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Sample records for ad hoc network

  1. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  2. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  3. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  4. ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Alicia Correa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos de agrupamiento permiten que las MANET (redes móviles ad hoc presenten un mejor desempeño en cuanto a la rapidez de conexión, el enrutamiento y el manejo de la topología. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión sobre las técnicas de agrupamiento para MANET. Se introducen algunos temas preliminares que forman la base para el desarrollo de los algoritmos de agrupamiento, tales como: la topología de la red, el enrutamiento, la teoría de grafos y los algoritmos de movilidad. Adicionalmente, se describen algunas de las técnicas de agrupamiento más conocidas como Lowest-ID heuristic, Highest degree heuristic, DMAC (distributed mobility-adaptive clustering, WCA (weighted clustering algorithm, entre otros. El propósito central es ilustrar los conceptos principales respecto a las técnicas de agrupamiento en MANET.

  5. Ad-hoc networking towards seamless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilovska, Liljana

    2006-01-01

    Ad-Hoc Networking Towards Seamless Communications is dedicated to an area that attracts growing interest in academia and industry and concentrates on wireless ad hoc networking paradigm. The persistent efforts to acquire the ability to establish dynamic wireless connections from anywhere to anyone with any device without prerequisite imbedded infrastructure move the communications boundaries towards ad-hoc networks. Recently, ad hoc networking has attracted growing interest due to advances in wireless communications, and developed framework for running IP based protocols. The expected degree of penetration of these networks will depend on the successful resolution of the key features. Ad-hoc networks pose many complex and open problems for researchers. Ad-Hoc Networking Towards Seamless Communications reveals the state-of-the-art in wireless ad-hoc networking and discusses some of the key research topics that are expected to promote and accelerate the commercial applications of these networks (e.g., MAC, rout...

  6. Context discovery in ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless technology and portable devices, mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are more and more present in our daily life. Ad-hoc networks are often composed of mobile and battery-supplied devices, like laptops, mobile phones, and PDAs. With no requirement for

  7. Queueing Models for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Roland

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents models for the performance analysis of a recent communication paradigm: \\emph{mobile ad hoc networking}. The objective of mobile ad hoc networking is to provide wireless connectivity between stations in a highly dynamic environment. These dynamics are driven by the mobility of

  8. Model checking mobile ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassemi, Fatemeh; Fokkink, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Modeling arbitrary connectivity changes within mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) makes application of automated formal verification challenging. We use constrained labeled transition systems as a semantic model to represent mobility. To model check MANET protocols with respect to the underlying

  9. Ad hoc networks telecommunications and game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Benslama, Malek; Batatia, Hadj

    2015-01-01

    Random SALOHA and CSMA protocols that are used to access MAC in ad hoc networks are very small compared to the multiple and spontaneous use of the transmission channel. So they have low immunity to the problems of packet collisions. Indeed, the transmission time is the critical factor in the operation of such networks. The simulations demonstrate the positive impact of erasure codes on the throughput of the transmission in ad hoc networks. However, the network still suffers from the intermittency and volatility of its efficiency throughout its operation, and it switches quickly to the satura

  10. Vehicular ad hoc network security and privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, X

    2015-01-01

    Unlike any other book in this area, this book provides innovative solutions to security issues, making this book a must read for anyone working with or studying security measures. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Security and Privacy mainly focuses on security and privacy issues related to vehicular communication systems. It begins with a comprehensive introduction to vehicular ad hoc network and its unique security threats and privacy concerns and then illustrates how to address those challenges in highly dynamic and large size wireless network environments from multiple perspectives. This book is richly illustrated with detailed designs and results for approaching security and privacy threats.

  11. DAWN: Dynamic Ad-hoc Wireless Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-19

    Wireless Network 1 Introduction The network-centric battlefield includes sensors, troop carriers, unmanned air vehicle (UAV), aircraft, smart ...Bellman Control Heritage Award. • Honorary Doctorate at Technical University of Crete. • Best paper award at 2008 IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems.

  12. Evolutionary algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dorronsoro, Bernabé; Danoy, Grégoire; Pigné, Yoann; Bouvry, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Describes how evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to identify, model, and minimize day-to-day problems that arise for researchers in optimization and mobile networking. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), vehicular networks (VANETs), sensor networks (SNs), and hybrid networks—each of these require a designer’s keen sense and knowledge of evolutionary algorithms in order to help with the common issues that plague professionals involved in optimization and mobile networking. This book introduces readers to both mobile ad hoc networks and evolutionary algorithms, presenting basic concepts as well as detailed descriptions of each. It demonstrates how metaheuristics and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to help provide low-cost operations in the optimization process—allowing designers to put some “intelligence” or sophistication into the design. It also offers efficient and accurate information on dissemination algorithms topology management, and mobility models to address challenges in the ...

  13. Introductory Approach on Ad-hoc Networks and its Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtab Singh Kahlon

    2012-01-01

    An ad-hoc wireless network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that self-configure to construct a network without the need for any established infrastructure or backbone. Ad hoc networks use mobile nodes to enable communication outside wireless transmission range. With the advancement in wireless communications, more and more wireless networks appear, e.g., Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET), Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), etc. So, in this paper we have discussed Ad Hoc Networks along with it...

  14. Quantum load balancing in ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, M.; Shariat, S.; Barnaghi, P.; Hoseinitabatabaei, S. A.; Vahid, S.; Tafazolli, R.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a novel approach in targeting load balancing in ad hoc networks utilizing the properties of quantum game theory. This approach benefits from the instantaneous and information-less capability of entangled particles to synchronize the load balancing strategies in ad hoc networks. The quantum load balancing (QLB) algorithm proposed by this work is implemented on top of OLSR as the baseline routing protocol; its performance is analyzed against the baseline OLSR, and considerable gain is reported regarding some of the main QoS metrics such as delay and jitter. Furthermore, it is shown that QLB algorithm supports a solid stability gain in terms of throughput which stands a proof of concept for the load balancing properties of the proposed theory.

  15. AD HOC Networks for the Autonomous Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Davidescu; Negrus, Eugen

    2017-10-01

    The future of the vehicle is made of cars, roads and infrastructures connected in a two way automated communication in a holistic system. It is a mandatory to use Encryption to maintain Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability in an ad hoc vehicle network. Vehicle to Vehicle communication, requires multichannel interaction between mobile, moving and changing parties to insure the full benefit from data sharing and real time decision making, a network of such users referred as mobile ad hoc network (MANET), however as ad hoc networks were not implemented in such a scale, it is not clear what is the best method and protocol to apply. Furthermore the visibility of secure preferred asymmetric encrypted ad hoc networks in a real time environment of dense moving autonomous vehicles has to be demonstrated, In order to evaluate the performance of Ad Hoc networks in changing conditions a simulation of multiple protocols was performed on large number of mobile nodes. The following common routing protocols were tested, DSDV is a proactive protocol, every mobile station maintains a routing table with all available destinations, DSR is a reactive routing protocol which allows nodes in the MANET to dynamically discover a source route across multiple network hops, AODV is a reactive routing protocol Instead of being proactive. It minimizes the number of broadcasts by creating routes based on demand, SAODV is a secure version of AODV, requires heavyweight asymmetric cryptographic, ARIANDE is a routing protocol that relies on highly efficient symmetric cryptography the concept is primarily based on DSR. A methodical evolution was performed in a various density of transportation, based on known communication bench mark parameters including, Throughput Vs. time, Routing Load per packets and bytes. Out of the none encrypted protocols, It is clear that in terms of performance of throughput and routing load DSR protocol has a clear advantage the high node number mode. The encrypted

  16. Spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes.

  17. Intrusion detection in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge research, Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks explores the security aspects of the basic categories of wireless ad-hoc networks and related application areas. Focusing on intrusion detection systems (IDSs), it explains how to establish security solutions for the range of wireless networks, including mobile ad-hoc networks, hybrid wireless networks, and sensor networks.This edited volume reviews and analyzes state-of-the-art IDSs for various wireless ad-hoc networks. It includes case studies on honesty-based intrusion detection systems, cluster oriented-based

  18. Fundamental Properties of Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekmat, R.

    2005-01-01

    Wireless mobile ad-hoc networks are formed by mobile devices that set up a possibly short-lived network for communication needs of the moment. Ad-hoc networks are decentralized, self-organizing networks capable of forming a communication network without relying on any fixed infrastructure. Each node

  19. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv

  20. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar; Puttamadappa, C

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc mobile wireless networks have seen increased adaptation in a variety of disciplines because they can be deployed with simple infrastructures and virtually no central administration. In particular, the development of ad hoc wireless and sensor networks provides tremendous opportunities in areas including disaster recovery, defense, health care, and industrial environments. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols and Applications explains the concepts, mechanisms, design, and performance of these systems. It presents in-depth explanations of the latest wireless technologies

  1. Neighbor-Aware Control in Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bao, Lichun

    2002-01-01

    Ad hoc networks have very unique features, such as dynamic topologies, relatively limited bandwidth and wireless signal propagation schemes, which present difficult challenges for wireless communication...

  2. In-Network Aggregation for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzel, Stefan; Petit, Jonathan; Kargl, Frank; Scheuermann, Björn

    2014-01-01

    In-network aggregation mechanisms for vehicular ad hoc networks aim at improving communication efficiency by summarizing information that is exchanged between vehicles. Summaries are calculated while data items are generated in and forwarded through the network. Due to its high bandwidth saving

  3. Ad hoc laser networks component technology for modular spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiujun; Shi, Dele; Shen, Jingshi

    2017-10-01

    Distributed reconfigurable satellite is a new kind of spacecraft system, which is based on a flexible platform of modularization and standardization. Based on the module data flow analysis of the spacecraft, this paper proposes a network component of ad hoc Laser networks architecture. Low speed control network with high speed load network of Microwave-Laser communication mode, no mesh network mode, to improve the flexibility of the network. Ad hoc Laser networks component technology was developed, and carried out the related performance testing and experiment. The results showed that ad hoc Laser networks components can meet the demand of future networking between the module of spacecraft.

  4. Flow transfer times in wireless multihop ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom Johannes Maria; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Kouvatsos, D.

    2009-01-01

    A flow level model for multihop wireless ad hoc networks is presented in this paper. Using a flow level view, we show the main properties and modeling challenges for ad hoc networks. Considering different scenarios, a multihop WLAN and a serial network with a TCP-like flow control protocol, we

  5. Public-key management in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haifeng; Jiang, Anna; Bai, Di; Liu, Yunfei

    A mobile ad hoc network is a new type of wireless networking paradigm which, in general, consists of solely mobile hosts and dispenses with infrastructure. One main challenge in design of mobile ad hoc networks is the vulnerability to security attacks. Without physical boundaries, a mobile ad hoc network faces many more security threats than a wired network does. Therefore the security of mobile ad hoc networks is one of the major research interests in wireless communications. In contrast with conventional networks, public key management protocols of mobile ad hoc networks do not based on infrastructures, where we can use trusted third parties or centralized servers for key management. This is because that the topology of mobile ad hoc networks is unknown due to link and node failures and to node mobility. For these factors, traditional key management solutions which require on-line trusted authorities or certificate authorities are not suitable for securing mobile ad hoc networks. In this report, we first review some existed public-key management protocols for mobile ad hoc networks and after that we propose a fully distributed public -key management model which does not need the third trusted authority.

  6. Opinion Impact Models and Opinion Consensus Methods in Ad Hoc Tactical Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Demin; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Jingjuan; Wang, Jiacun

    2013-01-01

    Ad hoc social networks are special social networks, such as ad hoc tactical social networks, ad hoc firefighter social networks, and ad hoc vehicular social networks. The social networks possess both the properties of ad hoc network and social network. One of the challenge problems in ad hoc social networks is opinion impact and consensus, and the opinion impact plays a key role for information fusion and decision support in ad hoc social networks. In this paper, consider the impact of physic...

  7. Decentralized network-level synchronization in mobile ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voulgaris, Spyros; Dobson, Matthew; Van Steen, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Energy is the scarcest resource in ad hoc wireless networks, particularly in wireless sensor networks requiring a long lifetime. Intermittently switching the radio on and off is widely adopted as the most effective way to keep energy consumption low. This, however, prevents the very goal of

  8. Decentralized Network-level Synchronization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voulgaris, Spyros; Dobson, Matthew; van Steen, Martinus Richardus

    Energy is the scarcest resource in ad hoc wireless networks, particularly in wireless sensor networks requiring a long lifetime. Intermittently switching the radio on and off is widely adopted as the most effective way to keep energy consumption low. This, however, prevents the very goal of

  9. Source Authentication for Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramachandran, Prabha

    2003-01-01

    Recent emergence and popularity of mobile ad hoc networks in a host of current-day applications has instigated a suite of research challenges, primarily in routing and security issues for such networks...

  10. Broadcast design in cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief investigates the special challenges of broadcast design in cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc networks. It introduces two broadcast protocols in CR ad hoc networks: a quality-of-service based broadcast protocol under blind information and a fully-distributed broadcast protocol with collision avoidance. A novel unified analytical model is also presented to analyze the performance of the broadcast protocols. This is the first book dedicated to the unique broadcast design challenges in CR ad hoc networks. The authors also discuss the recent research on the performance analysis of broa

  11. Distributed Tracking in Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chong, Chee-Yee; Zhao, Feng; Mori, Shozo; Kumar, Sri

    2003-01-01

    Target tracking is an important application for wireless ad hoc sensor networks. Because of the energy and communication constraints imposed by the size of the sensors, the processing has to be distributed over the sensor nodes...

  12. A New Hybrid Channel Access Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yu; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    2002-01-01

    Many contention-based channel access schemes have been proposed for multi-hop ad hoc networks in the recent past, and they can be divided into two categories, sender-initiated and receiver-initiated...

  13. An Optimized Signature Verification System for Vehicle Ad hoc NETwork

    OpenAIRE

    Mamun, Mohammad Saiful Islam; Miyaji, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    This paper1 presents an efficient approach to an existing batch verification system on Identity based group signature (IBGS) which can be applied to any Mobile ad hoc network device including Vehicle Ad hoc Networks (VANET). We propose an optimized way to batch signatures in order to get maximum throughput from a device in runtime environment. In addition, we minimize the number of pairing computations in batch verification proposed by B. Qin et al. for large scale VANET. We introduce a batch...

  14. IDHOCNET: A Novel ID Centric Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrukh Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks lack support of infrastructure and operate in a shared bandwidth wireless environment. Presently, such networks have been realized by various adaptations in Internet Protocol (IP architecture which was developed for infrastructure oriented hierarchical networks. The IP architecture has its known problem and issues even in infrastructure settings, like IP address overloading, mobility, multihoming, and so forth. Therefore, when such architecture is implemented in ad hoc scenario the problems get multiplied. Due to this fact, ad hoc networks suffer from additional problems like IP address autoconfiguration, service provisioning, efficient bandwidth utilization, and node identification. In this paper we present IDHOCNET which is a novel implementation of service provisioning and application development framework in the ad hoc context. We illustrate a number of implemented features of the architecture which include IP address autoconfiguration, identification of nodes by using real world identifiers, IP based services support in ad hoc networks, and a new class of application known as ID based application. Moreover how identifiers can completely replace the IP addresses to run the IP based applications is shown. It is expected that this work will open new research horizons and paradigms for ad hoc networks.

  15. Multiagent Based Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Manvi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs are a compelling application of ad hoc networks, because of the potential to access specific context information (e.g. traffic conditions, service updates, route planning and deliver multimedia services (Voice over IP, in-car entertainment, instant messaging, etc.. This paper proposes an agent based information dissemination model for VANETs. A two-tier agent architecture is employed comprising of the following: 1 'lightweight', network-facing, mobile agents; 2 'heavyweight', application-facing, norm-aware agents. The limitations of VANETs lead us to consider a hybrid wireless network architecture that includes Wireless LAN/Cellular and ad hoc networking for analyzing the proposed model. The proposed model provides flexibility, adaptability and maintainability for traffic information dissemination in VANETs as well as supports robust and agile network management. The proposed model has been simulated in various network scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.

  16. Auto-configuration protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity.

  17. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  18. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Al-Nahari

    Full Text Available Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV, which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  19. Survey on Security Issues in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Mokhtar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks are special case of ad hoc networks that, besides lacking infrastructure, communicating entities move with various accelerations. Accordingly, this impedes establishing reliable end-to-end communication paths and having efficient data transfer. Thus, VANETs have different network concerns and security challenges to get the availability of ubiquitous connectivity, secure communications, and reputation management systems which affect the trust in cooperation and negotiation between mobile networking entities. In this survey, we discuss the security features, challenges, and attacks of VANETs, and we classify the security attacks of VANETs due to the different network layers.

  20. Innovative research of AD HOC network mobility model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin

    2017-08-01

    It is difficult for researchers of AD HOC network to conduct actual deployment during experimental stage as the network topology is changeable and location of nodes is unfixed. Thus simulation still remains the main research method of the network. Mobility model is an important component of AD HOC network simulation. It is used to describe the movement pattern of nodes in AD HOC network (including location and velocity, etc.) and decides the movement trail of nodes, playing as the abstraction of the movement modes of nodes. Therefore, mobility model which simulates node movement is an important foundation for simulation research. In AD HOC network research, mobility model shall reflect the movement law of nodes as truly as possible. In this paper, node generally refers to the wireless equipment people carry. The main research contents include how nodes avoid obstacles during movement process and the impacts of obstacles on the mutual relation among nodes, based on which a Node Self Avoiding Obstacle, i.e. NASO model is established in AD HOC network.

  1. Dynamic Mobile IP routers in ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, B.A.; Schmidt, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a concept combining mobile IP and ad hoc routing to create a robust mobile network. In this network all nodes are mobile and globally and locally reachable under the same IP address. Essential for implementing this network are the dynamic mobile IP routers. They act as gateways

  2. A survey of TCP over ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Altman, Eitan; Nain, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) was designed to provide reliable end-to-end delivery of data over unreliable networks. In practice, most TCP deployments have been carefully designed in the context of wired networks. Ignoring the properties of wireless ad hoc networks can lead to TCP

  3. Modeling service discovery in ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Goering, P.T.H.; Heijenk, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A protocol for service discovery using attenuated Bloom filters has been proposed for ad-hoc networks. Based on our study, it can well save network bandwidth compared to conventional approaches. We have built both an analytical model and a simulation model to evaluate the performance of our novel

  4. A Clustering Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network poses a real challenge in the design of hierarchical routing protocol, which combines proactive with reactive routing protocols and takes advantages of both. And as an essential technique of hierarchical routing protocol, clustering of nodes provides an efficient method of establishing a hierarchical structure in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we designed a novel clustering algorithm and a corresponding hierarchical routing protocol for large-scale mobile ad hoc networks. Each cluster is composed of a cluster head, several cluster gateway nodes, several cluster guest nodes, and other cluster members. The proposed routing protocol uses proactive protocol between nodes within individual clusters and reactive protocol between clusters. Simulation results show that the proposed clustering algorithm and hierarchical routing protocol provide superior performance with several advantages over existing clustering algorithm and routing protocol, respectively.

  5. The 11th Annual Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (Med-Hoc-Net 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitsillides, A.; Douligeris, C.; Vassiliou, V.; Heijenk, Geert; Cavalcante de Oliveira, J.

    Message from the General Chairs Welcome to the 2012 Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop in Ayia Napa, Cyprus. We are excited to host Med-Hoc-Net. As a major annual international workshop, following recent successful workshops in Sicily (2006), Corfu (2007), Palma de Mallorca (2008), Haifa

  6. Interference in wireless ad hoc networks with smart antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of directional antennas in wireless ad hoc networks can actually increase interference due to limitations of virtual carrier sensing. We derive a simple mathematical expression for interference in both physical and virtual carrier sense networks, which reveals counter-intuitively that receivers in large dense networks with directional antennas can experience larger interference than in omnidirectional networks unless the beamwidth is sufficiently small. Validity of mathematical analysis is confirmed using simulations.

  7. Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jungeblut

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a real-time Multiprocessor System-On-Chip (MPSoC for low power wireless applications. The multiprocessor is based on eight 32bit RISC processors that are connected via an Network-On-Chip (NoC. The NoC follows a novel approach with guaranteed bandwidth to the application that meets hard realtime requirements. At a clock frequency of 100 MHz the total power consumption of the MPSoC that has been fabricated in 180 nm UMC standard cell technology is 772 mW.

  8. Energy management in wireless cellular and ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Imran, Muhammad; Qaraqe, Khalid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates energy management approaches for energy efficient or energy-centric system design and architecture and presents end-to-end energy management in the recent heterogeneous-type wireless network medium. It also considers energy management in wireless sensor and mesh networks by exploiting energy efficient transmission techniques and protocols. and explores energy management in emerging applications, services and engineering to be facilitated with 5G networks such as WBANs, VANETS and Cognitive networks. A special focus of the book is on the examination of the energy management practices in emerging wireless cellular and ad hoc networks. Considering the broad scope of energy management in wireless cellular and ad hoc networks, this book is organized into six sections covering range of Energy efficient systems and architectures; Energy efficient transmission and techniques; Energy efficient applications and services. .

  9. A framework for reactive optimization in mobile ad hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClary, Dan; Syrotiuk, Violet; Kulahci, Murat

    2008-01-01

    We present a framework to optimize the performance of a mobile ad hoc network over a wide range of operating conditions. It includes screening experiments to quantify the parameters and interactions among parameters influential to throughput. Profile-driven regression is applied to obtain a model...

  10. ON SECURE FULL DUPLEX COMMUNICATION IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    S. C. Dutta; Sudha Singh; D. K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to establish Ad Hoc network in mobile phones and start fully secured full duplex communication in any situation. This type of communication will be cost effective and it will be fastest way of communication in case of any server failure or server error.

  11. Ad Hoc Transient Groups: Instruments for Awareness in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetter, Sibren; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Berlanga, Adriana; Sloep, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Fetter, S., Rajagopal, K., Berlanga, A. J., & Sloep, P. B. (2011). Ad Hoc Transient Groups: Instruments for Awareness in Learning Networks. In W. Reinhardt, T. D. Ullmann, P. Scott, V. Pammer, O. Conlan, & A. J. Berlanga (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in

  12. ON SECURE FULL DUPLEX COMMUNICATION IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Dutta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to establish Ad Hoc network in mobile phones and start fully secured full duplex communication in any situation. This type of communication will be cost effective and it will be fastest way of communication in case of any server failure or server error.

  13. Modelling Mobility in Mobile AD-HOC Network Environments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents and evaluates the stationary distribution for location, speed and pause time of a random waypoint mobility case. We show how to implement the random waypoint mobility model for ad-hoc networks without pausing, through a more efficient and reliable computer simulation, using MATrix LABoratory ...

  14. Secure Geographic Routing in Ad Hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahariadis Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Security in sensor networks is one of the most relevant research topics in resource constrained wireless devices and networks. Several attacks can be suffered in ad hoc and wireless sensor networks (WSN, which are highly susceptible to attacks, due to the limited resources of the nodes. In this paper, we propose innovative and lightweight localization techniques that allow for intrusion identification and isolation schemes and provide accurate location information. This information is used by our routing protocol which additionally incorporates a distributed trust model to prevent several routing attacks to the network. We finally evaluate our algorithms for accurate localization and for secure routing which have been implemented and tested in real ad hoc and wireless sensor networks.

  15. Delay Efficient Backpressure Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandros A. Maglaras

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Packet scheduling/routing in wireless ad hoc networks is a fundamental problem for ad hoc networking. Backpressure routing is a solid and throughput optimal policy for such networks, but suffers from increased delays. In this article, we present two holistic approaches to improve upon the delay problems of backpressuretype algorithms. We develop two scheduling algorithms, namely Voting backpressure and Layered backpressure routing, which are throughput optimal. We experimentally compare the proposed algorithms against state-of-the-art delay-aware backpressure algorithms, which provide optimal throughput, for different payloads and network topologies, both for static and mobile networks. The experimental evaluation of the proposed delay reduction algorithms attest their superiority in terms of QoS, robustness, low computational complexity and simplicity.

  16. Authentication Based on Multilayer Clustering in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Heyi-Sook

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a secure cluster-routing protocol based on a multilayer scheme in ad hoc networks. This work provides scalable, threshold authentication scheme in ad hoc networks. We present detailed security threats against ad hoc routing protocols, specifically examining cluster-based routing. Our proposed protocol, called "authentication based on multilayer clustering for ad hoc networks" (AMCAN, designs an end-to-end authentication protocol that relies on mutual trust between nodes in other clusters. The AMCAN strategy takes advantage of a multilayer architecture that is designed for an authentication protocol in a cluster head (CH using a new concept of control cluster head (CCH scheme. We propose an authentication protocol that uses certificates containing an asymmetric key and a multilayer architecture so that the CCH is achieved using the threshold scheme, thereby reducing the computational overhead and successfully defeating all identified attacks. We also use a more extensive area, such as a CCH, using an identification protocol to build a highly secure, highly available authentication service, which forms the core of our security framework.

  17. Auto-Configuration Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián García Matesanz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity.

  18. Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeone O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.

  19. Cognitive radio application for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladić Suzana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of cognitive radio technology in vehicular ad-hoc networks aimed to improve the communications between vehicles themselves as well as between vehicles and roadside infrastructure. Due to dynamic approach of spectrum access, cognitive radio is a technology that enables more efficient usage of radio-frequency spectrum. We review actual approaches and discuss research challenges related to the use of cognitive radio technology in vehicular ad hoc networks with emphasis on architecture, spectrum management as well as QoS optimization. The researching on cognitive radio application in vehicular networks is still developing and there are not many experimental platforms due to their complex setups. Some related research projects and cognitive radio realizations are provided in this paper.

  20. Recent development in wireless sensor and ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolong; Yang, Yeon-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of numerous physically distributed autonomous devices used for sensing and monitoring the physical and/or environmental conditions. A WSN uses a gateway that provides wireless connectivity to the wired world as well as distributed networks. There are many open problems related to Ad-Hoc networks and its applications. Looking at the expansion of the cellular infrastructure, Ad-Hoc network may be acting as the basis of the 4th generation wireless technology with the new paradigm of ‘anytime, anywhere communications’. To realize this, the real challenge would be the security, authorization and management issues of the large scale WSNs. This book is an edited volume in the broad area of WSNs. The book covers various chapters like Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks, its Coverage, Connectivity as well as Deployment. It covers comparison of various communication protocols and algorithms such as MANNET, ODMRP and ADMR Protocols for Ad hoc Multicasting, Location Based C...

  1. Wireless ad hoc and sensor networks management, performance, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Although wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been employed across a wide range of applications, there are very few books that emphasize the algorithm description, performance analysis, and applications of network management techniques in WSNs. Filling this need, Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Management, Performance, and Applications summarizes not only traditional and classical network management techniques, but also state-of-the-art techniques in this area. The articles presented are expository, but scholarly in nature, including the appropriate history background, a review of current

  2. Proposal of interference reduction routing for ad-hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Naito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an interference reduction routing protocol for ad-hoc networks. The interference is one of the degradation factors in wireless communications. In the ad-hoc network, some nodes communicate simultaneously. Therefore, these communications cause interference each other, and some packets are corrupted due to interference from another node. In the proposed protocol, each node estimates required transmission power according to hello messages. Therefore, the node can transmit a data packet with minimum required transmission power. Consequently, the interference against neighbor nodes can be reduced. From simulation results, we can find that the proposed protocol can reduce the number of control messages and can improve the throughput performance.

  3. Connectivity analysis of one-dimensional ad-hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    Applications and communication protocols in dynamic ad-hoc networks are exposed to physical limitations imposed by the connectivity relations that result from mobility. Motivated by vehicular freeway scenarios, this paper analyzes a number of important connectivity metrics for instantaneous snaps...... analytic expressions for the distributions and moments of these random variables for general stationary MAP processes on a one dimensional space. The numerical results compares bursty vehicular traffic with independent movement scenarios described by a Poisson process....

  4. Mobile ad hoc networking the cutting edge directions

    CERN Document Server

    Basagni, Stefano; Giordano, Silvia; Stojmenovic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    ""An excellent book for those who are interested in learning the current status of research and development . . . [and] who want to get a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art.""-E-Streams This book provides up-to-date information on research and development in the rapidly growing area of networks based on the multihop ad hoc networking paradigm. It reviews all classes of networks that have successfully adopted this paradigm, pointing out how they penetrated the mass market and sparked breakthrough research. Covering both physical issues and applica

  5. Scalable Architecture for Multihop Wireless ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, Payman; Gray, Andrew; Okino, Clayton; Yan, Tsun-Yee

    2004-01-01

    A scalable architecture for wireless digital data and voice communications via ad hoc networks has been proposed. Although the details of the architecture and of its implementation in hardware and software have yet to be developed, the broad outlines of the architecture are fairly clear: This architecture departs from current commercial wireless communication architectures, which are characterized by low effective bandwidth per user and are not well suited to low-cost, rapid scaling in large metropolitan areas. This architecture is inspired by a vision more akin to that of more than two dozen noncommercial community wireless networking organizations established by volunteers in North America and several European countries.

  6. LAMAN: Load Adaptable MAC for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realp Marc

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc radio networks, mechanisms on how to access the radio channel are extremely important in order to improve network efficiency. In this paper, the load adaptable medium access control for ad hoc networks (LAMAN protocol is described. LAMAN is a novel decentralized multipacket MAC protocol designed following a cross-layer approach. Basically, this protocol is a hybrid CDMA-TDMA-based protocol that aims at throughput maximization in multipacket communication environments by efficiently combining contention and conflict-free protocol components. Such combination of components is used to adapt the nodes' access priority to changes on the traffic load while, at the same time, accounting for the multipacket reception (MPR capability of the receivers. A theoretical analysis of the system is developed presenting closed expressions of network throughput and packet delay. By simulations the validity of our analysis is shown and the performances of a LAMAN-based system and an Aloha-CDMA-based one are compared.

  7. Autonomous Power Control MAC Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy limitation has become a performance bottleneck for mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE 802.11 has been adopted as the current standard MAC protocol for ad hoc networks. However, it was developed without considering energy efficiency. To solve this problem, many modifications on IEEE 802.11 to incorporate power control have been proposed in the literature. The main idea of these power control schemes is to use a maximum possible power level for transmitting RTS/CTS and the lowest acceptable power for sending DATA/ACK. However, these schemes may degrade network throughput and reduce the overall energy efficiency of the network. This paper proposes autonomous power control MAC protocol (APCMP, which allows mobile nodes dynamically adjusting power level for transmitting DATA/ACK according to the distances between the transmitter and its neighbors. In addition, the power level for transmitting RTS/CTS is also adjustable according to the power level for DATA/ACK packets. In this paper, the performance of APCMP protocol is evaluated by simulation and is compared with that of other protocols.

  8. A Spontaneous Ad Hoc Network to Share WWW Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloret Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a secure spontaneous ad-hoc network, based on direct peer-to-peer interaction, to grant a quick, easy, and secure access to the users to surf the Web. The paper shows the description of our proposal, the procedure of the nodes involved in the system, the security algorithms implemented, and the designed messages. We have taken into account the security and its performance. Although some people have defined and described the main features of spontaneous ad-hoc networks, nobody has published any design and simulation until today. Spontaneous networking will enable a more natural form of wireless computing when people physically meet in the real world. We also validate the success of our proposal through several simulations and comparisons with a regular architecture, taking into account the optimization of the resources of the devices. Finally, we compare our proposal with other caching techniques published in the related literature. The proposal has been developed with the main objective of improving the communication and integration between different study centers of low-resource communities. That is, it lets communicate spontaneous networks, which are working collaboratively and which have been created on different physical places.

  9. Distributed optimization of a multisubchannel Ad Hoc cognitive radio network

    KAUST Repository

    Leith, Alex

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we study the distributed-duality-based optimization of a multisubchannel ad hoc cognitive radio network (CRN) that coexists with a multicell primary radio network (PRN). For radio resource allocation in multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MU-OFDM) systems, the orthogonal-access-based exclusive subchannel assignment (ESA) technique has been a popular method, but it is suboptimal in ad hoc networks, because nonorthogonal access between multiple secondary-user links by using shared subchannel assignment (SSA) can bring a higher weighted sum rate. We utilize the Lagrangian dual composition tool and design low-complexity near-optimal SSA resource allocation methods, assuming practical discrete-rate modulation and that the CRN-to-PRN interference constraint has to strictly be satisfied. However, available SSA methods for CRNs are either suboptimal or involve high complexity and suffer from slow convergence. To address this problem, we design fast-convergence SSA duality schemes and introduce several novel methods to increase the speed of convergence and to satisfy various system constraints with low complexity. For practical implementation in ad hoc CRNs, we design distributed-duality schemes that involve only a small number of CRN local information exchanges for dual update. The effects of many system parameters are presented through simulation results, which show that the near-optimal SSA duality scheme can perform significantly better than the suboptimal ESA duality and SSA-iterative waterfilling schemes and that the performance loss of the distributed schemes is small, compared with their centralized counterparts. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Studies on urban vehicular ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongzi

    2013-01-01

    With the advancement of wireless technology, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a promising approach to realizing 'smart cities' and addressing many important transportation problems such as road safety, efficiency, and convenience.This brief provides an introduction to the large trace data set collected from thousands of taxis and buses in Shanghai, the largest metropolis in China. It also presents the challenges, design issues, performance modeling and evaluation of a wide spectrum of VANET research topics, ranging from realistic vehicular mobility models and opportunistic ro

  11. Topology for efficient information dissemination in ad-hoc networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, E.; Okino, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the information dissemination problem in ad-hoc wirless networks. First, we analyze the probability of successful broadcast, assuming: the nodes are uniformly distributed, the available area has a lower bould relative to the total number of nodes, and there is zero knowledge of the overall topology of the network. By showing that the probability of such events is small, we are motivated to extract good graph topologies to minimize the overall transmissions. Three algorithms are used to generate topologies of the network with guaranteed connectivity. These are the minimum radius graph, the relative neighborhood graph and the minimum spanning tree. Our simulation shows that the relative neighborhood graph has certain good graph properties, which makes it suitable for efficient information dissemination.

  12. Vehicular ad hoc networks standards, solutions, and research

    CERN Document Server

    Molinaro, Antonella; Scopigno, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This book presents vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) from the their onset, gradually going into technical details, providing a clear understanding of both theoretical foundations and more practical investigation. The editors gathered top-ranking authors to provide comprehensiveness and timely content; the invited authors were carefully selected from a list of who’s who in the respective field of interest: there are as many from Academia as from Standardization and Industry sectors from around the world. The covered topics are organized around five Parts starting from an historical overview of vehicular communications and standardization/harmonization activities (Part I), then progressing to the theoretical foundations of VANETs and a description of the day-one standard-compliant solutions (Part II), hence going into details of vehicular networking and security (Part III) and to the tools to study VANETs, from mobility and channel models, to network simulators and field trial methodologies (Part IV), and fi...

  13. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  14. A Dynamic Reputation Management System for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chiejina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are mandated to utilize their limited energy resources in forwarding routing control and data packets for other nodes. Since a MANET lacks a centralized administration and control, a node may decide to act selfishly, either by refusing to respond to route requests from other nodes or deceitfully by responding to some route requests, but dropping the corresponding data packets that are presented for forwarding. A significant increase in the presence of these misbehaving nodes in a MANET can subsequently degrade network performance. In this paper, we propose a dynamic reputation management system for detecting and isolating misbehaving nodes in MANETs. Our model employs a novel direct monitoring technique to evaluate the reputation of a node in the network, which ensures that nodes that expend their energy in transmitting data and routing control packets for others are allowed to carry out their network activities while the misbehaving nodes are detected and isolated from the network. Simulation results show that our model is effective at curbing and mitigating the effects of misbehaving nodes in the network.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of the Usage of Ad Hoc Networks as Stubs for Multiservice Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental evaluation of a multiservice ad hoc network, aimed to be interconnected with an infrastructure, operator-managed network. This network supports the efficient delivery of services, unicast and multicast, legacy and multimedia, to users connected in the ad hoc network. It contains the following functionalities: routing and delivery of unicast and multicast services; distributed QoS mechanisms to support service differentiation and resource control responsive to node mobility; security, charging, and rewarding mechanisms to ensure the correct behaviour of the users in the ad hoc network. This paper experimentally evaluates the performance of multiple mechanisms, and the influence and performance penalty introduced in the network, with the incremental inclusion of new functionalities. The performance results obtained in the different real scenarios may question the real usage of ad-hoc networks for more than a minimal number of hops with such a large number of functionalities deployed.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of the Usage of Ad Hoc Networks as Stubs for Multiservice Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Almeida

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental evaluation of a multiservice ad hoc network, aimed to be interconnected with an infrastructure, operator-managed network. This network supports the efficient delivery of services, unicast and multicast, legacy and multimedia, to users connected in the ad hoc network. It contains the following functionalities: routing and delivery of unicast and multicast services; distributed QoS mechanisms to support service differentiation and resource control responsive to node mobility; security, charging, and rewarding mechanisms to ensure the correct behaviour of the users in the ad hoc network. This paper experimentally evaluates the performance of multiple mechanisms, and the influence and performance penalty introduced in the network, with the incremental inclusion of new functionalities. The performance results obtained in the different real scenarios may question the real usage of ad-hoc networks for more than a minimal number of hops with such a large number of functionalities deployed.

  17. An ad hoc wireless sensor network for tele medicine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheltami, Tarek R.; Mahmoud, Ashraf S.; Abu-Amara, Marwan H.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in embedded computing systems have led to the emergence of wireless sensor networks (SNETs), consisting of small, battery-powered motes with limited computation and radio communication capabilities. SNETs permit data gathering and computation to be deeply embedded in the physical environment. Large scale ad hoc sensor networks (ASNET), when deployed among mobile patients, can provide dynamic data query architecture to allow medical specialists to monitor patients at any place via the web or cellular network. In case of an emergency, doctors and/or nurses will be contacted automatically through their handheld personal digital assistants (PDAs) or cellular phones. In specific, the proposed network consists of sensor nodes at the first layer whose responsibility is to measure, collect and communicate, via wired or wireless interface, readings to a microcontroller presenting the second layer of architecture. Deployed microcontrollers process incoming readings and report to a central system via a wireless interface. The implemented network distinguishes between periodic sensor readings and critical or event driven readings where higher priorities is given for the latter. In this paper we implement 3 special cases for tracking and monitoring patients and doctors using SNETs. In addition, the performance of a large scale of our implementation has been tested by means of mathematical analysis. (author)

  18. Performance of Group Communication Over Ad-Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mosko, Marc; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    2002-01-01

    .... To obtain analytical results while preserving hidden-terminal and node clustering characteristics of ah-hoc networks, we introduce a novel differential-equation fluid model for information flow...

  19. Remote Upload of Evidence over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Indrajit

    In this work, we report on one aspect of an autonomous robot-based digital evidence acquisition system that we are developing. When forensic investigators operate within a hostile environment they may use remotely operated unmanned devices to gather digital evidence. These systems periodically upload the evidence to a remote central server using a mobile ad hoc network. In such cases, large pieces of information need to be fragmented and transmitted in an appropriate manner. To support proper forensic analysis, certain properties must ensured for each fragment of evidence — confidentiality during communication, authenticity and integrity of the data, and, most importantly, strong evidence of membership for fragments. This paper describes a framework to provide these properties for the robot-based evidence acquisition system under development.

  20. Adaptive Probabilistic Broadcasting over Dense Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an idle probability-based broadcasting method, iPro, which employs an adaptive probabilistic mechanism to improve performance of data broadcasting over dense wireless ad hoc networks. In multisource one-hop broadcast scenarios, the modeling and simulation results of the proposed iPro are shown to significantly outperform the standard IEEE 802.11 under saturated condition. Moreover, the results also show that without estimating the number of competing nodes and changing the contention window size, the performance of the proposed iPro can still approach the theoretical bound. We further apply iPro to multihop broadcasting scenarios, and the experiment results show that within the same elapsed time after the broadcasting, the proposed iPro has significantly higher Packet-Delivery Ratios (PDR than traditional methods.

  1. Enhancing the performance of ad hoc wireless networks with smart antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Somprakash; Ueda, Tetsuro

    2006-01-01

    A large portion of the network capacity of an ad hoc network can be wasted by the medium access mechanisms of omni-directional antennas. To overcome this problem, researchers propose the use of directional or adaptive antennas that largely reduce radio interference, improving the utilization of wireless medium and the resulting network throughput.Enhancing the Performance of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks with Smart Antennas discusses these issues and challenges. Following an introduction to ad hoc networks, it presents an overview of basic Media Access Control (MAC) and routing protocols in ad hoc

  2. Building Realistic Mobility Models for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pullin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a self-configuring wireless network in which each node could act as a router, as well as a data source or sink. Its application areas include battlefields and vehicular and disaster areas. Many techniques applied to infrastructure-based networks are less effective in MANETs, with routing being a particular challenge. This paper presents a rigorous study into simulation techniques for evaluating routing solutions for MANETs with the aim of producing more realistic simulation models and thereby, more accurate protocol evaluations. MANET simulations require models that reflect the world in which the MANET is to operate. Much of the published research uses movement models, such as the random waypoint (RWP model, with arbitrary world sizes and node counts. This paper presents a technique for developing more realistic simulation models to test and evaluate MANET protocols. The technique is animation, which is applied to a realistic scenario to produce a model that accurately reflects the size and shape of the world, node count, movement patterns, and time period over which the MANET may operate. The animation technique has been used to develop a battlefield model based on established military tactics. Trace data has been used to build a model of maritime movements in the Irish Sea. Similar world models have been built using the random waypoint movement model for comparison. All models have been built using the ns-2 simulator. These models have been used to compare the performance of three routing protocols: dynamic source routing (DSR, destination-sequenced distance-vector routing (DSDV, and ad hoc n-demand distance vector routing (AODV. The findings reveal that protocol performance is dependent on the model used. In particular, it is shown that RWP models do not reflect the performance of these protocols under realistic circumstances, and protocol selection is subject to the scenario to which it is applied. To

  3. ADAPTIVE SERVICE PROVISIONING FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Jayapal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing efficient and scalable service provisioning in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is a big research challenge. In adaptive service provisioning mechanism an adaptive election procedure is used to select a coordinator node. The role of a service coordinator is crucial in any distributed directory based service provisioning scheme. The existing coordinator election schemes use either the nodeID or a hash function to choose the coordinator. In these schemes, the leader changes are more frequent due to node mobility. We propose an adaptive scheme that makes use of an eligibility factor that is calculated based on the distance to the zone center, remaining battery power and average speed to elect a core node that change according to the network dynamics. We also retain the node with the second highest priority as a backup node. Our algorithm is compared with the existing solution by simulation and the result shows that the core node selected by us is more stable and hence reduces the number of handoffs. This in turn improves the service delivery performance by increasing the packet delivery ratio and decreasing the delay, the overhead and the forwarding cost.

  4. An Analysis Platform for Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Scenario Execution Log Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ARL-TR-7574 ● JAN 2016 US Army Research Laboratory An Analysis Platform for Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Scenario Execution Log ...Analysis Platform for Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Scenario Execution Log Data by Jaime C Acosta and Yadira Jacquez Survivability/Lethality Analysis...August 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Analysis Platform for Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Scenario Execution Log Data 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  5. Extending Service Area of IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2012-06-01

    According to the current IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN standards, IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks have the limitation that all STAs (Stations) are in the one-hop transmission range of each other. In this paper, to alleviate the limitation of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks we propose the efficient method for selecting the most appropriate pseudo AP (Access Point) from among the set of ad hoc STAs and extending the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks by the pseudo AP's relaying the internal traffic of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Numerical examples show that the proposed method significantly extends the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks.

  6. A flow level model for wireless multihop ad hoc network throughput

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom Johannes Maria; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2005-01-01

    A flow level model for multihop wireless ad hoc networks is presented in this paper. Using a flow level view, we show the main properties and modeling challenges for ad hoc networks. Considering different scenarios, a multihop WLAN and a serial network with a TCP-like flow control protocol, we

  7. Modeling the impact of interference on wireless ad hoc network performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom Johannes Maria

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a variety of mathematical models to model the impact of interference on wireless ad hoc network performance. Wireless ad hoc networks are characterized by their decentralized nature, they are self-configuring and dynamic. The wireless nature of these networks poses a number of

  8. The effect of mobility on local service discovery in the Ahoy ad-hoc network system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goering, P.T.H.; Heijenk, Geert; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Haarman, Robbert

    2007-01-01

    Ahoy, a protocol to perform local service discovery in ad-hoc networks is described in this paper. The protocol has been implemented in a discreteevent simulator to study its performance in case of a multihop mobile ad-hoc network. Especially the effect of mobility on the network load and the

  9. Anomaly detection using clustering for ad hoc networks -behavioral approach-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belacel Madani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile   ad   hoc   networks   (MANETs   are   multi-hop   wireless   networks   ofautonomous  mobile  nodes  without  any  fixed  infrastructure.  In  MANETs,  it  isdifficult to detect malicious nodes because the network topology constantly changesdue  to  node  mobility.  Intrusion  detection  is  the  means  to  identify  the  intrusivebehaviors and provide useful information to intruded systems to respond fast and toavoid  or  reduce  damages.  The  anomaly  detection  algorithms  have  the  advantagebecause  they  can  detect  new  types  of  attacks  (zero-day  attacks.In  this  paper,  wepresent  a  Intrusion  Detection  System  clustering-based  (ID-Cluster  that  fits  therequirement of MANET. This dissertation addresses both routing layer misbehaviorsissues,  with  main  focuses  on  thwarting  routing  disruption  attack  Dynamic  SourceRouting  (DSR.  To  validate  the  research,  a  case  study  is  presented  using  thesimulation with GloMoSum at different mobility levels. Simulation results show thatour  proposed  system  can  achieve  desirable  performance  and  meet  the  securityrequirement of MANET.

  10. Performance Improvement in Geographic Routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Kaiwartya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Geographic routing is one of the most investigated themes by researchers for reliable and efficient dissemination of information in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs. Recently, different Geographic Distance Routing (GEDIR protocols have been suggested in the literature. These protocols focus on reducing the forwarding region towards destination to select the Next Hop Vehicles (NHV. Most of these protocols suffer from the problem of elevated one-hop link disconnection, high end-to-end delay and low throughput even at normal vehicle speed in high vehicle density environment. This paper proposes a Geographic Distance Routing protocol based on Segment vehicle, Link quality and Degree of connectivity (SLD-GEDIR. The protocol selects a reliable NHV using the criteria segment vehicles, one-hop link quality and degree of connectivity. The proposed protocol has been simulated in NS-2 and its performance has been compared with the state-of-the-art protocols: P-GEDIR, J-GEDIR and V-GEDIR. The empirical results clearly reveal that SLD-GEDIR has lower link disconnection and end-to-end delay, and higher throughput as compared to the state-of-the-art protocols. It should be noted that the performance of the proposed protocol is preserved irrespective of vehicle density and speed.

  11. Intelligent Information Dissemination Scheme for Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs, a hotspot, such as a parking lot, is an information source and will receive inquiries from many vehicles for seeking any possible free parking space. According to the routing protocols in literature, each of the vehicles needs to flood its route discovery (RD packets to discover a route to the hotspot before sending inquiring packets to the parking lot. As a result, the VANET nearby an urban area or city center may incur the problem of broadcast storm due to so many flooding RD packets during rush hours. To avoid the broadcast storm problem, this paper presents a hotspot-enabled routing-tree based data forwarding method, called the intelligent information dissemination scheme (IID. Our method can let the hotspot automatically decide when to build the routing-tree for proactive information transmissions under the condition that the number of vehicle routing discoveries during a given period exceeds a certain threshold which is calculated through our developed analytical packet delivery model. The routing information will be dynamically maintained by vehicles located at each intersection near the hotspot if the maintaining cost is less than that of allowing vehicles to discover routes themselves. Simulation results show that this method can minimize routing delays for vehicles with lower packets delivery overheads.

  12. Performance improvement in geographic routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiwartya, Omprakash; Kumar, Sushil; Lobiyal, D K; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Hassan, Ahmed Nazar

    2014-11-25

    Geographic routing is one of the most investigated themes by researchers for reliable and efficient dissemination of information in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). Recently, different Geographic Distance Routing (GEDIR) protocols have been suggested in the literature. These protocols focus on reducing the forwarding region towards destination to select the Next Hop Vehicles (NHV). Most of these protocols suffer from the problem of elevated one-hop link disconnection, high end-to-end delay and low throughput even at normal vehicle speed in high vehicle density environment. This paper proposes a Geographic Distance Routing protocol based on Segment vehicle, Link quality and Degree of connectivity (SLD-GEDIR). The protocol selects a reliable NHV using the criteria segment vehicles, one-hop link quality and degree of connectivity. The proposed protocol has been simulated in NS-2 and its performance has been compared with the state-of-the-art protocols: P-GEDIR, J-GEDIR and V-GEDIR. The empirical results clearly reveal that SLD-GEDIR has lower link disconnection and end-to-end delay, and higher throughput as compared to the state-of-the-art protocols. It should be noted that the performance of the proposed protocol is preserved irrespective of vehicle density and speed.

  13. SIMULATION STUDY OF BLACKHOLE ATTACK IN THE MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEENU SHARMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A wireless ad hoc network is a temporary network set up by wireless nodes usually moving randomly and communicating without a network infrastructure. Due to security vulnerabilities of the routing protocols, however, wireless ad hoc networks may be unprotected against attacks by the malicious nodes. In this study we investigated the effects of Blackhole attacks on the network performance. We simulated Blackhole attacks in Qualnet Simulator and measured the packet loss in the network with and without a blackhole. The simulation is done on AODV (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol. The network performance in the presence of a blackhole is reduced up to 26%.

  14. Research of ad hoc network based on SINCGARS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Hao; Cai, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hong; Chen, Jian; Weng, Pengfei

    2016-03-01

    In today's world, science and technology make a spurt of progress, so society has entered the era of information technology, network. Only the comprehensive use of electronic warfare and network warfare means can we maximize their access to information and maintain the information superiority. Combined with the specific combat mission and operational requirements, the research design and construction in accordance with the actual military which are Suitable for the future of information technology needs of the tactical Adhoc network, tactical internet, will greatly improve the operational efficiency of the command of the army. Through the study of the network of the U.S. military SINCGARS network, it can explore the routing protocol and mobile model, to provide a reference for the research of our army network.

  15. A peer-to-peer file search and download protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Hasan; Tekkalmaz, M.; Korpeoglu, I.

    Deployment of traditional peer-to-peer file sharing systems on a wireless ad-hoc network introduces several challenges. Information and workload distribution as well as routing are major problems for members of a wireless ad-hoc network, which are only aware of their immediate neighborhood. In this

  16. Network Management System for Tactical Mobile Ad Hoc Network Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    battalion during the battle for An Nasiriyah from 20–23 March 2003. Major Rohr described the difficulties of command and control in a chaotic battlefield...critical information was not able to reliably flow ( Rohr , 2006). The timely flow of information is heavily dependent on a reliable and integrated network...dpr/locus/Papers/Context%20GFN%20article.doc. Rohr , K. C. (2006). Fighting through the fog of war. Retrieved from Marine Corps Gazette website

  17. Cognitive radio network in vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET): A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne Mun-Yee Lim; Yoong Choon Chang; Mohamad Yusoff Alias; Jonathan Loo

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive radio network and vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) are recent emerging concepts in wireless networking. Cognitive radio network obtains knowledge of its operational geographical environment to manage sharing of spectrum between primary and secondary users, while VANET shares emergency safety messages among vehicles to ensure safety of users on the road. Cognitive radio network is employed in VANET to ensure the efficient use of spectrum, as well as to support VANET’s deployment. Ran...

  18. Simulation and Evaluation of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kioumourtzis, George

    2005-01-01

    Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) are of much interest to both the research community and the military because of the potential to establish a communication network in any situation that involves emergencies...

  19. Throughput and Fairness of Collision Avoidance Protocols in Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J; Wang, Yu

    2004-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks have received increasing interest in recent years because of their potential to be used in a variety of applications without the aid of any pre-existing network infrastructure...

  20. Cross-Layer Design Approach for Power Control in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sarfaraz Ahmed; T. Senthil Kumaran; S. Syed Abdul Syed; S. Subburam

    2015-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, communication among mobile nodes occurs through wireless medium The design of ad hoc network protocol, generally based on a traditional “layered approach”, has been found ineffective to deal with receiving signal strength (RSS)-related problems, affecting the physical layer, the network layer and transport layer. This paper proposes a design approach, deviating from the traditional network design, toward enhancing the cross-layer interaction among different layers, ...

  1. NDN-CRAHNs: Named Data Networking for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Asif Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Named data networking (NDN is a newly proposed paradigm for future Internet, in which communication among nodes is based on data names, decoupling from their locations. In dynamic and self-organized cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs, it is difficult to maintain end-to-end connectivity between ad hoc nodes especially in the presence of licensed users and intermittent wireless channels. Moreover, IP-based CRAHNs have several issues like scalability, inefficient-mapping, poor resource utilization, and location dependence. By leveraging the advantages of NDN, in this paper, we propose a new cross layer fine-grained architecture called named data networking for cognitive radio ad hoc networks (NDN-CRAHNs. The proposed architecture provides distinct features such as in-networking caching, security, scalability, and multipath routing. The performances of the proposed scheme are evaluated comparing to IP-based scheme in terms of average end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is effective in terms of average contents download time and packet delivery ratios comparing to conventional cognitive radio ad hoc networks.

  2. Interference Drop Scheme: Enhancing QoS Provision in Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chang-Yi; Komuro, Nobuyoshi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Kasai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Hiromi; Tsuboi, Toshinori

    Ad hoc networking uses wireless technologies to construct networks with no physical infrastructure and so are expected to provide instant networking in areas such as disaster recovery sites and inter-vehicle communication. Unlike conventional wired networks services, services in ad hoc networks are easily disrupted by the frequent changes in traffic and topology. Therefore, solutions to assure the Quality of Services (QoS) in ad hoc networks are different from the conventional ones used in wired networks. In this paper, we propose a new queue management scheme, Interference Drop Scheme (IDS) for ad hoc networks. In the conventional queue management approaches such as FIFO (First-in First-out) and RED (Random Early Detection), a queue is usually managed by a queue length limit. FIFO discards packets according to the queue limit, and RED discards packets in an early and random fashion. IDS, on the other hand, manages the queue according to wireless interference time, which increases as the number of contentions in the MAC layer increases. When there are many MAC contentions, IDS discards TCP data packets. By observing the interference time and discarding TCP data packets, our simulation results show that IDS improves TCP performance and reduces QoS violations in UDP in ad hoc networks with chain, grid, and random topologies. Our simulation results also demonstrate that wireless interference time is a better metric than queue length limit for queue management in multi-hop ad hoc networks.

  3. Effects of Data Replication on Data Exfiltration in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Utilizing Reactive Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Figure Page 1 Model of topology of wireless ad hoc network by unit-disk graphs...Routing Independent Overlay Network OSI Open Systems Interconnect P2P peer-to-peer QoS quality of service RREP route reply RREQ route request UAV unmanned...chapter closes with a look at the current state of modeling ad hoc networks , the various simulators used, as well as a survey of simulation versus an

  4. Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Santi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks: Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks provides the reader with an overview of mobility modelling, encompassing both theoretical and practical aspects related to the challenging mobility modelling task. It also: Provides up-to-date coverage of mobility models for next generation wireless networksOffers an in-depth discussion of the most representative mobility models for major next generation wireless network application scenarios, including WLAN/mesh networks, vehicular networks, wireless sensor networks, and

  5. Analysis for Ad Hoc Network Attack-Defense Based on Stochastic Game Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjie LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The attack actions analysis for Ad Hoc networks can provide a reference for the design security mechanisms. This paper presents an analysis method of security of Ad Hoc networks based on Stochastic Game Nets (SGN. This method can establish a SGN model of Ad Hoc networks and calculate to get the Nash equilibrium strategy. After transforming the SGN model into a continuous-time Markov Chain (CTMC, the security of Ad Hoc networks can be evaluated and analyzed quantitatively by calculating the stationary probability of CTMC. Finally, the Matlab simulation results show that the probability of successful attack is related to the attack intensity and expected payoffs, but not attack rate.

  6. A Tool for Visualizing Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Topology Definitions Files

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Binh Q

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a research and development effort that the U.S. Army Research Laboratory conducted in FY05 in support of the building of an emulated tactical mobile ad hoc network (MANET) research test bed...

  7. DESAIN ALGORITMA DAN SIMULASI ROUTING UNTUK GATEWAY AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixson Meok

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available   Routing protocol to the wireless ad hoc networks is very needed in the communication process between some terminals, to send the data packet through one or several node(s to the destination address where the network typology is always changing. Many previous works that discussed about routing ad hoc both for manet (mobile ad hoc networks and wireless networks, but the emphasis have more focus on comparing the performance of several routing ad hoc. While in this work, there is a bulding of routing algorithm model to gateway in land to the nodes that analogized as a boat that move on the sea. With the assumption that the communication inter terminals to radio band of Very High Frequency, thus algorithm that built in the simulation based on the range gap of the HF frequency. The result of this simulation will be developed as the platform to implement the service development of multiuser communication

  8. On-Demand Routing in Multi-hop Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maltz, David A

    2001-01-01

    .... Routing protocols used in ad hoc networks must automatically adjust to environments that can vary between the extremes of high mobility with low bandwidth, and low mobility with high bandwidth...

  9. Throughput and Fairness of Collision Avoidance Protocols in Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J; Wang, Yu

    2004-01-01

    .... In Section 1, The authors present an analytical modeling to derive the saturation throughput of these sender-initiated collision avoidance protocols in multi-hop ad hoc networks with nodes randomly...

  10. Detection and Prevention of MAC Layer Misbehavior for ad hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cardenas, Alvaro A; Radosavac, Svetlana; Baras, John S

    2004-01-01

    ...) attacks targeting the MAC layer. In this study we assess the performance of the CSMA/CA scheme and investigate its efficiency with regard to security and information assurance in mobile ad hoc wireless networks...

  11. Voice Communications over 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks: Modeling, Optimization and Call Admission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changchun; Xu, Yanyi; Liu, Gan; Liu, Kezhong

    Supporting quality-of-service (QoS) of multimedia communications over IEEE 802.11 based ad hoc networks is a challenging task. This paper develops a simple 3-D Markov chain model for queuing analysis of IEEE 802.11 MAC layer. The model is applied for performance analysis of voice communications over IEEE 802.11 single-hop ad hoc networks. By using the model, we finish the performance optimization of IEEE MAC layer and obtain the maximum number of voice calls in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks as well as the statistical performance bounds. Furthermore, we design a fully distributed call admission control (CAC) algorithm which can provide strict statistical QoS guarantee for voice communications over IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Extensive simulations indicate the accuracy of the analytical model and the CAC scheme.

  12. A Group Based Key Sharing and Management Algorithm for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Shafi Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs are one special type of ad hoc networks that involves vehicles on roads. Typically like ad hoc networks, broadcast approach is used for data dissemination. Blind broadcast to each and every node results in exchange of useless and irrelevant messages and hence creates an overhead. Unicasting is not preferred in ad-hoc networks due to the dynamic topology and the resource requirements as compared to broadcasting. Simple broadcasting techniques create several problems on privacy, disturbance, and resource utilization. In this paper, we propose media mixing algorithm to decide what information should be provided to each user and how to provide such information. Results obtained through simulation show that fewer number of keys are needed to share compared to simple broadcasting. Privacy is also enhanced through this approach.

  13. Energy-Aware Broadcasting and Multicasting in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: A Cross-Layering Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wieselthier, Jeffrey E; Nguyen, Gam D; Ephremides, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    ...) problems, especially when energy-aware operation is required. To address the specific problem of energy-aware tree construction in wireless ad hoc networks, we have developed the Broadcast Incremental Power (BIP...

  14. Experimental characterization and mitigation of turbulence induced signal fades within an ad hoc FSO network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Joaquin; Zvanovec, Stanislav; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Popoola, Wasiu O

    2014-02-10

    Optical beams propagating through the turbulent atmospheric channel suffer from both the attenuation and phase distortion. Since future wireless networks are envisaged to be deployed in the ad hoc mesh topology, this paper presents the experimental laboratory characterization of mitigation of turbulence induced signal fades for two ad hoc scenarios. Results from measurements of the thermal structure constant along the propagation channels, changes of the coherence lengths for different turbulence regimes and the eye diagrams for partially correlated turbulences in free space optical channels are discussed. Based on these results future deployment of optical ad hoc networks can be more straightforwardly planned.

  15. Latency Estimation-Based Data Delivery Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Haigang; Yu, Lingfei; Liu, Ke; Xu, Fulong; Wang, Xiaomin

    2012-01-01

    Data delivery is the most compelling issue for the applications in vehicular ad hoc networks. The characteristics of VAENTs such as highly dynamic topology and the road-constrained mobility pose great challenges for data delivery in vehicular ad hoc networks. In this paper, a latency estimation-based data delivery (LED) scheme is presented. According to the current location and the moving direction of the vehicles, LED calculates the expected delivery latency (EDL) of each vehicle and chooses...

  16. Packets Distributing Evolutionary Algorithm Based on PSO for Ad Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Feng

    2018-03-01

    Wireless communication network has such features as limited bandwidth, changeful channel and dynamic topology, etc. Ad hoc network has lots of difficulties in accessing control, bandwidth distribution, resource assign and congestion control. Therefore, a wireless packets distributing Evolutionary algorithm based on PSO (DPSO)for Ad Hoc Network is proposed. Firstly, parameters impact on performance of network are analyzed and researched to obtain network performance effective function. Secondly, the improved PSO Evolutionary Algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem from local to global in the process of network packets distributing. The simulation results show that the algorithm can ensure fairness and timeliness of network transmission, as well as improve ad hoc network resource integrated utilization efficiency.

  17. Adjusting Sensing Range to Maximize Throughput on Ad-Hoc Multi-Hop Wireless Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    .... Such a network is referred to as a multi-hop ad-hoc network, or simply a multi-hop network. Most multi-hop network protocols use some form of carrier sensing to determine if the wireless channel is in use...

  18. Service for fault tolerance in the Ad Hoc Networks based on Multi Agent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalem Belalem

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ad hoc networks are distributed networks, self-organized and does not require infrastructure. In such network, mobile infrastructures are subject of disconnections. This situation may concern a voluntary or involuntary disconnection of nodes caused by the high mobility in the Ad hoc network. In these problems we are trying through this work to contribute to solving these problems in order to ensure continuous service by proposing our service for faults tolerance based on Multi Agent Systems (MAS, which predict a problem and decision making in relation to critical nodes. Our work contributes to study the prediction of voluntary and involuntary disconnections in the Ad hoc network; therefore we propose our service for faults tolerance that allows for effective distribution of information in the Network by selecting some objects of the network to be duplicates of information.

  19. Analysis of DDoS Attack Effect and Protection Scheme in Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Ramratan Ahirwal; Leeladhar Mahour

    2012-01-01

    In Wireless mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) every node functions as transmitter, router and data sink is network without infrastructure. Detecting malicious nodes in an open ad-hoc network in whichparticipating nodes have no previous security associations presents a number of challenges not faced by traditional wired networks. Traffic monitoring in wired networks is usually performed at switches,routers and gateways, but an ad-hoc network does not have these types of network elements where the...

  20. Handbook on theoretical and algorithmic aspects of sensor, ad hoc wireless, and peer-to-peer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jie

    2005-01-01

    PrefaceAD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKSA Modular Cross Layer Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks, M. Conti, J. Crowcroft, G. Maselli, and G. TuriRouting Scalability in MANETs, J. Eriksson, S. Krishnamurthy and M. FaloutsosUniformly Distributed Algorithm for Virtual Backbone Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, D.S. KimMaximum Necessary Hop Count for Packet Routing in MANET, X. Chen and J. ShenEfficient Strategyproof Multicast in Selfish Wireless Networks, X.-Yang LiGeocasting in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, I. StojmenovicTopology Control for Ad hoc Networks: Present Solutions and Open Issues, C.-C. Shen a

  1. An implementation of traffic light system using multi-hop Ad hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-08-01

    In ad hoc networks nodes cooperate with each other to form a temporary network without the aid of any centralized administration. No wired base station or infrastructure is supported, and each host communicates via radio packets. Each host must act as a router, since routes are mostly multi-hop, due to the limited power transmission set by government agencies, (e.g. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is 1 Watt in Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The natures of wireless mobile ad hoc networks depend on batteries or other fatiguing means for their energy. A limited energy capacity may be the most significant performance constraint. Therefore, radio resource and power management is an important issue of any wireless network. In this paper, a design for traffic light system employing ad hoc networks is proposed. The traffic light system runs automatically based on signals sent through a multi-hop ad hoc network of \\'n\\' number of nodes utilizing the Token Ring protocol, which is efficient for this application from the energy prospective. The experiment consists of a graphical user interface that simulates the traffic lights and laptops (which have wireless network adapters) are used to run the graphical user interface and are responsible for setting up the ad hoc network between them. The traffic light system has been implemented utilizing A Mesh Driver (which allows for more than one wireless device to be connected simultaneously) and Java-based client-server programs. © 2009 IEEE.

  2. Intelligent Sensing and Classification in DSR-Based Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Tae; Sahin, Gokhan; Morton, Yu T. (Jade

    Wireless ad hoc networks have fundamentally altered today's battlefield, with applications ranging from unmanned air vehicles to randomly deployed sensor networks. Security and vulnerabilities in wireless ad hoc networks have been considered at different layers, and many attack strategies have been proposed, including denial of service (DoS) through the intelligent jamming of the most critical packet types of flows in a network. This paper investigates the effectiveness of intelligent jamming in wireless ad hoc networks using the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and TCP protocols and introduces an intelligent classifier to facilitate the jamming of such networks. Assuming encrypted packet headers and contents, our classifier is based solely on the observable characteristics of size, inter-arrival timing, and direction and classifies packets with up to 99.4% accuracy in our experiments.

  3. SURVEI TEKNIK CLUSTERING ROUTING BERDASARKAN MOBILITAS PADA WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Trisna Wirawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad-hoc merupakan sebuah skema jaringan yang didesain supaya mampu beroperasi tanpa membutuhkan infrastruktur tetap serta bersifat otonom. Teknik flooding pada proses path discovery dalam kasus wireless ad-hoc network dapat menimbulkan masalah beban jaringan yang berlebihan. Oleh karena itu, sebuah skema clustering diusulkan untuk mengurangi adanya flooding paket yang berlebihan dengan membagi node-node dalam jaringan menjadi beberapa bagian berdasarkan parameter tertentu. Teknik ini efektifuntuk mengurangi paket yang harus dilewatkan dalam jaringan. Namun masalah muncul ketika sebuah jaringan wireless ad-hoc harus membentuk sebuah cluster dengan mempertimbangkan beberapa parameter khusus. Parameter tersebut harus disesuaikan dengan kasus yang dihadapi. Pada tulisan ini akan dibahas secara khusus mengenai penerapan skema clustering dalam lingkungan wireless ad-hoc network, baik pada MANETdan penyesuaian skema clustering yang harus dilakukan pada VANET berdasarkan mobilitasnya.

  4. Specification and Validation of an Edge Router Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Jensen, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    core network in assigning network address prefixes to gateways in mobile ad-hoc networks. This paper focuses on how CP-nets and the CPN computer tools have been applied in the development of ERDP. A CPN model has been constructed that constitutes a formal executable specification of ERDP. Simulation...

  5. A Decentralized VPN Service over Generalized Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Sho; Shima, Keiichi; Uo, Yojiro; Esaki, Hiroshi

    We present a decentralized VPN service that can be built over generalized mobile ad-hoc networks (Generalized MANETs), in which topologies can be represented as a time-varying directed multigraph. We address wireless ad-hoc networks and overlay ad-hoc networks as instances of Generalized MANETs. We first propose an architecture to operate on various kinds of networks through a single set of operations. Then, we design and implement a decentralized VPN service on the proposed architecture. Through the development and operation of a prototype system we implemented, we found that the proposed architecture makes the VPN service applicable to each instance of Generalized MANETs, and that the VPN service makes it possible for unmodified applications to operate on the networks.

  6. Awareness of Emerging Wireless Technologies: Ad-hoc and Personal Area Networks Standards and Emerging Technologies (Sensibilisation a l'emergence des technologies sans fil: technologies emergeantes et normes de reseaux personnels et ad-hoc)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stassinopoulos, George; Boucher, L; Churavy, M; Plesse, T; Marquart, D; Kyriazakos, S; Papaoulakis, N; Nikitopoulos, D; Maseng, T

    2007-01-01

    .... The report starts with ad-hoc networking concepts and maturing technological solutions. Ad-hoc networking is a necessary companion to wireless communication, due to the inherent lack of reliability of any wireless based link level protocol...

  7. Quality of Service Issues for Reinforcement Learning Based Routing Algorithm for Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Shrirang Ambaji; Rao, G. Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc networks are dynamic networks which are decentralized and autonomous in nature. Many routing algorithms have been proposed for these dynamic networks. It is an important problem to model Quality of Service requirements on these types of algorithms which traditionally have certain limitations. To model this scenario we have considered a reinforcement learning algorithm SAMPLE. SAMPLE promises to deal effectively with congestion and under high traffic load. As it is natural for ad...

  8. Challenges of evidence acquisition in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutanga, MB

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Network forensics plays a major role in the investigation of criminal activities involving computer networks. Investigating such crimes is still an open research area due to the fact that technology is always advancing hence investigators must...

  9. Time synchronization in ad-hoc wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nishant

    2013-06-01

    Advances in micro-electronics and developments in the various technologies have given birth to this era of wireless sensor networks. A sensor network is the one which provides information about the surrounding environment by sensing it and clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks plays a vital role to maintain the integrity of entire network. In this paper two major low energy consumption clock synchronization algorithms, Reference Broadcast Synchronization (RBS) and Timing-Sync Protocol for Sensor Networks (TPSN) are simulated, which result in high level of accuracy, reliability, handles substantially greater node densities, supports mobility, and hence perform well under all possible conditions.

  10. BLESSED with Opportunistic Beacons: A Lightweight Data Dissemination Model for Smart Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces BLESSED, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the complementary utilization of the IEEE 802.11 and Bluetooth Low Energy standards. As a

  11. Performance of Ad Hoc Networks with Two-Hop Relay Routing and Limited Packet Lifetime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Nain, Philippe; Altman, Eitan

    2006-01-01

    Considered is a mobile ad hoc network consisting of three types of nodes (source, destination and relay nodes) and using the two-hop relay routing protocol. Packets at relay nodes are assumed to have a limited lifetime in the network. All nodes are moving inside a bounded region according to some

  12. Multipath routing and multiple description coding in ad-hoc networks: A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz, I.F.; Epema, D.; Jongh, J. de

    2004-01-01

    The nature of wireless multihop ad-hoc networks makes it a challenge to offer connections of an assured quality. In order to improve the performance of such networks, multipath routing in combination with Multiple Description Coding (MDC) has been proposed. By splitting up streams of multimedia

  13. Fostering Sociability in Learning Networks through Ad-Hoc Transient Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2009). Fostering Sociability in Learning Networks through Ad-Hoc Transient Communities. In M. Purvis & B. T. R. Savarimuthu (Eds.), Computer-Mediated Social Networking. First International Conference, ICCMSN 2008, LNAI 5322 (pp. 62-75). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. June, 11-13, 2008,

  14. On the Geometrical Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Wireless Ad Hoc Networks and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a wireless ad hoc network, messages are transmitted, received, and forwarded in a finite geometrical region and the transmission of messages is highly dependent on the locations of the nodes. Therefore the study of geometrical relationship between nodes in wireless ad hoc networks is of fundamental importance in the network architecture design and performance evaluation. However, most previous works concentrated on the networks deployed in the two-dimensional region or in the infinite three-dimensional space, while in many cases wireless ad hoc networks are deployed in the finite three-dimensional space. In this paper, we analyze the geometrical characteristics of the three-dimensional wireless ad hoc network in a finite space in the framework of random graph and deduce an expression to calculate the distance probability distribution between network nodes that are independently and uniformly distributed in a finite cuboid space. Based on the theoretical result, we present some meaningful results on the finite three-dimensional network performance, including the node degree and the max-flow capacity. Furthermore, we investigate some approximation properties of the distance probability distribution function derived in the paper.

  15. Using firefighter mobility traces to understand ad-hoc networks in wildfires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cabrero Barros (Sergio); X.G. Pañeda (Xabriel); D. Melendi (David); R. Garcia (Roberto); Thomas Plagemann (T.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAd-hoc networks have long been studied as an ideal technology to provide communications in emergency operations when network infrastructures are not available. Nevertheless, this area has not yet delivered enough mature technologies or working prototypes. We suspect that, among other

  16. Energy Research and Development Administration Ad Hoc Computer Networking Group: experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, I.

    1975-03-19

    The Ad Hoc Computer Networking Group was established to investigate the potential advantages and costs of newer forms of remote resource sharing and computer networking. The areas of research and investigation that are within the scope of the ERDA CNG are described. (GHT)

  17. Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Raminder P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc sensor networks differ from wireless ad hoc networks from the following perspectives: low energy, lightweight routing protocols, and adaptive communication patterns. This paper proposes an energy-aware routing protocol (EARP suitable for ad hoc wireless sensor networks and presents an analysis for its energy consumption in various phases of route discovery and maintenance. Based on the energy consumption associated with route request processing, EARP advocates the minimization of route requests by allocating dynamic route expiry times. This paper introduces a unique mechanism for estimation of route expiry time based on the probability of route validity, which is a function of time, number of hops, and mobility parameters. In contrast to AODV, EARP reduces the repeated flooding of route requests by maintaining valid routes for longer durations.

  18. Clock Synchronization for Multi-hop Ad hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Neil

    2003-01-01

    Clock syncronization is one of the basic requirements of a distributed real-time systems. The greater the precision achievable by the clock synchronization algorithm used, the harder the real-time guarantees that can be given by the system. Numerous clock synchronization algoritms for wired networks have been proposed, which provide varying degrees of precision. Wireless networks provide a number of challenges which clock synchronization algorithms for wired networks do not address satisf...

  19. Rate adaptation in ad hoc networks based on pricing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Awuor, F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available to transmit at high power leading to abnormal interference in the network hence degrades network performance (i.e. low data rates, loss of connectivity among others). In this paper, the authors propose rate adaptation based on pricing (RAP) algorithm...

  20. Cognitive radio network in vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Mun-Yee Lim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio network and Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET are recent emerging concepts in wireless networking. Cognitive radio network obtains knowledge of its operational geographical environment to manage sharing of spectrum between primary and secondary users, while VANET shares emergency safety messages among vehicles to ensure safety of users on the road. Cognitive radio network is employed in VANET to ensure the efficient use of spectrum, as well as to support VANET’s deployment. Random increase and decrease of spectrum users, unpredictable nature of VANET, high mobility, varying interference, security, packet scheduling and priority assignment are the challenges encountered in a typical cognitive VANET environment. This paper provides survey and critical analysis on different challenges of cognitive radio VANET, with discussion on the open issues, challenges and performance metrics, for different cognitive radio VANET applications.

  1. Energy Efficient and QoS sensitive Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanoli, Tariq Saeed; Khan, Muhammad Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Efficient routing is an important part of wireless ad hoc networks. Since in ad hoc networks we have limited resources, there are many limitations like bandwidth, battery consumption, and processing cycle etc. Reliability is also necessary since there is no allowance for invalid or incomplete information (and expired data is useless). There are various protocols that perform routing by considering one parameter but ignoring other parameters. In this paper we present a protocol that finds route on the basis of bandwidth, energy and mobility of the nodes participating in the communication

  2. Beamspace Multiple Input Multiple Output. Part II: Steerable Antennas in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Networks with Beamforming Antennas,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials , vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 216–239. 17. Akyildiz, I. F., and X. Wang. 2005. “A... Survey on Wireless Mesh Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. S23–S30. 18. Ramanathan, R. 2001. “On the Performance of Ad Hoc...Ando, A. 2002. “Analysis of ESPAR Antennas in Indoor Multi-path Environments for Wireless Ad-hoc N etwork Systems.” IEEE Wireless Communications and

  3. Enabling Secure High-Performance Wireless Ad Hoc Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-29

    Carl Meyer, and Jonathan Oseas. Generating Strong One-Way Functions with Cryptographic Algorithm. 27:5658–5659, 1985. [119] Marshall Kirk McKusick... Culler , and J. D. Tygar. SPINS: Security Protocols for Sensor Networks. In Proceedings of the Seventh Annual International Conference on Mobile...David L. Tennenhouse, Jonathan M. Smith, W. David Sincoskie, David J. Wetherall, and Gary J. Minden. A Survey of Active Network Research. IEEE

  4. A Survey on Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    may modify routing packets in such a way that packets traverse a cycle and so do not reach the intended destination [56]. • Wormhole attacks: A group...of cooperating malicious nodes can pretend to connect two distant points in the network with a low-latency communication link called a wormhole link...Detecting Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Networks Using Connectivity Information,” Proc. 26th IEEE Int’l Conf. on Computer Communications, Anchorage, AK, 6

  5. Reinforcement Learning for Routing in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan A. A. Al-Rawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio (CR enables unlicensed users (or secondary users, SUs to sense for and exploit underutilized licensed spectrum owned by the licensed users (or primary users, PUs. Reinforcement learning (RL is an artificial intelligence approach that enables a node to observe, learn, and make appropriate decisions on action selection in order to maximize network performance. Routing enables a source node to search for a least-cost route to its destination node. While there have been increasing efforts to enhance the traditional RL approach for routing in wireless networks, this research area remains largely unexplored in the domain of routing in CR networks. This paper applies RL in routing and investigates the effects of various features of RL (i.e., reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate through simulation. New approaches and recommendations are proposed to enhance the features in order to improve the network performance brought about by RL to routing. Simulation results show that the RL parameters of the reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate, must be well regulated, and the new approaches proposed in this paper improves SUs’ network performance without significantly jeopardizing PUs’ network performance, specifically SUs’ interference to PUs.

  6. Reinforcement learning for routing in cognitive radio ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawi, Hasan A A; Yau, Kok-Lim Alvin; Mohamad, Hafizal; Ramli, Nordin; Hashim, Wahidah

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) enables unlicensed users (or secondary users, SUs) to sense for and exploit underutilized licensed spectrum owned by the licensed users (or primary users, PUs). Reinforcement learning (RL) is an artificial intelligence approach that enables a node to observe, learn, and make appropriate decisions on action selection in order to maximize network performance. Routing enables a source node to search for a least-cost route to its destination node. While there have been increasing efforts to enhance the traditional RL approach for routing in wireless networks, this research area remains largely unexplored in the domain of routing in CR networks. This paper applies RL in routing and investigates the effects of various features of RL (i.e., reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate) through simulation. New approaches and recommendations are proposed to enhance the features in order to improve the network performance brought about by RL to routing. Simulation results show that the RL parameters of the reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate, must be well regulated, and the new approaches proposed in this paper improves SUs' network performance without significantly jeopardizing PUs' network performance, specifically SUs' interference to PUs.

  7. A Review of routing protocols for mobile cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Selvakanmani, S.; Sumathi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. A cognitive radio is a radio that can change its transmitter parameters based on interaction with the environment in which it operates. The basic idea of cognitive radio networks is that the unlicensed devices (cognitive radio users or secondary users) need to vacate the spectrum band once the licensed device (p...

  8. Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Danger Theory-Based Artificial Immune Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhaq, Maha; Alsaqour, Raed; Abdelhaq, Shawkat

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of t...

  9. Performance Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communication Networks with Directional Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ilah Alshbatat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have the potential of creating an ad hoc communication network in the air. Most UAVs used in communication networks are equipped with wireless transceivers using omnidirectional antennas. In this paper, we consider a collection of UAVs that communicate through wireless links as a mobile ad-hoc network using directional antennas. The network design goal is to maximize the throughput and minimize the end-to-end delay. In this respect, we propose a new medium access control protocol for a network of UAVs with directional antennas. We analyze the communication channel between the UAVs and the effect of aircraft attitude on the network performance. Using the optimized network engineering tool (OPNET, we compare our protocol with the IEEE 802.11 protocol for omnidirectional antennas. The simulation results show performance improvement in end-to-end delay as well as throughput.

  10. Coupled interference based rate adaptation in ad hoc networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Awuor, F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available to transmit at the minimum transmission power enough to sustain connectivity. This paper proposes coupled interference network utility maximization (NUM) strategy (i.e. CIN) for rate adaptation in WLANs that is solved using ”reverse-engineering” based...

  11. Address autoconfiguration in wireless ad hoc networks : Protocols and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cempaka Wangi, N.I.; Prasad, R.V.; Jacobsson, M.; Niemegeers, I.

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of smaller devices having higher computational capacity and wireless communication capabilities, the world is becoming completely networked. Although, the mobile nature of these devices provides ubiquitous services, it also poses many challenges. In this article, we look in depth at

  12. Computing Nash Equilibrium in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Peter E.; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of computing Nash equilibrium in wireless networks modeled by Weighted Timed Automata. Such formalism comes together with a logic that can be used to describe complex features such as timed energy constraints. Our contribution is a method for solving this problem us...

  13. Enabling content distribution in vehicular ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Luan, Tom H; Bai, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents key enabling technologies and state-of-the-art research on delivering efficient content distribution services to fast moving vehicles. It describes recent research developments and proposals towards the efficient, resilient and scalable content distribution to vehicles through both infrastructure-based and infrastructure-less vehicular networks. The authors focus on the rich multimedia services provided by vehicular environment content distribution including vehicular communications and media playback, giving passengers many infotainment applications. Common problem

  14. Ad hoc networking scheme for mobile cyber-physical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-08-17

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide techniques for packet routing. In an embodiment, when a transmitting communication device injects a packet into a communication network, a receiving communication device that is closer to a sink or destination than the transmitting communication device relays the packet in a first hop. In a subsequent hop, a receiving communication device evaluates position information conveyed by the transmitting communication device of the first hop to determine whether to forward the packet. Accordingly, a receiving communication device receiver that offers progress towards the sink can elect to forward the packet.

  15. Reorganization of intruder Using Ad-Hoc Network And RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Hagawane

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This system is to develop a centralized computer application that needs to identify moving person in a specific area using wireless network. In this paper, we develop a new indoor tracking algorithm using received signal strength. The RFID is able to detect the humans and provide information about the direction of the movement. The gathered information from the node is to be given to the base station for processing. . This application is able to detect and track person, and report direction of the intruder to a central base station. In this system we design nodes through which we are able to track the person. The human intruder is detected using Zigbee.

  16. Collaboration Layer for Robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz; Broberg, Jacob Honor´e

    2009-01-01

    networks to solve tasks collaboratively. In this proposal the Collaboration Layer is modelled to handle service and position discovery, group management, and synchronisation among robots, but the layer is also designed to be extendable. Based on this model of the Collaboration Layer, generic services...... are provided to the application running on the robot. The services are generic because they can be used by many different applications, independent of the task to be solved. Likewise, specific services are requested from the underlying Virtual Machine, such as broadcast, multicast, and reliable unicast....... A prototype of the Collaboration Layer has been developed to run in a simulated environment and tested in an evaluation scenario. In the scenario five robots solve the tasks of vacuum cleaning and entrance guarding, which involves the ability to discover potential co-workers, form groups, shift from one group...

  17. On Throughput Improvement of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Hidden Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hong-Seok; Lim, Jong-Tae

    In this letter, we present the throughput analysis of the wireless ad hoc networks based on the IEEE 802.11 MAC (Medium Access Control). Especially, our analysis includes the case with the hidden node problem so that it can be applied to the multi-hop networks. In addition, we suggest a new channel access control algorithm to maximize the network throughput and show the usefulness of the proposed algorithm through simulations.

  18. Connectivity of vehicular ad hoc networks with continuous node distribution patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, W L; Wang, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The connectivity of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANets) can be affected by the special distribution patterns, usually dependent and non-uniform, of vehicles in a transportation network. In this study, we introduce a new framework for computing the connectivity in a VANet for continuous distribution patterns of communication nodes on a line in a transportation network. Such distribution patterns can be estimated from traffic densities obtained through loop detectors or other detectors. When com...

  19. Trustworthy Event-Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In vehicular networks, trustworthiness of exchanged messages is very important since a fake message might incur catastrophic accidents on the road. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to disseminate trustworthy event information while mitigating message modification attack and fake message generation attack. Our scheme attempts to suppress those attacks by exchanging the trust level information of adjacent vehicles and using a two-step procedure. In the first step, each vehicle attempts to determine the trust level, which is referred to as truth-telling probability, of adjacent vehicles. The truth-telling probability is estimated based on the average of opinions of adjacent vehicles, and we apply a new clustering technique to mitigate the effect of malicious vehicles on this estimation by removing their opinions as outliers. Once the truth-telling probability is determined, the trustworthiness of a given message is determined in the second step by applying a modified threshold random walk (TRW to the opinions of the majority group obtained in the first step. We compare our scheme with other schemes using simulation for several scenarios. The simulation results show that our proposed scheme has a low false decision probability and can efficiently disseminate trustworthy event information to neighboring vehicles in VANET.

  20. A survey of message diffusion portocols in mobile ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Ibrahim, M.; Simon, V.; Varga, E.; Carreras, I.

    2008-01-01

    For the last twenty years, mobile communications have experienced an explosive growth. In particular, one area of mobile communication, the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), has attracted significant attention due to its multiple applications and its challenging research problems. On the other hand,

  1. Mitigate DoS and DDoS attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a technique to defeat Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks in Ad Hoc Networks. The technique is divided into two main parts and with game theory and cryptographic puzzles. Introduced first is a new client puzzle to prevent DoS attacks...

  2. Multiplayer Game for DDoS Attacks Resilience in Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiplayer game to prevent Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS) in ad hoc networks. The multiplayer game is based on game theory and cryptographic puzzles. We divide requests from nodes into separate groups which decreases the ability of malicious nodes to cooperate ...

  3. New grid based test bed environment for carrying out ad-hoc networking experiments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available To profile the performance of an ad-hoc networking protocol, three possible methods can be applied. The first is to develop a mathematical model for the expected performance, the second is to run a series of computer simulations on the protocols...

  4. PUCA: A Pseudonym Scheme with User-Controlled Anonymity for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, David; Kargl, Frank; Löhr, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Envisioned vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET) standards use pseudonym certificates to provide secure and privacy-friendly message authentication. Revocation of long-term credentials is required to remove participants from the system, e.g. in case of vehicle theft. However, the current approach to

  5. On-demand Loop-Free Routing in Ad Hoc Networks Using Source Sequence Numbers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rangarajan, Hari; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    2005-01-01

    ...), because nodes relay each RREQ only once. We present the first framework for loop-free on-demand routing in ad hoc networks that is based directly on SSLs, rather than on independent mechanisms, which has been the way in which prior...

  6. Ad-hoc transient communities in Learning Networks Connecting and supporting the learner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Brouns, F. (2009). Ad-hoc transient communities in Learning Networks Connecting and supporting the learner. Presentation given for Korean delegation of Chonnam National University and Dankook University (researchers dr. Jeeheon Ryu and dr. Minjeong Kim and a Group of PhD and Master students).

  7. Facilitating community building in Learning Networks through peer tutoring in ad hoc transient communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Brouns, Francis; Koné, Malik; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    De volledige referentie is: Kester, L., Sloep, P. B., Van Rosmalen, P., Brouns, F., Koné, M., & Koper, R. (2007). Facilitating Community Building in Learning Networks Through Peer-Tutoring in Ad Hoc Transient Communities. International Journal of Web based Communities, 3(2), 198-205.

  8. Adaptive Demand-Driven Multicast Routing in Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jetcheva, Jorjeta G

    2004-01-01

    ...) nodes that wish to communicate. Each node in the ad hoc network acts as a router and forwards packets on behalf of other nodes, allowing nodes that are not within wireless range of each other to communicate over multi-hop paths...

  9. Performance Modeling of a Bottleneck Node in an IEEE 802.11 Ad-hoc Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Hans Leo; Roijers, Frank; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Kunz, Thomas; Ravi, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, often used in ad-hoc networks, has the tendency to share the capacity equally amongst the active nodes, irrespective of their loads. An inherent drawback of this fair-sharing policy is that a node that serves as a relay-node for multiple flows is likely to become a

  10. Optimal design of cluster-based ad-hoc networks using probabilistic solution discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jason L. [B62, QESA-ARDEC, Picatinny, NJ 07806 (United States)], E-mail: Jason.Cook1@us.army.mil; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel [Babbio Center, School of Systems and Enterprises, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The reliability of ad-hoc networks is gaining popularity in two areas: as a topic of academic interest and as a key performance parameter for defense systems employing this type of network. The ad-hoc network is dynamic and scalable and these descriptions are what attract its users. However, these descriptions are also synonymous for undefined and unpredictable when considering the impacts to the reliability of the system. The configuration of an ad-hoc network changes continuously and this fact implies that no single mathematical expression or graphical depiction can describe the system reliability-wise. Previous research has used mobility and stochastic models to address this challenge successfully. In this paper, the authors leverage the stochastic approach and build upon it a probabilistic solution discovery (PSD) algorithm to optimize the topology for a cluster-based mobile ad-hoc wireless network (MAWN). Specifically, the membership of nodes within the back-bone network or networks will be assigned in such as way as to maximize reliability subject to a constraint on cost. The constraint may also be considered as a non-monetary cost, such as weight, volume, power, or the like. When a cost is assigned to each component, a maximum cost threshold is assigned to the network, and the method is run; the result is an optimized allocation of the radios enabling back-bone network(s) to provide the most reliable network possible without exceeding the allowable cost. The method is intended for use directly as part of the architectural design process of a cluster-based MAWN to efficiently determine an optimal or near-optimal design solution. It is capable of optimizing the topology based upon all-terminal reliability (ATR), all-operating terminal reliability (AoTR), or two-terminal reliability (2TR)

  11. Optimal design of cluster-based ad-hoc networks using probabilistic solution discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Jason L.; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of ad-hoc networks is gaining popularity in two areas: as a topic of academic interest and as a key performance parameter for defense systems employing this type of network. The ad-hoc network is dynamic and scalable and these descriptions are what attract its users. However, these descriptions are also synonymous for undefined and unpredictable when considering the impacts to the reliability of the system. The configuration of an ad-hoc network changes continuously and this fact implies that no single mathematical expression or graphical depiction can describe the system reliability-wise. Previous research has used mobility and stochastic models to address this challenge successfully. In this paper, the authors leverage the stochastic approach and build upon it a probabilistic solution discovery (PSD) algorithm to optimize the topology for a cluster-based mobile ad-hoc wireless network (MAWN). Specifically, the membership of nodes within the back-bone network or networks will be assigned in such as way as to maximize reliability subject to a constraint on cost. The constraint may also be considered as a non-monetary cost, such as weight, volume, power, or the like. When a cost is assigned to each component, a maximum cost threshold is assigned to the network, and the method is run; the result is an optimized allocation of the radios enabling back-bone network(s) to provide the most reliable network possible without exceeding the allowable cost. The method is intended for use directly as part of the architectural design process of a cluster-based MAWN to efficiently determine an optimal or near-optimal design solution. It is capable of optimizing the topology based upon all-terminal reliability (ATR), all-operating terminal reliability (AoTR), or two-terminal reliability (2TR)

  12. An Optimal CDS Construction Algorithm with Activity Scheduling in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakradhar Penumalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new energy efficient optimal Connected Dominating Set (CDS algorithm with activity scheduling for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs is proposed. This algorithm achieves energy efficiency by minimizing the Broadcast Storm Problem [BSP] and at the same time considering the node’s remaining energy. The Connected Dominating Set is widely used as a virtual backbone or spine in mobile ad hoc networks [MANETs] or Wireless Sensor Networks [WSN]. The CDS of a graph representing a network has a significant impact on an efficient design of routing protocol in wireless networks. Here the CDS is a distributed algorithm with activity scheduling based on unit disk graph [UDG]. The node’s mobility and residual energy (RE are considered as parameters in the construction of stable optimal energy efficient CDS. The performance is evaluated at various node densities, various transmission ranges, and mobility rates. The theoretical analysis and simulation results of this algorithm are also presented which yield better results.

  13. Passive and Active Analysis in DSR-Based Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Tae; Sahin, Gokhan; Morton, Y. T. (Jade)

    Security and vulnerabilities in wireless ad hoc networks have been considered at different layers, and many attack strategies have been proposed, including denial of service (DoS) through the intelligent jamming of the most critical packet types of flows in a network. This paper investigates the effectiveness of intelligent jamming in wireless ad hoc networks using the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and TCP protocols and introduces an intelligent classifier to facilitate the jamming of such networks. Assuming encrypted packet headers and contents, our classifier is based solely on the observable characteristics of size, inter-arrival timing, and direction and classifies packets with up to 99.4% accuracy in our experiments. Furthermore, we investigate active analysis, which is the combination of a classifier and intelligent jammer to invoke specific responses from a victim network.

  14. An Optimal CDS Construction Algorithm with Activity Scheduling in Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penumalli, Chakradhar; Palanichamy, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    A new energy efficient optimal Connected Dominating Set (CDS) algorithm with activity scheduling for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is proposed. This algorithm achieves energy efficiency by minimizing the Broadcast Storm Problem [BSP] and at the same time considering the node's remaining energy. The Connected Dominating Set is widely used as a virtual backbone or spine in mobile ad hoc networks [MANETs] or Wireless Sensor Networks [WSN]. The CDS of a graph representing a network has a significant impact on an efficient design of routing protocol in wireless networks. Here the CDS is a distributed algorithm with activity scheduling based on unit disk graph [UDG]. The node's mobility and residual energy (RE) are considered as parameters in the construction of stable optimal energy efficient CDS. The performance is evaluated at various node densities, various transmission ranges, and mobility rates. The theoretical analysis and simulation results of this algorithm are also presented which yield better results.

  15. PNNI routing support for ad hoc mobile networking: The multilevel case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution extends the Outside Nodal Hierarchy List (ONHL) procedures described in ATM Forum Contributions 97-0766 and 97-0933. These extensions allow multiple mobile networks to form either an ad hoc network or an extension of a fixed PNNI infrastructure. A previous contribution (97-1073) covered the simplest case where the top-most Logical Group Nodes (LGNs), in those mobile networks, all resided at the same level in a PNNI hierarchy. This contribution covers the more general case wherein those top-most LGNs may reside at different PNNI hierarchy levels. Both of the SNL contributions consider flat ad hoc network architectures in the sense that each mobile network always participates in the PNNI hierarchy at the pre-configured level of its top-most LGN.

  16. Cross-Layer Design Approach for Power Control in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarfaraz Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, communication among mobile nodes occurs through wireless medium The design of ad hoc network protocol, generally based on a traditional “layered approach”, has been found ineffective to deal with receiving signal strength (RSS-related problems, affecting the physical layer, the network layer and transport layer. This paper proposes a design approach, deviating from the traditional network design, toward enhancing the cross-layer interaction among different layers, namely physical, MAC and network. The Cross-Layer design approach for Power control (CLPC would help to enhance the transmission power by averaging the RSS values and to find an effective route between the source and the destination. This cross-layer design approach was tested by simulation (NS2 simulator and its performance over AODV was found to be better.

  17. Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA Protocol to Mitigate Blackhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The self-organizing nature of the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs provide a communication channel anywhere, anytime without any pre-existing network infrastructure. However, it is exposed to various vulnerabilities that may be exploited by the malicious nodes. One such malicious behavior is introduced by blackhole nodes, which can be easily introduced in the network and, in turn, such nodes try to crumble the working of the network by dropping the maximum data under transmission. In this paper, a new protocol is proposed which is based on the widely used Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA, which makes use of multiple paths along with use of trust and asymmetric cryptography to ensure data security. The results, based on NS-3 simulation, reveal that the proposed protocol is effectively able to counter the blackhole nodes in three different scenarios.

  18. Formal reconstruction of attack scenarios in mobile ad hoc and sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekhis Slim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several techniques of theoretical digital investigation are presented in the literature but most of them are unsuitable to cope with attacks in wireless networks, especially in Mobile Ad hoc and Sensor Networks (MASNets. In this article, we propose a formal approach for digital investigation of security attacks in wireless networks. We provide a model for describing attack scenarios in a wireless environment, and system and network evidence generated consequently. The use of formal approaches is motivated by the need to avoid ad hoc generation of results that impedes the accuracy of analysis and integrity of investigation. We develop an inference system that integrates the two types of evidence, handles incompleteness and duplication of information in them, and allows possible and provable actions and attack scenarios to be generated. To illustrate the proposal, we consider a case study dealing with the investigation of a remote buffer overflow attack.

  19. Cross-Layer Service Discovery Mechanism for OLSRv2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Vara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2. In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1. In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM, according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead.

  20. Cross-Layer Service Discovery Mechanism for OLSRv2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara, M Isabel; Campo, Celeste

    2015-07-20

    Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2). In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1). In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV) to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM), according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC) 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead.

  1. Cross-Layer Service Discovery Mechanism for OLSRv2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vara, M.; Campo, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2). In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated i...

  2. SUPERMAN: Security using pre-existing r\\ud outing for mobile ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley-Smith, Darren; Wetherall, Jodie; Adekunle, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The flexibility and mobility of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) have made them increasing popular in a wide range of use cases. To protect these networks, security protocols have been developed to protect routing and application data. However, these protocols only protect routes or communication, not both. Both secure routing and communication security protocols must be implemented to provide full protection. The use of communication security protocols originally developed for wireline and Wi...

  3. VoIP Implementation and Experiments on a Mobile Wireless AdHoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongqi; Yang, Oliver; Zhao, Jiying

    We have implemented a testbed to study the performance of VoIP in wireless ad hoc networks. The ASNC (Adaptive Source Network-rate Control) scheme is used to battle packet loss by feeding MOS (Mean Opinion Score) and loss information back to the sender. Our different VoIP experiments with measurements on delay, packet loss rate and MOS have validated the feasibility and efficiency of our scheme. It further verifies the simulator we used in the initial investigation.

  4. Vehicle Assisted Data Delievery Technique To Control Data Dissemination In Vehicular AD - HOC Networks Vanets

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kumar; Kantveer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Multi-hop data delivery through vehicular ad hoc networks is complicated by the fact that vehicular networks are highly mobile and frequently disconnected. To address this issue the idea of helper node is opted where a moving vehicles carries the packet until a new vehicle moves into its vicinity and forwards the packet. Different from existing helper node solution use of the predicable vehicle mobility is made which is limited by the traffic pattern and the road layout. Based on the...

  5. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS – A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption, primarily with the goal of extending the lifetime of battery-powered devices, has emerged as a fundamental challenge in wireless communication. The performance of the medium access control (MAC scheme not only has a fairly significant end-result on the behaviour of the routing approach employed, but also on the energy consumption of the wireless network interface card (NIC. We investigate the inadequacies of the MAC schemes designed for ad hoc wireless networks in the context of power awareness herein. The topology changes due to uncontrollable factors such as node mobility, weather, interference, noise, as well as on controllable parameters such as transmission power and antenna direction results in significant amount of energy loss. Controlling rapid topology changes by minimizing the maximum transmission power used in ad hoc wireless networks, while still maintaining networks connectivity can prolong battery life and hence network lifetime considerably. In addition, we systematically explore the potential energy consumption pitfalls of non–power-based and power based routing schemes. We suggest a thorough energy-based performance survey of energy aware routing protocols for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. We also present the statistical performance metrics measured by our simulations.

  6. Protocols for Detection and Removal of Wormholes for Secure Routing and Neighborhood Creation in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayajneh, Thaier Saleh

    2009-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks are suitable and sometimes the only solution for several applications. Many applications, particularly those in military and critical civilian domains (such as battlefield surveillance and emergency rescue) require that ad hoc networks be secure and stable. In fact, security is one of the main barriers to the extensive use…

  7. Exploiting Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Knowledge Generation to Achieve Ambient Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lekova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence (AmI joins together the fields of ubiquitous computing and communications, context awareness, and intelligent user interfaces. Energy, fault-tolerance, and mobility are newly added dimensions of AmI. Within the context of AmI the concept of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs for “anytime and anywhere” is likely to play larger roles in the future in which people are surrounded and supported by small context-aware, cooperative, and nonobtrusive devices that will aid our everyday life. The connection between knowledge generation and communication ad hoc networking is symbiotic—knowledge generation utilizes ad hoc networking to perform their communication needs, and MANETs will utilize the knowledge generation to enhance their network services. The contribution of the present study is a distributed evolving fuzzy modeling framework (EFMF to observe and categorize relationships and activities in the user and application level and based on that social context to take intelligent decisions about MANETs service management. EFMF employs unsupervised online one-pass fuzzy clustering method to recognize nodes' mobility context from social scenario traces and ubiquitously learn “friends” and “strangers” indirectly and anonymously.

  8. A logical structure based fault tolerant approach to handle leader election in mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Sharma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a light weight layered architecture to support the computation of leader in mobile ad hoc networks. In distributed applications, the leader has to perform a number of synchronization activities among participating nodes and numerous applications; hence, it is a stressed node and consequently prone to failure. Thus, fast and fault tolerant leader election is a major concern and popular area of research in distributed computing networks, in general, and wireless ad hoc networks, in particular. In the present article, we have proposed a fault tolerant leader election approach. More importantly, the nodes elect the leader quickly on the basis of local information only. The illustration includes suitable examples. The correctness proof and performance evaluation has also been presented.

  9. Selective epidemic broadcast algorithm to suppress broadcast storm in vehicular ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chitra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks is the best way to spread emergency messages all over the network. With the dynamic nature of vehicular ad hoc networks, simple broadcast or flooding faces the problem called as Broadcast Storm Problem (BSP. The issue of the BSP will degrade the performance of a message broadcasting process like increased overhead, collision and dissemination delay. The paper is motivated to solve the problems in the existing Broadcast Strom Suppression Algorithms (BSSAs like p-Persistence, TLO, VSPB, G-SAB and SIR. This paper proposes to suppress the Broadcast Storm Problem and to improve the Emergency Safety message dissemination rate through a new BSSA based on Selective Epidemic Broadcast Algorithm (SEB. The simulation results clearly show that the SEB outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of ESM Delivery Ratio, Message Overhead, Collision Ratio, Broadcast Storm Ratio and Redundant Rebroadcast Ratio with decreased Dissemination Delay.

  10. Global Consistency Management Methods Based on Escrow Approaches in Mobile ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Hara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a mobile ad hoc network, consistency management of data operations on replicas is a crucial issue for system performance. In our previous work, we classified several primitive consistency levels according to the requirements from applications and provided protocols to realize them. In this paper, we assume special types of applications in which the instances of each data item can be partitioned and propose two consistency management protocols which are combinations of an escrow method and our previously proposed protocols. We also report simulation results to investigate the characteristics of these protocols in a mobile ad hoc network. From the simulation results, we confirm that the protocols proposed in this paper drastically improve data availability and reduce the traffic for data operations while maintaining the global consistency in the entire network.

  11. An Effective Approach for Mobile ad hoc Network via I-Watchdog Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Lal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is now days become very famous due to their fixed infrastructure-less quality and dynamic nature. They contain a large number of nodes which are connected and communicated to each other in wireless nature. Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless technology that contains high mobility of nodes and does not depend on the background administrator for central authority, because they do not contain any infrastructure. Nodes of the MANET use radio wave for communication and having limited resources and limited computational power. The Topology of this network is changing very frequently because they are distributed in nature and self-configurable. Due to its wireless nature and lack of any central authority in the background, Mobile ad hoc networks are always vulnerable to some security issues and performance issues. The security imposes a huge impact on the performance of any network. Some of the security issues are black hole attack, flooding, wormhole attack etc. In this paper, we will discuss issues regarding low performance of Watchdog protocol used in the MANET and proposed an improved Watchdog mechanism, which is called by I-Watchdog protocol that overcomes the limitations of Watchdog protocol and gives high performance in terms of throughput, delay.

  12. Maximization of Energy Efficiency in Wireless ad hoc and Sensor Networks With SERENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoucene Mahfoudh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, an analysis of the node energy consumption distribution shows that the largest part is due to the time spent in the idle state. This result is at the origin of SERENA, an algorithm to SchEdule RoutEr Nodes Activity. SERENA allows router nodes to sleep, while ensuring end-to-end communication in the wireless network. It is a localized and decentralized algorithm assigning time slots to nodes. Any node stays awake only during its slot and the slots assigned to its neighbors, it sleeps the remaining time. Simulation results show that SERENA enables us to maximize network lifetime while increasing the number of user messages delivered. SERENA is based on a two-hop coloring algorithm, whose complexity in terms of colors and rounds is evaluated. We then quantify the slot reuse. Finally, we show how SERENA improves the node energy consumption distribution and maximizes the energy efficiency of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We compare SERENA with classical TDMA and optimized variants such as USAP in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks.

  13. UMDR: Multi-Path Routing Protocol for Underwater Ad Hoc Networks with Directional Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianmin; Liu, Songzuo; Liu, Qipei; Qiao, Gang

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a new routing scheme for underwater ad hoc networks based on directional antennas. Ad hoc networks with directional antennas have become a hot research topic because of space reuse may increase networks capacity. At present, researchers have applied traditional self-organizing routing protocols (such as DSR, AODV) [1] [2] on this type of networks, and the routing scheme is based on the shortest path metric. However, such routing schemes often suffer from long transmission delays and frequent link fragmentation along the intermediate nodes of the selected route. This is caused by a unique feature of directional transmission, often called as “deafness”. In this paper, we take a different approach to explore the advantages of space reuse through multipath routing. This paper introduces the validity of the conventional routing scheme in underwater ad hoc networks with directional antennas, and presents a special design of multipath routing algorithm for directional transmission. The experimental results show a significant performance improvement in throughput and latency.

  14. Fault Tolerant Mechanism for Multimedia Flows in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Based on Fast Switching Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R. Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia traffic can be forwarded through a wireless ad hoc network using the available resources of the nodes. Several models and protocols have been designed in order to organize and arrange the nodes to improve transmissions along the network. We use a cluster-based framework, called MWAHCA architecture, which optimizes multimedia transmissions over a wireless ad hoc network. It was proposed by us in a previous research work. This architecture is focused on decreasing quality of service (QoS parameters like latency, jitter, and packet loss, but other network features were not developed, like load balance or fault tolerance. In this paper, we propose a new fault tolerance mechanism, using as a base the MWAHCA architecture, in order to recover any multimedia flow crossing the wireless ad hoc network when there is a node failure. The algorithm can run independently for each multimedia flow. The main objective is to keep the QoS parameters as low as possible. To achieve this goal, the convergence time must be controlled and reduced. This paper provides the designed protocol, the analytical model of the algorithm, and a software application developed to test its performance in a real laboratory.

  15. REAL TIME SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY IN AD HOC NETWORKS OF GEOSPATIAL DATA SOURCES: CHALLENGES, ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mostafavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in geospatial technologies have made available large amount of geospatial data. Meanwhile, new developments in Internet and communication technologies created a shift from isolated geospatial databases to ad hoc networks of geospatial data sources, where data sources can join or leave the network, and form groups to share data and services. However, effective integration and sharing of geospatial data among these data sources and their users are hampered by semantic heterogeneities. These heterogeneities affect the spatial, temporal and thematic aspects of geospatial concepts. There have been many efforts to address semantic interoperability issues in the geospatial domain. These efforts were mainly focused on resolving heterogeneities caused by different and implicit representations of the concepts. However, many approaches have focused on the thematic aspects, leaving aside the explicit representation of spatial and temporal aspects. Also, most semantic interoperability approaches for networks have focused on automating the semantic mapping process. However, the ad hoc network structure is continuously modified by source addition or removal, formation of groups, etc. This dynamic aspect is often neglected in those approaches. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for real time semantic interoperability in ad hoc networks of geospatial data sources. The conceptual framework presents the fundamental elements of real time semantic interoperability through a hierarchy of interrelated semantic states and processes. Then, we use the conceptual framework to set the discussion on the achievements that have already been made, the challenges that remain to be addressed and perspectives with respect to these challenges.

  16. Implementation and performance evaluation of mobile ad hoc network for Emergency Telemedicine System in disaster areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Kim, D Y; Jung, S M; Lee, M H; Kim, K S; Lee, C K; Nah, J Y; Lee, S H; Kim, J H; Choi, W J; Yoo, S K

    2009-01-01

    So far we have developed Emergency Telemedicine System (ETS) which is a robust system using heterogeneous networks. In disaster areas, however, ETS cannot be used if the primary network channel is disabled due to damages on the network infrastructures. Thus we designed network management software for disaster communication network by combination of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) and Wireless LAN (WLAN). This software maintains routes to a Backbone Gateway Node in dynamic network topologies. In this paper, we introduce the proposed disaster communication network with management software, and evaluate its performance using ETS between Medical Center and simulated disaster areas. We also present the results of network performance analysis which identifies the possibility of actual Telemedicine Service in disaster areas via MANET and mobile network (e.g. HSDPA, WiBro).

  17. Maximum Power Plus RSSI Based Routing Protocol for Bluetooth Low Energy Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsu Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel energy-conserving multihop routing protocol to maximize network lifetime and consume the battery in a distributed manner during route discovery in energy-constrained Bluetooth Low Energy ad hoc networks. Furthermore, a flooding avoidance approach is adopted by the proposed scheme to minimize the number of route request packets flooded. In addition, the proposed scheme maximizes network lifetime by using residual battery and RSSI as a route metric. The simulation results confirm that our proposed scheme has a surpassing performance with regard to network lifetime, evenly distributed battery consumption, and route discovery latency compared with the traditional on-demand routing protocol.

  18. Intelligent Stale-Frame Discards for Real-Time Video Streaming over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheu Tsang-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents intelligent early packet discards (I-EPD for real-time video streaming over a multihop wireless ad hoc network. In a multihop wireless ad hoc network, the quality of transferring real-time video streams could be seriously degraded, since every intermediate node (IN functionally like relay device does not possess large buffer and sufficient bandwidth. Even worse, a selected relay node could leave or power off unexpectedly, which breaks the route to destination. Thus, a stale video frame is useless even if it can reach destination after network traffic becomes smooth or failed route is reconfigured. In the proposed I-EPD, an IN can intelligently determine whether a buffered video packet should be early discarded. For the purpose of validation, we implement the I-EPD on Linux-based embedded systems. Via the comparisons of performance metrics (packet/frame discards ratios, PSNR, etc., we demonstrate that video quality over a wireless ad hoc network can be substantially improved and unnecessary bandwidth wastage is greatly reduced.

  19. Signaling-Free Max-Min Airtime Fairness in IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsoo Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel media access control (MAC protocol, referred to as signaling-free max-min airtime fair (SMAF MAC, to improve fairness and channel utilization in ad hoc networks based on IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs. We introduce busy time ratio (BTR as a measure for max-min airtime fairness. Each node estimates its BTR and adjusts the transmission duration by means of frame aggregation and fragmentation, so that it can implicitly announce the BTR to neighbor nodes. Based on the announced BTR, each of the neighbor nodes controls its contention window. In this way, the SMAF MAC works in a distributed manner without the need to know the max-min fair share of airtime, and it does not require exchanging explicit control messages among nodes to attain fairness. Moreover, we successfully incorporate the hidden node detection and resolution mechanisms into the SMAF MAC to deal with the hidden node problem in ad hoc networks. The simulation results confirm that the SMAF MAC enhances airtime fairness without degrading channel utilization, and it effectively resolves several serious problems in ad hoc networks such as the starvation, performance anomaly, and hidden node problems.

  20. Illustration, detection and prevention of sleep deprivation anomaly in mobile ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, A.; Ahsan, K.; Sarim, M.

    2017-01-01

    MANETs (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks) have applications in various walks of life from rescue operations to battle field operations, personal and commercial. However, routing operations in MANETs are still vulnerable to anomalies and DoS (Denial of Service) attacks such as sleep deprivation. In SD (Sleep Deprivation) attack malicious node exploits the vulnerability in the route discovery function of the reactive routing protocol for example AODV (Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector). In this paper, we first illustrate the SD anomaly in MANETs and then propose a SD detection and prevention algorithm which efficiently deals with this attack. We assess the performance of our proposed approach through simulation, evaluating its successfulness using different network scenarios. (author)

  1. A Group Vehicular Mobility Model for Routing Protocol Analysis in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Shrirang Ambaji; Rao, G Raghavendra

    2010-01-01

    Performance of routing protocols in mobile ad-hoc networks is greatly affected by the dynamic nature of nodes, route failures, wireless channels with variable bandwidth and scalability issues. A mobility model imitates the real world movement of mobile nodes and is central component to simulation based studies. In this paper we consider mobility nodes which mimic the vehicular motion of nodes like Manhattan mobility model and City Section mobility model. We also propose a new Group Vehicular ...

  2. Reducing Congestion in Obstructed Highways with Traffic Data Dissemination Using Ad hoc Vehicular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas D. Hewer; Maziar Nekovee; Peter V. Coveney

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITSs) and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through a network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to receivers. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols to influence...

  3. A survey on pseudonym changing strategies for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Boualouache, Abdelwahab; Senouci, Sidi-Mohammed; Moussaoui, Samira

    2017-01-01

    The initial phase of the deployment of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) has begun and many research challenges still need to be addressed. Location privacy continues to be in the top of these challenges. Indeed, both of academia and industry agreed to apply the pseudonym changing approach as a solution to protect the location privacy of VANETs'users. However, due to the pseudonyms linking attack, a simple changing of pseudonym shown to be inefficient to provide the required protection. For ...

  4. Stochastic Geometry based Medium Access Games in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hanawal, Manjesh Kumar; Altman, Eitan; Baccelli, Francois

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) when the nodes, that form a Poisson point process, selfishly choose their Medium Access Probability (MAP). We consider goodput and delay as the performance metric that each node is interested in optimizing taking into account the transmission energy costs. We introduce a pricing scheme based on the transmission energy requirements and compute the symmetric Nash equilibria of the game in closed form. It is shown that by appr...

  5. Two-terminal reliability analyses for a mobile ad hoc wireless network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Jason L.; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Reliability is one of the most important performance measures for emerging technologies. For these systems, shortcomings are often overlooked in early releases as the cutting edge technology overshadows a fragile design. Currently, the proliferation of the mobile ad hoc wireless networks (MAWN) is moving from cutting edge to commodity and thus, reliable performance will be expected. Generally, ad hoc networking is applied for the flexibility and mobility it provides. As a result, military and first responders employ this network scheme and the reliability of the network becomes paramount. To ensure reliability is achieved, one must first be able to analyze and calculate the reliability of the MAWN. This work describes the unique attributes of the MAWN and how the classical analysis of network reliability, where the network configuration is known a priori, can be adjusted to model and analyze this type of network. The methods developed acknowledge the dynamic and scalable nature of the MAWN along with its absence of infrastructure. Thus, the methods rely on a modeling approach that considers the probabilistic formation of different network configurations in a MAWN. Hence, this paper proposes reliability analysis methods that consider the effect of node mobility and the continuous changes in the network's connectivity

  6. Distributed generation of shared RSA keys in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Liang; Huang, Qin; Shen, Ying

    2005-12-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks is a totally new concept in which mobile nodes are able to communicate together over wireless links in an independent manner, independent of fixed physical infrastructure and centralized administrative infrastructure. However, the nature of Ad Hoc Networks makes them very vulnerable to security threats. Generation and distribution of shared keys for CA (Certification Authority) is challenging for security solution based on distributed PKI(Public-Key Infrastructure)/CA. The solutions that have been proposed in the literature and some related issues are discussed in this paper. The solution of a distributed generation of shared threshold RSA keys for CA is proposed in the present paper. During the process of creating an RSA private key share, every CA node only has its own private security. Distributed arithmetic is used to create the CA's private share locally, and that the requirement of centralized management institution is eliminated. Based on fully considering the Mobile Ad Hoc network's characteristic of self-organization, it avoids the security hidden trouble that comes by holding an all private security share of CA, with which the security and robustness of system is enhanced.

  7. QoS Routing in Ad-Hoc Networks Using GA and Multi-Objective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admir Barolli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Much work has been done on routing in Ad-hoc networks, but the proposed routing solutions only deal with the best effort data traffic. Connections with Quality of Service (QoS requirements, such as voice channels with delay and bandwidth constraints, are not supported. The QoS routing has been receiving increasingly intensive attention, but searching for the shortest path with many metrics is an NP-complete problem. For this reason, approximated solutions and heuristic algorithms should be developed for multi-path constraints QoS routing. Also, the routing methods should be adaptive, flexible, and intelligent. In this paper, we use Genetic Algorithms (GAs and multi-objective optimization for QoS routing in Ad-hoc Networks. In order to reduce the search space of GA, we implemented a search space reduction algorithm, which reduces the search space for GAMAN (GA-based routing algorithm for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks to find a new route. We evaluate the performance of GAMAN by computer simulations and show that GAMAN has better behaviour than GLBR (Genetic Load Balancing Routing.

  8. A TDMA based media access control protocol for wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Tang, Biyu

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a novel Time Division Multiplex Access (TDMA) based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol of wireless Ad Hoc network. To achieve collision free transmission, time slots in a MAC frame are cataloged into three types, that is access slot, control slot and traffic slot. Nodes in the network access to the network in the access slot, and an exclusive control is allocated subsequently. Data packets are transmission by dynamic schedule the traffic slots. Throughput and transmission delay are also analyzed by simulation experiment. The proposed protocol is capable of providing collision free transmission and achieves high throughput.

  9. Distinguishing congestion from malicious behavior in mobile ad-hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jin; Medidi, Sirisha R.

    2004-08-01

    Packet dropping in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks could be a result of wireless link errors, congestion, or malicious packet drop attack. Current techniques for detecting malicious behavior either do not consider congestion in the network or are not able to detect in real time. Further more, they usually work at network layer. In this paper, we propose a TCP-Manet protocol, which reacts to congestion like TCP Reno protocol, and has additional capability to distinguish among congestion, wireless link error, and malicious packet drop attack. It is an end-to-end mechanism that does not require additional modifications to the nodes in the network. Since it is an extension of existing TCP protocol, it is compatible with existing protocols. It works in conjunction with the network layer and an unobtrusive monitor to assist the network in the detection and characterization of the nature of the behavior. Experimental results show that TCP-Manet has the same performance as that of TCP-Reno in wired network, and performs better in wireless ad-hoc networks in terms of throughput while having good detection effectiveness.

  10. Intelligent Networks Data Fusion Web-based Services for Ad-hoc Integrated WSNs-RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah Alshahrany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of variety of data fusion tools and techniques for big data processing poses the problem of the data and information integration called data fusion having objectives which can differ from one application to another. The design of network data fusion systems aimed at meeting these objectives, need to take into account of the necessary synergy that can result from distributed data processing within the data networks and data centres, involving increased computation and communication. This papers reports on how this processing distribution is functionally structured as configurable integrated web-based support services, in the context of an ad-hoc wireless sensor network used for sensing and tracking, in the context of distributed detection based on complete observations to support real rime decision making. The interrelated functional and hardware RFID-WSN integration is an essential aspect of the data fusion framework that focuses on multi-sensor collaboration as an innovative approach to extend the heterogeneity of the devices and sensor nodes of ad-hoc networks generating a huge amount of heterogeneous soft and hard raw data. The deployment and configuration of these networks require data fusion processing that includes network and service management and enhances the performance and reliability of networks data fusion support systems providing intelligent capabilities for real-time control access and fire detection.

  11. Forming an ad-hoc nearby storage, based on IKAROS and social networking services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippidis, Christos; Cotronis, Yiannis; Markou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    We present an ad-hoc 'nearby' storage, based on IKAROS and social networking services, such as Facebook. By design, IKAROS is capable to increase or decrease the number of nodes of the I/O system instance on the fly, without bringing everything down or losing data. IKAROS is capable to decide the file partition distribution schema, by taking on account requests from the user or an application, as well as a domain or a Virtual Organization policy. In this way, it is possible to form multiple instances of smaller capacity higher bandwidth storage utilities capable to respond in an ad-hoc manner. This approach, focusing on flexibility, can scale both up and down and so can provide more cost effective infrastructures for both large scale and smaller size systems. A set of experiments is performed comparing IKAROS with PVFS2 by using multiple clients requests under HPC IOR benchmark and MPICH2.

  12. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-15

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  13. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Reyes-Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1 an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2 A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3 as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  14. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels. PMID:26784204

  15. A game-theoretic approach to optimize ad hoc networks inspired by small-world network topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mian; Yang, Tinghong; Chen, Xing; Yang, Gang; Zhu, Guoqing; Holme, Petter; Zhao, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Nodes in ad hoc networks are connected in a self-organized manner. Limited communication radius makes information transmit in multi-hop mode, and each forwarding needs to consume the energy of nodes. Insufficient communication radius or exhaustion of energy may cause the absence of some relay nodes and links, further breaking network connectivity. On the other hand, nodes in the network may refuse to cooperate due to objective faulty or personal selfish, hindering regular communication in the network. This paper proposes a model called Repeated Game in Small World Networks (RGSWN). In this model, we first construct ad hoc networks with small-world feature by forming "communication shortcuts" between multiple-radio nodes. Small characteristic path length reduces average forwarding times in networks; meanwhile high clustering coefficient enhances network robustness. Such networks still maintain relative low global power consumption, which is beneficial to extend the network survival time. Then we use MTTFT strategy (Mend-Tolerance Tit-for-Tat) for repeated game as a rule for the interactions between neighbors in the small-world networks. Compared with other five strategies of repeated game, this strategy not only punishes the nodes' selfishness more reasonably, but also has the best tolerance to the network failure. This work is insightful for designing an efficient and robust ad hoc network.

  16. A secure 3-way routing protocols for intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, Ramesh; Parasuraman, Ganesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET). The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS) routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET.

  17. Intelligent QoS routing algorithm based on improved AODV protocol for Ad Hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huibin, Liu; Jun, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks were playing an increasingly important part in disaster reliefs, military battlefields and scientific explorations. However, networks routing difficulties are more and more outstanding due to inherent structures. This paper proposed an improved cuckoo searching-based Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (CSAODV). It elaborately designs the calculation methods of optimal routing algorithm used by protocol and transmission mechanism of communication-package. In calculation of optimal routing algorithm by CS Algorithm, by increasing QoS constraint, the found optimal routing algorithm can conform to the requirements of specified bandwidth and time delay, and a certain balance can be obtained among computation spending, bandwidth and time delay. Take advantage of NS2 simulation software to take performance test on protocol in three circumstances and validate the feasibility and validity of CSAODV protocol. In results, CSAODV routing protocol is more adapt to the change of network topological structure than AODV protocol, which improves package delivery fraction of protocol effectively, reduce the transmission time delay of network, reduce the extra burden to network brought by controlling information, and improve the routing efficiency of network. (paper)

  18. A Secure 3-Way Routing Protocols for Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Sekaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET. The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET.

  19. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chenn-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  20. A Game Theory Based Approach for Power Efficient Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green communications are playing critical roles in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs, while the deployment of a power efficient VANET is quite challenging in practice. To add more greens into such kind of complicated and time-varying mobile network, we specifically investigate the throughput and transmission delay performances for real-time and delay sensitive services through a repeated game theoretic solution. This paper has employed Nash Equilibrium in the noncooperative game model and analyzes its efficiency. Simulation results have shown an obvious improvement on power efficiency through such efforts.

  1. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wen Hu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  2. Noise-assisted concurrent multipath traffic distribution in ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvarujanon, Narun; Leibnitz, Kenji; Wakamiya, Naoki; Murata, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The concept of biologically inspired networking has been introduced to tackle unpredictable and unstable situations in computer networks, especially in wireless ad hoc networks where network conditions are continuously changing, resulting in the need of robustness and adaptability of control methods. Unfortunately, existing methods often rely heavily on the detailed knowledge of each network component and the preconfigured, that is, fine-tuned, parameters. In this paper, we utilize a new concept, called attractor perturbation (AP), which enables controlling the network performance using only end-to-end information. Based on AP, we propose a concurrent multipath traffic distribution method, which aims at lowering the average end-to-end delay by only adjusting the transmission rate on each path. We demonstrate through simulations that, by utilizing the attractor perturbation relationship, the proposed method achieves a lower average end-to-end delay compared to other methods which do not take fluctuations into account.

  3. A Comprehensive study of a New Multipath Energy Aware Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chettibi, Saloua

    2009-01-01

    S. Chettibi, M. Benmohammed, "A comprehensive study of a new multipath energy aware routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks"; International Conference on Systems and Information Processing, ICSIP'09, May 02 – 04, 2009, Guelma, Algeria; Maximizing network lifetime is a very challenging issue in routing protocol design for Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs), since mobile nodes are powered by limited-capacity batteries. Furthermore, replacing or recharging batteries is often impossible in criti...

  4. Opportunistic Hybrid Transport Protocol (OHTP) for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zikria, Yousaf; Nosheen, Summera; Ishmanov, Farruh; Kim, Sung Won

    2015-12-15

    The inefficient assignment of spectrum for different communications purposes, plus technology enhancements and ever-increasing usage of wireless technology is causing spectrum scarcity. To address this issue, one of the proposed solutions in the literature is to access the spectrum dynamically or opportunistically. Therefore, the concept of cognitive radio appeared, which opens up a new research paradigm. There is extensive research on the physical, medium access control and network layers. The impact of the transport layer on the performance of cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks is still unknown/unexplored. The Internet's de facto transport protocol is not well suited to wireless networks because of its congestion control mechanism. We propose an opportunistic hybrid transport protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc sensor networks. We developed a new congestion control mechanism to differentiate true congestion from interruption loss. After such detection and differentiation, we propose methods to handle them opportunistically. There are several benefits to window- and rate-based protocols. To exploit the benefits of both in order to enhance overall system performance, we propose a hybrid transport protocol. We empirically calculate the optimal threshold value to switch between window- and rate-based mechanisms. We then compare our proposed transport protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)-friendly rate control, TCP-friendly rate control for cognitive radio, and TCP-friendly window-based control. We ran an extensive set of simulations in Network Simulator 2. The results indicate that the proposed transport protocol performs better than all the others.

  5. Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Scheme Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Harold Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique.

  6. Dynamic fair node spectrum allocation for ad hoc networks using random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmes, Mark; Lemieux, George; Chester, Dave; Sonnenberg, Jerry

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is widely seen as a solution to the problem of limited spectrum, because of its ability to adapt the operating frequency of a radio. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) can extend high-capacity mobile communications over large areas where fixed and tethered-mobile systems are not available. In one use case with high potential impact, cognitive radio employs spectrum sensing to facilitate the identification of allocated frequencies not currently accessed by their primary users. Primary users own the rights to radiate at a specific frequency and geographic location, while secondary users opportunistically attempt to radiate at a specific frequency when the primary user is not using it. We populate a spatial radio environment map (REM) database with known information that can be leveraged in an ad hoc network to facilitate fair path use of the DSA-discovered links. Utilization of high-resolution geospatial data layers in RF propagation analysis is directly applicable. Random matrix theory (RMT) is useful in simulating network layer usage in nodes by a Wishart adjacency matrix. We use the Dijkstra algorithm for discovering ad hoc network node connection patterns. We present a method for analysts to dynamically allocate node-node path and link resources using fair division. User allocation of limited resources as a function of time must be dynamic and based on system fairness policies. The context of fair means that first available request for an asset is not envied as long as it is not yet allocated or tasked in order to prevent cycling of the system. This solution may also save money by offering a Pareto efficient repeatable process. We use a water fill queue algorithm to include Shapley value marginal contributions for allocation.

  7. Information Sharing Mechanism among Mobile Agents In Ad-hoc Network Environment and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Umetsuji

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are programs that can move from one site to another in a network with their data and states. Mobile agents are expected to be an essential tool in pervasive computing. In multi platform environment, it is important to communicate with mobile agents only using their universal or logical name not using their physical locations. More, in an ad-hoc network environment, an agent can migrate autonomously and communicate with other agents on demand. It is difficult that mobile agent grasps the position information on other agents correctly each other, because mobile agent processes a task while moving a network successively. In order to realize on-demand mutual communication among mobile agents without any centralized servers, we propose a new information sharing mechanism within mobile agents. In this paper, we present a new information sharing mechanism within mobile agents. The method is a complete peer based and requires no agent servers to manage mobile agent locations. Therefore, a mobile agent can get another mobile agent, communicate with it and shares information stored in the agent without any knowledge of the location of the target mobile agent. The basic idea of the mechanism is an introduction of Agent Ring, Agent Chain and Shadow Agent. With this mechanism, each agent can communicate with other agents in a server-less environment, which is suitable for ad-hoc agent network and an agent system can manage agents search and communications efficiently.

  8. Performance Analysis of a Cluster-Based MAC Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartsakli Elli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model to evaluate the non-saturated performance of the Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks (DQMANs in single-hop networks is presented in this paper. DQMAN is comprised of a spontaneous, temporary, and dynamic clustering mechanism integrated with a near-optimum distributed queuing Medium Access Control (MAC protocol. Clustering is executed in a distributed manner using a mechanism inspired by the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF of the IEEE 802.11. Once a station seizes the channel, it becomes the temporary clusterhead of a spontaneous cluster and it coordinates the peer-to-peer communications between the clustermembers. Within each cluster, a near-optimum distributed queuing MAC protocol is executed. The theoretical performance analysis of DQMAN in single-hop networks under non-saturation conditions is presented in this paper. The approach integrates the analysis of the clustering mechanism into the MAC layer model. Up to the knowledge of the authors, this approach is novel in the literature. In addition, the performance of an ad hoc network using DQMAN is compared to that obtained when using the DCF of the IEEE 802.11, as a benchmark reference.

  9. Greedy data transportation scheme with hard packet deadlines for wireless ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HyungJune

    2014-01-01

    We present a greedy data transportation scheme with hard packet deadlines in ad hoc sensor networks of stationary nodes and multiple mobile nodes with scheduled trajectory path and arrival time. In the proposed routing strategy, each stationary ad hoc node en route decides whether to relay a shortest-path stationary node toward destination or a passing-by mobile node that will carry closer to destination. We aim to utilize mobile nodes to minimize the total routing cost as far as the selected route can satisfy the end-to-end packet deadline. We evaluate our proposed routing algorithm in terms of routing cost, packet delivery ratio, packet delivery time, and usability of mobile nodes based on network level simulations. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm fully exploits the remaining time till packet deadline to turn into networking benefits of reducing the overall routing cost and improving packet delivery performance. Also, we demonstrate that the routing scheme guarantees packet delivery with hard deadlines, contributing to QoS improvement in various network services.

  10. An Automated Tool for the Creation of Desired Emulated Topologies of a Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Binh Q

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a research effort that the U.S. Army Research Laboratory conducted in FY 2005 in support of the development of advanced technologies for tactical mobile ad hoc networks (MANET...

  11. Securing ad hoc wireless sensor networks under Byzantine attacks by implementing non-cryptographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabir Ahmad Sofi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad Hoc wireless sensor network (WSN is a collection of nodes that do not need to rely on predefined infrastructure to keep the network connected. The level of security and performance are always somehow related to each other, therefore due to limited resources in WSN, cryptographic methods for securing the network against attacks is not feasible. Byzantine attacks disrupt the communication between nodes in the network without regard to its own resource consumption. This paper discusses the performance of cluster based WSN comparing LEACH with Advanced node based clusters under byzantine attacks. This paper also proposes an algorithm for detection and isolation of the compromised nodes to mitigate the attacks by non-cryptographic means. The throughput increases after using the algorithm for isolation of the malicious nodes, 33% in case of Gray Hole attack and 62% in case of Black Hole attack.

  12. A hierarchical virtual backbone construction protocol for mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hierarchical backbone construction protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. Our protocol is based on the idea of using an efficient extrema finding method to create clusters comprising the nodes that are within certain prespecified wireless hop distance. Afterward, we apply our ‘diameter’ algorithm among clusters to identify the dominating nodes that are, finally, connected via multi-hop virtual links to construct the backbone. We present the analytic as well as simulation study of our algorithm and also a method for the dynamic maintenance of constructed backbone. In the end, we illustrate the use of the virtual backbone with the help of an interesting application.

  13. Centralized cooperative spectrum sensing for ad-hoc disaster relief network clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    -based orchestration cooperative sensing scheme is proposed, where the cluster head controls and adapts the distribution of the cluster sensing's nodes according to the monitored spectrum state. The proposed scheme performance is evaluated through a framework, which allows gauging the accuracy of wideband multi....... The main common conclusion was that the achievable spectrum sensing accuracy can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. When considering applying Cognitive Radio to ad-hoc disaster relief networks, spectrum sensing cooperative schemes are paramount. A centralized cluster...

  14. A cooperative MAC protocol with error-aware relay selection for wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanzhi; Liu, Kai; Wang, Rui; Fang, Ruochen; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    To solve performance degradation caused by channel fading, we propose a cooperative MAC protocol with error-aware relay selection for wireless ad hoc networks in this paper. In the protocol, the transmission error of data packet caused by channel fading are considered in order to achieve the best cooperative gain in the poor quality channel. In the relay selection process, potential relay nodes satisfying corresponding requirement can compete to sever as final relay node by means of priority selection and collision resolution process. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed protocol outperforms other protocol in terms of packet error rate and the saturation throughput.

  15. A Multihop Key Agreement Scheme for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Based on Channel Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nenghai

    2013-01-01

    A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks. PMID:23766725

  16. Improving TCP Performance over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Busy Tone Assisted Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Lin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that transmission control protocol (TCP performance degrades severely in IEEE 802.11-based wireless ad hoc networks. We first identify two critical issues leading to the TCP performance degradation: (1 unreliable broadcast, since broadcast frames are transmitted without the request-to-send and clear-to-send (RTS/CTS dialog and Data/ACK handshake, so they are vulnerable to the hidden terminal problem; and (2 false link failure which occurs when a node cannot successfully transmit data temporarily due to medium contention. We then propose a scheme to use a narrow-bandwidth, out-of-band busy tone channel to make reservation for broadcast and link error detection frames only. The proposed scheme is simple and power efficient, because only the sender needs to transmit two short messages in the busy tone channel before sending broadcast or link error detection frames in the data channel. Analytical results show that the proposed scheme can dramatically reduce the collision probability of broadcast and link error detection frames. Extensive simulations with different network topologies further demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve TCP throughput by 23% to 150%, depending on user mobility, and effectively enhance both short-term and long-term fairness among coexisting TCP flows in multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  17. Looping in OLSRv2 in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, Loop Suppression and Loop Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, Lee; Owada, Yasunori; Mase, Kenichi

    Transient routing loops have been observed to form in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks running the OLSRv2 proactive link-state routing protocol. The packets falling into loops impact the surrounding network thus degrading throughput even though only a small proportion of the traffic may enter these loops and only for a short time. This becomes significantly more evident when Link Layer Notification is used to catch broken links, inadvertently leading to an increase in the number of loops. Two methods of Loop Detection are introduced and are used to trigger either Loop Suppression by selectively and preemptively discarding the looping packets that are unlikely to reach their destination, or Loop Correction by the notification of the routing protocol to cut the link over which the packet is looping. The newly introduced Loop Suppression and Loop Correction techniques used with Link Layer Notification are shown to significantly increase network performance over plain OLSRv2 and OLSRv2 with Link Layer Notification.

  18. A Protocol for Content-Based Communication in Disconnected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Haillot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In content-based communication, information flows towards interested hosts rather than towards specifically set destinations. This new style of communication perfectly fits the needs of applications dedicated to information sharing, news distribution, service advertisement and discovery, etc. In this paper we address the problem of supporting content-based communication in partially or intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The protocol we designed leverages on the concepts of opportunistic networking and delay-tolerant networking in order to account for the absence of end-to-end connectivity in disconnected MANETs. The paper provides an overview of the protocol, as well as simulation results that show how this protocol can perform in realistic conditions.

  19. A survey and taxonomy of distributed certificate authorities in mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbehdari Sam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Certificate authorities (CAs are the main components of PKI that enable us for providing basic security services in wired networks and Internet. But, we cannot use centralized CAs, in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. So, many efforts have been made to adapt CA to the special characteristics of MANETs and new concepts such as distributed CAs (DCAs have been proposed that distribute the functionality of CA between MANET nodes. In this article, we study various proposed DCA schemes for MANET and then classify these schemes according to their internal structures and techniques. Finally, we propose the characteristics of an ideal DCA system that can be used to verify the completeness of any DCA scheme. This classification and taxonomy identify the weakness and constraints of each scheme, and are very important for designing more secure, scalable, and high performance DCA systems for MANETs and other networks.

  20. Reducing Congestion in Obstructed Highways with Traffic Data Dissemination Using Ad hoc Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coveney PeterV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITSs and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through a network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to receivers. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols to influence vehicular flow, reducing congestion in road networks. The computational experiments we present show how a car-following model and lane-change algorithm can be adapted to "react" to the reception of information. This model also illustrates the advantages of coupling together with vehicular flow modelling tools and network simulation tools.

  1. Secure adaptive topology control for wireless ad-hoc sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Ching-Tsung; Li, Yu-Wei; Wen, Chih-Yu; Ouyang, Yen-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a secure decentralized clustering algorithm for wireless ad-hoc sensor networks. The algorithm operates without a centralized controller, operates asynchronously, and does not require that the location of the sensors be known a priori. Based on the cluster-based topology, secure hierarchical communication protocols and dynamic quarantine strategies are introduced to defend against spam attacks, since this type of attacks can exhaust the energy of sensor nodes and will shorten the lifetime of a sensor network drastically. By adjusting the threshold of infected percentage of the cluster coverage, our scheme can dynamically coordinate the proportion of the quarantine region and adaptively achieve the cluster control and the neighborhood control of attacks. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is feasible and cost effective for wireless sensor networks.

  2. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiravan, Jeevaa; Sylvia, D; Rao, D Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network.

  3. Data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information in a mobile ad hoc network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Shigeru; Hayashi, Takuma; Taenaka, Yuzo; Okuda, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information to achieve reliable communication in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). In a MANET, it is difficult to deliver data reliably due to instabilities in network topology and wireless network condition which result from node movement. To overcome such unstable communication, opportunistic routing and network coding schemes have lately attracted considerable attention. Although an existing method that employs such schemes, MAC-independent opportunistic routing and encoding (MORE), Chachulski et al. (2007), improves the efficiency of data delivery in an unstable wireless mesh network, it does not address node movement. To efficiently deliver data in a MANET, the method proposed in this paper thus first employs the same opportunistic routing and network coding used in MORE and also uses the location information and transmission probabilities of neighbor nodes to adapt to changeable network topology and wireless network condition. The simulation experiments showed that the proposed method can achieve efficient data delivery with low network load when the movement speed is relatively slow.

  4. Performance Analysis of Ad Hoc Dispersed Spectrum Cognitive Radio Networks over Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muneer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio systems can utilize dispersed spectrum, and thus such approach is known as dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems. In this paper, we first provide the performance analysis of such systems over fading channels. We derive the average symbol error probability of dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems for two cases, where the channel for each frequency diversity band experiences independent and dependent Nakagami- fading. In addition, the derivation is extended to include the effects of modulation type and order by considering M-ary phase-shift keying ( -PSK and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation -QAM schemes. We then consider the deployment of such cognitive radio systems in an ad hoc fashion. We consider an ad hoc dispersed spectrum cognitive radio network, where the nodes are assumed to be distributed in three dimension (3D. We derive the effective transport capacity considering a cubic grid distribution. Numerical results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis and show the performance of such networks.

  5. Low Power 24 GHz ad hoc Networking System Based on TDOA for Indoor Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Jung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the key elements of a novel low-power, high precision localization system based on Time-Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA distance measurements. The combination of multiple localizable sensor nodes, leads to an ad hoc network. Besides the localization functionality this ad hoc network has the additional advantage of a communication interface. Due to this a flexible positioning of the master station for information collection and the detection of static and mobile nodes is possible. These sensor nodes work in the 24 GHz ISM (Industrial Scientific and Medical frequency range and address several use cases and are able to improve various processes for production scheduling, logistics, quality management, medical applications and collection of geo information. The whole system design is explained briefly. Its core component is the frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW synthesizer suitable for high performance indoor localization. This research work focuses on power and size reduction of this crucial system component. The comparison of the first and second generation of the system shows a significant size and power reduction as well as an increased precision.

  6. PROTOCOLS FOR INCREASING THE LIFETIME OF NODES OF AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Malarkodi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption of nodes in ad hoc networks is a critical issue as they predominantly operate on batteries. In order to improve the lifetime of an ad hoc network, all the nodes must be utilized evenly and the power required for connections must be minimized. Energy management deals with the process of managing energy resources by means of controlling the battery discharge, adjusting the transmission power and scheduling of power sources so as to increase the lifetime of the nodes of an ad hoc wireless network. In this paper, two protocols are proposed to improve the lifetime of the nodes. The first protocol assumes smart battery packages with L cells and uses dynamic programming (DP to optimally select the set of cells used to satisfy a request for power. The second one proposes a MAC layer protocol denoted as Power Aware medium Access Control (PAMAC protocol which enables the network layer to select a route with minimum total power requirement among the possible routes between a source and a destination provided all nodes in the routes have battery capacity above a threshold. The life time of the nodes using the DP based scheduling policy is found through simulation and compared with that obtained using the techniques reported in the literature. It is found that DP based policy increases the lifetime of the mobile nodes by a factor of 1.15 to 1.8. The life expectancy, the average power consumption and throughput of the network using PAMAC protocol are computed through simulation and compared with that of the other MAC layer protocols 802.11, MACA, and CSMA. Besides this, the life expectancy and average power consumption of the network for different values of threshold are also compared. From the simulation results, it is observed that PAMAC consumes the least power and provides the longest lifetime among the various MAC Layer protocols. Moreover, using PAMAC as the MAC layer protocol, the performance obtained using different routing layer

  7. Energy-efficient algorithm for broadcasting in ad hoc wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Naixue; Huang, Xingbo; Cheng, Hongju; Wan, Zheng

    2013-04-12

    Broadcasting is a common and basic operation used to support various network protocols in wireless networks. To achieve energy-efficient broadcasting is especially important for ad hoc wireless sensor networks because sensors are generally powered by batteries with limited lifetimes. Energy consumption for broadcast operations can be reduced by minimizing the number of relay nodes based on the observation that data transmission processes consume more energy than data reception processes in the sensor nodes, and how to improve the network lifetime is always an interesting issue in sensor network research. The minimum-energy broadcast problem is then equivalent to the problem of finding the minimum Connected Dominating Set (CDS) for a connected graph that is proved NP-complete. In this paper, we introduce an Efficient Minimum CDS algorithm (EMCDS) with help of a proposed ordered sequence list. EMCDS does not concern itself with node energy and broadcast operations might fail if relay nodes are out of energy. Next we have proposed a Minimum Energy-consumption Broadcast Scheme (MEBS) with a modified version of EMCDS, and aimed at providing an efficient scheduling scheme with maximized network lifetime. The simulation results show that the proposed EMCDS algorithm can find smaller CDS compared with related works, and the MEBS can help to increase the network lifetime by efficiently balancing energy among nodes in the networks.

  8. Secure neighborhood discovery: A fundamental element for mobile ad hoc networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadimitratos, P.; Poturalski, M.; Schaller, P.

    2008-01-01

    Pervasive computing systems will likely be deployed in the near future, with the proliferation of wireless devices and the emergence of ad hoc networking as key enablers. Coping with mobility and the volatility of wireless communications in such systems is critical. Neighborhood discovery (ND......) - the discovery of devices directly reachable for communication or in physical proximity - becomes a fundamental requirement and building block for various applications. However, the very nature of wireless mobile networks makes it easy to abuse ND and thereby compromise the overlying protocols and applications....... Thus, providing methods to mitigate this vulnerability and secure ND is crucial. In this article we focus on this problem and provide definitions of neighborhood types and ND protocol properties, as well as a broad classification of attacks. Our ND literature survey reveals that securing ND is indeed...

  9. A User Authentication Scheme Based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huifang; Ge, Linlin; Xie, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The feature of non-infrastructure support in a wireless ad hoc network (WANET) makes it suffer from various attacks. Moreover, user authentication is the first safety barrier in a network. A mutual trust is achieved by a protocol which enables communicating parties to authenticate each other at the same time and to exchange session keys. For the resource-constrained WANET, an efficient and lightweight user authentication scheme is necessary. In this paper, we propose a user authentication scheme based on the self-certified public key system and elliptic curves cryptography for a WANET. Using the proposed scheme, an efficient two-way user authentication and secure session key agreement can be achieved. Security analysis shows that our proposed scheme is resilient to common known attacks. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme performs similar or better compared with some existing user authentication schemes. PMID:26184224

  10. AUTHENTICATION ARCHITECTURE USING THRESHOLD CRYPTOGRAPHY IN KERBEROS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadj Gharib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless technologies is gradually increasing and risks related to the use of these technologies are considerable. Due to their dynamically changing topology and open environment without a centralized policy control of a traditional network, a mobile ad hoc network (MANET is vulnerable to the presence of malicious nodes and attacks. The ideal solution to overcome a myriad of security concerns in MANET’s is the use of reliable authentication architecture. In this paper we propose a new key management scheme based on threshold cryptography in kerberos for MANET’s, the proposed scheme uses the elliptic curve cryptography method that consumes fewer resources well adapted to the wireless environment. Our approach shows a strength and effectiveness against attacks.

  11. A User Authentication Scheme Based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huifang; Ge, Linlin; Xie, Lei

    2015-07-14

    The feature of non-infrastructure support in a wireless ad hoc network (WANET) makes it suffer from various attacks. Moreover, user authentication is the first safety barrier in a network. A mutual trust is achieved by a protocol which enables communicating parties to authenticate each other at the same time and to exchange session keys. For the resource-constrained WANET, an efficient and lightweight user authentication scheme is necessary. In this paper, we propose a user authentication scheme based on the self-certified public key system and elliptic curves cryptography for a WANET. Using the proposed scheme, an efficient two-way user authentication and secure session key agreement can be achieved. Security analysis shows that our proposed scheme is resilient to common known attacks. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme performs similar or better compared with some existing user authentication schemes.

  12. An adaptive density-based routing protocol for flying Ad Hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xueli; Qi, Qian; Wang, Qingwen; Li, Yongqiang

    2017-10-01

    An Adaptive Density-based Routing Protocol (ADRP) for Flying Ad Hoc Networks (FANETs) is proposed in this paper. The main objective is to calculate forwarding probability adaptively in order to increase the efficiency of forwarding in FANETs. ADRP dynamically fine-tunes the rebroadcasting probability of a node for routing request packets according to the number of neighbour nodes. Indeed, it is more interesting to privilege the retransmission by nodes with little neighbour nodes. We describe the protocol, implement it and evaluate its performance using NS-2 network simulator. Simulation results reveal that ADRP achieves better performance in terms of the packet delivery fraction, average end-to-end delay, normalized routing load, normalized MAC load and throughput, which is respectively compared with AODV.

  13. Modelling and Initial Validation of the DYMO Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espensen, Kristian Asbjørn Leth; Kjeldsen, Mads Keblov; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2008-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an infrastructureless network established by a set of mobile devices using wireless communication. The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) protocol is a routing protocol for multi-hop communication in MANETs currently under development by the Internet Engineering Task...... Force (IETF). This paper presents a Coloured Petri Net (CPN) model of the mandatory parts of the DYMO protocol, and shows how scenario-based state space exploration has been used to validate key properties of the protocol. Our CPN modelling and verification work has spanned two revisions of the DYMO...... protocol specification and have had direct impact on the most recent version of the protocol specification....

  14. An Energy-Efficient and Robust Multipath Routing Protocol for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kishor; Moh, Sangman

    2017-09-04

    Routing in cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs) is a daunting task owing to dynamic topology, intermittent connectivity, spectrum heterogeneity, and energy constraints. Other prominent aspects such as channel stability, path reliability, and route discovery frequency should also be exploited. Several routing protocols have been proposed for CRAHNs in the literature. By stressing on one of the aspects more than any other, however, they do not satisfy all requirements of throughput, energy efficiency, and robustness. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient and robust multipath routing (ERMR) protocol for CRAHNs by considering all prominent aspects including residual energy and channel stability in design. Even when the current routing path fails, the alternative routing path is immediately utilized. In establishing primary and alternative routing paths, both residual energy and channel stability are exploited simultaneously. Our simulation study shows that the proposed ERMR outperforms the conventional protocol in terms of network throughput, packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, and end-to-end delay.

  15. A Leasing Model to Deal with Partial Failures in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Boix, Elisa; van Cutsem, Tom; Vallejos, Jorge; de Meuter, Wolfgang; D'Hondt, Theo

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) many partial failures are the result of temporary network partitions due to the intermittent connectivity of mobile devices. Some of these failures will be permanent and require application-level failure handling. However, it is impossible to distinguish a permanent from a transient failure. Leasing provides a solution to this problem based on the temporal restriction of resources. But to date no leasing model has been designed specifically for MANETs. In this paper, we identify three characteristics required for a leasing model to be usable in a MANET, discuss the issues with existing leasing models and then propose the leased object references model, which integrates leasing with remote object references. In addition, we describe an implementation of the model in the programming language AmbientTalk. Leased object references provide an extensible framework that allows programmers to express their own leasing patterns and enables both lease holders (clients) and lease grantors (services) to deal with permanent failures.

  16. Dual Polling Protocol for Improving Performance in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmyeng Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An ad hoc network is based on a distributed coordination function (DCF to transmit data packets through channel contentions. In DCF, when the number of stations increases, performance degrades considerably because of extremely high collision probability. To improve performance, a distributed point coordination function (DPCF protocol was proposed. In this protocol, stations operate as in DCF to obtain channel access rights. When a station obtains access rights, it polls all neighboring stations by using point coordination function (PCF. The polled stations then transmit their data packets without channel contentions. However, this protocol aggravates the issue of hidden terminals and causes channel wastage. To solve these problems, we propose a protocol in which a station polls stations in limited areas as opposed to every station in its transmission range. In addition, it polls only stations with data packets. The proposed protocol lowers the probability of collision and improves network performance

  17. Integrated data lookup and replication scheme in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2001-11-01

    Accessing remote data is a challenging task in mobile ad hoc networks. Two problems have to be solved: (1) how to learn about available data in the network; and (2) how to access desired data even when the original copy of the data is unreachable. In this paper, we develop an integrated data lookup and replication scheme to solve these problems. In our scheme, a group of mobile nodes collectively host a set of data to improve data accessibility for all members of the group. They exchange data availability information by broadcasting advertising (ad) messages to the group using an adaptive sending rate policy. The ad messages are used by other nodes to derive a local data lookup table, and to reduce data redundancy within a connected group. Our data replication scheme predicts group partitioning based on each node's current location and movement patterns, and replicates data to other partitions before partitioning occurs. Our simulations show that data availability information can quickly propagate throughout the network, and that the successful data access ratio of each node is significantly improved.

  18. A fault-tolerant small world topology control model in ad hoc networks for search and rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mian; Fang, Ling; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Bo; Chang, Bowen; Holme, Petter; Zhao, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Due to their self-organized, multi-hop and distributed characteristics, ad hoc networks are useful in search and rescue. Topology control models need to be designed for energy-efficient, robust and fast communication in ad hoc networks. This paper proposes a topology control model which specializes for search and rescue-Compensation Small World-Repeated Game (CSWRG)-which integrates mobility models, constructing small world networks and a game-theoretic approach to the allocation of resources. Simulation results show that our mobility models can enhance the communication performance of the constructed small-world networks. Our strategy, based on repeated game, can suppress selfish behavior and compensate agents that encounter selfish or faulty neighbors. This model could be useful for the design of ad hoc communication networks.

  19. A DNA-Inspired Encryption Methodology for Secure, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Users are pushing for greater physical mobility with their network and Internet access. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) can provide an efficient mobile network architecture, but security is a key concern. A figure summarizes differences in the state of network security for MANET and fixed networks. MANETs require the ability to distinguish trusted peers, and tolerate the ingress/egress of nodes on an unscheduled basis. Because the networks by their very nature are mobile and self-organizing, use of a Public Key Infra structure (PKI), X.509 certificates, RSA, and nonce ex changes becomes problematic if the ideal of MANET is to be achieved. Molecular biology models such as DNA evolution can provide a basis for a proprietary security architecture that achieves high degrees of diffusion and confusion, and resistance to cryptanalysis. A proprietary encryption mechanism was developed that uses the principles of DNA replication and steganography (hidden word cryptography) for confidentiality and authentication. The foundation of the approach includes organization of coded words and messages using base pairs organized into genes, an expandable genome consisting of DNA-based chromosome keys, and a DNA-based message encoding, replication, and evolution and fitness. In evolutionary computing, a fitness algorithm determines whether candidate solutions, in this case encrypted messages, are sufficiently encrypted to be transmitted. The technology provides a mechanism for confidential electronic traffic over a MANET without a PKI for authenticating users.

  20. Evaluation of mobile ad hoc network reliability using propagation-based link reliability model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmavathy, N.; Chaturvedi, Sanjay K.

    2013-01-01

    A wireless mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of solely independent nodes (that can move randomly around the area of deployment) making the topology highly dynamic; nodes communicate with each other by forming a single hop/multi-hop network and maintain connectivity in decentralized manner. MANET is modelled using geometric random graphs rather than random graphs because the link existence in MANET is a function of the geometric distance between the nodes and the transmission range of the nodes. Among many factors that contribute to the MANET reliability, the reliability of these networks also depends on the robustness of the link between the mobile nodes of the network. Recently, the reliability of such networks has been evaluated for imperfect nodes (transceivers) with binary model of communication links based on the transmission range of the mobile nodes and the distance between them. However, in reality, the probability of successful communication decreases as the signal strength deteriorates due to noise, fading or interference effects even up to the nodes' transmission range. Hence, in this paper, using a propagation-based link reliability model rather than a binary-model with nodes following a known failure distribution to evaluate the network reliability (2TR m , ATR m and AoTR m ) of MANET through Monte Carlo Simulation is proposed. The method is illustrated with an application and some imperative results are also presented

  1. Rollback recovery with low overhead for fault tolerance in mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmeet Kaur Jaggi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs have significantly enhanced the wireless networks by eliminating the need for any fixed infrastructure. Hence, these are increasingly being used for expanding the computing capacity of existing networks or for implementation of autonomous mobile computing Grids. However, the fragile nature of MANETs makes the constituent nodes susceptible to failures and the computing potential of these networks can be utilized only if they are fault tolerant. The technique of checkpointing based rollback recovery has been used effectively for fault tolerance in static and cellular mobile systems; yet, the implementation of existing protocols for MANETs is not straightforward. The paper presents a novel rollback recovery protocol for handling the failures of mobile nodes in a MANET using checkpointing and sender based message logging. The proposed protocol utilizes the routing protocol existing in the network for implementing a low overhead recovery mechanism. The presented recovery procedure at a node is completely domino-free and asynchronous. The protocol is resilient to the dynamic characteristics of the MANET; allowing a distributed application to be executed independently without access to any wired Grid or cellular network access points. We also present an algorithm to record a consistent global snapshot of the MANET.

  2. Secure and Fair Cluster Head Selection Protocol for Enhancing Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Paramasivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.

  3. Secure and fair cluster head selection protocol for enhancing security in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, B; Kaliappan, M

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.

  4. Multipath Activity Based Routing Protocol for Mobile ‎Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Omar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio networks improve spectrum utilization by ‎sharing licensed spectrum with cognitive radio devices. In ‎cognitive radio ad hoc networks the routing protocol is one ‎of the most challenging tasks due to the changes in ‎frequency spectrum and the interrupted connectivity ‎caused by the primary user activity. In this paper, a multi‎path activity based routing protocol for cognitive radio ‎network (MACNRP is proposed. The protocol utilizes ‎channel availability and creates multiple node-disjoint ‎routes between the source and destination nodes. The ‎proposed protocol is compared with D2CARP and FTCRP ‎protocols. The performance evaluation is conducted ‎through mathematical analysis and using OPNET ‎simulation. The performance of the proposed protocol ‎achieves an increase in network throughput; besides it ‎decreases the probability of route failure due to node ‎mobility and primary user activity. We have found that the ‎MACNRP scheme results in 50% to 75% reduction in ‎blocking probability and 33% to 78% improvement in ‎network throughput, with a reasonable additional routing ‎overhead and average packet delay. Due to the successful ‎reduction of collision between primary users and ‎cognitive users, the MACNRP scheme results in decreasing ‎the path failure rate by 50% to 87%.‎

  5. An Ad-hoc Satellite Network to Measure Filamentary Current Structures in the Auroral Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabong, C.; Fritz, T. A.; Semeter, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    An ad-hoc cubesat-based satellite network project known as ANDESITE is under development at Boston University. It aims to develop a dense constellation of easy-to-use, rapidly-deployable low-cost wireless sensor nodes in space. The objectives of the project are threefold: 1) Demonstrate viability of satellite based sensor networks by deploying an 8-node miniature sensor network to study the filamentation of the field aligned currents in the auroral zones of the Earth's magnetosphere. 2) Test the scalability of proposed protocols, including localization techniques, tracking, data aggregation, and routing, for a 3 dimensional wireless sensor network using a "flock" of nodes. 3) Construct a 6U Cube-sat running the Android OS as an integrated constellation manager, data mule and sensor node deplorer. This small network of sensor nodes will resolve current densities at different spatial resolutions in the near-Earth magnetosphere using measurements from magnetometers with 1-nT sensitivities and 0.2 nT/√Hz self-noise. Mapping of these currents will provide new constraints for models of auroral particle acceleration, wave-particle interactions, ionospheric destabilization, and other kinetic processes operating in the low-beta plasma of the near Earth magnetosphere.

  6. Security enhancement for mobile ad hoc networks routing with OLSRv2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhexiong; Tang, Helen; Yu, F. Richard; Wang, Maoyu

    2013-05-01

    Some features of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), including dynamic membership, topology, and open wireless medium, introduce a variety of security risks. Malicious nodes can drop or modify packets that are received from other nodes. These malicious activities may seriously affect the availability of services in MANETs. Therefore, secure routing in MANETs has emerged as an important MANET research area. In this paper, we propose a scheme that enhances the security of Optimal Link State Routing version 2 (OLSRv2) in MANETs based on trust. In the proposed scheme, more accurate trust can be obtained by considering different types of packets and other important factors that may cause dropping packets in friendly nodes, such as buffer overflows and unreliable wireless connections. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  7. Context dependent off loading for cloudlet in mobile ad-hoc network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, N.; Nadesh, R. K.; ArivuSelvan, K.

    2017-11-01

    Cloud Computing in Mobile Ad-hoc network is emerging part of research consideration as the demand and competency of mobile devices increased in last few years. To follow out operation within the remote cloud builds the postponement and influences the administration standard. To keep away from this trouble cloudlet is presented. Cloudlet gives identical support of the devices as cloud at low inactivity however at high transfer speed. Be that as it may, choice of a cloudlet for offloading calculation with flat energy is a noteworthy test if multiple cloud let is accessible adjacent. Here I proposed energy and bandwidth (Traffic overload for communication with cloud) aware cloudlet selection strategy based on the context dependency of the device location. It works on the basis of mobile device location and bandwidth availability of cloudlet. The cloudlet offloading and selection process using given solution is simulated in Cloud ~ Simulator.

  8. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  9. Quorum system and random based asynchronous rendezvous protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Romaszko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rendezvous protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks, RAC2E-gQS, which utilizes (1 the asynchronous and randomness properties of the RAC2E protocol, and (2 channel mapping protocol, based on a grid Quorum System (gQS, and taking into account channel heterogeneity and asymmetric channel views. We show that the combination of the RAC2E protocol with the grid-quorum based channel mapping can yield a powerful RAC2E-gQS rendezvous protocol for asynchronous operation in a distributed environment assuring a rapid rendezvous between the cognitive radio nodes having available both symmetric and asymmetric channel views. We also propose an enhancement of the protocol, which uses a torus QS for a slot allocation, dealing with the worst case scenario, a large number of channels with opposite ranking lists.

  10. Impact of Beamforming on the Path Connectivity in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le The Dung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of using directional antennas and beamforming schemes on the connectivity of cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs. Specifically, considering that secondary users use two kinds of directional antennas, i.e., uniform linear array (ULA and uniform circular array (UCA antennas, and two different beamforming schemes, i.e., randomized beamforming and center-directed to communicate with each other, we study the connectivity of all combination pairs of directional antennas and beamforming schemes and compare their performances to those of omnidirectional antennas. The results obtained in this paper show that, compared with omnidirectional transmission, beamforming transmission only benefits the connectivity when the density of secondary user is moderate. Moreover, the combination of UCA and randomized beamforming scheme gives the highest path connectivity in all evaluating scenarios. Finally, the number of antenna elements and degree of path loss greatly affect path connectivity in CRAHNs.

  11. A Multimedia Data Visualization Based on Ad Hoc Communication Networks and Its Application to Disaster Management

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    Youhei Kawamura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available After massive earthquakes and other large-scale disasters, existing communication infrastructure may become unavailable and, therefore, it can be quite difficult for relief organizations to fully grasp the impact of the disaster on the affected region. Consequently, this will be the cause of delays to offer the strategic assistance, and to provide water and food, etc. In order to solve the problem of re-establishing communication infrastructure to allow for information gathering, we developed an ad hoc mobile communications network for disaster-struck areas using ZigBee. As the communication speed of ZigBee is low, we propose a problem-specific image compression method for the multimedia data visualization. By using the proposed method combined with GPS information, it is possible to quickly grasp the damage situation in the region. Through our communication experiments in Tsukuba City, Japan we confirm the effectiveness of our system as a disaster information gathering and management system.

  12. Content Downloading with the Assistance of Roadside Cars for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

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    Haigang Gong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plenty of multimedia contents such as traffic images, music, and movies pose great challenges for content downloading due to the high mobility of vehicles and intermittent connectivity for vehicular ad hoc networks. Roadside units or APs can improve the efficiency of content downloading but with the cost of large investments. In this paper, an efficient content downloading scheme is proposed with the assistance of parking clusters, which are formed by roadside parked cars. After receiving the downloading request, the parking clusters, which the downloader will travel through according to the estimated trajectory, will make a download scheduling for the downloader. Then the downloader acquires the content chunks while it drives through the parking clusters. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better performance than intervehicle approach and RSU based approach.

  13. Client-Server and Peer-to-Peer Ad-hoc Network for a Flexible Learning Environment

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    Ferial Khaddage

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-Peer (P2P networking in a mobile learning environment has become a popular topic of research. One of the new emerging research ideas is on the ability to combine P2P network with server-based network to form a strong efficient portable and compatible network infrastructure. This paper describes a unique mobile network architecture, which reflects the on-campus students’ need for a mobile learning environment. This can be achieved by combining two different networks, client-server and peer-to-peer ad-hoc to form a sold and secure network. This is accomplished by employing one peer within the ad-hoc network to act as an agent-peer to facilitate communication and information sharing between the two networks. It can be implemented without any major changes to the current network technologies, and can combine any wireless protocols such as GPRS, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and 3G.

  14. Comparison of Analytical and Measured Performance Results on Network Coding in IEEE 802.11 Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Fang; Médard, Muriel; Hundebøll, Martin

    2012-01-01

    CATWOMAN that can run on standard WiFi hardware. We present an analytical model to evaluate the performance of COPE in simple networks, and our results show the excellent predictive quality of this model. By closely examining the performance in two simple topologies, we observe that the coding gain results......Network coding is a promising technology that has been shown to improve throughput in wireless mesh networks. In this paper, we compare the analytical and experimental performance of COPE-style network coding in IEEE 802.11 ad-hoc networks. In the experiments, we use a lightweight scheme called...... from the interaction between network coding and the MAC protocol, and the gap between the theoretical and practical gains is due to the different channel qualities of sending nodes. This understanding is helpful for design of larger mesh networks that use network coding....

  15. A Family of ACO Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez Cañas, Delfín; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2017-05-22

    In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes. In this work, a family of ACO routing protocols based on AntOR is also specified. These protocols are based on protocol successive refinements. In this work, we also present a parallelized version of AntOR that we call PAntOR. Using programming multiprocessor architectures based on the shared memory protocol, PAntOR allows running tasks in parallel using threads. This parallelization is applicable in the route setup phase, route local repair process and link failure notification. In addition, a variant of PAntOR that consists of having more than one interface, which we call PAntOR-MI (PAntOR-Multiple Interface), is specified. This approach parallelizes the sending of broadcast messages by interface through threads.

  16. Dynamic Retransmission Limit Scheme in MAC Layer for Routing in Multihop Ad hoc Networks

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    Rachid El-Azouzi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider a wireless ad hoc network with random access channel. We present a model that takes into account topology, routing, random access in MAC layer, and forwarding probability. In this paper, we focus on drawing benefit from the interaction of the MAC (governed by IEEE 802.11 or slotted Aloha and routing by defining a new cross-layer scheme for routing based on the limit number of retransmission. By adjusting dynamically and judiciously this parameter in a saturated network, we have realized that both stability of forwarding queues and average throughput are significantly improved in linear networks with symmetric traffic: a gain of 100% can be reached. While in asymmetric topology network with asymmetric traffic, we achieve a better average delay (resp., throughput for each connection without changing the average throughput (resp., delay. In addition, we show the efficiency of our new scheme in case of multimedia applications with delay constraint. A detailed performance study is presented using analytical and simulation evaluation.

  17. Securing mobile ad hoc networks using danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm.

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    Maha Abdelhaq

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs.

  18. A Routing Strategy for Non-Cooperation Wireless Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks

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    Dung T. Tran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Choosing routes such that the network lifetime is maximized in a wireless network with limited energy resources is a major routing problem in wireless multi-hop ad hoc networks. In this paper, we study the problem where participants are rationally selfish and non-cooperative. By selfish we designate the users who are ready to tamper with their source-routing (senders could choose intermediate nodes in the routing paths or next hop selection strategies in order to increase the total number of packets transmitted, but do not try to harm or drop packets of the other nodes. The problem therefore amounts to a non-cooperative game. In the works [2,6,19,23], the authors show that the game admits Nash equilibria [1]. Along this line, we first show that if the cost function is linear, this game has pure-strategy equilibrium flow even though participants have different demands. However, finding a Nash equilibrium for a normal game is computationally hard [9]. In this work, inspired by mixed-strategy equilibrium, we propose a simple local routing algorithm called MIxed Path Routing protocol (MiPR. Using analysis and simulations, we show that MiPR drives the system to an equilibrium state where selfish participants do not have incentive to deviate. Moreover, MiPR significantly improves the network lifetime as compared to original routing protocols.

  19. Securing mobile ad hoc networks using danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhaq, Maha; Alsaqour, Raed; Abdelhaq, Shawkat

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs.

  20. A Rough Penalty Genetic Algorithm for Multicast Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

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    Chih-Hao Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicast routing is an effective way to transmit messages to multiple hosts in a network. However, it is vulnerable to intermittent connectivity property in mobile ad hoc network (MANET especially for multimedia applications, which have some quality of service (QoS requirements. The goal of QoS provisioning is to well organize network resources to satisfy the QoS requirement and achieve good network delivery services. However, there remains a challenge to provide QoS solutions and maintain end-to-end QoS with user mobility. In this paper, a novel penalty adjustment method based on the rough set theory is proposed to deal with path-delay constraints for multicast routing problems in MANETs. We formulate the problem as a constrained optimization problem, where the objective function is to minimize the total cost of the multicast tree subject to QoS constraints. The RPGA is evaluated on three multicast scenarios and compared with two state-of-the-art methods in terms of cost, success rate, and time complexity. The performance analyses show that this approach is a self-adaptive method for penalty adjustment. Remarkably, the method can address a variety of constrained multicast routing problems even though the initial routes do not satisfy all QoS requirements.

  1. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

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    Michael D. Colagrosso

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  2. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

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    Colagrosso Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  3. Mobile Ad Hoc Network Energy Cost Algorithm Based on Artificial Bee Colony

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    Mustafa Tareq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network without using any existing network infrastructure. MANET selects a path with minimal number of intermediate nodes to reach the destination node. As the distance between each node increases, the quantity of transmission power increases. The power level of nodes affects the simplicity with which a route is constituted between a couple of nodes. This study utilizes the swarm intelligence technique through the artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm to optimize the energy consumption in a dynamic source routing (DSR protocol in MANET. The proposed algorithm is called bee DSR (BEEDSR. The ABC algorithm is used to identify the optimal path from the source to the destination to overcome energy problems. The performance of the BEEDSR algorithm is compared with DSR and bee-inspired protocols (BeeIP. The comparison was conducted based on average energy consumption, average throughput, average end-to-end delay, routing overhead, and packet delivery ratio performance metrics, varying the node speed and packet size. The BEEDSR algorithm is superior in performance than other protocols in terms of energy conservation and delay degradation relating to node speed and packet size.

  4. Smart vehicle monitoring and assistance using cloud computing in vehicular Ad Hoc networks

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    Yash Agarwal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of on road vehicles has become a major cause for congestion, accidents and pollution. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS might be the key to achieve solutions that help in reducing these problems significantly. The connected vehicular networks stream is a rapidly growing field for research and development of various real-time applications. In this paper, novel techniques have been proposed to serve the speed based lane changing, collision avoidance and time of arrival (TOA based localization in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs. As GPS requires clear line-of-sight for accurate services of positioning and localization applications, we designed a Time of Arrival (ToA based algorithm for areas where strong GPS signals are unavailable. Collision avoidance using automatic braking and camera-based surveillance are a few other applications that we addressed. The feasibility and the viability of the algorithms were demonstrated through simulations in Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO and Network Simulator-2 (NS-2. We prototyped a working hardware and tested it on actual vehicles to assess the effectiveness of the proposed system. We designed a mobile app interface for the on-board unit for smart, efficient and remote traffic monitoring. The integrated VANET Cloud Computing architecture acts as the platform for the proposed applications.

  5. Frame Transmission Efficiency-Based Cross-Layer Congestion Notification Scheme in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaguang; Li, Taoshen; Feng, Luting; Ye, Jin

    2017-07-15

    Different from the traditional wired network, the fundamental cause of transmission congestion in wireless ad hoc networks is medium contention. How to utilize the congestion state from the MAC (Media Access Control) layer to adjust the transmission rate is core work for transport protocol design. However, recent works have shown that the existing cross-layer congestion detection solutions are too complex to be deployed or not able to characterize the congestion accurately. We first propose a new congestion metric called frame transmission efficiency (i.e., the ratio of successful transmission delay to the frame service delay), which describes the medium contention in a fast and accurate manner. We further present the design and implementation of RECN (ECN and the ratio of successful transmission delay to the frame service delay in the MAC layer, namely, the frame transmission efficiency), a general supporting scheme that adjusts the transport sending rate through a standard ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) signaling method. Our method can be deployed on commodity switches with small firmware updates, while making no modification on end hosts. We integrate RECN transparently (i.e., without modification) with TCP on NS2 simulation. The experimental results show that RECN remarkably improves network goodput across multiple concurrent TCP flows.

  6. Characterizing the Interaction Between Routing and MAC Protocols in Ad-Hoc Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We empirically study the effect of mobility on the performance of protocols designed for wireless ad-hoc networks. An important objective is to study the interaction of the Routing and MAC layer protocols under different mobility parameters. We use three basic mobility models: grid mobility model, random waypoint model, and exponential correlated random model. The performance of protocols is measured in terms of (i) latency, (ii) throughput, (iii) number of packets received, (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC and routing layer level. Three different commonly studied routing protocols are used: AODV, DSR and LAR1. Similarly three well known MAC protocols are used: MACA, 802.1 1 and CSMA. Our main contribution is simulation based experiments coupled with rigorous statistical analysis to characterize the interaction of MAC layer protocols with routing layer protocols in ad-hoc networks. From the results, we can conclude the following: e No single MAC or Routing protocol dominated the other protocols in their class. Probably more interestingly, no MAURouting protocol combination was better than other combinations over all scenarios and response variables. 0 In general, it is not meaningful to speak about a MAC or a routing protocol in isolation. Presence of interaction leads to trade-offs between the amount of control packets generated by each layer. The results raise the possibility of improving the performance of a particular MAC layer protocol by using a cleverly designed routing protocol or vice-versa. Thus in order to improve the performanceof a communication network, it is important to study the entire protocol stack as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the seven layer OS1 stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point. A methodological contribution of this paper is the use of statistical methods such as analysis of variance (ANOVA), to characterize the interaction between the protocols

  7. An authenticated encrypted routing protocol against attacks in mobile ad-hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Suma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network is stated as a cluster that contains Digital data terminals and they are furnished with the wireless transceivers which are able to communicate with each other with no need of any fixed architecture or concentrated authority. Security is one of the major issues in MANETs because of vast applications such as Military Battlefields, emergency and rescue operations[10]. In order to provide anonymous communications and to identify the malicious nodes in MANETs, many authors have proposed different secure routing protocols but each protocol have their own advantages and disadvantages. In MANTE’s each and every node in the communicating network functions like router and transmits the packets among the networking nodes for the purpose of communication[11]. Sometimes nodes may be attacked by the malicious nodes or the legitimate node will be caught by foemen there by controlling and preventing the nodes to perform the assigned task or nodes may be corrupted due to loss of energy. So, due to these drawbacks securing the network under the presence of adversaries is an important thing. The existing protocols were designed with keeping anonymity and the identification of vicious nodes in the network as the main goal. For providing better security, the anonymity factors such as Unidentifiability and Unlinkability must be fully satisfied[1]. Many anonymous routing schemes that concentrate on achieving anonymity are proposed in the past decade and they provides the security at different levels and also provides the privacy protection that is of different cost. In this paper we consider a protocol called Authenticated Secure Routing Protocol proposed which provides both security & anonymity. Anonymity is achieved in this protocol using Group signature. Over all by using this protocol performance in terms of throughput as well as the packet dropping rate is good compared to the other living protocols.

  8. Fuzzy-Based Sensor Fusion for Cognitive Radio-Based Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

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    Mohammad Jalil Piran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, sensor fusion is employed to integrate the acquired data from diverse sensors to provide a unified interpretation. The best and most salient advantage of sensor fusion is to obtain high-level information in both statistical and definitive aspects, which cannot be attained by a single sensor. In this paper, we propose a novel sensor fusion technique based on fuzzy theory for our earlier proposed Cognitive Radio-based Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (CR-VASNET. In the proposed technique, we considered four input sensor readings (antecedents and one output (consequent. The employed mobile nodes in CR-VASNET are supposed to be equipped with diverse sensors, which cater to our antecedent variables, for example, The Jerk, Collision Intensity, and Temperature and Inclination Degree. Crash_Severity is considered as the consequent variable. The processing and fusion of the diverse sensory signals are carried out by fuzzy logic scenario. Accuracy and reliability of the proposed protocol, demonstrated by the simulation results, introduce it as an applicable system to be employed to reduce the causalities rate of the vehicles’ crashes.

  9. Medium Access Control Protocols for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareei, Mahdi; Islam, A K M Muzahidul; Baharun, Sabariah; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Mansoor, Nafees

    2017-09-16

    New wireless network paradigms will demand higher spectrum use and availability to cope with emerging data-hungry devices. Traditional static spectrum allocation policies cause spectrum scarcity, and new paradigms such as Cognitive Radio (CR) and new protocols and techniques need to be developed in order to have efficient spectrum usage. Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are accountable for recognizing free spectrum, scheduling available resources and coordinating the coexistence of heterogeneous systems and users. This paper provides an ample review of the state-of-the-art MAC protocols, which mainly focuses on Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHN). First, a description of the cognitive radio fundamental functions is presented. Next, MAC protocols are divided into three groups, which are based on their channel access mechanism, namely time-slotted protocol, random access protocol and hybrid protocol. In each group, a detailed and comprehensive explanation of the latest MAC protocols is presented, as well as the pros and cons of each protocol. A discussion on future challenges for CRAHN MAC protocols is included with a comparison of the protocols from a functional perspective.

  10. An Energy-Efficient and Robust Multipath Routing Protocol for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

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    Kishor Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Routing in cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs is a daunting task owing to dynamic topology, intermittent connectivity, spectrum heterogeneity, and energy constraints. Other prominent aspects such as channel stability, path reliability, and route discovery frequency should also be exploited. Several routing protocols have been proposed for CRAHNs in the literature. By stressing on one of the aspects more than any other, however, they do not satisfy all requirements of throughput, energy efficiency, and robustness. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient and robust multipath routing (ERMR protocol for CRAHNs by considering all prominent aspects including residual energy and channel stability in design. Even when the current routing path fails, the alternative routing path is immediately utilized. In establishing primary and alternative routing paths, both residual energy and channel stability are exploited simultaneously. Our simulation study shows that the proposed ERMR outperforms the conventional protocol in terms of network throughput, packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, and end-to-end delay.

  11. An Analysis of the Privacy Threat in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks due to Radio Frequency Fingerprinting

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    Gianmarco Baldini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs used in the road transportation sector, privacy risks may arise because vehicles could be tracked on the basis of the information transmitted by the Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I communications implemented with the Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC standards operating at 5.9 GHz. Various techniques have been proposed in the literature to mitigate these privacy risks including the use of pseudonym schemes, but they are mostly focused on data anonymization at the network and application layer. At the physical layer, the capability to accurately identify and fingerprint wireless devices through their radio frequency (RF emissions has been demonstrated in the literature. This capability may generate a privacy threat because vehicles can be tracked using the RF emissions of their DSRC devices. This paper investigates the privacy risks related to RF fingerprinting to determine if privacy breaches are feasible in practice. In particular, this paper analyzes the tracking accuracy in challenging RF environments with high attenuation and fading.

  12. Concurrent Transmission Based on Channel Quality in Ad Hoc Networks: A Game Theoretic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gao, Xinbo; Li, Xiaoji; Pei, Qingqi

    In this paper, a decentralized concurrent transmission strategy in shared channel in Ad Hoc networks is proposed based on game theory. Firstly, a static concurrent transmissions game is used to determine the candidates for transmitting by channel quality threshold and to maximize the overall throughput with consideration of channel quality variation. To achieve NES (Nash Equilibrium Solution), the selfish behaviors of node to attempt to improve the channel gain unilaterally are evaluated. Therefore, this game allows each node to be distributed and to decide whether to transmit concurrently with others or not depending on NES. Secondly, as there are always some nodes with lower channel gain than NES, which are defined as hunger nodes in this paper, a hunger suppression scheme is proposed by adjusting the price function with interferences reservation and forward relay, to fairly give hunger nodes transmission opportunities. Finally, inspired by stock trading, a dynamic concurrent transmission threshold determination scheme is implemented to make the static game practical. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme is feasible to increase concurrent transmission opportunities for active nodes, and at the same time, the number of hunger nodes is greatly reduced with the least increase of threshold by interferences reservation. Also, the good performance on network goodput of the proposed model can be seen from the results.

  13. Spectrum-Aware Geographic Routing in Cognitive Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Using a Kalman Filter

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    Huma Ghafoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a position-based routing protocol for cognitive radio vehicular ad hoc networks (CR-VANETs using a Kalman filter algorithm. The protocol first selects an idle channel from among all the channels available to a vehicle while moving on a straight road and then finds the best relay node to deliver the packet to the destination. The selection of a relay node is done by dividing the vehicular transmission range into five regions, and then the source/relay node selects the one that is in the region having a higher preference than other regions. Communication between two vehicles occurs only when both the vehicles are on the same channel. Delay may increase while sensing the channel and selecting the relay node. To reduce the delay, we use a Kalman filter to predict the future positions of all moving vehicles in the network. We consider vehicle-to-vehicle communication and compare our protocol for different probabilities of primary user being idle. Our proposed protocol shows improvement in both packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay.

  14. Further Development of Synchronous Array Method for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

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    Yingbo Hua

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A further development of the synchronous array method (SAM as a medium access control scheme for large-scale ad hoc wireless networks is presented. Under SAM, all transmissions of data packets between adjacent nodes are synchronized on a frame-by-frame basis, and the spacing between concurrent cochannel transmissions of data packets is properly controlled. An opportunistic SAM (O-SAM is presented which allows concurrent cochannel transmissions to be locally adaptive to channel gain variations. A distributed SAM (D-SAM is discussed that schedules all concurrent cochannel transmissions in a distributed fashion. For networks of low mobility, the control overhead required by SAM can be made much smaller than the payload. By analysis and simulation, the intranetwork throughput of O-SAM and D-SAM is evaluated. The effects of traffic load and multiple antennas on the intranetwork throughput are studied. The throughput of ALOHA is also analyzed and compared with that of O-SAM and D-SAM. By a distance-weighted throughput, a comparison of long distance transmission versus short distance transmission is also presented. The study of D-SAM reveals an important insight into the MSH-DSCH protocol adopted in IEEE 802.16 standards.

  15. Vehicle Assisted Data Delievery Technique To Control Data Dissemination In Vehicular AD - HOC Networks Vanets

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    Sandeep Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multi-hop data delivery through vehicular ad hoc networks is complicated by the fact that vehicular networks are highly mobile and frequently disconnected. To address this issue the idea of helper node is opted where a moving vehicles carries the packet until a new vehicle moves into its vicinity and forwards the packet. Different from existing helper node solution use of the predicable vehicle mobility is made which is limited by the traffic pattern and the road layout. Based on the existing traffic pattern a vehicle can find the next road to forward packet a vehicle can find the next road to forward the packet to reduce the delay. Several vehicle-assisted date delievery VADD protocol is proposed to forward the packet to the best road with the road with the lowest data delivery delay. Experiment results are used to evaluate the proposed solutions. Results show that the proposed VADD protocol outperform existing solution in terms of packet delivery ratio data packet delay and protocol overhead. Among the proposed VADD protocols the Hybrid probe HVADD protocol has much better performance. In this Solution the helper node technique is provider with which the helper node will contain destination node path and the path in routine table continuously changes with the help of helper node technique.

  16. An artificial immune system for securing mobile ad hoc networks against intrusion attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2003-08-01

    To mitigate the problem of intrusion attacks by malicious nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), security attributes and quantifiable trust levels, unique to the MANET's transient, self-organizing topology, augment or replace traditional protocol metrics of throughput, packet delay and hop-count in the ad hoc route discovery procedures. The new features are unique to the candidate security protocol, which views security as a quality metric to improve the relevance of the routes discovered by established reactive ad hoc routing protocols. Attributes of a secure route are identified in order to define the appropriate metrics to quantify the "level of security" associated with the protocol messaging and the detection of malicious activities by some intrusive nodes. A state vector of features and metrics based on the published Secure Routing Protocol (SRP) for MANETs is constructed to encode network security characteristics. This route discovery protocol mitigates the detrimental effects of various malicious behaviors to provide trustworthy connectivity information. The protocol ensures that fabricated, compromised, or replayed route replies would either be rejected or never reach the querying source node. In this paper, the pattern of values, taken by the state vector of the SRP features in the route request, discovery and reply operations, are analyzed to detect evidence of intrusion attacks by malicious nodes that could lead to denial of service and network shutdown. The pattern analysis applies a technique based on negative selection found in natural immune systems that can detect extraneous patterns in the (nonself) space that is the complement of vector values associated with correct route discovery and route maintenance. The immune system is well-suited to the distributed nature of the MANET. It does not rely on a central controller, but instead uses a distributed detection and response mechanism in order to respond to foreign invaders, mirroring the

  17. Ad Hoc on-Demand Distance Vector (AODV Routing Protocol Performance Evaluation on Hybrid Ad Hoc Network: Comparison of Result of Ns-2 Simulation and Implementation on Testbed using PDA

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    Riri Sari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET, node supplemented with wireless equipment has the capacity to manage and organise autonomously, without the presence of network infrastructures. Hybrid ad hoc network, enable several nodes to move freely (mobile to create instant communication. Independent from infrastructure. They could access the Local Area Network (LAN or the Internet. Functionalities of ad hoc network very much dependent on the routing protocol that determines the routing around node. Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV is one of routing protocols in ad hoc network which has a reactive characteristic. This protocol is the most common protocol being researched and used. In this Research, AODV protocol investigation was conducted by developing a testbed using Personal Computer, several Laptops (the Linux Red Hat operation system 9.0 and Fedora Core 2, and Personal Digital Assistant (PDA. This research also made a complete package by mean of cross compilation for PDA iPAQ. In general, results obtained from the simulation of AODV protocol using Network Simulator NS-2 are packet delivery ratio 99.89%, end-to-end delay of 0.14 seconds and routing overhead of 1,756.61 byte per second. Afterwards results from simulation were compared to results from testbed. Results obtained from testbed are as follows: the packet delivery ratio is 99.57%, the end-to-end delay is 1.004 seconds and the routing overhead is 1,360.36 byte per second.

  18. Implementation and Evaluation of Multichannel Multi-Interface Routing Mechanism with QoS-Consideration for Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Murata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To accommodate real-time multimedia application while satisfying application-level QoS requirements in a wireless ad-hoc network, we need QoS control mechanisms. We proposed a new routing mechanism for a wireless ad-hoc network composed of nodes equipped with multiple network interfaces. By embedding information about channel usage in control messages of OLSRv2, each node obtains a view of topology and bandwidth information of the whole network. Based on the obtained information, a source node determines a logical path with the maximum available bandwidth to satisfy application-level QoS requirements. In this paper, we evaluated feasibility of the proposal through simulation and practical experiments and confirmed that our proposal effectively transferred multimedia packets over a logical path avoiding congested links. The load on a network is well distributed and the network can accommodate more sessions than OLSRv2 and QOLSR.

  19. Industrial Internet of Things Based Efficient and Reliable Data Dissemination Solution for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Latif

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT is the other name of industrial Internet. It integrates a variety of existing industrial automation technologies with computing, machine learning, and communication technologies. Vehicular ad hoc network, an application of IIoT, is a self-organized network of vehicles which tends to provide improved road safety, diminished traffic congestion, and ultimate comfort to the travellers. In VANETs, vehicles exchange data with each other directly or through roadside units (RSUs. Data dissemination in VANETs experiences numerous challenging issues including broadcast storm, network partitions, intermittent connectivity between vehicles, and limited bandwidth. In literature, various data dissemination schemes are proposed. However, most of these schemes are designed for either urban or highway VANET scenarios and evaluated under sparse or dense traffic conditions. Moreover, these schemes do not effectively overcome the aforementioned issues simultaneously. In this paper, we present a new data dissemination protocol for VANETs, which disseminates the emergency messages in different scenarios under varying traffic conditions. During dense traffic conditions, DDP4V employs the segmentation of transmission region of a vehicle in order to select the most appropriate next forwarding vehicle (NFV. Accordingly, it divides the transmission region of a vehicle in three distinct segments and selects vehicle(s inside the highest priority segment to forward the message to all neighbour vehicles, whereas it also uses implicit acknowledgements for guaranteed message delivery during sparse traffic Conditions. Simulation results show that DDP4V protocol outperforms the other existing related protocols in terms of coverage, network overhead, collision, and end-to-end delay.

  20. A 274µW clock synchronized wireless body area network IC with super-regenerative RSSI for biomedical ad-hoc network system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongsu Lee; Hoi-Jun Yoo

    2017-07-01

    A clock synchronized multi-node wireless body area network (WBAN) transceiver IC with super-regenerative RSSI is proposed for biomedical ad-hoc network system. The ad-hoc network makes stable communication even in the harsh human body channel condition (body channel communication (BCC). In the node IC, it has 2 key building blocks; 1) Injection locking clock synchronization receiver, and 2) Super-regenerative RSSI (SR-RSSI) and OOK receiver. As a result, the 240 MHz clock is exactly synchronized in the node IC with 90 μW power consumption. And a channel-condition-adapted ad-hoc network is constructed based on the SR-RSSI data. SR-RSSI consumes 184 μW concurrent achieving OOK receiver functionality for the ad-hoc network. The proposed WBAN IC is fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS technology.

  1. Fluid-flow modeling of a relay node in an IEEE 802.11 wireless ad-hoc network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijers, F.; Berg, J.L. van den; Mandjes, M.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless ad-hoc networks are based on shared medium technology where the nodes arrange access to the medium in a distributed way independent of their current traffic demand. This has the inherent drawback that a node that serves as a relay node for transmissions of multiple neighboring nodes is

  2. Dynamic Cooperative Clustering Based Power Assignment: Network Capacity and Lifetime Efficient Topology Control in Cooperative Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative communication (CC is used in topology control as it can reduce the transmission power and expand the transmission range. However, all previous research on topology control under the CC model focused on maintaining network connectivity and minimizing the total energy consumption, which would lead to low network capacity, transmission interruption, or even network paralysis. Meanwhile, without considering the balance of energy consumption in the network, it would reduce the network lifetime and greatly affect the network performance. This paper tries to solve the above problems existing in the research on topology control under the CC model by proposing a power assignment (DCCPA algorithm based on dynamic cooperative clustering in cooperative ad hoc networks. The new algorithm clusters the network to maximize network capacity and makes the clusters communicate with each other by CC. To reduce the number of redundant links between clusters, we design a static clustering method by using Kruskal algorithm. To maximize the network lifetime, we also propose a cluster head rotating method which can reach a good tradeoff between residual energy and distance for the cluster head reselection. Experimental results show that DCCPA can improve 80% network capacity with Cooperative Bridges algorithm; meanwhile, it can improve 20% network lifetime.

  3. Unsupervised algorithms for intrusion detection and identification in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2009-05-01

    In previous work by the author, parameters across network protocol layers were selected as features in supervised algorithms that detect and identify certain intrusion attacks on wireless ad hoc sensor networks (WSNs) carrying multisensor data. The algorithms improved the residual performance of the intrusion prevention measures provided by any dynamic key-management schemes and trust models implemented among network nodes. The approach of this paper does not train algorithms on the signature of known attack traffic, but, instead, the approach is based on unsupervised anomaly detection techniques that learn the signature of normal network traffic. Unsupervised learning does not require the data to be labeled or to be purely of one type, i.e., normal or attack traffic. The approach can be augmented to add any security attributes and quantified trust levels, established during data exchanges among nodes, to the set of cross-layer features from the WSN protocols. A two-stage framework is introduced for the security algorithms to overcome the problems of input size and resource constraints. The first stage is an unsupervised clustering algorithm which reduces the payload of network data packets to a tractable size. The second stage is a traditional anomaly detection algorithm based on a variation of support vector machines (SVMs), whose efficiency is improved by the availability of data in the packet payload. In the first stage, selected algorithms are adapted to WSN platforms to meet system requirements for simple parallel distributed computation, distributed storage and data robustness. A set of mobile software agents, acting like an ant colony in securing the WSN, are distributed at the nodes to implement the algorithms. The agents move among the layers involved in the network response to the intrusions at each active node and trustworthy neighborhood, collecting parametric values and executing assigned decision tasks. This minimizes the need to move large amounts

  4. A Sensitive Secondary Users Selection Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aohan Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary Users (SUs are allowed to use the temporarily unused licensed spectrum without disturbing Primary Users (PUs in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHNs. Existing architectures for CRAHNs impose energy-consuming Cognitive Radios (CRs on SUs. However, the advanced CRs will increase energy cost for their cognitive functionalities, which is undesirable for the battery powered devices. A new architecture referred to as spectral Requirement-based CRAHN (RCRAHN is proposed to enhance energy efficiency for CRAHNs in this paper. In RCRAHNs, only parts of SUs are equipped with CRs. SUs equipped with CRs are referred to as Cognitive Radio Users (CRUs. To further enhance energy efficiency of CRAHNs, we aim to select minimum CRUs to sense available spectrum. A non-linear programming problem is mathematically formulated under the constraints of energy efficiency and real-time. Considering the NP-hardness of the problem, a framework of a heuristic algorithm referred to as Sensitive Secondary Users Selection (SSUS was designed to compute the near-optimal solutions. The simulation results demonstrate that SSUS not only improves the energy efficiency, but also achieves satisfied performances in end-to-end delay and communication reliability.

  5. Cooperative Caching in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Based on Data Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narottam Chand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative caching, which allows sharing and coordination of cached data among clients, is a potential technique to improve the data access performance and availability in mobile ad hoc networks. However, variable data sizes, frequent data updates, limited client resources, insufficient wireless bandwidth and client's mobility make cache management a challenge. In this paper, we propose a utility based cache replacement policy, least utility value (LUV, to improve the data availability and reduce the local cache miss ratio. LUV considers several factors that affect cache performance, namely access probability, distance between the requester and data source/cache, coherency and data size. A cooperative cache management strategy, Zone Cooperative (ZC, is developed that employs LUV as replacement policy. In ZC one-hop neighbors of a client form a cooperation zone since the cost for communication with them is low both in terms of energy consumption and message exchange. Simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of LUV based ZC caching strategy. The simulation results show that, LUV replacement policy substantially outperforms the LRU policy.

  6. An Efficient and QoS Supported Multichannel MAC Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caixia; Tan, Guozhen; Yu, Chao

    2017-10-09

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety (transport efficiency and infotainment) applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. Different types of applications require different levels Quality-of-Service (QoS) support. Recently, transport efficiency and infotainment applications (e.g., electronic map download and Internet access) have received more and more attention, and this kind of applications is expected to become a big market driver in a near future. In this paper, we propose an Efficient and QoS supported Multichannel Medium Access Control (EQM-MAC) protocol for VANETs in a highway environment. The EQM-MAC protocol utilizes the service channel resources for non-safety message transmissions during the whole synchronization interval, and it dynamically adjusts minimum contention window size for different non-safety services according to the traffic conditions. Theoretical model analysis and extensive simulation results show that the EQM-MAC protocol can support QoS services, while ensuring the high saturation throughput and low transmission delay for non-safety applications.

  7. An Efficient and QoS Supported Multichannel MAC Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety (transport efficiency and infotainment applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. Different types of applications require different levels Quality-of-Service (QoS support. Recently, transport efficiency and infotainment applications (e.g., electronic map download and Internet access have received more and more attention, and this kind of applications is expected to become a big market driver in a near future. In this paper, we propose an Efficient and QoS supported Multichannel Medium Access Control (EQM-MAC protocol for VANETs in a highway environment. The EQM-MAC protocol utilizes the service channel resources for non-safety message transmissions during the whole synchronization interval, and it dynamically adjusts minimum contention window size for different non-safety services according to the traffic conditions. Theoretical model analysis and extensive simulation results show that the EQM-MAC protocol can support QoS services, while ensuring the high saturation throughput and low transmission delay for non-safety applications.

  8. Multiobjective Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Signal Control Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houli Duan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multiobjective control algorithm based on reinforcement learning for urban traffic signal control, named multi-RL. A multiagent structure is used to describe the traffic system. A vehicular ad hoc network is used for the data exchange among agents. A reinforcement learning algorithm is applied to predict the overall value of the optimization objective given vehicles' states. The policy which minimizes the cumulative value of the optimization objective is regarded as the optimal one. In order to make the method adaptive to various traffic conditions, we also introduce a multiobjective control scheme in which the optimization objective is selected adaptively to real-time traffic states. The optimization objectives include the vehicle stops, the average waiting time, and the maximum queue length of the next intersection. In addition, we also accommodate a priority control to the buses and the emergency vehicles through our model. The simulation results indicated that our algorithm could perform more efficiently than traditional traffic light control methods.

  9. A Game Theory Algorithm for Intra-Cluster Data Aggregation in a Vehicular Ad Hoc Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuzhong; Weng, Shining; Guo, Wenzhong; Xiong, Naixue

    2016-02-19

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have an important role in urban management and planning. The effective integration of vehicle information in VANETs is critical to traffic analysis, large-scale vehicle route planning and intelligent transportation scheduling. However, given the limitations in the precision of the output information of a single sensor and the difficulty of information sharing among various sensors in a highly dynamic VANET, effectively performing data aggregation in VANETs remains a challenge. Moreover, current studies have mainly focused on data aggregation in large-scale environments but have rarely discussed the issue of intra-cluster data aggregation in VANETs. In this study, we propose a multi-player game theory algorithm for intra-cluster data aggregation in VANETs by analyzing the competitive and cooperative relationships among sensor nodes. Several sensor-centric metrics are proposed to measure the data redundancy and stability of a cluster. We then study the utility function to achieve efficient intra-cluster data aggregation by considering both data redundancy and cluster stability. In particular, we prove the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium in the game model, and conduct extensive experiments to validate the proposed algorithm. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has advantages over typical data aggregation algorithms in both accuracy and efficiency.

  10. An Eco-Driving Advisory System for Continuous Signalized Intersections by Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsun Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the vehicular ad hoc network (VANET technology which support vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V and vehicle to road side unit (V2R/R2V communications, vehicles can preview the intersection signal plan such as signal countdown message. In this paper, an ecodriving advisory system (EDAS is proposed to reduce CO2 emissions and energy consumption by letting the vehicle continuously pass through multiple intersections with the minimum possibilities of stops. We extend the isolated intersection model to multiple continuous intersections scenario. A hybrid method combining three strategies including maximized throughput model (MTM, smooth speed model (SSM, and minimized acceleration and deceleration (MinADM is designed, and it is compared with related works maximized throughput model (MaxTM, open traffic light control model (OTLCM, and predictive cruise control (PCC models. Some issues for the practical application including safe car following, queue clearing, and gliding mode are discussed and conquered. Simulation results show that the proposed model outperforms OTLCM 25.1%~81.2% in the isolated intersection scenario for the CO2 emissions and 20.5%~84.3% in averaged travel time. It also performs better than the compared PCC model in CO2 emissions (19.9%~31.2% as well as travel time (24.5%~35.9% in the multiple intersections scenario.

  11. A Sensitive Secondary Users Selection Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aohan; Han, Guangjie; Wan, Liangtian; Shu, Lei

    2016-03-26

    Secondary Users (SUs) are allowed to use the temporarily unused licensed spectrum without disturbing Primary Users (PUs) in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHNs). Existing architectures for CRAHNs impose energy-consuming Cognitive Radios (CRs) on SUs. However, the advanced CRs will increase energy cost for their cognitive functionalities, which is undesirable for the battery powered devices. A new architecture referred to as spectral Requirement-based CRAHN (RCRAHN) is proposed to enhance energy efficiency for CRAHNs in this paper. In RCRAHNs, only parts of SUs are equipped with CRs. SUs equipped with CRs are referred to as Cognitive Radio Users (CRUs). To further enhance energy efficiency of CRAHNs, we aim to select minimum CRUs to sense available spectrum. A non-linear programming problem is mathematically formulated under the constraints of energy efficiency and real-time. Considering the NP-hardness of the problem, a framework of a heuristic algorithm referred to as Sensitive Secondary Users Selection (SSUS) was designed to compute the near-optimal solutions. The simulation results demonstrate that SSUS not only improves the energy efficiency, but also achieves satisfied performances in end-to-end delay and communication reliability.

  12. Precoding Design and Power Allocation in Two-User MU-MIMO Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haole Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the precoding design and power allocation problem for multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO wireless ad hoc networks. In the first timeslot, the source node (SN transmits energy and information to a relay node (RN simultaneously within the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT framework. Then, in the second timeslot, based on the decoder and the forwarding (DF protocol, after reassembling the received signal and its own signal, the RN forwards the information to the main user (U1 and simultaneously sends its own information to the secondary user (U2. In this paper, when the transmission rate of the U1 is restricted, the precoding, beamforming, and power splitting (PS transmission ratio are jointly considered to maximize the transmission rate of U2. To maximize the system rate, we design an optimal beamforming matrix and solve the optimization problem by semi-definite relaxation (SDR, considering the high complexity of implementing the optimal solution. Two sub-optimal precoding programs are also discussed: singular value decomposition and block diagonalization. Finally, the performance of the optimization and sub-optimization schemes are compared using a simulation.

  13. SVANET: A smart vehicular ad hoc network for efficient data transmission with wireless sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Chiang, Ming-Jer; Wu, Shih-Lin

    2014-11-25

    Wireless sensors can sense any event, such as accidents, as well as icy roads, and can forward the rescue/warning messages through intermediate vehicles for any necessary help. In this paper, we propose a smart vehicular ad hoc network (SVANET) architecture that uses wireless sensors to detect events and vehicles to transmit the safety and non-safety messages efficiently by using different service channels and one control channel with different priorities. We have developed a data transmission protocol for the vehicles in the highway, in which data can be forwarded with the help of vehicles if they are connected with each other or data can be forwarded with the help of nearby wireless sensors. Our data transmission protocol is designed to increase the driving safety, to prevent accidents and to utilize channels efficiently by adjusting the control and service channel time intervals dynamically. Besides, our protocol can transmit information to vehicles in advance, so that drivers can decide an alternate route in case of traffic congestion. For various data sharing, we design a method that can select a few leader nodes among vehicles running along a highway to broadcast data efficiently. Simulation results show that our protocol can outperform the existing standard in terms of the end to end packet delivery ratio and latency.

  14. SVANET: A Smart Vehicular Ad Hoc Network for Efficient Data Transmission with Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors can sense any event, such as accidents, as well as icy roads, and can forward the rescue/warning messages through intermediate vehicles for any necessary help. In this paper, we propose a smart vehicular ad hoc network (SVANET architecture that uses wireless sensors to detect events and vehicles to transmit the safety and non-safety messages efficiently by using different service channels and one control channel with different priorities. We have developed a data transmission protocol for the vehicles in the highway, in which data can be forwarded with the help of vehicles if they are connected with each other or data can be forwarded with the help of nearby wireless sensors. Our data transmission protocol is designed to increase the driving safety, to prevent accidents and to utilize channels efficiently by adjusting the control and service channel time intervals dynamically. Besides, our protocol can transmit information to vehicles in advance, so that drivers can decide an alternate route in case of traffic congestion. For various data sharing, we design a method that can select a few leader nodes among vehicles running along a highway to broadcast data efficiently. Simulation results show that our protocol can outperform the existing standard in terms of the end to end packet delivery ratio and latency.

  15. VehiHealth: An Emergency Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Network to Support Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, S K; Khilar, P M

    2016-03-01

    Survival of a patient depends on effective data communication in healthcare system. In this paper, an emergency routing protocol for Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is proposed to quickly forward the current patient status information from the ambulance to the hospital to provide pre-medical treatment. As the ambulance takes time to reach the hospital, ambulance doctor can provide sudden treatment to the patient in emergency by sending patient status information to the hospital through the vehicles using vehicular communication. Secondly, the experienced doctors respond to the information by quickly sending a treatment information to the ambulance. In this protocol, data is forwarded through that path which has less link breakage problem between the vehicles. This is done by calculating an intersection value I v a l u e for the neighboring intersections by using the current traffic information. Then the data is forwarded through that intersection which has minimum I v a l u e . Simulation results show VehiHealth performs better than P-GEDIR, GyTAR, A-STAR and GSR routing protocols in terms of average end-to-end delay, number of link breakage, path length, and average response time.

  16. Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism: A Novel Approach for Intelligent Transportation System Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ganeshkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indian four-lane express highway, millions of vehicles are travelling every day. Accidents are unfortunate and frequently occurring in these highways causing deaths, increase in death toll, and damage to infrastructure. A mechanism is required to avoid such road accidents at the maximum to reduce the death toll. An Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism, a novel and proactive approach, is proposed in this paper for achieving the best of Intelligent Transportation System using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network. ESPM intends to predict the possibility of occurrence of an accident in an Indian four-lane express highway. In ESPM, the emergency situation prediction is done by the Road Side Unit based on (i the Status Report sent by the vehicles in the range of RSU and (ii the road traffic flow analysis done by the RSU. Once the emergency situation or accident is predicted in advance, an Emergency Warning Message is constructed and disseminated to all vehicles in the area of RSU to alert and prevent the vehicles from accidents. ESPM performs well in emergency situation prediction in advance to the occurrence of an accident. ESPM predicts the emergency situation within 0.20 seconds which is comparatively less than the statistical value. The prediction accuracy of ESPM against vehicle density is found better in different traffic scenarios.

  17. Cooperative ad hoc networks for energy and delay efficient content distribution with fast channel variations

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-11-20

    Cooperative ad hoc networks for the efficient distribution of content of common interest are studied in the case of fast channel variations. Mobiles are grouped into cooperative clusters for the purpose of receiving the content with optimized energy efficiency. Data are sent to mobile terminals on a long range (LR) link, and then, the terminals exchange the content by using an appropriate short range wireless technology. When channel state information is available for the LR links, unicasting is used on the LR. When accurate channel state information is not available, threshold-based multicasting is implemented on the LR. Energy minimization is formulated as an optimization problem for each scenario, and the optimal solutions are determined in closed form in scenarios with fast channel variations. Results show significant energy savings in the proposed schemes compared with the noncooperative case and other previous related work. Furthermore, the energy minimizing solutions are shown to lead to reduced delay in the content distribution process. Practical implementation aspects of the proposed methods are also discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A Reputation System for Traffic Safety Event on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chien Tsai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety applications on vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have drawn a lot of attention in recent years with their promising functions on car accident reduction, real-time traffic information support, and enhancement of comfortable driving experience on roadways. However, an inaccurate traffic warning message will impact drivers' decisions, waste drivers' time and fuel in their vehicles, and even invoke serious car accidents. To enable eco-friendly driving VANET environments, that is, to save fuel and time in this context, we proposed an event-based reputation system to prevent the spread of false traffic warning messages. In this system, a dynamic reputation evaluation mechanism is introduced to determine whether an incoming traffic message is significant and trustworthy to the driver. The proposed system is characterized and evaluated through experimental simulations. The simulation results show that, with a proper reputation adaptation mechanism and appropriate threshold settings, our proposed system can effectively prevent false messages spread on various VANET environments.

  19. Accurate 3D Localization Method for Public Safety Applications in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Abdul Rahim

    2018-04-10

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) represent a very promising research area because of their ever increasing demand, especially for public safety applications. In VANETs vehicles communicate with each other to exchange road maps and traffic information. In many applications, location-based services are the main service, and localization accuracy is the main problem. VANETs also require accurate vehicle location information in real time. To fulfill this requirement, a number of algorithms have been proposed; however, the location accuracy required for public safety applications in VANETs has not been achieved. In this paper, an improved subspace algorithm is proposed for time of arrival (TOA) measurements in VANETs localization. The proposed method gives a closed-form solution and it is robust for large measurement noise, as it is based on the eigen form of a scalar product and dimensionality. Furthermore, we developed the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) to evaluate the performance of the proposed 3D VANETs localization method. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by comparison with the CRLB and other localization algorithms available in the literature through numerous simulations. Simulation results show that the proposed 3D VANETs localization method is better than the literature methods especially for fewer anchors at road side units and large noise variance.

  20. Enhancing the selection of backoff interval using fuzzy logic over wireless Ad Hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Radha; Kannan, Kathiravan

    2015-01-01

    IEEE 802.11 is the de facto standard for medium access over wireless ad hoc network. The collision avoidance mechanism (i.e., random binary exponential backoff-BEB) of IEEE 802.11 DCF (distributed coordination function) is inefficient and unfair especially under heavy load. In the literature, many algorithms have been proposed to tune the contention window (CW) size. However, these algorithms make every node select its backoff interval between [0, CW] in a random and uniform manner. This randomness is incorporated to avoid collisions among the nodes. But this random backoff interval can change the optimal order and frequency of channel access among competing nodes which results in unfairness and increased delay. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that schedules the medium access in a fair and effective manner. This algorithm enhances IEEE 802.11 DCF with additional level of contention resolution that prioritizes the contending nodes according to its queue length and waiting time. Each node computes its unique backoff interval using fuzzy logic based on the input parameters collected from contending nodes through overhearing. We evaluate our algorithm against IEEE 802.11, GDCF (gentle distributed coordination function) protocols using ns-2.35 simulator and show that our algorithm achieves good performance.

  1. Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism: A Novel Approach for Intelligent Transportation System Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshkumar, P; Gokulakrishnan, P

    2015-01-01

    In Indian four-lane express highway, millions of vehicles are travelling every day. Accidents are unfortunate and frequently occurring in these highways causing deaths, increase in death toll, and damage to infrastructure. A mechanism is required to avoid such road accidents at the maximum to reduce the death toll. An Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism, a novel and proactive approach, is proposed in this paper for achieving the best of Intelligent Transportation System using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network. ESPM intends to predict the possibility of occurrence of an accident in an Indian four-lane express highway. In ESPM, the emergency situation prediction is done by the Road Side Unit based on (i) the Status Report sent by the vehicles in the range of RSU and (ii) the road traffic flow analysis done by the RSU. Once the emergency situation or accident is predicted in advance, an Emergency Warning Message is constructed and disseminated to all vehicles in the area of RSU to alert and prevent the vehicles from accidents. ESPM performs well in emergency situation prediction in advance to the occurrence of an accident. ESPM predicts the emergency situation within 0.20 seconds which is comparatively less than the statistical value. The prediction accuracy of ESPM against vehicle density is found better in different traffic scenarios.

  2. Selective Route Based on SNR with Cross-Layer Scheme in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istikmal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed network and throughput formulation models and proposed new method of the routing protocol algorithm with a cross-layer scheme based on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. This method is an enhancement of routing protocol ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV. This proposed scheme uses selective route based on the SNR threshold in the reverse route mechanism. We developed AODV SNR-selective route (AODV SNR-SR for a mechanism better than AODV SNR, that is, the routing protocol that used average or sum of path SNR, and also better than AODV which is hop-count-based. We also used selective reverse route based on SNR mechanism, replacing the earlier method to avoid routing overhead. The simulation results show that AODV SNR-SR outperforms AODV SNR and AODV in terms of throughput, end-to-end delay, and routing overhead. This proposed method is expected to support Device-to-Device (D2D communications that are concerned with the quality of the channel awareness in the development of the future Fifth Generation (5G.

  3. Directional Medium Access Control (MAC Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tung Chong Wong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs. The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher throughput and reduced latency. However, directional antennas lead to single-/multi-channel directional hidden/exposed terminals, deafness and neighborhood, head-of-line blocking, and MAC-layer capture which need to be overcome. Addressing these problems and benefits for directional antennas to MAC protocols leads to many classes of directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. These classes of directional MAC protocols presented in this survey paper include single-channel, multi-channel, cooperative and cognitive directional MACs. Single-channel directional MAC protocols can be classified as contention-based or non-contention-based or hybrid-based, while multi-channel directional MAC protocols commonly use a common control channel for control packets/tones and one or more data channels for directional data transmissions. Cooperative directional MAC protocols improve throughput in WAHSNs via directional multi-rate/single-relay/multiple-relay/two frequency channels/polarization, while cognitive directional MAC protocols leverage on conventional directional MAC protocols with new twists to address dynamic spectrum access. All of these directional MAC protocols are the pillars for the design of future directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs.

  4. A Game Theory Algorithm for Intra-Cluster Data Aggregation in a Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhong Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have an important role in urban management and planning. The effective integration of vehicle information in VANETs is critical to traffic analysis, large-scale vehicle route planning and intelligent transportation scheduling. However, given the limitations in the precision of the output information of a single sensor and the difficulty of information sharing among various sensors in a highly dynamic VANET, effectively performing data aggregation in VANETs remains a challenge. Moreover, current studies have mainly focused on data aggregation in large-scale environments but have rarely discussed the issue of intra-cluster data aggregation in VANETs. In this study, we propose a multi-player game theory algorithm for intra-cluster data aggregation in VANETs by analyzing the competitive and cooperative relationships among sensor nodes. Several sensor-centric metrics are proposed to measure the data redundancy and stability of a cluster. We then study the utility function to achieve efficient intra-cluster data aggregation by considering both data redundancy and cluster stability. In particular, we prove the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium in the game model, and conduct extensive experiments to validate the proposed algorithm. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has advantages over typical data aggregation algorithms in both accuracy and efficiency.

  5. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in Bandwidth-Demanding Mission-Critical Applications: Practical Implementation Insights

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2016-09-28

    There has been recently a growing trend of using live video feeds in mission-critical applications. Real-time video streaming from front-end personnel or mobile agents is believed to substantially improve situational awareness in mission-critical operations such as disaster relief, law enforcement, and emergency response. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) is a natural contender in such contexts. However, classical MANET routing schemes fall short in terms of scalability, bandwidth and latency; all three metrics being quite essential for mission-critical applications. As such, autonomous cooperative routing (ACR) has gained traction as the most viable MANET proposition. Nonetheless, ACR is also associated with a few implementation challenges. If they go unaddressed, will deem ACR practically useless. In this paper, efficient and low-complexity remedies to those issues are presented, analyzed, and validated. The validation is based on field experiments carried out using software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. Compared to classical MANET routing schemes, ACR was shown to offer up to 2X better throughput, more than 4X reduction in end-to-end latency, while observing a given target of transport rate normalized to energy consumption.

  6. Enhancing the Selection of Backoff Interval Using Fuzzy Logic over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Radha; Kannan, Kathiravan

    2015-01-01

    IEEE 802.11 is the de facto standard for medium access over wireless ad hoc network. The collision avoidance mechanism (i.e., random binary exponential backoff—BEB) of IEEE 802.11 DCF (distributed coordination function) is inefficient and unfair especially under heavy load. In the literature, many algorithms have been proposed to tune the contention window (CW) size. However, these algorithms make every node select its backoff interval between [0, CW] in a random and uniform manner. This randomness is incorporated to avoid collisions among the nodes. But this random backoff interval can change the optimal order and frequency of channel access among competing nodes which results in unfairness and increased delay. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that schedules the medium access in a fair and effective manner. This algorithm enhances IEEE 802.11 DCF with additional level of contention resolution that prioritizes the contending nodes according to its queue length and waiting time. Each node computes its unique backoff interval using fuzzy logic based on the input parameters collected from contending nodes through overhearing. We evaluate our algorithm against IEEE 802.11, GDCF (gentle distributed coordination function) protocols using ns-2.35 simulator and show that our algorithm achieves good performance. PMID:25879066

  7. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gokulakrishnan

    Full Text Available A Road Accident Prevention (RAP scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET. The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i the Road Side Unit (RSU constructs a Prediction Report (PR based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM based on an abnormal PR, (iii the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ. These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure. The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.

  8. Scalable Ad Hoc Networks for Arbitrary-Cast: Practical Broadcast-Relay Transmission Strategy Leveraging Physical-Layer Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haige Xiang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of wireless ad hoc networks is constrained by the interference of concurrent transmissions among nodes. Instead of only trying to avoid the interference, physical-layer network coding (PNC is a new approach that embraces the interference initiatively. We employ a network form of interference cancellation, with the PNC approach, and propose the multihop, broadcast-relay transmission strategy in linear, rectangular, and hexagonal networks. The theoretical analysis shows that it gains the transmission efficiency by the factors of 2.5 for the rectangular networks and 2 for the hexagonal networks. We also propose a practical signal recovery algorithm in the physical layer to deal with the influence of multipath fading channels and time synchronization errors, as well as to use media access control (MAC protocols that support the simultaneous receptions. This transmission strategy obtains the same efficiency from one-to-one communication to one-to-many. By our approach, the number of the users/terminals of the network has better scalability, and the overall network throughput is improved.

  9. Scalable Ad Hoc Networks for Arbitrary-Cast: Practical Broadcast-Relay Transmission Strategy Leveraging Physical-Layer Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Kai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The capacity of wireless ad hoc networks is constrained by the interference of concurrent transmissions among nodes. Instead of only trying to avoid the interference, physical-layer network coding (PNC is a new approach that embraces the interference initiatively. We employ a network form of interference cancellation, with the PNC approach, and propose the multihop, broadcast-relay transmission strategy in linear, rectangular, and hexagonal networks. The theoretical analysis shows that it gains the transmission efficiency by the factors of 2.5 for the rectangular networks and 2 for the hexagonal networks. We also propose a practical signal recovery algorithm in the physical layer to deal with the influence of multipath fading channels and time synchronization errors, as well as to use media access control (MAC protocols that support the simultaneous receptions. This transmission strategy obtains the same efficiency from one-to-one communication to one-to-many. By our approach, the number of the users/terminals of the network has better scalability, and the overall network throughput is improved.

  10. On Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cross-Layer Design: Joint Power Control and Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poor HVincent

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical cross-layer design approach is proposed to increase energy efficiency in ad hoc networks through joint adaptation of nodes' transmitting powers and route selection. The design maintains the advantages of the classic OSI model, while accounting for the cross-coupling between layers, through information sharing. The proposed joint power control and routing algorithm is shown to increase significantly the overall energy efficiency of the network, at the expense of a moderate increase in complexity. Performance enhancement of the joint design using multiuser detection is also investigated, and it is shown that the use of multiuser detection can increase the capacity of the ad hoc network significantly for a given level of energy consumption.

  11. On Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cross-Layer Design: Joint Power Control and Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Comaniciu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical cross-layer design approach is proposed to increase energy efficiency in ad hoc networks through joint adaptation of nodes' transmitting powers and route selection. The design maintains the advantages of the classic OSI model, while accounting for the cross-coupling between layers, through information sharing. The proposed joint power control and routing algorithm is shown to increase significantly the overall energy efficiency of the network, at the expense of a moderate increase in complexity. Performance enhancement of the joint design using multiuser detection is also investigated, and it is shown that the use of multiuser detection can increase the capacity of the ad hoc network significantly for a given level of energy consumption.

  12. Probabilistic Neural Network-Based Sensor Configuration in a Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Thomas J; Sundareshan, Malur K

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a novel application of a probabilistic neural network for overcoming the computational complexity involved in performing sensor configuration management in a collaborative sensor network...

  13. FRCA: a fuzzy relevance-based cluster head selection algorithm for wireless mobile ad-hoc sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chongdeuk; Jeong, Taegwon

    2011-01-01

    Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA) to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP), the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA), and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM). The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms.

  14. Energy generation for an ad hoc wireless sensor network-based monitoring system using animal head movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy to electronics is an imperative constraining factor to be considered during the design process of mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks (MANETs). This influence is especially important when the MANET is deployed unattended or the wireless modules within the MANET are not eas......The supply of energy to electronics is an imperative constraining factor to be considered during the design process of mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks (MANETs). This influence is especially important when the MANET is deployed unattended or the wireless modules within the MANET...... are not easily accessible. Therefore, exploring novel sources of energy generation rather than operating electronics only on limited power supplies such as batteries is a major challenge. Monitoring free-ranging animal behavior is an application in which the entities (animals) within the MANET are not readily...

  15. Efficient Channel Management Mechanism to Enhance Channel Utilization for Sensing Data Delivery in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tsogoo, Buyandelger; Yoo, Sang-Jo

    2015-01-01

    IEEE 1609.4 defines MAC layer implementation in a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). In IEEE 1609.4 multichannel operation, the control channel interval (CCHI) and the service channel interval (SCHI) are defined such that service channels cannot be utilized during the CCHI, and vice versa, which leads to poor utilization of scarce spectrum resources. In this paper, we propose a multi-schedule-based channel switching mechanism to improve channel utilization and uniformly distribute channel load...

  16. A Performance Analysis of the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Using Voice Traffic Over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    contagious enthusiasm bring a smile to my face and let me know that we will never be alone in our pursuits. I thank the Information Assurance...created a unique environment where I can take ownership of my ideas while providing a perfect blend of mentorship and encouragement. I truly am...summarizes the chapter. 2.2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks A MANET represents a system of wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize

  17. Classification and Evaluation of Mobility Metrics for Mobility Model Movement Patterns in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar S C Sharma Bhupendra Suman

    2011-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network is collection of self configuring and adaption of wireless link between communicating devices (mobile devices) to form an arbitrary topology and multihop wireless connectivity without the use of existing infrastructure. It requires efficient dynamic routing protocol to determine the routes subsequent to a set of rules that enables two or more devices to communicate with each others. This paper basically classifies and evaluates the mobility metrics into two categories-...

  18. Dynamic Subchannel Assignment-Based Cross-Layer MAC and Network Protocol for Multihop Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Nguyen Quang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a dynamic subchannel assignment algorithm based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access technology operating in the time division duplexing and a new cross-layer design based on a proposed routing protocol jointed with the MAC protocol. The proposed dynamic sub-channel assignment algorithm provides a new interference avoidance mechanism which solves several drawbacks of existing radio resource allocation techniques in wireless networks using OFDMA/TDD, such as the hidden node and exposed node problems, mobility, and cochannels interference in frequency (CCI. Besides, in wireless networks, when a route is established, the radio resource allocation problems may decrease the end to end performance proportionally with the length of each route. The contention at MAC layer may cause the routing protocol at network layer to respond by finding new routes and routing table updates. The proposed routing protocol is jointed with the MAC protocol based on dynamic sub-channel assignment to ensure that the quality of service in multihop ad hoc networks is significantly improved.

  19. Towards Trust-based Cognitive Networks: A Survey of Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    destination.  Wormhole attack: A group of cooperating malicious nodes can pretend to connect two distant points in the network with a low-latency...communication link called wormhole link, causing disruptions in normal traffic load and flow.  Black hole attack: A malicious node, the so called

  20. Improved AODV route recovery in mobile ad-hoc networks using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Maleki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An important issue in ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing protocols is route failure caused by node mobility in the MANETs. The AODV requires a new route discovery procedure whenever a route breaks and these frequent route discoveries increase transmission delays and routing overhead. The present study proposes a new method for AODVs using a genetic algorithm to improve the route recovery mechanism. When failure occurs in a route, the proposed method (GAAODV makes decisions regarding the QOS parameter to select source or local repair. The task of the genetic algorithm is to find an appropriate combination of weights to optimize end-to-end delay. This paper evaluates the metrics of routing overhead, average end-to-end delay, and packet delivery ratio. Comparison of the new algorithm and AODV (RFC 3561 using a NS-2 simulator shows that GAAODV obtains better results for the QOS parameters.

  1. Decentralized position verification in geographic ad hoc routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinmüller, Tim; Schoch, Elmar; Kargl, Frank; Maihöfer, Christian

    Inter-vehicle communication is regarded as one of the major applications of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Compared to MANETs or wireless sensor networks (WSNs), these so-called vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have unique requirements on network protocols. The requirements result mainly from

  2. Unmanned Aerial ad Hoc Networks: Simulation-Based Evaluation of Entity Mobility Models’ Impact on Routing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Daniel Medjo Me Biomo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An unmanned aerial ad hoc network (UAANET is a special type of mobile ad hoc network (MANET. For these networks, researchers rely mostly on simulations to evaluate their proposed networking protocols. Hence, it is of great importance that the simulation environment of a UAANET replicates as much as possible the reality of UAVs. One major component of that environment is the movement pattern of the UAVs. This means that the mobility model used in simulations has to be thoroughly understood in terms of its impact on the performance of the network. In this paper, we investigate how mobility models affect the performance of UAANET in simulations in order to come up with conclusions/recommendations that provide a benchmark for future UAANET simulations. To that end, we first propose a few metrics to evaluate the mobility models. Then, we present five random entity mobility models that allow nodes to move almost freely and independently from one another and evaluate four carefully-chosen MANET/UAANET routing protocols: ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV, optimized link state routing (OLSR, reactive-geographic hybrid routing (RGR and geographic routing protocol (GRP. In addition, flooding is also evaluated. The results show a wide variation of the protocol performance over different mobility models. These performance differences can be explained by the mobility model characteristics, and we discuss these effects. The results of our analysis show that: (i the enhanced Gauss–Markov (EGM mobility model is best suited for UAANET; (ii OLSR, a table-driven proactive routing protocol, and GRP, a position-based geographic protocol, are the protocols most sensitive to the change of mobility models; (iii RGR, a reactive-geographic hybrid routing protocol, is best suited for UAANET.

  3. Implementing voice over Internet protocol in mobile ad hoc network – analysing its features regarding efficiency, reliability and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmed Sheikh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing secure and efficient real-time voice communication in mobile ad hoc network (MANET environment is a challenging problem. Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP has originally been developed over the past two decades for infrastructure-based networks. There are strict timing constraints for acceptable quality VoIP services, in addition to registration and discovery issues in VoIP end-points. In MANETs, ad hoc nature of networks and multi-hop wireless environment with significant packet loss and delays present formidable challenges to the implementation. Providing a secure real-time VoIP service on MANET is the main design objective of this paper. The authors have successfully developed a prototype system that establishes reliable and efficient VoIP communication and provides an extremely flexible method for voice communication in MANETs. The authors’ cooperative mesh-based MANET implementation can be used for rapidly deployable VoIP communication with survivable and efficient dynamic networking using open source software.

  4. Optimal JPWL Forward Error Correction Rate Allocation for Robust JPEG 2000 Images and Video Streaming over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Macq

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of real mobile ad hoc network (MANET traces, we derive in this paper an optimal wireless JPEG 2000 compliant forward error correction (FEC rate allocation scheme for a robust streaming of images and videos over MANET. The packet-based proposed scheme has a low complexity and is compliant to JPWL, the 11th part of the JPEG 2000 standard. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated using a wireless Motion JPEG 2000 client/server application; and the ability of the optimal scheme to guarantee quality of service (QoS to wireless clients is demonstrated.

  5. BCDP: Budget Constrained and Delay-Bounded Placement for Hybrid Roadside Units in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU and wireless RSU (w-RSU. c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods.

  6. BCDP: Budget constrained and delay-bounded placement for hybrid roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Huang, Chuanhe; Liu, Qin

    2014-11-27

    In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods.

  7. Sputnik: ad hoc distributed computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Gunnar; Lausser, Ludwig; Schmid, Florian; Kraus, Johann M; Kestler, Hans A

    2015-04-15

    In bioinformatic applications, computationally demanding algorithms are often parallelized to speed up computation. Nevertheless, setting up computational environments for distributed computation is often tedious. Aim of this project were the lightweight ad hoc set up and fault-tolerant computation requiring only a Java runtime, no administrator rights, while utilizing all CPU cores most effectively. The Sputnik framework provides ad hoc distributed computation on the Java Virtual Machine which uses all supplied CPU cores fully. It provides a graphical user interface for deployment setup and a web user interface displaying the current status of current computation jobs. Neither a permanent setup nor administrator privileges are required. We demonstrate the utility of our approach on feature selection of microarray data. The Sputnik framework is available on Github http://github.com/sysbio-bioinf/sputnik under the Eclipse Public License. hkestler@fli-leibniz.de or hans.kestler@uni-ulm.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. ADNP-CSMA Random Multiple Access protocol application with the function of monitoring in Ad Hoc network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ad Hoc networks,the net work of mobile nodes exchange information with their wireless transceiver equipment,the network throughput is in increased,compared to other such multiple hops network.Moreover along with the rapid development of modern information,communication business also will be increase.However,the access and adaptive of previous CSMA protocol are insufficient.According to these properties,this paper presents a kind of adaptive dual clock with monitoring function P-CSMA random multiple access protocol(ADNP-CSMA,and discusses two kinds of P-CSMA.ACK with monitoring function is introduced to maintain the stability of the whole system,and the introduction of dual clock mechanism reduces the channel of idle period.It calculate the system throughput expression through the method of average period,and the simulation results show that the system is constant in the case of high load throughput.

  9. On using multiple routing metrics with destination sequenced distance vector protocol for MultiHop wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, M.; Fazio, P.; Voznak, M.; Partila, P.; Komosny, D.; Tovarek, J.; Chmelikova, Z.

    2016-05-01

    A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes which communicate without a fixed backbone or centralized infrastructure. Due to the frequent mobility of nodes, routes connecting two distant nodes may change. Therefore, it is not possible to establish a priori fixed paths for message delivery through the network. Because of its importance, routing is the most studied problem in mobile ad hoc networks. In addition, if the Quality of Service (QoS) is demanded, one must guarantee the QoS not only over a single hop but over an entire wireless multi-hop path which may not be a trivial task. In turns, this requires the propagation of QoS information within the network. The key to the support of QoS reporting is QoS routing, which provides path QoS information at each source. To support QoS for real-time traffic one needs to know not only minimum delay on the path to the destination but also the bandwidth available on it. Therefore, throughput, end-to-end delay, and routing overhead are traditional performance metrics used to evaluate the performance of routing protocol. To obtain additional information about the link, most of quality-link metrics are based on calculation of the lost probabilities of links by broadcasting probe packets. In this paper, we address the problem of including multiple routing metrics in existing routing packets that are broadcasted through the network. We evaluate the efficiency of such approach with modified version of DSDV routing protocols in ns-3 simulator.

  10. 3VSR: Three Valued Secure Routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks using Sensing Logic in Adversarial Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Today IoT integrate thousands of inter networks and sensing devices e.g., vehicular networks, which are considered to be challenging due to its high speed and network dynamics. The goal of future vehicular networks is to improve road safety, promote commercial or infotainment products and to reduce the traffic accidents. All these applications are based on the information exchange among nodes, so not only reliable data delivery but also the authenticity and credibility of the data itself are prerequisite. To cope with the aforementioned problem, trust management come up as promising candidate to conduct node’s transaction and interaction management, which requires distributed mobile nodes cooperation for achieving design goals. In this paper, we propose a trust-based routing protocol i.e., 3VSR (Three Valued Secure Routing, which extends the widely used AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing protocol and employs the idea of Sensing Logic-based trust model to enhance the security solution of VANET (Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network. The existing routing protocol are mostly based on key or signature-based schemes, which off course increases computation overhead. In our proposed 3VSR, trust among entities is updated frequently by means of opinion derived from sensing logic due to vehicles random topologies. In 3VSR the theoretical capabilities are based on Dirichlet distribution by considering prior and posterior uncertainty of the said event. Also by using trust recommendation message exchange, nodes are able to reduce computation and routing overhead. The simulated results shows that the proposed scheme is secure and practical.

  11. 3VSR: Three Valued Secure Routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks using Sensing Logic in Adversarial Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Muhammad; Wang, Liangmin

    2018-03-14

    Today IoT integrate thousands of inter networks and sensing devices e.g., vehicular networks, which are considered to be challenging due to its high speed and network dynamics. The goal of future vehicular networks is to improve road safety, promote commercial or infotainment products and to reduce the traffic accidents. All these applications are based on the information exchange among nodes, so not only reliable data delivery but also the authenticity and credibility of the data itself are prerequisite. To cope with the aforementioned problem, trust management come up as promising candidate to conduct node's transaction and interaction management, which requires distributed mobile nodes cooperation for achieving design goals. In this paper, we propose a trust-based routing protocol i.e., 3VSR (Three Valued Secure Routing), which extends the widely used AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector) routing protocol and employs the idea of Sensing Logic-based trust model to enhance the security solution of VANET (Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network). The existing routing protocol are mostly based on key or signature-based schemes, which off course increases computation overhead. In our proposed 3VSR, trust among entities is updated frequently by means of opinion derived from sensing logic due to vehicles random topologies. In 3VSR the theoretical capabilities are based on Dirichlet distribution by considering prior and posterior uncertainty of the said event. Also by using trust recommendation message exchange, nodes are able to reduce computation and routing overhead. The simulated results shows that the proposed scheme is secure and practical.

  12. 3VSR: Three Valued Secure Routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks using Sensing Logic in Adversarial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangmin

    2018-01-01

    Today IoT integrate thousands of inter networks and sensing devices e.g., vehicular networks, which are considered to be challenging due to its high speed and network dynamics. The goal of future vehicular networks is to improve road safety, promote commercial or infotainment products and to reduce the traffic accidents. All these applications are based on the information exchange among nodes, so not only reliable data delivery but also the authenticity and credibility of the data itself are prerequisite. To cope with the aforementioned problem, trust management come up as promising candidate to conduct node’s transaction and interaction management, which requires distributed mobile nodes cooperation for achieving design goals. In this paper, we propose a trust-based routing protocol i.e., 3VSR (Three Valued Secure Routing), which extends the widely used AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector) routing protocol and employs the idea of Sensing Logic-based trust model to enhance the security solution of VANET (Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network). The existing routing protocol are mostly based on key or signature-based schemes, which off course increases computation overhead. In our proposed 3VSR, trust among entities is updated frequently by means of opinion derived from sensing logic due to vehicles random topologies. In 3VSR the theoretical capabilities are based on Dirichlet distribution by considering prior and posterior uncertainty of the said event. Also by using trust recommendation message exchange, nodes are able to reduce computation and routing overhead. The simulated results shows that the proposed scheme is secure and practical. PMID:29538314

  13. A New QoS Management Scheme for VoIP Application over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said El brak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs have to support new applications including VoIP (voice over IP that impose stringent QoS (quality of service constraints and requirements. However, VoIP applications make a very inefficient use of the MANET resources. Our work represents a first step toward improving aspects at the network layer by addressing issues from the standpoint of adaptation, claiming that effective adaptation of routing parameters can enhance VoIP quality. The most important contribution is the adaptive OLSR-VA algorithm which provides an integrated environment where VoIP activity is constantly detected and routing parameters are adapted in order to meet the application requirements. To investigate the performance advantage achieved by such algorithm, a number of realistic simulations (MANET scenarios are performed under different conditions. The most important observation is that performance is satisfactory in terms of the perceived voice quality.

  14. Potentials, Limitations and Applications of long-term and mobile ad-hoc Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Lapteva, Yulia; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2014-05-01

    To characterize environmental systems it is necessary to identify and describe processes with suitable methods. Environmental systems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, so individual measurements for their complete representation are often not sufficient. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems offer significant benefits as a better consideration of the local test conditions becomes possible. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous environmental systems. Significant advantages in the application of mobile ad-hoc wireless sensor networks are their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, a point measurement with a sensor is significantly improved by measuring at several points. It is also possible to perform analog and digital signal processing and computation on the basis of the measured data close to the sensor. Hence, a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of sensor nodes. Furthermore, their localization via satellite, the miniaturization of the nodes and long-term energy self-sufficiency are current topics under investigation. The possibilities and limitations of the applicability of wireless sensor networks for long-term and mobile environmental monitoring are presented. A concepts and realization example are given in the field of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes .This long term monitoring is part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Furthermore a mobile ad-hoc sensor network is presented for the monitoring of water induced mass wasting processes.

  15. Impact Of Mobility and Transmission Range On The Performance of Backoff Algorithms For IEEE 802.11-Based Multi-hop Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Pooja

    2010-01-01

    In IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), network nodes experiencing collisions on the shared channel need to backoff for a random period of time, which is uniformly selected from the Contention Window (CW). This contention window is dynamically controlled by the Backoff algorithm. First step to design a an efficient backoff algorithm for multi-hop ad hoc network is to analysis of the existing backoff algorithms in multi-hop ad hoc networks. Thus, in this paper, we considered two i...

  16. Robust On-Demand Multipath Routing with Dynamic Path Upgrade for Delay-Sensitive Data over Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Node mobility in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs causes frequent route breakages and intermittent link stability. In this paper, we introduce a robust routing scheme, known as ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector with dynamic path update (AOMDV-DPU, for delay-sensitive data transmission over MANET. The proposed scheme improves the AOMDV scheme by incorporating the following features: (i a routing metric based on the combination of minimum hops and received signal strength indicator (RSSI for discovery of reliable routes; (ii a local path update mechanism which strengthens the route, reduces the route breakage frequency, and increases the route longevity; (iii a keep alive mechanism for secondary route maintenance which enables smooth switching between routes and reduces the route discovery frequency; (iv a packet salvaging scheme to improve packet delivery in the event of a route breakage; and (v low HELLO packet overhead. The simulations are carried out in ns-2 for varying node speeds, number of sources, and traffic load conditions. Our AOMDV-DPU scheme achieves significantly higher throughput, lower delay, routing overhead, and route discovery frequency and latency compared to AOMDV. For H.264 compressed video traffic, AOMDV-DPU scheme achieves 3 dB or higher PSNR gain over AOMDV at both low and high node speeds.

  17. Performance analysis and implementation of proposed mechanism for detection and prevention of security attacks in routing protocols of vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Tyagi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation communication networks have become widely popular as ad-hoc networks, broadly categorized as the mobile nodes based on mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET and the vehicular nodes based vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET. VANET is aimed at maintaining safety to vehicle drivers by begin autonomous communication with the nearby vehicles. Each vehicle in the ad-hoc network performs as an intelligent mobile node characterized by high mobility and formation of dynamic networks. The ad-hoc networks are decentralized dynamic networks that need efficient and secure communication requirements due to the vehicles being persistently in motion. These networks are more susceptible to various attacks like Warm Hole attacks, denial of service attacks and Black Hole Attacks. The paper is a novel attempt to examine and investigate the security features of the routing protocols in VANET, applicability of AODV (Ad hoc On Demand protocol to detect and tackle a particular category of network attacks, known as the Black Hole Attacks. A new algorithm is proposed to enhance the security mechanism of AODV protocol and to introduce a mechanism to detect Black Hole Attacks and to prevent the network from such attacks in which source node stores all route replies in a look up table. This table stores the sequences of all route reply, arranged in ascending order using PUSH and POP operations. The priority is calculated based on sequence number and discard the RREP having presumably very high destination sequence number. The result show that proposed algorithm for detection and prevention of Black Hole Attack increases security in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS and reduces the effect of malicious node in the VANET. NCTUNs simulator is used in this research work.

  18. Improving the Dominating-Set Routing over Delay-Tolerant Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks via Estimating Node Intermeeting Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preiss Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With limited coverage of wireless networks and frequent roaming of mobile users, providing a seamless communication service poses a technical challenge. In our previous research, we presented a supernode system architecture that employs the delay-tolerant network (DTN concept to provide seamless communications for roaming users over interconnected heterogeneous wireless networks. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are considered a key component of the supernode system for services over an area not covered by other wireless networks. Within the super node system, a dominating-set routing technique is proposed to improve message delivery over MANETs and to achieve better resource utilization. The performance of the dominating-set routing technique depends on estimation accuracy of the probability of a future contact between nodes. This paper studies how node mobility can be modeled and used to better estimate the probability of a contact. We derive a distribution for the node-to-node intermeeting time and present numerical results to demonstrate that the distribution can be used to improve the dominating-set routing technique performance. Moreover, we investigate how the distribution can be employed to relax the constraints of selecting the dominating-set members in order to improve the system resource utilization.

  19. Dynamic hierarchical sleep scheduling for wireless ad-hoc sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chih-Yu; Chen, Ying-Chih

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents two scheduling management schemes for wireless sensor networks, which manage the sensors by utilizing the hierarchical network structure and allocate network resources efficiently. A local criterion is used to simultaneously establish the sensing coverage and connectivity such that dynamic cluster-based sleep scheduling can be achieved. The proposed schemes are simulated and analyzed to abstract the network behaviors in a number of settings. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithms provide efficient network power control and can achieve high scalability in wireless sensor networks.

  20. Preventing Wormhole Attacks on Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: A Graph Theoretic Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazos, L; Poovendran, Radha; Meadows, C; Syverson, P; Chang, L. W

    2005-01-01

    We study the problem of characterizing the wormhole attack, an attack that can be mounted on a wide range of wireless network protocols without compromising any cryptographic quantity or network node...

  1. Enhancement of Localization Accuracy in Cellular Networks via Cooperative AdHoc Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lhomme, Edouard; Frattasi, Simone; Figueiras, Joao

    2006-01-01

    Positioning information enables new applications for cellular phones, personal communication systems, and specialized mobile radios. The network heterogeneity emerging in the fourth generation (4G) of mobile networks can be utilized for enhancements of the location estimation accuracy...

  2. Assured Resource Sharing in Ad-Hoc Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Gail-Joon [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2015-12-19

    The project seeks an innovative framework to enable users to access and selectively share resources in distributed environments, enhancing the scalability of information sharing. We have investigated secure sharing & assurance approaches for ad-hoc collaboration, focused on Grids, Clouds, and ad-hoc network environments.

  3. Simulation and Evaluation of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kioumourtzis, George

    2005-01-01

    .... The nodes act as routers in an environment without a fixed infrastructure, the nodes are mobile, the wireless medium has its own limitations compared to wired networks, and existing routing protocols...

  4. Analysis of Multi-Hop Broadcast in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: a Reliability Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gholibeigi, Mozhdeh; Heijenk, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), supporting the development of innovative vehicular applications, have benefited from major contributions in the field of wireless networking. Broadcasting is a crucial communication type for many domain-specific applications. In this work we focus on

  5. COBRA: Center-Oriented Broadcast Routing Algorithms for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Intae; Poovendran, Radha

    2004-01-01

    .... From the intuition that the best place to take advantage of the wireless broadcast advantage is at the center of a network deploy region, we concretize this idea into a currently best performing...

  6. Scalable Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) to Enhance Situational Awareness in Distributed Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    networking. Phones can be preprogrammed to send your coffee order to the barista as the phone is carried through the door. Payments can be made and...from coffee pots to watches. It allows the user to be more connected to the environment around him than ever before. It is presumed that a network...that in the event that it does not make it to its destination it self- deletes . This may happen if the end device or final destination is not

  7. Rapid self-organised initiation of ad hoc sensor networks close above the percolation threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsnes, Reinert

    2010-07-01

    This work shows potentials for rapid self-organisation of sensor networks where nodes collaborate to relay messages to a common data collecting unit (sink node). The study problem is, in the sense of graph theory, to find a shortest path tree spanning a weighted graph. This is a well-studied problem where for example Dijkstra’s algorithm provides a solution for non-negative edge weights. The present contribution shows by simulation examples that simple modifications of known distributed approaches here can provide significant improvements in performance. Phase transition phenomena, which are known to take place in networks close to percolation thresholds, may explain these observations. An initial method, which here serves as reference, assumes the sink node starts organisation of the network (tree) by transmitting a control message advertising its availability for its neighbours. These neighbours then advertise their current cost estimate for routing a message to the sink. A node which in this way receives a message implying an improved route to the sink, advertises its new finding and remembers which neighbouring node the message came from. This activity proceeds until there are no more improvements to advertise to neighbours. The result is a tree network for cost effective transmission of messages to the sink (root). This distributed approach has potential for simple improvements which are of interest when minimisation of storage and communication of network information are a concern. Fast organisation of the network takes place when the number k of connections for each node ( degree) is close above its critical value for global network percolation and at the same time there is a threshold for the nodes to decide to advertise network route updates.

  8. Efficient content distribution for peer-to-peer overlays on mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Mawji

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P networks existing on a MANET are a natural evolution since both are decentralized and have dynamic topologies. As MANETs grow in use due to the increasing popularity of wireless mesh and 4G networks, it is expected that P2P applications will remain as a popular means of obtaining files. Network coding has been shown as an efficient means of sharing large files in a P2P network. With network coding, all file blocks have the same relative importance. This paper presents an efficient content distribution scheme that uses network coding to share large files in a P2P overlay running on a MANET. Peers request file blocks from multiple server nodes and servers multicast blocks to multiple receivers, providing efficient multipoint-to-multipoint communication. Simulation results show that compared to other common download techniques, the proposed scheme performs very well, having lower download time and energy consumption. Also, more peers participate in uploading the file, resulting in greater fairness.

  9. A CONTEXT AWARE BASED PRE-HANDOFF SUPPORT APPROACH TO PROVIDE OPTIMAL QOS FOR STREAMING APPLICATIONS OVER VEHICULAR AD HOC NETWORKS – HOSA

    OpenAIRE

    K. RAMESH BABU; ARUNKUMAR THANGAVELU

    2015-01-01

    Large variations in network Quality of Service (QoS) such as bandwidth, latency, jitter, and reliability may occur during media transfer over vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET). Usage of VANET over mobile and wireless computing applications experience “bursty” QoS behavior during the execution over distributed network scenarios. Applications such as streaming media services need to adapt their functionalities to any change in network status. Moreover, an enhanced software platform is necessary...

  10. Combined bio-inspired/evolutionary computational methods in cross-layer protocol optimization for wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2011-06-01

    Published studies have focused on the application of one bio-inspired or evolutionary computational method to the functions of a single protocol layer in a wireless ad hoc sensor network (WSN). For example, swarm intelligence in the form of ant colony optimization (ACO), has been repeatedly considered for the routing of data/information among nodes, a network-layer function, while genetic algorithms (GAs) have been used to select transmission frequencies and power levels, physical-layer functions. Similarly, artificial immune systems (AISs) as well as trust models of quantized data reputation have been invoked for detection of network intrusions that cause anomalies in data and information; these act on the application and presentation layers. Most recently, a self-organizing scheduling scheme inspired by frog-calling behavior for reliable data transmission in wireless sensor networks, termed anti-phase synchronization, has been applied to realize collision-free transmissions between neighboring nodes, a function of the MAC layer. In a novel departure from previous work, the cross-layer approach to WSN protocol design suggests applying more than one evolutionary computational method to the functions of the appropriate layers to improve the QoS performance of the cross-layer design beyond that of one method applied to a single layer's functions. A baseline WSN protocol design, embedding GAs, anti-phase synchronization, ACO, and a trust model based on quantized data reputation at the physical, MAC, network, and application layers, respectively, is constructed. Simulation results demonstrate the synergies among the bioinspired/ evolutionary methods of the proposed baseline design improve the overall QoS performance of networks over that of a single computational method.

  11. A probabilistic dynamic energy model for ad-hoc wireless sensors network with varying topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Husseini, Amal

    In this dissertation we investigate the behavior of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) from the degree distribution and evolution perspective. In specific, we focus on implementation of a scale-free degree distribution topology for energy efficient WSNs. WSNs is an emerging technology that finds its applications in different areas such as environment monitoring, agricultural crop monitoring, forest fire monitoring, and hazardous chemical monitoring in war zones. This technology allows us to collect data without human presence or intervention. Energy conservation/efficiency is one of the major issues in prolonging the active life WSNs. Recently, many energy aware and fault tolerant topology control algorithms have been presented, but there is dearth of research focused on energy conservation/efficiency of WSNs. Therefore, we study energy efficiency and fault-tolerance in WSNs from the degree distribution and evolution perspective. Self-organization observed in natural and biological systems has been directly linked to their degree distribution. It is widely known that scale-free distribution bestows robustness, fault-tolerance, and access efficiency to system. Fascinated by these properties, we propose two complex network theoretic self-organizing models for adaptive WSNs. In particular, we focus on adopting the Barabasi and Albert scale-free model to fit into the constraints and limitations of WSNs. We developed simulation models to conduct numerical experiments and network analysis. The main objective of studying these models is to find ways to reducing energy usage of each node and balancing the overall network energy disrupted by faulty communication among nodes. The first model constructs the wireless sensor network relative to the degree (connectivity) and remaining energy of every individual node. We observed that it results in a scale-free network structure which has good fault tolerance properties in face of random node failures. The second model considers

  12. Information potential fields navigation in wireless ad-hoc sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Qi, Yong

    2011-01-01

    As wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are increasingly being deployed in some important applications, it becomes imperative that we consider application requirements in in-network processes. We intend to use a WSN to aid information querying and navigation within a dynamic and real-time environment. We propose a novel method that relies on the heat diffusion equation to finish the navigation process conveniently and easily. From the perspective of theoretical analysis, our proposed work holds the lower constraint condition. We use multiple scales to reach the goal of accurate navigation. We present a multi-scale gradient descent method to satisfy users' requirements in WSNs. Formula derivations and simulations show that the method is accurately and efficiently able to solve typical sensor network configuration information navigation problems. Simultaneously, the structure of heat diffusion equation allows more flexibility and adaptability in searching algorithm designs.

  13. Local, distributed topology control for large-scale wireless ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieberg, T.; Hurink, Johann L.

    In this document, topology control of a large-scale, wireless network by a distributed algorithm that uses only locally available information is presented. Topology control algorithms adjust the transmission power of wireless nodes to create a desired topology. The algorithm, named local power

  14. Optimizing Neighbor Discovery for Ad hoc Networks based on the Bluetooth PAN Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuijpers, Gerben; Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Prasad, Ramjee

    2002-01-01

    . This paper introduces a neighbor discovery mechanism that utilizes the resources in the Bluetooth PAN profile more efficient. The performance of the new mechanism is investigated using a IPv6 network simulator and compared with emulated broadcasting. It is shown that the signaling overhead can...

  15. Inter-Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: From the Ground Truth to Algorithm Design and Testbed Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many of the devices we interact with on a daily basis are currently equipped with wireless connectivity. Soon this will be extended to the vehicles we drive/ride every day. Wirelessly connected vehicles will form a new kind of network that will enable a wide set of innovative applications ranging from enhanced safety to entertainment. To…

  16. Assessing the State-of-the-Art in Dynamic Discovery of Ad Hoc Network Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-18

    Cache Manager() 0..1 Contains 1 Contains SERVICE MANAGER discov er Network Context() <<not shr>> Cache Manager Discov ery () <<OPT>> Announce Serv ice...service availability requests Service Manager Service Cache Manager Service User Service Description Service Provider Service Repository Service...Group Service Manager Service User Service Cache Manager Aggressive Discovery Multicast Group SM4 SCM3 T ATT API GUI 20 30AddService50 SU8 5 1 2 S XYZ

  17. Applying ADLs to Assess Emerging Industry Specifications for Dynamic Discovery of Ad Hoc Network Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-31

    0..1 Contains 1 Contains SERVICE MANAGER discov er Network Context() <<not shr>> Cache Manager Discov ery () <<OPT>> Announce Serv ice Processing...Architectural Layers Approach JINI Entities Service Manager Entity Major Functions Lazy Discovery Directed Discovery Client (s,ra) Aggressive...registered-services SCM SM discovered-SCMs (SU NR SCM): (SU,NR) SCM registered-notifications SCM SU discovered-SCMs • SM is Service Manager • SD is

  18. Assessing Robustness Properties in Dynamic Discovery of Ad Hoc Network Services (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-04

    Task() start Aging Task() Serv ice Cache Manager() 0..1 Contains 1 Contains SERVICE MANAGER discov er Network Context() <<not shr>> Cache Manager...service availabilty requests 0..* 0..* service availability requests Service Manager Service Cache Manager Service User Service Description Service...Discovery Multicast Group Service Manager Service User Service Cache Manager Aggressive Discovery Multicast Group SM4 SCM3 T ATT API GUI 20

  19. Cross Layer PHY-MAC Protocol for Wireless Static and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Blondia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Multihop mobile wireless networks have drawn a lot of attention in recent years thanks to their wide applicability in civil and military environments. Since the existing IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF standard does not provide satisfactory access to the wireless medium in multihop mobile networks, we have designed a cross-layer protocol, (CroSs-layer noise aware power driven MAC (SNAPdMac, which consists of two parts. The protocol first concentrates on the flexible adjustment of the upper and lower bounds of the contention window (CW to lower the number of collisions. In addition, it uses a power control scheme, triggered by the medium access control (MAC layer, to limit the waste of energy and also to decrease the number of collisions. Thanks to a noticeable energy conservation and decrease of the number of collisions, it prolongs significantly the lifetime of the network and delays the death of the first node while increasing both the throughput performance and the sending bit rate/throughput fairness among contending flows.

  20. Performance analysis of multi-radio routing protocol in cognitive radio ad hoc networks under different path failure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che-Aron, Z; Abdalla, A H; Abdullah, K; Hassan, W H

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Cognitive Radio (CR) technology has largely attracted significant studies and research. Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network (CRAHN) is an emerging self-organized, multi-hop, wireless network which allows unlicensed users to opportunistically access available licensed spectrum bands for data communication under an intelligent and cautious manner. However, in CRAHNs, a lot of failures can easily occur during data transmission caused by PU (Primary User) activity, topology change, node fault, or link degradation. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the performance of the Multi-Radio Link-Quality Source Routing (MR-LQSR) protocol in CRAHNs under different path failure rate. In the MR-LQSR protocol, the Weighted Cumulative Expected Transmission Time (WCETT) is used as the routing metric. The simulations are carried out using the NS-2 simulator. The protocol performance is evaluated with respect to performance metrics like average throughput, packet loss, average end-to-end delay and average jitter. From the simulation results, it is observed that the number of path failures depends on the PUs number and mobility rate of SUs (Secondary Users). Moreover, the protocol performance is greatly affected when the path failure rate is high, leading to major service outages

  1. Design and Analysis of A Beacon-Less Routing Protocol for Large Volume Content Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Miao; Zhong, Zhangdui; Ni, Minming; Baiocchi, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Large volume content dissemination is pursued by the growing number of high quality applications for Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks(VANETs), e.g., the live road surveillance service and the video-based overtaking assistant service. For the highly dynamical vehicular network topology, beacon-less routing protocols have been proven to be efficient in achieving a balance between the system performance and the control overhead. However, to the authors' best knowledge, the routing design for large volume content has not been well considered in the previous work, which will introduce new challenges, e.g., the enhanced connectivity requirement for a radio link. In this paper, a link Lifetime-aware Beacon-less Routing Protocol (LBRP) is designed for large volume content delivery in VANETs. Each vehicle makes the forwarding decision based on the message header information and its current state, including the speed and position information. A semi-Markov process analytical model is proposed to evaluate the expected delay in constructing one routing path for LBRP. Simulations show that the proposed LBRP scheme outperforms the traditional dissemination protocols in providing a low end-to-end delay. The analytical model is shown to exhibit a good match on the delay estimation with Monte Carlo simulations, as well.

  2. Computing Nash Equilibrium in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: A Simulation-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bulychev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of computing Nash equilibrium in wireless networks modeled by Weighted Timed Automata. Such formalism comes together with a logic that can be used to describe complex features such as timed energy constraints. Our contribution is a method for solving this problem using Statistical Model Checking. The method has been implemented in UPPAAL model checker and has been applied to the analysis of Aloha CSMA/CD and IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA/CA protocols.

  3. An Empirical Model for Probability of Packet Reception in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Today's advanced simulators facilitate thorough studies on VANETs but are hampered by the computational effort required to consider all of the important influencing factors. In particular, large-scale simulations involving thousands of communicating vehicles cannot be served in reasonable simulation times with typical network simulation frameworks. A solution to this challenge might be found in hybrid simulations that encapsulate parts of a discrete-event simulation in an analytical model while maintaining the simulation's credibility. In this paper, we introduce a hybrid simulation model that analytically represents the probability of packet reception in an IEEE 802.11p network based on four inputs: the distance between sender and receiver, transmission power, transmission rate, and vehicular traffic density. We also describe the process of building our model which utilizes a large set of simulation traces and is based on general linear least squares approximation techniques. The model is then validated via the comparison of simulation results with the model output. In addition, we present a transmission power control problem in order to show the model's suitability for solving parameter optimization problems, which are of fundamental importance to VANETs.

  4. 1st International Workshop on Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Smart Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Qayyum, Amir; Saad, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular communication is a key technology in intelligent transportation systems. For many years now, the academic and industrial research communities have been investigating these communications in order to improve efficiency and safety of future transportation. Vehicular networking offers a wide variety of applications, including safety applications as well as infotainment applications. This book highlights the recent developments in vehicular networking technologies and their interaction with future smart cities in order to promote further research activities and challenges. SAADI BOUDJIT, University of Paris 13, France  HAKIMA CHAOUCHI, Telecom SudParis, France  YACINE GHAMRI, University La Rochelle, France HALABI HASBULLAH, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia ANIS LAOUITI, Telecom SudParis, France  SAOUCENE MAHFOUDH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  PAUL MUHLETHALER, INRIA, France AMIR QAYYUM, Mohamad Ali Jinnah University, Pakistan NAUFAL SAAD, Universiti Teknologi�...

  5. Wireless sensor and mobile ad-hoc networks vehicular and space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Fuqaha, Ala

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the practical perspectives in using wireless sensor networks (WSN) to develop real world applications that can be used for space exploration. These applications include sensor interfaces, remote wireless vehicles, space crew health monitoring and instrumentation. The material discusses how applications of WSN originally developed for space travel and exploration are being applied and used in multiple real world applications, allowing for the development of smart systems that have characteristics such as self-healing, self-diagnosis, and emergency healthcare notification. This book also: ·         Discusses how multidisciplinary fields can be implemented in a single application ·         Reviews exhaustively the state-of-the-art research in WSN for space and vehicular applications ·         Covers smart systems that have self-healing, self-diagnosis, and emergency healthcare notification

  6. A Localization Algorithm Based on AOA for Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of positions of sensor nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs will make possible many applications such as asset monitoring, object tracking and routing. In WSNs, the errors may happen in the measurement of distances and angles between pairs of nodes in WSN and these errors will be propagated to different nodes, the estimation of positions of sensor nodes can be difficult and have huge errors. In this paper, we will propose localization algorithm based on both distance and angle to landmark. So, we introduce a method of incident angle to landmark and the algorithm to exchange physical data such as distances and incident angles and update the position of a node by utilizing multiple landmarks and multiple paths to landmarks.

  7. In-drilling alignment scheme for borehole assembly trajectory tracking over a wireless ad hoc network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odei-Lartey, E.; Hartmann, K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the feasibility and implementation of an In-drilling alignment method for an inertia navigation system based measurement while drilling system as applied to the vertical drilling process, where there is seldom direct access to a reference measurement due the communication network architecture and telemetry framework constraints. It involves the sequential measurement update of multiple nodes by the propagation of the reference measurement sequentially over nodes, each of which has an integrated inertia measurement unit sensor and runs the extended Kalman filter based signal processing unit, until the final measurement update of the main sensor node embedded in the borehole assembly is done. This is done particularly to keep track of the yaw angle position during the drilling process.

  8. PERFORMANCE OF OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM ACCESS WITH SENSING ERROR IN COGNITIVE RADIO AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ARMI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensing in opportunistic spectrum access (OSA has a responsibility to detect the available channel by performing binary hypothesis as busy or idle states. If channel is busy, secondary user (SU cannot access and refrain from data transmission. SU is allowed to access when primary user (PU does not use it (idle states. However, channel is sensed on imperfect communication link. Fading, noise and any obstacles existed can cause sensing errors in PU signal detection. False alarm detects idle states as a busy channel while miss-identification detects busy states as an idle channel. False detection makes SU refrain from transmission and reduces number of bits transmitted. On the other hand, miss-identification causes SU collide to PU transmission. This paper study the performance of OSA based on the greedy approach with sensing errors by the restriction of maximum collision probability allowed (collision threshold by PU network. The throughput of SU and spectrum capacity metric is used to evaluate OSA performance and make comparisons to those ones without sensing error as function of number of slot based on the greedy approach. The relations between throughput and signal to noise ratio (SNR with different collision probability as well as false detection with different SNR are presented. According to the obtained results show that CR users can gain the reward from the previous slot for both of with and without sensing errors. It is indicated by the throughput improvement as slot number increases. However, sensing on imperfect channel with sensing errors can degrade the throughput performance. Subsequently, the throughput of SU and spectrum capacity improves by increasing maximum collision probability allowed by PU network as well. Due to frequent collision with PU, the throughput of SU and spectrum capacity decreases at certain value of collision threshold. Computer simulation is used to evaluate and validate these works.

  9. A MODIFIED ROUTE DISCOVERY APPROACH FOR DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING (DSR PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Azmi Allahham

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANETs involved in many applications, whether commercial or military because of their characteristics that do not depend on the infrastructure as well as the freedom movement of their elements, but in return has caused this random mobility of the nodes many of the challenges, where the routing is considered one of these challenges. There are many types of routing protocols that operate within MANET networks, which responsible for finding paths between the source and destination nodes with the modernization of these paths which are constantly changing due to the dynamic topology of the network stemming from the constant random movement of the nodes. The DSR (Dynamic Source Routing routing protocol algorithm is one of these routing protocols which consist of two main stages; route discovery and maintenance, where the route discovery algorithm operates based on blind flooding of request messages. blind flooding is considered as the most well known broadcasting mechanism, it is inefficient in terms of communication and resource utilization, which causing increasing the probability of collisions, repeating send several copies of the same message, as well as increasing the delay. Hence, a new mechanism in route discovery stage and in caching the routes in DSR algorithm according to the node's location in the network and the direction of the broadcast is proposed for better performance especially in terms of delay as well as redundant packets rate. The implementation of proposed algorithms showed positive results in terms of delay, overhead, and improve the performance of MANETs in general.

  10. Decentralized Opportunistic Spectrum Resources Access Model and Algorithm toward Cooperative Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Yang; Mohammed, Abdul-Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Limited communication resources have gradually become a critical factor toward efficiency of decentralized large scale multi-agent coordination when both system scales up and tasks become more complex. In current researches, due to the agent’s limited communication and observational capability, an agent in a decentralized setting can only choose a part of channels to access, but cannot perceive or share global information. Each agent’s cooperative decision is based on the partial observation of the system state, and as such, uncertainty in the communication network is unavoidable. In this situation, it is a major challenge working out cooperative decision-making under uncertainty with only a partial observation of the environment. In this paper, we propose a decentralized approach that allows agents cooperatively search and independently choose channels. The key to our design is to build an up-to-date observation for each agent’s view so that a local decision model is achievable in a large scale team coordination. We simplify the Dec-POMDP model problem, and each agent can jointly work out its communication policy in order to improve its local decision utilities for the choice of communication resources. Finally, we discuss an implicate resource competition game, and show that, there exists an approximate resources access tradeoff balance between agents. Based on this discovery, the tradeoff between real-time decision-making and the efficiency of cooperation using these channels can be well improved. PMID:26727504

  11. Decentralized Opportunistic Spectrum Resources Access Model and Algorithm toward Cooperative Ad-Hoc Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    Full Text Available Limited communication resources have gradually become a critical factor toward efficiency of decentralized large scale multi-agent coordination when both system scales up and tasks become more complex. In current researches, due to the agent's limited communication and observational capability, an agent in a decentralized setting can only choose a part of channels to access, but cannot perceive or share global information. Each agent's cooperative decision is based on the partial observation of the system state, and as such, uncertainty in the communication network is unavoidable. In this situation, it is a major challenge working out cooperative decision-making under uncertainty with only a partial observation of the environment. In this paper, we propose a decentralized approach that allows agents cooperatively search and independently choose channels. The key to our design is to build an up-to-date observation for each agent's view so that a local decision model is achievable in a large scale team coordination. We simplify the Dec-POMDP model problem, and each agent can jointly work out its communication policy in order to improve its local decision utilities for the choice of communication resources. Finally, we discuss an implicate resource competition game, and show that, there exists an approximate resources access tradeoff balance between agents. Based on this discovery, the tradeoff between real-time decision-making and the efficiency of cooperation using these channels can be well improved.

  12. A Cross-Layer Route Discovery Framework for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jieyi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most reactive routing protocols in MANETs employ a random delay between rebroadcasting route requests (RREQ in order to avoid "broadcast storms." However this can lead to problems such as "next hop racing" and "rebroadcast redundancy." In addition to this, existing routing protocols for MANETs usually take a single routing strategy for all flows. This may lead to inefficient use of resources. In this paper we propose a cross-layer route discovery framework (CRDF to address these problems by exploiting the cross-layer information. CRDF solves the above problems efficiently and enables a new technique: routing strategy automation (RoSAuto. RoSAuto refers to the technique that each source node automatically decides the routing strategy based on the application requirements and each intermediate node further adapts the routing strategy so that the network resource usage can be optimized. To demonstrate the effectiveness and the efficiency of CRDF, we design and evaluate a macrobian route discovery strategy under CRDF.

  13. Decentralized Opportunistic Spectrum Resources Access Model and Algorithm toward Cooperative Ad-Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Yang; Mohammed, Abdul-Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Limited communication resources have gradually become a critical factor toward efficiency of decentralized large scale multi-agent coordination when both system scales up and tasks become more complex. In current researches, due to the agent's limited communication and observational capability, an agent in a decentralized setting can only choose a part of channels to access, but cannot perceive or share global information. Each agent's cooperative decision is based on the partial observation of the system state, and as such, uncertainty in the communication network is unavoidable. In this situation, it is a major challenge working out cooperative decision-making under uncertainty with only a partial observation of the environment. In this paper, we propose a decentralized approach that allows agents cooperatively search and independently choose channels. The key to our design is to build an up-to-date observation for each agent's view so that a local decision model is achievable in a large scale team coordination. We simplify the Dec-POMDP model problem, and each agent can jointly work out its communication policy in order to improve its local decision utilities for the choice of communication resources. Finally, we discuss an implicate resource competition game, and show that, there exists an approximate resources access tradeoff balance between agents. Based on this discovery, the tradeoff between real-time decision-making and the efficiency of cooperation using these channels can be well improved.

  14. Optimal channel choice for collaborative ad-hoc dissemination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Boudec, J-Y. L.; Vojnovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative ad-hoc dissemination of information has been proposed as an efficient means to disseminate information among devices in a wireless ad-hoc network. Devices help in forwarding the information channels to the entire network, by disseminating the channels they subscribe to, plus others...... by a Metropolis-Hastings sampling algorithm. We also give a variant that accounts for battery level. This leads to a practical channel selection and re-selection algorithm that can be implemented without any central control....

  15. Adaptive Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks for Long-term and Event-oriented Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Remmler, Paul; Chirila, Andrei Marian; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, complexity and dynamic. Hence, single point measurements are often not sufficient for their complete representation. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic environmental systems offer significant benefits as a better consideration to the local test conditions, due to the simple adjustment of the sensor distribution, the sensor types and the sample rate. Another advantage of wireless ad-hoc sensor networks is their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, individual point measurements with a sensor are significantly improved by measuring at several points continuously. In this work a concept and realization for Long-term ecosystem research is given in the field monitoring of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes. This long term analyses are part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Regarding to the adaptive behavior of the network, also a mobile version was developed to overcome the lack of information of temporally and spatially fixed measurements for the detection and recording of highly dynamic or time limited processes. First results of different field campaigns are given to present the potentials and limitations of this application in environmental science, especially for the monitoring of the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes, soil-atmosphere interaction and the validation of remote sensing data.

  16. Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.11p Multichannel MAC Protocol in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caixia

    2017-12-12

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. The safety applications require timely and reliable transmissions, while the non-safety applications require efficient and high throughput. In the IEEE 1609.4 protocol, operating interval is divided into alternating Control Channel (CCH) interval and Service Channel (SCH) interval with an identical length. During the CCH interval, nodes transmit safety-related messages and control messages, and Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) mechanism is employed to allow four Access Categories (ACs) within a station with different priorities according to their criticality for the vehicle's safety. During the SCH interval, the non-safety massages are transmitted. An analytical model is proposed in this paper to evaluate performance, reliability and efficiency of the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. The proposed model improves the existing work by taking serval aspects and the character of multichannel switching into design consideration. Extensive performance evaluations based on analysis and simulation help to validate the accuracy of the proposed model and analyze the capabilities and limitations of the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols, and enhancement suggestions are given.

  17. Statistical Delay QoS Provisioning for Energy-Efficient Spectrum-Sharing Based Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop the statistical delay quality-of-service (QoS provisioning framework for the energy-efficient spectrum-sharing based wireless ad hoc sensor network (WAHSN, which is characterized by the delay-bound violation probability. Based on the established delay QoS provisioning framework, we formulate the nonconvex optimization problem which aims at maximizing the average energy efficiency of the sensor node in the WAHSN while meeting PU’s statistical delay QoS requirement as well as satisfying sensor node’s average transmission rate, average transmitting power, and peak transmitting power constraints. By employing the theories of fractional programming, convex hull, and probabilistic transmission, we convert the original fractional-structured nonconvex problem to the additively structured parametric convex problem and obtain the optimal power allocation strategy under the given parameter via Lagrangian method. Finally, we derive the optimal average energy efficiency and corresponding optimal power allocation scheme by employing the Dinkelbach method. Simulation results show that our derived optimal power allocation strategy can be dynamically adjusted based on PU’s delay QoS requirement as well as the channel conditions. The impact of PU’s delay QoS requirement on sensor node’s energy efficiency is also illustrated.

  18. A Multi-User Game-Theoretical Multipath Routing Protocol to Send Video-Warning Messages over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Igartua, Mónica Aguilar; de la Cruz Llopis, Luis J.; Segarra, Esteve Pallarès; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Forné, Jordi; Gargallo, Emilio Sanvicente

    2015-01-01

    The prevention of accidents is one of the most important goals of ad hoc networks in smart cities. When an accident happens, dynamic sensors (e.g., citizens with smart phones or tablets, smart vehicles and buses, etc.) could shoot a video clip of the accident and send it through the ad hoc network. With a video message, the level of seriousness of the accident could be much better evaluated by the authorities (e.g., health care units, police and ambulance drivers) rather than with just a simple text message. Besides, other citizens would be rapidly aware of the incident. In this way, smart dynamic sensors could participate in reporting a situation in the city using the ad hoc network so it would be possible to have a quick reaction warning citizens and emergency units. The deployment of an efficient routing protocol to manage video-warning messages in mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) has important benefits by allowing a fast warning of the incident, which potentially can save lives. To contribute with this goal, we propose a multipath routing protocol to provide video-warning messages in MANETs using a novel game-theoretical approach. As a base for our work, we start from our previous work, where a 2-players game-theoretical routing protocol was proposed to provide video-streaming services over MANETs. In this article, we further generalize the analysis made for a general number of N players in the MANET. Simulations have been carried out to show the benefits of our proposal, taking into account the mobility of the nodes and the presence of interfering traffic.Finally, we also have tested our approach in a vehicular ad hoc network as an incipient start point to develop a novel proposal specifically designed for VANETs. PMID:25897496

  19. A Multi-User Game-Theoretical Multipath Routing Protocol to Send Video-Warning Messages over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohamad Mezher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of accidents is one of the most important goals of ad hoc networks in smart cities. When an accident happens, dynamic sensors (e.g., citizens with smart phones or tablets, smart vehicles and buses, etc. could shoot a video clip of the accident and send it through the ad hoc network. With a video message, the level of seriousness of the accident could be much better evaluated by the authorities (e.g., health care units, police and ambulance drivers rather than with just a simple text message. Besides, other citizens would be rapidly aware of the incident. In this way, smart dynamic sensors could participate in reporting a situation in the city using the ad hoc network so it would be possible to have a quick reaction warning citizens and emergency units. The deployment of an efficient routing protocol to manage video-warning messages in mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs has important benefits by allowing a fast warning of the incident, which potentially can save lives. To contribute with this goal, we propose a multipath routing protocol to provide video-warning messages in MANETs using a novel game-theoretical approach. As a base for our work, we start from our previous work, where a 2-players game-theoretical routing protocol was proposed to provide video-streaming services over MANETs. In this article, we further generalize the analysis made for a general number of N players in the MANET. Simulations have been carried out to show the benefits of our proposal, taking into account the mobility of the nodes and the presence of interfering traffic. Finally, we also have tested our approach in a vehicular ad hoc network as an incipient start point to develop a novel proposal specifically designed for VANETs.

  20. A Multi-User Game-Theoretical Multipath Routing Protocol to Send Video-Warning Messages over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Igartua, Mónica Aguilar; de la Cruz Llopis, Luis J; Pallarès Segarra, Esteve; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Forné, Jordi; Sanvicente Gargallo, Emilio

    2015-04-17

    The prevention of accidents is one of the most important goals of ad hoc networks in smart cities. When an accident happens, dynamic sensors (e.g., citizens with smart phones or tablets, smart vehicles and buses, etc.) could shoot a video clip of the accident and send it through the ad hoc network. With a video message, the level of seriousness of the accident could be much better evaluated by the authorities (e.g., health care units, police and ambulance drivers) rather than with just a simple text message. Besides, other citizens would be rapidly aware of the incident. In this way, smart dynamic sensors could participate in reporting a situation in the city using the ad hoc network so it would be possible to have a quick reaction warning citizens and emergency units. The deployment of an efficient routing protocol to manage video-warning messages in mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) has important benefits by allowing a fast warning of the incident, which potentially can save lives. To contribute with this goal, we propose a multipath routing protocol to provide video-warning messages in MANETs using a novel game-theoretical approach. As a base for our work, we start from our previous work, where a 2-players game-theoretical routing protocol was proposed to provide video-streaming services over MANETs. In this article, we further generalize the analysis made for a general number of N players in the MANET. Simulations have been carried out to show the benefits of our proposal, taking into account the mobility of the nodes and the presence of interfering traffic. Finally, we also have tested our approach in a vehicular ad hoc network as an incipient start point to develop a novel proposal specifically designed for VANETs.

  1. Development of Innovative and Inexpensive Optical Sensors in Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Hannes; Schima, Robert; Assing, Martin; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Due to the heterogeneity and dynamic of ecosystems, the observation and monitoring of natural processes necessitate a high temporal and spatial resolution. This also requires inexpensive and adaptive measurements as well as innovative monitoring strategies. To this end, the application of ad-hoc wireless sensor networks holds the potential of creating an adequate monitoring platform. In order to achieve a comprehensive monitoring in space and time with affordability, it is necessary to reduce the sensor costs. Common investigation methods, especially with regard to vegetation processes, are based on optical measurements. In particular, different wavelengths correspond to specific properties of the plants and preserve the possibility to derive information about the ecosystem, e.g. photosynthetic performance or nutrient content. In this context, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensors and hyperspectral sensors are in major use. This work aims the development, evaluation and application of inexpensive but high performance optical sensors for the implementation in wireless sensor networks. Photosynthetically active radiation designates the spectral range from 400 to 700 nanometers that photosynthetic organisms are able to use in the process of photosynthesis. PAR sensors enable the detection of the reflected solar light of the vegetation in the whole PAR wave band. The amount of absorption indicates photosynthetic activity of the plant, with good approximation. Hyperspectral sensors observe specific parts or rather distinct wavelengths of the solar light spectrum and facilitate the determination of the main pigment classes, e.g. Chlorophyll, Carotenoid and Anthocyanin. Due to the specific absorption of certain pigments, a characteristic spectral signature can be seen in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, known as narrow-band peaks. In an analogous manner, also the presence and concentration of different nutrients cause a characteristic spectral

  2. A CONTEXT AWARE BASED PRE-HANDOFF SUPPORT APPROACH TO PROVIDE OPTIMAL QOS FOR STREAMING APPLICATIONS OVER VEHICULAR AD HOC NETWORKS – HOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RAMESH BABU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large variations in network Quality of Service (QoS such as bandwidth, latency, jitter, and reliability may occur during media transfer over vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET. Usage of VANET over mobile and wireless computing applications experience “bursty” QoS behavior during the execution over distributed network scenarios. Applications such as streaming media services need to adapt their functionalities to any change in network status. Moreover, an enhanced software platform is necessary to provide adaptive network management services to upper software components. HOSA, a handoff service broker based architecture for QoS adaptation over VANET supports in providing awareness. HOSA is structured as a middleware platform both to provide QoS awareness to streaming applications as well to manage dynamic ad hoc network resources with support over handoff in an adaptive fashion. HOSA is well analyzed over routing schemes such as TIBSCRPH, SIP and ABSRP where performance of HOSA was measured using throughput, traffic intensity and end to end delay. HOSA has been analyzed using JXTA development toolkit over C++ implemented classes to demonstrate its performance over varying node mobility established using vehicular mobility based conference application.

  3. Emerging Radio and Manet Technology Study: Research Support for a Survey of State-of-the-art Commercial and Military Hardware/Software for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Architecture 2b: Tablet with External Router Existing products such as the ZuniConnect Travel Router or the ASUS 6-in-1 Wireless-N150 Mobile Router can...configuration and network topology information via a standard browser interface. The company claims scalability to 1000’s of units by removing routing...Systems (PS) is a US company based in New York City. They offer a proprietary mobile ad-hoc networking solution (Wave Relay) that is an adaptive mesh

  4. Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, D

    2003-01-01

    Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment.

  5. Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Deborah A.; Berket, Karlo

    2003-01-01

    Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment

  6. Analisis Unjuk Kerja Aplikasi VoIP Call Android di Jaringan MANET [Performance Analysis of VoIP Call Application Android in MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Ari Setyawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kinerja aplikasi  VoIP call android di jaringan MANET (mobile ad hoc network.  Hasil pengujian menunjukan bahwa aplikasi VoIP call android dapat digunakan di jaringan MANET. Delay yang dihasilkan paling besar di pengujian indoor dengan jarak 11-15 meter yakni sebesar 0,014624811 seconds. Packet loss yang dihasilkan pada range 1%-2% sedangkan standar packet loss yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO untuk layanan aplikasi VoIP adalah < 5%. Jitter yang dihasilkan yakni antara 0,01-0,06 seconds sedangkan standar yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO adalah ≤ 30 ms atau 0,03 seconds. Throughput yang dihasilkan pada proses pengujian yakni antar 161 kbps-481 kbps. *****This study aims to analyze the performance of VOIP call android application in the MANET (mobile ad hoc network. The results showed that VoIP applications could be implemented in MANET network. The highest  delay is produced in indoor testing  with distance of 11-15 meters,  which is equal to 0.014624811 seconds. Packet loss is generated in the range of 1% -2%, while packet loss standards set by Cisco for VoIP application services are <5%. The jitter is between 0.01 to 0.06 seconds, while the standard set by CISCO is ≤ 30 ms or 0.03 seconds. Throughput generated in the testing process is between 161 kbps-481 kbps.

  7. Achieving Congestion Mitigation Using Distributed Power Control for Spectrum Sensor Nodes in Sensor Network-Aided Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Xu, Haitao; Zhuo, Fan; Duan, Hucai

    2017-09-15

    The data sequence of spectrum sensing results injected from dedicated spectrum sensor nodes (SSNs) and the data traffic from upstream secondary users (SUs) lead to unpredictable data loads in a sensor network-aided cognitive radio ad hoc network (SN-CRN). As a result, network congestion may occur at a SU acting as fusion center when the offered data load exceeds its available capacity, which degrades network performance. In this paper, we present an effective approach to mitigate congestion of bottlenecked SUs via a proposed distributed power control framework for SSNs over a rectangular grid based SN-CRN, aiming to balance resource load and avoid excessive congestion. To achieve this goal, a distributed power control framework for SSNs from interior tier (IT) and middle tier (MT) is proposed to achieve the tradeoff between channel capacity and energy consumption. In particular, we firstly devise two pricing factors by considering stability of local spectrum sensing and spectrum sensing quality for SSNs. By the aid of pricing factors, the utility function of this power control problem is formulated by jointly taking into account the revenue of power reduction and the cost of energy consumption for IT or MT SSN. By bearing in mind the utility function maximization and linear differential equation constraint of energy consumption, we further formulate the power control problem as a differential game model under a cooperation or noncooperation scenario, and rigorously obtain the optimal solutions to this game model by employing dynamic programming. Then the congestion mitigation for bottlenecked SUs is derived by alleviating the buffer load over their internal buffers. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach under the rectangular grid based SN-CRN scenario.

  8. An Ad Hoc Adaptive Hashing Technique forNon-Uniformly Distributed IP Address Lookup in Computer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Martinez

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Hashing algorithms long have been widely adopted to design a fast address look-up process which involves a search through a large database to find a record associated with a given key. Hashing algorithms involve transforming a key inside each target data to a hash value hoping that the hashing would render the database a uniform distribution with respect to this new hash value. The close the final distribution is to uniform, the less search time would be required when a query is made. When the database is already key-wise uniformly distributed, any regular hashing algorithm, such as bit-extraction, bit-group XOR, etc., would easily lead to a statistically perfect uniform distribution after the hashing. On the other hand, if records in the database are instead not uniformly distributed as in almost all known practical applications, then even different regular hash functions would lead to very different performance. When the target database has a key with a highly skewed distributed value, performance delivered by regular hashing algorithms usually becomes far from desirable. This paper aims at designing a hashing algorithm to achieve the highest probability in leading to a uniformly distributed hash result from a non-uniformly distributed database. An analytical pre-process on the original database is first performed to extract critical information that would significantly benefit the design of a better hashing algorithm. This process includes sorting on the bits of the key to prioritize the use of them in the XOR hashing sequence, or in simple bit extraction, or even a combination of both. Such an ad hoc hash design is critical to adapting to all real-time situations when there exists a changing (and/or expanding database with an irregular non-uniform distribution. Significant improvement from simulation results is obtained in randomly generated data as well as real data.

  9. MWAHCA: A Multimedia Wireless Ad Hoc Cluster Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R. Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Ad hoc networks provide a flexible and adaptable infrastructure to transport data over a great variety of environments. Recently, real-time audio and video data transmission has been increased due to the appearance of many multimedia applications. One of the major challenges is to ensure the quality of multimedia streams when they have passed through a wireless ad hoc network. It requires adapting the network architecture to the multimedia QoS requirements. In this paper we propose a new architecture to organize and manage cluster-based ad hoc networks in order to provide multimedia streams. Proposed architecture adapts the network wireless topology in order to improve the quality of audio and video transmissions. In order to achieve this goal, the architecture uses some information such as each node’s capacity and the QoS parameters (bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss. The architecture splits the network into clusters which are specialized in specific multimedia traffic. The real system performance study provided at the end of the paper will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal.

  10. MWAHCA: a multimedia wireless ad hoc cluster architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Juan R; Lloret, Jaime; Jimenez, Jose M; Sendra, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Ad hoc networks provide a flexible and adaptable infrastructure to transport data over a great variety of environments. Recently, real-time audio and video data transmission has been increased due to the appearance of many multimedia applications. One of the major challenges is to ensure the quality of multimedia streams when they have passed through a wireless ad hoc network. It requires adapting the network architecture to the multimedia QoS requirements. In this paper we propose a new architecture to organize and manage cluster-based ad hoc networks in order to provide multimedia streams. Proposed architecture adapts the network wireless topology in order to improve the quality of audio and video transmissions. In order to achieve this goal, the architecture uses some information such as each node's capacity and the QoS parameters (bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss). The architecture splits the network into clusters which are specialized in specific multimedia traffic. The real system performance study provided at the end of the paper will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal.

  11. Neural methods based on modified reputation rules for detection and identification of intrusion attacks in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2010-04-01

    Determining methods to secure the process of data fusion against attacks by compromised nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and to quantify the uncertainty that may exist in the aggregation results is a critical issue in mitigating the effects of intrusion attacks. Published research has introduced the concept of the trustworthiness (reputation) of a single sensor node. Reputation is evaluated using an information-theoretic concept, the Kullback- Leibler (KL) distance. Reputation is added to the set of security features. In data aggregation, an opinion, a metric of the degree of belief, is generated to represent the uncertainty in the aggregation result. As aggregate information is disseminated along routes to the sink node(s), its corresponding opinion is propagated and regulated by Josang's belief model. By applying subjective logic on the opinion to manage trust propagation, the uncertainty inherent in aggregation results can be quantified for use in decision making. The concepts of reputation and opinion are modified to allow their application to a class of dynamic WSNs. Using reputation as a factor in determining interim aggregate information is equivalent to implementation of a reputation-based security filter at each processing stage of data fusion, thereby improving the intrusion detection and identification results based on unsupervised techniques. In particular, the reputation-based version of the probabilistic neural network (PNN) learns the signature of normal network traffic with the random probability weights normally used in the PNN replaced by the trust-based quantified reputations of sensor data or subsequent aggregation results generated by the sequential implementation of a version of Josang's belief model. A two-stage, intrusion detection and identification algorithm is implemented to overcome the problems of large sensor data loads and resource restrictions in WSNs. Performance of the twostage algorithm is assessed in simulations of WSN

  12. Secure Communication and Information Exchange using Authenticated Ciphertext Policy Attribute-Based Encryption in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Huda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available MANETs are considered as suitable for commercial applications such as law enforcement, conference meeting, and sharing information in a student classroom and critical services such as military operations, disaster relief, and rescue operations. Meanwhile, in military operation especially in the battlefield in freely medium which naturally needs high mobility and flexibility. Thus, applying MANETs make these networks vulnerable to various types of attacks such aspacket eavesdropping, data disseminating, message replay, message modification, and especially privacy issue. In this paper, we propose a secure communication and information exchange in MANET with considering secure adhoc routing and secure information exchange. Regarding privacy issue or anonymity, we use a reliable asymmetric encryption which protecting user privacy by utilizing insensitive user attributes as user identity, CP-ABE (Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption cryptographic scheme. We also design protocols to implement the proposed scheme for various battlefied scenarios in real evironment using embedded devices. Our experimental results showed that the additional of HMAC (Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code and AES (Advanced Encryption standard schemes using processor 1.2GHz only take processing time about 4.452 ms,  we can confirm that our approach by using CP-ABE with added HMAC and AES schemes make low overhead.

  13. Detection and Prevention of Denial of Service (DoS Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Reputation-based Incentive Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieso, K Denko

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are dynamic mobile networks that can be formed in the absence of any pre-existing communication infrastructure. In addition to node mobility, a MANET is characterized by limited resources such as bandwidth, battery power, and storage space. The underlying assumption in MANETs is that the intermediate nodes cooperate in forwarding packets. However, this assumption does not hold in commercial and emerging civilian applications. MANETs are vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS due to their salient characteristics. There is a need to provide an incentive mechanism that can provide cooperation among nodes in the network and improve overall network performance by reducing DoS attacks. In this paper, we propose a reputation-based incentive mechanism for detecting and preventing DoS attacks. DoS attacks committed by selfish and malicious nodes were investigated. Our scheme motivates nodes to cooperate and excludes them from the network only if they fail to do so. We evaluated the performance of our scheme using the packet delivery ratio, the routing and communication overhead, and misbehaving node detection in a discrete event-simulation environment. The results indicate that a reputation-based incentive mechanism can significantly reduce the effect of DoS attacks and improve performance in MANETs.

  14. Fuzzy Logic-based Intelligent Scheme for Enhancing QoS of Vertical Handover Decision in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzali, F.; Ghazali, O.; Omar, M. H.

    2017-08-01

    The design of next generation networks in various technologies under the “Anywhere, Anytime” paradigm offers seamless connectivity across different coverage. A conventional algorithm such as RSSThreshold algorithm, that only uses the received strength signal (RSS) as a metric, will decrease handover performance regarding handover latency, delay, packet loss, and handover failure probability. Moreover, the RSS-based algorithm is only suitable for horizontal handover decision to examine the quality of service (QoS) compared to the vertical handover decision in advanced technologies. In the next generation network, vertical handover can be started based on the user’s convenience or choice rather than connectivity reasons. This study proposes a vertical handover decision algorithm that uses a Fuzzy Logic (FL) algorithm, to increase QoS performance in heterogeneous vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET). The study uses network simulator 2.29 (NS 2.29) along with the mobility traffic network and generator to implement simulation scenarios and topologies. This helps the simulation to achieve a realistic VANET mobility scenario. The required analysis on the performance of QoS in the vertical handover can thus be conducted. The proposed Fuzzy Logic algorithm shows improvement over the conventional algorithm (RSSThreshold) in the average percentage of handover QoS whereby it achieves 20%, 21% and 13% improvement on handover latency, delay, and packet loss respectively. This is achieved through triggering a process in layer two and three that enhances the handover performance.

  15. DEHAR: a Distributed Energy Harvesting Aware Routing Algorithm for Ad-hoc Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Koefoed; Madsen, Jan; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2010-01-01

    One of the key design goals in Wireless Sensor Networks is long lasting or even continuous operation. Continuous operation is made possible through energy harvesting. Keeping the network operational imposes a demand to prevent network segmentation and power loss in nodes. It is therefore important...... that the best energy-wise route is found for each data transfer from a source node to the sink node. We present a new adaptive and distributed routing algorithm for finding energy optimised routes in a wireless sensor network with energy harvesting. The algorithm finds an energy efficient route from each source...... node to a single sink node, taking into account the current energy status of the network. By simulation, the algorithm is shown to be able to adapt to changes in harvested and stored energy. Simulations show that continuous operation is possible....

  16. Proposal for an ad hoc computer network in the military electronic systems department at the military academy applying bluetooth technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav R. Terzić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical development of the Bluetooth module is given in the introduction of this paper. The importance of the Bluetooth standard for wireless connection on small distances is shown as well. The organization of the Department of Military Electronic Systems is presented with its area of duties, subordinate sections and deployment. The concept of a local area network for this Department, using Bluetooth technology, includes network topology and working regimes based on the main characteristics and technical specifications for the connection with Bluetooth technology. The Department's disperse computer network is proposed as a scatter net where one piconetwork includes the Head of Department and the Heads of Sections while other piconetworks are formed from the Heads of Sections and their subordinates. The security aspect of the presented network deals with basic computer network attack categories, protection methods and aspects. The paper concludes with some recommendations for the local area network using Bluetooth technology with respect to its economical and security aspects as well as to the managing principles of the Department.

  17. TinCan: User-Defined P2P Virtual Network Overlays for Ad-hoc Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre St Juste

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Virtual private networking (VPN has become an increasingly important component of a collaboration environment because it ensures private, authenticated communication among participants, using existing collaboration tools, where users are distributed across multiple institutions and can be mobile. The majority of current VPN solutions are based on a centralized VPN model, where all IP traffic is tunneled through a VPN gateway. Nonetheless, there are several use case scenarios that require a model where end-to-end VPN links are tunneled upon existing Internet infrastructure in a peer-to-peer (P2P fashion, removing the bottleneck of a centralized VPN gateway. We propose a novel virtual network — TinCan — based on peerto-peer private network tunnels. It reuses existing standards and implementations of services for discovery notification (XMPP, reflection (STUN and relaying (TURN, facilitating configuration. In this approach, trust relationships maintained by centralized (or federated services are automatically mapped to TinCan links. In one use scenario, TinCan allows unstructured P2P overlays connecting trusted end-user devices — while only requiring VPN software on user devices and leveraging online social network (OSN infrastructure already widely deployed. This paper describes the architecture and design of TinCan and presents an experimental evaluation of a prototype supporting Windows, Linux, and Android mobile devices. Results quantify the overhead introduced by the network virtualization layer, and the resource requirements imposed on services needed to bootstrap TinCan links.

  18. Ad Hoc Categories and False Memories: Memory Illusions for Categories Created On-The-Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, Jerônimo C.; Ferreira, Mário B.; Semin, Gün R.; Mata, André; Carneiro, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments were designed to test whether experimentally created ad hoc associative networks evoke false memories. We used the DRM (Deese, Roediger, McDermott) paradigm with lists of ad hoc categories composed of exemplars aggregated toward specific goals (e.g., going for a picnic) that do not share any consistent set of features. Experiment…

  19. A multi-radio, multi-hop ad-hoc radio communication network for Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Jahanzeb; Bro, Lars; Karstensen, Rasmus Thystrup

    2018-01-01

    Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) is a modern signalling system that uses radio communication to transfer train control information between train and wayside. The trackside networks in these systems are mostly based on conventional infrastructure Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11). It means a train has ...

  20. An ultra-wide bandwidth-based range/GPS tight integration approach for relative positioning in vehicular ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Feng; Cheong, Joon Wayn; Dempster, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Relative position awareness is a vital premise for the implementation of emerging intelligent transportation systems, such as collision warning. However, commercial global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers do not satisfy the requirements of these applications. Fortunately, cooperative positioning (CP) techniques, through sharing the GNSS measurements between vehicles, can improve the performance of relative positioning in a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). In this paper, while assuming there are no obstacles between vehicles, a new enhanced tightly coupled CP technique is presented by adding ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB)-based inter-vehicular range measurements. In the proposed CP method, each vehicle fuses the GPS measurements and the inter-vehicular range measurements. Based on analytical and experimental results, in the full GPS coverage environment, the new tight integration CP method outperforms the INS-aided tight CP method, tight CP method, and DGPS by 11%, 15%, and 24%, respectively; in the GPS outage scenario, the performance improvement achieves 60%, 65%, and 73%, respectively. (paper)

  1. A Cellular Bonding and Adaptive Load Balancing Based Multi-Sim Gateway for Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Beritelli; Aurelio La Corte; Corrado Rametta; Francesco Scaglione

    2018-01-01

    As it is well known, the QoS(quality of service) provided by mobile Internet access point devices is far from the QoS level offered by the common ADSL modem-router due to several reasons: in fact, mobile Internet access networks are not designed to support real-time data traffic because of several drawbacks concerning the wireless medium such as resource sharing, traffic congestion, radio link coverage etc., which impact directly such parameters as delay, jitter, and packet loss rate that are...

  2. Modeling and analysis of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling in wireless ad hoc sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Won; Hwang, Ho Young

    2010-01-01

    In sensor network, energy conservation is one of the most critical issues since sensor nodes should perform a sensing task for a long time (e.g., lasting a few years) but the battery of them cannot be replaced in most practical situations. For this purpose, numerous energy conservation schemes have been proposed and duty cycling scheme is considered the most suitable power conservation technique, where sensor nodes alternate between states having different levels of power consumption. In order to analyze the energy consumption of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling, it is essential to obtain the probability of each state. In this paper, we analytically derive steady state probability of sensor node states, i.e., sleep, listen, and active states, based on traffic characteristics and timer values, i.e., sleep timer, listen timer, and active timer. The effect of traffic characteristics and timer values on the steady state probability and energy consumption is analyzed in detail. Our work can provide sensor network operators guideline for selecting appropriate timer values for efficient energy conservation. The analytical methodology developed in this paper can be extended to other energy conservation schemes based on duty cycling with different sensor node states, without much difficulty.

  3. Ad hoc vs. Non-ad hoc Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Strategies in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Toshiaki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Ando, Kenji; Ono, Koh; Shizuta, Satoshi; Kato, Takao; Saito, Naritatsu; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Horie, Minoru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-03-24

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence and clinical outcomes of ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), performing diagnostic coronary angiography and PCI in the same session, in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.Methods and Results:From the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG registry cohort-2, 6,943 patients were analyzed as having stable CAD and undergoing first PCI. Ad hoc PCI and non-ad hoc PCI were performed in 1,722 (24.8%) and 5,221 (75.1%) patients, respectively. The cumulative 5-year incidence and adjusted risk for all-cause death were not significantly different between the 2 groups (15% vs. 15%, P=0.53; hazard ratio: 1.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.98-1.35, P=0.08). Ad hoc PCI relative to non-ad hoc PCI was associated with neutral risk for myocardial infarction, any coronary revascularization, and bleeding, but was associated with a trend towards lower risk for stroke (hazard ratio: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.60-1.02, P=0.06). Ad hoc PCI in stable CAD patients was associated with at least comparable 5-year clinical outcomes as with non-ad hoc PCI. Considering patients' preference and the cost-saving, the ad hoc PCI strategy might be a safe and attractive option for patients with stable CAD, although the prevalence of ad hoc PCI was low in the current study population.

  4. Delay-sensitive content distribution via peer-to-peer collaboration in public safety vehicular ad-hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2014-05-01

    Delay-sensitive content distribution with peer-to-peer (P2P) cooperation in public safety vehicular networks is investigated. Two cooperative schemes are presented and analyzed. The first scheme is based on unicasting from the base station, whereas the second is based on threshold based multicasting. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is used for long range (LR) communications with the base station (BS) and IEEE 802.11p is considered for inter-vehicle collaboration on the short range (SR). The first scheme is shown to outperform non-cooperative unicasting and multicasting, while the second scheme outperforms non-cooperative unicasting beyond a specific number of cooperating vehicles, when the appropriate 802.11p power class is used. The first scheme achieves the best performance among the compared methods, and a practical approximation of that scheme is shown to be close to optimal performance. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ADAPTIVE CLUSTER BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL WITH ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK IN DISASTER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Budianto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In post-disaster rehabilitation efforts, the availability of telecommunication facilities takes important role. However, the process to improve telecommunication facilities in disaster area is risky if it is done by humans. Therefore, a network method that can work efficiently, effectively, and capable to reach the widest possible area is needed. This research introduces a cluster-based routing protocol named Adaptive Cluster Based Routing Protocol (ACBRP equipped by Ant Colony Optimization method, and its implementation in a simulator developed by author. After data analysis and statistical tests, it can be concluded that routing protocol ACBRP performs better than AODV and DSR routing protocol. Pada upaya rehabilitasi pascabencana, ketersediaan fasilitas telekomunikasi memiliki peranan yang sangat penting. Namun, proses untuk memperbaiki fasilitas telekomunikasi di daerah bencana memiliki resiko jika dilakukan oleh manusia. Oleh karena itu, metode jaringan yang dapat bekerja secara efisien, efektif, dan mampu mencapai area seluas mungkin diperlukan. Penelitian ini memperkenalkan sebuah protokol routing berbasis klaster bernama Adaptive Cluster Based Routing Protocol (ACBRP, yang dilengkapi dengan metode Ant Colony Optimization, dan diimplementasikan pada simulator yang dikembangkan penulis. Setelah data dianalisis dan dilakukan uji statistik, disimpulkan bahwa protokol routing ACBRP beroperasi lebih baik daripada protokol routing AODV maupun DSR.

  6. Philosophical perspectives on ad hoc hypotheses and the Higgs mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon; Harlander, Robert; Karaca, Koray

    2014-01-01

    We examine physicists' charge of ad hocness against the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particle physics. We argue that even though this charge never rested on a clear-cut and well-entrenched definition of "ad hoc", it is based on conceptual and methodological assumptions and

  7. AD HOC TEAMWORK BEHAVIORS FOR INFLUENCING A FLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Genter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc teamwork refers to the challenge of designing agents that can influence the behavior of a team, without prior coordination with its teammates. This paper considers influencing a flock of simple robotic agents to adopt a desired behavior within the context of ad hoc teamwork. Specifically, we examine how the ad hoc agents should behave in order to orient a flock towards a target heading as quickly as possible when given knowledge of, but no direct control over, the behavior of the flock. We introduce three algorithms which the ad hoc agents can use to influence the flock, and we examine the relative importance of coordinating the ad hoc agents versus planning farther ahead when given fixed computational resources. We present detailed experimental results for each of these algorithms, concluding that in this setting, inter-agent coordination and deeper lookahead planning are no more beneficial than short-term lookahead planning.

  8. An Ad-Hoc Opportunistic Dissemination Protocol for Smartphone-based Participatory Traffic Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Seraj, Fatjon; Scholten, Johan; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces an ad-hoc opportunistic data dissemination protocol, called VADISS, that facilitates participatory traffic monitoring applications with smartphones. As a ubiquitous alternative to existing vehicular networking methods, VADISS uses the default WiFi interfaces universally adopted

  9. Automatically assessing properties of dynamic cameras for camera selection and rapid deployment of video content analysis tasks in large-scale ad-hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Bouma, Henri; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; ter Haar, Frank B.; Burghouts, Gertjan J.

    2017-10-01

    Video analytics is essential for managing large quantities of raw data that are produced by video surveillance systems (VSS) for the prevention, repression and investigation of crime and terrorism. Analytics is highly sensitive to changes in the scene, and for changes in the optical chain so a VSS with analytics needs careful configuration and prompt maintenance to avoid false alarms. However, there is a trend from static VSS consisting of fixed CCTV cameras towards more dynamic VSS deployments over public/private multi-organization networks, consisting of a wider variety of visual sensors, including pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras, body-worn cameras and cameras on moving platforms. This trend will lead to more dynamic scenes and more frequent changes in the optical chain, creating structural problems for analytics. If these problems are not adequately addressed, analytics will not be able to continue to meet end users' developing needs. In this paper, we present a three-part solution for managing the performance of complex analytics deployments. The first part is a register containing meta data describing relevant properties of the optical chain, such as intrinsic and extrinsic calibration, and parameters of the scene such as lighting conditions or measures for scene complexity (e.g. number of people). A second part frequently assesses these parameters in the deployed VSS, stores changes in the register, and signals relevant changes in the setup to the VSS administrator. A third part uses the information in the register to dynamically configure analytics tasks based on VSS operator input. In order to support the feasibility of this solution, we give an overview of related state-of-the-art technologies for autocalibration (self-calibration), scene recognition and lighting estimation in relation to person detection. The presented solution allows for rapid and robust deployment of Video Content Analysis (VCA) tasks in large scale ad-hoc networks.

  10. Ad hoc statistical consulting within a large research organization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Elphinstone, CD

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the ad hoc statistical consulting service initiated within the CSIR that has proved successful; however, resourcing remains a major challenge. Even limited advertising of the service within the CSIR resulted in many requests...

  11. Simulación de redes móviles ad hoc mediante ns-3

    OpenAIRE

    Yuste Delgado, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción a la herramienta de simulación de redes network simulator 3 (ns-3). Este simulador es una de los programas más utilizados en la actualidad para la simulación de redes de diversos tipos, desde las redes ad hoc a redes móviles. El profesor Antonio Yuste especialista en protocolos de enrutamiento en redes móviles ad hoc utiliza este software en sus simulaciones. El objetivo de la charla es una dar una visión general del simulador y explicarnos cómo simular redes ad hoc móviles. U...

  12. Monitoring of slope-instabilities and deformations with Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in wireless ad-hoc Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernández-Steeger, T. M.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    In most mountainous regions, landslides represent a major threat to human life, properties and infrastructures. Nowadays existing landslide monitoring systems are often characterized by high efforts in terms of purchase, installation, maintenance, manpower and material. In addition (or because of this) only small areas or selective points of the endangered zone can be observed by the system. Therefore the improvement of existing and the development of new monitoring and warning systems are of high relevance. The joint project "Sensor based Landslide Early Warning Systems" (SLEWS) deals with the development of a prototypic Alarm- and Early Warning system (EWS) for different types of landslides using low-cost micro-sensors (MEMS) integrated in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Modern so called Ad-Hoc, Multi-Hop wireless sensor networks (WSN) are characterized by a self organizing and self-healing capacity of the system (autonomous systems). The network consists of numerous individual and own energy-supply operating sensor nodes, that can send data packages from their measuring devices (here: MEMS) over other nodes (Multi-Hop) to a collection point (gateway). The gateway provides the interface to central processing and data retrieval units (PC, Laptop or server) outside the network. In order to detect and monitor the different landslide processes (like fall, topple, spreading or sliding) 3D MEMS capacitive sensors made from single silicon crystals and glass were chosen to measure acceleration, tilting and altitude changes. Based on the so called MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology, the sensors combine very small mechanical and electronic units, sensing elements and transducers on a small microchip. The mass production of such type of sensors allows low cost applications in different areas (like automobile industries, medicine, and automation technology). Apart from the small and so space saving size and the low costs another advantage is the energy

  13. Multichannel MAC Layer In Mobile Ad—Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logesh, K.; Rao, Samba Siva

    2010-11-01

    This paper we presented the design objectives and technical challenges in Multichannel MAC protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. In IEEE 802.11 a/b/g standards allow use of multiple channels, only a single channel is popularly used, due to the lack of efficient protocols that enable use of Multiple Channels. Even though complex environments in ad hoc networks require a combined control of physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers resources in order to optimize performance. And also we discuss the characteristics of cross-layer frame and give a multichannel MAC approach.

  14. The accuracy of interpreting key psychiatric terms by ad hoc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from various professional groups in an ad hoc way. ... technical vocabulary. Problems with interpretation may arise as a result of these challenges. Difficulties in interpretation include the omission of information, bad paraphrasing, lack of translatable ... considerable challenges to accurate interpreting in this group, not.

  15. Ad Hoc Physical Hilbert Spaces in Quantum Mechanics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernandez, F. M.; Garcia, J.; Semorádová, Iveta; Znojil, Miloslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 12 (2015), s. 4187-4203 ISSN 0020-7748 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum mechanics * physical Hilbert spaces * ad hoc inner product * singular potentials regularized * low lying energies Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2015

  16. The accuracy of interpreting key psychiatric terms by ad hoc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study examined the competence and accuracy of ad hoc interpreters in interpreting key psychiatric terms at a South African psychiatric hospital. Method: Nine individuals were asked to translate key psychiatric terms from English to Xhosa. These translations were then back-translated by independent ...

  17. TMAP ad hoc Working Group Fish Progress report 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolle, L.J.; Damm, U.; Diederichs, B.; Jager, Z.; Overzee, van H.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Building on previous work done by the TMAP ad hoc Working Group Fish, a meeting and a workshop were held in Hamburg in June and October 2007. The most important aim of both was to come to an agreement on how to proceed with the data preparations and analyses, and to facilitate the exchange of data

  18. Access Point Security Service for wireless ad-hoc communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Nijdam, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a security solution for ad-hoc peer-to-peer communication. The security solution is based on a scenario where two wireless devices require secure communication, but share no security relationship a priori. The necessary requirements for the

  19. An Experimental QoE Performance Study for the Efficient Transmission of High Demanding Traffic over an Ad Hoc Network Using BATMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sanchez-Iborra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia communications are attracting great attention from the research, industry, and end-user communities. The latter are increasingly claiming for higher levels of quality and the possibility of consuming multimedia content from a plethora of devices at their disposal. Clearly, the most appealing gadgets are those that communicate wirelessly to access these services. However, current wireless technologies raise severe concerns to support extremely demanding services such as real-time multimedia transmissions. This paper evaluates from QoE and QoS perspectives the capability of the ad hoc routing protocol called BATMAN to support Voice over IP and video traffic. To this end, two test-benches were proposed, namely, a real (emulated testbed and a simulation framework. Additionally, a series of modifications was proposed on both protocols’ parameters settings and video-stream characteristics that contributes to further improving the multimedia quality perceived by the users. The performance of the well-extended protocol OLSR is also evaluated in detail to compare it with BATMAN. From the results, a notably high correlation between real experimentation and computer simulation outcomes was observed. It was also found out that, with the proper configuration, BATMAN is able to transmit several QCIF video-streams and VoIP calls with high quality. In addition, BATMAN outperforms OLSR supporting multimedia traffic in both experimental and simulated environments.

  20. Réseaux Ad Hoc : Performance, Dimensionnement, Gestion Automatisée et Intégration dans l'Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Herberg, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript provides several ad hoc routing protocol extensions and evaluations thereof, that allow increasing performance, scaling the network size, and integrating ad hoc networks into the Internet: First, this manuscript presents software tools, which allow to study unmodified routing protocols, implemented in Java, in the network simulator NS2. Second, the manuscript provides an architectural discussion of ad hoc networks, which explains the problems of automatic configuration of IP a...

  1. Un mecanismo de identificación de nodos basado en criptografía para la detección de la intrusión Wormhole en redes Ad-Hoc / A Cryptography-Based Mechanism For Identifying Nodes Applied To Detection Of Wormhole Intrusion In Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Téllez Castaño, Carlos Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Cuando hablamos de Redes Ad-Hoc, nos referimos a una tecnología que consiste en redes de telecomunicación inalámbrica de topología dinámica, donde un conjunto de nodos móviles de comunicación interactúan como enrutadores entre ellos transmitiéndose información sin depender de alguna infraestructura fija. Frente a esta descripción, nos encontramos con algunas características limitantes que hacen de las redes inalámbricas Ad-Hoc, muy vulnerables al acceso de intrusos y ataques que pueden dañ...

  2. Overview of the INEX 2008 Ad Hoc Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Jaap; Geva, Shlomo; Trotman, Andrew; Woodley, Alan; Koolen, Marijn

    This paper gives an overview of the INEX 2008 Ad Hoc Track. The main goals of the Ad Hoc Track were two-fold. The first goal was to investigate the value of the internal document structure (as provided by the XML mark-up) for retrieving relevant information. This is a continuation of INEX 2007 and, for this reason, the retrieval results are liberalized to arbitrary passages and measures were chosen to fairly compare systems retrieving elements, ranges of elements, and arbitrary passages. The second goal was to compare focused retrieval to article retrieval more directly than in earlier years. For this reason, standard document retrieval rankings have been derived from all runs, and evaluated with standard measures. In addition, a set of queries targeting Wikipedia have been derived from a proxy log, and the runs are also evaluated against the clicked Wikipedia pages. The INEX 2008 Ad Hoc Track featured three tasks: For the Focused Task a ranked-list of non-overlapping results (elements or passages) was needed. For the Relevant in Context Task non-overlapping results (elements or passages) were returned grouped by the article from which they came. For the Best in Context Task a single starting point (element start tag or passage start) for each article was needed. We discuss the results for the three tasks, and examine the relative effectiveness of element and passage retrieval. This is examined in the context of content only (CO, or Keyword) search as well as content and structure (CAS, or structured) search. Finally, we look at the ability of focused retrieval techniques to rank articles, using standard document retrieval techniques, both against the judged topics as well as against queries and clicks from a proxy log.

  3. Ad Hoc Selection of Voice over Internet Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, Mitchell G. (Inventor); Bullock, John T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a communication system technique involving ad hoc selection of at least two audio streams is provided. Each of the at least two audio streams is a packetized version of an audio source. A data connection exists between a server and a client where a transport protocol actively propagates the at least two audio streams from the server to the client. Furthermore, software instructions executable on the client indicate a presence of the at least two audio streams, allow selection of at least one of the at least two audio streams, and direct the selected at least one of the at least two audio streams for audio playback.

  4. An optimized node-disjoint multipath routing scheme in mobile ad hoc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Liang, Mangui; Liu, Zhiyu

    2016-02-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), link failures are caused frequently because of node’s mobility and use of unreliable wireless channels for data transmission. Multipath routing strategy can cope with the problem of the traffic overloads while balancing the network resource consumption. In the paper, an optimized node-disjoint multipath routing (ONMR) protocol based on ad hoc on-demand vector (AODV) is proposed to establish effective multipath to enhance the network reliability and robustness. The scheme combines the characteristics of reverse AODV (R-AODV) strategy and on-demand node-disjoint multipath routing protocol to determine available node-disjoint routes with minimum routing control overhead. Meanwhile, it adds the backup routing strategy to make the process of data salvation more efficient in case of link failure. The results obtained through various simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in terms of route availability, control overhead and packet delivery ratio.

  5. Improving VANETs Connectivity with a Totally Ad Hoc Living Mobile Backbone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilson Alves Junior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicular ad hoc network (VANET for intelligent transportation systems is an emerging concept to improve transportation security, reliability, and management. The network behavior can be totally different in topological aspects because of the mobility of vehicular nodes. The topology can be fully connected when the flow of vehicles is high and may have low connectivity or be invalid when the flow of vehicles is low or unbalanced. In big cities, the metropolitan buses that travel on exclusive lanes may be used to set up a metropolitan vehicular data network (backbone, raising the connectivity among the vehicles. Therefore, this paper proposes the implementation of a living mobile backbone, totally ad hoc (MOB-NET, which will provide infrastructure and raise the network connectivity. In order to show the viability of MOB-NET, statistical analyses were made with real data of express buses that travel through exclusive lanes, besides evaluations through simulations and analytic models. The statistic, analytic, and simulation results prove that the buses that travel through exclusive lanes can be used to build a communication network totally ad hoc and provide connectivity in more than 99% of the time, besides raising the delivery rate up to 95%.

  6. A multi-radio, multi-hop ad-hoc radio communication network for Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC): Introducing frequency separation for train-to-trackside communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Jahanzeb; Bro, Lars; Karstensen, Rasmus Thystrup

    2018-01-01

    to continuously associate (i.e. perform handshake) with the trackside Wi-Fi Access Points (AP) as it moves, which incurs communication delays. Additionally, these APs are connected to the wayside infrastructure via optical fiber cables that incur considerable installation costs. Our earlier work presented a novel...... design in which trackside nodes function in ad-hoc WiFi mode, which means no handshake has to be performed with them prior to transmitting. A node upon receiving packets from a train forwards these packets to the next node, forming a chain of nodes. Following this chain, packets reach the destination......Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) is a modern signalling system that uses radio communication to transfer train control information between train and wayside. The trackside networks in these systems are mostly based on conventionalinfrastructureWi-Fi(IEEE802.11).Itmeansatrain has...

  7. A multi-protocol framework for ad-hoc service discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Cortes, C.; Blair, Gordon S.; Grace, P.

    2006-01-01

    Discovering the appropriate services in ad-hoc computing environments where a great number of devices and software components collaborate discreetly and provide numerous services is an important challenge. Service discovery protocols make it possible for participating nodes in a network to locate and advertise services with minimum user intervention. However, because it is not possible to predict at design time which protocols will be used to advertise services in a given context/environment,...

  8. Making friends on the fly advances in ad hoc teamwork

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the encounter and interaction of agents such as robots with other agents and describes how they cooperate with their previously unknown teammates, forming an Ad Hoc team. It presents a new algorithm, PLASTIC, that allows agents to quickly adapt to new teammates by reusing knowledge learned from previous teammates.  PLASTIC is instantiated in both a model-based approach, PLASTIC-Model, and a policy-based approach, PLASTIC-Policy.  In addition to reusing knowledge learned from previous teammates, PLASTIC also allows users to provide expert-knowledge and can use transfer learning (such as the new TwoStageTransfer algorithm) to quickly create models of new teammates when it has some information about its new teammates. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on three domains, ranging from multi-armed bandits to simulated robot soccer games.

  9. Overview of the Meraka wireless grid test bed for evaluation of ad-hoc routing protocols

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available - and worst-case data rate in a network with shared channel access, as the number of hops increases. However, recent work done by the same authors [3] using a real test bed, employing laptops equipped with Standard (“802.11”) based radios..., OLSR and DYMO Index Terms—ad-hoc networks, IEEE 802.11 standard, wireless grid test bed I.INTRODUCTION One of the key challenges for researchers in the field of wireless networking protocol design, is the ability to carry out...

  10. A multi-radio, multi-hop ad-hoc radio communication network for Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) with optimized frequency separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Jahanzeb; Bro, Lars; Karstensen, Rasmus Thystrup

    2018-01-01

    Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) is a modern signalling system that uses radio communication to transfer train control information between train and wayside. The trackside networks in these systems are mostly based on conventionalinfrastructureWi-Fi(IEEE802.11).Itmeansatrain has to conti...

  11. On knowledge transfer management as a learning process for ad hoc teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, D.

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge management represents an emerging domain becoming more and more important. Concepts like knowledge codification and personalisation, knowledge life-cycle, social and technological dimensions, knowledge transfer and learning management are integral parts. Focus goes here in the process of knowledge transfer for the case of ad hoc teams. The social dimension of knowledge transfer plays an important role. No single individual actors involved in the process, but a collective one, representing the organisation. It is critically important for knowledge to be managed from the life-cycle point of view. A complex communication network needs to be in place to supports the process of knowledge transfer. Two particular concepts, the bridge tie and transactive memory, would eventually enhance the communication. The paper focuses on an informational communication platform supporting the collaborative work on knowledge transfer. The platform facilitates the creation of a topic language to be used in knowledge modelling, storage and reuse, by the ad hoc teams.

  12. Quality-of-service sensitivity to bio-inspired/evolutionary computational methods for intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc multimedia sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2012-06-01

    In the author's previous work, a cross-layer protocol approach to wireless sensor network (WSN) intrusion detection an identification is created with multiple bio-inspired/evolutionary computational methods applied to the functions of the protocol layers, a single method to each layer, to improve the intrusion-detection performance of the protocol over that of one method applied to only a single layer's functions. The WSN cross-layer protocol design embeds GAs, anti-phase synchronization, ACO, and a trust model based on quantized data reputation at the physical, MAC, network, and application layer, respectively. The construct neglects to assess the net effect of the combined bioinspired methods on the quality-of-service (QoS) performance for "normal" data streams, that is, streams without intrusions. Analytic expressions of throughput, delay, and jitter, coupled with simulation results for WSNs free of intrusion attacks, are the basis for sensitivity analyses of QoS metrics for normal traffic to the bio-inspired methods.

  13. Ad-Hoc Queries over Document Collections - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löser, Alexander; Lutter, Steffen; Düssel, Patrick; Markl, Volker

    We discuss the novel problem of supporting analytical business intelligence queries over web-based textual content, e.g., BI-style reports based on 100.000's of documents from an ad-hoc web search result. Neither conventional search engines nor conventional Business Intelligence and ETL tools address this problem, which lies at the intersection of their capabilities. "Google Squared" or our system GOOLAP.info, are examples of these kinds of systems. They execute information extraction methods over one or several document collections at query time and integrate extracted records into a common view or tabular structure. Frequent extraction and object resolution failures cause incomplete records which could not be joined into a record answering the query. Our focus is the identification of join-reordering heuristics maximizing the size of complete records answering a structured query. With respect to given costs for document extraction we propose two novel join-operations: The multi-way CJ-operator joins records from multiple relationships extracted from a single document. The two-way join-operator DJ ensures data density by removing incomplete records from results. In a preliminary case study we observe that our join-reordering heuristics positively impact result size, record density and lower execution costs.

  14. Directional Collision Avoidance in Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yu; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of directional collision avoidance schemes, in which antenna systems are used to direct the transmission and reception of control and data packets in channel access...

  15. T2AR: trust-aware ad-hoc routing protocol for MANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjayan, Gayathri; Subbiah, Janakiraman

    2016-01-01

    Secure data transfer against the malicious attacks is an important issue in an infrastructure-less independent network called mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). Trust assurance between MANET nodes is the key parameter in the high-security provision under dynamic topology variations and open wireless constraints. But, the malicious behavior of nodes reduces the trust level of the nodes that leads to an insecure data delivery. The increase in malicious attacks causes the excessive energy consumption that leads to a reduction of network lifetime. The lack of positional information update of the nodes in ad-hoc on-demand vector (AODV) protocol during the connection establishment offers less trust level between the nodes. Hence, the trust rate computation using energy and mobility models and its update are the essential tasks for secure data delivery. This paper proposes a trust-aware ad-hoc routing (T2AR) protocol to improve the trust level between the nodes in MANET. The proposed method modifies the traditional AODV routing protocol with the constraints of trust rate, energy, mobility based malicious behavior prediction. The packet sequence ID matching from the log reports of neighbor nodes determine the trust rate that avoids the malicious report generation. Besides, the direct and indirect trust observation schemes utilization increases the trust level. Besides, the received signal strength indicator utilization determines the trusted node is within the communication range or not. The comparative analysis between the proposed T2AR with the existing methods such as TRUNCMAN, RBT, GR, FBR and DICOTIDS regarding the average end-to-end delay, throughput, false positives, packet delivery ratio shows the effectiveness of T2AR in the secure MANET environment design.

  16. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  17. A Distributed Secure Outsourcing Scheme for Solving Linear Algebraic Equations in Ad Hoc Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wenlong; Yin, Bo; Cao, Xianghui; Cheng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The emerging ad hoc clouds form a new cloud computing paradigm by leveraging untapped local computation and storage resources. An important application application over ad hoc clouds is outsourcing computationally intensive problems to nearby cloud agents to solve in a distributed manner.

  18. Does Ad Hoc Coronary Intervention Reduce Radiation Exposure? – Analysis of 568 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truffa, Márcio A. M.; Alves, Gustavo M.P.; Bernardi, Fernando; Esteves Filho, Antonio; Ribeiro, Expedito; Galon, Micheli Z.; Spadaro, André; Kajita, Luiz J.; Arrieta, Raul; Lemos, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention have been described. However little is known about the radiation exposure of that procedure as compared with the staged intervention. To compare the radiation dose of the ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention with that of the staged procedure The dose-area product and total Kerma were measured, and the doses of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were added. In addition, total fluoroscopic time and number of acquisitions were evaluated. A total of 568 consecutive patients were treated with ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 320) or staged percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 248). On admission, the ad hoc group had less hypertension (74.1% vs 81.9%; p = 0.035), dyslipidemia (57.8% vs. 67.7%; p = 0.02) and three-vessel disease (38.8% vs. 50.4%; p = 0.015). The ad hoc group was exposed to significantly lower radiation doses, even after baseline characteristic adjustment between both groups. The ad hoc group was exposed to a total dose-area product of 119.7 ± 70.7 Gycm 2 , while the staged group, to 139.2 ± 75.3 Gycm 2 (p < 0.001). Ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention reduced radiation exposure as compared with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed at two separate times

  19. Does Ad Hoc Coronary Intervention Reduce Radiation Exposure? – Analysis of 568 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truffa, Márcio A. M., E-mail: marciotruffa@yahoo.com.br; Alves, Gustavo M.P.; Bernardi, Fernando; Esteves Filho, Antonio; Ribeiro, Expedito; Galon, Micheli Z.; Spadaro, André; Kajita, Luiz J.; Arrieta, Raul; Lemos, Pedro A. [Instituto do Coração - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Advantages and disadvantages of ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention have been described. However little is known about the radiation exposure of that procedure as compared with the staged intervention. To compare the radiation dose of the ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention with that of the staged procedure The dose-area product and total Kerma were measured, and the doses of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were added. In addition, total fluoroscopic time and number of acquisitions were evaluated. A total of 568 consecutive patients were treated with ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 320) or staged percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 248). On admission, the ad hoc group had less hypertension (74.1% vs 81.9%; p = 0.035), dyslipidemia (57.8% vs. 67.7%; p = 0.02) and three-vessel disease (38.8% vs. 50.4%; p = 0.015). The ad hoc group was exposed to significantly lower radiation doses, even after baseline characteristic adjustment between both groups. The ad hoc group was exposed to a total dose-area product of 119.7 ± 70.7 Gycm{sup 2}, while the staged group, to 139.2 ± 75.3 Gycm{sup 2} (p < 0.001). Ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention reduced radiation exposure as compared with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed at two separate times.

  20. A Security Solution for IEEE 802.11's Ad-hoc Mode: Password-Authentication and Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel, Bresson; Olivier, Chevassut; David, Pointcheval

    2005-01-01

    The IEEE 802 standards ease the deployment of networking infrastructures and enable employers to access corporate networks while traveling. These standards provide two modes of communication called infrastructure and ad-hoc modes. A security solution for the IEEE 802.11's infrastructure mode took several years to reach maturity and firmware are still been upgraded, yet a solution for the ad-hoc mode needs to be specified. The present paper is a first attempt in this direction. It leverag...

  1. Ad-hoc Content-based Queries and Data Analysis for Virtual Observatories, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aquilent, Inc. proposes to support ad-hoc, content-based query and data retrieval from virtual observatories (VxO) by developing 1) Higher Order Query Services that...

  2. Trust Evolution Policies for Security in Collaborative Ad Hoc Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Jensen, Christian D.; Connell, Paul O

    2006-01-01

    The vision of pervasive computing has introduced the notion of a vast, networked infrastructure of heterogeneous entities interact through collaborative applications, e.g., playing a multi-player online game on the way to work. This will require interactions between users who may be marginally...

  3. A Unified NET-MAC-PHY Cross-layer Framework for Performance Evaluation of Multi-hop Ad hoc WLANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid El-Azouzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing works have been evaluated the performance of 802.11 multihop networks by considering the MAC layer or network layer separately. Knowing the nature of the multi-hop ad hoc networks, many factors in different layers are crucial for study the performance of MANET. In this paper we present a new analytic model for evaluating average end-to-end throughput in IEEE 802.11e multihop wireless networks. In particular, we investigate an intricate interaction among PHY, MAC and Network layers. For instance, we incorporate carrier sense threshold, transmission power, contention window size, retransmissions retry limit, multi rates, routing protocols and network topology together. We build a general cross-layered framework to represent multi-hop ad hoc networks with asymmetric topology and asymmetric traffic. We develop an analytical model to predict throughput of each connection as well as stability of forwarding queues at intermediate nodes in saturated networks. To the best of our knowledge, it seems that our work is the first wherein general topology and asymmetric parameters setup are considered in PHY/MAC/Network layers. Performance of such a system is also evaluated through simulation. We show that performance measures of the MAC layer are affected by the traffic intensity of flows to be forwarded. More precisely, attempt rate and collision probability are dependent on traffic flows, topology and routing.

  4. Pseudo-Coherence-Based MVDR Beamformer for Speech Enhancement with Ad Hoc Microphone Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavakoli, Vincent Mohammad; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    . This paper proposes minimum variance distortionless response filtering based on multichannel pseudo-coherence for speech enhancement with ad hoc microphone arrays. This method requires neither position information nor control of the trade-off used in the distortion weighted methods. Furthermore, certain...... performance criteria are derived in terms of the pseudo-coherence vector, and the method is compared with the multichannel Wiener filter. Evaluation shows the suitability of the proposed method in terms of noise reduction with minimum distortion in ad hoc scenarios....

  5. Distributed Max-SINR Speech Enhancement with Ad Hoc Microphone Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavakoli, Vincent Mohammad; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Heusdens, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, signal processing with ad hoc microphone arrays has attracted a lot of attention. Speech enhancement in noisy, interfered, and reverberant environments is one of the problems targeted by ad hoc microphone arrays. Most of the proposed solutions require knowledge of fingerprints......-SINR) criterion is used with the primal-dual method of multipliers for distributed filtering. The paper investigates the convergence of the algorithm in both synchronous and asynchronous schemes, and also discusses some practical pros and cons. The applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by means...

  6. Ad hoc modeling in agronomy: What have we learned in the last 15 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affholder, F.; Tittonell, P.A.; Corbeels, M.; Roux, S.; Motisi, N.; Tixier, P.; Wery, J.

    2012-01-01

    The “Use and Abuse of Crop Simulation Models” special issue of Agronomy Journal published in 1996 ended with the myth of the universal crop model. Sinclair and Seligman consequently recommended tailoring models to specific problems. This paper reviews the fate of the idea of such ad hoc approaches

  7. Ad hoc public disclosure obligations of public companies on the capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanski Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author gives a comprehensive analysis of the obligations of public companies regarding the provision of periodical (ad hoc information to the public on the capital market. Ad hoc disclosure is to achieve a number of aims. It is one of the devices to secure the market's functional abilities. By means of regularly fulfilling this obligation, the market is provided with all the relevant information necessary to form adequate prices of market materials - i.e. securities and other financial instruments (the function of market protection. Investors are thus being able to aptly respond to modified circumstances and deliver investment decisions whether to buy or sell market materials the price of which are being changed (the function of investor protection. Due to the fact that the duty of ad hoc disclosure encompasses the obligation to reveal insider information directly affecting the emitter, ad hoc disclosure serves as a preventive measure, i.e. as a protection against illicit trade with insider information (the function of prevention against the abuse of insider information.

  8. Neuroprotection as initial therapy in acute stroke - Third report of an Ad Hoc Consensus Group Meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogousslavsky, J; De Keyser, J; Diener, HC; Fieschi, C; Hacke, W; Kaste, M; Orgogozo, JM; Pulsinelli, W; Wahlgren, NG

    1998-01-01

    Although a considerable body of scientific data is now available on neuroprotection in acute ischaemic stroke, this field is not yet established in clinical practice. At its third meeting, the European Ad Hoc Consensus Group considered the potential for neuroprotection in acute stroke and the

  9. Built-In Device Orientation Sensors for Ad-Hoc Pairing and Spatial Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Jens Emil; O'Hara, Kenton

    Mobile devices are equipped with multiple sensors. The ubiquity of these sensors is key in their ability to support in-the-wild application and use. Building on the ubiquity we look at how we can use this existing sensing infrastructure combined with user mediation to support ad-hoc sharing...

  10. Enhancing the Social Capital of Learning Communities by Using an Ad Hoc Transient Communities Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetter, Sibren

    2009-01-01

    Fetter, S. (2009). Enhancing the Social Capital of Learning Communities by Using an Ad Hoc Transient Communities Service. Presentation at the 8th International Conference Advances in Web based Learning - ICWL 2009. August, 19-21, 2009, Aachen, Germany: RWTH Aachen University.

  11. The Use of English as Ad Hoc Institutional Standard in the Belgian Asylum Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryns, Katrijn

    2017-01-01

    In institutional settings of globalization, labelled languages are generally preferred over multilingual repertoires and mobile language resources. Drawing on linguistic-ethnographic analysis of the way English is treated as an invariable "ad hoc" idiom in the Belgian asylum interview, this article demonstrates how institutional measures…

  12. INDEPENDENSI HAKIM AD-HOC PADA LINGKUNGAN PERADILAN HUBUNGAN INDUSTRIAL / THE JUDICIAL INDEPENDENCE OF AD-HOC JUDGES IN INDUSTRIAL RELATION COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ishar Helmi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Undang-Undang PPHI mengatur asas penyelesaian perselisihan hubungan industrial dilakukan secara musyawarah mufakat, dengan berprinsip jika terjadi perselisihan antara pekerja/buruh dan pengusaha maka tahap pertama penyelesaian perselisihan tersebut diserahkan pada pihak yang berselisih (bipartit. Ketentuan Pasal 63 ayat (2 dan Pasal 67 ayat (1 huruf f Undang-Undang tersebut mengakibatkan hakim ad-hoc Pengadilan Hubungan Industrial, dalam menjalankan tugas dan tanggung jawabnya memeriksa dan memutus suatu perkara harus mandiri dan lepas dari segala bentuk intervensi lembaga/instansi manapun menjadi terbatasi dan tidak optimal. Hakim ad-hoc Peradilan Hubungan Industrial merupakan hakim yang diusulkan oleh serikat pekerja/serikat buruh, organisasi pengusaha, juga diberhentikan secara hormat oleh serikat pekerja/serikat buruh, organisasi pengusaha tersebut. Hal ini tentunya akan menciderai sistem peradilan yang bebas, tidak memihak dan bersih yang diimpikan karena para hakim akan dikuasai oleh para pihak yang berperkara, karena keberadaan hakim diangkat dan diberhentikan oleh pihak yang akan disidangkan di peradilan hubungan industrial tersebut. PPHI (Industrial Relations Disputes Settlement Act regulates the principle of settlement of industrial relations disputes by consensus, if there is a dispute between employee/workers and employers, the first stage of dispute settlement shall be submitted to disputing party (bipartite settlement. The provisions of Article 63 paragraph (2 and Article 67 paragraph (1 sub-paragraph f of the Act shall result in the ad-hoc judges of the Industrial Relations Court, in carrying out their duties and responsibilities to examine and decide a case shall be independent and kept away from any intervention of any institution. The ad-hoc judges of the Industrial Relations Court is a judge proposed by a trade union, employers organization, also dismissed respectfully by the trade union and the employers organization. This

  13. The Ad Hoc process to strengthen the framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishna, K.; Deutz, A.M.; Jacobsen, L.A. [eds.

    1995-11-01

    The Woods Hole Research Center convened an International Conference on The Ad Hoc Process to Strengthen the Framework Convention on Climate Change in Woods Hole, MA, on October 7-9, 1995. The conference was conducted to examine the prospects for successful adoption of a protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change by 1997. In preparation for the Second session of the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate, several governmental and nongovernmental representatives met in Woods Hole to discuss the process and possible outcome of the Berlin Mandate negotiations for a protocol or other legal instrument to strengthen the Convention. The conference was by invitation and all participants attended in their personal capacities.

  14. Secure and Usable Out-Of-Band Channels for Ad Hoc Mobile Device Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kainda , Ronald; Flechais , Ivan; Roscoe , A. W.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Protocols for bootstrapping security in ad hoc mobile device interactions rely on users' ability to perform specific tasks such as transferring or comparing fingerprints of information between devices. The size of fingerprints depends on the level of technical security required by a given application but, at the same time, is limited by users' inability to deal with large amounts of data with high levels of accuracy. Large fingerprints provide high technical security b...

  15. Ad Hoc Microphone Array Beamforming Using the Primal-Dual Method of Multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavakoli, Vincent Mohammad; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Heusdens, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, there have been increasing amount of researches aiming at optimal beamforming with ad hoc microphone arrays, mostly with fusion-based schemes. However, huge amount of computational complexity and communication overhead impede many of these algorithms from being useful in prac...... the distributed linearly-constrained minimum variance beamformer using the the state of the art primal-dual method of multipliers. We study the proposed algorithm with an experiment....

  16. Improving the Usability of OCL as an Ad-hoc Model Querying Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The OCL is often perceived as dicult to learn and use. In previous research, we have dened experimental query languages exhibiting higher levels of usability than OCL. However, none of these alternatives can rival OCL in terms of adoption and support. In an attempt to leverage the lessons learned...... from our research and make it accessible to the OCL community, we propose the OCL Query API (OQAPI), a library of query-predicates to improve the user-friendliness of OCL for ad-hoc querying. The usability of OQAPI is studied using controlled experiments. We nd considerable evidence to support our...

  17. A Partitioned Approach to Signal Separation with Microphone Ad Hoc Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavakoli, Vincent Mohammad; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a blind algorithm is proposed for speech enhancement in multi-speaker scenarios, in which interference rejection is the main objective. Here, the ad hoc array is broken into microphone duples which are used to partition the array into local sub-arrays. The core algorithm takes...... advantage of differences in signal structure in each duple. A geometric mean filter is then used to merge the output signals obtained with different duples, and to form a global broadband maximum signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) enhancement apparatus. The resulting filter outputs are enhanced acoustic...

  18. Panel Discussion : Report of the APS Ad-Hoc Committee on LGBT Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Tim; Barthelemy, Ramon; Garmon, Savannah; Reeves, Kyle; APS Ad-Hoc Committee on LGBT Issues Team

    Following the presentation of the findings and recommendations of the APS Ad-Hoc Committee on LGBT Issues (C-LGBT) by Committee Chair Michael Falk, a panel discussion will be held featuring several members of the committee. The discussion will focus on how APS can best ensure the recommendations of the committee are carried out in a timely fashion and other ideas on future APS efforts toward LGBT inclusion in physics. Discussion topics will also include the research and other input that shaped the committee's findings and recommendations.

  19. Assessment of interbreeding and introgression of farm genes into a small Scottish Atlantic salmon Salmo salar stock: ad hoc samples - ad hoc results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspoor, E; Knox, D; Marshall, S

    2016-12-01

    An eclectic set of tissues and existing data, including purposely collected samples, spanning 1997-2006, was used in an ad hoc assessment of hybridization and introgression of farmed wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the small Loch na Thull (LnT) catchment in north-west Scotland. The catchment is in an area of marine farm production and contains freshwater smolt rearing cages. The LnT S. salar stock was found to be genetically distinctive from stocks in neighbouring rivers and, despite regular reports of feral farm S. salar, there was no evidence of physical or genetic mixing. This cannot be completely ruled out, however, and low level mixing with other local wild stocks has been suggested. The LnT population appeared underpinned by relatively smaller effective number of breeders (N eb ) and showed relatively low levels of genetic diversity, consistent with a small effective population size. Small sample sizes, an incomplete farm baseline and the use of non-diagnostic molecular markers, constrain the power of the analysis but the findings strongly support the LnT catchment having a genetically distinct wild S. salar population little affected by interbreeding with feral farm escapes. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. The impact of brief team communication, leadership and team behavior training on ad hoc team performance in trauma care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nicole K; Williams, Reed G; Schwind, Cathy J; Sutyak, John A; McDowell, Christopher; Griffen, David; Wall, Jarrod; Sanfey, Hilary; Chestnut, Audra; Meier, Andreas H; Wohltmann, Christopher; Clark, Ted R; Wetter, Nathan

    2014-02-01

    Communication breakdowns and care coordination problems often cause preventable adverse patient care events, which can be especially acute in the trauma setting, in which ad hoc teams have little time for advanced planning. Existing teamwork curricula do not address the particular issues associated with ad hoc emergency teams providing trauma care. Ad hoc trauma teams completed a preinstruction simulated trauma encounter and were provided with instruction on appropriate team behaviors and team communication. Teams completed a postinstruction simulated trauma encounter immediately afterward and 3 weeks later, then completed a questionnaire. Blinded raters rated videotapes of the simulations. Participants expressed high levels of satisfaction and intent to change practice after the intervention. Participants changed teamwork and communication behavior on the posttest, and changes were sustained after a 3-week interval, though there was some loss of retention. Brief training exercises can change teamwork and communication behaviors on ad hoc trauma teams. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research. Result evaluation in fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 14 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research in accordance with the Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the R and D accomplishments achieved for five years from Fiscal Year 1995 to Fiscal Year 1999 at Department of Reactor Safety Research, Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, Department of Environmental Safety Research and Department of Safety Research Technical Support in Tokai Research Establishment at JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of 11 specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from December 2000 to February 2001. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on December 11, 2000, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on March 16, 2001. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research. (author)

  2. A multi-radio, multi-hop ad-hoc radio communication network for Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC): Introducing frequency separation for train-to-trackside communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Jahanzeb; Bro, Lars; Karstensen, Rasmus Thystrup

    2018-01-01

    Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) is a modern signalling system that uses radio communication to transfer train control information between train and wayside. The trackside networks in these systems are mostly based on conventionalinfrastructureWi-Fi(IEEE802.11).Itmeansatrain has to conti...

  3. A Stable TORA Based for Routing in Mobile Ad Ηoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jahanbakhsh Gudakahriz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is defined as a set of mobile nodes which communicate through wireless links with no central infrastructure. In these networks nodes are always moving and could enter to or exit from the network at any time. Therefore, network topology is completely dynamic. Another characteristic of these networks is the low node energy level, resulting from inherent node limitations. Stable routing is one method to face routing challenges in mobile ad hoc networks. The objective of this study is to stabilize TORA protocol which is a distributed routing protocol, with high adaptation, efficiency, and suitability for large and dense mobile ad hoc networks and thus to provide a new high efficiency protocol. The proposed protocol introduced as Stable-TORA has been compared with base protocol TORA in different scenarios via NS-2 simulator environment and its efficiency is evaluated.

  4. The Claim Tool Kit for ad hoc recognition of peer entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seigneur, Jean-Marc; Jensen, Christian D.

    2005-01-01

    In ubiquitous/pervasive computing environments, it is envisaged that computing elements—entities—will start interacting in an ad hoc fashion. The peer-to-peer (p2p) paradigm is appealing for such types of interaction especially with JXTA, which supports the development of reusable p2p building...... blocks, which facilitate implementation on any smart device. However, the inability to rely on a centralised authentication infrastructure, the openness of the environment and the absence of an administrator (it is assumed to be too expensive to have a skilled administrator at hand due to the large...... advanced features available with Java, such as JXTA and Java Cryptography and Security Architectures. We show that the CTK needs performance results on these features in order to increase the level of auto-configuration of the CTK. We describe how to obtain performance assessment for some of these new...

  5. The Survival Processing Effect with Intentional Learning of Ad Hoc Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Savchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that memory is adapted to remember information when it is processed in a survival context. This study investigates how procedural changes in Marinho (2012 study might have led to her failure to replicate the survival mnemonic advantage. In two between-subjects design experiments, participants were instructed to learn words from ad hoc categories and to rate their relevance to a survival or a control scenario. No survival advantage was obtained in either experiment. The Adjusted Ratio of Clustering (ARC scores revealed that including the category labels made the participants rely more on the category structure of the list. Various procedural aspects of the conducted experiments are discussed as possible reasons underlying the absence of the survival effect.

  6. Cutting Corners: Provider Perceptions of Interpretation Services and Factors Related to Use of an Ad Hoc Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Rachel; Parker, Veronica G; Sherrill, Windsor W; Coltman, Kinneil; Hudson, Matthew F; Nichols, Christina M; Yates, Adam M; Pribonic, Anne Paige

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed health providers' perceptions of factors related to professional interpretation services and the association between these factors and the potential use of ad hoc interpreters. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 150 health services providers at a large, regional health system in South Carolina. Providers rated "ability to communicate effectively during a clinical encounter" as paramount regarding the use of interpretation services. The most important factors related to the likely use of ad hoc interpreters (cutting corners) included locating a qualified interpreter, having to wait for a qualified interpreter, and technical difficulties regarding phone and video technology. Health care organizations may benefit from increasing staff awareness about patient safety and legal and regulatory risks involved with the use of ad hoc interpreters. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Inter–Vehicular Communications Using Wireless Ad–Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aquino–Santos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new routing algorithm to facilitate communication in highly mobile wireless ad–hoc networks for motorway environments with no physical infrastructure which undergo frequent topological changes. This new reactive routing algorithm for inter–vehicular communication is based on location information in which the source node ascertains the position of its communication partner before it initiates communication. The advantage of this algorithm is that it does not require global knowledge to send information between transmitter–receiver pairs. Instead, this algorithm requires knowledge of the relative positions of its neighbor nodes and the position of the destination. This paper discusses simulations of 250 vehicles driving on a six–lane circular highway using Location Routing Algorithm with Cluster–Based Flooding (LORA–CBF. Highway vehicular mobility is simulated by a microscopic traffic model, developed in OPNET, to evaluate the performance of the LORA–CBF and Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR algorithms in terms of Route Discovery Time (RDT, End–to–End Delay (EED, Routing Overhead (RO, Routing Load (RL and Delivery Ratio (DR.

  8. Devices and Control Strategies for AD HOC Optical Communications Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baillieul, John; Bifano, Thomas G

    2006-01-01

    ... (both hardware and operational concepts) that we plan to develop in initiating an ambitious program of research to develop a radical new technology for high-bandwidth, stealthy communication over free-space optical links...

  9. Device Discovery in Frequency Hopping Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Thesis, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Available: http://www.inst-informatica.pt/v20/cid/ biblioteca digital /telecomunicacoes...Single-Channel Ground And Airborne Radio System,” Available: http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/docs/sincgars.pdf, 1996. Skl01. B. Sklar, Digital

  10. Space-Time Processing for Tactical Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    But when 1m , the common method to solve (1) is the general-purpose convex problem solver known as CVX in Matlab. In [4], we established the...the dual problem can be solved with much less time than the primal problem. The resulting algorithm is much faster than CVX . c) Power Scheduling

  11. Connectivity analysis of one-dimensional ad-hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgsted, Martin; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    and moments of these random variables for general stationary MAP processes on a one dimensional space. The numerical results compare bursty vehicular traffic with independent movement scenarios described by a Poisson process, illustrate in examples the impact of a random communication range, and demonstrate...

  12. FHWA White Paper on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Advanced next generation communications technologies offer the potential to greatly improve safety, system efficiency, and mobility across our Nations roadways. These new technologies and processes can address both traditionally difficult as well ...

  13. Sensor Sharing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Pramita

    2013-01-01

    Today's modern mobile devices (such as smartphones and tablets) present great potential for growth of many novel, powerful, but also highly demanding applications. However, most mobile devices/users operate in isolation from one another, i.e., they are not aware of the presence of other devices in their proximity. There are numerous situations…

  14. Distributed Tracking in Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chong, Chee-Yee; Zhao, Feng; Mori, Shozo; Kumar, Sri

    2003-01-01

    .... when data association is not an issue, the standard pre- predict/update structure in single target tracking can be used to assign individual tracks to the sensor nodes based on their locations...

  15. A Survey on Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    than the employee trusts the supervisor. Fifth, trust is context-dependent [33]. For example, A may trust B as a wine expert but not as a car fixer... deposited at nodes by mobile agents called ”ants” and provide the mechanism for information exchange and interactions. These ”ants” can identify the

  16. Attaining Realistic Simulations of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    NS-2 to mimic the hardware utilized in the physical test bed, Proxim Orinoco 802.11 a/b/g cards. These settings are always applied equally to every...card in each node. The card selected was a Proxim 8480-WD Orinoco 802.11a/b/g ComboCard. The benefit to using these cards was that their drivers have

  17. Probabilistic Models and Process Calculi for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei

    the protocols for MANETs are usually more complicated and error-prone. In this thesis we discuss different models and their underlying theories which will facilitate the verification of protocols for MANETs. Process calculi have been used successfully as a formal method to verify and analyze functional...... equivalences and their logical characterizations have been proposed to combat the infamous states space explosion problem of PAs, but unfortunately it is well known that the behavioral equivalences are strictly stronger than the logical equivalences induced by PCTL or PCTL*. We address this problem...

  18. Node-Centric Hybrid Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Soumya; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    2002-01-01

    .... Simulation results using ns2 show that maintaining table-driven routing for netmarks and on-demand routing for common nodes performs much better than purely ondemand routing protocols based on distance vectors, path information, or link-state information.

  19. Space-Time Processing for Tactical Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    quantizers whose codebooks are designed with MMSE criterion but the distortion measure is the ergodic capacity loss (i.e. mismatched design criterion...through a known preamble sequence [MZ12][MZ2]. While channel estimation through training sequence correlation or MMSE is a fairly well known approach...routing decision is made after transmission of data. While [1] suggests time- invariant critera such as hop-count, transmission rate, and transmission

  20. Secure Ad Hoc Networking on an Android Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    System – The system partition that contains the application frame- work, application runtime, and shared libraries is mounted as read-only by default...Haselsteiner, E. & Breitfuß, K. (2006) Security in near field communication (nfc), in Workshop on RFID Security RFIDSec. Khan, S., Banuri, S. H. K...security on mobile phones, in Workshop on RFID Security–RFIDSec09. UNCLASSIFIED 21 DSTO–TN–1390 UNCLASSIFIED Appendix A Certificate Authority Key