringalgorithm. In this paper, we consider the situation when each node has some load, given by theparameter forwarding Index.

  13. A Novel Approach to Modeling and Flooding in Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Issaad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new modeling approach for wireless ad-hoc networks. The new approach is based on the construction of fuzzy neighborhoods and essentially consists of assigning a membership or importance degree to each network radio link which reflects the relative quality of this link. This approach is first used to model the flooding problem and then an algorithm is proposed to solve this problem which is of a great importance in ad-hoc wireless networks intrinsically subject to a certain level of node mobility. Simulations carried out in a dynamic environment show promising results and stability compared to the enhanced dominant pruning algorithm. Such an approach is suitable to take into account the volatile aspect of radio links and the physical layer uncertainty when modeling these networks, particularly when the physical layer offers no or insufficient guaranties to high-level protocols as for the flooding.

  14. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ON-DEMAND ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR VEHICULAR AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shastri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs are a peculiar subclass of mobile ad hoc networks that raise anumber of technical challenges, especially from the point of view of their mobility models. Currently, thefield of VANETs has gained an important part of the interest of researchers and become very popular.More specifically, VANETs can operate without fixed infrastructure and can survive rapid changes in thenetwork topology. The main method for evaluating the performance of routing protocols for VANETs byNetwork Simulator-2.34. This paper is subjected to the on-demand routing protocols with identical loadsand evaluates their relative performance with respect to the two performance context: average End-to-End delay and packet delivery ratio. We investigated various simulation scenarios with varying pausetimes, connections and no. of nodes particularly for AODV and DSR. We will also discuss briefly aboutthe feasibility of VANETs in respect of Indian automotive networks.

  15. SD-AODV: A Protocol for Secure and Dynamic Data Dissemination in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajender Nath

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Security remains as a major concern in the mobile ad hoc networks. This paper presents a new protocol SD-AODV, which is an extension of the exiting protocol AODV. The proposed protocol is made secure and dynamic against three main types of routing attacks-wormhole attack, byzantine attack and blackhole attack. SD-AODV protocol was evaluated through simulation experiments done on Glomosim and performance of the network was measured in terms of packet delivery fraction, average end-to-end delay, global throughput and route errors of a mobile ad hoc network where a defined percentage of nodes behave maliciously. Experimentally it was found that the performance of the network did not degrade in the presence of the above said attacks indicating that the proposed protocol was secure against these attacks.

  16. Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA Protocol to Mitigate Blackhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The self-organizing nature of the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs provide a communication channel anywhere, anytime without any pre-existing network infrastructure. However, it is exposed to various vulnerabilities that may be exploited by the malicious nodes. One such malicious behavior is introduced by blackhole nodes, which can be easily introduced in the network and, in turn, such nodes try to crumble the working of the network by dropping the maximum data under transmission. In this paper, a new protocol is proposed which is based on the widely used Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA, which makes use of multiple paths along with use of trust and asymmetric cryptography to ensure data security. The results, based on NS-3 simulation, reveal that the proposed protocol is effectively able to counter the blackhole nodes in three different scenarios.

  17. MULTICAST ROUTING WITH QUALITY OF SERVICE CONSTRAINTS IN THE AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Idrissi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent multimedia applications and services are very demanding in terms of Quality of Service (QoS. This creates new challenges in ensuring QoS when delivering those services over wireless networks. Motivated by the need of supporting high quality multicast applications in wireless ad hoc networks, we propose a network topology that can minimize the power when connecting the source node to the destination nodes in multicast sessions with the respect of the QoS provisions. We formulated the problem as integer linear programming problem with a set of energy and QoS constraints. We minimize the total power of energy used by nodes while satisfying QoS constraints (Bandwidth and maximum delay that are crucial to wireless ad hoc network performance.

  18. Formal reconstruction of attack scenarios in mobile ad hoc and sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekhis Slim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several techniques of theoretical digital investigation are presented in the literature but most of them are unsuitable to cope with attacks in wireless networks, especially in Mobile Ad hoc and Sensor Networks (MASNets. In this article, we propose a formal approach for digital investigation of security attacks in wireless networks. We provide a model for describing attack scenarios in a wireless environment, and system and network evidence generated consequently. The use of formal approaches is motivated by the need to avoid ad hoc generation of results that impedes the accuracy of analysis and integrity of investigation. We develop an inference system that integrates the two types of evidence, handles incompleteness and duplication of information in them, and allows possible and provable actions and attack scenarios to be generated. To illustrate the proposal, we consider a case study dealing with the investigation of a remote buffer overflow attack.

  19. Protocols for Detection and Removal of Wormholes for Secure Routing and Neighborhood Creation in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayajneh, Thaier Saleh

    2009-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks are suitable and sometimes the only solution for several applications. Many applications, particularly those in military and critical civilian domains (such as battlefield surveillance and emergency rescue) require that ad hoc networks be secure and stable. In fact, security is one of the main barriers to the extensive use…

  20. Cross-Layer Service Discovery Mechanism for OLSRv2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Vara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2. In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1. In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM, according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead.

  1. Cross-Layer Service Discovery Mechanism for OLSRv2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara, M Isabel; Campo, Celeste

    2015-07-20

    Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2). In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1). In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV) to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM), according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC) 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead.

  2. New horizons in mobile and wireless communications, v.4 ad hoc networks and pans

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2009-01-01

    Based on cutting-edge research projects in the field, this book (part of a comprehensive 4-volume series) provides the latest details and covers the most impactful aspects of mobile, wireless, and broadband communications development. These books present key systems and enabling technologies in a clear and accessible manner, offering you a detailed roadmap the future evolution of next generation communications. Other volumes cover Networks, Services and Applications; Reconfigurability; and Ad Hoc Networks.

  3. Multipath Routing for Self-Organizing Hierarchical Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Udayachandran Ramasamy; Sankaranarayanan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Security has become a primary concern for providing protected communication between mobile nodes in a hostile environment. The characteristics of Ad-hoc networks (dynamic topology, infrastructure less, variable capacity links, etc) are origin of many issues. Limited bandwidth, energy constraints, high cost security are the encountered problems. This type of networks pose particular challenges in terms of Quality of Service (QoS) and performance. In this paper, the issues of multipath routing ...

  4. Transmission Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Energy Harvesting Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Vaze, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Transmission capacity of an ad hoc wireless network is analyzed when each node of the network harvests energy from nature, e.g. solar, wind, vibration etc. Transmission capacity is the maximum allowable density of nodes, satisfying a per transmitter-receiver rate, and an outage probability constraint. Energy arrivals at each node are assumed to follow a Bernoulli distribution, and each node stores energy using an energy buffer/battery. For ALOHA medium access protocol (MAP), optimal transmiss...

  5. SWIPT in 3-D Bipolar Ad Hoc Networks with Sectorized Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Krikidis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we study the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) concept in 3-D bipolar ad hoc networks with spatial randomness. Due to three spatial dimensions of the network, we introduce a 3-D antenna sectorization that exploits the horizontal and the vertical spatial separation. The impact of 3-D antenna sectorization on SWIPT performance is evaluated for the power-splitting technique by using stochastic geometry tools. Theoretical and numerical results show that ...

  6. ECDSA - Performance improvements of intrusion detection in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available network with collection of mobile nodes without an underlying infrastructure. In this network, the occurrences of misbehavior nodes are a main problem that degrades the network performance. In previous technique watchdog is used to detect nodes misbehaviors in the mobile ad-hoc network, but it contains some of potential issues. To avoid these issues we propose a novel algorithm named as Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA particularly designed for increases the security in network.

  7. Provide a method to Prediction of nodes movement to optimize Routing Algorithms in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.jahani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks have been of great interest among scholars of the field, due to their flexibility, quick setup,high potentiality, and also their application in the battle field, fire, earthquakes, where there is no hope to setup infrastructure networks. network dynamic, high mobility of nodes, the nature of broadcast communication ,shortdurability of mobile devices batteries, transmission errors and as a result packet loss and limited bandwidth of bands, all cause the routing in those networks to be more difficult than the other networks.

  8. Guard against cooperative black hole attack in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Pratap Singh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous network that consists of nodes which communicate with each other with wireless channel. Due to its dynamic nature and mobility of nodes, mobile ad hoc networks are more vulnerable to security attack than conventional wired and wireless networks. One of the principal routing protocols AODV used in MANETs. The security of AODV protocol is influence by the particular type of attack called Black Hole attack. In a black hole attack, a malicious node injects a faked route reply claiming to havethe shortest and freshest route to the destination. However, when the data packets arrive, the malicious node discards them. To preventing black hole attack, this paper presents RBS (Reference Broadcast Synchronization & Relative velocity distance method for clock synchronization process in Mobile ad-hoc Network for removal of cooperative black hole node. This paper evaluates the performance in NS2 network simulator and our analysis indicates that this method is very suitable to remove black hole attack.

  9. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS – A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption, primarily with the goal of extending the lifetime of battery-powered devices, has emerged as a fundamental challenge in wireless communication. The performance of the medium access control (MAC scheme not only has a fairly significant end-result on the behaviour of the routing approach employed, but also on the energy consumption of the wireless network interface card (NIC. We investigate the inadequacies of the MAC schemes designed for ad hoc wireless networks in the context of power awareness herein. The topology changes due to uncontrollable factors such as node mobility, weather, interference, noise, as well as on controllable parameters such as transmission power and antenna direction results in significant amount of energy loss. Controlling rapid topology changes by minimizing the maximum transmission power used in ad hoc wireless networks, while still maintaining networks connectivity can prolong battery life and hence network lifetime considerably. In addition, we systematically explore the potential energy consumption pitfalls of non–power-based and power based routing schemes. We suggest a thorough energy-based performance survey of energy aware routing protocols for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. We also present the statistical performance metrics measured by our simulations.

  10. An Adaptive Fuzzy Clustering and Location Management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obulla Reddy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the typical Ad Hoc networks application, the network hosts usually perform the given task according to groups, e.g. the command and control over staff and accruement in military affairs, traffic management, etc. Therefore, it is very significant for the study of multicast routing protocols of the Ad Hoc networks. Multicast protocols in MANETs must consider control overhead for maintenance, energy efficiency of nodes and routing trees managements to frequent changes of network topology. Now-a days Multicast protocols extended with Cluster based approach. Cluster based multicast tree formation is still research issues. The mobility of nodes will always increase the communication delay because of re-clustering and cluster head selections. For this issue we evaluate Adaptive Fuzzy System (AFS to multicast communication in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. To evaluate the performance of AFS, we simulate the fuzzy clustering in a variety of mobile network topologies in NS-2 and compare it with Cluster-based On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (CODMRP and Cluster-based routing protocol (CBRP. Our simulation result shows the effectiveness and efficiency of AFMR: high packet delivery ratio is achieved while the delay and overhead are the lowest.

  11. Impact of Malicious Nodes under Different Route Refresh Intervals in Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suganthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc networks are formed dynamically by group of mobile devices co operating with each other. Intermediate nodes between source and destination act as routers so that source node can communicate with the destination node even if it is out radio range and thus eliminating the necessity of infrastructure. Co operation of nodes is a very important feature for the successful deployment of Ad hoc networks. The intermediate nodes should not only be involved in the route discovery process but also should be involved in the re transmission of packets as an intermediate between source and destination. Approach: Since nodes have to be co operative for successful deployment of Ad hoc networks, the security mechanisms cannot afforded to be stringent which enables malicious nodes to successfully attack the network. The capability of optimized link state routing protocol has been studied extensively for different types of ad hoc networks and has been proved to behave somewhere in between pro active and reactive routing protocols. Results: In this study we investigate the impact of malicious nodes on the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR protocol under different hello intervals which affects the route discovery process and subsequently investigate the degradation of Quality Of Service (QOS. Conclusion: It is observed that the throughput deteriorates when the network is attacked by malicious nodes which selectively retransmit data to some of the destinations. The performance degradation increases as the hello interval time is set beyond 4 sec. Higher hello interval decreases the control packet overheads. It is observed that even with higher hello intervals the network performance is much better than an attack by small group of malicious nodes.

  12. 移动Ad Hoc网络技术的分析%Analysis of mobile Ad Hoc Networks technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巧平; 王建望

    2014-01-01

    移动Ad Hoc网络,它是Mobile Ad Hoc Networks的简称,它不会受到空间与时间的制约,更加快捷和方便,不但能够在危险环境、远距离、战场、会议和救援等环境当中应用,而且还能够扩展末端网络,它的应用具有普遍性。为此,本文论述了移动Ad Hoc网络的基本概念和特点,接着分析了移动Ad Hoc网络设计面临的挑战,最后讨论了它的应用。%It would not be space and time constraints,more efficient and convenient,not only in hazardous environments,remote battlefield,conferences and rescue environment in which applications,but also to extend the end of the network,its application is universal.Therefore,this article discusses the basic concepts and features of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,and then analyzes the challenges faced by mobile Ad Hoc network design, it is best to discuss its applications.

  13. Exploiting Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Knowledge Generation to Achieve Ambient Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lekova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence (AmI joins together the fields of ubiquitous computing and communications, context awareness, and intelligent user interfaces. Energy, fault-tolerance, and mobility are newly added dimensions of AmI. Within the context of AmI the concept of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs for “anytime and anywhere” is likely to play larger roles in the future in which people are surrounded and supported by small context-aware, cooperative, and nonobtrusive devices that will aid our everyday life. The connection between knowledge generation and communication ad hoc networking is symbiotic—knowledge generation utilizes ad hoc networking to perform their communication needs, and MANETs will utilize the knowledge generation to enhance their network services. The contribution of the present study is a distributed evolving fuzzy modeling framework (EFMF to observe and categorize relationships and activities in the user and application level and based on that social context to take intelligent decisions about MANETs service management. EFMF employs unsupervised online one-pass fuzzy clustering method to recognize nodes' mobility context from social scenario traces and ubiquitously learn “friends” and “strangers” indirectly and anonymously.

  14. SURVEY ON MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK ATTACKS AND MITIGATION USING ROUTING PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Manikandan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET due to its unpredictable topology and bandwidth limitations are vulnerable to attacks. Establishing security measures and finding secure routes are the major challenges faced by MANET. Security issues faced by ad hoc networks are node authentication, insider attack and intrusion detection. Implementing security measures is challenging due to the presence of limited resources in the hardware device and the network. Routing protocols attempt to mitigate the attacks by isolating the malicious nodes. In this study, a survey of various kinds of attacks against MANET is studied. It is also proposed to study modification of AODV and DSR routing protocol implementation with regard to mitigating attacks and intrusion detection. This study studied various approaches to predict and mitigate attacks in MANET."

  15. LAR VS DSR: EVALUATION OF AD HOC NETWORK PROTOCOLS IN PRACTICAL MANAGEMENT OF COMMUNICATION OF ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANIEH MOVAHEDI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling and managing of robots and their information communication to each other is an important issue, and wireless technologies without infrastructure like Ad hoc networks due to their quick trigger and cost slightness can play efficiently. Various protocols have been used in this field and in the recent study, two famous Ad hoc network protocols have been simulated for 4 km2 work areas with changes of the same elements in types of robots like speed, pause time, number of nodes, important parameters that show network optimization rate and include PDR, Throughput, End-To-End Delay by using simulation in GloMoSim software. In this research, for suitable protocols in every time, output has been calculated by making the same chance and then, obtained information was investigated statistically. In total, LAR protocol was recognized that had higher scores than DSR and could be used as an optimum protocol in robotic industries, technically.

  16. A Face Centered Cubic Key Agreement Mechanism for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askoxylakis, Ioannis G.; Markantonakis, Konstantinos; Tryfonas, Theo; May, John; Traganitis, Apostolos

    Mobile ad hoc networking is an operating mode for rapid mobile node networking. Each node relies on adjacent nodes in order to achieve and maintain connectivity and functionality. Security is considered among the main issues for the successful deployment of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In this paper we introduce a weak to strong authentication mechanism associated with a multiparty contributory key establishment method. The latter is designed for MANETs with dynamic changing topologies, due to continuous flow of incoming and departing nodes. We introduce a new cube algorithm based on the face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. The proposed architecture employs elliptic curve cryptography, which is considered more efficient for thin clients where processing power and energy consumption are significant constraints.

  17. Designing and implementing an experimental wireless mobile ad hoc networks testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Dai, Guanzhong; Mu, Dejun; Zhang, Huisheng

    2006-11-01

    A very large number of simulation models have been developed to study ad hoc network architectures and protocols under many network scenarios, number of nodes, mobility rates, etc. However, fidelity of simulation results has always been a concern, especially when the protocols being studied are affected by the propagation and interference characteristics of the radio channels. This paper describes our experience in designing and implementing a MANET prototype system, Experimental Wireless Mobile Ad hoc Networks Testbed (EWMANT), in order to perform largescale, reproducible experiments. EWMANT aims at assessing several different protocols in a real-world environment instead of by simulation. It assists us with finding and evaluating a proper solution, showing the clear advantage of realworld implementations compared to simulations.

  18. Enabling Adaptive Rate and Relay Selection for 802.11 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Neil; Wang, Wenye

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring wireless networks that lack permanent infrastructure and are formed among mobile nodes on demand. Rapid node mobility results in dramatic channel variation, or fading, that degrades MANET performance. Employing channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter can improve the throughput of routing and medium access control (MAC) protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. Several routing algorithms in the literature explicitly incorporate the fading signal strength into the routing metric, thus selecting the routes with strong channel conditions. While these studies show that adaptation to the time-variant channel gain is beneficial in MANETs, they do not address the effect of the outdated fading CSI at the transmitter. For realistic mobile node speeds, the channel gain is rapidly varying, and becomes quickly outdated due the feedback delay. We analyze the link throughput of joint rate adaptation and adaptive relay selection in the presence of imperfect CSI. Mor...

  19. SECURITY IN VEHICULAR AD HOC NETWORK BASED ON INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkar Pattnaik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of mobile ad hoc networks has eventually captured practically most of the parts of day-to-day life. One variation of such networks represents the Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs, widely implemented in order to control day-to-day road traffic. The major concern of VANETs is oriented around providing security to moving vehicles that makes it possible to reduce accidents and traffic jam and moreover to establish communication among different vehicles. In this study, we analyze a number of possible attacks that may pertain to VANETs. Intrusion detection imposes various challenges to efficient implementation of VANETs. To overcome it, several intrusion detection measures have been proposed. The Watchdog technique is one of them. We detail this technique so as to make it convenient to implement it in our future investigations.

  20. Enhancing On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocols using Mobility Prediction in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Makhlouf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a self-organizing wireless communication network in which mobile devices are based on no infrastructure like base stations or access points. Minimal configuration and quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable for emergency situations like disaster recovery or military conflict. Since node mobility may cause links to be broken frequently, a very important issue for routing in MANETs is how to set reliable paths which can last as long as possible. To solve this problem, non-random behaviors for the mobility patterns that mobile users exhibit are exploited. This paper introduces a scheme to improve On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP performances by using mobility prediction. 

  1. A Distributed Virtual Backbone Formation for Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yong-tao; HE Chen; JIANG Ling-ge

    2007-01-01

    The virtual backbone is an approach for solving routing problems in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. A connected dominating set (CDS) was proposed as a virtual backbone to improve the performance of wireless networks. The quality of a virtual backbone is measured not only by approximation factor, which is the ratio of its size to that of minimum CDS, but also time complexity and message complexity. In this paper, a distributed algorithm is presented to construct a minimum CDS for ad hoc and sensor networks. By destroying triangular loops in the virtual backbone, the proposed algorithm can effectively construct a CDS with smaller size. Moreover, our algorithm, which is fully localized, has a constant approximation ratio, linear message and time complexity, and low implementation complexity. The simulation results and theoretical analysis show that our algorithm has better efficiency and performance than conventional approaches.

  2. Multicasting along Energy—Efficient Meshes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGHai; CHENGShixin; HEYongming

    2003-01-01

    In consideration that current mesh-based multicast routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks don't tend to form energy-efficient multicast infrastruc-ture, we propose a new Energy-efficient multicast rout-ing protocol (E2MRP) for mobile ad hoc networks. The two main characteristics of E2MRP are: (1) using in turn the criteria for minimum energy consumed per packet and minimum maximum node cost during the course of relaying group (RG) creation and maintenance; (2)forming a graph-based multicast infrastructure instead of a tree-based one. Compared to multicast incremen-tal power (MIP) and on-demand multicast routing pro-tocol (ODMRP), as the simulation results show, E2MRP tremendously reduces the energy consumption rate of nodes and hence prolongs the lifetime of nodes and net-works, especially when the size of multicast group is small and node mobility is low.

  3. Impact of Rushing attack on Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Palanisamy, V

    2009-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANETs) is a self-organizing system of mobile nodes that communicate with each other via wireless links with no fixed infrastructure or centralized administration such as base station or access points. Nodes in a MANETs operate both as host as well as routers to forward packets for each other in a multihop fashion. For many applications in wireless networks, multicasting is an important and frequent communication service. By multicasting, since a single message can be delivered to multiple receivers simultaneously. It greatly reduces the transmission cost when sending the same packet to multiple recipients. The security issue of MANETs in group communications is even more challenging because of involvement of multiple senders and multiple receivers. At that time of multicasting, mobile ad hoc network are unprotected by the attacks of malicious nodes because of vulnerabilities of routing protocols. Some of the attacks are Rushing attack, Blackhole attack, Sybil attack, Neighbor attack ...

  4. ADHOCFTSIM: A Simulator of Fault Tolerence In the AD-HOC Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Insaf Djebbar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The flexibility and diversity of Wireless Mobile Networks offer many opportunities that are not alwaystaken into account by existing distributed systems. In particular, the proliferation of mobile users and theuse of mobile Ad-Hoc promote the formation of collaborative groups to share resources. We propose asolution for the management of fault tolerance in the Ad-Hoc networks, combining the functions neededto better availability of data. Our contribution takes into account the characteristics of mobile terminalsin order to reduce the consumption of resources critical that energy, and to minimize the loss ofinformation. Our solution is based on the formation of clusters, where each is managed by a node leader.This solution is mainly composed of four sub-services, namely: prediction, replication, management ofnodes in the cluster and supervision. We have shown, using several sets of simulation, that our solution istwofold: minimizing the energy consumption which increases the life of the network and better supportdeal with requests lost.

  5. Neighbor Attack And Detection Mechanism In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parthiban

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs, security is one of the most important concerns because a MANETs system is much more vulnerable to attacks than a wired or infrastructure-based wireless network. Designing an effective security protocol for MANET is a very challenging task. This is mainlydue to the unique characteristics of MANETs, namely shared broadcast radio channel, insecure operatingenvironment, lack of central authority, lack of association among users, limited availability of resources, and physical vulnerability. In this paper we present simulation based study of the impact of neighbor attack on mesh-based Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET. And also we study the number of attackers and position affects the performance metrics such as packet delivery ratio and throughput. The study enables us to propose a secure neighbor detection mechanism (SNDM. A generic detection mechanism against neighbor attack for On Demand Routing Protocols is simulated on GlomoSim environment.

  6. Maximization of Energy Efficiency in Wireless ad hoc and Sensor Networks With SERENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoucene Mahfoudh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, an analysis of the node energy consumption distribution shows that the largest part is due to the time spent in the idle state. This result is at the origin of SERENA, an algorithm to SchEdule RoutEr Nodes Activity. SERENA allows router nodes to sleep, while ensuring end-to-end communication in the wireless network. It is a localized and decentralized algorithm assigning time slots to nodes. Any node stays awake only during its slot and the slots assigned to its neighbors, it sleeps the remaining time. Simulation results show that SERENA enables us to maximize network lifetime while increasing the number of user messages delivered. SERENA is based on a two-hop coloring algorithm, whose complexity in terms of colors and rounds is evaluated. We then quantify the slot reuse. Finally, we show how SERENA improves the node energy consumption distribution and maximizes the energy efficiency of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We compare SERENA with classical TDMA and optimized variants such as USAP in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks.

  7. An Effective Approach for Mobile ad hoc Network via I-Watchdog Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Lal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is now days become very famous due to their fixed infrastructure-less quality and dynamic nature. They contain a large number of nodes which are connected and communicated to each other in wireless nature. Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless technology that contains high mobility of nodes and does not depend on the background administrator for central authority, because they do not contain any infrastructure. Nodes of the MANET use radio wave for communication and having limited resources and limited computational power. The Topology of this network is changing very frequently because they are distributed in nature and self-configurable. Due to its wireless nature and lack of any central authority in the background, Mobile ad hoc networks are always vulnerable to some security issues and performance issues. The security imposes a huge impact on the performance of any network. Some of the security issues are black hole attack, flooding, wormhole attack etc. In this paper, we will discuss issues regarding low performance of Watchdog protocol used in the MANET and proposed an improved Watchdog mechanism, which is called by I-Watchdog protocol that overcomes the limitations of Watchdog protocol and gives high performance in terms of throughput, delay.

  8. Fault Tolerant Mechanism for Multimedia Flows in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Based on Fast Switching Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R. Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia traffic can be forwarded through a wireless ad hoc network using the available resources of the nodes. Several models and protocols have been designed in order to organize and arrange the nodes to improve transmissions along the network. We use a cluster-based framework, called MWAHCA architecture, which optimizes multimedia transmissions over a wireless ad hoc network. It was proposed by us in a previous research work. This architecture is focused on decreasing quality of service (QoS parameters like latency, jitter, and packet loss, but other network features were not developed, like load balance or fault tolerance. In this paper, we propose a new fault tolerance mechanism, using as a base the MWAHCA architecture, in order to recover any multimedia flow crossing the wireless ad hoc network when there is a node failure. The algorithm can run independently for each multimedia flow. The main objective is to keep the QoS parameters as low as possible. To achieve this goal, the convergence time must be controlled and reduced. This paper provides the designed protocol, the analytical model of the algorithm, and a software application developed to test its performance in a real laboratory.

  9. DYNAMIC K-MEANS ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZED ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zandieh Shirazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic K-means algorithm to improve the routing process in Mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs is presented. Mobile ad-hoc networks are a collocation of mobile wireless nodes that can operate without using focal access points, pre-existing infrastructures, or a centralized management point. In MANETs, the quick motion of nodes modifies the topology of network. This feature of MANETS is lead to various problems in the routing process such as increase of the overhead massages and inefficient routing between nodes of network. A large variety of clustering methods have been developed for establishing an efficient routing process in MANETs. Routing is one of the crucial topics which are having significant impact on MANETs performance. The K-means algorithm is one of the effective clustering methods aimed to reduce routing difficulties related to bandwidth, throughput and power consumption. This paper proposed a new K-means clustering algorithm to find out optimal path from source node to destinations node in MANETs. The main goal of proposed approach which is called the dynamic K-means clustering methods is to solve the limitation of basic K-means method like permanent cluster head and fixed cluster members. The experimental results demonstrate that using dynamic K-means scheme enhance the performance of routing process in Mobile ad-hoc networks.

  10. An Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Mobile Cognitive Radio Ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selvakanmani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio, an upcoming technology gives the solution for the scarcity of spectrum where the transmitter acts as a sensible device which behaves as per the surrounding environment. A group of devices, which follows this technology, forms a temporary network called mobile cognitive radio ad hoc networks. The widely known ad hoc networks are always in moving fashion and there is no need for central abstraction in collecting the data. In such networks, formation of route(s to the destination becomes a leading problem. In Cognitive Radio ad hoc Networks (CRAHNs a challenging problem is to design the routing metric and also to reduce the packet drop. This problem arrives due to the usage of traditional routing in CRAHNs. Opportunistic routing - a new routing paradigm has been used as an alternate for maximizing the packet delivery ratio. The paper discusses about the routing protocol called CRCN CORMEN discusses about packet delivery ratio, reduces delay in a cooperative way among the nodes, when compared to the traditional Cooperative communications. The proposed protocol is evaluated and compared through NS2 simulation. The result indicates a high performance due to opportunistic routing and the evaluation is shown through by using xgraph.

  11. An Agent Based Intrusion Detection Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Reshmi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection has over the last few years, assumed paramount importance within the broad realm of network security, more so in case of wireless mobile ad hoc networks. The inherently vulnerable characteristics of wireless mobile ad hoc networks make them susceptible to attacks in-spite of some security measures, and it may be too late before any counter action can take effect. As such, there is a need to complement traditional security mechanisms with efficient intrusion detection and response systems. This paper proposes an agent-based model to address the aspect of intrusion detection in cluster based mobile wireless ad hoc network environment. The model comprises of a set of static and mobile agents, which are used to detect intrusions, respond to intrusions, and distribute selected and aggregated intrusion information to all other nodes in the network in an intelligent manner. The model is simulated to test its operation effectiveness by considering the performance parameters such as, detection rate, false positives, agent overheads, and intrusion information distribution time. Agent based approach facilitates flexible and adaptable security services. Also, it supports component based software engineering components such as maintainability, reachability, reusability, adaptability, flexibility, and customization.

  12. Performance Impacts of Lower-Layer Cryptographic Methods in Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAN LEEUWEN, BRIAN P.; TORGERSON, MARK D.

    2002-10-01

    In high consequence systems, all layers of the protocol stack need security features. If network and data-link layer control messages are not secured, a network may be open to adversarial manipulation. The open nature of the wireless channel makes mobile wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) especially vulnerable to control plane manipulation. The objective of this research is to investigate MANET performance issues when cryptographic processing delays are applied at the data-link layer. The results of analysis are combined with modeling and simulation experiments to show that network performance in MANETs is highly sensitive to the cryptographic overhead.

  13. Implementation and performance evaluation of mobile ad hoc network for Emergency Telemedicine System in disaster areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Kim, D Y; Jung, S M; Lee, M H; Kim, K S; Lee, C K; Nah, J Y; Lee, S H; Kim, J H; Choi, W J; Yoo, S K

    2009-01-01

    So far we have developed Emergency Telemedicine System (ETS) which is a robust system using heterogeneous networks. In disaster areas, however, ETS cannot be used if the primary network channel is disabled due to damages on the network infrastructures. Thus we designed network management software for disaster communication network by combination of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) and Wireless LAN (WLAN). This software maintains routes to a Backbone Gateway Node in dynamic network topologies. In this paper, we introduce the proposed disaster communication network with management software, and evaluate its performance using ETS between Medical Center and simulated disaster areas. We also present the results of network performance analysis which identifies the possibility of actual Telemedicine Service in disaster areas via MANET and mobile network (e.g. HSDPA, WiBro).

  14. RESEARCH ON ANONYMOUS COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN AD HOC NETWORKS%无线 Ad hoc 网络匿名通信技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀芝; 石志东; 房卫东; 张小珑; 单联海

    2016-01-01

    无线 Ad hoc 网络(MANET)的多跳、自组织、无固定设施以及运算资源有限等特性,使得传统网络中复杂度高的安全算法难以应用于其中。而采用与匿名技术相结合的安全机制,可较好地解决节点隐私和通信关系保密的安全问题。针对现有的匿名技术,采用对比分析的方法,对传统网络的匿名技术进行分析,总结技术上的优缺点,研究 Ad hoc 网络的匿名技术,并对比分析各种匿名通信协议的安全性能,为后续的研究与应用提供帮助。%Due to the features of Ad hoc networks such as multi-hop,self-organisation,non-infrastructure and limited resource,the security algorithms with high complexity in traditional networks are hard to be used in it.However to use the security mechanism combining with anonymous technology can well solve the security problem in regard to nodes’privacy and communication relationship secret.In this paper,targeted at existing anonymous technologies,we analyse their use in traditional networks with the method of comparative analysis, summarise the advantages and disadvantages in terms of technology,and meanwhile study the anonymous technologies used in Ad hoc networks,as well as compare and analyse the security performances of various anonymous communication protocol,these provide the help for subsequent researches and applications.

  15. A New Proposal for Route Finding in Mobile AdHoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Vignesh Ramamoorthy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts connected by wireless links – the union of which forms an arbitrary topology. The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily, thus the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion, or may be connected to the larger Internet. There are various routing protocols available for MANETs. The most popular ones are DSR, AODV and DSDV. This paper examines two routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks– the Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV and the Ad hoc On- Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV. Generally, the routing algorithms can be classified into Reactive and Proactive. A Hybrid algorithm combines the basic properties of reactive and proactive into one. The proposed approach is a novel routing pattern based on Ant Colony Optimization and Multi Agent System. This pattern integrates two different algorithms together and helps to get optimum routes for a particular radio range. The approaches used here are Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Multi Agent System (MAS. The proposed integrated approach has a relatively short route establishment time while using a small number of control messages which makes it a scalable routing approach. The overhead of this routing approach will be inexpensive and also will enable to have an alternate route during route failure. This proposed route finding scheme in order to provide high connectivity of nodes, will minimize the route discovery latency and the end-to-end delay.

  16. Signaling-Free Max-Min Airtime Fairness in IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsoo Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel media access control (MAC protocol, referred to as signaling-free max-min airtime fair (SMAF MAC, to improve fairness and channel utilization in ad hoc networks based on IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs. We introduce busy time ratio (BTR as a measure for max-min airtime fairness. Each node estimates its BTR and adjusts the transmission duration by means of frame aggregation and fragmentation, so that it can implicitly announce the BTR to neighbor nodes. Based on the announced BTR, each of the neighbor nodes controls its contention window. In this way, the SMAF MAC works in a distributed manner without the need to know the max-min fair share of airtime, and it does not require exchanging explicit control messages among nodes to attain fairness. Moreover, we successfully incorporate the hidden node detection and resolution mechanisms into the SMAF MAC to deal with the hidden node problem in ad hoc networks. The simulation results confirm that the SMAF MAC enhances airtime fairness without degrading channel utilization, and it effectively resolves several serious problems in ad hoc networks such as the starvation, performance anomaly, and hidden node problems.

  17. Intelligent Stale-Frame Discards for Real-Time Video Streaming over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheu Tsang-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents intelligent early packet discards (I-EPD for real-time video streaming over a multihop wireless ad hoc network. In a multihop wireless ad hoc network, the quality of transferring real-time video streams could be seriously degraded, since every intermediate node (IN functionally like relay device does not possess large buffer and sufficient bandwidth. Even worse, a selected relay node could leave or power off unexpectedly, which breaks the route to destination. Thus, a stale video frame is useless even if it can reach destination after network traffic becomes smooth or failed route is reconfigured. In the proposed I-EPD, an IN can intelligently determine whether a buffered video packet should be early discarded. For the purpose of validation, we implement the I-EPD on Linux-based embedded systems. Via the comparisons of performance metrics (packet/frame discards ratios, PSNR, etc., we demonstrate that video quality over a wireless ad hoc network can be substantially improved and unnecessary bandwidth wastage is greatly reduced.

  18. Power Control in Reactive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher HENI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to change the routing strategy of AODV protocol (Ad hoc On Demand Vector inorder to improve the energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET. The purpose is tominimize the regular period of HELLO messages generated by the AODV protocol used for the research,development and maintenance of routes. This information is useful to have an idea about battery powerlevels of different network hosts. After storing this information, the node elect the shortest path followingthe classical model used this information to elect safest path (make a compromise in terms of energy.Transmitter node does not select another node as its battery will be exhausted soon.Any node of the network can have the same information’s about the neighborhoods as well as otherinformation about the energy level of the different terminal to avoid routing using a link that will be lostdue to an exhausted battery of a node in this link.Analytical study and simulations by Jist/SWANS have been conducted to note that no divergencerelatively to the classical AODV, a node can have this type of information that improves the energyefficiency in ad hoc networks.

  19. Power-Controlled MAC Protocols with Dynamic Neighbor Prediction for Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; ZHANG Lin; XIAO Yong-kang; SHAN Xiu-ming

    2004-01-01

    Energy and bandwidth are the scarce resources in ad hoc networks because most of the mobile nodes are battery-supplied and share the exclusive wireless medium. Integrating the power control into MAC protocol is a promising technique to fully exploit these precious resources of ad hoc wireless networks. In this paper, a new intelligent power-controlled Medium Access Control (MAC) (iMAC) protocol with dynamic neighbor prediction is proposed. Through the elaborate design of the distributed transmit-receive strategy of mobile nodes, iMAC greatly outperforms the prevailing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocols in not only energy conservation but also network throughput. Using the Dynamic Neighbor Prediction (DNP), iMAC performs well in mobile scenes. To the best of our knowledge, iMAC is the first protocol that considers the performance deterioration of power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile scenes and then proposes a solution. Simulation results indicate that DNP is important and necessary for power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

  20. Coherent Route Cache In Dynamic Source Routing For Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Boukli Hacene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc network is a set of nodes that are able to move and can be connected in an arbitrary manner. Each node acts as a router and communicates using a multi-hop wireless links. Nodes within ad hoc networks need efficient dynamic routing protocols to facilitate communication. An Efficient routing protocol can provide significant benefits to mobile ad hoc networks, in terms of both performance and reliability. Several routing protocols exist allowing and facilitating communication between mobile nodes. One of the promising routing protocols is DSR (Dynamic Source Routing. This protocol presents some problems. The major problem in DSR is that the route cache contains some inconsistence routing information; this is due to node mobility. This problem generates longer delays for data packets. In order to reduce the delays we propose a technique based on cleaning route caches for nodes within an active route. Our approach has been implemented and tested in the well known network simulator GLOMOSIM and the simulation results show that protocol performance have been enhanced.

  1. Optimal congestion control algorithm for ad hoc networks: Penalty function-based approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wet-qiang; WU Tie-jun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, based on the inherent characteristic of the contention relation between flows in ad hoc networks, we introduce the notion of the link's interference set, extend the utility maximization problem representing congestion control in wireline networks to ad hoc networks, apply the penalty function approach and the subgradient method to solve this problem, and propose the congestion control algorithm Penalty function-based Optical Congestion Control (POCC) which is implemented in NS2 simulator. Specifically, each link transmits periodically the information on its congestion state to its interference set; the session at each source adjusts the transmission rate based on the optimal tradeoffbetween the utility value and the congestion level which the interference set of the links that this session goes though suffers from. MATLAB-based simulation results showed that POCC can approach the globally optimal solution. The NS2-based simulation results showed that POCC outperforms default TCP and ATCP to achieve efficient and fair resource allocation in ad hoc networks.

  2. Using Apriori algorithm to prevent black hole attack in mobile Ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Mirabedini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is considered as an autonomous network, which consists of mobile nodes, which communicate with each other over wireless links. When there is no fixed infrastructure, nodes have to cooperate in order to incorporate the necessary network functionality. Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol is one of the primary principal routing protocols implemented in Ad hoc networks. The security of the AODV protocol is threaded by a specific kind of attack called ‘Black Hole’ attack. This paper presents a technique to prevent the Black hole attack by implementing negotiation with neighbors who claim to maintain a route to destination. Negotiation process is strengthen by apriori method to judge about suspicious node. Apriori algorithm is an effective association rule mining method with relatively low complexity, which is proper for MANETs. To achieve more improvement, fuzzy version of ADOV is used. The simulation results indicate that the proposed protocol provides more securable routing and also more efficiency in terms of packet delivery, overhead and detection rate than the conventional AODV and fuzzy AODV in the presence of Black hole attacks.

  3. Intrusion Detection System for Mobile Ad - Hoc Network Using Cluster-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Dang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today Mobile Ad-hoc Networks have wide spread use in normal as well as mission critical applications. Mobile ad hoc networks are more likely to be attacked due to lack of infrastructure and no central management. To secure Manets many traditional security solutions like encryption are used but not find to be promising. Intrusion detection system is one of the technologies that provide some goodsecurity solutions. IDS provide monitoring and auditing capabilities to detect any abnormality in security of the system. IDS can be used with clustering algorithms to protect entire cluster from malicious code. Existing clustering algorithms have a drawback of consuming more power and they are associated with routes. The routeestablishment and route renewal affects the clusters and asa consequence, the processing and traffic overhead increases due to instability of clusters. The ad hoc networks are battery and power constraint, and therefore IDS cannot be run on all the nodes. A trusted monitoring node can be deployed to detect and respond against intrusions in time. The proposed simplified clustering scheme has been used to detect intrusions, resulting in high detection rates and low processing and memory overhead irrespective of the routes, connections, traffic types and mobility of nodes inthe network.

  4. Network Parameters Impact on Dynamic Transmission Power Control in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammad Imran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In vehicular ad hoc networks, the dynamic change in transmission power is very effective to increase the throughput of the wireless vehicular network and decrease the delay of the message communicationbetween vehicular nodes on the highway. Whenever an event occurs on the highway, the reliability of the communication in the vehicular network becomes so vital so that event created messages shouldreach to all the moving network nodes. It becomes necessary that there should be no interference fromoutside of the network and all the neighbor nodes should lie in the transmission range of thereference vehicular node. Transmission range is directly proportional to the transmission power the moving node. If the transmission power will be high, the interference increases that can cause higherdelay in message reception at receiver end, hence the performance of the network decreased. In this paper, it is analyzed that how transmission power can be controlled by considering other differentparameter of the network such as; density, distance between moving nodes, different types of messages dissemination with their priority, selection of an antenna also affects on the transmission power. Thedynamic control of transmission power in VANET serves also for the optimization of the resources where it needs, can be decreased and increased depending on the circumstances of the network.Different applications and events of different types also cause changes in transmission power to enhance the reachability. The analysis in this paper is comprised of density, distance with single hop and multihop message broadcasting based dynamic transmission power control as well as antenna selection and applications based. Some summarized tables are produced according to the respective parameters of the vehicular network. At the end some valuable observations are made and discussed in detail. This paper concludes with a grand summary of all the protocols discussed in it.

  5. Security Scheme for Distributed DoS in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sanyal, Sugata; Gogri, Rajat; Rathod, Punit; Dedhia, Zalak; Mody, Nirali

    2010-01-01

    In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET), various types of Denial of Service Attacks (DoS) are possible because of the inherent limitations of its routing protocols. Considering the Ad Hoc On Demand Vector (AODV) routing protocol as the base protocol it is possible to find a suitable solution to over-come the attack of initiating / forwarding fake Route Requests (RREQs) that lead to hogging of network resources and hence denial of service to genuine nodes. In this paper, a proactive scheme is proposed that could prevent a specific kind of DoS attack and identify the misbehaving node. Since the proposed scheme is distributed in nature it has the capability to prevent Distributed DoS (DDoS) as well. The performance of the proposed algorithm in a series of simulations reveal that the proposed scheme provides a better solution than existing approaches with no extra overhead.

  6. Reliable Coverage Area Based Link Expiration Time (LET) Routing Metric for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Izhar; Tepe, K. E.; Singh, B. K.

    This paper presents a new routing metric for mobile ad hoc networks. It considers both coverage area as well as link expiration information, which in turn requires position, speed and direction information of nodes in the network. With this new metric, a routing protocol obtains routes that last longer with as few hops as possible. The proposed routing metric is implemented with Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) protocol. Thus, the performance of the proposed routing metric is tested against the minimum hop metric of AODV. Simulation results show that the AODV protocol with the new routing metric significantly improves delivery ratio and reduces routing overhead. The delay performance of AODV with the new metric is comparable to its minimum hop metric implementation.

  7. Analysis and Proposal of Position-Based Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiraku; Takano, Akira; Mase, Kenichi

    One of the most promising applications of a mobile ad hoc network is a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). Each vehicle is aware of its position information by GPS or other methods, so position-based routing is a useful approach in VANET. The position-based routing protocol can be classified roughly into a next-hop forwarding method and a directed flooding method. We evaluate performance of both methods by analytic approach and compare them in this paper. From the evaluation results, we conclude that it is effective for the position-based routing to choose either the next-hop forwarding method or the directed flooding method according to the environment. Then we propose the hybrid transmission method which can select one of them according to the environment, and clarify that the proposed method can keep the packet delivery ratio at a high level and reduce the delay time.

  8. A LOOP-BASED APPROACH IN CLUSTERING AND ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yanping; Wang Xin; Xue Xiangyang; C.K. Toh

    2006-01-01

    Although clustering is a convenient framework to enable traffic control and service support in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs), it is seldom adopted in practice due to the additional traffic overhead it leads to for the resource limited ad hoc network. In order to address this problem, we proposed a loop-based approach to combine clustering and routing. By employing loop topologies, topology information is disseminated with a loop instead of a single node, which provides better robustness, and the nature of a loop that there are two paths between each pair of nodes within a loop suggests smart route recovery strategy. Our approach is composed of setup procedure, regular procedure and recovery procedure to achieve clustering, routing and emergent route recovering.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Unicast and Broadcast Mobile Ad hoc Network Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Sumon Kumar; Islam, Nayeema

    2010-01-01

    Efficient routing mechanism is a challenging issue for group oriented computing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). The ability of MANETs to support adequate Quality of Service (QoS) for group communication is limited by the ability of the underlying ad-hoc routing protocols to provide consistent behavior despite the dynamic properties of mobile computing devices. In MANET QoS requirements can be quantified in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Data Latency, Packet Loss Probability, Routing Overhead, Medium Access Control (MAC) Overhead and Data Throughput etc. This paper presents an in depth study of one to many and many to many communications in MANETs and provides a comparative performance evaluation of unicast and broadcast routing protocols. Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR) is used as unicast protocol and BCAST is used to represent broadcast protocol. The performance differentials are analyzed using ns2 network simulator varying multicast group size (number of data senders and data receivers). Bo...

  10. Improved Packet Forwarding Approach in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Using RDGR Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Prasanth, K; Jayasudha, K; Chandrasekar, Dr C; 10.5121/ijngn.2010.2106

    2010-01-01

    VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks) are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks and will play an important role in public safety communications and commercial applications. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Position based routing protocols are becoming popular due to advancement and availability of GPS devices. One of the critical issues of VANETs are frequent path disruptions caused by high speed mobility of vehicle that leads to broken links which results in low throughput and high overhead . This paper argues the use of information on vehicles' movement information (e.g., position, direction, speed of vehicles) to predict a possible link-breakage event prior to its occurrence. So in this paper we propose a Reliable Directional Greedy routing (RDGR), a reliable position based routing approach which obtains position, speed and direction of its neighboring nodes from GPS. This approach incorporates potential score based strategy...

  11. Adaptive and Secure Routing Protocol for Emergency Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Panaousis, Emmanouil A; Millar, Grant P; Politis, Christos; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2205

    2010-01-01

    The nature of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) makes them suitable to be utilized in the context of an extreme emergency for all involved rescue teams. We use the term emergency MANETs (eMANETs) in order to describe next generation IP-based networks, which are deployed in emergency cases such as forest fires and terrorist attacks. The main goal within the realm of eMANETs is to provide emergency workers with intelligent devices such as smart phones and PDAs. This technology allows communication "islets" to be established between the members of the same or different emergency teams (policemen, firemen, paramedics). In this article, we discuss an adaptive and secure routing protocol developed for the purposes of eMANETs. We evaluate the performance of the protocol by comparing it with other widely used routing protocols for MANETs. We finally show that the overhead introduced due to security considerations is affordable to support secure ad-hoc communications among lightweight devices.

  12. Adaptive and Secure Routing Protocol for Emergency Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil A. Panaousis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs makes them suitable to be utilized in the context of anextreme emergency for all involved rescue teams. We use the term emergency MANETs (eMANETs inorder to describe next generation IP-based networks, which are deployed in emergency cases such asforest fires and terrorist attacks. The main goal within the realm of eMANETs is to provide emergencyworkers with intelligent devices such as smart phones and PDAs. This technology allows communication”islets” to be established between the members of the same or different emergency teams (policemen,firemen, paramedics. In this article, we discuss an adaptive and secure routing protocol developed forthe purposes of eMANETs. We evaluate the performance of the protocol by comparing it with otherwidely used routing protocols for MANETs. We finally show that the overhead introduced due to securityconsiderations is affordable to support secure ad-hoc communications among lightweight devices.

  13. Authentication Using Trust to Detect Misbehaving Nodes in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Q-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sivagurunathan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing security in Mobile Ad Hoc Network is crucial problem due to its open shared wireless medium, multi-hop and dynamic nature, constrained resources, lack of administration and cooperation. Traditionally routing protocols are designed to cope with routing operation but in practice they may be affected by misbehaving nodes so that they try to disturb the normal routing operations by launching different attacks with the intention to minimize or collapse the overall network performance. Therefore detecting a trusted node means ensuring authentication and securing routing can be expected. In this article we have proposed a Trust and Q-learning based Security (TQS model to detect the misbehaving nodes over Ad Hoc On Demand Distance-Vector (AODV routing protocol. Here we avoid the misbehaving nodes by calculating an aggregated reward, based on the Q-learning mechanism by using their historical forwarding and responding behaviour by the way misbehaving nodes can be isolated.

  14. Cooperation in Carrier Sense Based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks - Part II: Proactive Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This work is the second of a two-part series of papers on the effectiveness of cooperative techniques in non-centralized carrier sense-based ad hoc wireless networks. While Part I extensively discussed reactive cooperation, characterized by relayed transmissions triggered by failure events at the intended receiver, Part II investigates in depth proactive solutions, in which the source of a packet exploits channel state information to preemptively coordinate with relays in order to achieve the optimal overall rate to the destination. In particular, this work shows by means of both analysis and simulation that the performance of reactive cooperation is reduced by the intrinsic nature of the considered medium access policy, which biases the distribution of the available relays, locating them in unfavorable positions for rate optimization. Moreover, the highly dynamic nature of interference that characterizes non-infrastructured ad hoc networks is proved to hamper the efficacy and the reliability of preemptively ...

  15. A REVIEW ON ADVANCED TRAFFIC CONTROL TECHNIQUES IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a dynamicdistributed system of wireless nodes that moveindependently of each other. The operating transmissionrange of the nodes is limited and as a result, MANETroutes are often multi-hop in nature. Any node in aMANET can become a source or destination, and eachnode can function as a router, forwarding data for its peers.MANET routing protocols are either proactive or reactivein nature. Proactive routing protocols determine andmaintain routes between any pa...

  16. A Novel Multi-Level Trust Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Genjian; ZHENG Baoyu

    2006-01-01

    Firstly, a multilevel trust algorithm for MANET(mobile ad hoc networks) is presented in this paper and the trust level is defined as a three-tuple type in this multilevel trust algorithm. The paper introduces the multilevel trust into MANET, thereby controlling restricted classified information flows among nodes that have different trust levels. Secondly, the infrastructure of MANET that suit to our multi-level trust is presented. Some conclusions are given at lastly.

  17. Intelligent Security Auditing Based on Access Control of Devices in Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-wei; SHI You-qun; ZHU Ming; WU Guo-wen; CAO Qi-ying

    2006-01-01

    Security in Ad Hoc network is an important issue under the opening circumstance of application service. Some protocols and models of security auditing have been proposed to ensure rationality of contracting strategy and operating regulation and used to identify abnormal operation. Model of security auditing based on access control of devices will be advanced to register sign of devices and property of event of access control and to audit those actions. In the end, the model is analyzed and simulated.

  18. Effects of Data Replication on Data Exfiltration in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Utilizing Reactive Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    reverse path formation in AODV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4 Channel selection in CA-AODV...Routing Algorithm ACO Ant Colony Optimization AODV Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector CA-AODV Channel Assignment AODV CAN Content Addressable Network CDS...of MANETs. Most prominently has been the standard IEEE 802.11 protocols ( Wifi ), specifically the a, b, g, and n variations. The 802.11 specification

  19. A Survey on Intrusion in Ad Hoc Networks and its Detection Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Preetee K. Karmore,

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc wireless networks are defined as the category of wireless networks that utilizes multi-hop radio relaying and are capable of operating without the support of any fixed infrastructure hence, they are called infrastructure less networks. The lack of any central coordination makes them more vulnerable to attacks than wirednetworks. Due to some unique characteristics of MANETs, prevention methods alone are not sufficient to make them secure therefore, detection should be added as another defense before an attacker can breach the system. Network intrusion detection is the process of monitoring the events occurring in the network and analyzing them for signs of intrusions, defined as attempts to compromise the confidentiality. In this paper, we define and discuss varioustechniques of Intrusion Detection. We also present a description of routing protocols and types of security attacks possible in the network.

  20. A concurrent access MAC protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks without common control channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timalsina, Sunil K.; Moh, Sangman; Chung, Ilyong; Kang, Moonsoo

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs) consist of autonomous nodes that operate in ad hoc mode and aim at efficient utilization of spectrum resources. Usually, the cognitive nodes in a CRAHN exploit a number of available channels, but these channels are not necessarily common to all nodes. Such a network environment poses the problem of establishing a common control channel (CCC) as there might be no channel common to all the network members at all. In designing protocols, therefore, it is highly desirable to consider the network environment with no CCC. In this article, we propose a MAC protocol called concurrent access MAC (CA-MAC) that operates in the network environment with no CCC. The two devices in a communication pair can communicate with each other even if they have only one common channel available. Therefore, the problems with CCC (such as channel saturation and denial of service attacks) can also be resolved. In CA-MAC, channel accesses are distributed over communication pairs, resulting in increased network connectivity. In addition, CA-MAC allows different communication pairs to access multiple channels concurrently. According to our performance study, CA-MAC provides higher network connectivity with shorter channel access delay compared to SYN-MAC, which is the conventional key MAC protocol for the network environment with no CCC, resulting in better network throughput.

  1. Provisioning QoS Guarantee by Multipath Routing and Reservation in Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Tai Shu; Guang-Hong Wang; Lei Wang; Oliver W. W. Yang; Yong-Jie Fan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a QoS multipath source routing protocol (QoS-MSR) is proposed for ad hoc networks.It can collect QoS information through route discovery mechanism of multipath source routing (MSR) and establish QoS route with reserved bandwidth. In order to reserve bandwidth efficiently, a bandwidth reservation approach called the multipath bandwidth splitting reservation (MBSR) is presented, under which the overall bandwidth request is split into several smaller bandwidth requests among multiple paths. In simulations, the anthors introduce Insignia, an in-bind signaling system that supports QoS in ad hoc networks, and extend it to multipath Insignia (M-Insignia) with QoS-MSR and MBSR. The results show that QoS-MSR routing protocol with the MBSR algorithm can improve the call admission ratio of QoS traffic, the packet delivery ratio, and the end-to-end delay of both best-effort traffic and QoS traffic. Therefore, QoS-MSR with MBSR is an efficient mechanism that supports QoS for ad hoc networks.

  2. Analisis Performansi Routing Protocol OLSR Dan AOMDV Pada Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianda Anisia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET is a development of the Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET, which makes the vehicle as its nodes. VANET technology is expected to improve the security of drivers while driving on a highway between the others, with the map location, traffic information, warning if there will be a collision, and internet access in the vehicle. However, VANET has the characteristics of a network rapidly changing due to the rapid movement of nodes that need to have a routing protocol that is considered suitable and efficient so that data transmission can be optimally lasts. This research will be simulated and analyzed the comparative performance of Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR and Ad Hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV using urban conditions (urban. The environment will be tested in speed changes and the effect of the number of nodes nodes. This simulation was done using NS-equipped with SUMO 0.12.3 2:34. as mobility MOVE as a script generator and generator Performance was measured using parameters such as Average throughput comparison, Packet Delivery Ratio, Average End-to-end delay, Normalized Routing Load, and Routing Overhead. Results of analysis in environmental VANET, routing protocols AOMDV superior routing protocol than OLSR. Because almost all parameters tested in scenarios of changes in the number of nodes and node speed AOMDV have better performance so AOMDV more efficient use on urban environmental conditions.

  3. Self-Organization in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks: the Approach of Terminodes

    OpenAIRE

    Blazevic, Ljubica; Buttyan, Levente; Capkun, Srdjan; Giordano, Silvia; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves

    2001-01-01

    The Terminodes project is designing a wide area, mobile ad-hoc network, which is meant to be used in a public environment, in our approach, the network is run by users themselves. We give a global description of the building blocks used by the basic operation of the network, they all rely on various concepts of self-organization. Routing uses a combination of geography-based information and local, MANET-like protocols. Terminode positioning is obtained either by GPS, or by a relative positio...

  4. Hardware in Loop Simulation for Emergency Communication Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jie; AN Jian-ping; LIU Heng

    2007-01-01

    For the research of mobile Ad hoc network (MANET), hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) is introduced to improve simulation fidelity. The architectures and frameworks of HILS system are discussed. Based on HILS and QualNet network simulator, two kinds of simulation frameworks for MANET multicast emergency communicati on network are proposed. By running simulation under this configuration and doing experiments with on-demand multicast routing protocol (ODMRP), unicast and multicast functions of this protocol are tested. Research results indicate that HILS method can effectively reduce the difficulty of system modeling and improve precision of simulation, and can further accelerate transition from design to system deployment.

  5. A TDMA based media access control protocol for wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Tang, Biyu

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a novel Time Division Multiplex Access (TDMA) based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol of wireless Ad Hoc network. To achieve collision free transmission, time slots in a MAC frame are cataloged into three types, that is access slot, control slot and traffic slot. Nodes in the network access to the network in the access slot, and an exclusive control is allocated subsequently. Data packets are transmission by dynamic schedule the traffic slots. Throughput and transmission delay are also analyzed by simulation experiment. The proposed protocol is capable of providing collision free transmission and achieves high throughput.

  6. An Assessment of Worm Hole attack over Mobile Ad-Hoc Network as serious threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar Upadhyay

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Now these day Mobile Ad hoc networks vulnerable from number of security threats like black hole attack, DOS attack, Byzantine attack and wormhole attack. Wormhole attack is one of most important attack and having great attention in recent year. Wormhole attack, demonstrate a illusion over the network that show two far away node to be an neighbor node and attracted all traffic by presenting an greediness of shortest path over the network. This paper presents a bird eye over different existing wormhole deduction mechanism and their problem.

  7. An Overview of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for the Existing Protocols and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Omari, Saleh Ali K; 10.5121/jgraphhoc.2010.2107

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of two or more devices or nodes or terminals with wireless communications and networking capability that communicate with each other without the aid of any centralized administrator also the wireless nodes that can dynamically form a network to exchange information without using any existing fixed network infrastructure. And it's an autonomous system in which mobile hosts connected by wireless links are free to be dynamically and some time act as routers at the same time, and we discuss in this paper the distinct characteristics of traditional wired networks, including network configuration may change at any time, there is no direction or limit the movement and so on, and thus needed a new optional path Agreement (Routing Protocol) to identify nodes for these actions communicate with each other path, An ideal choice way the agreement should not only be able to find the right path, and the Ad Hoc Network must be able to adapt to changing network of this type at any...

  8. Distinguishing congestion from malicious behavior in mobile ad-hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jin; Medidi, Sirisha R.

    2004-08-01

    Packet dropping in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks could be a result of wireless link errors, congestion, or malicious packet drop attack. Current techniques for detecting malicious behavior either do not consider congestion in the network or are not able to detect in real time. Further more, they usually work at network layer. In this paper, we propose a TCP-Manet protocol, which reacts to congestion like TCP Reno protocol, and has additional capability to distinguish among congestion, wireless link error, and malicious packet drop attack. It is an end-to-end mechanism that does not require additional modifications to the nodes in the network. Since it is an extension of existing TCP protocol, it is compatible with existing protocols. It works in conjunction with the network layer and an unobtrusive monitor to assist the network in the detection and characterization of the nature of the behavior. Experimental results show that TCP-Manet has the same performance as that of TCP-Reno in wired network, and performs better in wireless ad-hoc networks in terms of throughput while having good detection effectiveness.

  9. Dynamic autonomous routing technology for IP-based satellite ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Deng, Jing; Kostas, Theresa; Rajappan, Gowri

    2014-06-01

    IP-based routing for military LEO/MEO satellite ad hoc networks is very challenging due to network and traffic heterogeneity, network topology and traffic dynamics. In this paper, we describe a traffic priority-aware routing scheme for such networks, namely Dynamic Autonomous Routing Technology (DART) for satellite ad hoc networks. DART has a cross-layer design, and conducts routing and resource reservation concurrently for optimal performance in the fluid but predictable satellite ad hoc networks. DART ensures end-to-end data delivery with QoS assurances by only choosing routing paths that have sufficient resources, supporting different packet priority levels. In order to do so, DART incorporates several resource management and innovative routing mechanisms, which dynamically adapt to best fit the prevailing conditions. In particular, DART integrates a resource reservation mechanism to reserve network bandwidth resources; a proactive routing mechanism to set up non-overlapping spanning trees to segregate high priority traffic flows from lower priority flows so that the high priority flows do not face contention from low priority flows; a reactive routing mechanism to arbitrate resources between various traffic priorities when needed; a predictive routing mechanism to set up routes for scheduled missions and for anticipated topology changes for QoS assurance. We present simulation results showing the performance of DART. We have conducted these simulations using the Iridium constellation and trajectories as well as realistic military communications scenarios. The simulation results demonstrate DART's ability to discriminate between high-priority and low-priority traffic flows and ensure disparate QoS requirements of these traffic flows.

  10. A Light-Weight Service Discovery Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranwa A. Mallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile ad hoc networks devices do not rely on a fixed infrastructure and thus have to be self-organizing. This gives rise to various challenges to network applications. Existing service discovery protocols fall short of accommodating the complexities of the ad-hoc environment. However, the performance of distributed service discovery architectures that rely on a virtual backbone for locating and registering available services appeared very promising in terms of average delay but in terms of message overhead, are the most heavy-weight. In this research we propose a very light-weight, robust and reliable model for service discovery in wireless and mobile networks by taking into account the limited resources to which are subjected the mobile units. Approach: Three processes are involved in service discovery protocols using virtual dynamic backbone for mobile ad hoc networks: registration, discovery and consistency maintenance. More specifically, the model analytically and realistically differentiates stable from unstable nodes in the network in order to form a subset of nodes constituting a relatively stable virtual Backbone (BB. Results: Overall, results acquired were very satisfactory and meet the performance objectives of effectiveness especially in terms of network load. A notable reduction of almost 80% of message signaling was observed in the network. This criterion distinguishes our proposal and corroborate to its light-weight characteristic. On the other hand, results showed reasonable mean time delay to the requests initiated by the clients. Conclusion: Extensive simulation results obtained confirm the efficiency and the light-weight characteristic of our approach in significantly reducing the cost of message overhead in addition to having the best delay values when compared with strategies well-known in the literature.

  11. Highway Mobility and Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks in NS-3

    CERN Document Server

    Arbabi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The study of vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) requires efficient and accurate simulation tools. As the mobility of vehicles and driver behavior can be affected by network messages, these tools must include a vehicle mobility model integrated with a quality network simulator. We present the first implementation of a well-known vehicle mobility model to ns-3, the next generation of the popular ns-2 networking simulator. Vehicle mobility and network communication are integrated through events. User-created event handlers can send network messages or alter vehicle mobility each time a network message is received and each time vehicle mobility is updated by the model. To aid in creating simulations, we have implemented a straight highway model that manages vehicle mobility, while allowing for various user customizations. We show that the results of our implementation of the mobility model matches that of the model's author and provide an example of using our implementation in ns-3.

  12. Optimal Power Control for Concurrent Transmissions of Location-aware Mobile Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yi

    2011-01-01

    In a cognitive radio (CR) network, CR users intend to operate over the same spectrum band licensed to legacy networks. A tradeoff exists between protecting the communications in legacy networks and maximizing the throughput of CR transmissions, especially when CR links are unstable due to the mobility of CR users. Because of the non-zero probability of false detection and implementation complexity of spectrum sensing, in this paper, we investigate a sensing-free spectrum sharing scenario for mobile CR ad hoc networks to improve the frequency reuse by incorporating the location awareness capability in CR networks. We propose an optimal power control algorithm for the CR transmitter to maximize the concurrent transmission region of CR users especially in mobile scenarios. Under the proposed power control algorithm, the mobile CR network achieves maximized throughput without causing harmful interference to primary users in the legacy network. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal power control algori...

  13. On Protocols to Prevent Black Hole Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless or Mobile Networks emerged to replace the wired networks. The new generation of wireless network is relatively different than the comparisons of traditional wired network in many aspects like resource sharing, power usage, reliability, efficient, ease to handle, network infrastructure and routing protocols, etc. Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs are autonomous and decentralized wireless systems. MANETs consist of mobile nodes that are free in moving in and out in the network. There is an increasing threat of attacks on the MANET. Thus, in MANET black hole attack are mostly serious security attacks. In this paper, we have examined certain black hole attacks prevention routing protocols. Finally, we have compared some routing protocols using some important parameters and then addressed major issues related to this.

  14. An Investigation about Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karthik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any stand-alone infrastructure or centralized administration. Mobile Ad-hoc networks are self-organizing and self-configuring multihop wireless networks where, the structure of the network changes dynamically. This is mainly due to the mobility of nodes. The Nodes in the network not only acts as hosts but also as routers that route data to or from other nodes in network. In mobile ad-hoc networks a routing procedure is always needed to find a path so as to forward the packets appropriately between the source and the destination. The main aim of any ad-hoc network routing protocol is to meet the challenges of the dynamically changing topology and establish a correct and an efficient communication path between any two nodes with minimum routing overhead and bandwidth consumption. The design problem of such a routing protocol is not simple since an ad hoc environment introduces new challenges that are not present in fixed networks. A number of routing protocols have been proposed for this purpose like Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Destination- Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV. In this paper, we study and compare the performance of the following three routing protocols AODV, DSR and DSDV.

  15. Intelligent Networks Data Fusion Web-based Services for Ad-hoc Integrated WSNs-RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah Alshahrany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of variety of data fusion tools and techniques for big data processing poses the problem of the data and information integration called data fusion having objectives which can differ from one application to another. The design of network data fusion systems aimed at meeting these objectives, need to take into account of the necessary synergy that can result from distributed data processing within the data networks and data centres, involving increased computation and communication. This papers reports on how this processing distribution is functionally structured as configurable integrated web-based support services, in the context of an ad-hoc wireless sensor network used for sensing and tracking, in the context of distributed detection based on complete observations to support real rime decision making. The interrelated functional and hardware RFID-WSN integration is an essential aspect of the data fusion framework that focuses on multi-sensor collaboration as an innovative approach to extend the heterogeneity of the devices and sensor nodes of ad-hoc networks generating a huge amount of heterogeneous soft and hard raw data. The deployment and configuration of these networks require data fusion processing that includes network and service management and enhances the performance and reliability of networks data fusion support systems providing intelligent capabilities for real-time control access and fire detection.

  16. On capacity of wireless ad hoc networks with MIMO MMSE receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Widely adopted at home, business places, and hot spots, wireless ad-hoc networks are expected to provide broadband services parallel to their wired counterparts in near future. To address this need, MIMO techniques, which are capable of offering several-fold increase in capacity, hold significant promise. Most previous work on capacity analysis of ad-hoc networks is based on an implicit assumption that each node has only one antenna. Core to the analysis therein is the characterization of a geometric area, referred to as the exclusion region, which quantizes the amount of spatial resource occupied by a link. When multiple antennas are deployed at each node, however, multiple links can transmit in the vicinity of each other simultaneously, as interference can now be suppressed by spatial signal processing. As such, a link no longer exclusively occupies a geometric area, making the concept of "exclusion region" not applicable any more. In this paper, we investigate link-layer throughput capacity of MIMO ad-hoc ...

  17. Performance Comparison of Secure Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Garg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A mobile Ad-Hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Each node operates not only as an end system but, also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. A node can get compromised during the route discovery process. Attackers from inside or outside can easily exploit the network. Several secure routing protocols are proposed for MANETs by researchers. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the performance of two prominent secure routing protocols for MANETs: Secure Efficient Ad-Hoc Distance Vector Protocol i.e. SEAD (a proactive or table driven protocol and Ariadne (a reactive or on demand protocol.Compared to the proactive routing protocols, less control overhead is a distinct advantage of the reactive protocols. Thus, reactive routing protocols have better scalability than proactive routing protocols. However, when using reactive routing protocols, source nodes may suffer from long delays for route searching before they can forward data packets. Hence these protocols are not suitable for real-time applications. As per our findings the difference in the protocols mechanics leads to significant performance differentials for both of these protocols. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying simulation time. These simulations are carried out using the NS-2 network simulator. The results presented in this work illustrate the importance in carefully evaluating and implementing routing protocols in an ad hoc environment.

  18. Analyzing Video Streaming Quality by Using Various Error Correction Methods on Mobile Ad hoc Networks in NS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norrozila Sulaiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission video over ad hoc networks has become one of the most important and interesting subjects of study for researchers and programmers because of the strong relationship between video applications and frequent users of various mobile devices, such as laptops, PDAs, and mobile phones in all aspects of life. However, many challenges, such as packet loss, congestion (i.e., impairments at the network layer, multipath fading (i.e., impairments at the physical layer [1], and link failure, exist in transferring video over ad hoc networks; these challenges negatively affect the quality of the perceived video [2].This study has investigated video transfer over ad hoc networks. The main challenges of transferring video over ad hoc networks as well as types of errors that may occur during video transmission, various types of video mechanisms, error correction methods, and different Quality of Service (QoS parameters that affect the quality of the received video are also investigated.

  19. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chenn-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  20. A Survey of Unipath Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Barveen Banu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A MANET (Mobile Ad hoc NETwork is an interconnection of mobile devices by wireless links forming a dynamic topology without much physical network infrastructure such as routers, servers, access points/cables or centralized administration. Routing is a mechanism of exchanging data between the source node and the destination node. Several protocols are used to perform routing the information from the source node to the destination node. The main aim of this paper is to explore the working principles of each unipath routing protocol. The unipath routing protocols are divided into Table-Driven (Proactive, On-demand (Reactive, Hybrid routing protocols.

  1. A survey of medium access control protocols for wireless ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio João Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues distinguishes Medium Access Control (MAC protocols for wireless networks from those used in wireline systems. In addition, for ad-hoc networks, the characteristics of the radio channel, the diverse physical-layer technologies available and the range of services envisioned make it a difficult task to design an algorithm to discipline the access to the shared medium that results efficient, fair, power consumption sensitive and delay bound. This article presents the current “state-of-art” in this area, including solutions already commercially available as well as those still in study.

  2. An SPN analysis method for parallel scheduling in Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛琳阳; 徐文超; 贾世楼

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new analytic method for modeling and evaluating mobile ad hoc networks (MANET)is proposed. Petri nets technique is introduced into MANET and a packet-flow parallel scheduling scheme is presented using Stochastic Petri Nets (SPN). The flowing of tokens is used in graphics mode to characterize dynamical features of sharing a single wireless channel. Through SPN reachability analysis and isomorphic continuous time Markov process equations, some network parameters, such as channel efficiency, one-hop transmission delay etc. , can be obtained. Compared with conventional performance evaluation methods, the above parameters are mathematical expressions instead of test results from a simulator.

  3. AN ENHANCEMENT SCHEME OF TCP PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS: MME-TCP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Caihong; Yu Nenghai; Chen Yuzhong

    2007-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) optimization in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) is a challenging issue because of some unique characteristics of MANETs. In this paper,a new end-to-end mechanism based on multiple metrics measurement is proposed to improve TCP performance in MANETs. Multi-metric Measurement based Enhancement of TCP (MME-TCP)designs the metrics and the identification algorithm according to the characteristics of MANETs and the experiment results. Furthermore, these metrics are measured at the sender node to reduce the overhead of control information over networks. Simulation results show that MME-TCP mechanism achieves a significant performance improvement over standard TCP in MANETs.

  4. QDSR: QoS-aware Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIMinghong; YAOYinxiong; BAIYingcai

    2004-01-01

    QoS routing in wireless ad hoc networks faces many technical challenges due to time varying link and random mobility of nodes in these dynamic networks.In this paper, we design a QoS-aware dynamic source routing protocol (QDSR), based on DSR . QDSR uses minimum cost as the constraint, modifies route discovery, route reply and route maintenance mechanisms in DSR, adds the capability of path testing and initial resource reservation.The results of robustness and stability and performances imulations demonstrate that it suits the fluctuation of dynamic environment very well.

  5. An Adaptive Scheme for Neighbor Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The neighbor knowledge in mobile ad hoc networks is important information. However, the accuracy of neighbor knowledge is paid in terms of energy consumption. In traditional schemes for neighbor discovery, a mobile node uses fixed period to send HELLO messages to notify its existence. An adaptive scheme was proposed.The objective is that when mobile nodes are distributed sparsely or move slowly, fewer HELLO messages are needed to achieve reasonable accuracy, while in a mutable network where nodes are dense or move quickly, they can adaptively send more HELLO messages to ensure the accuracy. Simulation results show that the adaptive scheme achieves the objective and performs effectively.

  6. Outage Analysis of Opportunistic Cooperative Ad Hoc Networks with Randomly Located Nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wen Xing; Hai-Chuan Ding; Guang-Hua Yang; Shao-Dan Ma; Ze-Song Fei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,an opportunistic cooperative ad hoc sensor network with randomly located nodes is analyzed.The randomness of nodes' locations is captured by a homogeneous Poisson point process.The effect of imperfect interference cancellation is also taken into account in the analysis.Based on the theory of stochastic geometry,outage probability and cooperative gain are derived.It is demonstrated that explicit performance gain can be achieved through cooperation.The analyses are corroborated by extensive simulation results and the analytical results can thus serve as a guideline for wireless sensor network design.

  7. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wen Hu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  8. Secure neighborhood discovery: A fundamental element for mobile ad hoc networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadimitratos, P.; Poturalski, M.; Schaller, P.

    2008-01-01

    ) - the discovery of devices directly reachable for communication or in physical proximity - becomes a fundamental requirement and building block for various applications. However, the very nature of wireless mobile networks makes it easy to abuse ND and thereby compromise the overlying protocols and applications......Pervasive computing systems will likely be deployed in the near future, with the proliferation of wireless devices and the emergence of ad hoc networking as key enablers. Coping with mobility and the volatility of wireless communications in such systems is critical. Neighborhood discovery (ND...

  9. A Layered Zone Routing Algorithm in Ad Hoc Network Based on Matrix of Adjacency Connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-wei; LI Feng; SHI Xiu-jin; HUO Jia-zhen

    2007-01-01

    The hybrid routing protocol has received more attention recently than the proactive and the reactive, especially for large-scale and highly dynamic connection, in mobile ad hoc network. A crucial reason is that zone-layered is being utilized in the complex systems. A hybrid routing algorithm which is layered zone based on adjacency connection(LZBAC) is put forward under the background of a few members in network with steady position and link. The algorithm modifies storage structure of nodes and improves routing mechanism. The theoretical analysis and simulation testing testify that the algorithm costs shorter time of route finding and less delay than others.

  10. AN MAC PROTOCOL SUPPORTING MULTIPLE TRAFFIC OVER MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianHui; LiYingyang

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents the design and performance of a multi-channel MAC protocol that supports multiple traffics for IEEE 802.11 mobile ad-hoc networks.The dynamic channel selection scheme by receiver decision is implemented and the number of the data channel is independent of the network topology.The priority for real-time traffic is assured by the proposed adaptive back off algorithm and different IFS.The protocol is evaluated by simulation and the results have shown that it can support multiple traffics and the performance is better than the performance that IEEE 802.11 standard provides.

  11. AN MAC PROTOCOL SUPPORTING MULTIPLE TRAFFIC OVER MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Hui; Li Yingyang; Hu Jiandong; Zhang Ping

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents the design and performance of a multi-channel MAC protocol that supports multiple traffics for IEEE 802.11 mobile ad-hoc networks. The dynamic channel selection scheme by receiver decision is implemented and the number of the data channel is independent of the network topology. The priority for real-time traffic is assured by the proposed adaptive back off algorithm and different IFS. The protocol is evaluated by simulation and the results have shown that it can support multiple traffics and the performance is better than the performance that IEEE 802.11 standard provides.

  12. Load-balanced broadcast routing in wireless Ad-hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In wireless Ad-hoc networks, where mobile hosts are powered by batteries, the entire network may be partitioned because of the drainage of a small set of batteries.Therefore, the crucial issue is to improve the energy efficiency, with an objective of balancing energy consumption.A greedy algorithm called weighted minimum spanning tree (WMST) has been proposed, in which time complexity is O(n2).This algorithm takes into account the initial energy of each node and energy consumption of each communication.Simulation has demonstrated that the performance of the proposed algorithm improves the load balance and prolongs the lifetime.

  13. A QoS Aware Service Composition Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Song-qiao; ZHANG Shen-sheng; ZHANG Yong; CAO Jian

    2008-01-01

    A novel decentralized service composition protocol was presented based on quality of service (QoS) for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). A service composition in MANETs is considered as a service path discovery in a service network. Based on the concept of source routing, the protocol integrates route discovery, service discovery and service composition and utilizes a constrained flooding approach to discover the optimal service path. A service path maintenance mechanism was exploited to recover broken service paths. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the proposed protocol outperforms existing service composition protocols.

  14. Intelligent QoS routing algorithm based on improved AODV protocol for Ad Hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibin, Liu; Jun, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks were playing an increasingly important part in disaster reliefs, military battlefields and scientific explorations. However, networks routing difficulties are more and more outstanding due to inherent structures. This paper proposed an improved cuckoo searching-based Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (CSAODV). It elaborately designs the calculation methods of optimal routing algorithm used by protocol and transmission mechanism of communication-package. In calculation of optimal routing algorithm by CS Algorithm, by increasing QoS constraint, the found optimal routing algorithm can conform to the requirements of specified bandwidth and time delay, and a certain balance can be obtained among computation spending, bandwidth and time delay. Take advantage of NS2 simulation software to take performance test on protocol in three circumstances and validate the feasibility and validity of CSAODV protocol. In results, CSAODV routing protocol is more adapt to the change of network topological structure than AODV protocol, which improves package delivery fraction of protocol effectively, reduce the transmission time delay of network, reduce the extra burden to network brought by controlling information, and improve the routing efficiency of network.

  15. A Secure 3-Way Routing Protocols for Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Sekaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET. The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET.

  16. A secure 3-way routing protocols for intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, Ramesh; Parasuraman, Ganesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET). The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS) routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET.

  17. Mitigating Malicious Attacks Using Trust Based Secure-BEFORE Routing Strategy in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutuja Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc Networks (MANET, being infrastructureless and dynamic in nature, are predominantly susceptible to attacks such as black hole, worm hole, cunning gray hole attack at source or destination. Various solutions have been put forth so far in literature in order to mitigate the effects of these attacks on the network performance and to improve the reliability of the network. However, these attacks are still prominently a serious threat in MANET. Hence, a trust based routing strategy termed Secure-BEFORE routing (Best FOrwarding Route Estimation is proposed to ensure optimal route estimation in computing the trust value and hop counts using the dummy packets inside the network at 1-hop level. It is observed that the overall performance of the network is improved in providing one-hop level security by maintaining the packet equivalence ratio. Malicious and suspicious nodes are isolated and eliminated from the network, based on their behavior.

  18. Key Management and Authentication in Ad Hoc Network based on Mobile Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Key management and authentication is important to security of Mobile Ad Hoc network (MANET. Based on the (t, n threshold cryptography, this paper introduced mobile agents to exchange private key and network topological information with nodes in the network. This method avoids a centralized certification authority to distribute the public keys and the certificates, thus enhances security. Carrying private key and some state variables, mobile agents navigate in the network according to visitsbalance policy, namely, node with the least visits would be first visited by mobile agent. Any t nodes in the network can cooperate to perform an authentication upon a new node wanting to join the network. Experimental results show that the mobile agent performs very well for improving the success ratio of authentication and enhance security while reducing the communication overhead and resource consumption.

  19. A Cluster Maintenance Algorithm Based on Relative Mobility for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENZhong; CHANGYilin; ZHANGXin

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks makes network management significantly more challenging than wireline networks. The traditional Client/Server (Manager/Agent) management paradigm could not work well in such a dynamic environment, while the hierarchical network management architecture based on clustering is more feasible. Although the movement of nodes makes the cluster structure changeable and introduces new challenges for network management, the mobility is a relative concept. A node with high relative mobility is more prone to unstable behavior than a node with less relative mobility, thus the relative mobility of a node can be used to predict future node behavior. This paper presents the cluster availability which provides a quantitative measurement of cluster stability. Furthermore, a cluster maintenance algorithm based on cluster availability is proposed. The simulation results show that, compared to the Minimum ID clustering algorithm, our algorithm successfully alleviates the influence caused by node mobility and make the network management more efficient.

  20. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-15

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.