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Sample records for acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000528.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition ...

  2. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs GARD Information Navigator FAQs About Rare Diseases Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Title Other Names: G6PD ... G6PD deficiency Categories: Newborn Screening Summary Summary Listen Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a hereditary ...

  3. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Nigerian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Olatundun Williams; Daniel Gbadero; Grace Edowhorhu; Ann Brearley; Tina Slusher; Lund, Troy C.

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (...

  4. Optic neuropathy in a patient with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Juan E. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Gonzalez, Guido E. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Departmento de Imagenes, Santiago (Chile); Nagao, Karina E.; Walton, David S. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Boston, MA (United States); Caruso, Paul A. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is a genetic disorder of mitochondrial metabolism. The clinical manifestations range from severe neonatal lactic acidosis to chronic neurodegeneration. Optic neuropathy is an uncommon clinical sequela and the imaging findings of optic neuropathy in these patients have not previously been described. We present a patient with PDH deficiency with bilateral decreased vision in whom MRI demonstrated bilateral optic neuropathy and chiasmopathy. (orig.)

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. WHO Working Group.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest enzyme disorder of human beings and a globally important cause of neonatal jaundice, which can lead to kernicterus and death or spastic cerebral palsy. It can also lead to life-threatening haemolytic crises in childhood and at later ages, by interacting with specific drugs and with fava beans in the diet. The complications of G6PD deficiency can largely be prevented by education and information, and neonatal jaundice can be ...

  6. Phenylbutyrate Therapy for Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency and Lactic Acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriero, Rosa; Manco, Giuseppe; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nusco, Edoardo; Ferrante, Mariella I.; Sordino, Paolo; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Lee, Brendan; Zeviani, Massimo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is a build-up of lactic acid in the blood and tissues, which can be due to several inborn errors of metabolism as well as nongenetic conditions. Deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is the most common genetic disorder leading to lactic acidosis. Phosphorylation of specific serine residues of the E1α subunit of PDHC by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inactivates the enzyme, whereas dephosphorylation restores PDHC activity. We found that phenylbutyrate enhances PDHC enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo by increasing the proportion of unphosphorylated enzyme through inhibition of PDK. Phenylbutyrate given to C57B6/L wild-type mice results in a significant increase in PDHC enzyme activity and a reduction of phosphorylated E1α in brain, muscle, and liver compared to saline-treated mice. By means of recombinant enzymes, we showed that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α through binding and inhibition of PDK, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate on PDHC activity. Phenylbutyrate increases PDHC activity in fibroblasts from PDHC-deficient patients harboring various molecular defects and corrects the morphological, locomotor, and biochemical abnormalities in the noam631 zebrafish model of PDHC deficiency. In mice, phenylbutyrate prevents systemic lactic acidosis induced by partial hepatectomy. Because phenylbutyrate is already approved for human use in other diseases, the findings of this study have the potential to be rapidly translated for treatment of patients with PDHC deficiency and other forms of primary and secondary lactic acidosis. PMID:23467562

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Nigerian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatundun Williams

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4 ± 3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5% followed by those Igbo descent (10.6% and those of Igede (10.2% and Tiv (1.8% ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females. Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9% than Igede (10.5%, Igbo (10.1% and Tiv (5.0% children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p=0.0500. The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p=0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively. Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p=0.0351. In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection.

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olatundun; Gbadero, Daniel; Edowhorhu, Grace; Brearley, Ann; Slusher, Tina; Lund, Troy C

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females) aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4 ± 3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5%) followed by those Igbo descent (10.6%) and those of Igede (10.2%) and Tiv (1.8%) ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females). Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9%) than Igede (10.5%), Igbo (10.1%) and Tiv (5.0%) children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p=0.0500). The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p=0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively). Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p=0.0351). In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection. PMID:23874768

  9. Phenotypic and Neuropathological Characterization of Fetal Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirot, Nathalie; Crahes, Marie; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Soares, Anais; Bucourt, Martine; Boutron, Audrey; Carbillon, Lionel; Mignot, Cyril; Trestard, Laetitia; Bekri, Soumeya; Laquerrière, Annie

    2016-03-01

    To distinguish pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (PDH) from other antenatal neurometabolic disorders thereby improving prenatal diagnosis, we describe imaging findings, clinical phenotype, and brain lesions in fetuses from 3 families with molecular characterization of this condition. Neuropathological analysis was performed in 4 autopsy cases from 3 unrelated families with subsequent biochemical and molecular confirmation of PDH complex deficiency. In 2 families there were mutations in the PDHA1 gene; in the third family there was a mutation in the PDHB gene. All fetuses displayed characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism of varying severity, absence of visceral lesions, and associated encephaloclastic and developmental supra- and infratentorial lesions. Neurodevelopmental abnormalities included microcephaly, migration abnormalities (pachygyria, polymicrogyria, periventricular nodular heterotopias), and cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia with hypoplastic dentate nuclei and pyramidal tracts. Associated clastic lesions included asymmetric leukomalacia, reactive gliosis, large pseudocysts of germinolysis, and basal ganglia calcifications. The diagnosis of PDH deficiency should be suspected antenatally with the presence of clastic and neurodevelopmental lesions and a relatively characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism. Postmortem examination is essential for excluding other closely related entities, thereby allowing for biochemical and molecular confirmation. PMID:26865159

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: the added value of cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelens, Marie; Dossier, Claire; Fenneteau, Odile; Couque, Nathalie; Da Costa, Lydie

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of a 2 year-old boy hospitalized into the emergency room for influenza pneumonia infection. The evolution was marked by a respiratory distress syndrome, a severe hemolytic anemia, associated with thrombocytopenia and kidney failure. First, a diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been judiciously suggested due to the classical triad: kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. But, strikingly, blood smears do not exhibit schizocytes, but instead ghosts and hemighosts, some characteristic features of a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Our hypothesis has been confirmed by enzymatic dosage and molecular biology. The unusual initial aplastic feature of this anemia could be the result of a transient erythroblastopenia due to the viral agent, at the origin of the G6PD crisis on a background of a major erythrocyte anti-oxydant enzyme defect. This case of G6PD defect points out the continuously importance of the cytology, which was able to redirect the diagnosis by the hemighost and ghost detection. PMID:27101632

  11. Newborn screening for dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency: Citrulline as a useful analyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane C. Quinonez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency, also known as maple syrup urine disease (MSUD type III, is caused by the deficiency of the E3 subunit of branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (αKGDH, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH. DLD deficiency variably presents with either a severe neonatal encephalopathic phenotype or a primarily hepatic phenotype. As a variant form of MSUD, it is considered a core condition recommended for newborn screening. The detection of variant MSUD forms has proven difficult in the past with no asymptomatic DLD deficiency patients identified by current newborn screening strategies. Citrulline has recently been identified as an elevated dried blood spot (DBS metabolite in symptomatic patients affected with DLD deficiency. Here we report the retrospective DBS analysis and second-tier allo-isoleucine testing of 2 DLD deficiency patients. We show that an elevated citrulline and an elevated allo-isoleucine on second-tier testing can be used to successfully detect DLD deficiency. We additionally recommend that DLD deficiency be included in the “citrullinemia/elevated citrulline” ACMG Act Sheet and Algorithm.

  12. 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with autism and mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanavin, Oivind J; Woldseth, Berit; Jellum, Egil;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. METHODS: We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism and a history...... cases with SBCADD, both originating from Somalia and Eritrea, indicating that it is relatively prevalent in this population. Autism has not previously been described with mutations in this gene, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of SBCADD....

  13. 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with autism and mental retardation: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanavin, Øjvind; Woldseth, Berit; Jellum, Egil;

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. METHODS: We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism...... changing the +3 position of intron 3 (c.303+3A > G) in the SBCAD gene. Psychometric testing showed moderate mental retardation and behavioral scores within the autistic spectrum. No beneficial effect was detected after 5 months with a low protein diet. CONCLUSION: This mutation was also found in two...

  14. INCIDENCE OF ERYTHROCYTE GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE- DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY

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    Sh. Rahbar

    1974-06-01

    The fluorescent spot technique was used for screening and qualitative determination of G-6-PD in erythrocytes. This technique was compared with other methods of G-6-PD enzyme assay and proved to be very reliable. Qualitative enzyme estimation was carried out with spectrophotometer methods. A total of 738 specimens tested and some degree of enzyme deficiencies were detected. In 20 specimens there was a complete enzyme deficiency and in 5 cases the enzyme activity was between 15 to 50 percent of normal subject. The data suggests, the blood bank should be warned of transfusion of enzyme deficient bloods to the patients with fauvism.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helps break down a particular amino acid called valine. Most people with IBD deficiency are asymptomatic, which ... IBD enzyme, which is involved in breaking down valine. ACAD8 gene mutations reduce or eliminate the activity ...

  16. Prevalence of Long-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, K; Ounap, K; Zordania, R;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) in the general Estonian population and among patients with symptoms suggestive of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects. We collected DNA from a cohort of 1,040 anonymous newborn blo...... prevalence of LCHADD in Estonia would be 1: 91,700....

  17. Identification of isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase and its deficiency in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tien V; Andresen, Brage S; Corydon, Thomas J;

    2002-01-01

    The acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACDs) are a family of related enzymes that catalyze the alpha,beta-dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA esters. Two homologues active in branched chain amino acid metabolism have previously been identified. We have used expression in Escherichia coli to produce a previously...... targeted to mitochondria, but inactive when expressed in mammalian cells. These data confirm further the presence of a separated ACD in humans specific to valine catabolism (isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, IBDH), along with the first enzymatic and molecular confirmation of a deficiency of this enzyme...

  18. Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Gene-Targeted Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation in humans. To better understand the pathogenesis of this disease, we developed a mouse model for MCAD deficiency (MCAD by gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES cells. The MCAD mice developed an organic aciduria and fatty liver, and showed profound cold intolerance at 4 degrees C with prior fasting. The sporadic cardiac lesions seen in MCAD mice have not been reported in human MCAD patients. There was significant neonatal mortality of MCAD pups demonstrating similarities to patterns of clinical episodes and mortality in MCAD-deficient patients. The MCAD-deficient mouse reproduced important aspects of human MCAD deficiency and is a valuable model for further analysis of the roles of fatty acid oxidation and pathogenesis of human diseases involving fatty acid oxidation.

  19. Prolonged QTc interval in association with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Jason R; Leslie, Nancy; Knilans, Timothy K; Akinbi, Henry

    2014-06-01

    Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most common disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We report a term male infant who presented at 3 days of age with hypoglycemia, compensated metabolic acidosis, hypocalcemia, and prolonged QTc interval. Pregnancy was complicated by maternal premature atrial contractions and premature ventricular contractions. Prolongation of the QTc interval resolved after correction of metabolic derangements. The newborn screen was suggestive for MCAD deficiency, a diagnosis that was confirmed on genetic analysis that showed homozygosity for the disease-associated missense A985G mutation in the ACADM gene. This is the first report of acquired prolonged QTc in a neonate with MCAD deficiency, and it suggests that MCAD deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnoses of acute neonatal illnesses associated with electrocardiographic abnormality. We review the clinical presentation and diagnosis of MCAD deficiency in neonates. PMID:24799540

  20. Dysfunctional TCA-Cycle Metabolism in Glutamate Dehydrogenase Deficient Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Jakob D; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H;

    2015-01-01

    synthesis of aspartate via pyruvate carboxylation. In the absence of glucose, lactate production from glutamate via malic enzyme was lower in GDH deficient astrocytes. In conclusions, our studies reveal that metabolism via GDH serves an important anaplerotic role by adding net carbon to the TCA cycle. A...... reduction in GDH activity seems to cause the astrocytes to up-regulate activity in pathways involved in maintaining the amount of TCA cycle intermediates such as pyruvate carboxylation as well as utilization of alternate substrates such as branched chain amino acids....

  1. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency among Male Blood Donors in Sana’a City, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nood, Hafiz A.; Bazara, Fakiha A.; Al-Absi, Rashad; Habori, Molham AL

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency among Yemeni people from different regions of the country living in the capital city, Sana’a, giving an indication of its overall prevalence in Yemen. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among Yemeni male blood donors attending the Department of Blood Bank at the National Centre of the Public Health Laboratories in the capital city, Sana’a, Yemen. Fluorescent spot method was used for screening, spectrophotometeric estimation of G-6-PD activity and separation by electrophoresis was done to determine the G-6-PD phenotype. Results Of the total 508 male blood donors recruited into the study, 36 were G-6-PD deficient, giving a likely G-6-PD deficiency prevalence of 7.1%. None of these deficient donors had history of anemia or jaundice. Thirty-five of these deficient cases (97.2%) showed severe G-6-PD deficiency class II (<10% of normal activity), and their phenotyping presumptively revealed a G-6-PD-Mediterranean variant. Conclusion The results showed a significant presence of G-6-PD deficiency with predominance of a severe G-6-PD deficiency type in these blood donors in Sana’a City, which could represent an important health problem through occurrence of hemolytic anemia under oxidative stress. A larger sample size is needed to determine the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency, and should be extended to include DNA analysis to identify its variants in Yemen. PMID:22359725

  2. Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency with adult onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smelt, A H; Poorthuis, B J; Onkenhout, W;

    1998-01-01

    Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9), tetrade...... be due to residual enzyme activity as a consequence of the two missense mutations. Treatment with L-carnitine and medium chain triglycerides in the diet did not reduce the attacks of rhabdomyolysis.......Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9...

  3. A severe genotype with favourable outcome in very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touma, E H; Rashed, M S; Vianey-Saban, C;

    2001-01-01

    A patient with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is reported. He had a severe neonatal presentation and cardiomyopathy. He was found to be homozygous for a severe mutation with no residual enzyme activity. Tandem mass spectrometry on dried blood spots revealed increased lo...... chain acylcarnitines. VLCAD enzyme activity was severely decreased to 2% of control levels. Dietary management consisted of skimmed milk supplemented with medium chain triglycerides and L-carnitine. Outcome was good and there was no acute recurrence.......A patient with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is reported. He had a severe neonatal presentation and cardiomyopathy. He was found to be homozygous for a severe mutation with no residual enzyme activity. Tandem mass spectrometry on dried blood spots revealed increased long...

  4. Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in relation to altitude: a malaria hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tzoneva, M.; Bulanov, A. G.; Mavrudieva, M.; Lalchev, S.; Toncheva, D; Tanev, D.

    1980-01-01

    Genetic markers have recently been found to be much more polymorphic than expected. Such extensive human polymorphisms may be partly explained by a number of genetic and environmental factors, including infectious diseases. Malaria, which was very widespread in the past and still poses a problem in many countries today, is a good candidate for research. The association between malaria and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is well-known, but more should be done to determine t...

  5. Prolonged QTc Interval in Association With Medium-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Wiles, Jason R.; Leslie, Nancy; Knilans, Timothy K.; Akinbi, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most common disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We report a term male infant who presented at 3 days of age with hypoglycemia, compensated metabolic acidosis, hypocalcemia, and prolonged QTc interval. Pregnancy was complicated by maternal premature atrial contractions and premature ventricular contractions. Prolongation of the QTc interval resolved after correction of metabolic derangements. The newborn screen was...

  6. Evidence of redox imbalance in a patient with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaisa Niemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH deficiency is not completely understood. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial pathology, and low reduced glutathione levels have been demonstrated in mice, but no studies have been reported in humans. We report on a patient with SSADH deficiency in whom we found low levels of blood reduced glutathione (GSH, and elevations of dicarboxylic acids in urine, suggestive of possible redox imbalance and/or mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, targeting the oxidative stress axis may be a potential therapeutic approach if our findings are confirmed in other patients.

  7. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Adrenal Hemorrhage in a Filipino Neonate with Hyperbilirubinemia

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    Akira Ohishi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on a Filipino neonate with early onset and prolonged hyperbilirubinemia who was delivered by a vacuum extraction due to a prolonged labor. Subsequent studies revealed adrenal hemorrhage and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. It is likely that asphyxia and resultant hypoxia underlie the occurrence of adrenal hemorrhage and the clinical manifestation of G6PD deficiency and that the presence of the two events explains the early onset and prolonged hyperbilirubinemia of this neonate. Our results represent the importance of examining possible underlying factors for the development of severe, early onset, or prolonged hyperbilirubinemia.

  8. The suitability of saliva for detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamont, A H; Miguel, A; Goos, C M; Vermeesch-Markslag, A M; Hermans, A; Vermorken, A J

    1988-01-01

    Saliva was investigated for its suitability as a biopsy tissue for the determination of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. It appears that there is a significant difference between the activity of the enzyme in patients and controls. However, some controls have very low values making discrimination between patients and controls using a qualitative method impossible. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is a relevant clinical problem in many rural areas in developing countries. Existing methods for determination of the deficiency in blood and hair follicles do not meet the criteria necessary for their large scale introduction in the areas of the world that are concerned by the problem. The present study shows that saliva is not a suitable alternative. Between the three biopsy tissues compared: blood, hair follicles and saliva, hair follicles remain most attractive since their isolation hardly involves the risk of infection. A simplified method for the detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in hair follicles that would allow health service workers in the field to determine the carrier status of pregnant women might form the basis for a future kernicterus prevention programme. PMID:3221843

  9. 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity in vitro in lung and kidney of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Toft, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    Weanling rats were fed for 6 months on a diet deficient in essential fatty acids: either fat-free, or with 28% (w/w) partially hydrogenated fish oil. Control rats were fed a diet with 28% (w/w) arachis oil for 6 months. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity was determined as initial rates...... of the two groups on diets deficient in essential fatty acids as compared to the control group. No difference was observed in dehydrogenase activity in the kidneys. The dehydrogenase may be of importance for the regulation of the level of endogenous prostaglandins and, thus, a decrease in activity could...

  10. An incidental case of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency: One case, multiple challenges

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    Hamoud H Al Khallaf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that shows large phenotypical variability, ranging from no symptoms to intellectual disability, motor retardation, and convulsions. In addition, homozygous and heterozygous mutation carriers can develop severe 5-fluorouracil (5-FU toxicity. The lack of genotype-phenotype correlation and the possibility of other factors playing a role in the manifestation of the neurological abnormalities, make the management and education of asymptomatic DPD individuals more challenging. We describe a 3-month-old baby who was incidentally found by urine organic acid testing (done as part of positive newborn screen to have very high level of thymine and uracil, consistent with DPD deficiency. Since the prevalence of asymptomatic DPD deficiency in the general population is fairly significant (1 in 10,000, we emphasize in this case study the importance of developing a guideline in genetic counseling and patient education for this condition as well as other incidental laboratory findings.

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in northern Mexico and description of a novel mutation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. García-Magallanes; F. Luque-Ortega; E. M. Aguilar-Medina; R. Ramos-Payán; C. Galaviz-Hernández; J. G. Romero-Quintana; L. Del Pozo-Yauner; H. Rangel-Villalobos; E. Arámbula-Meraz

    2014-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is the most common enzyme pathology in humans; it is X-linked inherited and causes neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, chronic nonspherocytic haemolytic anaemia and drug-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. G6PD deficiency has scarcely been studied in the northern region of Mexico, which is important because of the genetic heterogeneity described in Mexican population. Therefore, samples from the northern Mexico were biochemically screened for G6PD deficiency, and PCR-RFLPs, and DNA sequencing used to identify mutations in positive samples. The frequency of G6PD deficiency in the population was 0.95% ($n = 1993$); the mutations in 86% of these samples were G6PD A-202A/376G, G6PD A-376G/968C and G6PD Santamaria376G/542T. Contrary to previous reports, we demonstrated that G6PD deficiency distribution is relatively homogenous throughout the country $(P = 0.48336)$, and the unique exception with high frequency of G6PD deficiency does not involve a coastal population (Chihuahua: 2.4%). Analysis of eight polymorphic sites showed only 10 haplotypes. In one individual we identified a new G6PD mutation named Mexico DF193A>G (rs199474830), which probably results in a damaging functional effect, according to PolyPhen analysis. Proteomic impact of the mutation is also described.

  12. Mechanism of hyperinsulinism in short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency involves activation of glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhong; Chen, Pan; Palladino, Andrew; Narayan, Srinivas; Russell, Laurie K; Sayed, Samir; Xiong, Guoxiang; Chen, Jie; Stokes, David; Butt, Yasmeen M; Jones, Patricia M; Collins, Heather W; Cohen, Noam A; Cohen, Akiva S; Nissim, Itzhak; Smith, Thomas J; Strauss, Arnold W; Matschinsky, Franz M; Bennett, Michael J; Stanley, Charles A

    2010-10-01

    The mechanism of insulin dysregulation in children with hyperinsulinism associated with inactivating mutations of short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) was examined in mice with a knock-out of the hadh gene (hadh(-/-)). The hadh(-/-) mice had reduced levels of plasma glucose and elevated plasma insulin levels, similar to children with SCHAD deficiency. hadh(-/-) mice were hypersensitive to oral amino acid with decrease of glucose level and elevation of insulin. Hypersensitivity to oral amino acid in hadh(-/-) mice can be explained by abnormal insulin responses to a physiological mixture of amino acids and increased sensitivity to leucine stimulation in isolated perifused islets. Measurement of cytosolic calcium showed normal basal levels and abnormal responses to amino acids in hadh(-/-) islets. Leucine, glutamine, and alanine are responsible for amino acid hypersensitivity in islets. hadh(-/-) islets have lower intracellular glutamate and aspartate levels, and this decrease can be prevented by high glucose. hadh(-/-) islets also have increased [U-(14)C]glutamine oxidation. In contrast, hadh(-/-) mice have similar glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity compared with controls. Perifused hadh(-/-) islets showed no differences from controls in response to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, even with addition of either a medium-chain fatty acid (octanoate) or a long-chain fatty acid (palmitate). Pull-down experiments with SCHAD, anti-SCHAD, or anti-GDH antibodies showed protein-protein interactions between SCHAD and GDH. GDH enzyme kinetics of hadh(-/-) islets showed an increase in GDH affinity for its substrate, α-ketoglutarate. These studies indicate that SCHAD deficiency causes hyperinsulinism by activation of GDH via loss of inhibitory regulation of GDH by SCHAD.

  13. Very long-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency which was accepted as infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoglu, Tuba F; Tumer, Leyla; Okur, Ilyas; Ezgu, Fatih S; Biberoglu, Gursel; Hasanoglu, Alev

    2011-07-15

    Very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) (OMIM #201475) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation. Major phenotypic expressions are hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, elevated creatinine kinase, and lipid infiltration of liver and muscle. At the same time, it is a rare cause of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) or unexplained death in the neonatal period [1-4]. We report a patient with VLCADD whose parents were investigated for infanticide because her three previous siblings had suddenly died after normal deliveries.

  14. Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia in a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD)-Deficient Geriatric Trauma Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Födinger, Agnes M.; Kammerlander, Christian; Luger, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic enzymatic disorder causing hemolytic anemia. Exposure to drugs is considered to be the most common cause of acute hemolysis in patients with G6PD deficiency. Experience with regional anesthesia, in particular peripheral nerve blocks, is rarely described in patients with G6PD deficiency, but is of great clinical interest. For this reason, we now report on the successful management of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial...

  15. Bilateral pulmonary edema after endoscopic sympathectomy in a patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, C J; Luk, H N; Wu, C T; Chang, W K; Tsou, M Y; Lui, P W; Lee, T Y

    2001-01-01

    Transaxillary endoscopic sympathectomy of thoracic ganglia (T2-T3) has recently gained wider acceptance as the treatment of choice for palmar hyperhidrosis. It requires one-lung ventilation to facilitate the surgery. One-lung ventilation, however, is not without complications, among which acute pulmonary edema has been reported. In this case report, we present a patient with palmar hyperhidrosis complicated by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, who received bilateral endoscopic sympathectomy under alternate one-lung anesthesia, and developed acute pulmonary edema immediately after recruitment of the successive collapsed lung. The effects of hypoxemia, G-6-PD deficiency and sympathectomy might all add to the development of acute pulmonary edema secondary to reexpansion of each individual lung after alternate one-lung ventilation. The possibilities of the inferred causes are herein discussed. PMID:11152024

  16. Eye Findings on Vigabatrin and Taurine Treatment in Two Patients with Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Gabriella-Ana; Hukin, Juliette; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia G; Aroichane, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    We describe for the first time two patients with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency, who were found to have abnormal electroretinogram (ERG) examinations at baseline, or 6 months after vigabatrin treatment was started. This was somewhat reversible with L-taurine treatment, or minimally progressive. The mechanism of injury to the retina may be induced by elevations of γ-aminobutyric acid causing peripheral photoreceptor and ganglion cell damage, and this can be exacerbated by the use of vigabatrin. The use of taurine supplementation in tandem with vigabatrin may allow reversal of retinopathy and mitigate or slow down further deterioration. Further prospective clinical trials are required to evaluate this further. We recommend starting L-taurine therapy together with vigabatrin if a trial of vigabatrin is commenced in a patient with SSADH deficiency. Close monitoring of visual fields or ERG is also recommended at baseline and during vigabatrin therapy. PMID:27104484

  17. Medications and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngster, Ilan; Arcavi, Lidia; Schechmaster, Renata; Akayzen, Yulia; Popliski, Hen; Shimonov, Janna; Beig, Svetlana; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2010-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect and one of the most common genetic disorders worldwide, with an estimated 400 million people worldwide carrying a mutation in the G6PD gene that causes deficiency of the enzyme. Although drug-induced haemolysis is considered the most common adverse clinical consequence of G6PD deficiency, significant confusion exists regarding which drugs can cause haemolytic anaemia in patients with G6PD deficiency. In the absence of consensus among physicians, patients are subject to conflicting advice, causing uncertainty and distress. In the current review we aimed, by thorough search of the medical literature, to collect evidence on which to base decisions either to prohibit or allow the use of various medications in patients with G6PD deficiency. A literature search was conducted during May 2009 for studies and case reports on medication use and G6PD deficiency using the following sources: MEDLINE (1966-May 2009), PubMed (1950-May 2009), the Cochrane database of systematic reviews (2009), and major pharmacology, internal medicine, haematology and paediatric textbooks. After assessing the literature, we divided medications into one of three groups: medications that should be avoided in individuals with G6PD deficiency, medications that were considered unsafe by at least one source, but according to our review can probably be given safely in normal therapeutic dosages to individuals with G6PD deficiency as evidence does not contravene their use, and medications where no evidence at all was found to contravene their use in G6PD-deficient patients. It is reasonable to conclude that, over time, many compounds have been wrongly cited as causing haemolysis because they were administered to patients experiencing an infection-related haemolytic episode. We found solid evidence to prohibit only seven currently used medications: dapsone, methylthioninium chloride (methylene blue), nitrofurantoin

  18. 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with autism and mental retardation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanavin Oivind J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. Methods We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism and a history of seizures, who was found to excrete increased amounts of 2-methylbutyryl glycine in the urine. The SBCAD gene was examined with sequence analysis. His development was assessed with psychometric testing before and after a trial with low protein diet. Results We found homozygosity for A > G changing the +3 position of intron 3 (c.303+3A > G in the SBCAD gene. Psychometric testing showed moderate mental retardation and behavioral scores within the autistic spectrum. No beneficial effect was detected after 5 months with a low protein diet. Conclusion This mutation was also found in two previously reported cases with SBCADD, both originating from Somalia and Eritrea, indicating that it is relatively prevalent in this population. Autism has not previously been described with mutations in this gene, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of SBCADD.

  19. Steroid Biomarkers and Genetic Studies Reveal Inactivating Mutations in Hexose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Patients with Cortisone Reductase Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lavery, Gareth G.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Tiganescu, Ana; Ride, Jon P.; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.; Tomlinson, Jeremy W.; Connell, John M C; Ray, David W; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Malunowicz, Ewa M.; Arlt, Wiebke; Stewart, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD) is characterized by a failure to regenerate cortisol from cortisone via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), resulting in increased cortisol clearance, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) and ACTH-mediated adrenal androgen excess. 11β-HSD1 oxoreductase activity requires the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-generating enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) within the endoplasmic reticulum. ...

  20. Telomerase prevents accelerated senescence in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient human fibroblasts

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    Wu Yi-Hsuan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fibroblasts derived from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient patients display retarded growth and accelerated cellular senescence that is attributable to increased accumulation of oxidative DNA damage and increased sensitivity to oxidant-induced senescence, but not to accelerated telomere attrition. Here, we show that ectopic expression of hTERT stimulates telomerase activity and prevents accelerated senescence in G6PD-deficient cells. Stable clones derived from hTERT-expressing normal and G6PD-deficient fibroblasts have normal karyotypes, and display no sign of senescence beyond 145 and 105 passages, respectively. Activation of telomerase, however, does not prevent telomere attrition in earlier-passage cells, but does stabilize telomere lengths at later passages. In addition, we provide evidence that ectopic expression of hTERT attenuates the increased sensitivity of G6PD-deficient fibroblasts to oxidant-induced senescence. These results suggest that ectopic expression of hTERT, in addition to acting in telomere length maintenance by activating telomerase, also functions in regulating senescence induction.

  1. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency--a cause of anaemia in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, Małgorzata; Zimny, Anna

    2003-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is one of the most important cytoprotective enzymes for oxidative stress. The WHO classification of G6PD deficiency, based on enzyme activity and clinical significance, distinguishes five variants. Chronic haemolytic process is rare and the main factors causing haemolysis are: infections, substances derived from plants, drugs with high oxidation-reduction potential, stress, ketoacidosis in diabetes and surgery operations. We report two cases of women belonging to the class 3 of the WHO classification in whom haemolysis occured during pregnancy. One of the patients developed two incidents of haemolytic anaemia. The cause of the first episode, nine months before pregnancy, was probably infection of the urinary tract caused by Escherichia coli, but the influence of the drugs also cannot be excluded. Because of the genetic background of this enzymopathy we also examined members of the patients, families but did not find any evidence of G6PD deficiency among them. The reported cases indicate that haemolytic anaemia caused by G6PD deficiency may occur during pregnancy what can lead to many not only haematological but also serious obstetrical complications such as infertility, fetus malformations and even its death. We also draw attention to several difficulties in diagnosing G6PD deficiency especially during haemolysis. PMID:16737003

  2. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait among blood donors in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.

  3. 2-Methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: functional and molecular studies on a defect in isoleucine catabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sass, Jörn Oliver; Ensenauer, Regina; Röschinger, Wulf;

    2007-01-01

    individuals showed clinical symptoms attributable to MBD deficiency although the defect in isoleucine catabolism was demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. Several mutations in the ACADSB gene were identified, including a novel one. MBD deficiency may be a harmless metabolic variant although significant......2-Methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (MBD; coded by the ACADSB gene) catalyzes the step in isoleucine metabolism that corresponds to the isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase reaction in the degradation of leucine. Deficiencies of both enzymes may be detected by expanded neonatal screening with tandem...... impairment of valproic acid metabolism cannot be excluded and further study is required to assess the long-term outcome of individuals with this condition. The relatively high prevalence of ACADSB gene mutations in control subjects suggests that MBD deficiency may be more common than previously thought...

  4. Molecular Characterization of Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Families from the Republic of Macedonia and Genotype-phenotype Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Cherepnalkovski, Anet Papazovska; Zemunik, Tatijana; Glamocanin, Sofijanka; Piperkova, Katica; Gunjaca, Ivana; Kocheva, Svetlana; Jovanova, Biljana Coneska; Krzelj, Vjekoslav

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Glucose-6-phospahte dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is one of the most common inherited disorders affecting around 400 million people worldwide. Molecular analysis of the G6PD gene identified more than 140 distinct mutations, the majority being single base missense mutations. G6PD Mediterranean is the most common variant found in populations of the Mediterranean area. Aim: The aim of our study was to perform molecular characterization of G6PD deficiency in families from the Repu...

  5. New insights in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency: a pivotal role for beta-aminoisobutyric acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kuilenburg, André B P; Stroomer, Alida E M; Van Lenthe, Henk; Abeling, Nico G G M; Van Gennip, Albert H

    2004-04-01

    DPD (dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase) constitutes the first step of the pyrimidine degradation pathway, in which the pyrimidine bases uracil and thymine are catabolized to beta-alanine and the R-enantiomer of beta-AIB (beta-aminoisobutyric acid) respectively. The S-enantiomer of beta-AIB is predominantly derived from the catabolism of valine. It has been suggested that an altered homoeostasis of beta-alanine underlies some of the clinical abnormalities encountered in patients with a DPD deficiency. In the present study, we demonstrated that only a slightly decreased concentration of beta-alanine was present in the urine and plasma, whereas normal levels of beta-alanine were present in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with a DPD deficiency. Therefore the metabolism of beta-alanine-containing peptides, such as carnosine, may be an important factor involved in the homoeostasis of beta-alanine in patients with DPD deficiency. The mean concentration of beta-AIB was approx. 2-3-fold lower in cerebrospinal fluid and urine of patients with a DPD deficiency, when compared with controls. In contrast, strongly decreased levels (10-fold) of beta-AIB were present in the plasma of DPD patients. Our results demonstrate that, under pathological conditions, the catabolism of valine can result in the production of significant amounts of beta-AIB. Furthermore, the observation that the R-enantiomer of beta-AIB is abundantly present in the urine of DPD patients suggests that significant cross-over exists between the thymine and valine catabolic pathways. PMID:14705962

  6. Five novel glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency haplotypes correlating with disease severity

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    Dallol Ashraf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC 1.1.1.49 deficiency is caused by one or more mutations in the G6PD gene on chromosome X. An association between enzyme levels and gene haplotypes remains to be established. Methods In this study, we determined G6PD enzyme levels and sequenced the coding region, including the intron-exon boundaries, in a group of individuals (163 males and 86 females who were referred to the clinic with suspected G6PD deficiency. The sequence data were analysed by physical linkage analysis and PHASE haplotype reconstruction. Results All previously reported G6PD missense changes, including the AURES, MEDITERRANEAN, A-, SIBARI, VIANGCHAN and ANANT, were identified in our cohort. The AURES mutation (p.Ile48Thr was the most common variant in the cohort (30% in males patients followed by the Mediterranean variant (p.Ser188Phe detectable in 17.79% in male patients. Variant forms of the A- mutation (p.Val68Met, p.Asn126Asp or a combination of both were detectable in 15.33% of the male patients. However, unique to this study, several of such mutations co-existed in the same patient as shown by physical linkage in males or PHASE haplotype reconstruction in females. Based on 6 non-synonymous variants of G6PD, 13 different haplotypes (13 in males, 8 in females were identified. Five of these were previously unreported (Jeddah A, B, C, D and E and were defined by previously unreported combinations of extant mutations where patients harbouring these haplotypes exhibited severe G6PD deficiency. Conclusions Our findings will help design a focused population screening approach and provide better management for G6PD deficiency patients.

  7. The molecular basis of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency in compound heterozygous patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Bross, P; Udvari, S;

    1997-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most commonly recognized defect of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. It is potentially fatal, but shows a wide clinical spectrum. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether any correlation exists between MCAD genotype and disea...

  8. Human 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency seems to affect fertility but may not harbor a tumor risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burckhardt, Marie-Anne; Udhane, Sameer S; Marti, Nesa;

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3βHSD) is a rare disorder of sexual development and steroidogenesis. There are two isozymes of 3βHSD, HSD3B1 and HSD3B2. Human mutations are known for the HSD3B2 gene which is expressed in the gonads and the adrenals. Little is known about testis...

  9. Efficacy of vigabatrin intervention in a mild phenotypic expression of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarano, M; Alessandrì, M G; Salomons, G S; Moretti, E; Jakobs, C; Gibson, K M; Cioni, G; Battini, R

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency who presented a mild phenotype including developmental language delay, in association with the typical elevations of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in biological fluids and MRI alterations. Two pathogenic mutations were identified one transversion (c.278 G>T) in exon 1 and another (c.1557 T>G) in exon 10. Both parents are carriers of one of the mutations, confirming compound-heterozygosity in their affected child. To reduce the GHB levels in body fluids, a treatment with vigabatrin at low dose (25 mg/kg per day) was started, monitoring its efficacy by clinical and neurochemical follow-up. After 9 months of therapy with vigabatrin, a significant reduction of GHB concentrations in urine and CSF was observed; after 36 months, a significant improvement of communicative skills, not previously reported, was referred. These results support the hypothesis that the clinical improvement is correlated to the reduction in the GHB levels and the importance of considering the SSADH deficiency in the differential diagnosis of patients with mental retardation and language delay. PMID:23430864

  10. A hemolysis trigger in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency. Vicia sativa (Vetch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicakci, Zafer

    2009-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme, playing an important role in the redox metabolism of all aerobic cells. It was reported that certain medications, fava beans, and infections can trigger acute hemolytic anemia in patients with G6PD deficiency. An 8-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with blood in the urine, headache, dizziness, fatigue, loss of appetite, and jaundice in the eyes, 24 hours after eating large amounts of fresh, vetch grains. Laboratory investigation revealed hemolytic anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and G6PD deficiency. Approximately 0.5% of fava bean seeds have 2 pyrimidine beta-glycosides called, vicine and convicine. Vetch has 0.731% vicine, 0.081% convicine, and 0.530% beta cyanoalanine glycosides. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the importance of vetch seeds as a cause for hemolytic crisis in our country, where approximately one million tons of vetch is produced per year, especially in the agricultural regions. PMID:19198723

  11. Neonatal pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency due to a R302H mutation in the PDHA1 gene: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares-Fernandes, Joao P.; Ribeiro, Manuel; Magalhaes, Zita; Rocha, Jaime F. [Hospital de S. Marcos, Department of Neuroradiology, Braga (Portugal); Teixeira-Gomes, Roseli [Hospital Pedro Hispano, Division of Neuropediatrics, Matosinhos (Portugal); Cruz, Romeu [Hospital Geral de Sto. Antonio, Department of Neuroradiology, Porto (Portugal); Leijser, Lara M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Paediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2008-05-15

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is one of the most common causes of congenital lactic acidosis. Correlations between the genetic defect and neuroimaging findings are lacking. We present conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI findings in a 7-day-old male neonate with PDH deficiency due to a mosaicism for the R302H mutation in the PDHA1 gene. Corpus callosum dysgenesis, widespread increased diffusion in the white matter, and bilateral subependymal cysts were the main features. Although confirmation of PDH deficiency depends on specialized biochemical analyses, neonatal MRI plays a role in evaluating the pattern and extent of brain damage, and potentially in early diagnosis and clinical decision making. (orig.)

  12. Deficiency of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 induces BMP2 and increases bone mass in vivo.

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    Shriram Nallamshetty

    Full Text Available The effects of retinoids, the structural derivatives of vitamin A (retinol, on post-natal peak bone density acquisition and skeletal remodeling are complex and compartment specific. Emerging data indicates that retinoids, such as all trans retinoic acid (ATRA and its precursor all trans retinaldehyde (Rald, exhibit distinct and divergent transcriptional effects in metabolism. Despite these observations, the role of enzymes that control retinoid metabolism in bone remains undefined. In this study, we examined the skeletal phenotype of mice deficient in retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1, the enzyme responsible for converting Rald to ATRA in adult animals. Bone densitometry and micro-computed tomography (µCT demonstrated that Aldh1a1-deficient (Aldh1a1(-/- female mice had higher trabecular and cortical bone mass compared to age and sex-matched control C57Bl/6 wild type (WT mice at multiple time points. Histomorphometry confirmed increased cortical bone thickness and demonstrated significantly higher bone marrow adiposity in Aldh1a1(-/- mice. In serum assays, Aldh1a1(-/- mice also had higher serum IGF-1 levels. In vitro, primary Aldh1a1(-/- mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 and demonstrated enhanced osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis versus WT MSCs. BMP2 was also expressed at higher levels in the femurs and tibias of Aldh1a1(-/- mice with accompanying induction of BMP2-regulated responses, including expression of Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase, and Smad phosphorylation. In vitro, Rald, which accumulates in Aldh1a1(-/- mice, potently induced BMP2 in WT MSCs in a retinoic acid receptor (RAR-dependent manner, suggesting that Rald is involved in the BMP2 increases seen in Aldh1a1 deficiency in vivo. Collectively, these data implicate Aldh1a1 as a novel determinant of cortical bone density and marrow adiposity in the skeleton in vivo through modulation of BMP signaling.

  13. Neurotransmitter alterations in embryonic succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH deficiency suggest a heightened excitatory state during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snead O Carter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SSADH (aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 (Aldh5a1; γ-hydroxybutyric (GHB aciduria deficiency is a defect of GABA degradation in which the neuromodulators GABA and GHB accumulate. The human phenotype is that of nonprogressive encephalopathy with prominent bilateral discoloration of the globi pallidi and variable seizures, the latter displayed prominently in Aldh5a1-/- mice with lethal convulsions. Metabolic studies in murine neural tissue have revealed elevated GABA [and its derivatives succinate semialdehyde (SSA, homocarnosine (HC, 4,5-dihydroxyhexanoic acid (DHHA and guanidinobutyrate (GB] and GHB [and its analogue D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG] at birth. Because of early onset seizures and the neurostructural anomalies observed in patients, we examined metabolite features during Aldh5a1-/- embryo development. Methods Embryos were obtained from pregnant dams sacrificed at E (embryo day of life 10–13, 14–15, 16–17, 18–19 and newborn mice. Intact embryos were extracted and metabolites quantified by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (n = 5–15 subjects, Aldh5a1+/+ and Aldh5a1-/- for each gestational age group. Data was evaluated using the t test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc analysis. Significance was set at the 95th centile. Results GABA and DHHA were significantly elevated at all gestational ages in Aldh5a1-/- mice, while GB was increased only late in gestation; SSA was not elevated at any time point. GHB and D-2-HG increased in an approximately linear fashion with gestational age. Correlative studies in human amniotic fluid from SSADH-deficient pregnancies (n = 5 also revealed significantly increased GABA. Conclusion Our findings indicate early GABAergic alterations in Aldh5a1-/- mice, possibly exacerbated by other metabolites, which likely induce a heightened excitatory state that may predispose neural networks to epilepsy in these animals.

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency A- variant in febrile patients in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tamar E; Maloy, Halley; von Fricken, Michael; St Victor, Yves; Romain, Jean R; Okech, Bernard A; Mulligan, Connie J

    2014-08-01

    Haiti is one of two remaining malaria-endemic countries in the Caribbean. To decrease malaria transmission in Haiti, primaquine was recently added to the malaria treatment public health policy. One limitation of primaquine is that, at certain doses, primaquine can cause hemolytic anemia in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (G6PDd). In this study, we genotyped two mutations (A376G and G202A), which confer the most common G6PDd variant in West African populations, G6PDd A-. We estimated the frequency of G6PDd A- in a sample of febrile patients enrolled in an on-going malaria study who represent a potential target population for a primaquine mass drug administration. We found that 33 of 168 individuals carried the G6PDd A- allele (includes A- hemizygous males, A- homozygous or heterozygous females) and could experience toxicity if treated with primaquine. These data inform discussions on safe and effective primaquine dosing and future malaria elimination strategies for Haiti.

  15. Genetic heterogeneity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in south-east Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cittadella, R; Civitelli, D; Manna, I; Azzia, N; Di Cataldo, A; Schilirò, G; Brancati, C

    1997-05-01

    In order to explore the nature of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in south-east Sicily, we have analysed the G6PD gene in 25 unrelated males with abnormal G6PD activity and/or electrophoretic mobility, by using the analysis of the appropriate PCR-amplified fragment of DNA and subsequent digestion by appropriate restriction-enzymes, looking for the presence of certain known G6PD mutations. We amplified the entire G6PD coding sequence into eight fragments, followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing of those individual fragments that were found to be abnormal by SSCP. Through these methods we found a total of twelve G6PD Mediterranean variants with the association of a silent mutation 1311 (also known as polymorphic site Bcl I), one G6PD Mediterranean without this association, four G6PD A-Val 68 and two G6PD Santamaria and five G6PD Chatham. In a subject with normal activity a mutation was found in exon 5, designated as G6PD Sao Borja. This is the first report on the molecular analysis of G6PD mutations in Sicily and we have obtained evidence for four distinct classes of variants.

  16. Immune Thrombocytopenia Resolved by Eltrombopag in a Carrier of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scaramucci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin mimetic peptide, may provide excellent clinical efficacy in steroid-refractory patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP [1,2]. Eltrombopag is generally well tolerated. However, its use in the particular setting of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and history of acute hemolytic anemia (AHA has not been reported so far. A 51-year-old female was diagnosed as having ITP in September 2014. She was not taking any medication and her past history was negative, apart from having been diagnosed a carrier (heterozygous of G6PD deficiency (Mediterranean variant after a familial screening by molecular and biochemical methods. She presented with only slightly reduced (about 50% enzyme level, belonging to World Health Organization-defined class 3 [3,4]. In the following years, the patient experienced some episodes of AHA, which were managed at outside institutions; in particular, a severe episode of AHA, probably triggered by urinary infection and antibiotics [5], had complicated her second and last delivery. The hemolytic episodes were selflimiting and resolved without sequelae. No other causes of hemolysis were documented. When the case came to our attention, a diagnosis of ITP was made; hemolytic parameters were normal, although the G6PD enzyme concentration was not measured. Oral prednisone (1 mg/kg was given with only a transient benefit. The patient was then a candidate for elective splenectomy. However, given her extremely low platelet count, she was started in October 2014 on eltrombopag at 50 mg/day as a bridge to splenectomy. Given that, to the best of our knowledge, the use of this drug has never been reported in the particular setting of G6PD deficiency, the patient was constantly monitored. A prompt platelet increase (178x109/L was observed 1 week after the start of treatment. After she achieved the target platelet count, the dose of eltrombopag was tapered to the lowest effective dose. The patient

  17. 琥珀酸半醛脱氢酶缺陷病%Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小鹿; 尹飞; 向秋莲; 刘沉涛; 彭镜

    2011-01-01

    琥珀酸半醛脱氢酶(SSADH)缺陷病是一种少见的常染色休隐性遗传病.本研究总结3例SSADH缺陷病患儿的临床资料并复习相关文献.3例患儿均为婴幼儿,主要表现为智力运动、语言发育落后,抽搐和肌张力低下.3例患儿脑电图均表现异常;2例脑MRI检查异常,表现为大脑脚对称性长T2高信号和基底节损害;3例尿液的气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析均显示4-羟基丁酸增高,根据临床表现及尿液GC-MS分析确诊为SSADH缺陷病.对不明原因发育迟缓、智力运动障碍和癫病的患儿应早期进行尿液有机酸分析,对明确诊断具有重要意义.%Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. This paper reports three cases of SSADH deficiency in infants. Hie infants developed the symptoms including developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, hyporeflexia and seizures. The electroencephalogram (EEC) showed background slowing and focal spike discharges in all of 3 patients. Head magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI) demonstrated abnormalities in 2 patients, including basal ganglia damage and increased T2-weighted signal in bilateral cerebral peduncles. Urinary organic acid analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed increased levels of 4-hydroxybutyrate (CHB) in 3 patients. SSADH deficiency was definitely diagnosed based on the clinical manifestations and the results of urinary organic acid analysis in the 3 children. It was concluded that early urine organic acid analysis is essential for children presenting with mental retardation, neuropsychiatric disturbance or epilepsy of unknown etiology.

  18. Comparative 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-Deficient, l-Valine-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Bartek, Tobias; Blombach, Bastian; Lang, Siegmund; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco; Nöh, Katharina; Noack, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    l-Valine can be formed successfully using C. glutamicum strains missing an active pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC). Wild-type C. glutamicum and four PDHC-deficient strains were compared by 13C metabolic flux analysis, especially focusing on the split ratio between glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Compared to the wild type, showing a carbon flux of 69% ± 14% through the PPP, a strong increase in the PPP flux was observed in PDHC-deficient strains with a maximum o...

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency and its correlation with other risk factors in jaundiced newborns in Southern Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clarissa Gutirrez Carvalho; Simone Martins Castro; Ana Paula Santin; Carina Zaleski; Felipe Gutirrez Carvalho; Roberto Giugliani

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the correlation between glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and neonatal jaundice.Methods: Prospective, observational case-control study was conducted on490 newborns admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre for phototherapy, who all experienced35 or more weeks of gestation, from March to December2007. Enzymatic screening ofG6PD activity was performed, followed byPCR.Results:There was prevalence of4.6% and a boy-girl ratio of3:1 in jaundiced newborns. No jaundiced neonate withABO incompatibility presented G6PD deficiency, and no Mediterranean mutation was found. A higher proportion of deficiency was observed in Afro-descendants. There was no association withUGT1A1 variants. Conclusions:G6PD deficiency is not related to severe hyperbilirubinemia and considering the high miscegenation in this area of Brazil, other gene interactions should be investigated.

  20. Mutations in the genes encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase interact to cause cortisone reductase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Nicole; Walker, Elizabeth A; Bujalska, Iwona J; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Chalder, Susan M; Arlt, Wiebke; Lavery, Gareth G; Bedendo, Oliver; Ray, David W; Laing, Ian; Malunowicz, Ewa; White, Perrin C; Hewison, Martin; Mason, Philip J; Connell, John M; Shackleton, Cedric H L; Stewart, Paul M

    2003-08-01

    In cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD), activation of cortisone to cortisol does not occur, resulting in adrenocorticotropin-mediated androgen excess and a phenotype resembling polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS; refs. 1,2). This suggests a defect in the gene HSD11B1 encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), a primary regulator of tissue-specific glucocorticoid bioavailability. We identified intronic mutations in HSD11B1 that resulted in reduced gene transcription in three individuals with CRD. In vivo, 11beta-HSD1 catalyzes the reduction of cortisone to cortisol whereas purified enzyme acts as a dehydrogenase converting cortisol to cortisone. Oxo-reductase activity can be regained using a NADPH-regeneration system and the cytosolic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. But the catalytic domain of 11beta-HSD1 faces into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER; ref. 6). We hypothesized that endolumenal hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) regenerates NADPH in the ER, thereby influencing directionality of 11beta-HSD1 activity. Mutations in exon 5 of H6PD in individuals with CRD attenuated or abolished H6PDH activity. These individuals have mutations in both HSD11B1 and H6PD in a triallelic digenic model of inheritance, resulting in low 11beta-HSD1 expression and ER NADPH generation with loss of 11beta-HSD1 oxo-reductase activity. CRD defines a new ER-specific redox potential and establishes H6PDH as a potential factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS. PMID:12858176

  1. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. Deficient activity of the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase component of fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase in cultured fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, W B; Craft, D A

    1991-01-01

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an inherited disorder associated with impaired fatty alcohol oxidation due to deficient activity of fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase (FAO). FAO is a complex enzyme which consists of two separate proteins that sequentially catalyze the oxidation of fatty alcohol to fatty aldehyde and fatty acid. To determine which enzymatic component of FAO was deficient in SLS, we assayed fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) and fatty alcohol dehydrogenase in cultured fibrob...

  2. Nutritional marginal zinc deficiency disrupts placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y L; Supasai, S; Kucera, H; Gaikwad, N W; Adamo, A M; Mathieu, P; Oteiza, P I

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated if marginal zinc nutrition during gestation could affect fetal exposure to glucocorticoids as a consequence of a deregulation of placental 11βHSD2 expression. Placenta 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2) plays a central role as a barrier protecting the fetus from the deleterious effects of excess maternal glucocorticoids. Rats were fed control (25 μg zinc per g diet) or marginal (10 μg zinc per g diet, MZD) zinc diets from day 0 through day 19 (GD19) of gestation. At GD19, corticosterone concentration in plasma, placenta, and amniotic fluid was similar in both groups. However, protein and mRNA levels of placenta 11βHSD2 were significantly higher (25% and 58%, respectively) in MZD dams than in controls. The main signaling cascades modulating 11βHSD2 expression were assessed. In MZD placentas the activation of ERK1/2 and of the downstream transcription factor Egr-1 was low, while p38 phosphorylation and SP-1-DNA binding were low compared to the controls. These results point to a central role of ERK1/Egr-1 in the regulation of 11βHSD2 expression under the conditions of limited zinc availability. In summary, results show that an increase in placenta 11βHSD2 expression occurs as a consequence of gestational marginal zinc nutrition. This seems to be due to a low tissue zinc-associated deregulation of ERK1/2 rather than to exposure to high maternal glucocorticoid exposure. The deleterious effects on brain development caused by diet-induced marginal zinc deficiency in rats do not seem to be due to fetal exposure to excess glucocorticoids. PMID:26645329

  3. Cariogenicity of a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant of Streptococcus mutans serotype c in gnotobiotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R J; Adams, B O; Sandham, H J; Abhyankar, S

    1989-01-01

    A lactate dehydrogenase-deficient (Ldh-) mutant of a human isolate of Streptococcus mutans serotype c was tested in a gnotobiotic rat caries model. Compared with the wild-type Ldh-positive (Ldh+) strains, it was significantly (alpha less than or equal to 0.005) less cariogenic in experiments with two different sublines of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Ldh- mutant strain 044 colonized the oral cavity of the test animals to the same extent as its parent strain 041, although its initial implantation was slightly but not significantly (P greater than or equal to 0.2) less. Multiple oral or fecal samples plated on 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium indicator medium revealed no evidence of back mutation from Ldh- to Ldh+ in vivo. Both Ldh+ strain 041 and Ldh- strain 044 demonstrated bacteriocinlike activity in vitro against a number of human strains of mutans streptococci representing serotype a (S. cricetus) and serotypes c and e (S. mutans). Serotypes b (S. rattus) and f (S. mutans) and strains of S. mitior, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius were not inhibited. Thus, Ldh mutant strain 044 possesses a number of desirable traits that suggest it should be investigated further as a possible effector strain for replacement therapy of dental caries. These traits include its stability and low cariogenicity in the sensitive gnotobiotic rat caries model, its bacteriocinlike activity against certain other cariogenic S. mutans (but not against more inocuous indigenous oral streptococci), and the fact that it is a member of the most prevalent human serotype of cariogenic streptococci. PMID:2917788

  4. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Improves Insulin Resistance With Reduced Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Mira; Choe, Sung Sik; Shin, Kyung Cheul; Choi, Goun; Kim, Ji-Won; Noh, Jung-Ran; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Ryu, Je-Won; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, plays important roles in redox regulation and de novo lipogenesis. It was recently demonstrated that aberrant upregulation of G6PD in obese adipose tissue mediates insulin resistance as a result of imbalanced energy metabolism and oxidative stress. It remains elusive, however, whether inhibition of G6PD in vivo may relieve obesity-induced insulin resistance. In this study we showed that a hematopoietic G6PD defect alleviates insulin resistance in obesity, accompanied by reduced adipose tissue inflammation. Compared with wild-type littermates, G6PD-deficient mutant (G6PD(mut)) mice were glucose tolerant upon high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding. Intriguingly, the expression of NADPH oxidase genes to produce reactive oxygen species was alleviated, whereas that of antioxidant genes was enhanced in the adipose tissue of HFD-fed G6PD(mut) mice. In diet-induced obesity (DIO), the adipose tissue of G6PD(mut) mice decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines, accompanied by downregulated proinflammatory macrophages. Accordingly, macrophages from G6PD(mut) mice greatly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory signaling cascades, leading to enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and hepatocytes. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of G6PD(mut) bone marrow to wild-type mice attenuated adipose tissue inflammation and improved glucose tolerance in DIO. Collectively, these data suggest that inhibition of macrophage G6PD would ameliorate insulin resistance in obesity through suppression of proinflammatory responses. PMID:27284106

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is associated with asymptomatic malaria in a rural community in Burkina Faso

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdoul Karim Ouattara; Cyrille Bisseye; Birama Diarra; Tegwind Rebeca Compaore; Florencia Djigma; Virginio Pietra; Remy Moret; Jacques Simpore

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate 4 combinations of mutations responsible for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in a rural community of Burkina Faso, a malaria endemic country. Methods: Two hundred individuals in a rural community were genotyped for the mutations A376G, G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism assays and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: The prevalence of the G6PD deficiency was 9.5% in the study population. It was significantly higher in men compared to women (14.3%vs 6.0%, P=0.049). The 202A/376G G6PD A-was the only deficient variant detected. Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic parasitaemia was significantly higher among the G6PD-non-deficient persons compared to the G6PD-deficient (P Conclusions:This study showed that the G6PD A-variant associated with protection against asymptomatic malaria in Burkina Faso is probably the most common deficient variant.

  6. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the Ouest and Sud-Est departments of Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fricken, Michael E; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Eaton, Will T; Alam, Meer T; Carter, Tamar E; Schick, Laura; Masse, Roseline; Romain, Jean R; Okech, Bernard A

    2014-07-01

    Malaria remains a significant public health issue in Haiti, with chloroquine (CQ) used almost exclusively for the treatment of uncomplicated infections. Recently, single dose primaquine (PQ) was added to the Haitian national malaria treatment policy, despite a lack of information on the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency within the population. G6PD deficient individuals who take PQ are at risk of developing drug induced hemolysis (DIH). In this first study to examine G6PD deficiency rates in Haiti, 22.8% (range 14.9%-24.7%) of participants were found to be G6PD deficient (class I, II, or III) with 2.0% (16/800) of participants having severe deficiency (class I and II). Differences in deficiency were observed by gender, with males having a much higher prevalence of severe deficiency (4.3% vs. 0.4%) compared to females. Male participants were 1.6 times more likely to be classified as deficient and 10.6 times more likely to be classified as severely deficient compared to females, as expected. Finally, 10.6% (85/800) of the participants were considered to be at risk for DIH. Males also had much higher rates than females (19.3% vs. 4.6%) with 4.9 times greater likelihood (p value 0.000) of having an activity level that could lead to DIH. These findings provide useful information to policymakers and clinicians who are responsible for the implementation of PQ to control and manage malaria in Haiti.

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient epithelial cells are less tolerant to infection by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Hsieh

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway and provides reducing energy to all cells by maintaining redox balance. The most common clinical manifestations in patients with G6PD deficiency are neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia. The effects of microbial infection in patients with G6PD deficiency primarily relate to the hemolytic anemia caused by Plasmodium or viral infections and the subsequent medication that is required. We are interested in studying the impact of bacterial infection in G6PD-deficient cells. G6PD knock down A549 lung carcinoma cells, together with the common pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, were employed in our cell infection model. Here, we demonstrate that a lower cell viability was observed among G6PD-deficient cells when compared to scramble controls upon bacterial infection using the MTT assay. A significant increase in the intracellular ROS was detected among S. aureus-infected G6PD-deficient cells by observing dichlorofluorescein (DCF intensity within cells under a fluorescence microscope and quantifying this signal using flow cytometry. The impairment of ROS removal is predicted to enhance apoptotic activity in G6PD-deficient cells, and this enhanced apoptosis was observed by annexin V/PI staining under a confocal fluorescence microscope and quantified by flow cytometry. A higher expression level of the intrinsic apoptotic initiator caspase-9, as well as the downstream effector caspase-3, was detected by Western blotting analysis of G6PD-deficient cells following bacterial infection. In conclusion, we propose that bacterial infection, perhaps the secreted S. aureus α-hemolysin in this case, promotes the accumulation of intracellular ROS in G6PD-deficient cells. This would trigger a stronger apoptotic activity through the intrinsic pathway thereby reducing cell viability when compared to wild type cells.

  8. Somatic mosaicism for a novel PDHA1 mutation in a male with severe pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin K. Deeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC deficiencies are mostly due to mutations in the X-linked PDHA1 gene. Males with hemizygous PDHA1 mutations are clinically more severely affected, while those with mosaic PDHA1 mutations may manifest milder phenotypes. We report a patient harboring a novel, mosaic missense PDHA1 mutation, c.523G > A (p.A175T, with a severe clinical presentation of congenital microcephaly, significant brain abnormalities, persistent seizures, profound developmental delay, and failure to thrive. We review published cases of PDHA1 mosaicism.

  9. Prevalence of thalassaemia, iron-deficiency anaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Arab migrating nomad children, southern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalar, M; Mehrabani, D; Afrasiabi, A; Mehravar, Z; Reyhani, I; Hamidi, R; Karimi, M

    2014-12-17

    This study investigated the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and β-thalassaemia trait among Arab migrating nomad children in southern Islamic Republic of Iran. Blood samples were analysed from 134 schoolchildren aged < 18 years (51 males, 83 females). Low serum ferritin (< 12 ng/dL) was present in 17.9% of children (21.7% in females and 11.8% in males). Low haemoglobin (Hb) correlated significantly with a low serum ferritin. Only 1 child had G6PD deficiency. A total of 9.7% of children had HbA2 ≥ 3.5 g/dL, indicating β-thalassaemia trait (10.8% in females and 7.8% in males). Mean serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were similar in males and females. Serum ferritin index was as accurate as Hb index in the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anaemia. A high prevalence of β-thalassaemia trait was the major potential risk factor in this population.

  10. Comparative genomics of aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase and accumulation of gamma-hydroxybutyrate associated with its deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaspina Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; aldehyde dehydrogenase 5A1 [ALDH5A1]; locus 6p22 occupies a central position in central nervous system (CNS neurotransmitter metabolism as one of two enzymes necessary for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA recycling from the synaptic cleft. Its importance is highlighted by the neurometabolic disease associated with its inherited deficiency in humans, as well as the severe epileptic phenotype observed in Aldh5a1-/- knockout mice. Expanding evidence now suggests, however, that even subtle decreases in human SSADH activity, associated with rare and common single nucleotide polymorphisms, may produce subclinical pathological effects. SSADH, in conjunction with aldo-keto reductase 7A2 (AKR7A2, represent two neural enzymes responsible for further catabolism of succinic semialdehyde, producing either succinate (SSADH or γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB; AKR7A2. A GABA analogue, GHB is a short-chain fatty alcohol with unusual properties in the CNS and a long pharmacological history. Moreover, SSADH occupies a further role in the CNS as the enzyme responsible for further metabolism of the lipid peroxidation aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, an intermediate known to induce oxidant stress. Accordingly, subtle decreases in SSADH activity may have the capacity to lead to regional accumulation of neurotoxic intermediates (GHB, 4-HNE. Polymorphisms in SSADH gene structure may also associate with quantitative traits, including intelligence quotient and life expectancy. Further population-based studies of human SSADH activity promise to reveal additional properties of its function and additional roles in CNS tissue.

  11. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficient variants among the Kurdish population of Northern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Shakir AR

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key enzyme of the pentose monophosphate pathway, and its deficiency is the most common inherited enzymopathy worldwide. G6PD deficiency is common among Iraqis, including those of the Kurdish ethnic group, however no study of significance has ever addressed the molecular basis of this disorder in this population. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this enzymopathy and its molecular basis among Iraqi Kurds. Methods A total of 580 healthy male Kurdish Iraqis randomly selected from a main regional premarital screening center in Northern Iraq were screened for G6PD deficiency using methemoglobin reduction test. The results were confirmed by quantitative enzyme assay for the cases that showed G6PD deficiency. DNA analysis was performed on 115 G6PD deficient subjects, 50 from the premarital screening group and 65 unrelated Kurdish male patients with documented acute hemolytic episodes due to G6PD deficiency. Analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism for five deficient molecular variants, namely G6PD Mediterranean (563 C→T, G6PD Chatham (1003 G→A, G6PD A- (202 G→A, G6PD Aures (143 T→C and G6PD Cosenza (1376 G→C, as well as the silent 1311 (C→T mutation. Results Among 580 random Iraqi male Kurds, 63 (10.9% had documented G6PD deficiency. Molecular studies performed on a total of 115 G6PD deficient males revealed that 101 (87.8% had the G6PD Mediterranean variant and 10 (8.7% had the G6PD Chatham variant. No cases of G6PD A-, G6PD Aures or G6PD Cosenza were identified, leaving 4 cases (3.5% uncharacterized. Further molecular screening revealed that the silent mutation 1311 was present in 93/95 of the Mediterranean and 1/10 of the Chatham cases. Conclusions The current study revealed a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Iraqi Kurdish population of Northern Iraq with most cases being due to the G6PD

  12. Myopathy in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholte, H R; Van Coster, R N; de Jonge, P C;

    1999-01-01

    A 30-year-old man suffered since the age of 13 years from exercise induced episodes of intense generalised muscle pain, weakness and myoglobinuria. Fasting ketogenesis was low, while blood glucose remained normal. Muscle mitochondria failed to oxidise palmitoylcarnitine. Palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenase...

  13. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency and fatal valproate toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njolstad, PR; Skjeldal, OH; Agsteribbe, E; Huckriede, A; Wannag, E; Sovik, O; Waaler, PE

    1997-01-01

    A boy with delayed psychomotor development, attention deficit disorder, and therapy-resistant epilepsy was treated with valproate. The patient died of liver failure after 4 months of valproate treatment. Postmortem investigation of cultured fibroblasts suggested medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase d

  14. A novel c.197T ® A variant among Brazilian neonates with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira de Moura Neto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC 1.1.1.49 deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency worldwide, causing a spectrum of diseases including neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and acute or chronic hemolysis. We used the methemoglobin reduction test and G6PD electrophoresis to screen 655 neonates (354 females and 301 males for common G6PD mutations in the city of Salvador in the Northeastern Brazilian state Bahia and found that 66 (10.1% were G6PD-deficient (41 females and 25 males. The 66 (10.1% G6PD-deficient neonates were assessed for the c.376 A -> G (exon 5 and c.202 G -> A (exon 4 mutations using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis and the results validated by DNA sequencing. Of the 66 G6PD-deficient neonates investigated we found that 54 (81.8% presented the c.376 A -> G (p.Asn126Asp and c.202 G -> A (p.Val68Met mutations, two (3% had the c.376 A -> G mutation only, two (3% had the c.202 G -> A mutation only, five (7.6% exhibited a previously unrecorded 197T -> A (p.Phe66Thr substitution in exon 4 and three showed no mutations at any of these sites. Of the five neonates exhibiting the new 197T -> A (p.Phe66Thr substitution, four (6.1% also presented the c.202 G -> A and c.376 A -> G mutations and one (1.5% had the c.[197T -> A / 202 G -> A] combination. We propose to name the new variant G6PD Bahia.

  15. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 and 4 gene deficiency attenuates nociceptive behaviors in a mouse model of acute inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Rahman, Md Habibur; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Won-Ha; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-09-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinases (PDKs) 1-4, expressed in peripheral and central tissues, regulate the activity of the PDH complex (PDC). The PDC is an important mitochondrial gatekeeping enzyme that controls cellular metabolism. The role of PDKs in diverse neurological disorders, including neurometabolic aberrations and neurodegeneration, has been described. Implications for a role of PDKs in inflammation and neurometabolic coupling led us to investigate the effect of genetic ablation of PDK2/4 on nociception in a mouse model of acute inflammatory pain. Deficiency in Pdk2 and/or Pdk4 in mice led to attenuation of formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors (flinching, licking, biting, or lifting of the injected paw). Likewise, the pharmacological inhibition of PDKs substantially diminished the nociceptive responses in the second phase of the formalin test. Furthermore, formalin-provoked paw edema formation and mechanical and thermal hypersensitivities were significantly reduced in Pdk2/4-deficient mice. Formalin-driven neutrophil recruitment at the site of inflammation, spinal glial activation, and neuronal sensitization were substantially lessened in the second or late phase of the formalin test in Pdk2/4-deficient animals. Overall, our results suggest that PDK2/4 can be a potential target for the development of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of acute inflammatory pain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26931482

  16. Specific combination of compound heterozygous mutations in 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (HSD17B4 defines a new subtype of D-bifunctional protein deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillan Hugh J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D-bifunctional protein (DBP deficiency is typically apparent within the first month of life with most infants demonstrating hypotonia, psychomotor delay and seizures. Few children survive beyond two years of age. Among patients with prolonged survival all demonstrate severe gross motor delay, absent language development, and severe hearing and visual impairment. DBP contains three catalytically active domains; an N-terminal dehydrogenase, a central hydratase and a C-terminal sterol carrier protein-2-like domain. Three subtypes of the disease are identified based upon the domain affected; DBP type I results from a combined deficiency of dehydrogenase and hydratase activity; DBP type II from isolated hydratase deficiency and DBP type III from isolated dehydrogenase deficiency. Here we report two brothers (16½ and 14 years old with DBP deficiency characterized by normal early childhood followed by sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cerebellar and sensory ataxia and subclinical retinitis pigmentosa. Methods and results Biochemical analysis revealed normal levels of plasma VLCFA, phytanic acid and pristanic acid, and normal bile acids in urine; based on these results no diagnosis was made. Exome analysis was performed using the Agilent SureSelect 50Mb All Exon Kit and the Illumina HiSeq 2000 next-generation-sequencing (NGS platform. Compound heterozygous mutations were identified by exome sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing within the dehydrogenase domain (c.101C>T; p.Ala34Val and hydratase domain (c.1547T>C; p.Ile516Thr of the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 gene (HSD17B4. These mutations have been previously reported in patients with severe-forms of DBP deficiency, however each mutation was reported in combination with another mutation affecting the same domain. Subsequent studies in fibroblasts revealed normal VLCFA levels, normal C26:0 but reduced pristanic acid beta-oxidation activity. Both DBP

  17. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Yemeni children residing in malaria-endemic areas of Hodeidah governorate and evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for its detection

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Alkubati, Sameer A.; Alqubaty, Abdulhabib R.; Al-Mikhlafy, Abdullah A.; Al-Eryani, Samira M.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdusalam M.; Alhaj, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the most common genetic enzymopathy worldwide, is associated with an acute haemolytic anaemia in individuals exposed to primaquine. The present study aimed to determine G6PD deficiency among Yemeni children in malaria-endemic areas as well as to assess the performance of the CareStart™ G6PD rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for its detection. Methods A cross-sectional study recruiting 400 children from two rural districts in Hodeidah g...

  18. Dengue virus type 2 (DENV2)-induced oxidative responses in monocytes from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient and G6PD normal subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Ahmed Al-Alimi; Syed A. Ali; Faisal Muti Al-Hassan; Fauziah Mohd Idris; Sin-Yeang Teow; Narazah Mohd Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue virus is endemic in peninsular Malaysia. The clinical manifestations vary depending on the incubation period of the virus as well as the immunity of the patients. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is prevalent in Malaysia where the incidence is 3.2%. It has been noted that some G6PD-deficient individuals suffer from more severe clinical presentation of dengue infection. In this study, we aim to investigate the oxidative responses of DENV2-infected monocyte...

  19. Dengue Virus Type 2 (DENV2)-Induced Oxidative Responses in Monocytes from Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD)-Deficient and G6PD Normal Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Al-alimi, Abdullah Ahmed; Syed A. Ali; AL-HASSAN, FAISAL MUTI; Idris, Fauziah Mohd; Teow, Sin-Yeang; Mohd Yusoff, Narazah

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue virus is endemic in peninsular Malaysia. The clinical manifestations vary depending on the incubation period of the virus as well as the immunity of the patients. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is prevalent in Malaysia where the incidence is 3.2%. It has been noted that some G6PD-deficient individuals suffer from more severe clinical presentation of dengue infection. In this study, we aim to investigate the oxidative responses of DENV2-infected monocytes...

  20. l-Valine Production with Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-Deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Blombach, Bastian; Schreiner, Mark E.; Holátko, Jiří; Bartek, Tobias; Oldiges, Marco; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.

    2007-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum was engineered for the production of l-valine from glucose by deletion of the aceE gene encoding the E1p enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and additional overexpression of the ilvBNCE genes encoding the l-valine biosynthetic enzymes acetohydroxyacid synthase, isomeroreductase, and transaminase B. In the absence of cellular growth, C. glutamicum ΔaceE showed a relatively high intracellular concentration of pyruvate (25.9 mM) and produced significant amount...

  1. Glucose replaces glutamate as energy substrate to fuel glutamate uptake in glutamate dehydrogenase-deficient astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla; Nissen, Jakob D; Stridh, Malin H;

    2015-01-01

    Cultured astrocytes treated with siRNA to knock down glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were used to investigate whether this enzyme is important for the utilization of glutamate as an energy substrate. By incubation of these cells in media containing different concentrations of glutamate (range 100......-500 µM) in the presence or in the absence of glucose, the metabolism of these substrates was studied by using tritiated glutamate or 2-deoxyglucose as tracers. In addition, the cellular contents of glutamate and ATP were determined. The astrocytes were able to maintain physiological levels of ATP...

  2. Isolated 2-methylbutyrylglycinuria caused by short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Christensen, E; Corydon, T J;

    2000-01-01

    of homozygosity for a 1228G-->A mutation in the patient. This mutation was not present in 118 control chromosomes. In vitro transcription/translation experiments and overexpression in COS cells confirmed the disease-causing nature of the mutant SBCAD protein and showed that ACAD-8 is an isobutyryl......-CoA dehydrogenase and that both wild-type proteins are imported into mitochondria and form tetramers. In conclusion, we report the first mutation in the SBCAD gene, show that it results in an isolated defect in isoleucine catabolism, and indicate that ACAD-8 is a mitochondrial enzyme that functions in valine...

  3. l-Valine Production during Growth of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex- Deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum in the Presence of Ethanol or by Inactivation of the Transcriptional Regulator SugR▿

    OpenAIRE

    Blombach, Bastian; Arndt, Annette; Auchter, Marc; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.

    2008-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum produce l-valine from glucose only after depletion of the acetate required for growth. Here we show that inactivation of the DeoR-type transcriptional regulator SugR or replacement of acetate by ethanol already in course of the growth phase results in efficient l-valine production.

  4. Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide Status and the Effects of High-Dose Riboflavin Treatment in Short-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.T. Maldegem; M. Duran; R.J.A. Wanders; H.R. Waterham; F.A. Wijburg

    2010-01-01

    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) is an inborn error, biochemically characterized by increased plasma butyrylcarnitine (C4-C) concentration and increased ethylmalonic acid (EMA) excretion and caused by rare mutations and/or common gene variants in the SCAD encoding gene. Although

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency in a family with a previous fatal case of sudden unexpected death in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Winter, V; Jensen, P K;

    1995-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a potentially fatal inherited disease with a carrier frequency of approximately 1:100 in most Caucasian populations. The disease is implicated in sudden unexpected death in childhood. A prevalent disease-causing point mutation (A985G...

  6. Patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency have impaired oxidation of fat during exercise but no effect of L-carnitine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K L; Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C;

    2013-01-01

    It is not clear to what extent skeletal muscle is affected in patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD). l-Carnitine is commonly used as a supplement in patients with MCADD, although its beneficial effect has not been verified....

  7. Comparative 13C metabolic flux analysis of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient, L-valine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartek, Tobias; Blombach, Bastian; Lang, Siegmund; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco; Nöh, Katharina; Noack, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    L-Valine can be formed successfully using C. glutamicum strains missing an active pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC). Wild-type C. glutamicum and four PDHC-deficient strains were compared by (13)C metabolic flux analysis, especially focusing on the split ratio between glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Compared to the wild type, showing a carbon flux of 69% ± 14% through the PPP, a strong increase in the PPP flux was observed in PDHC-deficient strains with a maximum of 113% ± 22%. The shift in the split ratio can be explained by an increased demand of NADPH for l-valine formation. In accordance, the introduction of the Escherichia coli transhydrogenase PntAB, catalyzing the reversible conversion of NADH to NADPH, into an L-valine-producing C. glutamicum strain caused the PPP flux to decrease to 57% ± 6%, which is below the wild-type split ratio. Hence, transhydrogenase activity offers an alternative perspective for sufficient NADPH supply, which is relevant for most amino acid production systems. Moreover, as demonstrated for L-valine, this bypass leads to a significant increase of product yield due to a concurrent reduction in carbon dioxide formation via the PPP.

  8. Deficient Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1 Is Consistent with Increased Sensitivity of Gorlin Syndrome Patients to Radiation Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Aaron T.; Magnaldo, Thierry; Sontag, Ryan L.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Sadler, Natalie C.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Gache, Yannick; Weber, Thomas J.

    2015-06-01

    Human phenotypes that are highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis have been identified. Sensitive phenotypes often display robust regulation of molecular features that modify biological response, which can facilitate identification of relevant pathways/networks. Here we interrogate primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from Gorlin syndrome patients (GDFs), who display a pronounced tumorigenic response to radiation, in comparison to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Our approach exploits newly developed thiol-reactive probes with a flexible click chemistry functional group to define changes in protein thiol profiles in live cell studies, which minimizes artifacts associated with cell lysis. We observe qualitative differences in protein thiol profiles by SDS-PAGE analysis when detection by iodoacetamide vs maleimide probe chemistries are compared, and pretreatment of cells with hydrogen peroxide eliminates detection of the majority of SDS-PAGE bands. Redox probes revealed deficient expression of an apparent 55 kDa protein thiol in GDFs from independent donors, compared with NHDFs. Proteomics tentatively identified this protein as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a key enzyme regulating retinoic acid synthesis, and this deficiency was confirmed by Western blot. Redox probes revealed additional protein thiol differences between GDFs and NHDFs, including radiation responsive annexin family members. Our results indicate a multifactorial basis for the unusual sensitivity of Gorlin syndrome to radiation carcinogenesis, and the pathways identified have plausible implications for radiation health effects.

  9. Icterícia neonatal e deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase Neonatal jaundice and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Antiquera Leite

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase em neonatos pode ser a responsável pela icterícia neonatal. Este comentário científico é decorrente do relato sobre o tema publicado neste fascículo e que preocupa diversos autores de outros países em relação às complicações em neonatos de hiperbilirrubinemia, existindo inclusive proposições de alguns autores em incluir o teste para identificar a deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase nos recém-nascidos.Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in newborn babies may be responsible for neonatal jaundice. There is a concern of many authors from other countries in respect to complications in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia; some authors even propose screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in newborn babies. A scientific report on this subject is published in this issue.

  10. Molecular diagnosis and characterization of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Bross, P; Jensen, T G;

    1995-01-01

    PCR/solid-phase based semi-automated sequencing of all 12 exons of the MCAD gene. We have so far identified the mutation in 33 of 45 non-G985 homozygous families with verified MCAD deficiency, thereby bringing the number of known mutations in the MCAD gene up to 26. In order to investigate in detail...... of correct enzyme structure, and does not directly affect the catalytically active regions of the enzyme. We find that our diagnostic set up, consisting of an initial testing by the G985 assay, followed by semi-automated sequencing of DNA from those patients who were indicated to be compound heterozygous......, is an important improvement to the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  11. Frequency of Thalassemia, Iron and Glucose-6Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Among Turkish Migrating Nomad Children in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrabani D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ferropenia and consequent iron deficiency anemia (IDA, β-thalassemia, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency are three main common hematological problems in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of these problems in Turkish migrating nomads in southern Iran. From June to October 2006, the blood sample of 152 Turkish migrating nomadic children including 79 (52% males and 73 (48% females were evaluated for iron indices and G6PD deficiency in southern Iran. The family history of thalassemia, favism, and signs and symptoms related to anemia of participants were determined. RBC count, different types of Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, SI, TIBC and SF were measured immediately after blood sampling. Twenty-seven (17.7% children had serum ferritin (SF level <12 ng/dL, while this low serum ferritin level was similar in both genders. The low hemoglobin (Hb level had a statistical correlation with the low serum ferritin level. Among all participants, the prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 7.2% which was more frequent in males compared to females (8.9% vs. 5.5%. Seven (4.6% children had Hb  3.5 g/dL; and the prevalence of β-thalassemia trait was higher in female children compared with males (5.5% vs. 3.8%. The prevalence of IDA was 17.7%. Although this figure is less than the prevalence found in other developing countries (25-35%; but it shows that Turkish ethnic nomads in southern Iran are still behind the health statues in the industrialized countries (5-8%. The relatively high prevalence of β-thalassemia trait also is a major potential risk; and careful performance of Iranian thalassaemia program is highly suggested. It seems that G6PD deficiency is a prevalent disease in migrating Turkish nomads, and again establishment of educational programs, and investigation of dietary habits of Turkish migrating nomads on how and by whom the fava beans are consumed; seems to be a good way to prevent favism.

  12. Prevalence of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and Thyroid Hormones Deficiency in Neonatal Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Wael R Hablas , 2Salwa K El- Nabarawy 2Nadia F Ibrahim and 3Noha M Radwan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available G6PD deficiency is the most common inherited metabolic disorder and clinically significant red cell enzyme defect in man. Severe neonatal jaundice proved to be the most common clinical manifestation and a globally important most dangerous consequence of G6PD deficiency. Prolonged jaundice is sometimes associated with congenital hypothyroidism. So the early characterization of G6PD activity and thyroid hormone levels provides an etiological diagnosis for neonatal jaundice as well as the opportunity to give the newborn's family information concerning hemolytic crisis prevention and an early management in case of hypothyroidism. Aim: This study was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and hypothyroidism in relation to neonatal physiological hyperbilirubinemia. Subjects and Methods: The study included 50 neonates aged between 6 hr – 5 days, forty infants had jaundice and the other ten (control, were healthy neonates, matching the same age. All infants of the study were subjected to C-RP test, routine hematological evaluation, and serum total bilirubin levels, quantitative red blood cells G6PD assay and thyroid hormone levels. Results: All the fifty cases of both jaundiced and healthy neonates were negative for C-RP test indicating that the 40 cases had physiological jaundice .The study revealed that G6PD enzyme was lower than normal level in 2 cases (5%. TSH level was found to be higher than normal in 13 jaundiced neonates out of 40 (33%. Seven jaundiced neonates (18% had T4 hormone lower than normal while all the 40 jaundiced cases had normal T3 level. Correlation of the total bilirubin was significant with TSH and T3 at 0.05 levels, while there was no significance with both T4 and G6PD. Conclusion: statistically there was no correlation between bilirubin and both G6PD enzyme and thyroid hormones, but the incidence of hypothyroidism in this study was high (18% and the incidence of G6PD deficiency was (5%. This

  13. Redox stress is not essential for the pseudo-hypoxic phenotype of succinate dehydrogenase deficient cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selak, Mary A; Durán, Raul V; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2006-01-01

    HIFalpha prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) are a family of enzymes that regulate protein levels of the alpha subunit of the hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF) under different oxygen levels. PHDs catalyse the conversion of a prolyl residue, molecular oxygen and alpha-ketoglutarate to hydroxy-prolyl, carbon dioxide and succinate in a reaction dependent on ferrous iron and ascorbate as cofactors. Recently it was shown that pseudo-hypoxia, HIF induction under normoxic conditions, is an important feature of tumours generated as a consequence of inactivation of the mitochondrial tumour suppressor 'succinate dehydrogenase' (SDH). Two models have been proposed to describe the link between SDH inhibition and HIF activation. Both models suggest that a mitochondrial-generated signal leads to the inhibition of PHDs in the cytosol, however, the models differ in the nature of the proposed messenger. The first model postulates that mitochondrial-generated hydrogen peroxide mediates signal transduction while the second model implicates succinate as the molecular messenger which leaves the mitochondrion and inhibits PHDs in the cytosol. Here we show that pseudo-hypoxia can be observed in SDH-suppressed cells in the absence of oxidative stress and in the presence of effective antioxidant treatment.

  14. Krebs cycle metabolite profiling for identification and stratification of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas due to succinate dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, S; Peitzsch, M.; Rapizzi, E.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Qin, N.; Cubas, A.A. de; Schiavi, F.; Rao, J.U.; Beuschlein, F.; Quinkler, M.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Opocher, G.; Mannelli, M.; Pacak, K.; Robledo, M.; Eisenhofer, G.

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Mutations of succinate dehydrogenase A/B/C/D genes (SDHx) increase susceptibility to development of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs), with particularly high rates of malignancy associated with SDHB mutations. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether altered succinate dehydrogenase product

  15. Mutation analysis in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defects: Exemplified by acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies, with special focus on genotype-phenotype relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Andresen, B S; Corydon, M J;

    2001-01-01

    Mutation analysis of metabolic disorders, such as the fatty acid oxidation defects, offers an additional, and often superior, tool for specific diagnosis compared to traditional enzymatic assays. With the advancement of the structural part of the Human Genome Project and the creation of mutation...... of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation: very-long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD, also ACADVL), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD, also ACADM), and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD, also ACADS) deficiencies. On the basis of this knowledge we discuss current understanding of the structural...... systems may help to assess the balance between genetic and environmental factors in the clinical expression of a given mutation. The realization that the effect of the monogene, such as disease-causing mutations in the VLCAD, MCAD, and SCAD genes, may be modified by variations in other genes presages...

  16. Survey of the Prevalence of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD Deficiency in Admitted Men for Premarriage Tests in Zahedan-Iran Reference Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhaee Ali Reza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: GLucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common known enzymopathy in human. G6PD deficiency is usually asymptomatic, however, deficient individuals are at increased risk of developing acute hemolytic anemia and hyperbilirubinemia following intake of oxidative agents and fava. The objective of present study was to detect prevalence of G6PD deficiency in admitted males for premarriage tests in Zahedan Reference Laboratory. Also, we compared blood indices of normal and G6PD deficient individuals.Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 1340 admitted males in Zahedan Reference Laboratory from February 2008 to March 2009. G6PD activity was determined in EDTA containing blood samples by qualitative fluorescence spot test, then G6PD deficiency was confirmed by quantitative spectrophotometric method. Total leukocyte count and RBC indices of G6PD deficient samples and the same number of normal samples were compared. The differences between two groups were compared using Sigmaplot software and t-Student test. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: G6PD deficiency was found in 84 individuals of total 1340 by fluorescence spot test and confirmed in 79 by quantitative method. Therefore, prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Zahedan was estimated to be 5.9%. Comparison of deficient and normal individuals did not show significant difference in WBC count, RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and RDW-SD. However, mean corpuscular volume (MCV was significantly high and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and RDW-CV were significantly low in G6PD deficient individuals compared to those with normal enzyme level.Discussion: Present study revealed that the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Zahedan is 5.9%. Severity of G6PD deficiency in quantitative assay indicated that class I and II are probably dominant variants in

  17. Data on how several physiological parameters of stored red blood cells are similar in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient and sufficient donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Georgatzakou, Hara T; Foudoulaki-Paparizos, Leontini E; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Wither, Matthew J; Nemkov, Travis; Hansen, Kirk C; Papassideri, Issidora S; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Antonelou, Marianna H

    2016-09-01

    This article contains data on the variation in several physiological parameters of red blood cells (RBCs) donated by eligible glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient donors during storage in standard blood bank conditions compared to control, G6PD sufficient (G6PD(+)) cells. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell fragility and membrane exovesiculation were measured in RBCs throughout the storage period, with or without stimulation by oxidants, supplementation of N-acetylcysteine and energy depletion, following incubation of stored cells for 24 h at 37 °C. Apart from cell characteristics, the total or uric acid-dependent antioxidant capacity of the supernatant in addition to extracellular potassium concentration was determined in RBC units. Finally, procoagulant activity and protein carbonylation levels were measured in the microparticles population. Further information can be found in "Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient subjects may be better "storers" than donors of red blood cells" [1]. PMID:27437434

  18. Metabolic markers to distinguish between moniliformin and 3-bromopyruvate induced pyruvate dehydrogenase and rotenone-induced respiratory chain complex I deficiencies in HeLa cells / Lizette Meeding

    OpenAIRE

    Meeding, Lizette

    2009-01-01

    Deficiencies of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex enzyme and of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes in humans both result in similar metabolic profiles in blood and urine. It is therefore almost impossible to distinguish between the two conditions based on the metabolic profile alone. Definitive diagnosis can only be made by assessing enzyme function in muscle biopsies. The aim of this study was to attempt to identify a method that is easy, non-invasive and definitive to distinguish ...

  19. Modulation effect of blu-ray irradiation combined with comprehensive therapy on serum indexes of neonatal erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency-induced hyperbilirubinemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the modulation effect of blu-ray irradiation combined with comprehensive therapy on serum indexes of neonatal erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency-induced hyperbilirubinemia.Methods:A total of42 cases of neonates with erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency-induced hyperbilirubinemia were chosen for study and randomly divided into observation group (n=21) and control group (n=21). Observation group received blu-ray irradiation combined with comprehensive treatment and control group only received routine treatment. Then bilirubin levels, bilirubin encephalopathy condition, anemia condition and oxidative stress degree of two groups were compared. Results:12 h, 24 h and 48 h after treatment, serum TBIL, DBIL, IBIL, Hb, GSH and CAT contents of both groups showed decreasing trend and MDA contents showed increasing trend; serum TBIL, DBIL, IBIL, Hb, GSH and CAT contents of observation group were lower than those of control group and MDA contents were higher than those of control group. 6 d, 7 d and 8 d after treatment, serum S100β and NSE contents of both groups showed decreasing trend and serum S100β and NSE contents of observation group were lower than those of control group.Conclusion:Blu-ray irradiation combined with comprehensive therapy helps to reduce bilirubin levels of neonatal erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency-induced hyperbilirubinemia and protect nerve function, but it will aggravate anemia condition and oxidative stress degree, and needs attention and intervention in clinical practice.

  20. Clinical features and mutations in seven Chinese patients with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Nan Zhang; Yi-Fan Li; Wen-Juan Qiu; Jun Ye; Lian-Shu Han; Hui-Wen Zhang; Na Lin; Xue-Fan Gu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) is an inherited metabolic disease caused by deleterious mutations in the ACADVL gene that encodes very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD), and which can present as cardiomyopathy in neonates, as hypoketotic hypoglycemia in infancy, and as myopathy in late-onset patients. Although many ACADVL mutations have been described, no prevalent mutations in the ACADVL gene have been associated with VLCADD. Herein, we report the clinical course of the disease and explore the genetic mutation spectrum in seven Chinese patients with VLCADD. Methods: Seven Chinese patients, from newborn to 17 years old, were included in this study. Tandem mass spectrometry was performed to screen for VLCAD defi ciency. All exons and fl anking introns of the ACADVL gene were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Online analysis tools were used to predict the impact of novel mutations. Results: All cases had elevated serum levels of tetradecanoylcarnitine (C14:1) which is the characteristic biomarker for VLCADD. The phenotype of VLCADD is heterogeneous. Two patients were hospitalized for hypoactivity and hypoglycemia shortly after birth. Three patients showed hepatomegaly and hypoglycemia in infancy. The other two adolescent patients showed initial manifestations of exercise intolerance or rhabdomyolysis. Three of the patients died at the age of 6-8 months. Eleven different mutations in the ACADVL gene in the 7 patients were identified, including seven reported mutations (p.S22X, p.W427X, p.A213T, p.G222R, p.R450H, c.296- 297delCA, c.1605+1G>T) and four novel mutations (p.S72F, p.Q100X, p.M437T, p.D466Y). The p.R450H and p.D466Y (14.28%, 2/14 alleles) mutations were identifi ed in two alleles respectively. Conclusions: The clinical manifestations were heterogeneous and ACADVL gene mutations were heterozygous in the seven VLCADD Chinese patients. R450H may be a relatively common mutation in Asian

  1. Dengue virus type 2 (DENV2-induced oxidative responses in monocytes from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and G6PD normal subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ahmed Al-Alimi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus is endemic in peninsular Malaysia. The clinical manifestations vary depending on the incubation period of the virus as well as the immunity of the patients. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is prevalent in Malaysia where the incidence is 3.2%. It has been noted that some G6PD-deficient individuals suffer from more severe clinical presentation of dengue infection. In this study, we aim to investigate the oxidative responses of DENV2-infected monocytes from G6PD-deficient individuals. METHODOLOGY: Monocytes from G6PD-deficient individuals were infected with DENV2 and infection rate, levels of oxidative species, nitric oxide (NO, superoxide anions (O2-, and oxidative stress were determined and compared with normal controls. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Monocytes from G6PD-deficient individuals exhibited significantly higher infection rates compared to normal controls. In an effort to explain the reason for this enhanced susceptibility, we investigated the production of NO and O2- in the monocytes of individuals with G6PD deficiency compared with normal controls. We found that levels of NO and O2- were significantly lower in the DENV-infected monocytes from G6PD-deficient individuals compared with normal controls. Furthermore, the overall oxidative stress in DENV-infected monocytes from G6PD-deficient individuals was significantly higher when compared to normal controls. Correlation studies between DENV-infected cells and oxidative state of monocytes further confirmed these findings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altered redox state of DENV-infected monocytes from G6PD-deficient individuals appears to augment viral replication in these cells. DENV-infected G6PD-deficient individuals may contain higher viral titers, which may be significant in enhanced virus transmission. Furthermore, granulocyte dysfunction and higher viral loads in G6PD-deificient individuals may result in severe form of dengue infection.

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase(G6PD) deficiency is associated with asymptomatic malaria in a rural community in Burkina Faso

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdoul; Karim; Ouattara; Cyrille; Bisseye; Bapio; Valery; Jean; Télesphore; Elvira; Bazie; Birama; Diarra; Tegwindé; Rebeca; Compaore; Florencia; Djigma; Virginio; Pietra; Remy; Moret; Jacques; Simpore

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate 4 combinations of mutations responsible for glucose-6—phosphate dehydrogenase(G6PD) deficiency in a rural community of Burkina Faso,a malaria endemic country.Methods:Two hundred individuals in a rural community were genotyped for the mutations A376 G.G202A,A542 T,G680T and T968 C using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism assays and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism.Results:The prevalence of the G6 PD deficiency was 9.5%,in the study population.It was significantly higher in men compared to women(14.23%vs 6.0%,P=0.049).The 202A/376 G G6PD Awas the only deficient variant detected.Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic parasitemia was significantly higher among the C6PD-non—deficient persons compared to the G6PD-deficient(P<0.001).The asymptomatic parasitemia was also significantly higher among G(SPI) nondeficient compared to C6PD—heterozygous females(P<0.001).Conclusions:This study showed that the G6 PD A- variant associated with protection against asymptomatic malaria in Burkina Faso is probably the most common deficient variant.

  3. N-acetyl cysteine, L-cysteine, and beta-mercaptoethanol augment selenium-glutathione peroxidase activity in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicigüzel, Y; Aslan, M

    2004-09-01

    In glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient erythrocytes, failure to maintain normal levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) due to decreased NADPH regeneration in the hexose monophosphate pathway results in acute hemolytic anemia following exposure to oxidative insults, such as ingestion of Vicia fava beans or use of certain drugs. GSH is a source of protection against oxidative attack, used by the selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px)/reductase (GR) system to detoxify hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides, provided that sufficient GSH is made available. In this study, Se-GSH-Px activity was analyzed in G6PD-deficient patients in the presence of reducing agents such as N-Acetyl cysteine, L-cysteine, and beta-mercaptoethanol. Se-GSH-Px activity was decreased in G6PD-deficient red blood cells (RBCs). N-Acetyl cysteine, L-cysteine, and beta-mercaptoethanol increased Se-GSH-Px activity in G6PD-deficient human erythrocytes, indicating that other reducing agents can be utilized to complement Se-GSH-Px activity in G6PD deficiency. Based on the increased susceptibility of G6PD-deficient patients to oxidative stress, the reported increase in Se-GSH-Px activity can facilitate the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. PMID:15598086

  4. EVALUATION OF THE DORSET SHEEP AS A PREDICTIVE ANIMAL MODEL FOR THE RESPONSE OF GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE-DEFICIENT HUMAN ERYTHOCYTES TO A PROPOSED SYSTEMIC TOXIC OZONE INTERMEDIATE, METHYL OLEATE OZONIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erythrocytes of both glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD)-deficient humans and Dorest sheep, an animal model with an erythrocyte G-6-PD deficiency, responded in a dose-dependent manner to the oxidant stress of methyl oleate ozonide (MOO) as measured by decreases in G-6-PD a...

  5. The first three years of screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD by newborn screening ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD is a disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and is one of the most common inborn errors of metabolism. Identification of MCADD via newborn screening permits the introduction of interventions that can significantly reduce associated morbidity and mortality. This study reports on the first three years of newborn screening for MCADD in Ontario, Canada. Methods Newborn Screening Ontario began screening for MCADD in April 2006, by quantification of acylcarnitines (primarily octanoylcarnitine, C8 in dried blood spots using tandem mass spectrometry. Babies with positive screening results were referred to physicians at one of five regional Newborn Screening Treatment Centres, who were responsible for diagnostic evaluation and follow-up care. Results From April 2006 through March 2009, approximately 439 000 infants were screened for MCADD in Ontario. Seventy-four infants screened positive, with a median C8 level of 0.68 uM (range 0.33-30.41 uM. Thirty-one of the screen positive infants have been confirmed to have MCADD, while 36 have been confirmed to be unaffected. Screening C8 levels were higher among infants with MCADD (median 8.93 uM compared to those with false positive results (median 0.47 uM. Molecular testing was available for 29 confirmed cases of MCADD, 15 of whom were homozygous for the common c.985A > G mutation. Infants homozygous for the common mutation tended to have higher C8 levels (median 12.13 uM relative to compound heterozygotes for c.985A > G and a second detectable mutation (median 2.01 uM. Eight confirmed mutation carriers were identified among infants in the false positive group. The positive predictive value of a screen positive for MCADD was 46%. The estimated birth prevalence of MCADD in Ontario is approximately 1 in 14 000. Conclusions The birth prevalence of MCADD and positive predictive value of the screening test were similar to those

  6. MCT oil-based diet reverses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a patient with very long chain acyl-coA dehydrogenase deficiency

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    Muhammad Ali Pervaiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD deficiency is one of the genetic defects of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation presenting in early infancy or childhood. If undiagnosed and untreated, VLCAD deficiency may be fatal, secondary to cardiac involvement. We assessed the effect of replacing part of the fat in the diet of a 2 ΍-month-old male infant, who was diagnosed with VLCAD deficiency,with medium-chain triglyceride (MCT oil and essential fats. The patient presented with vomiting, dehydration, and was found to have persistent elevation of liver function tests, hepatomegaly, pericardial and pleural effusion, right bundle branch block, and biventricular hypertrophy. Because of the cardiomyopathy, hepatomegaly, and an abnormal acylcarnitine profile and urine organic acids, he was suspected of having VLCAD deficiency. This was confirmed on acyl-coA dehydrogenase, very long chain (ACADVL gene analysis. He was begun on an MCT oil-based formula with added essential fatty acids, uncooked cornstarch (around 1 year of age, and frequent feeds. By 7 months of age, cardiomyopathy had reversed and by 18 months of age, all cardiac medications were discontinued and hypotonia had improved such that physical therapy was no longer required. At 5 years of age, he is at the 50 th percentile for height and weight along with normal development. Pediatricians need to be aware about the basic pathophysiology of the disease and the rationale behind its treatment as more patients are being diagnosed because of expansion of newborn screen. The use of MCT oil as a medical intervention for treatment of VLCAD deficiency remains controversial mostly because of lack of clear phenotype-genotype correlations, secondary to the genetic heterogeneity of the mutations. Our case demonstrated the medical necessity of MCT oil-based nutritional intervention and the need for the further research for the development of specific guidelines to improve the care of these

  7. Population screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, using a modified enzyme assay on filter paper dried bloodspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency poses a significant impediment to primaquine use for the elimination of liver stage infection with Plasmodium vivax and for gametocyte clearance, because of the risk of life-threatening haemolytic anaemia that can occur in G6PD deficient patients. Although a range of methods for screening G6PD deficiency have been described, almost all require skilled personnel, expensive laboratory equipment, freshly collected blood, and are time consuming; factors that render them unsuitable for mass-screening purposes. Methods A published WST8/1-methoxy PMS method was adapted to assay G6PD activity in a 96-well format using dried blood spots, and used it to undertake population screening within a malaria survey undertaken in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. The assay results were compared to a biochemical test and a recently marketed rapid diagnostic test. Results Comparative testing with biochemical and rapid diagnostic test indicated that results obtained by filter paper assay were accurate providing that blood spots were assayed within 5 days when stored at ambient temperature and 10 days when stored at 4 degrees. Screening of 8541 people from 41 villages in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands revealed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency as defined by enzyme activity < 30% of normal control was 20.3% and a prevalence of severe deficiency that would predispose to primaquine-induced hemolysis (WHO Class I-II) of 6.9%. Conclusions The assay enabled simple and quick semi-quantitative population screening in a malaria-endemic region. The study indicated a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Isabel Province and highlights the critical need to consider G6PD deficiency in the context of P. vivax malaria elimination strategies in Solomon Islands, particularly in light of the potential role of primaquine mass drug administration. PMID:20684792

  8. STUDY OF GLUCOSE 6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (G6PD DEFICIENCY IN JAUNDICED NEONATES OF A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE OF NORTH-EAST INDIA

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    Aukifa Khamim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available roteins from oxidative damage. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the commonest red cell enzyme abnormality associated with haemolysis leading to Neonatal Jaundice (NNJ. It is a genetically inherited X-linked abnormality. AIMS To find out incidence of G6PD deficiency amongst jaundiced patients and relation between G6PD deficiency and sex, peak level of Total Serum Bilirubin (TSB, significant hyperbilirubinemia, duration of phototherapy and need for exchange transfusion. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Hospital based retrospective study. METHODS AND MATERIALS This retrospective study was carried out among 1224 jaundiced neonates needing phototherapy admitted in the Neonatology Unit of Dept. of Paediatrics (March 2015 to October 2015, Assam Medical College and Hospital (AMCH, Dibrugarh, Assam. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED Data were entered in SPSS (Software package for statistical analysis, version 16 and analysed using Chi-Square test and Mann Whitney U test. RESULTS A total of 2574 neonates were admitted during the 8 months period, of which 1224 had NNJ (47.5%. Of these 77 (5.07% babies were G6PD deficient. Male (n=53 to female (n=24 ratio was 2:1. The commonest age at presentation was 2nd to 4th days in both G6PD deficient and G6PD normal neonates. Mean peak-TSB level in G6PD deficient cases (20.03±5.30 mg/dL was significantly higher than G6PD normal cases (16.67±3.93 mg/dL; 45% of G6PD deficient neonates developed significant hyperbilirubinemia (Indirect bilirubin more than 20 mg% and required Double Volume Exchange Transfusion (DVET. Mean duration of phototherapy in G6PD deficient NNJ babies is 2.5±1.2 days, which is significantly higher (p<0.05 when compared to G6PD normal NNJ babies where it is 2±1.1 days. In babies with significant hyperbilirubinemia, it is seen that there is signif icant difference (p<0.001 between G6PD deficient and G6PD normal babies. There was significant difference in requirement of DVET between G6PD deficient

  9. Prevalência da deficiência da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase em doadores de sangue de Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in blood donors of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte

    OpenAIRE

    Ulysses Madureira Maia; Danielle Cristiny de Azevedo Batista; Wogelsanger Oliveira Pereira; Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy. It affects as many as 330 million individuals worldwide. This deficiency may determine neonatal jaundice, chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia and acute hemolytic anemia induced by drugs, infections and broad bean ingestion. The efficacy of blood transfusion is decreased when the donor is G6PD deficient. In this study, we aimed at determining the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in blood donors of Mossor...

  10. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in male newborn babies and its relationship with neonatal jaundice Deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase eritrocitária em recém-nascidos do sexo masculino e sua relação com a icterícia neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Marli Auxiliadora C. Iglessias; Rosa Maria V. Santos; Maria do Socorro T. Amorim; Rosângela T. Silva; Susiane S. Moreira; Orlando C. O. Barretto; Tereza Maria D. Medeiros

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the commonest red cell enzymopathy in humans, has an X-linked inheritance. The major clinical manifestations are drug induced hemolytic anemia, neonatal jaundice and chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. The incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is much greater in G6PD-deficient neonates than babies without this deficiency. The aim of this study was to ascertain the presence of neonatal jaundice in erythrocyte G6PD-deficient male newb...

  11. Data on how several physiological parameters of stored red blood cells are similar in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient and sufficient donors

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    Vassilis L. Tzounakas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data on the variation in several physiological parameters of red blood cells (RBCs donated by eligible glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficient donors during storage in standard blood bank conditions compared to control, G6PD sufficient (G6PD+ cells. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, cell fragility and membrane exovesiculation were measured in RBCs throughout the storage period, with or without stimulation by oxidants, supplementation of N-acetylcysteine and energy depletion, following incubation of stored cells for 24 h at 37 °C. Apart from cell characteristics, the total or uric acid-dependent antioxidant capacity of the supernatant in addition to extracellular potassium concentration was determined in RBC units. Finally, procoagulant activity and protein carbonylation levels were measured in the microparticles population. Further information can be found in “Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient subjects may be better “storers” than donors of red blood cells” [1].

  12. Developmental Defects of Caenorhabditis elegans Lacking Branched-chain α-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Are Mainly Caused by Monomethyl Branched-chain Fatty Acid Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Cui, Mingxue; Than, Minh T; Han, Min

    2016-02-01

    Branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) catalyzes the critical step in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway and has been the focus of extensive studies. Mutations in the complex disrupt many fundamental metabolic pathways and cause multiple human diseases including maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), autism, and other related neurological disorders. BCKDH may also be required for the synthesis of monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) from BCAAs. The pathology of MSUD has been attributed mainly to BCAA accumulation, but the role of mmBCFA has not been evaluated. Here we show that disrupting BCKDH in Caenorhabditis elegans causes mmBCFA deficiency, in addition to BCAA accumulation. Worms with deficiency in BCKDH function manifest larval arrest and embryonic lethal phenotypes, and mmBCFA supplementation suppressed both without correcting BCAA levels. The majority of developmental defects caused by BCKDH deficiency may thus be attributed to lacking mmBCFAs in worms. Tissue-specific analysis shows that restoration of BCKDH function in multiple tissues can rescue the defects, but is especially effective in neurons. Taken together, we conclude that mmBCFA deficiency is largely responsible for the developmental defects in the worm and conceivably might also be a critical contributor to the pathology of human MSUD.

  13. A polymorphic variant in the human electron transfer flavoprotein alpha-chain (alpha-T171) displays decreased thermal stability and is overrepresented in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient patients with mild childhood presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, P; Pedersen, P; Nyholm, M;

    1999-01-01

    , whereas the two variants of the beta-M/T154 polymorphism did not differ. We wished to test the hypothesis that these polymorphisms might constitute susceptibility factors and therefore determined their allele and genotype frequencies in (i) control individuals, (ii) medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase......-deficient patients homozygous for the K304E mutation (MCAD E304), (iii) a group of patients with elevated urinary excretion of ethylmalonic acid (EMA) possibly due to decreased short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity, and (iv) in patients with proven deficiency of very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD......). No significant overrepresentations or underrepresentations were found in the first two patient groups, suggesting that the polymorphisms studied are not significant susceptibility factors in either the MCAD E304 or the EMA patient group. However, in the VLCAD deficient patients the alpha-T171 variant (decreased...

  14. Mice deficient in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lack bone marrow adipocytes, but maintain normal bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jeannette; Mosekilde, Lis; Holmes, Megan;

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) exert potent, but poorly characterized, effects on the skeleton. The cellular activity of GCs is regulated at a prereceptor level by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11betaHSDs). The type 1 isoform, which predominates in bone, functions as a reductase in intact cells...

  15. Population screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, using a modified enzyme assay on filter paper dried bloodspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landry Losi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency poses a significant impediment to primaquine use for the elimination of liver stage infection with Plasmodium vivax and for gametocyte clearance, because of the risk of life-threatening haemolytic anaemia that can occur in G6PD deficient patients. Although a range of methods for screening G6PD deficiency have been described, almost all require skilled personnel, expensive laboratory equipment, freshly collected blood, and are time consuming; factors that render them unsuitable for mass-screening purposes. Methods A published WST8/1-methoxy PMS method was adapted to assay G6PD activity in a 96-well format using dried blood spots, and used it to undertake population screening within a malaria survey undertaken in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. The assay results were compared to a biochemical test and a recently marketed rapid diagnostic test. Results Comparative testing with biochemical and rapid diagnostic test indicated that results obtained by filter paper assay were accurate providing that blood spots were assayed within 5 days when stored at ambient temperature and 10 days when stored at 4 degrees. Screening of 8541 people from 41 villages in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands revealed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency as defined by enzyme activity Conclusions The assay enabled simple and quick semi-quantitative population screening in a malaria-endemic region. The study indicated a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Isabel Province and highlights the critical need to consider G6PD deficiency in the context of P. vivax malaria elimination strategies in Solomon Islands, particularly in light of the potential role of primaquine mass drug administration.

  16. First evaluation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency in vivax malaria endemic regions in the Republic of Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Kyoung Goo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect and affects more than 400 million people worldwide. This deficiency is believed to protect against malaria because its global distribution is similar. However, this genetic disorder may be associated with potential hemolytic anemia after treatment with anti-malarials, primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines. Although primaquine is used for malaria prevention, no study has previously investigated the prevalence of G6PD variants and G6PD deficiency in the Republic of Korea (ROK. METHODS: Two commercialized test kits (Trinity G-6-PDH and CareStart G6PD test were used for G6PD deficiency screening. The seven common G6PD variants were investigated by DiaPlexC kit in blood samples obtained living in vivax malaria endemic regions in the ROK. RESULTS: Of 1,044 blood samples tested using the CareStart G6PD test, none were positive for G6PD deficiency. However, a slightly elevated level of G6PD activity was observed in 14 of 1,031 samples tested with the Trinity G-6-PDH test. Forty-nine of the 298 samples with non-specific amplification by DiaPlexC kit were confirmed by sequencing to be negative for the G6PD variants. CONCLUSIONS: No G6PD deficiency was observed using phenotypic- or genetic-based tests in individuals residing in vivax malaria endemic regions in the ROK. Because massive chemoprophylaxis using primaquine has been performed in the ROK military to kill hypnozoites responsible for relapse and latent stage vivax malaria, further regular monitoring is essential for the safe administration of primaquine.

  17. Atividade da 6-fosfogliconato desidrogenase em deficientes de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase Activity of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela B. Nicolielo; Rosecler I.P. Ferreira; Amauri A. Leite

    2006-01-01

    As enzimas G6PD e 6PGD são responsáveis pela geração do aporte de NADPH, necessário para a detoxificação dos agentes oxidantes produzidos pelo estresse oxidativo metabólico nos eritrócitos. Devido à alta prevalência de deficiência de G6PD na população mundial, principalmente de origem negróide africana, muitos estudos têm sido realizados na tentativa de conhecer melhor a atuação destas enzimas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade enzimática da 6PGD, nos deficientes de G6PD, para v...

  18. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activity in methemoglobin reduction by methylene blue and cyst amine: study on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient individuals, on normal subjects and on riboflavin-treated subjects

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    Benedito Barraviera

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors have standardized methods for evaluation of the activity of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and of glutathione reductase. The general principle of the first method was based on methemoglobin formation by sodium nitrite followed by stimulation of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with methylene blue. Forty six adults (23 males and 23 females were studied. Subjects were not G6PD deficient and were aged 20 to 30 years. The results showed that methemoglobin reduction by methylene blue was 154.40 and 139.90 mg/min (p<0.05 for males and females, respectively, in whole blood, and 221.10 and 207.85 mg/min (n.s., respectively, in washed red cells. These data showed that using washed red cells and 0.7g% sodium nitrite concentration produced no differences between sexes and also shortened reading time for the residual amount of methemoglobin to 90 minutes. Glutathione reductase activity was evaluated on the basis of the fact that cystamine (a thiol agent binds to the SH groups of hemoglobin, forming complexes. These complexes are reversed by the action of glutathione reductase, with methemoglobin reduction occurring simultaneously with this reaction. Thirty two adults (16 males and 16 females were studied. Subjects were not G6PD deficient and were aged 20 to 30 years. Methemoglobin reduction by cystamine was 81.27 and 91.13 mg/min (p<0.01 for males and females, respectively. These data showed that using washed red cells and 0.1 M cystamine concentration permits a reading of the residual amount of methemoglobin at 180 minutes of incubation. Glutathione reductase activity was evaluated by methemoglobin reduction by cystamine in 14 females before and after treatment with 10 mg riboflavin per day for 8 days. The results were 73.69 and 94.26 jug/min (p<0.01 before and after treatment, showing that riboflavin treatment increase glutathione reductase activity even in normal individuals. Three Black G6PD-deficient individuals (2 males and 1

  19. Risks of hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient infants exposed to chlorproguanil-dapsone, mefloquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as part of intermittent presumptive treatment of malaria in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poirot, Eugenie; Vittinghoff, Eric; Ishengoma, Deus;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD) has been linked to hemolysis in symptomatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) children. Few studies have explored the effects of G6PD status on hemolysis in children treated with Intermittent Preventive Treatment in infants (IPTi) antimala......BACKGROUND: Chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD) has been linked to hemolysis in symptomatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) children. Few studies have explored the effects of G6PD status on hemolysis in children treated with Intermittent Preventive Treatment in infants (IPTi...

  20. Genetic basis for correction of very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency by bezafibrate in patient fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobin-Limballe, S; Djouadi, F; Aubey, F;

    2007-01-01

    there is no established treatment. Recent data suggest that bezafibrate could improve the FAO capacities in beta-oxidation-deficient cells, by enhancing the residual level of mutant enzyme activity via gene-expression stimulation. Since VLCAD-deficient patients frequently harbor missense mutations with unpredictable...

  1.  Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency among Male Blood Donors inSana’a City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molham AL-Habori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G-6-PD deficiency among Yemeni people fromdifferent regions of the country living in the capital city, Sana’a,giving an indication of its overall prevalence in Yemen.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Yemenimale blood donors attending the Department of Blood Bank atthe National Centre of the Public Health Laboratories in thecapital city, Sana’a, Yemen. Fluorescent spot method was used forscreening, spectrophotometeric estimation of G-6-PD activityand separation by electrophoresis was done to determine the G-6-PD phenotype.Results: Of the total 508 male blood donors recruited into thestudy, 36 were G-6-PD deficient, giving a likely G-6-PD deficiencyprevalence of 7.1�20None of these deficient donors had history ofanemia or jaundice. Thirty-five of these deficient cases (97.2�howed severe G-6-PD deficiency class II (<10�0of normalactivity, and their phenotyping presumptively revealed a G-6-PDMediterraneanvariant.Conclusion: The results showed a significant presence of G-6-PD deficiency with predominance of a severe G-6-PD deficiencytype in these blood donors in Sana’a City, which could representan important health problem through occurrence of hemolyticanemia under oxidative stress. A larger sample size is needed todetermine the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency, and shouldbe extended to include DNA analysis to identify its variants in Yemen.

  2. Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  3. Sudden unexpected infant death (SUDI in a newborn due to medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD deficiency with an unusual severe genotype

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    Lovera Cristina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD is the most common inborn error of fatty acid oxidation. This condition may lead to cellular energy shortage and cause severe clinical events such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, Reye syndrome and sudden death. MCAD deficiency usually presents around three to six months of life, following catabolic stress as intercurrent infections or prolonged fasting, whilst neonatal-onset of the disease is quite rare. We report the case of an apparently healthy newborn who suddenly died at the third day of life, in which the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency was possible through peri-mortem blood-spot acylcarnitine analysis that showed very high concentrations of octanoylcarnitine. Genetic analysis at the ACADM locus confirmed the biochemical findings by demonstrating the presence in homozygosity of the frame-shift c.244dup1 (p.Trp82LeufsX23 mutation, a severe genotype that may explain the unusual and very early fatal outcome in this newborn. This report confirms that inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation represent one of the genetic causes of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI and underlines the importance to include systematically specific metabolic screening in any neonatal unexpected death.

  4. Misfolding, degradation, and aggregation of variant proteins. The molecular pathogenesis of short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Bak; Bross, P.; Winter, V.S.;

    2003-01-01

    , and preliminary experiments suggested that the variant protein displayed prolonged association with chaperonins and delayed formation of active enzyme. Accordingly, the molecular pathogenesis of SCAD deficiency may rely on intramitochondrial protein quality control mechanisms, including degradation...

  5. Glutaric acid and its metabolites cause apoptosis in immature oligodendrocytes: a novel mechanism of white matter degeneration in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner, Bettina; Gratopp, Alexander; Marcinkowski, Monika; Sifringer, Marco; Obladen, Michael; Bührer, Christoph

    2005-06-01

    Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by elevated concentrations of glutaric acid (GA) and its metabolites glutaconic acid (GC) and 3-hydroxy-glutaric acid (3-OH-GA). Its hallmarks are striatal and cortical degeneration, which have been linked to excitotoxic neuronal cell death. However, magnetic resonance imaging studies have also revealed widespread white matter disease. Correspondingly, we decided to investigate the effects of GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA on the rat immature oligodendroglia cell line, OLN-93. For comparison, we also exposed the neuroblastoma line SH-SY5Y and the microglia line BV-2 to GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA. Cell viability was measured by metabolism of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium. Flow cytometry was used to assess apoptosis via annexin-V, anti-active caspase-3 antibody, and propidium iodide staining. GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA reduced OLN-93 oligodendroglia cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Toxicity of GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA was abrogated by preincubation with the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Apoptosis but not necrosis was detected at various stages (early: annexin-V; effector: caspase-3) after 24-48 h of incubation with GA, GC, or 3-OH-GA in OLN-93 but not in neuroblastoma or microglia cells. OLN-93 lacked expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, making classical glutamatergic excitotoxicity an unlikely explanation for the selective toxicity of GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA for OLN-93 cells. GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA directly initiate the apoptotic cascade in oligodendroglia cells. This mechanism may contribute to the white matter damage observed in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

  6. Vulnerability to oxidative stress in vitro in pathophysiology of mitochondrial short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: response to antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarazuela Zolkipli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the pathophysiology of SCAD deficient patients who have a unique neurological phenotype, among fatty acid oxidation disorders, with early developmental delay, CNS malformations, intractable seizures, myopathy and clinical signs suggesting oxidative stress. METHODS: We studied skin fibroblast cultures from patients homozygous for ACADS common variant c.625G>A (n = 10, compound heterozygous for c.625G>A/c.319C>T (n = 3 or homozygous for pathogenic c.319C>T (n = 2 and c.1138C>T (n = 2 mutations compared to fibroblasts from patients with carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2 (n = 5, mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP/long-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD (n = 7, and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD deficiencies (n = 4 and normal controls (n = 9. All were exposed to 50 µM menadione at 37°C. Additional conditions included exposure to 39°C and/or hypoglycemia. Time to 100% cell death was confirmed with trypan blue dye exclusion. Experiments were repeated with antioxidants (Vitamins C and E or N-acetylcysteine, Bezafibrate or glucose and temperature rescue. RESULTS: The most significant risk factor for vulnerability to menadione-induced oxidative stress was the presence of a FAO defect. SCADD fibroblasts were the most vulnerable compared to other FAO disorders and controls, and were similarly affected, independent of genotype. Cell death was exacerbated by hyperthermia and/or hypoglycemia. Hyperthermia was a more significant independent risk factor than hypoglycemia. Rescue significantly prolonged survival. Incubation with antioxidants and Bezafibrate significantly increased viability of SCADD fibroblasts. INTERPRETATION: Vulnerability to oxidative stress likely contributes to neurotoxicity of SCADD regardless of ACADS genotype and is significantly exacerbated by hyperthermia. We recommend rigorous temperature control in SCADD patients during acute illness

  7. Sorbitol production from lactose by engineered Lactobacillus casei deficient in sorbitol transport system and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, Reinout; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Nadal, Inmaculada; Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2010-02-01

    Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol largely used in the food industry as a low-calorie sweetener. We have previously described a sorbitol-producing Lactobacillus casei (strain BL232) in which the gutF gene, encoding a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was expressed from the lactose operon. Here, a complete deletion of the ldh1 gene, encoding the main L-lactate dehydrogenase, was performed in strain BL232. In a resting cell system with glucose, the new strain, named BL251, accumulated sorbitol in the medium that was rapidly metabolized after glucose exhaustion. Reutilization of produced sorbitol was prevented by deleting the gutB gene of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Gut)) in BL251. These results showed that the PTS(Gut) did not mediate sorbitol excretion from the cells, but it was responsible for uptake and reutilization of the synthesized sorbitol. A further improvement in sorbitol production was achieved by inactivation of the mtlD gene, encoding a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase. The new strain BL300 (lac::gutF Deltaldh1 DeltagutB mtlD) showed an increase in sorbitol production whereas no mannitol synthesis was detected, avoiding thus a polyol mixture. This strain was able to convert lactose, the main sugar from milk, into sorbitol, either using a resting cell system or in growing cells under pH control. A conversion rate of 9.4% of lactose into sorbitol was obtained using an optimized fed-batch system and whey permeate, a waste product of the dairy industry, as substrate.

  8. Deficiência da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase com infecções de repetição: relato de caso Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with recurrent infections: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abertina Rosa-Borges

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: relatar a ocorrência de uma deficiência funcional de neutrófilos rara, com quadro clínico e laboratorial semelhante ao da doença granulomatosa crônica. MÉTODOS: relato de caso de paciente com deficiência acentuada da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase e infecções de repetição. Realizada pesquisa bibliográfica utilizando as bases de dados Medline e Lilacs, abrangendo o período de 1972 a 2000. RESULTADOS: paciente com nível da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase extremamente reduzido e quadro de infeções graves com melhora clínica após uso de cotrimoxazol contínuo. Os leucócitos do paciente apresentam defeito no metabolismo oxidativo, similar ao da doença granulomatosa crônica. CONCLUSÕES: o diagnóstico da deficiência da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase em neutrófilos deve ser considerado em qualquer paciente com anemia hemolítica não esferocítica congênita no qual o nível da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase esteja anormalmente baixo ou apresente infeções de repetição. É diagnóstico diferencial da doença granulomatosa crônica.OBJECTIVE: To report a case of rare neutrophil functional disorder with clinical and laboratory findings similar to those of chronic granulomatous disease. METHODS: Patient with extremely reduced level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and recurrent infections that improved after continuous use of cotrimoxazole. The patient presented leukocytes with defective respiratory burst, similar to what occurs in chronic granulomatous disease. COMMENTS: The diagnosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in neutrophils should be considered in any patient with hemolytic anemia whose level of G6PD is extremely low or in any patient that presents recurrent infections as differential diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.

  9. Pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficies and their association with malaria - population genetics and proteomic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Patrícia

    2013-01-01

    A malária é reconhecida como uma das principais forças selectivas a actuar na história recente no genoma humano. Inúmeros polimorfismos genéticos têm sido descritos como protectores contra a gravidade da malária, como o alelo HbS (designado de traço falciforme) e o alelo G6PD A- (associado à deficiência de G6PD). Mais recentemente, também a deficiência de PK foi associada com a protecção contra a malária. Evidências desta associação foram obtidas em estudos com modelos de roedo...

  10. Riboflavin-Responsive and -Non-responsive Mutations in FAD Synthase Cause Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase and Combined Respiratory-Chain Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rikke K J; Koňaříková, Eliška; Giancaspero, Teresa A; Mosegaard, Signe; Boczonadi, Veronika; Mataković, Lavinija; Veauville-Merllié, Alice; Terrile, Caterina; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Haack, Tobias B; Auranen, Mari; Leone, Piero; Galluccio, Michele; Imbard, Apolline; Gutierrez-Rios, Purificacion; Palmfeldt, Johan; Graf, Elisabeth; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Oppenheim, Marcus; Schiff, Manuel; Pichard, Samia; Rigal, Odile; Pyle, Angela; Chinnery, Patrick F; Konstantopoulou, Vassiliki; Möslinger, Dorothea; Feichtinger, René G; Talim, Beril; Topaloglu, Haluk; Coskun, Turgay; Gucer, Safak; Botta, Annalisa; Pegoraro, Elena; Malena, Adriana; Vergani, Lodovica; Mazzà, Daniela; Zollino, Marcella; Ghezzi, Daniele; Acquaviva, Cecile; Tyni, Tiina; Boneh, Avihu; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Gregersen, Niels; Mayr, Johannes A; Horvath, Rita; Barile, Maria; Prokisch, Holger

    2016-06-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies (MADDs) are a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders with combined respiratory-chain deficiency and a neuromuscular phenotype. Despite recent advances in understanding the genetic basis of MADD, a number of cases remain unexplained. Here, we report clinically relevant variants in FLAD1, which encodes FAD synthase (FADS), as the cause of MADD and respiratory-chain dysfunction in nine individuals recruited from metabolic centers in six countries. In most individuals, we identified biallelic frameshift variants in the molybdopterin binding (MPTb) domain, located upstream of the FADS domain. Inasmuch as FADS is essential for cellular supply of FAD cofactors, the finding of biallelic frameshift variants was unexpected. Using RNA sequencing analysis combined with protein mass spectrometry, we discovered FLAD1 isoforms, which only encode the FADS domain. The existence of these isoforms might explain why affected individuals with biallelic FLAD1 frameshift variants still harbor substantial FADS activity. Another group of individuals with a milder phenotype responsive to riboflavin were shown to have single amino acid changes in the FADS domain. When produced in E. coli, these mutant FADS proteins resulted in impaired but detectable FADS activity; for one of the variant proteins, the addition of FAD significantly improved protein stability, arguing for a chaperone-like action similar to what has been reported in other riboflavin-responsive inborn errors of metabolism. In conclusion, our studies identify FLAD1 variants as a cause of potentially treatable inborn errors of metabolism manifesting with MADD and shed light on the mechanisms by which FADS ensures cellular FAD homeostasis. PMID:27259049

  11. Multi-organ abnormalities and mTORC1 activation in zebrafish model of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hyung Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD is a severe mitochondrial disorder featuring multi-organ dysfunction. Mutations in either the ETFA, ETFB, and ETFDH genes can cause MADD but very little is known about disease specific mechanisms due to a paucity of animal models. We report a novel zebrafish mutant dark xavier (dxa(vu463 that has an inactivating mutation in the etfa gene. dxa(vu463 recapitulates numerous pathological and biochemical features seen in patients with MADD including brain, liver, and kidney disease. Similar to children with MADD, homozygote mutant dxa(vu463 zebrafish have a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from moderate to severe. Interestingly, excessive maternal feeding significantly exacerbated the phenotype. Homozygous mutant dxa(vu463 zebrafish have swollen and hyperplastic neural progenitor cells, hepatocytes and kidney tubule cells as well as elevations in triacylglycerol, cerebroside sulfate and cholesterol levels. Their mitochondria were also greatly enlarged, lacked normal cristae, and were dysfunctional. We also found increased signaling of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 with enlarged cell size and proliferation. Treatment with rapamycin partially reversed these abnormalities. Our results indicate that etfa gene function is remarkably conserved in zebrafish as compared to humans with highly similar pathological, biochemical abnormalities to those reported in children with MADD. Altered mTORC1 signaling and maternal nutritional status may play critical roles in MADD disease progression and suggest novel treatment approaches that may ameliorate disease severity.

  12. [Activity of liver mitochondrial NAD+-dependent dehydrogenases of the krebs cycle in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis developed under conditions of alimentary protein deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshchuk, O N; Kopylchuk, G P

    2016-01-01

    Activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and the NAD(+)/NADН ratio were studied in the liver mitochondrial fraction of rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen under conditions of alimentary protein deprivation. Acetaminophen-induced hepatitis was characterized by a decrease of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities, while the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio remained at the control level. Modeling of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis in rats with alimentary protein caused a more pronounced decrease in the activity of NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenases studied and a 2.2-fold increase of the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio. This suggests that alimentary protein deprivation potentiated drug-induced liver damage.

  13. Anesthetic agents in patients with very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, Charlotte; Stewart, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrongenase deficiency (VLCADD) is a rare disorder of fatty acid metabolism that renders sufferers susceptible to hypoglycemia, liver failure, cardiomyopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. The literature about the management of these patients is hugely conflicting, suggesting that both propofol and volatile anesthesia should be avoided. We have reviewed the literature and have concluded that the source papers do not support the statements that volatile anesthetic agents are unsafe. The reports on rhabdomyolysis secondary to anesthesia appear to be due to inadequate supply of carbohydrate not volatile agents. Catabolism must be avoided with minimal fasting, glucose infusions based on age and weight, and attenuation of emotional and physical stress. General anesthesia appears to be protective of stress-induced catabolism and may offer benefits in children and anxious patients over regional anesthesia. Propofol has not been demonstrated to be harmful in VLCADD but is presented in an emulsion containing very long-chain fatty acids which can cause organ lipidosis and itself can inhibit mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. It is therefore not recommended. Suxamethonium-induced myalgia may mimic symptoms of rhabdomyolysis and cause raised CK therefore should be avoided. Opioids, NSAIDS, regional anesthesia, and local anesthetic techniques have all been used without complication. PMID:25069536

  14. A Calcium-Deficient Diet in Rat Dams during Gestation and Nursing Affects Hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 Expression in the Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Junji; Yamanouchi, Sohsaku; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    Background Prenatal malnutrition can affect the phenotype of offspring by changing epigenetic regulation of specific genes. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that calcium (Ca) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance syndrome. We hypothesized that pregnant female rats fed a Ca-deficient diet would have offspring with altered hepatic glucocorticoid-related gene expression and that lactation would modify these alterations. Methodology We determined the effects of Ca deficiency during pregnancy and/or lactation on hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (Hsd11b1) expression in offspring. Female Wistar rats consumed either a Ca-deficient (D: 0.008% Ca) or control (C: 0.90% Ca) diet ad libitum from 3 weeks preconception to 21 days postparturition. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered to the same or opposite dams and divided into the following four groups: CC, DD, CD, and DC (first letter: original mother's diet; second letter: nursing mother's diet). All offspring were fed a control diet beginning at weaning (day 21) and were killed on day 200±7. Serum insulin and adipokines in offspring were measured using ELISA kits. Principal Findings In males, mean levels of insulin, glucose, and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were higher in the DD and DC groups than in the CC group. We found no difference in HOMA-IR between the CC and CD groups in either males or females. Expression of Hsd11b1 was lower in male DD rats than in CC rats. Hsd11b1 expression in male offspring nursed by cross-fostered dams was higher than that in those nursed by dams fed the same diet; CC vs. CD and DD vs. DC. In females, Hsd11b1 expression in DC rats was higher than that in CC rats. Conclusions These findings indicated that maternal Ca restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation alters postnatal growth, Hsd11b1 expression, and insulin resistance in a sex-specific manner. PMID:24427280

  15. 46,XY DSD with Female or Ambiguous External Genitalia at Birth due to Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, 5-Reductase-2 Deficiency, or 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A Review of Quality of Life Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Tom

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sex development refer to a collection of congenital conditions in which atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex occurs. Studies of 46,XY DSD have focused largely on gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation. Few studies have focused on other domains, such as physical and mental health, that may contribute to a person's quality of life. The current review focuses on information published since 1955 pertaining to psychological well-being, cognition, general health, fertility, and sexual function in people affected by androgen insensitivity syndromes, 5- reductase-2 deficiency, or 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency—reared male or female. The complete form of androgen insensitivity syndrome has been the focus of the largest number of investigations in domains other than gender. Despite this, all of the conditions included in the current review are under-studied. Realms identified for further study include psychological well-being, cognitive abilities, general health, fertility, and sexual function. Such investigations would not only improve the quality of life for those affected by DSD but may also provide information for improving physical and mental health in the general population.

  16. 46,XY DSD with Female or Ambiguous External Genitalia at Birth due to Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, 5α-Reductase-2 Deficiency, or 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A Review of Quality of Life Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy B. Wisniewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sex development refer to a collection of congenital conditions in which atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex occurs. Studies of 46,XY DSD have focused largely on gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation. Few studies have focused on other domains, such as physical and mental health, that may contribute to a person's quality of life. The current review focuses on information published since 1955 pertaining to psychological well-being, cognition, general health, fertility, and sexual function in people affected by androgen insensitivity syndromes, 5-α reductase-2 deficiency, or 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency—reared male or female. The complete form of androgen insensitivity syndrome has been the focus of the largest number of investigations in domains other than gender. Despite this, all of the conditions included in the current review are under-studied. Realms identified for further study include psychological well-being, cognitive abilities, general health, fertility, and sexual function. Such investigations would not only improve the quality of life for those affected by DSD but may also provide information for improving physical and mental health in the general population.

  17. A Historical Cohort Study on the Efficacy of Glucocorticoids and Riboflavin Among Patients with Late-onset Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Yi Liu; Zhi-Qiang Wang; Dan-Ni Wang; Min-Ting Lin; Ning Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Late-onset multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is the most common type of lipid storage myopathies in China.Most patients with late-onset MADD are well responsive to riboflavin.Up to now,these patients are often treated with glucocorticoids as the first-line drug because they are misdiagnosed as polymyositis without muscle biopsy or gene analysis.Although glucocorticoids seem to improve the fatty acid metabolism of late-onset MADD,the objective evaluation of their rationalization on this disorder and comparison with riboflavin treatment are unknown.Methods:We performed a historical cohort study on the efficacy of the two drugs among 45 patients with late-onset MADD,who were divided into glucocorticoids group and riboflavin group.Detailed clinical information of baseline and 1-month follow-up were collected.Results:After 1-month treatment,a dramatic improvement of muscle strength was found in riboflavin group (P < 0.05).There was no significant difference in muscle enzymes between the two groups.Significantly,the number of patients with full recovery in glucocorticoids group was less than the number in riboflavin group (P < 0.05).On the other hand,almost half of the patients in riboflavin group still presented high-level muscle enzymes and weak muscle strength after 1-month riboflavin treatment,meaning that 1-month treatment duration maybe insufficient and patients should keep on riboflavin supplement for a longer time.Conclusions:Our results provide credible evidences that the overall efficacy of riboflavin is superior to glucocorticoids,and a longer duration of riboflavin treatment is necessary for patients with late-onset MADD.

  18. Application of a genetically encoded biosensor for live cell imaging of L-valine production in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Nurije; Grünberger, Alexander; Mahr, Regina; Helfrich, Stefan; Nöh, Katharina; Blombach, Bastian; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Frunzke, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The majority of biotechnologically relevant metabolites do not impart a conspicuous phenotype to the producing cell. Consequently, the analysis of microbial metabolite production is still dominated by bulk techniques, which may obscure significant variation at the single-cell level. In this study, we have applied the recently developed Lrp-biosensor for monitoring of amino acid production in single cells of gradually engineered L-valine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strains based on the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient (PDHC) strain C. glutamicum ΔaceE. Online monitoring of the sensor output (eYFP fluorescence) during batch cultivation proved the sensor's suitability for visualizing different production levels. In the following, we conducted live cell imaging studies on C. glutamicum sensor strains using microfluidic chip devices. As expected, the sensor output was higher in microcolonies of high-yield producers in comparison to the basic strain C. glutamicum ΔaceE. Microfluidic cultivation in minimal medium revealed a typical Gaussian distribution of single cell fluorescence during the production phase. Remarkably, low amounts of complex nutrients completely changed the observed phenotypic pattern of all strains, resulting in a phenotypic split of the population. Whereas some cells stopped growing and initiated L-valine production, others continued to grow or showed a delayed transition to production. Depending on the cultivation conditions, a considerable fraction of non-fluorescent cells was observed, suggesting a loss of metabolic activity. These studies demonstrate that genetically encoded biosensors are a valuable tool for monitoring single cell productivity and to study the phenotypic pattern of microbial production strains.

  19. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Ju, Hyunsu; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to <0.2% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 were observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. PMID:24625836

  20. Safety, efficacy and physiological actions of a lysine-free, arginine-rich formula to treat glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: focus on cerebral amino acid influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kevin A; Brumbaugh, Joan; Duffy, Alana; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Tortorelli, Silvia; Moser, Ann B; Puffenberger, Erik G; Rider, Nicholas L; Morton, D Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Striatal degeneration from glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (glutaric aciduria type 1, GA1) is associated with cerebral formation and entrapment of glutaryl-CoA and its derivatives that depend on cerebral lysine influx. In 2006 we designed a lysine-free study formula enriched with arginine to selectively block lysine transport across cerebral endothelia and thereby limit glutaryl-CoA production by brain. Between 2006 and present, we treated twelve consecutive children with study formula (LYSx group) while holding all other treatment practices constant. Clinical and biochemical outcomes were compared to 25 GA1 patients (PROx group) treated between 1995 and 2005 with natural protein restriction (dietary lysine/arginine ratio of 1.7±0.3 mg:mg). We used published kinetic parameters of the y+and LAT1 blood-brain barrier transporters to model the influx of amino acids into the brain. Arginine fortification to achieve a mean dietary lysine/arginine ratio of 0.7±0.2 mg:mg was neuroprotective. All 12 LYSx patients are physically and neurologically healthy after 28 aggregate patient-years of follow up (current ages 28±21 months) and there were no adverse events related to formula use. This represents a 36% reduction of neurological risk (95% confidence interval 14-52%, p=0.018) that we can directly attribute to altered amino acid intake. During the first year of life, 20% lower lysine intake and two-fold higher arginine intake by LYSx patients were associated with 50% lower plasma lysine, 3-fold lower plasma lysine/arginine concentration ratio, 42% lower mean calculated cerebral lysine influx, 54% higher calculated cerebral arginine influx, 15-26% higher calculated cerebral influx of several anaplerotic precursors (isoleucine, threonine, methionine, and leucine), 50% less 3-hydroxyglutarate excretion, and a 3-fold lower hospitalization rate (0.8 versus 2.3 hospitalizations per patient per year). The relationship between arginine fortification and plasma lysine

  1. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaphalia, Lata [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Boroumand, Nahal [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Hyunsu, Ju [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.edu [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Calhoun, William J. [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  2. Liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) transfers fatty acids and fatty acyl coas to membranes

    OpenAIRE

    De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Hagan, Robert M; Wilton, David C.; Córsico, Betina

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to analyze LFABP´s capacity to transfer acyl CoAs to artificial membranes and compare it to LCFA transfer employing natural ligands, in order to better understand the specific physiological role of LFABP in the cell.

  3. Analysis of Guangxi Hakka neonatal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency screening%广西客家新生儿葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶缺陷症筛查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春丽

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解广西客家新生儿葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶缺陷症情况。方法对2012年广西博白县和陆川县客家新生儿葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶缺陷症筛查资料进行统计分析。结果2012年博白县和陆川县客家新生儿葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶缺陷症筛查共35108例,初筛阳性2009例,阳性率为5.72%;其中,博白县客家新生儿G-6-PD缺陷症筛查共16398例,初筛阳性997例,阳性率为6.08%;陆川县客家新生儿葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶缺陷症筛查共18710例,初筛阳性1012例,阳性率为5.41%。结论广西客家新生儿葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶缺陷症筛查在广西内筛查阳性检出率处较低水平状态,以口头及书面方式及时告诉筛阳性患儿家属要避免特定的食品及药品,避免急性溶血反应的发生,确保儿童健康成长。%Objective To understand the Guangxi Hakka neonatal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Methods Statistical analysis was done on the Guangxi Bobai county and Luchuan County Hakka 2012 neonatal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency screening data. Results The Bobai county and Luchuan County Hakka 2012 neonatal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency screening a total of 35 108 cases, positive 2009 cases, the positive rate was 5.72%; Among them, Bobai County Hakka neonatal G-6-PD deficiency screening a total of 16398 cases, positive 997 cases, the positive rate was 6.08%; the Luchuan County Hakka neonatal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency screening a total of 18 710 cases, positive 1012 cases, the positive rate was 5.41%. Conclusion Guangxi Hakka neonatal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency screening in the Guangxi screening positive rate at a low level state, In oral and written to tell the parents of children with screening positive to avoid food and drug specific, avoid acute hemolytic reaction, to ensure the healthy growth of children.

  4. Distinct Retinoid Metabolic Functions for Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes Adh1 and Adh4 in Protection against Vitamin A Toxicity or Deficiency Revealed in Double Null Mutant Mice*

    OpenAIRE

    Molotkov, Andrei; Deltour, Louise; Foglio, Mario H.; Cuenca, Arnold E.; Duester, Gregg

    2002-01-01

    The ability of class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1) and class IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH4) to metabolize retinol to retinoic acid is supported by genetic studies in mice carrying Adh1 or Adh4 gene disruptions. To differentiate the physiological roles of ADH1 and ADH4 in retinoid metabolism we report here the generation of an Adh1/4 double null mutant mouse and its comparison to single null mutants. We demonstrate that loss of both ADH1 and ADH4 does not have additive effects, either for pr...

  5. Characterization of wild-type human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and mutant enzymes present in MCAD-deficient patients by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, P; Jensen, T G; Andresen, B S;

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to study and compare wild-type medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; EC 1.3.99.3) and mis-sense mutant enzyme found in patients with MCAD deficiency. By comparing the patterns for wild-type and mutant MCAD expressed in Escherichia coli or in eukar......Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to study and compare wild-type medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; EC 1.3.99.3) and mis-sense mutant enzyme found in patients with MCAD deficiency. By comparing the patterns for wild-type and mutant MCAD expressed in Escherichia coli...... of one aspartic acid residue per monomer. Comparison of pulse labeling and steady-state amounts of MCAD protein in overexpressing COS-7 cells confirms that K304E MCAD is synthesized and transported into mitochondria in amounts similar to the wild-type protein, but is degraded much more readily. For wild...

  6. Heterozygosity for an in-frame deletion causes glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in a patient detected by newborn screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, Peter Gerd; Frederiksen, Jane B; Bie, Anne Sigaard;

    2012-01-01

    A patient with suspected glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA-1) was detected by newborn screening. GA-1 is known as an autosomal recessively inherited disease due to defects in the gene coding for glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH), a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the catabolism of the amino acids...

  7. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Ju, Hyunsu; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J

    2014-01-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal c...

  8. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-01-01

    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and haemoglobin S in high and moderate malaria transmission areas of Muheza, north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segeja, M D; Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Kamugisha, M L;

    2008-01-01

    by the disease. In November-December 2003, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and HbS in the population and relate these to malaria infection and haemoglobin levels in lowland and highland areas of differing malaria transmission patterns of Muheza, Tanzania...... prevalence of G6PD deficiency and HbS than highlands (G6PD deficiency = 11.32% (24/212) versus 4.43% (9/203), P = 0.01, and HbS = 16.04% (98/611) versus 6.32% (36/570), P = 0.0001). Logistic regression model showed an association between G6PD deficiency and altitude [lowlands] (Odds ratio [OR] 3.4, 95% CI...

  10. Beneficial effect of feeding a ketogenic diet to mothers on brain development in their progeny with a murine model of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioudmila Pliss

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings provide for the first time experimental support for beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet during the prenatal and early postnatal periods on the brain development of PDC-deficient mammalian progeny.

  11. Genetic Basis for Correction of Very‐Long‐Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency by Bezafibrate in Patient Fibroblasts: Toward a Genotype‐Based Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobin‐Limballe, S.; Djouadi, F.; Aubey, F.;

    2007-01-01

    treatment. Recent data suggest that bezafibrate could improve the FAO capacities in β‐oxidation-deficient cells, by enhancing the residual level of mutant enzyme activity via gene‐expression stimulation. Since VLCAD‐deficient patients frequently harbor missense mutations with unpredictable effects on enzyme...... activity, we investigated the response to bezafibrate as a function of genotype in 33 VLCAD‐deficient fibroblasts representing 45 different mutations. Treatment with bezafibrate (400 μM for 48 h) resulted in a marked increase in FAO capacities, often leading to restoration of normal values, for 21...... genotypes that mainly corresponded to patients with the myopathic phenotype. In contrast, bezafibrate induced no changes in FAO for 11 genotypes corresponding to severe neonatal or infantile phenotypes. This pattern of response was not due to differential inductions of VLCAD messenger RNA, as shown by...

  12. No evidence of mutations in the genes for type I and type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}HSD) in nonclassical 3{beta}HSD deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerah, M.; Mani, P.; Schram, P. [New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    Nonclassical 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/{Delta}{sup 5}-{Delta}{sup 4}-isomerase deficiency (NC3{beta}HSDD) has been diagnosed in hyperandrogenic women with an increasing frequency during the last 14 yr. Fifteen menarcheal women with androgen excess syndrome, previously diagnosed with NC3{beta}HSDD were studied, in 12 after discontinuation of glucocorticoid treatment, in 2 patients never treated with glucocorticoids, and in 1 both before and after glucocorticoid therapy. Molecular DNA analysis was also performed in 6 of the patients, using the strategy successfully used to detect point mutations in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase (3{beta}HSD) gene, which are responsible for classical 3{beta}HSD deficiency. This strategy consists of the direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA fragments corresponding to the complete coding sequence and all intron-exon junctions and to the 5{prime}- and 3{prime}-noncoding region of this gene. We were unable to demonstrate any mutation of the type II 3{beta}HSD gene in these 6 patients. To gain additional information about potential mutations, direct sequencing of the type I 3{beta}HSD gene was also performed using this same strategy, and no mutations were found. The present study strongly suggests that unlike the salt-losing and nonsalt-losing forms of classical 3{beta}HSD deficiency, NC3{beta}HSDD is not due to a mutant type II 3{beta}HSD enzyme. However, the possibility remains of a mutation(s) in the unsequenced regions of the type II 3{beta}HSD gene or elsewhere, such as in a gene for modulatory protein, playing a specific role in the expression of the type II 3{beta}HSD gene. On the other hand, knowing the multiple hormonal controls to which 3{beta}HSD activity is subject, it cannot be excluded that at least in some cases, NC3{beta}HSDD may be an acquired defect, the result of endogenous or environmental factors. 41 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Molecular Heterogeneity of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Burkina Faso: G-6-PD Betica Selma and Santamaria in People with Symptomatic Malaria in Ouagadougou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Yameogo, Pouiré; Diarra, Birama; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Yonli, Albert; Compaore, Tegwindé Rebeca; Soubeiga, Serge Théophile; Djigma, Florencia Wenkuuni; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The G-6-PD deficiency has an important polymorphism with genotypic variants such as 202A/376G, 376G/542T and 376G/968T known in West African populations. It would confer protection against severe forms of malaria although there are differences between the various associations in different studies. In this study we genotyped six (06) variants of the G-6-PD gene in people with symptomatic malaria in urban areas in Burkina Faso. One hundred and eighty-two (182) patients who tested positive using rapid detection test and microscopy were included in this study. A regular PCR with the GENESPARK G6PD African kit was run followed by electrophoresis, allowing initially to genotype six SNPs (G202A, A376G, A542T, G680T, C563T and T968C). Women carrying the mutations 202A and/or 376G were further typed by real-time PCR using TaqMan probes rs1050828 and rs1050829. In the study population the G-6-PD deficiency prevalence was 9.9%. In addition of G-6-PD A- (202A/376G) variant, 376G/542T and 376G/968T variants were also detected. Hemoglobin electrophoresis revealed that 22.5% (41/182) of the individuals had HbAC compared with2.2% with HbAS and one individual had double heterozygous HbSC. There was no correlation between the G-6-PD deficiency or haemoglobinopathies and symptomatic malaria infections in this study. Our study confirms that the G-6-PD deficiency does not confer protection against Plasmodium falciparum infections. As opposed to previous genotyping studies carried out in Burkina Faso, this study shows for the first time the presence of the variant A- (376G/968C) and warrants further investigation at the national level and in specific ethnic groups. PMID:27413522

  14. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Haemoglobin Drop after Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine Use for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria during Pregnancy in Ghana - A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Owusu

    Full Text Available Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP is still the only recommended antimalarial for use in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp in some malaria endemic countries including Ghana. SP has the potential to cause acute haemolysis in G6PD deficient people resulting in significant haemoglobin (Hb drop but there is limited data on post SP-IPTp Hb drop. This study determined the difference, if any in proportions of women with significant acute haemoglobin drop between G6PD normal, partial deficient and full deficient women after SP-IPTp.Prospectively, 1518 pregnant women who received SP for IPTp as part of their normal antenatal care were enrolled. Their G6PD status were determined at enrollment followed by assessments on days 3, 7,14 and 28 to document any adverse effects and changes in post-IPTp haemoglobin (Hb levels. The three groups were comparable at baseline except for their mean Hb (10.3 g/dL for G6PD normal, 10.8 g/dL for G6PD partial deficient and 10.8 g/dL for G6PD full defect women.The prevalence of G6PD full defect was 2.3% and 17.0% for G6PD partial defect. There was no difference in the proportions with fractional Hb drop ≥ 20% as compared to their baseline value post SP-IPTp among the 3 groups on days 3, 7, 14. The G6PD full defect group had the highest median fractional drop at day 7. There was a weak negative correlation between G6PD activity and fractional Hb drop. There was no statistical difference between the three groups in the proportions of those who started the study with Hb ≥ 8g/dl whose Hb level subsequently fell below 8g/dl post-SP IPTp. No study participant required transfusion or hospitalization for severe anaemia.There was no significant difference between G6PD normal and deficient women in proportions with significant acute haemoglobin drop post SP-IPTp and lower G6PD enzyme activity was not strongly associated with significant acute drug-induced haemoglobin drop post SP-IPTp but a larger

  15. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in male newborn babies and its relationship with neonatal jaundice Deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase eritrocitária em recém-nascidos do sexo masculino e sua relação com a icterícia neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Auxiliadora C. Iglessias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency, the commonest red cell enzymopathy in humans, has an X-linked inheritance. The major clinical manifestations are drug induced hemolytic anemia, neonatal jaundice and chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. The incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is much greater in G6PD-deficient neonates than babies without this deficiency. The aim of this study was to ascertain the presence of neonatal jaundice in erythrocyte G6PD-deficient male newborns. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 204 male newborns of the Januário Cicco School Maternity located in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil were analyzed. The G6PD deficiency was identified by the methemoglobin reduction test (Brewer's test. The deficiency was confirmed by quantitative spectrophotometric assay for enzyme activity and cellulose acetate electrophoresis was used to identify the G6PD variant. Eight newborns were found to be G6PD deficient with four of them exhibiting jaundice during the first 48 hours after birth with bilirubin levels higher than 10 mg/dL. All deficient individuals presented the G6PD A- variant at electrophoresis. Our findings confirmed the association between G6PD deficiency and neonatal jaundice. Hence, early diagnosis of the deficiency at birth is essential to control the appearance of jaundice and to prevent the exposure of these newborns to known hemolytic agents.A deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase (G6PD é a anormalidade enzimática hereditária mais frequente. É transmitida como caráter recessivo ligado ao cromossomo X e as principais manifestações clínicas são hemólise induzida por fármacos, icterícia neonatal e anemia hemolítica não esferocítica. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar a presença de icterícia neonatal em recém-nascidos do sexo masculino deficientes de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase. Foram analisadas 204 amostras de sangue umbilical de recém-nascidos do sexo

  16. Deficiência da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase com infecções de repetição: relato de caso Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with recurrent infections: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Abertina Rosa-Borges; Márcia G. Sampaio; Antônio Condino-Neto; Orlando C. de O. Barreto; Victor Nudelman; Magda M.S. Carneiro-Sampaio; Susie A. NOGUEIRA; de Abreu, Thalita F.; Jussara Rehder; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJETIVO: relatar a ocorrência de uma deficiência funcional de neutrófilos rara, com quadro clínico e laboratorial semelhante ao da doença granulomatosa crônica. MÉTODOS: relato de caso de paciente com deficiência acentuada da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase e infecções de repetição. Realizada pesquisa bibliográfica utilizando as bases de dados Medline e Lilacs, abrangendo o período de 1972 a 2000. RESULTADOS: paciente com nível da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase extremamente reduzido e quadr...

  17. Vulnerability to Oxidative Stress In Vitro in Pathophysiology of Mitochondrial Short-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Response to Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Zarazuela Zolkipli; Pedersen, Christina B.; Anne-Marie Lamhonwah; Niels Gregersen; Ingrid Tein

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the pathophysiology of SCAD deficient patients who have a unique neurological phenotype, among fatty acid oxidation disorders, with early developmental delay, CNS malformations, intractable seizures, myopathy and clinical signs suggesting oxidative stress. METHODS: We studied skin fibroblast cultures from patients homozygous for ACADS common variant c.625G>A (n = 10), compound heterozygous for c.625G>A/c.319C>T (n = 3) or homozygous for pathogenic c.319C>T (n = 2) and ...

  18. Prospective diagnosis of 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in the Hmong population by newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matern, Dietrich; He, Miao; Berry, Susan A;

    2003-01-01

    developed athetoid cerebral palsy, and another had severe motor developmental delay with muscle atrophy. A sibling of the first patient is asymptomatic after prenatal diagnosis and early treatment. Family investigations in the second family revealed that the patient's mother was also affected...... developed mild muscle hypotonia, all patients remain asymptomatic at ages ranging from 3 to 14 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: These cases suggest that SBCAD deficiency is another inborn error of metabolism detectable by newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry. The continued efficacy of long...

  19. The SDH mutation database: an online resource for succinate dehydrogenase sequence variants involved in pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and mitochondrial complex II deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devilee Peter

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD genes encode the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase, a component of both the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. SDHA, a flavoprotein and SDHB, an iron-sulfur protein together constitute the catalytic domain, while SDHC and SDHD encode membrane anchors that allow the complex to participate in the respiratory chain as complex II. Germline mutations of SDHD and SDHB are a major cause of the hereditary forms of the tumors paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma. The largest subunit, SDHA, is mutated in patients with Leigh syndrome and late-onset optic atrophy, but has not as yet been identified as a factor in hereditary cancer. Description The SDH mutation database is based on the recently described Leiden Open (source Variation Database (LOVD system. The variants currently described in the database were extracted from the published literature and in some cases annotated to conform to current mutation nomenclature. Researchers can also directly submit new sequence variants online. Since the identification of SDHD, SDHC, and SDHB as classic tumor suppressor genes in 2000 and 2001, studies from research groups around the world have identified a total of 120 variants. Here we introduce all reported paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma related sequence variations in these genes, in addition to all reported mutations of SDHA. The database is now accessible online. Conclusion The SDH mutation database offers a valuable tool and resource for clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma, clinical geneticists needing an overview of current knowledge, and geneticists and other researchers needing a solid foundation for further exploration of both these tumor syndromes and SDHA-related phenotypes.

  20. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing. PMID:26284828

  1. Characterization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and identification of a novel haplotype 487G>A/IVS5-612(G>C) in the Achang population of southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YinFeng; ZHU YueChun; LI DanYi; LI ZhiGang; L(U) HuiRu; WU Jing; TANG Jing; TONG ShuFen

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and its gene mutations were studied in the Achang population from Lianghe County in Southwestern China. We found that 7.31%(19 of 260) males and 4.35% (10 of 230) females had G6PD deficiency. The molecular analysis of G6PD gene exons 2-13 was performed by a PCR-DHPLC-Sequencing or PCR-Sequencing. Sixteen independent subjects with G6PD Mahidol (487G>A) and the new polymorphism IVS5-612 (G>C), which combined into a novel haplotype, were identified accounting for 84.2% (16/19). And 100% Achang G6PD Mahidol were linked to the IVS5-612 C. The percentage of G6PD Mahidol in the Achang group is close to that in the Myanmar population (91.3% 73/80), which implies that there are some gene flows between Achang and Myanmar populations. Interestingly, G6PD Canton (1376G>T) and G6PD Kaiping(1388G>A), which were the most common G6PD variants from other ethnic groups in China, were not found in this Achang group, suggesting that there are different G6PD mutation profiles in the Achang group and other ethnic groups in China. Our findings appear to be the first documented report on the G6PD genetics of the AChang people, which will provide important clues to the Achang ethnic group origin and will help prevention and treatment of malaria in this area.

  2. Progresses of diagnosis and therapy in multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency%多种酰基辅酶A脱氢酶缺乏症的诊治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢雅智

    2010-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a common inborn error of fatty-acid metabolism characterized by vomiting, acidosis and lipid storage myopathy, and the clinical manifestations of MADD are highly heterogeneous. MADD can be diagnosed by the elevation of multiple acyl-carnitine in blood and glutaric acid or other organic acid in urine. The neonatal-onset patients have severe symptoms and poor prognosis. However, oral riboflavin supplementation (can completely rescue) ameliorate the clinical and laboratory disorders rapidly especially to the riboflavin responsive MADD. Additionally, patients not sensitive to riboflavin should also take low lipid, low protein and high carbonhydrate diet besides riboflavin.%多种酰基辅酶A脱氢酶缺乏症是一种较为常见的脂肪酸代谢紊乱,临床表现高度异质,常有呕吐、酸中毒以及脂质沉积性肌病表现,根据血多种酰基肉碱升高及尿中戊二酸等有机酸升高可明确诊断.新生儿发作型临床表现重,预后较差;核黄素治疗反应性患者给予核黄素治疗可完全纠正其临床症状及生化紊乱;核黄素无反应者应同时给予低脂、低蛋白、高碳水化合物饮食,并预防急性代谢紊乱的发作.

  3. Anestesia em paciente portador de deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato-desidrogenase: relato de caso Anestesia en paciente portador de deficiencia de glicosa-6-fosfato-desidrogenasa: relato de caso Anesthesia in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Múcio Paranhos de Abreu

    2002-11-01

    caso relatado, la anestesia subaracnóidea con bupivacaína asociada a anestesia venosa total con propofol, mostró que es una técnica segura en pacientes portadores de deficiencia de G6PD.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relatively common enzymopathy, but there are few publications relating such condition to anesthesia. This report aimed at presenting a case of a G6PD-deficient patient, submitted to Achilles tendon tenotomy under intravenous anesthesia associated to spinal block. CASE REPORT: Male patient, 9 years old, 48 kg, with G6PD deficiency and peripheral polineuropathy, submitted to Achilles tendon tenotomy under general intravenous anesthesia with midazolam, propofol and fentanyl, associated to spinal block with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. At surgery completion patient awakened relaxed, without pain or other complaints, had a good evolution and was discharged without intercurrences. CONCLUSIONS: According to the evolution of this case, spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine associated to total intravenous anesthesia with propofol has shown to be a safe technique for G6PD-deficient patients.

  4. Deficiencia de glucosa 6-fostato deshidrogenasa en hombres sanos y en pacientes maláricos; Turbo (Antioquia, Colombia Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in healthy men and malaria patients; Turbo (Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: En América Latina la deficiencia de glucosa 6-fosfato deshidrogenasa (d-G6PD ha sido poco estudiada y en Colombia solo conocemos tres publicaciones antiguas. Urge conocer más la prevalencia de d-G6PD, sobre todo ahora que el tratamiento de la malaria vivax plantea aumentar la dosis diaria o total de primaquina. OBJETIVO: Medir la prevalencia de d-G6PD en poblaciones masculina sana y de enfermos con malaria por Plasmodium vivax, en Turbo (Urabá, departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. METODOLOGÍA: Encuestas de prevalencia, para evaluar la G6PD en dos poblaciones de Turbo (Antioquia: hombres sanos; hombres y mujeres con malaria vivax. Se trabajó con muestras diseñadas con criterios estadístico-epidemiológicos. La actividad enzimática se midió con el método normalizado de Beutler para valorar la G6PD en hemolizados. RESULTADOS: Entre los hombres sanos (n = 508, el intervalo de confianza 95% para el promedio (IC95% estuvo entre 4,15 y 4,51 UI/g hemoglobina y 14,8% presentaron valores por debajo del "límite normal" de INTRODUCTION: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency in Latin America has not been fully studied and in Colombia only three outdated publications are known. Recent information on the prevalence of G6PD deficiency is required now, because the recommended treatment of vivax malaria requires higher daily or total doses of primaquine. OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of G6PD in a healthy male population and in a Plasmodium vivax infected population in Turbo (Urabá, Antioquia Department, Colombia. METHOD: Prevalence survey to evaluate G6PD in two populations of Turbo (Antioquia: healthy male; male and female with vivax malaria. The work was carried out on population samples selected using statistical and epidemiological criteria. Enzyme activity was measured using Beutler's normalized method to evaluate G6PD after hemolysis. RESULTS: For the healthy male group (n = 508, and with a 95% confidence

  5. Disruption of the acyl-coa binding protein gene delays hepatic adaptation to metabolic changes at weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Bloksgaard, Maria; Sørensen, Signe Bek;

    2011-01-01

    , little is known about the in vivo function in mammalian cells. We have generated mice with targeted disruption of ACBP (ACBP-/-). These mice are viable and fertile and develop normally. However, around weaning the ACBP-/- mice go through a crisis with overall weakness, and a slightly decreased growth...... rate. Using microarray analysis we show that the liver of ACBP-/- mice display a significantly delayed adaptation to weaning with late induction of target genes of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) family. As a result, hepatic de novo cholesterogenesis is decreased at weaning....... The delayed induction of SREBP target genes around weaning is caused by a compromised processing and decreased expression of SREBP precursors leading to reduced binding of SREBP to target sites in chromatin. In conclusion, lack of ACBP interferes with the normal metabolic adaptation to weaning and leads...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Serine is a part of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters that transmit signals in the nervous system . Proteins ... serine likely prevents the production of proteins and neurotransmitters in the brain and impairs the formation of ...

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  8. VLCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boneh, A; Andresen, B S; Gregersen, N;

    2006-01-01

    -negative diagnoses of VLCADD in asymptomatic newborn babies. In view of the emerging genotype-phenotype correlation in this disorder, the information derived from mutational analysis can be helpful in designing the appropriate follow-up and therapeutic regime for these patients.......We diagnosed six newborn babies with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) through newborn screening in three years in Victoria (prevalence rate: 1:31,500). We identified seven known and two new mutations in our patients (2/6 homozygotes; 4/6 compound heterozygotes). Blood...... samples taken at age 48-72 h were diagnostic whereas repeat samples at an older age were normal in 4/6 babies. Urine analysis was normal in 5/5. We conclude that the timing of blood sampling for newborn screening is important and that it is important to perform mutation analysis to avoid false...

  9. Electron transfer flavoprotein deficiency: Functional and molecular aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiff, M; Froissart, R; Olsen, Rikke Katrine Jentoft;

    2006-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder that can be due to a deficiency of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or its dehydrogenase (ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). ETF is a mitochondrial matrix protein consisting of alpha- (30kDa) and beta...

  10. In vitro inhibition of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase activity by acetaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Mun, Ju-Ae; Doh, Eunjin; Min, Hyesun

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism has been associated with folate deficiency in humans and laboratory animals. Previous study showed that ethanol feeding reduces the dehydrogenase and hydrolase activity of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (FDH) in rat liver. Hepatic ethanol metabolism generates acetaldehyde and acetate. The mechanisms by which ethanol and its metabolites produce toxicity within the liver cells are unknown. We purified FDH from rat liver and investigated the effect of ethanol, acetaldehyde an...

  11. Complex genetic findings in a female patient with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency: Null mutations in the PDHX gene associated with unusual expression of the testis-specific PDHA2 gene in her somatic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Ana; Silva, Maria João; Pavlu-Pereira, Hana; Florindo, Cristina; Barroso, Madalena; Marques, Bárbara; Correia, Hildeberto; Oliveira, Anabela; Gaspar, Ana; Tavares de Almeida, Isabel; Rivera, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes a key step in the generation of cellular energy and is composed by three catalytic elements (E1, E2, E3), one structural subunit (E3-binding protein), and specific regulatory elements, phosphatases and kinases (PDKs, PDPs). The E1α subunit exists as two isoforms encoded by different genes: PDHA1 located on Xp22.1 and expressed in somatic tissues, and the intronless PDHA2 located on chromosome 4 and only detected in human spermatocytes and s...

  12. The ACADS gene variation spectrum in 114 patients with short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency is dominated by missense variations leading to protein misfolding at the cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Bak; Kølvrå, Steen; Kølvraa, Agnete;

    2008-01-01

    , 26 missense, one start codon, and two stop codon variations. In vitro import studies of variant SCAD proteins in isolated mitochondria from SCAD deficient (SCAD-/-) mice demonstrated an increased tendency of the abnormal proteins to misfold and aggregate compared to the wild-type, a phenomenon that...... often leads to gain-of-function cellular phenotypes. However, no correlation was found between the clinical phenotype and the degree of SCAD dysfunction. We propose that SCAD deficiency should be considered as a disorder of protein folding that can lead to clinical disease in combination with other...

  13. Neonatal lactic acidosis, complex I/IV deficiency, and fetal cerebral disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, HLM; van Tintelen, JP; Trijbels, JMF; van den Heuvel, LP; Troost, D; Rozemuller, JM; Duran, M; de Vries, LS; Schuelke, M; Barth, PG

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral developmental abnormalities occur in various inborn errors of metabolism including peroxisomal deficiencies, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency and others. Associations with abnormalities of the respiratory chain are rare. Here we report male and female siblings with microcephaly, a

  14. The relationship of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and Hemoglobin A1c%葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶缺乏与糖化血红蛋白的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 阚丽娟; 张秀明; 温冬梅; 孙各琴; 索明环; 张德才

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the relationship between G6PD deficient and HbA1c ,we statistical and analysis the G6PD ac‐tivity and HbA1c measured results between four groups .Methods Chosen 171 cases of healthy controls in our hospital from Au‐gust 2012 to October 2012 as normal control group .195 cases patients who diagnosised as type 2 diabetes(7 cases combined with G6PD deficient) and 73 patients with G6PD deficient(9 cases combined with type 2 diabetes) were divided into three groups :188 cases of diabetes group ,64 cases G6PD deficient group ,16 cases of diabetes combined with G6PD deficient group .Determination and statistical analysis their HbA1c ,G6PD activity ,fasting blood glucose(FBG) ,indirect bilirubin(IBIL) ,red blood cell count(RBC) , hemoglobin(HGB) content .Results Compared with normal control group ,the results of HbA1c values ,RBC ,HGB were low in G6PD deficient group ,the differences were significant (P< 0 .05);Compared with diabetes group ,the results of HbA1c values , RBC ,HGB are low in diabetes combined with G6PD deficient group ,however the IBIL result was high ,the differences were signifi‐cant(P<0 .05) .Normal control group′s and diabetes combined with G6PD deficient group′s G6PD activity and HbA1c level was not relevant .G6PD activity and HbA1c level in diabetes group has a significant negative correlation (r= -0 .161 ,P=0 .033) ,G6PD activity and HbA1c level in G6PD deficiency group had a significant positive correlation (r= 0 .324 ,P= 0 .005);G6PD deficient group′s HbA1c level and FBG had no relevance ;HbA1c levels and FBG had a significant positive correlation in the diabetes group who with G6PD deficiency ,however ,the HbA1c levels didn′t matched the real HbA1c levels and the corresponding FBG levels . Conclusion G6PD deficiency caused HbA1c determination result false low ,which leads HbA1c level don′t matched the real HbA1c level and the corresponding FBG level .G6PD deficient group′s HbA1c level increased with G6PD

  15. A homozygote for β-thalassemia combined with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Jiangxi%江西一例β地中海贫血纯合子合并G6PD缺乏纯合子的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林芬; 吴教仁; 童欣; 林敏; 杨立业

    2013-01-01

    目的 对江西赣州一例罕见重度β地中海贫血(简称地贫)合并G6PD缺乏症患儿及其父母作实验室鉴定及临床分析.方法 抽取患儿及其父母的血标本进行常规血液学检查,采用跨越断裂点多聚酶链反应(GAP-PCR)和反向斑点杂交(RDB)鉴定地中海贫血基因类型,以高分辨率熔解曲线(HRM)技术检测G6PD基因突变类型并进行测序验证.结果患儿为654M/654Mβ地贫纯合子合并G1388A突变型G6PD纯合子,父母双方均为654M轻型β地贫合并G1388A突变型G6PD缺乏.结论地中海贫血合并G6PD缺乏可以加重患者临床症状,江西属于地贫和G6PD发病率较高的省份,进行婚检、产前筛查和对患儿进行早期诊断意义重大.%Objective:To report the result of laboratory evaluation and clinical analysis of a rare case with the co-inheritance of major β-thalassemia and glucoe-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.Methods:Blood sample was collected for blood routine examination,including thalassemia and G6PD deficiency screening.Gap-PCR and the reverse dot blot (RDB) were used to detect known point mutations causing α-or β-thalassaemia in Chinese people.Genotyping of this case with G6PD deficiency were screened by HRM assay and ascertained by direct DNA sequencing.Results:This patient was homozygotes for 654 mutation and G6PD Kaiping (G1388A) gene mutation.Pedigree analysis showed that both her parents were 654 mutation carriers.And her mother was a homozygotes for 1388 mutation and father was a hemizygote for 1388 mutation.Conclusion:Patient with the co-inheritance of thalassemia and glucoe-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency could aggravate the clinical symptoms.Jiangxi is the high-risk regions of both thalassemia and G6PD deficiency.It's of signality to develop an effective prevention program by genetic screening and genetic counseling.

  16. Development and implementation of a novel assay for L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) in cell lysates: L-2-HGDH deficiency in 15 patients with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranendijk, M; Salomons, G S; Gibson, K M;

    2009-01-01

    /or lymphocyte lysates has hitherto been unavailable. We developed an L-2-HGDH enzyme assay in cell lysates based on the conversion of stable-isotope-labelled L-2-hydroxyglutarate to 2-ketoglutarate, which is converted into L-glutamate in situ. The formation of stable isotope labelled L-glutamate is therefore...... a direct measure of L-2-HGDH activity, and this product is detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A deficiency of L-2-HGDH activity was detected in cell lysates from 15 out of 15 L-2-HGA patients. Therefore, this specific assay confirmed the diagnosis unambiguously affirming...

  17. Anestesia em paciente portador de deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato-desidrogenase: relato de caso Anestesia en paciente portador de deficiencia de glicosa-6-fosfato-desidrogenasa: relato de caso Anesthesia in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient patient: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Múcio Paranhos Abreu; Carla Cristina Silva Freire; Rogério Shiuguetoshi Miura

    2002-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A Deficiência de Glicose-6-Fosfato-Desidrogenase (G6PD) é uma enzimopatia relativamente comum, mas as publicações relacionando essa condição com a anestesia são escassas. O objetivo deste relato é apresentar um caso de paciente portador de Deficiência de G6PD, submetido à tenotomia para alongamento de tendão de Aquiles, sob anestesia venosa associada à bloqueio subaracnóideo. Relato do caso: Paciente masculino, 9 anos, 48 kg, portador de deficiência de G6PD e poline...

  18. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 4

    OpenAIRE

    Cadoudal, Thomas; Distel, Emilie; Durant, Sylvie; Fouque, Françoise; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Collinet, Martine; Bortoli, Sylvie; Forest, Claude; Benelli, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) serves as the metabolic switch between glucose and fatty acid utilization. PDC activity is inhibited by PDC kinase (PDK). PDC shares the same substrate, i.e., pyruvate, as glyceroneogenesis, a pathway controlling fatty acid release from white adipose tissue (WAT). Thiazolidinediones activate glyceroneogenesis. We studied the regulation by rosiglitazone of PDK2 and PDK4 isoforms and tested the hypothesis that glyceroneogenesis could be controlled ...

  19. Disorders of GABA metabolism: SSADH and GABA-transaminase deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Parviz, Mahsa; Vogel, Kara; Gibson, K Michael; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical disorders known to affect inherited gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) metabolism are autosomal recessively inherited succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and GABA-transaminase deficiency. The clinical presentation of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency includes intellectual disability, ataxia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and epilepsy with a nonprogressive course in typical cases, although a progressive form in early childhood as well as deterioration in adulthood with worse...

  20. Metabolic Engineering of Mannitol Production in Lactococcus lactis: Influence of Overexpression of Mannitol 1-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Different Genetic Backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.W.; Mars, A.E.; Meer, van der P.; Eggink, G.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2004-01-01

    To obtain a mannitol-producing Lactococcus lactis strain, the mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (mtlD) from Lactobacillus plantarum was overexpressed in a wild-type strain, a lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)-deficient strain, and a strain with reduced phosphofructokinase activity. High-performance l

  1. Alterações clínicolaboratoriais em pacientes com malária por Plasmodium vivax e deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase tratados com 0,50mg/kg/dia de primaquina Clinical and laboratorial alterations in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency treated with primaquine at 0.50mg/kg/day

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica C.M. Silva; Eliane B. Santos; Elenild G. Costa; Manoel G. S. Filho; Guerreiro, João F.; Póvoa, Marinete M.

    2004-01-01

    O efeito adverso da primaquina na dose de 0,50mg/kg/dia foi investigado em onze pacientes com malária vivax (três com deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase). Alterações clínicas e laboratoriais indicaram hemólise aguda apenas nos enzimopênicos, o que fez com que o tratamento fosse interrompido. Nossos resultados sugerem a necessidade do emprego de um teste de triagem para a deficiência de G6PD em áreas endêmicas de malária vivax a fim de se evitar complicações causadas pelo uso da pr...

  2. DISTINCT TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE ISOFORMS AND CYTOSOLIC THIOESTERASE 1 IN THE RODENT HEART BY FATTY ACIDS AND INSULIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for channeling long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) into oxidative versus nonoxidative pathways is (are) poorly understood in the heart. Intracellular LCFAs are converted to long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs (LCFA-CoAs) by a family of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs)...

  3. Increased long chain acyl-Coa synthetase activity and fatty acid import is linked to membrane synthesis for development of picornavirus replication organelles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules A Nchoutmboube

    Full Text Available All positive strand (+RNA viruses of eukaryotes replicate their genomes in association with membranes. The mechanisms of membrane remodeling in infected cells represent attractive targets for designing future therapeutics, but our understanding of this process is very limited. Elements of autophagy and/or the secretory pathway were proposed to be hijacked for building of picornavirus replication organelles. However, even closely related viruses differ significantly in their requirements for components of these pathways. We demonstrate here that infection with diverse picornaviruses rapidly activates import of long chain fatty acids. While in non-infected cells the imported fatty acids are channeled to lipid droplets, in infected cells the synthesis of neutral lipids is shut down and the fatty acids are utilized in highly up-regulated phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Thus the replication organelles are likely built from de novo synthesized membrane material, rather than from the remodeled pre-existing membranes. We show that activation of fatty acid import is linked to the up-regulation of cellular long chain acyl-CoA synthetase activity and identify the long chain acyl-CoA syntheatse3 (Acsl3 as a novel host factor required for polio replication. Poliovirus protein 2A is required to trigger the activation of import of fatty acids independent of its protease activity. Shift in fatty acid import preferences by infected cells results in synthesis of phosphatidylcholines different from those in uninfected cells, arguing that the viral replication organelles possess unique properties compared to the pre-existing membranes. Our data show how poliovirus can change the overall cellular membrane homeostasis by targeting one critical process. They explain earlier observations of increased phospholipid synthesis in infected cells and suggest a simple model of the structural development of the membranous scaffold of replication complexes of picorna-like viruses, that may be relevant for other (+RNA viruses as well.

  4. Determination of hydrophobic coenzyme a esters and other lipids using a biosensor comprising a modified coenzyme a- and acyl-coa binding protein (acbp)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    , food and feed preparations, tissue extracts, acyl-CoA synthetase reaction media and various laboratory conditions using a modified Coenzyme A- and acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is provided. Furthermore the invention relates to a construct comprising a peptide and a signal moiety for performing...

  5. Associação de metemoglobinemia e deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase em pacientes com malária tratados com primaquina Association of methemoglobinemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria patients treated with primaquine

    OpenAIRE

    Marli Stela Santana; Marcos Antonio Ferreira da Rocha; Ana Ruth Lima Arcanjo; José Felipe Jardim Sardinha; Wilson Duarte Alecrim; Maria das Graças Costa Alecrim

    2007-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a ocorrência de metemoglobinemia em indivíduos deficientes da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase durante o tratamento da infecção malárica com primaquina. Foram selecionados pacientes com diagnóstico para malária por Plasmodium vivax ou mista V+F (Plasmodium vivax + Plasmodium falciparum), Grupo 1: com 74 indivíduos com diagnóstico clínico de metemoglobinemia e Grupo 2: 161 indivíduos sem diagnóstico clínico de metemoglobinemia. Quanto à deficiência da G6...

  6. Abnormal mitochondrial bioenergetics and heart rate dysfunction in mice lacking very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exil, VJ; Gardner, CD; Rottman, JN; Sims, H; Bartelds, B; Khuchua, Z; Sindhal, R; Ni, GM; Strauss, AW

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase ( VLCAD) deficiency is associated with severe hypoglycemia, cardiac dysfunction, and sudden death in neonates and children. Sudden death is common, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We report on a mouse model of VLCAD deficie

  7. Analysis of clinical and genetic results in one case of very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency%极长链酰基辅酶 A脱氢酶缺乏症一例临床及基因检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英娴; 崔岩; 陈永兴; 卫海燕

    2016-01-01

    Clinical characteristics were analyzed in a child with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency( VLCADD) . The gene analysis was performed in 20 exon all coding regions and 10 bp shear zone in the very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase( VLCAD) gene of the case and his family members by direct sequencing of PCR-DNA from peripheral blood. The results showed that the patient presented with acute onset, clinical manifestations of repeated vomiting, poor spirit, abnormal liver function, increased myocardial enzyme kinase. At the age of one year old, this child was diagnosed with "Reye's syndrome" for liver injury. Genetic testing results revealed that E14 c. 1349G>A, p. R450H heterozygous mutation in VLCAD gene was found in this case, his mother, and his younger sister, and E15 c. 1532G>A, p. R511Q heterozygous mutation was found in this case and his father. The pathogenic genes of the case are from his mother and the younger sister is a carrier.%对郑州市儿童医院内分泌遗传代谢科诊断的1例极长链酰基辅酶 A 脱氢酶缺乏症( VLCADD)患儿的临床特点进行分析,并采取外周血应用PCR扩增及直接测序技术对患儿及其父母、妹妹的极长链酰基辅酶A脱氢酶( VLCAD)基因20个外显子全部编码区及前后10 bp的剪切区分别进行PCR扩增并Sanger测序。结果显示,患儿急性起病,临床表现为反复呕吐、精神差、肝功能、心肌酶激酶异常增高,1岁时曾因为肝损伤被诊断为“Reye综合征”。基因检测结果提示,患者E14 c.1349G>A,p. R450H(杂合);E15 c.1532G>A,p. R511Q(杂合);父亲:E15:c.1532G>A,p.511Q(杂合);母亲:E14:c.1349G>A, p. R450H(杂合);妹妹:E14 c.1349G>A,p. R450H(杂合);患者的致病基因来源于母亲,其妹妹则为携带者。

  8. 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency: an inborn error of serine biosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeken, J; Detheux, M.; Van Maldergem, L; Foulon, M.; Carchon, H; van Schaftingen, E.

    1996-01-01

    Serine concentrations were markedly decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of two brothers with congenital microcephaly, profound psychomotor retardation, hypertonia, epilepsy, growth retardation, and hypogonadism. The youngest boy also had congenital bilateral cataract. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed evidence of dysmyelination. Plasma serine as well as plasma and cerebrospinal fluid glycine concentrations were also decreased but to a lesser extent. Treatment with oral serine in...

  9. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waddell, Leigh; Wiley, Veronica; Carpenter, Kevin;

    2006-01-01

    A > G and c.583G > A mutations appear to have functional effects towards the severe end of the spectrum, and the c.199T > C mutation a smaller effect, as has been previously postulated. If these results are confirmed and extended, this could influence the advice given to parents of babies with MCAD...

  10. Kawasaki disease with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency, case report

    OpenAIRE

    Obeidat, Hesham Radi; Al-Dossary, Sahar; Asseri, Abdulsalam

    2014-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited vasculitis of unknown etiology that occurs predominantly in infants and children younger than 5 years of age. Coronary artery abnormalities are the most serious complication.

  11. Safe and unsafe duration of fasting for children with MCAD deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Terry G J; van Spronsen, Francjan J; Rake, Jan Peter; van der Hilst, Christian S; Span, Mark M; Smit, G Peter A

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the safe and unsafe duration of fasting in children with medium chain acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, the literature and the database on Dutch MCAD-deficient patients were searched for data on fasting studies in patients with MCAD deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHOD

  12. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected. Howeve

  13. Mutations in the medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanaka, K; Yokota, I; Coates, P M;

    1992-01-01

    Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) catalyzes the first reaction of the beta-oxidation cycle for 4-10-carbon fatty acids. MCAD deficiency is one of the most frequent inborn metabolic disorders in populations of northwestern European origin. In the compilation of data from a worldwide study...

  14. Iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world.

  15. Newborn screening for MCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, Gabriella A; Davidson, A G F; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia G;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (MCAD) Deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation, with potential fatal outcome. MCAD deficiency is diagnosed by acylcarnitine analysis on newborn screening blood spot cards by tandem mass spectrometry. Early diagnosis...... of MCAD and presymptomatic treatment can potentially reduce morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate incidence, clinical outcome, biochemical and molecular phenotype of MCAD cases detected in the first three years of newborn screening in British Columbia (BC). METHODS AND RESULTS: Medium chain...... is comparable to reports from other newborn screening programs. Persistence of elevated C8 levels and C8/C10 ratios in confirmed MCAD cases suggest that these are sensitive markers for newborn screening. Early detection and treatment have successfully prevented adverse health outcomes in patients with MCAD....

  16. Sorbitol dehydrogenase is a zinc enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery, J; Chesters, J; C. Mills; P.J. Sadler; Jörnvall, H

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is given that tetrameric sorbitol dehydrogenase from sheep liver contains one zinc atom per subunit, most probably located at the active site, and no other specifically bound zinc or iron atom. In alcohol dehydrogenases that are structurally related to sorbitol dehydrogenase, more than one zinc atom per subunit can complicate investigations of zinc atom function. Therefore, sorbitol dehydrogenase will be particularly valuable for defining the precise roles of zinc in alcohol and poly...

  17. Specific biotinylation of IMP dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Hoefler, B. Christopher; Gollapalli, Deviprasad R.; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes a critical step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis. IMPDH also has biological roles that are distinct from its enzymatic function. We report a biotin-linked reagent that selectively labels IMPDH and is released by dithiothreitol. This reagent will be invaluable in elucidating the moonlighting functions of IMPDH.

  18. Relationship between 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency and changes of progesterone receptor isoforms in ectopic endometrium%异位子宫内膜17β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶2缺乏与孕激素受体亚型变化的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍; 李笛悠; 惠宁

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨子宫内膜异位症(EMT)病灶对孕激素不敏感是否由局部孕激素受体(PRs)亚型及173 -羟基类固醇脱氢酶2( 17β-HSD2)改变或功能缺陷所致.方法 采用Real-Time PCR检测36例EMT患者的卵巢异位子宫内膜(EMT异位子宫内膜组)和16例在位子宫内膜(EMT在位子宫内膜组)的PR-(A+B)、PR-A、PR-B及l7β-HSD2 mRNA的表达;免疫组织化学方法检测PR-(A+ B)、PR-B和17β-HSD2蛋白的表达.结果 EMT在位子宫内膜组PR-(A+B)、PR-B、PR-A mRNA增殖期较分泌期表达升高(P<0.05);增殖期子宫内膜腺上皮细胞及间质细胞都有PRs表达,在分泌期主要在间质细胞中表达;PR-A占优势,PR-A/PR-B比值在整个月经周期中保持相对恒定.子宫内膜间质细胞中PR-B与腺上皮细胞中17β-HSD2的表达一致.EMT异位子宫内膜组PR-A在整个月经周期中持续性低表达,在分泌期与在位内膜PR-A表达差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);PR-B在整个月经周期的表达明显低于在位内膜;PR-A及PR-B的周期性变化消失.与EMT在位子宫内膜组比较,EMT异位子宫内膜组PR-B表达相对降低,PR-A/PR-B值显著升高(P=0.001).EMT异位子宫内膜组间质细胞中PR-B明显下降;17β-HSD2也明显下降,其周期性变化消失.结论 异位子宫内膜的PRs亚型改变影响173-HSD2的表达,可能是EMT发生孕激素抵抗的分子机制之一.%Objective To investigate the mechanism of changes of isoforms of local progesterone receptors ( PRs) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (17JJ-HSD2) deficiency in insensitiveness of ectopic endometrium ( EMT) to progestin. Methods Ectopic endometrium samples of 36 cases of EMT (EMT ectopic endometrium group) and 16 samples of eutopic endometrium ( EMT eutopic endometrium group) were selected, the expression of PR-( A + B), PR-A, PR-B and 17β-HSD2 mRNA was detected by Real-Time PCR, and the expression of PR-( A + B), PR-B and 17B-HSD2 protein was determined by

  19. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Three Recombinant Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Mutants: Zacatecas, Vanua-Lava and Viangchan

    OpenAIRE

    Saúl Gómez-Manzo; Jaime Marcial-Quino; America Vanoye-Carlo; Hugo Serrano-Posada; Abigail González-Valdez; Víctor Martínez-Rosas; Beatriz Hernández-Ochoa; Edgar Sierra-Palacios; Rosa Angélica Castillo-Rodríguez; Miguel Cuevas-Cruz; Eduardo Rodríguez-Bustamante; Roberto Arreguin-Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in humans causes severe disease, varying from mostly asymptomatic individuals to patients showing neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis episodes or chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In order to understand the effect of the mutations in G6PD gene function and its relation with G6PD deficiency severity, we report the construction, cloning and expression as well as the detailed kinetic and stability characterization of three purified clinic...

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutations and haplotypes in Mexican Mestizos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámbula, E; Aguilar L, J C; Vaca, G

    2000-08-01

    In a screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency in 1985 unrelated male subjects from the general population (Groups A and B) belonging to four states of the Pacific coast, 21 G-6-PD-deficient subjects were detected. Screening for mutations at the G-6-PD gene by PCR-restriction enzyme in these 21 G-6-PD-deficient subjects as well as in 14 G-6-PD-deficient patients with hemolytic anemia belonging to several states of Mexico showed two common G-6-PD variants: G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) (19 cases) and G-6-PD A-(376G/968C) (9 cases). In 7 individuals the mutations responsible for the enzyme deficiency remain to be determined. Furthermore, four silent polymorphic sites at the G-6-PD gene (PvuII, PstI, 1311, and NlaIII) were investigated in the 28 individuals with G-6-PD A- variants and in 137 G-6-PD normal subjects. As expected, only 10 different haplotypes were observed. To date, in our project aiming to determine the molecular basis of G-6-PD deficiency in Mexico, 60 unrelated G-6-PD-deficient Mexican males-25 in previous studies and 35 in the present work-have been studied. More than 75% of these individuals are from states of the Pacific coast (Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Chiapas). The results show that although G-6-PD deficiency is heterogeneous at the DNA level in Mexico, only three polymorphic variants have been observed: G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) (36 cases), G-6-PD A-(376G/968C) (13 cases), and G-6-PD Seattle(844C) (2 cases). G-6-PD A- variants are relatively distributed homogeneously and both variants explain 82% of the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency. The variant G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) represents 73% of the G-6-PD A- alleles. Our data also show that the variant G-6-PD A-(376G/968C)-which has been observed in Mexico in the context of two different haplotypes-is more common than previously supposed. The three polymorphic variants that we observed in Mexico are on the same haplotypes as found in subjects from

  1. Enzymic and structural studies on Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase and other short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilda, T; Kamminga, AH; Reinders, P; Baron, W; Vlieg, JETV; Beintema, JJ

    2001-01-01

    Enzymic and structural studies on Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenases and other short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) are presented. Like alcohol dehydrogenases from other Drosophila species, the enzyme from D, simulans is more active on secondary than on primary alcohols, although ethanol is i

  2. Measurement of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) in cultured skin fibroblasts with hexanoyl-CoA as a competitive inhibitor to eliminate the contribution of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niezen-Koning, K E; Wanders, R J; Nagel, G T; Sewell, A C; Heijmans, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency has so far been reported in only very few patients. This is due, in part, to the problems involved in measuring the activity of SCAD unequivocally. The main reason for this difficulty is that butyryl-CoA, the substrate preferably used for SCAD act

  3. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  4. DOWNREGULATION OF CINNAMYL-ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE IN SWITCHGRASS BY RNA SILENCING RESULTS IN ENHANCED GLUCOSE RELEASE AFTER CELLULASE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), catalyzes the last step in monolignol biosynthesis and genetic evidence indicates CAD deficiency in grasses both decreases overall lignin, alters lignin structure and increases enzymatic recovery of sugars. To ascertain the effect of CAD downregulation in switch...

  5. Molecular Characterization of G6PD Deficient Variants in Nineveh Province, Northwestern Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Kashmoola, Muna A.; Adil A Eissa; Al-Takay, Dahlia T.; Al-Allawi, Nasir A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency considered to be the commonest inherited enzymopathies disorders worldwide including Iraq. Studies have addressed its prevalence and molecular characterization in several parts of the country, but no data were available from Nineveh province, northwestern-Iraq regarding molecular basis of this inherited enzymopathy. To determine the molecular basis of G6PD deficient variants in Nineveh province. A total of 61 G6PD deficient male individuals ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency dwarfism, pituitary growth hormone deficiency dwarfism isolated GH deficiency isolated HGH deficiency isolated human growth hormone deficiency isolated somatotropin deficiency isolated somatotropin deficiency disorder ...

  7. A rare disease-associated mutation in the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene changes a conserved arginine, previously shown to be functionally essential in short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Bross, P; Jensen, T G;

    1993-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a serious and potentially fatal inherited defect in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Approximately 80% of patients with MCAD deficiency are homozygous for a single disease-causing mutation (G985). The remaining patients (except for a few...... tested in the PCR-based assay. The T157 mutation was identified in one of these families, which had an MCAD-deficient child who died unexpectedly in infancy. Our results indicate that the mutation is rare. It is, however, noteworthy that a homologous mutation has previously been identified in the short...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1670 - Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. 862.1670... Systems § 862.1670 Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A sorbitol dehydrogenase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme sorbitol dehydrogenase in...

  9. Studies on 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes of Azotobacter vinelandii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, some studies on the pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes of Azotobacter vinelandii are described; the emphasis strongly lies on the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.A survey of the literature on 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes is given in chap

  10. Microbial alcohol dehydrogenases: identification, characterization and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: alcohol dehydrogenase, laboratory evolution, rational protein engineering, Pyrococcus furiosus, biocatalysis, characterization, computational design, thermostability.   Alcohol dehydrogeases (ADHs) catalyze the interconversion of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. They display a wide variety

  11. Transcriptional Regulation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Yun Jeong; Nam Ho Jeoung; Keun-Gyu Park; In-Kyu Lee

    2012-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity is crucial to maintains blood glucose and ATP levels, which largely depends on the phosphorylation status by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoenzymes. Although it has been reported that PDC is phosphorylated and inactivated by PDK2 and PDK4 in metabolically active tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and kidney during starvation and diabetes, the precise mechanisms by which expression of PDK2 and PDK4 are transcriptionally re...

  12. Screening of aspartate dehydrogenase of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Shoko; Okamura, Tokumitsu; Yasumasa, Izumi; Takeno, Tomomi; Ohsugi, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-two strains of bacteria cultured under aerobic conditions and 12 strains of bacteria cultured under anaerobic conditions demonstrated high activity staining of aspartate dehydrogenase with NAD^+. Four strains of bacteria cultured under aerobic conditions and 7 strains of bacteria cultured under anaerobic conditions demonstrated high activity staining of aspartate dehydrogenase with NADP^+. Seven strains of bacteria cultured under aerobic conditions and 4 strains of bacteria cultured und...

  13. Phosphorylation site on yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified to homogeneity from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Yeast cells were disrupted in a Manton-Gaulin laboratory homogenizer. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified by fractionation with polyethylene glycol, isoelectric precipitation, ultracentrifugation and chromatography on hydroxylapatite. Final purification of the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was achieved by cation-exchange high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). No endogenous pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity was detected during the purification. However, the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was phosphorylated and inactivated with purified pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase from bovine kidney. Tryptic digestion of the 32P-labeled complex yielded a single phosphopeptide which was purified to homogeniety. The tryptic digest was subjected to chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. Radioactive fractions were pooled, concentrated, and subjected to anion-exchange HPLC. The column was developed with a linear gradient of ammonium acetate. Final purification of the phosphopeptide was achieved by chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column developed with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. The amino acid sequence of the homogeneous peptide was determined by manual modified Edman degradation

  14. A novel homozygous mutation p.E25X in the HSD3B2 gene causing salt wasting 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases deficiency in a Chinese pubertal girl: a delayed diagnosis until recurrent ovary cysts%HSD3B2基因p.E25X新纯合突变致失盐型3β-羟类固醇脱氢酶缺乏症一例及文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永兰; 郑纪鹏; 谢婷; 肖青; 卢少媚; 李秀珍; 程静; 陈励和; 刘丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective 3 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3βHSD),a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulted from mutations in the HSD3B2 gene that impair steroidogenesis in both adrenals and gonads.We report clinical features and the results of HSD3B2 gene analysis of a Chinese pubertal girl with salt wasting 3βHSD deficiency.Method We retrospectively reviewed clinical presentations and steroid profiles of the patient diagnosed in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center in 2013.PCR and direct sequencing were used to identify any mutation in the HSD3B2 gene.Result A 13-year-old girl was diagnosed as CAH after birth because of salt-wasting with mild clitorimegaly and then was treated with glucocorticoid replacement.Breast and pubic hair development were normal,and menarche occurred at 12 yr,followed by menstrual bleeding about every 45 days.In the last one year laparoscopic operation and ovariocentesis were performed one after another for recurrent ovary cysts.Under corticoid acetate therapy,ACTH 17.10 pmol/L (normal 0-10.12),testosterone 1.31 nmol/L (normal < 0.7),dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate 13.30 μmol/L (normal 0.95-11.67),cortisol 720 nmol/L (normal 130-772.8),androstenedione,17-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone were normal.Estradiol 461 pmol/L,follicle-stimulating hormone 3.04 IU/L,luteinizing hormone 8.52 IU/L in follicular phase.A pelvic ultrasound showed lateral ovaries cysts (58 mm × 50 mm × 35 mm) and a midcycle-type endometrium.A novel nonsense mutation c.73G > T (p.E25X) was identified in HSD3B2 gene.The girl was homozygous and her mother was heterozygous,while her father was not identified with this mutation.Conclusion A classic 3βHSD deficiency is characterized by salt wasting and mild virilization in female.Ovary cysts may be the one of features of gonad phenotype indicating ovary 3βHSD deficiency.A novel homozygous mutation c.73G > T(p.E25X) was related to the classical phenotype.%目的 总结一例失盐型3

  15. An autosomal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) polymorphism in human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S G; Ashton, G C

    1976-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) from human saliva has been demonstrated by the zymogram technique. Three phenotypes were found. Family and population studies suggested that these phenotypes are the products of an autosomal locus with two alleles Sgd-1 and Sgd-2. PMID:950237

  16. Retinoic acid deficiency alters second heart field formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ryckebusch, Lucile; Wang, Zengxin; Bertrand, Nicolas; Lin, Song-Chang; Chi, Xuan; Schwartz, Robert; Zaffran, Stéphane; Niederreither, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the active derivative of vitamin A, has been implicated in various steps of cardiovascular development. The retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) enzyme catalyzes the second oxidative step in RA biosynthesis and its loss of function creates a severe embryonic RA deficiency. Raldh2−/− knockout embryos fail to undergo heart looping and have impaired atrial and sinus venosus development. To understand the mechanism(s) producing these changes, we examined the contribution of ...

  17. Fatal cerebral edema associated with serine deficiency in CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keularts, Irene M L W; Leroy, Piet L J M; Rubio-Gozalbo, Estela M; Spaapen, Leo J M; Weber, Biene; Dorland, Bert; de Koning, Tom J; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M

    2010-12-01

    Two young girls without a notable medical history except for asthma presented with an acute toxic encephalopathy with very low serine concentrations both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) comparable to patients with 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency. Clinical symptoms and enzyme measurement (in one patient) excluded 3-PGDH deficiency. Deficiencies in other serine biosynthesis enzymes were highly unlikely on clinical grounds. On basis of the fasting state, ketone bodies and lactate in plasma, urine and CSF, we speculate that reduced serine levels were due to its use as gluconeogenic substrate, conversion to pyruvate by brain serine racemase or decreased L-serine production because of a lack of glucose. These are the first strikingly similar cases of patients with a clear secondary serine deficiency associated with a toxic encephalopathy.

  18. Avaliação da incidência da deficiência de Glicose-6-Fosfato Desidrogenase (G6PD) e perfil hematológico em indivíduos de uma região de Rondônia Incidence evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and hematological profile in Rondonia

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuragawa, Tony H; Luiz H. Soares Gil; Rodrigo G. Stábile; Matheus G. Pires; Cláudia R. Bonini-Domingos

    2004-01-01

    O estudo compreendeu a avaliação da deficiência de Glicose-6-Fosfato Desidrogenase (G6PD) e perfil hematológico em 122 indivíduos (69 homens e 53 mulheres), com idade variando entre 3 a 84 anos, selecionados conforme a aceitação em participação no estudo, residentes na área urbana e rural do município de Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brasil, no período de julho de 2003 a agosto de 2004. A análise foi realizada utilizando-se o método da glicose NaNO2, e hemograma completo. Foram detectados quatro ind...

  19. Folate deficiency affects histone methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Benjamin A; Luka, Zigmund; Loukachevitch, Lioudmila V; Bhanu, Natarajan V; Wagner, Conrad

    2016-03-01

    Formaldehyde is extremely toxic reacting with proteins to crosslinks peptide chains. Formaldehyde is a metabolic product in many enzymatic reactions and the question of how these enzymes are protected from the formaldehyde that is generated has largely remained unanswered. Early experiments from our laboratory showed that two liver mitochondrial enzymes, dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (DMGDH) and sarcosine dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyze oxidative demethylation reactions (sarcosine is a common name for monomethylglycine). The enzymatic products of these enzymes were the demethylated substrates and formaldehyde, produced from the removed methyl group. Both DMGDH and SDH contain FAD and both have tightly bound tetrahydrofolate (THF), a folate coenzyme. THF binds reversibly with formaldehyde to form 5,10-methylene-THF. At that time we showed that purified DMGDH, with tightly bound THF, reacted with formaldehyde generated during the reaction to form 5,10-methylene-THF. This effectively scavenged the formaldehyde to protect the enzyme. Recently, post-translational modifications on histone tails have been shown to be responsible for epigenetic regulation of gene expression. One of these modifications is methylation of lysine residues. The first enzyme discovered to accomplish demethylation of these modified histones was histone lysine demethylase (LSD1). LSD1 specifically removes methyl groups from di- and mono-methylated lysines at position 4 of histone 3. This enzyme contained tightly bound FAD and the products of the reaction were the demethylated lysine residue and formaldehyde. The mechanism of LSD1 demethylation is analogous to the mechanism previously postulated for DMGDH, i.e. oxidation of the N-methyl bond to the methylene imine followed by hydrolysis to generate formaldehyde. This suggested that THF might also be involved in the LSD1 reaction to scavenge the formaldehyde produced. Our hypotheses are that THF is bound to native LSD1 by analogy to DMGDH and SDH and

  20. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase from the chemolithotroph Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Takashi; Ehara, Nagisa; Nishito, Akira; Nakayama, Yumi; Maekawa, Makiko; Imada, Katsumi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Inagaki, Kenji

    2002-08-27

    An isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) with an unique coenzyme specificity from Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was purified and characterized, and its gene was cloned. The native enzyme was homodimeric with a subunit of M(r) 45000 and showed a 78-fold preference for NAD(+) over NADP(+). The cloned ICDH gene (icd) was expressed in an icd-deficient strain of Escherichia coli EB106; the activity was found in the cell extract. The gene encodes a 429-amino acid polypeptide and is located between open reading frames encoding a putative aconitase gene (upstream of icd) and a putative succinyl-CoA synthase beta-subunit gene (downstream of icd). A. thiooxidans ICDH showed high sequence similarity to bacterial NADP(+)-dependent ICDH rather than eukaryotic NAD(+)-dependent ICDH, but the NAD(+)-preference of the enzyme was suggested due to residues conserved in the coenzyme binding site of the NAD(+)-dependent decarboxylating dehydrogenase.

  1. Affinity chromatography of bacterial lactate dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, N; Delaney, M; O'Carra, P

    1978-06-01

    The affinity system used was the immobilized oxamate derivative previously used to purify mammalian lactate dehydrogenases. The bacterial dehydrogenases specific for the L-stereoisomer of lactate behaved in the same way as the mammalian enzymes, binding strongly in the presence of NADH. The D-lactate-specific enzymes, however, did not show any biospecific affinity for this gel. The L-specific enzymes could be purified to homogeneity in one affinity-chromatographic step. The D-specific enzymes could be efficiently separated from the L-specific ones and could then be further purified on an immobilized NAD derivative. The mechanism of activation of the lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus faecalis by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was investigated by using the immobilized oxamate gel. PMID:666726

  2. Recessive germline SDHA and SDHB mutations causing leukodystrophy and isolated mitochondrial complex II deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Charlotte L; Davison, James E; Meloni, Francesca; van der Westhuizen, Francois H.; Langping, He

    2012-01-01

    Background Isolated complex II deficiency is a rare form of mitochondrial disease, accounting for approximately 2% of all respiratory chain deficiency diagnoses. The succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD) are autosomally-encoded and transcribe the conjugated heterotetramers of complex II via the action of two known assembly factors (SDHAF1 and SDHAF2). Only a handful of reports describe inherited SDH gene defects as a cause of paediatric mitochondrial disease, involvi...

  3. Inducible xylitol dehydrogenases in enteric bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Doten, R C; Mortlock, R P

    1985-01-01

    Morganella morganii ATCC 25829, Providencia stuartii ATCC 25827, Serratia marcescens ATCC 13880, and Erwinia sp. strain 4D2P were found to induce a xylitol dehydrogenase when grown on a xylitol-containing medium. The xylitol dehydrogenases were partially purified from the four strains, and those from M. morganii ATCC 25829, P. stuartii ATCC 25827, and S. marcescens ATCC 13880 were all found to oxidize xylitol to D-xylulose. These three enzymes had KmS for xylitol of 7.1 to 16.4 mM and molecul...

  4. Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD) LAD is an immune deficiency in ... are slow to heal also may have LAD. Treatment and Research Doctors prescribe antibiotics to prevent and ...

  5. Factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000548.htm Factor VII deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Factor VII (seven) deficiency is a disorder caused by a ...

  6. Folate-deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000551.htm Folate-deficiency anemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Deficiency Anemia What Is... CAUSES WHO IS AT RISK SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENTS PREVENTION LIVING WITH CLINICAL ... and women are the two groups at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video— ... treatment. For more information about living with and managing iron-deficiency anemia, go to the Health Topics ...

  9. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000408.htm Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a group of rare genetic disorders ...

  10. Physiological covalent regulation of rat liver branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiochemical assay was developed for measuring branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity of Triton X-100 extracts of freeze-clamped rat liver. The proportion of active (dephosphorylated) enzyme was determined by measuring enzyme activities before and after activation of the complex with a broad-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase. Hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity in normal male Wistar rats was 97% active but decreased to 33% active after 2 days on low-protein (8%) diet and to 13% active after 4 days on the same diet. Restricting protein intake of lean and obese female Zucker rats also caused inactivation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Essentially all of the enzyme was in the active state in rats maintained for 14 days on either 30 or 50% protein diets. This was also the case for rats maintained on a commercial chow diet (minimum 23% protein). However, maintaining rats on 20, 8, and 0% protein diets decreased the percentage of the active form of the enzyme to 58, 10, and 7% of the total, respectively. Fasting of chow-fed rats for 48 h had no effect on the activity state of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase, i.e., 93% of the enzyme remained in the active state compared to 97% for chow-fed rats. However, hepatic enzyme of rats maintained on 8% protein diet was 10% active before starvation and 83% active after 2 days of starvation. Thus, dietary protein deficiency results in inactivation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, presumably as a consequence of low hepatic levels of branched-chain alpha-ketoacids

  11. Iron deficiency and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Hulthén, Lena

    2003-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in the world. One of the most worrying consequences of iron deficiency in children is the alteration of behaviour and cognitive performance. In iron-deficient children, striking behavioural changes are observed, such as reduced attention span, reduced emotional responsiveness and low scores on tests of intelligence. Animal studies on nutritional iron deficiency show effects on learning ability that parallel the human studies. Despite ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  14. Yeast surface display of dehydrogenases in microbial fuel-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Idan; Schlesinger, Orr; Amir, Liron; Alfonta, Lital

    2016-12-01

    Two dehydrogenases, cellobiose dehydrogenase from Corynascus thermophilus and pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris, were displayed for the first time on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the yeast surface display system. Surface displayed dehydrogenases were used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs. Surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase has demonstrated a midpoint potential of -28mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) at pH=6.5 and was used in a mediator-less anode compartment of a microbial fuel cell producing a power output of 3.3μWcm(-2) using lactose as fuel. Surface-displayed pyranose dehydrogenase was used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs using different substrates, the highest power output that was achieved was 3.9μWcm(-2) using d-xylose. These results demonstrate that surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase and pyranose dehydrogenase may successfully be used in microbial bioelectrochemical systems.

  15. Yeast surface display of dehydrogenases in microbial fuel-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Idan; Schlesinger, Orr; Amir, Liron; Alfonta, Lital

    2016-12-01

    Two dehydrogenases, cellobiose dehydrogenase from Corynascus thermophilus and pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris, were displayed for the first time on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the yeast surface display system. Surface displayed dehydrogenases were used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs. Surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase has demonstrated a midpoint potential of -28mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) at pH=6.5 and was used in a mediator-less anode compartment of a microbial fuel cell producing a power output of 3.3μWcm(-2) using lactose as fuel. Surface-displayed pyranose dehydrogenase was used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs using different substrates, the highest power output that was achieved was 3.9μWcm(-2) using d-xylose. These results demonstrate that surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase and pyranose dehydrogenase may successfully be used in microbial bioelectrochemical systems. PMID:27459246

  16. Clinical Manifestation and a New "ISCU" Mutation in Iron-Sulphur Cluster Deficiency Myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollberg, Gittan; Tulinius, Mar; Melberg, Atle; Darin, Niklas; Andersen, Oluf; Holmgren, Daniel; Oldfors, Anders; Holme, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Myopathy with deficiency of succinate dehydrogenase and aconitase is a recessively inherited disorder characterized by childhood-onset early fatigue, dyspnoea and palpitations on trivial exercise. The disease is non-progressive, but life-threatening episodes of widespread weakness, severe metabolic acidosis and rhabdomyolysis may occur. The…

  17. Triacylglycerol infusion improves exercise endurance in patients with mitochondrial myopathy due to complex I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roef, MJ; de Meer, K; Reijngoud, DJ; Straver, HWHC; de Barse, M; Kalhan, SC; Berger, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: A high-fat diet has been recommended for the treatment of patients with mitochondrial myopathy due to complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) deficiency (CID). Objective: This study evaluated the effects of intravenous infusion of isoenergetic amounts of triacylglycerol or glucose on substrate ox

  18. Sedation with 4-hydroxybutyric acid: a potential pitfall in the diagnosis of SSADH deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, N.I.; Haas, D.; Hoffmann, G.F.; Jakobs, C.; Salomons, G.S.; Wevers, R.A.; Engelke, U.F.H.; Rating, D.

    2004-01-01

    Deficiency of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) is a rare neurometabolic disorder with accumulation of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (4-HBA) as a biochemical hallmark. We present a boy with an unresolved severe neurological disorder and intermittent elevation of 4-HBA in serum and CSF which was la

  19. Microbial alcohol dehydrogenases: identification, characterization and engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Machielsen, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: alcohol dehydrogenase, laboratory evolution, rational protein engineering, Pyrococcus furiosus, biocatalysis, characterization, computational design, thermostability.   Alcohol dehydrogeases (ADHs) catalyze the interconversion of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. They display a wide variety of substrate specificities and are involved in an astonishingly wide range of metabolic processes, in all living organisms. Besides the scientific interest in ADHs, they are also attractive biocat...

  20. Optimization of Adsorptive Immobilization of Alcohol Dehydrogenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivedi, Archana; Heinemann, Matthias; Spiess, Antje C.; Daussmann, Thomas; Büchs, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a systematic examination of various parameters of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) on solid support is performed and the impact of these parameters on immobilization efficiency is studied. Depending on the source of the enzymes, these parameters differently in

  1. Purification of a branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida.

    OpenAIRE

    Sokatch, J R; McCully, V; Roberts, C M

    1981-01-01

    We purified branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase to a specific activity of 10 mumol/min per mg of protein from Pseudomonas putida grown on valine. The purified enzyme was active with 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoisocaproate, and 2-keto-3-methylvalerate in a ratio of 1.0:0.8:0.7 but showed no activity with either pyruvate or 2-ketoglutarate. There were four polypeptides in the purified enzyme (molecular weights, 49,000, 46,000, 39,000, and 37,000). The purified enzyme was deficient in the specif...

  2. The Genetics of Alcohol Metabolism: Role of Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Variants

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J

    2007-01-01

    The primary enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism are alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Both enzymes occur in several forms that are encoded by different genes; moreover, there are variants (i.e., alleles) of some of these genes that encode enzymes with different characteristics and which have different ethnic distributions. Which ADH or ALDH alleles a person carries influence his or her level of alcohol consumption and risk of alcoholism. Researchers to date pri...

  3. Characterization of xylitol dehydrogenase from Debaryomyces hansenii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girio, F.M.; Amaral-Collaco, M.T. [INETI, Lisboa (Portugal); Pelica, F. [ITQB, Oeiras (Portugal)

    1996-01-01

    The xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) from xylose-grown cells of Debaryomyces hansenii was partially purified in two chromatographic steps, and characterization studies were carried out in order to investigate the role of the xylitol dehydrogenase-catalyzed step in the regulation of D-xylose metabolism. The enzyme was most active at pH 9.0-9.5, and exhibited a broad polyol specificity. The Michaelis constants for xylitol and NAD{sup +} were 16.5 and 0.55 mM, respectively. Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} did not affect the enzyme activity. Conversely, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} strongly inhibited the enzyme activity. It was concluded that NAD{sup +}-xylitol dehydrogenase from D. hansenii has similarities with other xylose-fermenting yeasts in respect to optimal pH, substrate specificity, and K{sub m} value for xylitol, and therefore should be named L-iditol:NAD{sup +}-5-oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.14). The reason D. hansenii is a good xylitol producer is not because of its value of K for xylitol, which is low enough to assure its fast oxidation by NAD{sup +}-xylitol dehydrogenase. However, a higher K{sub m} value of xylitol dehydrogenase for NAD{sup +} compared to the K{sub m} values of other xylose-fermenting yeasts may be responsible for the higher xylitol yields. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. 11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in hypothalamic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiosano, Dov; Eisentein, Israel; Militianu, Daniela; Chrousos, George P; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2003-01-01

    After extensive suprasellar operations for hypothalamic tumor removal, some patients develop Cushing-like morbid obesity while they receive replacement doses of glucocorticoids. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that target tissue conversion of inactive 11-ketosteroids to active 11 beta-OH glucocorticoids might explain the obesity of some patients with hypothalamic lesions. Toward this aim, we studied 10 patients with hypothalamic obesity and secondary adrenal insufficiency and 6 control Addisonian patients while they were on glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Pituitary hormone deficiencies were replaced when medically indicated. Twenty-four-hour urine was collected after a single oral dose of 12 mg/m(2) hydrocortisone acetate. The ratios of free and conjugated cortisol (F) to cortisone (E) and their metabolites, [tetrahydrocortisol (THF)+5 alpha THF]/tetrahyrdocortisone (THE), dihydrocortisols/dihydrocortisones, cortols/cortolones, and (F+E)/(THF+THE+5 alpha THF), were considered to represent 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activity. The 11-OH/11-oxo ratios were significantly higher in the urine of patients with hypothalamic obesity. The 11-OH/11-oxo ratios, however, did not correlate with the degree of obesity, yet a significant correlation was found between conjugated F/E and the ratio of visceral fat to sc fat measured by computerized tomography at the umbilical level. The consequence of increased 11 beta-HSD1 activity and the shift of the interconversion toward cortisol may contribute to the effects of the latter in adipose tissue. We propose that deficiency of hypothalamic messengers after surgical injury induces a paracrine/autocrine effect of enhanced glucocorticoid activity due to up-regulated 11 beta-HSD1 activity. PMID:12519880

  5. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 2 in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kosicka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a serious medical problem affecting the mother and her child and influences their health not only during the pregnancy, but also many years after. Although preeclampsia is a subject of many research projects, the etiology of the condition remains unclear. One of the hypotheses related to the etiology of preeclampsia is the deficiency in placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2, the enzyme which in normal pregnancy protects the fetus from the excess of maternal cortisol. The reduced activity of the enzyme was observed in placentas from pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia. That suggests the overexposure of the developing child to maternal cortisol, which in high levels exerts proapoptotic effects and reduces fetal growth. The fetal growth restriction due to the diminished placental 11β-HSD2 function may be supported by the fact that preeclampsia is often accompanied with fetal hypotrophy. The causes of the reduced function of 11β-HSD2 in placental tissue are still discussed. This paper summarizes the phenomena that may affect the activity of the enzyme at various steps on the way from the gene to the protein.

  6. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  7. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithgall, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  8. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar K; Bava H; Shetty J; Joshi M

    1997-01-01

    A rare case of a 3 month old child with lipoprotein lipase deficiency who presented with bronchopneumonia is reported. After noticing lipaemic serum and lipaemia retinalis, a diagnosis of hyperlipoproteinaemia was considered. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency was confirmed with post heparin lipoprotein lipase enzyme activity estimation.

  9. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  10. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Uijterschout

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  11. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A;

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  12. Vitamin deficiencies and excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are essential nutrients that must be supplied exogenously either as part of a well balanced diet or as supplements. Deficiency states are uncommon in developed countries except, perhaps, among some food insecure families. In contrast, deficiency states are quite common in many developing ...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Restless Legs Syndrome Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily treated condition that occurs if you ...

  14. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  15. Red cell genetic abnormalities in Peninsular Arabs: sickle haemoglobin, G6PD deficiency, and alpha and beta thalassaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    White, J. M.; Byrne, M; Richards, R; T. Buchanan; Katsoulis, E; Weerasingh, K

    1986-01-01

    The frequencies of four major red cell genetic defects, sickle haemoglobin (Hb S), glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), and alpha and beta thalassaemia, have been determined in nearly 5000 subjects from the three major Peninsular Arab States, namely Yemen (North and South), the United Arab Emirates, and Oman. All four defects are common with an overall pattern of alpha thalassaemia greater than G6PD deficiency greater than beta thalassaemia greater than Hb A/S. However, the fr...

  16. Molecular cloning of gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003 xylitol dehydrogenase gene

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, H. Mir Mohammad; Ahmadi, R; Aghaabdollahian, S.; Mofid, M.R.; Ghaemi, Y.; Abedi, D

    2011-01-01

    Due to the widespread applications of xylitol dehydrogenase, an enzyme used for the production of xylitol, the present study was designed for the cloning of xylitol dehydrogenase gene from Glcunobacter oxydans DSM 2003. After extraction of genomic DNA from this bacterium, xylitol dehydrogenase gene was replicated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified product was entered into pTZ57R cloning vector by T/A cloning method and transformation was performed by heat shocking of the E. ...

  17. Molecular genetic analysis of human alcohol dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Duester, G; Wesley Hatfield, G.; Smith, M.

    1985-01-01

    Human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) consists of a complex group of isozymes encoded by at least five non-identical genes, two of which have previously been shown through enzymatic analysis to possess polymorphic variants. Using a cDNA probe the ADH2gene encoding the β subunit of human ADH was mapped to human chromosome 4. The cDNA probe for ADH2 was also used to detect a restriction fragment length polymorphism present in human populations. This polymorphism may help establish whether certain A...

  18. Molecular determinants of the cofactor specificity of ribitol dehydrogenase, a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moon, Hee-Jung; Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Singh, Ranjitha;

    2012-01-01

    Ribitol dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis (ZmRDH) catalyzes the conversion of ribitol to d-ribulose and concomitantly reduces NAD(P)(+) to NAD(P)H. A systematic approach involving an initial sequence alignment-based residue screening, followed by a homology model-based screening and site...

  19. NAD(H recycling activity of an engineered bifunctional enzyme galactose dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A chimeric bifunctional enzyme composing of galactose dehydrogenase (galDH; from Pseudomonas fluorescens and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; from Bacillus stearothermophilus was successfully constructed. The chimeric galDH/LDH possessed dual characteristics of both galactose dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities while exhibiting hexameric rearrangement with a molecular weight of approximately 400 kDa. In vitro observations showed that the chimeric enzyme was able to recycle NAD with a continuous production of lactate without any externally added NADH. Two fold higher recycling rate (0.3 mM/h than that of the native enzyme was observed at pH values above 8.5. Proximity effects became especially pronounced during the recycling assay when diffusion hindrance was induced by polyethylene glycol. All these findings open up a high feasibility to apply the NAD(H recycling system for metabolic engineering purposes e.g. as a model to gain a better understanding on the molecular proximity process and as the routes for synthesizing of numerous high-value-added compounds.

  20. Differential inhibition of PDKs by phenylbutyrate and enhancement of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity by combination with dichloroacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriero, Rosa; Iannuzzi, Clara; Manco, Giuseppe; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is a key enzyme in metabolism linking glycolysis to tricarboxylic acid cycle and its activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation catalyzed by four pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoforms. PDKs are pharmacological targets for several human diseases including cancer, diabetes, obesity, heart failure, and inherited PDHC deficiency. We investigated the inhibitory activity of phenylbutyrate toward PDKs and found that PDK isoforms 1-to-3 are inhibited whereas PDK4 is unaffected. Moreover, docking studies revealed putative binding sites of phenylbutyrate on PDK2 and 3 that are located on different sites compared to dichloroacetate (DCA), a previously known PDK inhibitor. Based on these findings, we showed both in cells and in mice that phenylbutyrate combined to DCA results in greater increase of PDHC activity compared to each drug alone. These results suggest that therapeutic efficacy can be enhanced by combination of drugs increasing PDHC enzyme activity. PMID:25601413

  1. Transient multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency in a newborn female caused by maternal riboflavin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiong, M A; Sim, K G; Carpenter, K;

    2007-01-01

    A newborn female presented on the first day of life with clinical and biochemical findings consistent with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD). Riboflavin supplementation corrected the biochemical abnormalities 24 h after commencing the vitamin. In vitro acylcarnitine profiling...... in intact fibroblasts both in normal and riboflavin depleted media showed normal oxidation of fatty acids excluding defects in electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF), or ETF ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO), or a genetic abnormality in flavin metabolism. In addition, sequencing of the genes encoding ETF...

  2. Transcriptional Regulation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yun Jeong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC activity is crucial to maintains blood glucose and ATP levels, which largely depends on the phosphorylation status by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK isoenzymes. Although it has been reported that PDC is phosphorylated and inactivated by PDK2 and PDK4 in metabolically active tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and kidney during starvation and diabetes, the precise mechanisms by which expression of PDK2 and PDK4 are transcriptionally regulated still remains unclear. Insulin represses the expression of PDK2 and PDK4 via phosphorylation of FOXO through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Several nuclear hormone receptors activated due to fasting or increased fat supply, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, estrogen-related receptors, and thyroid hormone receptors, also participate in the up-regulation of PDK2 and PDK4; however, the endogenous ligands that bind those nuclear receptors have not been identified. It has been recently suggested that growth hormone, adiponectin, epinephrine, and rosiglitazone also control the expression of PDK4 in tissue-specific manners. In this review, we discuss several factors involved in the expressional regulation of PDK2 and PDK4, and introduce current studies aimed at providing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the development of metabolic diseases such as diabetes.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji Yun; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2012-10-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity is crucial to maintains blood glucose and ATP levels, which largely depends on the phosphorylation status by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoenzymes. Although it has been reported that PDC is phosphorylated and inactivated by PDK2 and PDK4 in metabolically active tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and kidney during starvation and diabetes, the precise mechanisms by which expression of PDK2 and PDK4 are transcriptionally regulated still remains unclear. Insulin represses the expression of PDK2 and PDK4 via phosphorylation of FOXO through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Several nuclear hormone receptors activated due to fasting or increased fat supply, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, estrogen-related receptors, and thyroid hormone receptors, also participate in the up-regulation of PDK2 and PDK4; however, the endogenous ligands that bind those nuclear receptors have not been identified. It has been recently suggested that growth hormone, adiponectin, epinephrine, and rosiglitazone also control the expression of PDK4 in tissue-specific manners. In this review, we discuss several factors involved in the expressional regulation of PDK2 and PDK4, and introduce current studies aimed at providing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the development of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. PMID:23130316

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intravenous iron therapy. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms. Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in ... 18/2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health ... Severe iron-deficiency anemia can lead to heart problems, infections, problems with growth and development in children, ...

  7. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency? Sleep deprivation (DEP-rih-VA- ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: February 22, 2012 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information Center Health Professionals Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice ... and see the benefits of treatment. For more information about living with and managing iron-deficiency anemia, ...

  9. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Digg. Share this page from the NHLBI on Facebook. Add this link to the NHLBI to my ... such as tiredness, poor skin tone, dizziness, and depression. After her doctor diagnosed her with iron-deficiency ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CAUSES WHO IS AT RISK SIGNS & SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS TREATMENTS PREVENTION LIVING WITH CLINICAL TRIALS LINKS Related Topics ... Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-rich protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Iron-deficiency ... 2011 This video—presented by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National Institutes ...

  13. Urinary Bladder Paragangliomas: Analysis of Succinate Dehydrogenase and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sounak; Zhang, Jun; Rivera, Michael; Erickson, Lori A

    2016-09-01

    Paragangliomas of the urinary bladder can arise sporadically or as a part of hereditary syndromes including those with underlying mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes, which serve as tumor suppressors. SDH deficiency can be screened for by absence of immunohistochemical detection of SDHB. In this study of 11 cases, clinical follow-up was available for 9/11 cases. The cases were reviewed and graded based on the grading system for adrenal pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (GAPP) criteria. Immunohistochemistry was performed for Ki67 and SDHB. Proliferative index was calculated by quantification of Ki67-positive cells at hot spots. The medical record was accessed for documentation of germline SDH mutations. Urinary bladder paragangliomas had a female predilection (8/11 cases), and 5/11 cases exhibited metastatic behavior. Patients with metastatic disease tended to be younger (mean age 43 vs 49 years), have larger lesions (5.8 vs 1.5 cm), and presented with catecholamine excess (4/4 vs 2/6 patients with non-metastatic lesions). Patients with metastatic disease had a higher mean Ki67 proliferation rate (4.9 vs 1.3 %) and GAPP score (mean of 5.8 vs 3.8) (p = 0.01). IHC for SDHB expression revealed loss of expression in 2/6 cases of non-metastatic paragangliomas compared to 4/5 patients with metastatic paragangliomas. Interestingly, of these four patients, two had a documented mutation of SDHB, one patient had a SDHC mutation, and another patient had a history of familial disease without mutation analysis being performed. Our study, suggests that SDH loss was suggestive of metastatic behavior in addition to younger age at diagnosis, larger tumor size, and higher Ki67 proliferation rate and catecholamine type. PMID:27262318

  14. Defïciëntie van het vetzuuroxidatie-enzym middenketen-acyl-coënzym-A-dehydrogenase (MCAD) bij een volwassene, opgespoord tijdens een proefproject voor neonatale screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, T G; Jakobs, H; Gerding, A; Niezen-Koning, K E; Reijngoud, D J; Smit, G P A

    2004-01-01

    In a trial running since October 2003 in the Dutch provinces of Friesland, Groningen, Drenthe and Overijssel neonatal screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency has been added to the regular newborn screening programme for phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism and adren

  15. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth...

  16. Clinical significance of complement deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, H David; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2009-09-01

    The complement system is composed of more than 30 serum and membrane-bound proteins, all of which are needed for normal function of complement in innate and adaptive immunity. Historically, deficiencies within the complement system have been suspected when young children have had recurrent and difficult-to-control infections. As our understanding of the complement system has increased, many other diseases have been attributed to deficiencies within the complement system. Generally, complement deficiencies within the classical pathway lead to increased susceptibility to encapsulated bacterial infections as well as a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. Complement deficiencies within the mannose-binding lectin pathway generally lead to increased bacterial infections, and deficiencies within the alternative pathway usually lead to an increased frequency of Neisseria infections. However, factor H deficiency can lead to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Finally, deficiencies within the terminal complement pathway lead to an increased incidence of Neisseria infections. Two other notable complement-associated deficiencies are complement receptor 3 and 4 deficiency, which result from a deficiency of CD18, a disease known as leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1, and CD59 deficiency, which causes paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Most inherited deficiencies of the complement system are autosomal recessive, but properidin deficiency is X-linked recessive, deficiency of C1 inhibitor is autosomal dominant, and mannose-binding lectin and factor I deficiencies are autosomal co-dominant. The diversity of clinical manifestations of complement deficiencies reflects the complexity of the complement system. PMID:19758139

  17. 2-ethylhydracrylic aciduria in short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korman, Stanley H; Andresen, Brage S; Zeharia, Avraham;

    2005-01-01

    of urine acylglycines is problematic. Excretion of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid (2-EHA), an intermediate formed in the normally minor R-pathway of L-isoleucine oxidation, has not previously been described in SBCADD. METHODS: Samples from four patients with 2-MBG excretion were analyzed by gas chromatography......-mass spectrometry for urine organic acids, quantification of 2-MBG, and chiral determination of 2-methylbutyric acid. Blood-spot acylcarnitines were measured by electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Mutations in the ACADSB gene encoding SBCAD were identified by direct sequencing. RESULTS: SBCADD was confirmed...... in each patient by demonstration of different ACADSB gene mutations. In multiple urine samples, organic acid analysis revealed a prominent 2-EHA peak usually exceeding the size of the 2-MBG peak. Approximately 40-46% of total 2-methylbutyric acid conjugates were in the form of the R-isomer, indicating...

  18. GLUCOSE -6- PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY AND HAEMOGLOBINOPHATIES IN RESIDENT OF ARSO PIR, IRIAN JAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor R. Jones

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang defisiensi glukose —6- fosfatase dehidrogenase G-6-PD dan haemoglobinopati dengan populasi 223 penduduk yang terdiri atas 102 suku Jawa dan 121 suku Irian Jaya. Enam orang dari Suku Irian Jaya, ditemukan dengan defisiensi tingkat G-6-PD. Tingkat G-6-PD pada orang-orang ini berkisar antara 4 sampai 50% dari nilai nominal minimum. Ditemukan pula 5 kasus haemoglobinopati. Pada satu orang dari suku Irian Jaya ditemukan haemoglobinopati yang konsisten dengan hemoblobin Lepore-Hollandia. Tiga orang dari suku Jawa menunjukkan suatu varian hemoglobin E dan seorang dari suku Jawa lainnya menunjukkan satu varian yang konsisten dengan hemoglobin fetal. Sementara penemuan ini menunjukkan adanya varian hematologi dalam populasi penelitian yang mungkin berperan dalam kerentanan terhadap malaria, tetapi persentase subyek dengan varian tidak cukup besar untuk mempengaruhi secara berarti angka transmisi malaria di dalam populasi.

  19. GLUCOSE -6- PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY AND HAEMOGLOBINOPHATIES IN RESIDENT OF ARSO PIR, IRIAN JAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor R. Jones; J.K. Kevin Baird; Sutanti Ratiwayanto; Maman Supriatman

    2012-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang defisiensi glukose —6- fosfatase dehidrogenase G-6-PD dan haemoglobinopati dengan populasi 223 penduduk yang terdiri atas 102 suku Jawa dan 121 suku Irian Jaya. Enam orang dari Suku Irian Jaya, ditemukan dengan defisiensi tingkat G-6-PD. Tingkat G-6-PD pada orang-orang ini berkisar antara 4 sampai 50% dari nilai nominal minimum. Ditemukan pula 5 kasus haemoglobinopati. Pada satu orang dari suku Irian Jaya ditemukan haemoglobinopati yang konsisten dengan hemo...

  20. Sweet Syndrome Accompanying Inflammatory Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Its Association Bowel Disease in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute neutrophilic dermatosis, first described in 1964 byRobert Douglas Sweet, is characterized by sudden onset fever,neutrophilic leukocytosis, and well demarcated erythematouspapules, nodules, and plaques with dense neutrophilic infiltrateson histologic evaluation.Here is a report of a 7-year-old girl who presented withhigh grade fever, and discrete erythematous papular skin eruptions,which gradually increased in number and involved theface, trunk, extremities, palms, soles, hard palate, and palataltonsils. The skin eruptions evolved to pustules and after coalescingcaused large crusted plaques, with mild tenderness butwithout any pruritus. White blood cells were 36900/ml with92% neutrophils. Skin biopsy test was compatible with acutefebrile neutrophilic dermatosis, so prednisolone (1 mg/kg/daywas started that led to a rapid defervescence and significantimprovement of dermatosis. After a few days, the patient presentedwith fever and arthritis of right elbow, both ankles, andwrists, so she was re-admitted. She also developed bloody diarrheaduring the hospital stay. Colonoscopy and intestinalbiopsy were performed, which confirmed the diagnosis of ulcerativecolitis. Prednisolone, sulfasalazine, and naproxenwere prescribed. The fever and diarrhea stopped after a fewdays and joint swelling decreased. She was discharged 2weeks after the admission with a rather good general condition.Inflammatory bowel disease can be one of the severalconditions accompanying sweet syndrome.

  1. Molecular characterization of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Andresen, B S; Bross, P;

    1991-01-01

    their obligate carrier status. Allelic homozygosity in the patient and heterozygosity for the mutation in the parents were established by a modified PCR reaction, introducing a cleavage site for the restriction endonuclease NcoI into amplified genomic DNA containing G985. The same assay consistently revealed A...

  2. Dietary zinc deficiency effects dorso-lateral and ventral prostate of Wistar rats: histological, biochemical and trace element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sangeeta; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, R S

    2014-10-01

    Zinc deficiency has become a global problem affecting the developed and developing countries due to inhibitors in the diet which prevents its absorption or due to a very low concentration of bioavailable zinc in the diet. Being present in high concentration in the prostate and having diverse biological function, we investigated the effects of dietary zinc deficiency for 2 and 4 weeks on dorso-lateral and ventral prostate. Sixty prepubertal rats were divided into three groups: zinc control (ZC), pair fed (PF) and zinc deficient (ZD) and fed on 100 μg/g (zinc control and pair fed groups) and 1 μg/g (zinc deficient) diet. Zinc deficiency was associated with degenerative changes in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as made evident by karyolysis, karyorhexis, cytoplasmolysis, loss of cellularisation, decreased intraluminar secretion and degeneration of fibromuscular stroma. In response, protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, acid phosphatase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase increased, exhibiting variable level of significance. Total protein and total zinc concentration in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as well as in serum decreased (P testosterone after 2 and 4 weeks of zinc deficiency. The changes were more prominent after 4 weeks of synthetic zinc deficient diet. The results indicate that zinc deficiency during prepubertal period affects the prostate structure, total protein concentration, enhanced protein carbonyl concentration, nitric oxide as well as acid phosphatase activities and impaired hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities. Evidently these changes could be attributed to dysfunction of dorso-lateral and ventral prostate after dietary zinc deficiency as well as impairment of metabolic and secretory activity, reduced gonadotropin levels by hypothalamus -hypophysial system which is indicative of a critical role of zinc in maintaining the prostate integrity. PMID:25053558

  3. Studies on the structure and function of pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, de R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to obtain more information of the structure and function of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes from Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli.In chapter 2 a survey is given of the recent literature on pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes.In chapter 3 results

  4. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PHARMACEUTICALS ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tomska

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  5. Pyrimidine Pathway-Dependent and -Independent Functions of the Toxoplasma gondii Mitochondrial Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortua Triana, Miryam Andrea; Cajiao Herrera, Daniela; Zimmermann, Barbara H; Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J

    2016-10-01

    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) mediates the fourth step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis and is a proven drug target for inducing immunosuppression in therapy of human disease as well as a rapidly emerging drug target for treatment of malaria. In Toxoplasma gondii, disruption of the first, fifth, or sixth step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis induced uracil auxotrophy. However, previous attempts to generate uracil auxotrophy by genetically deleting the mitochondrion-associated DHODH of T. gondii (TgDHODH) failed. To further address the essentiality of TgDHODH, mutant gene alleles deficient in TgDHODH activity were designed to ablate the enzyme activity. Replacement of the endogenous DHODH gene with catalytically deficient DHODH gene alleles induced uracil auxotrophy. Catalytically deficient TgDHODH localized to the mitochondria, and parasites retained mitochondrial membrane potential. These results show that TgDHODH is essential for the synthesis of pyrimidines and suggest that TgDHODH is required for a second essential function independent of its role in pyrimidine biosynthesis. PMID:27481247

  6. Microarray data on altered transcriptional program of Phgdh-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts caused by ʟ-serine depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Momoko; Sayano, Tomoko; Kusada, Wataru; Kato, Hisanori; Furuya, Shigeki

    2016-06-01

    Inherent ʟ-Ser deficiency culminates in intrauterine growth retardation, severe malformation of multiple organs particularly the central nervous system, and perinatal or early postnatal death in human and mouse. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the growth-arrested phenotypes of l-Ser deficiency, we compared gene expression profiles of mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh), the first enzyme of de novo ʟ-Ser synthetic pathway, between ʟ-Ser-depleted and -supplemented conditions. The datasets (CEL and CHP files) from this study are publicly available on the Gene Expression Omnibus repository (accession number GEO: GSE55687). PMID:27222860

  7. Modulation of low dose radiation effect on pentose phosphate pathway enzymes by B-multivitamin deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood, liver, thymus and spleen of albino rats injected subcutaneously with antivitamins (othythiamine and methotrexate) and subjected to prolonger γ-irradiation in the overall dose of 0.75 Gy were assayed for transketolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase after 12h, 1, 2, 5 and 40 days from the last radiation dose. High transketolase sensitivity was found both to radiation (activation) and the combined effects of vitamin deficiency and radiation (potentiation of antivitamin inhibitory action) in all the tissues studied. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was little changed under the given experimental manipulations, but the combined effect of the factors considerably inhibited the enzyme activities in the organs of the immune system. Consequently, in B-multivitamin deficiency the effect of low radiation doses was subjected to a considerable modulation resulting in profound inhibition of the oxidation and nonoxidative branches of the pentose phosphate pathway. (author). 9 refs, 2 tabs

  8. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Winkler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S-selectivity and together with a highly (R-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases.

  9. Stability of immobilized yeast alcohol dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooshima, H.; Genko, Y.; Harano, Y.

    1981-12-01

    The effects of substrate on stabilities of native (NA) and three kinds of immobilized yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (IMA), namely PGA (the carrier; porous glass), SEA (agarose gel) prepared covalently, and AMA (anion-exchange resin) prepared ionically, were studied. The following results were obtained. 1) The deactivations of NA and IMA free from the substrate or in the presence of ethanol obey the first-order kinetics, whereas, in the presence of butyraldehyde, their deactivation behaviors are explained on the basis of coexistence of two components of YADHs, namely the labile E1 and the comparatively stable E2, with different first-order deactivation constants. (2) A few attempts for stabilization of IMA were carried out from the viewpoint of the effects of crosslinkages among the subunits of YADH for PGA and the multibonding between the carrier and enzyme for SEA. The former is effective for the stabilization, whereas the latter is not. (Refs. 19).

  10. Interactions between heparinoids and alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulíková, H; Valusová, E; Antalík, M

    1997-07-01

    The interaction between polysulfated polysaecharides (low-molecular-weight heparin LMWH, dextran sulfate DS and pentosan sulfate PS) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) was investigated. The fluorescence and UV spectra of YADH after adding the tested polysaccharides have confirmed the interaction between the enzyme and these compounds. Kinetic studies have shown that LMWH, DS and PS are inhibitors of YADH (mixed type with respect to NAD). The most potent inhibitor is PS (ID50=37.5 ng/ml, Ki=0.6 muM). The inhibition effect depends on the ionic strength (the inhibition decreased by about 50% in the presence of 100 mM Na2SO4) and pH value (the inhibition decreased at pH>7). The results indicate that the inhibition effect of these polyanions is caused by their electrostatic interactions with the NAD-binding region of YADH.

  11. Optimization of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Archana; Heinemann, Matthias; Spiess, Antje C; Daussmann, Thomas; Büchs, Jochen

    2005-04-01

    In this work, a systematic examination of various parameters of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) on solid support is performed and the impact of these parameters on immobilization efficiency is studied. Depending on the source of the enzymes, these parameters differently influence the immobilization efficiency, expressed in terms of residual activity and protein loading. Residual activity of 79% was achieved with ADH from bakers' yeast (YADH) after optimizing the immobilization parameters. A step-wise drying process has been found to be more effective than one-step drying. A hypothesis of deactivation through bubble nucleation during drying of the enzyme/glass bead suspension at low drying pressure (300% residual activity was found after drying. Hyperactivation of the enzyme is probably caused by structural changes in the enzyme molecule during the drying process. ADH from Thermoanaerobacter species (ADH T) is found to be stable under drying conditions (>15 kPa) in contrast to LBADH and YADH.

  12. Untangling the glutamate dehydrogenase allosteric nightmare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J; Stanley, Charles A

    2008-11-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is found in all living organisms, but only animal GDH is regulated by a large repertoire of metabolites. More than 50 years of research to better understand the mechanism and role of this allosteric network has been frustrated by its sheer complexity. However, recent studies have begun to tease out how and why this complex behavior evolved. Much of GDH regulation probably occurs by controlling a complex ballet of motion necessary for catalytic turnover and has evolved concomitantly with a long antenna-like feature of the structure of the enzyme. Ciliates, the 'missing link' in GDH evolution, might have created the antenna to accommodate changing organelle functions and was refined in humans to, at least in part, link amino acid catabolism with insulin secretion.

  13. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  14. Comparison between medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mutant proteins overexpressed in bacterial and mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Bross, P; Andresen, B S;

    1995-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a potentially lethal inherited defect in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. By comparing the behaviour of five missense MCAD mutant proteins expressed in COS cells and in Escherichia coli, we can define some of these as "pure folding mutants......." Upon expression in E. coli, these mutant proteins produce activity levels in the range of the wild-type enzyme only if the chaperonins GroESL are co-overproduced. When overexpressed in COS cells, the pure folding mutants display enzyme activities comparable to the wild-type enzyme. The results suggest...

  15. Hemolytic crisis in a G6PD-deficient infant after ingestion of pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Redaelli, Francesca; Gualdi, Valentina; Rizzi, Valeria; Mameli, Chiara; Dilillo, Dario; Fabiano, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    A 8 month-old infant presented with acute onset of severe jaundice, anemia requiring transfusion and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. The infant did not take drugs, he did not consume fava beans, but fava beans DNA was found on pumpkin he consumed the day before jaundice onset. This is the first case of hemolysis triggered by ingestion of food cross-contaminated with fava beans. PMID:25048415

  16. Effect of ADH II Deficiency on the Intracellular Redox Homeostasis in Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Galinina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutant strain of the facultatively anaerobic, ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis, deficient in the Fe-containing alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme (ADH II, showed impaired homeostasis of the intracellular NAD(PH during transition from anaerobic to aerobic conditions, and also in steady-state continuous cultures at various oxygen supplies. At the same time, ADH II deficiency in aerobically grown cells was accompanied by a threefold increase of catalase activity and by about 50% increase of hydrogen peroxide excretion. It is concluded that ADH II under aerobic conditions functions to maintain intracellular redox homeostasis and to protect the cells from endogenous hydrogen peroxide.

  17. Effect of ADH II deficiency on the intracellular redox homeostasis in Zymomonas mobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinina, Nina; Lasa, Zane; Strazdina, Inese; Rutkis, Reinis; Kalnenieks, Uldis

    2012-01-01

    Mutant strain of the facultatively anaerobic, ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis, deficient in the Fe-containing alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme (ADH II), showed impaired homeostasis of the intracellular NAD(P)H during transition from anaerobic to aerobic conditions, and also in steady-state continuous cultures at various oxygen supplies. At the same time, ADH II deficiency in aerobically grown cells was accompanied by a threefold increase of catalase activity and by about 50% increase of hydrogen peroxide excretion. It is concluded that ADH II under aerobic conditions functions to maintain intracellular redox homeostasis and to protect the cells from endogenous hydrogen peroxide.

  18. Antepartum ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Yosuke; Maeda, Tadashi; Takeda, Masako; Hara, Noriko; Nakanishi, Kazushige; Urita, Yoshihisa; Hattori, Risa; Miura, Ken; Taniguchi, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common type urea cycle enzyme deficiencies. This syndrome results from a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase, which catalyzes the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrullin. Our case was a 28-year-old female diagnosed with OTCD following neurocognitive deficit during her first pregnancy. Although hyperammonemia was suspected as the cause of the patient's mental changes, there was no evidence of chronic liver disease. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid analysis revealed OTCD. After combined modality treatment with arginine, sodium benzoate and hemodialysis, the patient's plasma ammonia level stabilized and her mental status returned to normal. At last she recovered without any damage left. PMID:25759629

  19. Neglect-induced pseudo-thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Takeshi; Narazaki, Hidehiko; Kaizu, Kiyohiko; Matsukawa, Shouhei; Takema-Tochikubo, Yuki; Fujii, Shuichi; Saitoh, Nobuyuki; Mashiko, Kunihiko; Fujino, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    Although thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is rare, early diagnosis and treatment are important for decreasing the mortality rate. Acquired vitamin B12 deficiency is frequently overlooked because of its rarity in developed countries, particularly in children and adolescents. The hematological changes in vitamin B12 deficiency present as megaloblastic anemia, increased lactate dehydrogenase, vasoconstriction, increased platelet aggregation, and abnormal activation of the coagulation followed by microangiopathy as well as neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We report herein the case of a 15-year-old girl who had been neglected, which might have caused pseudo-TTP through malnutrition, particularly vitamin B12 deficiency. When we encounter cases of TTP in children, clinicians must be aware of the possibility of malnutrition, particularly with vitamin B12 deficiency, even in developed countries, and investigate the cause of malnutrition including neglect. PMID:26387768

  20. Genetic inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases improves hepatic insulin resistance induced diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongya Tao

    Full Text Available Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK1-4 play a critical role in the inhibition of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex especially when blood glucose levels are low and pyruvate can be conserved for gluconeogenesis. Under diabetic conditions, the Pdk genes, particularly Pdk4, are often induced, and the elevation of the Pdk4 gene expression has been implicated in the increased gluconeogenesis in the liver and the decreased glucose utilization in the peripheral tissues. However, there is no direct evidence yet to show to what extent that the dysregulation of hepatic Pdk genes attributes to hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in vivo. To address this question, we crossed Pdk2 or Pdk4 null mice with a diabetic model that is deficient in hepatic insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (Irs1/2. Metabolic analyses reveal that deletion of the Pdk4 gene had better improvement in hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance than knockout of the Pdk2 gene whereas the Pdk2 gene deletion showed better insulin tolerance as compared to the Pdk4 gene inactivation on the Irs1/2 knockout genetic background. To examine the specific hepatic effects of Pdks on diabetes, we also knocked down the Pdk2 or Pdk4 gene using specific shRNAs. The data also indicate that the Pdk4 gene knockdown led to better glucose tolerance than the Pdk2 gene knockdown. In conclusion, our data suggest that hepatic Pdk4 may be critically involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes.

  1. Genetic inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases improves hepatic insulin resistance induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rongya; Xiong, Xiwen; Harris, Robert A; White, Morris F; Dong, Xiaocheng C

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK1-4) play a critical role in the inhibition of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex especially when blood glucose levels are low and pyruvate can be conserved for gluconeogenesis. Under diabetic conditions, the Pdk genes, particularly Pdk4, are often induced, and the elevation of the Pdk4 gene expression has been implicated in the increased gluconeogenesis in the liver and the decreased glucose utilization in the peripheral tissues. However, there is no direct evidence yet to show to what extent that the dysregulation of hepatic Pdk genes attributes to hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in vivo. To address this question, we crossed Pdk2 or Pdk4 null mice with a diabetic model that is deficient in hepatic insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (Irs1/2). Metabolic analyses reveal that deletion of the Pdk4 gene had better improvement in hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance than knockout of the Pdk2 gene whereas the Pdk2 gene deletion showed better insulin tolerance as compared to the Pdk4 gene inactivation on the Irs1/2 knockout genetic background. To examine the specific hepatic effects of Pdks on diabetes, we also knocked down the Pdk2 or Pdk4 gene using specific shRNAs. The data also indicate that the Pdk4 gene knockdown led to better glucose tolerance than the Pdk2 gene knockdown. In conclusion, our data suggest that hepatic Pdk4 may be critically involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:23940800

  2. Iodine Deficiency and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Sviridonova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is а vital microelements that are essential for the normal human development and functions. Iodine deficiency is a global problem: about 2 billion individuals worldwide suffer from a lack of iodine. Despite goiter is the most visually noticeable manifestation of iodine deficiency, the most significant consequence of the iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. Moreover, moderate to severe iodine deficiency increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight and infant mortality. Babies in utero affected by iodine deficiency are at increased risk of mental developmental disorders, cretinism is their extreme degree. In addition, moderate to severe iodine deficiency in childhood negatively affects somatic growth. Iodine deficiency compensation improves cognitive and motor function in children. Iodine prophylaxis of deficient populations is an extremely effective approach to reduce the substantial adverse effects of iodine deficiency throughout the life cycle.

  3. Biospecific affinity chromatographic purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, P; Griffin, T; O'Carra, P

    1997-02-01

    The development of a biospecific affinity chromatographic method for the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs is described. The method utilizes immobilized NAD+ derivatives in conjunction with soluble specific substrates to promote binding. Using this method, octopine dehydrogenase has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a single chromatographic step from three different marine invertebrate sources [the queen scallop, Chlamys opercularis (adductor muscle), the great scallop, Pecten maximus (adductor muscle), and the squid Loligo vulgaris (mantle muscle)]. However, the system is not applicable to the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from some other marine invertebrate sources investigated (the mussel Mytilus edulis and the topshell Monodonta lineata). PMID:9116492

  4. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    biennially to exchange views and research findings. The fourth biennial meeting was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2-3 June 2005. This review covers the wide range of AAT deficiency-related topics that were addressed encompassing advances in genetic characterization, risk factor identification, clinical...... epidemiology, inflammatory and signalling processes, therapeutic advances, and lung imaging techniques....

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time if your body doesn't have enough iron ... Institutes of Health—shows how Susan, a full-time worker and student, has coped with having iron- ...

  6. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed iodine-deficien

  7. Mortality and GH deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Laursen, Torben;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality in Denmark in patients suffering from GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Mortality was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Patients were divided into chil...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from food. Overview Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia . The term "anemia" usually refers to ...

  9. Vitamin A deficiency induces congenital spinal deformities in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    Full Text Available Most cases of congenital spinal deformities were sporadic and without strong evidence of heritability. The etiology of congenital spinal deformities is still elusive and assumed to be multi-factorial. The current study seeks to elucidate the effect of maternal vitamin A deficiency and the production of congenital spinal deformities in the offsping. Thirty two female rats were randomized into two groups: control group, which was fed a normal diet; vitamin A deficient group, which were given vitamin A-deficient diet from at least 2 weeks before mating till delivery. Three random neonatal rats from each group were killed the next day of parturition. Female rats were fed an AIN-93G diet sufficient in vitamin A to feed the rest of neonates for two weeks until euthanasia. Serum levels of vitamin A were assessed in the adult and filial rats. Anteroposterior (AP spine radiographs were obtained at week 2 after delivery to evaluate the presence of the skeletal abnormalities especially of spinal deformities. Liver and vertebral body expression of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDHs and RARs mRNA was assessed by reverse transcription-real time PCR. VAD neonates displayed many skeletal malformations in the cervical, thoracic, the pelvic and sacral and limbs regions. The incidence of congenital scoliosis was 13.79% (8/58 in the filial rats of vitamin A deficiency group and 0% in the control group. Furthermore, vitamin A deficiency negatively regulate the liver and verterbral body mRNA levels of RALDH1, RALDH2, RALDH3, RAR-α, RAR-β and RAR-γ. Vitamin A deficiency in pregnancy may induce congenital spinal deformities in the postnatal rats. The decreases of RALDHs and RARs mRNA expression induced by vitamin A deprivation suggest that vertebral birth defects may be caused by a defect in RA signaling pathway during somitogenesis.

  10. Neonatal hydrocephalus is a result of a block in folate handling and metabolism involving 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Naila; Jimenez, Alicia Requena; Sanjuan-Vilaplana, Anna; Gurney, Megan; Miyan, Jaleel

    2016-08-01

    Folate is vital in a range of biological processes and folate deficiency is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as neural tube defects and hydrocephalus (HC). 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase (FDH) is a key regulator for folate availability and metabolic interconversion for the supply of 1-carbon groups. In previous studies, we found a deficiency of FDH in CSF associated with the developmental deficit in congenital and neonatal HC. In this study, we therefore aimed to investigate the role of FDH in folate transport and metabolism during the brain development of the congenital hydrocephalic Texas (H-Tx) rat and normal (Sprague-Dawley) rats. We show that at embryonic (E) stage E18 and E20, FDH-positive cells and/or vesicles derived from the cortex can bind methyl-folate similarly to folate receptor alpha, the main folate transporter. Hydrocephalic rats expressed diminished nuclear FDH in both liver and brain at all postnatal (P) ages tested (P5, P15, and P20) together with a parallel increase in hepatic nuclear methyl-folate at P5 and cerebral methylfolate at P15 and P20. A similar relationship was found between FDH and 5-methyl cytosine, the main marker for DNA methylation. The data indicated that FDH binds and transports methylfolate in the brain and that decreased liver and brain nuclear expression of FDH is linked with decreased DNA methylation which could be a key factor in the developmental deficits associated with congenital and neonatal HC. Folate deficiency is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as neural tube defects and hydrocephalus. 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase (FDH) is a key regulator for folate availability and metabolic interconversion. We show that FDH binds and transports methylfolate in the brain. Moreover, we found that a deficiency of FDH in the nucleus of brain and liver is linked with decreased DNA methylation which could be a key factor in the developmental deficits associated with congenital and

  11. [Effect of zinc deficiency on 3',5'-cyclic-AMP content and parameters of energy metabolism in the rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, H P; Kirchgessner, M

    1983-06-01

    Loss of appetite, strongly reduced feed intake, and stop in weight gain are characteristic signs of alimentary zinc deficiency. The present paper investigates some parameters of the energy metabolism of Zn-deficient rats in order to obtain information on possible disturbances. The blood of Zn-deficient rats showed an increased activity of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) in comparison to ad-libitum- and pair-fed control animals. Therefore the concentration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was reduced and the concentration of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) increased in deficient animals. As a consequence, the ratio ATP/ADP was strongly reduced in Zn-deficient rats compared with both control groups. The concentration of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) was reduced in the blood of Zn-deficient rats. The levels of c-AMP in serum and urine were markedly increased in Zn-deficient rats in comparison with both control groups. Key enzymes of energetic utilization of carbohydrates such as fructose-1.6-biphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were reduced in their activities in livers and kidneys of Zn-deficient animals. The results show that alimentary Zn deficiency impairs some parameters of the energy metabolism. The problems of reduced feed intake in Zn deficiency still remain unsolved. PMID:6308919

  12. A novel glutamate dehydrogenase from bovine brain: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, S W; Cho, S W

    1995-08-01

    A soluble form of novel glutamate dehydrogenase has been purified from bovine brain. The preparation was homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and composed of six identical subunits having a subunit size of 57,500 Da. The biochemical properties of glutamate dehydrogenase such as N-terminal amino acids sequences, kinetic parameters, amino acids analysis, and optimum pH were examined in both reductive amination of alpha-ketoglutarate and oxidative deamination of glutamate. N-terminal amino acid sequences of the bovine brain enzyme showed the significant differences in the first 5 amino acids compared to other glutamate dehydrogenases from various sources. These results indicate that glutamate dehydrogenase isolated from bovine brain is a novel polypeptide.

  13. Targeting isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Takeo; Khawaja, Muhammad Rizwan; DiNardo, Courtney D; Atkins, Johnique T; Janku, Filip

    2016-05-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an essential enzyme for cellular respiration in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Recurrent mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 are prevalent in several cancers including glioma, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cholangiocarcinoma and chondrosarcoma. The mutated IDH1 and IDH2 proteins have a gain-of-function, neomorphic activity, catalyzing the reduction of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) by NADPH. Cancer-associated IDH mutations block normal cellular differentiation and promote tumorigenesis via the abnormal production of the oncometabolite 2-HG. High levels of 2-HG have been shown to inhibit α-KG dependent dioxygenases, including histone and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) demethylases, which play a key role in regulating the epigenetic state of cells. Current targeted inhibitors of IDH1 (AG120, IDH305), IDH2 (AG221), and pan-IDH1/2 (AG881) selectively inhibit mutant IDH protein and induce cell differentiation in in vitro and in vivo models. Preliminary results from phase I clinical trials with IDH inhibitors in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies have demonstrated an objective response rate ranging from 31% to 40% with durable responses (>1 year) observed. Furthermore, the IDH inhibitors have demonstrated early signals of activity in solid tumors with IDH mutations, including cholangiocarcinomas and low grade gliomas. PMID:27355333

  14. Lactic dehydrogenase and cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Sapio, Luigi; Spina, Annamaria; Naviglio, Daniele; Calogero, Armando; Naviglio, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the intense scientific efforts made, there are still many tumors that are difficult to treat and the percentage of patient survival in the long-term is still too low. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of cancer are needed. Cancer is a highly heterogeneous and complex disease, whose development requires a reorganization of cell metabolism. Most tumor cells downregulate mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increase the rate of glucose consumption and lactate release, independently of oxygen availability (Warburg effect). This metabolic rewiring is largely believed to favour tumor growth and survival, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Importantly, the correlation between the aerobic glycolysis and cancer is widely regarded as a useful biochemical basis for the development of novel anticancer strategies. Among the enzymes involved in glycolysis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is emerging as a very attractive target for possible pharmacological approaches in cancer therapy. This review addresses the state of the art and the perspectives concerning LDH both as a useful diagnostic marker and a relevant molecular target in cancer therapy and management.

  15. COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF THE KINETIC ISOTOPE EFFECT INMETHYLAMINE DEHYDROGENASE

    OpenAIRE

    Kopec-Harding, Kamilla Rosa

    2012-01-01

    There is currently experimental evidence of hydrogen tunnelling in over 20 different enzymes include yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH), morphinone reductase (MR) and methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH). Various models have been used to describe hydrogen tunnelling in enzymes including the static barrier model, the vibrationally enhanced ground state tunnelling model (VEGST) and the environmentally coupled tunnelling model (ECT). Despite some differences in these models, there is a general cons...

  16. Inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozic, P; Lanisnik Risner, T; Gobec, S

    2008-01-01

    Carcinogenesis of hormone-related cancers involves hormone-stimulated cell proliferation, which increases the number of cell divisions and the opportunity for random genetic errors. In target tissues, steroid hormones are interconverted between their potent, high affinity forms for their respective receptors and their inactive, low affinity forms. One group of enzymes responsible for these interconversions are the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, which regulate ligand access to steroid receptors and thus act at a pre-receptor level. As part of this group, the 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases catalyze either oxidation of hydroxyl groups or reduction of keto groups at steroid position C17. The thoroughly characterized 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activates the less active estrone to estradiol, a potent ligand for estrogen receptors. This isoform is expressed in gonads, where it affects circulating levels of estradiol, and in peripheral tissue, where it regulates ligand occupancy of estrogen receptors. Inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 are thus highly interesting potential therapeutic agents for the control of estrogen-dependent diseases such as endometriosis, as well as breast and ovarian cancers. Here, we present the review on the recent development of inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 published and patented since the previous review of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitors of Poirier (Curr. Med. Chem., 2003, 10, 453). These inhibitors are divided into two separate groups according to their chemical structures: steroidal and non-steroidal 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors. Their estrogenic/ proliferative activities and selectivities over other 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that are involved in local regulation of estrogen action (types 2, 7 and 12) are also presented. PMID:18220769

  17. Aromatic amine dehydrogenase, a second tryptophan tryptophylquinone enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Govindaraj, S; Eisenstein, E.; Jones, L. H.; Sanders-Loehr, J; Chistoserdov, A Y; Davidson, V L; Edwards, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic amine dehydrogenase (AADH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of aromatic amines including tyramine and dopamine. AADH is structurally similar to methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) and possesses the same tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) prosthetic group. AADH exhibits an alpha 2 beta 2 structure with subunit molecular weights of 39,000 and 18,000 and with a quinone covalently attached to each beta subunit. Neither subunit cross-reacted immunologically with antibodies to the correspo...

  18. Dehydrogenase isoenzyme polymorphism in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrogenase polymorphism was studied in 36 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., sweet cherry (Prunus avuim L., mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L., ground cherry (Prunus fruticosa Pall., duke cherry (Prunus gondounii Redh., Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. and four iterspecific hybrids (standard cherry rootstocks ‘Gisela 5’, ‘Gisela 6’, ‘Max Ma’ and ‘Colt’. Inner bark of one-year-old shoots, in dormant stage, was used for enzyme extraction. Vertical PAGE was used for isoenzyme analysis: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, isocitrate dehydrogenaze (IDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH. All studied systems were polymorphic at 10 loci: Adh -1 (3 genotypes and Adh-2 (5 genotypes, Fdh-1 (2 genotypes, Gdh-1 (3 genotypes, Idh-1 (4 genotypes i Idh -2 (5 genotypes, Mdh-1 (3 genotypes, Pgd-1 (4 genotypes, Sdh-1 (1 genotype i Sdh-2 (3 genotypes. Cluster analysis was used to construct dendrogram on which four groups of similar genotypes were separated. Obtained results indicate that studied enzyme systems can be used for determination of genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus. Among studied enzyme systems ADH, IDH and SDH were the most polymorphic and most useful to identify genetic variability. Polymorphism of FDH and GDH in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus was described first time in this work. First results for dehydrogenase variability of Oblačinska indicate that polymorphism of loci Idh-2 and Sdh-2 can be useful for discrimination of different clones.

  19. Structural basis for cellobiose dehydrogenase action during oxidative cellulose degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Tien-Chye; Kracher, Daniel; Gandini, Rosaria; Sygmund, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Haltrich, Dietmar; Hallberg, B Martin; Ludwig, Roland; Divne, Christina

    2015-01-01

    A new paradigm for cellulose depolymerization by fungi focuses on an oxidative mechanism involving cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) and copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO); however, mechanistic studies have been hampered by the lack of structural information regarding CDH. CDH contains a haem-binding cytochrome (CYT) connected via a flexible linker to a flavin-dependent dehydrogenase (DH). Electrons are generated from cellobiose oxidation catalysed by DH and shuttled vi...

  20. Transient partial growth hormone deficiency due to zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Y; Hatano, S; Aihara, K; Fujie, A; Kihara, M

    1989-04-01

    We present here a 13-year-old boy with partial growth hormone deficiency due to chronic mild zinc deficiency. When zinc administration was started, his growth rate, growth hormone levels, and plasma zinc concentrations increased significantly. His poor dietary intake resulted in chronic mild zinc deficiency, which in turn could be the cause of a further loss of appetite and growth retardation. There was also a possibility of renal zinc wasting which may have contributed to zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency should be carefully ruled out in patients with growth retardation. PMID:2708733

  1. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation

  2. The ETFDH c.158A>G Variation Disrupts the Balanced Binding of ESE and ESS Proteins Causing Missplicing and Multiple acyl-CoA Dehydrogenation Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke K J; Brøner, Sabrina; Sabaratnam, Rugivan;

    2013-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency is a disorder of fatty acid and amino acid oxidation caused by defects of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or its dehydrogenase (ETFDH). A clear relationship between genotype and phenotype makes genotyping of patients important not only...

  3. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kalia, Vibhuti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a developmental disorder of the proximal segment of thefemur and of acetabulum resulting in shortening of the affected limb and impairment of the function. It isa spectrum of congenital osseous anomalies characterized by a deficiency in the structure of the proximalfemur. The diagnosis is often made by radiological evaluation which includes identification and descriptionof PFFD and evaluation of associated limb anomalies by plain radiographs. Contrast arthrography orMagnetic Resonance Imaging is indicated when radiological features are questionable and to disclose thepresence and location of the femoral head and any cartilagenous anlage. The disorder is more commonlyunilateral and is apparent at birth. However, bilateral involvement is rarely seen. Therapy of the disorder isdirected towards satisfactory ambulation and specific treatment depending on the severity of dysplasia.

  4. Micronutrient deficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, M K; Sommerfelt, H; Strand, T

    2001-05-01

    Malnutrition increases morbidity and mortality and affects physical growth and development, some of these effects resulting from specific micronutrient deficiencies. While public health efforts must be targeted to improve dietary intakes in children through breast feeding and appropriate complementary feeding, there is a need for additional measures to increase the intake of certain micronutrients. Food-based approaches are regarded as the long-term strategy for improving nutrition, but for certain micronutrients, supplementation, be it to the general population or to high risk groups or as an adjunct to treatment must also be considered. Our understanding of the prevalence and consequences of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiency in children and pregnant women has advanced considerably while there is still a need to generate more knowledge pertaining to many other micronutrients, including zinc, selenium and many of the B-vitamins. For iron and vitamin A, the challenge is to improve the delivery to target populations. For disease prevention and growth promotion, the need to deliver safe but effective amounts of micronutrients such as zinc to children and women of fertile age can be determined only after data on deficiency prevalence becomes available and the studies on mortality reduction following supplementation are completed. Individual or multiple micronutrients must be used as an adjunct to treatment of common infectious diseases and malnutrition only if the gains are substantial and the safety window sufficiently wide. The available data for zinc are promising with regard to the prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia. It should be emphasized that there must be no displacement of important treatment such as ORS in acute diarrhea by adjunct therapy such as zinc. Credible policy making requires description of not only the clinical effects but also the underlying biological mechanisms. As findings of experimental studies are not always feasible to extrapolate to

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron-Deficiency Anemia Print A ... common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the body contains ...

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD. Response of the human erythrocyte and another cells to the decrease in their activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernando Bonilla

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is the first enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway and the main intracellular source of reduced nicotidamineadenine nucleotidephosphate (NADPH, involved in diverse physiological processes such as antioxidant defense, (for instance in the erythrocyte endothelial growth modulation, erithropoyesis, vascularization and phagocitosis. G6PDH deficiency is the most common X-chromosome-linked enzymopathy in human beings. Although it is present in any type cell, its absolute deficiency is incompatible with life. According to WHO, 400 million people are affected by G6PD deficiency in the world but in Colombia, the severe form prevalence is about 3% to 7%. There are no data related to slight and moderate alterations, that also have clinical effects. This paper reviews some G6PD biomolecular aspects, its classification according to activity and electrophoretic mobility, as well as some main clinical aspects related to its activity alteration.

  7. Treatment of carnitine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S C

    2003-01-01

    Carnitine deficiency is a secondary complication of many inborn errors of metabolism. Pharmacological treatment with carnitine not only corrects the deficiency, it facilitates removal of accumulating toxic acyl intermediates and the generation of mitochondrial free coenzyme A (CoA). The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approved the use of carnitine for the treatment of inborn errors of metabolism in 1992. This approval was based on retrospective chart analysis of 90 patients, with 18 in the untreated cohort and 72 in the treated cohort. Efficacy was evaluated on the basis of clinical and biochemical findings. Compelling data included increased excretion of disease-specific acylcarnitine derivatives in a dose-response relationship, decreased levels of metabolites in the blood, and improved clinical status with decreased hospitalization frequency, improved growth and significantly lower mortality rates as compared to historical controls. Complications of carnitine treatment were few, with gastrointestinal disturbances and odour being the most frequent. No laboratory or clinical safety issues were identified. Intravenous carnitine preparations were also approved for treatment of secondary carnitine deficiency. Since only 25% of enteral carnitine is absorbed and gastrointestinal tolerance of high doses is poor, parenteral carnitine treatment is an appealing alternative therapeutic approach. In 7 patients treated long term with high-dose weekly to daily venous boluses of parenteral carnitine through a subcutaneous venous port, benefits included decreased frequency of decompensations, improved growth, improved muscle strength and decreased reliance on medical foods with liberalization of protein intake. Port infections were the most troubling complication. Theoretical concerns continue to be voiced that carnitine might result in fatal arrhythmias in patients with long-chain fat metabolism defects. No published clinical studies substantiate these

  8. Interaction of carbohydrates with alcohol dehydrogenase: Effect on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Swati B; Bankar, Sandip B; Granström, Tom; Ojamo, Heikki; Singhal, Rekha S; Survase, Shrikant A

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase was covalently conjugated with three different oxidized carbohydrates i.e., glucose, starch and pectin. All the carbohydrates inhibited the enzyme. The inhibition was studied with respect to the inhibition rate constant, involvement of thiol groups in the binding, and structural changes in the enzyme. The enzyme activity decreased to half of its original activity at the concentration of 2 mg/mL of pectin, 4 mg/mL of glucose and 10 mg/mL of starch within 10 min at pH 7. This study showed oxidized pectin to be a potent inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase followed by glucose and starch. Along with the aldehyde-amino group interaction, thiol groups were also involved in the binding between alcohol dehydrogenase and carbohydrates. The structural changes occurring on binding of alcohol dehydrogenase with oxidized carbohydrates was also confirmed by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Oxidized carbohydrates could thus be used as potential inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase.

  9. Molecular characterization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Han and Li nationalities in Hainan, China and identification of a new mutation in human G6PD gene%海南汉族、黎族人葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶缺乏症 的基因突变型分析及一种新的G6PD 基因突变型的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    目的阐明海南汉族、黎族人群中葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶缺乏症的分子基础。方法用聚合酶链反应、限制性内切酶消化筛查了1388G→A、1360C→T、1024C→T、592C→T、517T→C、493A→G、487G→A、392G→T和95A→G突变;用单链构象多态性分析筛查其它突变;用核苷酸顺序分析鉴定具有SSCP异常区带样品的突变。结果在59例汉族G6PD缺乏症患者中,发现1388G→A 14例(23.7%)、871G→A 3例(5.1%)、835A→T 1例(1.7%)、517T→C 1例(1.7%)、392G→T 3例(5.1%)和95A→G 4例(6.8%);在32例黎族G6PD缺乏症患者中,发现1388G→A 6例(18.8%)、871G→A 3例(9.4%)和95A→G2例(6.3%);在1例汉族患者中发现了一种新的G6PD基因突变——835A→G突变,此突变导致第279位的苏氨酸被丙氨酸取代,将此突变型命名为G6PD-海口,其酶活性约是正常的10%,比835A→T突变的活性低,后者的酶活性约是正常的40%。分析人G6PD的三维结构模型表明,第279位苏氨酸残基的羟基是维持G6PD亚基相互作用的基团。结论海南汉族、黎族人群中具有共同的常见G6PD基因突变型;与中国其它地区人群的G6PD基因突变谱比较,结果表明某些G6PD基因突变广泛分布于中国南方不同地区人群中;G6PD第279位苏氨酸残基的羟基可能是维持G6PD亚基相互作用及酶活性的必需基团。%Objective  To elucidate the molecular basis of G6PD deficiency in the Han and Li nationalities in Hainan, China. Methods  Polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion were used to screen the mutations 1388G→A, 1360C→T, 1024C→T, 592C→T,517T→C, 493A→G,487G→A,392G→T and 95A→G. Single strand conformation polymorphism analysis was used to screen the other mutations followed by DNA sequencing to characterize the mutations of the samples with abnormal SSCP bands. Results  Of the fifty-nine Han cases with G6PD deficiency, fourteen with 1388G→A(23

  10. Crystal Structure of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase: NAD[superscript +]/NADH Binding and the Structural Basis of Disease-causing Mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brautigam, Chad A.; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Machius, Mischa; Chuang, David T. (U. of Texas-SMED)

    2010-07-13

    Human dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (hE3) is an enzymatic component common to the mitochondrial {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase and glycine decarboxylase complexes. Mutations to this homodimeric flavoprotein cause the often-fatal human disease known as E3 deficiency. To catalyze the oxidation of dihydrolipoamide, hE3 uses two molecules: noncovalently bound FAD and a transiently bound substrate, NAD{sup +}. To address the catalytic mechanism of hE3 and the structural basis for E3 deficiency, the crystal structures of hE3 in the presence of NAD{sup +} or NADH have been determined at resolutions of 2.5 {angstrom} and 2.1 {angstrom}, respectively. Although the overall fold of the enzyme is similar to that of yeast E3, these two structures differ at two loops that protrude from the proteins and at their FAD-binding sites. The structure of oxidized hE3 with NAD{sup +} bound demonstrates that the nicotinamide moiety is not proximal to the FAD. When NADH is present, however, the nicotinamide base stacks directly on the isoalloxazine ring system of the FAD. This is the first time that this mechanistically requisite conformation of NAD{sup +} or NADH has been observed in E3 from any species. Because E3 structures were previously available only from unicellular organisms, speculations regarding the molecular mechanisms of E3 deficiency were based on homology models. The current hE3 structures show directly that the disease-causing mutations occur at three locations in the human enzyme: the dimer interface, the active site, and the FAD and NAD{sup +}-binding sites. The mechanisms by which these mutations impede the function of hE3 are discussed.

  11. Phosphorus Deficiency in Ducklins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuiHengmin; LuoLingping

    1995-01-01

    20 one-day-old Tianfu ducklings were fed on a natural diet deficient in phosphorus(Ca 0.80%,P 0.366%)for three weeks and examined for signs and lesions.Signs began to appear at the age of one week,and became serous at two weeks.13 ducklings died during the experiment.Morbidity was 100% and mortality was 65%.The affected ducklings mainly showed leg weakness,severe lamencess,deprssion,lack of appetite and stunted growth,The serum alkaline phosphatase activities increased markedly.The serum phosphorus concentration,tibial ash,ash calcium and phosphorus content decreased obviously.At necropsy,maxillae and ribe were soft,and the latter was crooked.Long ones were soft and broke easily.The hypertrophic zone of the growth-plate in the epiphysis of long ones was lengthened and osteoid tissue increased in the metaphyseal spongiosa histopathologically.The above mentioned symptoms and lesions could be prevented by adding phosphorus to the natural deficient diet(up to 0.65%),The relationship between lesions and signs,pathomorphological characterisation and pathogensis were also discussed in this paper.

  12. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most

  13. [Features of glutamate dehydrogenase in fetal and adult rumen tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachniuk, H I; Fomenko, I S; Kalachniuk, L H; Kavai, Sh; Marounek, M; Savka, O H

    2001-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) from rumen mucosa of cow fetus, liver and two forms from mucosa (bacterial and tissue) of the adult animal were partly purified and characterized. The activity of the bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase was shown to depend on qualities of a biomass of microbes, adhered on surface of rumen mucosa. All enzymes from tissues (GDHTRF, TRC, TLC), revealed the hypersensibility to increase in the concentration medium of Zn2+, guanosine triphosphate (GTP), acting here in a role of negative modulators, and also adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and leucine, which acted as activators. However, in the same concentrations these effectors do not influence the activity of the bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase. And if all tissues enzymes are highly specific to coenzyme NADH, the bacterial ones almost in 3 times is more active at NADPH use. PMID:11642036

  14. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guillermo Hugo; Bergamini, Carina Viviana; Hynes, Erica Rut

    2016-01-01

    Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor. PMID:27266631

  15. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guillermo Hugo; Bergamini, Carina Viviana; Hynes, Erica Rut

    2016-01-01

    Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor.

  16. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption.

  17. Iatrogenic limbal stem cell deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, E J; Schwartz, G S

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a group of patients with limbal stem cell (SC) deficiency without prior diagnosis of a specific disease entity known to be causative of SC deficiency. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the records of all patients with ocular surface disease presenting to the University of Minnesota between 1987 and 1996. Patients were categorized according to etiology of limbal deficiency. Patients who did not have a specific diagnosis previously described as being causative...

  18. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the sera of patients with brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelski, Wojciech; Laniewska-Dunaj, Magdalena; Orywal, Karolina; Kochanowicz, Jan; Rutkowski, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2014-12-01

    Human brain tissue contains various alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and possess also aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. In our last experiments we have shown that ADH and ALDH are present also in the brain tumour cells. Moreover the activities of total ADH and class I isoenzymes were significantly higher in cancer tissue than healthy cells. It can suggests that these changes may be reflected by enzyme activity in the serum of patients with brain cancer. Serum samples were taken for routine biochemical investigation from 62 patients suffering from brain cancer (36 glioblastoma, 26 meningioma). For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, the fluorometric methods were used. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method. A statistically significant increase of class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes was found in the sera of patients with brain cancer. The median activity of this class isoenzyme in the patients group increased about 24 % in the comparison to the control level. The total alcohol dehydrogenase activity was also significantly higher (26 %) among patients with brain tumour than healthy ones. The activities of other tested ADH isoenzymes and total ALDH were unchanged. The increase of the activity of total ADH and class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme in the sera of patients with brain cancer seems to be caused by the release of this isoenzyme from tumour's cells.

  19. A recessive homozygous p.Asp92Gly SDHD mutation causes prenatal cardiomyopathy and a severe mitochondrial complex II deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Charlotte L; Ceccatelli Berti, Camilla; Blakely, Emma L; Oláhová, Monika; He, Langping; McMahon, Colin J.; Olpin, Simon E.; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Nolli, Cecilia; McFarland, Robert; Goffrini, Paola; O’Sullivan, Maureen J.; Taylor, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a crucial metabolic enzyme complex that is involved in ATP production, playing roles in both the tricarboxylic cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (complex II). Isolated complex II deficiency is one of the rarest oxidative phosphorylation disorders with mutations described in three structural subunits and one of the assembly factors; just one case is attributed to recessively inherited SDHD mutations. We report the pathological, biochemical, histoche...

  20. Zinc deficiency and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, L; Vivian, B; Stuart, M; McClain, C J

    1989-12-01

    Decreased food intake, a cyclic pattern of eating, and weight loss are major manifestations of zinc deficiency. In this study, zinc status was evaluated in 62 patients with bulimia and 24 patients with anorexia nervosa. Forty percent of patients with bulimia and 54% of those with anorexia nervosa had biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency. The authors suggest that for a variety of reasons, such as lower dietary intake of zinc, impaired zinc absorption, vomiting, diarrhea, and binging on low-zinc foods, patients with eating disorders may develop zinc deficiency. This acquired zinc deficiency could then add to the chronicity of altered eating behavior in those patients. PMID:2600063

  1. Crystal structure of homoisocitrate dehydrogenase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Hendershot, Jenna M.; Trievel, Raymond C. (Michigan); (UCSF)

    2013-09-18

    Lysine biosynthesis in fungi, euglena, and certain archaebacteria occurs through the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway. Enzymes in the first steps of this pathway have been proposed as potential targets for the development of antifungal therapies, as they are absent in animals but are conserved in several pathogenic fungi species, including Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus. One potential antifungal target in the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway is the third enzyme in the pathway, homoisocitrate dehydrogenase (HICDH), which catalyzes the divalent metal-dependent conversion of homoisocitrate to 2-oxoadipate (2-OA) using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) as a cofactor. HICDH belogns to a family of {beta}-hydroxyacid oxidative decarboxylases that includes malate dehydrogenase, tartrate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and 3-isopropylmalte dehydrogenase (IPMDH). ICDH and IPMDH are well-characterized enzymes that catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) in the citric acid cycle and the conversion of 3-isopropylmalate to 2-oxoisovalerate in the leucine biosynthetic pathway, respectively. Recent structural and biochemical studies of HICDH reveal that this enzyme shares sequence, structural, and mechanistic homology with ICDH and IPMDH. To date, the only published structures of HICDH are from the archaebacteria Thermus thermophilus (TtHICDH). Fungal HICDHs diverge from TtHICDH in several aspects, including their thermal stability, oligomerization state, and substrate specificity, thus warranting further characterization. To gain insights into these differences, they determined crystal structures of a fungal Schizosaccharomyces pombe HICDH (SpHICDH) as an apoenzyme and as a binary complex with additive tripeptide glycyl-glycyl-glycine (GGG) to 1.55 {angstrom} and 1.85 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the SpHICDH and TtHICDH structures reveal differences in

  2. BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN ZINC DEFICIENT SHEEP ASSOCIATED BY HYPERLACTATEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hafez El-Far

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from diseased and clinically healthy Balady sheep of both sexes were collected and subjected for biochemical analysis of serum glucose, fructosamine, lactate, growth hormone, insulin, creatine phosphokinase, Lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase. The obtained results revealed a significant decrease in serum zinc and growth hormone were stated. In contrary, serum glucose and lactate, insulin, CPK, LDH and aldolase were significantly increased statically. While, fructosamine levels were non-significantly increased. From these results can conclude that, in zinc deficient sheep the carbohydrate metabolism is directed toward the anaerobic one accompanied by hyperlactemia which induce muscle cramp and damages leading to increased CPK, LDH and aldolase which appear clinically as enlargement of knee joint, lameness and staggering gait. In addition, growth retardation and wool loss are the main clinical signs of reduction in growth hormone.

  3. Properties of Lactate Dehydrogenase in a Psychrophilic Marine Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, P; Yen, H. C.; Mathemeier, P. F.

    1985-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) from Vibrio marinus MP-1 was purified 15-fold and ammonium activated. The optimum pH for pyruvate reduction was 7.4. Maximum lactate dehydrogenase activity occurred at 10 to 15 degrees C, and none occurred at 40 degrees C. The crude-extract enzyme was stable between 15 and 20 degrees C and lost 50% of its activity after 60 min at 45 degrees C. The partially purified enzyme was stable between 8 and 15 degrees C and lost 50% of its activity after 60 min at 30...

  4. Purification and characterization of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, H; Inagaki, K; Matsunami, H; Nakayama, Y; Tano, T; Tanaka, H

    2000-01-01

    3-Isopropylmalate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from the acidophilic autotroph Thiobacillus thiooxidans. The native enzyme was a dimer of molecular weight 40,000. The apparent K(m) values for 3-isopropylmalate and NAD+ were estimated to be 0.13 mM and 8.7 mM, respectively. The optimum pH for activity was 9.0 and the optimum temperature was 65 degrees C. The properties of the enzyme were similar to those of the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans enzyme, expect for substrate specificity. T. thiooxidans 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase could not utilize malate as a substrate.

  5. Prostaglandin dehydrogenase and the initiation of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challis, J R; Patel, F A; Pomini, F

    1999-01-01

    In summary, these studies have suggested that prostaglandin dehydrogenase may have a central role to play in the mechanisms which determine biologically active prostaglandin concentrations within human fetal membranes and placenta at the time of labor, at term or preterm. Moreover, our studies indicate that the regulation of PGDH may by multifactorial (figure 3). In certain regions of the membranes, we suggest that PGDH expression may be influenced by levels of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In other regions of the membranes, we suggest that PGDH may be regulated at a transcriptional level by competing activities of progesterone and cortisol. The action of progesterone could be effected through systemically-derived steroid, or by locally synthesized steroid, acting in a paracrine and/or autocrine fashion. The effects of cortisol in placenta must be due to glucocorticoid derived from the maternal or fetal compartment, since the placenta lacks the hydroxylases required for endogenous cortisol production. However, metabolism of cortisol by 11 beta-HSD-2 reduces the potency of this glucocorticoid in placental tissue. In chorion however, cortisol may be formed locally, from cortisone, in addition to its being derived from the maternal circulation and/or from the amniotic fluid. Our current studies do not allow us to delineate whether the effects of progesterone and cortisol on PGDH are exerted through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) or progesterone receptor (PR) or both. It is possible that through pregnancy, PGDH activity is maintained by progesterone acting either through low levels of PR in membranes, or, more likely, acting through GR. At term, elevated levels of cortisol compete with and displace progesterone from GR, resulting in inhibition of PGDH transcription and activity. In this way, local withdrawal of progesterone action would be effected within human intrauterine tissues, without requiring changes in systemic, circulating progesterone

  6. Prevalence and hematological indicators of G6PD deficiency in malaria-infected patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manas Kotepui; Kwuntida Uthaisar; Bhukdee PhunPhuech; Nuoil Phiwklam

    2016-01-01

    Background:This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and alteration of hematological parameters in malaria patients with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency,in the western region of Thailand,an endemic region for malaria.Methods:Data about patients with malaria hospitalized between 2013 and 2015 were collected.Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics such as age and gender,diagnosis on admission,and parasitological results were mined from medical records of the laboratory unit of the Phop Phra Hospital in Tak Province,Thailand.Venous blood samples were collected at the time of admission to hospital to determine G6PD deficiency by fluorescence spot test and detect malaria parasites by thick and thin film examination.Other data such as complete blood count and parasite density were also collected and analyzed.Results:Among the 245 malaria cases,28 (11.4 %) were diagnosed as Plasmodium falciparum infections and 217 cases (88.6 %) were diagnosed as P.vivax infections.Seventeen (6.9 %) patients had a G6PD deficiency and 228 (93.1%) patients did not have a G6PD deficiency.Prevalence of male patients with G6PD deficiency was higher than that of female patients (P < 0.05,OR =5.167).Among the patients with a G6PD deficiency,two (11.8 %) were infected with P.falciparum,while the remaining were infected with P.vivax.Malaria patients with a G6PD deficiency have higher monocyte counts (0.6 × 103/μL) than those without a G6PD deficiency (0.33 × 103/μL) (P< 0.05,OR=5.167).Univariate and multivariate analyses also confirmed that malaria patients with a G6PD deficiency have high monocyte counts.The association between G6PD status and monocyte counts was independent of age,gender,nationality,Plasmodium species,and parasite density (P < 0.005).Conclusion:This study showed a prevalence of G6PD deficiency in a malaria-endemic area.This study also supported the assertion that patients with G6PD-deficient red blood cells had no protection

  7. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection.

  8. Preparation of 15N-labeled L-alanine by coupling the alanine dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple enzymatic procedure for the preparation of L-[15N]alanine, one of the metabolically most active amino acids in all types of cells, is reported. The procedure is based on the coupling of two reactions, one catalyzed by bacterial alanine dehydrogenase, the second catalyzed by yeast alcohol dehydrogenase. An impediment in the use of this procedure could be the high cost of commercial AlaDH. However, the enzyme is widespread in the Bacillus species and partially purified samples, adequate preparative purposes, could be obtained relatively easily by chromatography on blue-Sepharose. (Auth.)

  9. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Ming Gao; Keitaro Matsuo; Nobuyuki Hamajima; Kazuo Tajima; Toshiro Takezaki; Jian-Zhong Wu; Xiao-Mei Zhang; Hai-Xia Cao; Jian-Hua Ding; Yan-Ting Liu; Su-Ping Li; Jia Cao

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between drinking and polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) and/or aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) for risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Chinese males.METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in 190 cases and 223 population-based controls.ADH2 Arg47His (G-A) and ALDH2 Glu487Lys (G-A) genotypes were identified by PCR and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC).Information on smoking and drinking was collected and odds ratio (OR) was estimated.RESULTS: The ADH2 A/A and ALDH2 G/G genotypes showed moderately increased CRC risk. The age- and smoking-adjusted OR for ADH2 A/A relative to G/A and G/G was 1.60 (95% CI=1.08-2.36), and the adjusted OR for ALDH2 G/G relative to G/A and A/A was 1.79 (95% CI=1.19-2.69). Significant interactions between ADH2,ALDH2 and drinking were observed. As compared to the subjects with ADH2 G and ALDH2 A alleles, those with ADH2 A/A and ALDH2 G/G genotypes had a significantly increased OR (3.05, 95% CI= 1.67-5.57). The OR for CRC among drinkers with the ,4DH2 A/A genotype was increased to 3.44 (95% CI= 1.84-6.42) compared with non-drinkers with the ADH2 G allele. The OR for CRC among drinkers with theALDH2 G/G genotype was also increased to 2.70 (95% CI= 1.57-4.66) compared with non-drinkers with the ALDH2 A allele.CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms of the ADH2 and ALDH2 genes are significantly associated with CRC risk. There are also significant gene-gene and geneenvironment interactions between drinking and ADH2 and ALDH2 polymorphisms regarding CRC risk in Chinese males.

  10. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Three Recombinant Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Mutants: Zacatecas, Vanua-Lava and Viangchan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; González-Valdez, Abigail; Martínez-Rosas, Víctor; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Cuevas-Cruz, Miguel; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in humans causes severe disease, varying from mostly asymptomatic individuals to patients showing neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis episodes or chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In order to understand the effect of the mutations in G6PD gene function and its relation with G6PD deficiency severity, we report the construction, cloning and expression as well as the detailed kinetic and stability characterization of three purified clinical variants of G6PD that present in the Mexican population: G6PD Zacatecas (Class I), Vanua-Lava (Class II) and Viangchan (Class II). For all the G6PD mutants, we obtained low purification yield and altered kinetic parameters compared with Wild Type (WT). Our results show that the mutations, regardless of the distance from the active site where they are located, affect the catalytic properties and structural parameters and that these changes could be associated with the clinical presentation of the deficiency. Specifically, the structural characterization of the G6PD Zacatecas mutant suggests that the R257L mutation have a strong effect on the global stability of G6PD favoring an unstable active site. Using computational analysis, we offer a molecular explanation of the effects of these mutations on the active site. PMID:27213370

  11. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Three Recombinant Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Mutants: Zacatecas, Vanua-Lava and Viangchan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Gómez-Manzo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency in humans causes severe disease, varying from mostly asymptomatic individuals to patients showing neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis episodes or chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In order to understand the effect of the mutations in G6PD gene function and its relation with G6PD deficiency severity, we report the construction, cloning and expression as well as the detailed kinetic and stability characterization of three purified clinical variants of G6PD that present in the Mexican population: G6PD Zacatecas (Class I, Vanua-Lava (Class II and Viangchan (Class II. For all the G6PD mutants, we obtained low purification yield and altered kinetic parameters compared with Wild Type (WT. Our results show that the mutations, regardless of the distance from the active site where they are located, affect the catalytic properties and structural parameters and that these changes could be associated with the clinical presentation of the deficiency. Specifically, the structural characterization of the G6PD Zacatecas mutant suggests that the R257L mutation have a strong effect on the global stability of G6PD favoring an unstable active site. Using computational analysis, we offer a molecular explanation of the effects of these mutations on the active site.

  12. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Three Recombinant Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Mutants: Zacatecas, Vanua-Lava and Viangchan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; González-Valdez, Abigail; Martínez-Rosas, Víctor; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Cuevas-Cruz, Miguel; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in humans causes severe disease, varying from mostly asymptomatic individuals to patients showing neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis episodes or chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In order to understand the effect of the mutations in G6PD gene function and its relation with G6PD deficiency severity, we report the construction, cloning and expression as well as the detailed kinetic and stability characterization of three purified clinical variants of G6PD that present in the Mexican population: G6PD Zacatecas (Class I), Vanua-Lava (Class II) and Viangchan (Class II). For all the G6PD mutants, we obtained low purification yield and altered kinetic parameters compared with Wild Type (WT). Our results show that the mutations, regardless of the distance from the active site where they are located, affect the catalytic properties and structural parameters and that these changes could be associated with the clinical presentation of the deficiency. Specifically, the structural characterization of the G6PD Zacatecas mutant suggests that the R257L mutation have a strong effect on the global stability of G6PD favoring an unstable active site. Using computational analysis, we offer a molecular explanation of the effects of these mutations on the active site. PMID:27213370

  13. Iron deficiency and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Haehling, Stephan; Jankowska, Ewa A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects up to one-third of the world's population, and is particularly common in elderly individuals and those with certain chronic diseases. Iron excess can be detrimental in cardiovascular illness, and research has now also brought anaemia and iron deficiency into the focus of card

  14. Iron deficiency anemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Girish; Girish, Meenakshi

    2015-06-01

    Iron deficiency is not just anemia; it can be responsible for a long list of other manifestations. This topic is of great importance, especially in infancy and early childhood, for a variety of reasons. Firstly, iron need is maximum in this period. Secondly, diet in infancy is usually deficient in iron. Thirdly and most importantly, iron deficiency at this age can result in neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits, which may not be reversible. Hypochromia and microcytosis in a complete blood count (CBC) makes iron deficiency anemia (IDA) most likely diagnosis. Absence of response to iron should make us look for other differential diagnosis like β thalassemia trait and anemia of chronic disease. Celiac disease is the most important cause of true IDA not responding to oral iron therapy. While oral ferrous sulphate is the cheapest and most effective therapy for IDA, simple nonpharmacological and pharmacological measures can go a long way in prevention of iron deficiency. PMID:25636824

  15. The Crystal Structure of Aquifex aeolicus Prephenate Dehydrogenase Reveals the Mode of Tyrosine Inhibition*

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Warren; Shahinas, Dea; Bonvin, Julie; Hou, Wenjuan; Kimber, Matthew S.; Turnbull, Joanne; Christendat, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    TyrA proteins belong to a family of dehydrogenases that are dedicated to l-tyrosine biosynthesis. The three TyrA subclasses are distinguished by their substrate specificities, namely the prephenate dehydrogenases, the arogenate dehydrogenases, and the cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenases, which utilize prephenate, l-arogenate, or both substrates, respectively. The molecular mechanism responsible for TyrA substrate selectivity and regulation is unknown. To further our underst...

  16. Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases: Retinoid Metabolic Effects in Mouse Knockout Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sandeep; Sandell, Lisa L.; Trainor, Paul A; Koentgen, Frank; Duester, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is the active metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that controls growth and development. The first step of RA synthesis is controlled by enzymes of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and retinol dehydrogenase (RDH) families that catalyze oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde. The second step of RA synthesis is controlled by members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family also known as retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) that further oxidize retinaldehyde to produce RA. RA fun...

  17. Cofactor engineering of Lactobacillus brevis alcohol dehydrogenase by computational design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.; Looger, L.L.; Raedts, J.G.J.; Dijkhuizen, S.; Hummel, W.; Henneman, H.G.; Daussmann, T.; Oost, van der J.

    2009-01-01

    The R-specific alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis (Lb-ADH) catalyzes the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones to the corresponding secondary alcohols. It is stable and has broad substrate specificity. These features make this enzyme an attractive candidate for biotechnologica

  18. Purification and characterization of xylitol dehydrogenase from Fusarium oxysporum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Kekos, D.; Macris, B.J.;

    2002-01-01

    An NAD(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) from Fusarium oxysporum, a key enzyme in the conversion of xylose to ethanol, was purified to homogeneity and characterised. It was homodimeric with a subunit of M-r 48 000, and pI 3.6. It was optimally active at 45degreesC and pH 9-10. It was fully...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1420 - Isocitric dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isocitric dehydrogenase test system. 862.1420 Section 862.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1440 Section 862.1440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system. 862.1380 Section 862.1380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  2. Molecular cloning of gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003 xylitol dehydrogenase gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H. Mir Mohammad; Ahmadi, R.; Aghaabdollahian, S.; Mofid, M.R.; Ghaemi, Y.; Abedi, D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the widespread applications of xylitol dehydrogenase, an enzyme used for the production of xylitol, the present study was designed for the cloning of xylitol dehydrogenase gene from Glcunobacter oxydans DSM 2003. After extraction of genomic DNA from this bacterium, xylitol dehydrogenase gene was replicated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified product was entered into pTZ57R cloning vector by T/A cloning method and transformation was performed by heat shocking of the E. coli XL1-blue competent cells. Following plasmid preparation, the cloned gene was digested out and ligated into the expression vector pET-22b(+). Electrophoresis of PCR product showed a 789 bp band. Recombinant plasmid (rpTZ57R) was then constructed. This plasmid was double digested with XhoI and EcoRI resulting in 800 bp and 2900 bp bands. The obtained insert was ligated into pET-22b(+) vector and its orientation was confirmed with XhoI and BamHI restriction enzymes. In conclusion, in the present study the recombinant expression vector containing xylitol dehydrogenase gene has been constructed and can be used for the production of this enzyme in high quantities. PMID:22110522

  3. Phosphorylation of formate dehydrogenase in potato tuber mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bykova, N.V.; Stensballe, A.; Egsgaard, H.;

    2003-01-01

    Two highly phosphorylated proteins were detected after two-dimensional (blue native/SDS-PAGE) gel electrophoretic separation of the matrix fraction isolated from potato tuber mitochondria. These two phosphoproteins were identified by mass spectrometry as formate dehydrogenase (FDH) and the E1alpha...

  4. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  5. Effects of aerobic training on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Paul J; Peters, Sandra J; Tunstall, Rebecca J; Cameron-Smith, David; Heigenhauser, George J F

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the effects of short- and long-term aerobic training on the stable up-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and PDH kinase (PDK) in human skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that 8 weeks, but not 1 week, of aerobic training would increase total PDH (PDHt) and PDK activities compared to pretraining, and this would be detectable at the level of gene transcription (mRNA) and/or gene translation (protein). Resting muscle biopsies were taken before and after 1 and 8 weeks of aerobic cycle exercise training. PDHt and PDK activities, and their respective protein and mRNA expression, did not differ after 1 week of aerobic training. PDHt activity increased 31% after 8 weeks and this may be partially due to a 1.3-fold increase in PDH-E(1)alpha protein expression. PDK activity approximately doubled after 8 weeks of aerobic training and this was attributed to a 1.3-fold increase in PDK2 isoform protein expression. Similar to 1 week, no changes were observed at the mRNA level after 8 weeks of training. These findings suggest that aerobically trained human skeletal muscle has an increased maximal capacity to utilize carbohydrates, evident by increased PDHt, but increased metabolic control sensitivity to pyruvate through increased contribution of PDK2 to total PDK activity. PMID:15020699

  6. Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase 9 Is Required for the Biogenesis of Oxidative Phosphorylation Complex I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nouws; L. Nijtmans; S.M. Houten; M. Brand; M. Huynen; H. Venselaar; S. Hoefs; J. Gloerich; J. Kronick; T. Hutchin; P. Willems; R. Rodenburg; R. Wanders; L. van den Heuvel; J. Smeitink; R.O. Vogel

    2010-01-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is a recently identified member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family. It closely resembles very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD), involved in mitochondria! (3 oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. Contrary to its previously proposed involvement in fatty acid

  7. Genetics Home Reference: factor V deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions factor V deficiency factor V deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Print All Open All Close All Description Factor V deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder. The signs ...

  8. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: leptin receptor deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions leptin receptor deficiency leptin receptor deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Leptin receptor deficiency is a condition that causes severe ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: congenital leptin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions congenital leptin deficiency congenital leptin deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Print All Open All Close All Description Congenital leptin deficiency is a condition that causes severe obesity ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: factor XIII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... InfoSearch: Factor XIII deficiency Factor XIII Registry Database: Introduction to Factor XIII Deficiency MalaCards: factor xiii deficiency ... Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions combined pituitary hormone deficiency combined pituitary hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Combined pituitary hormone deficiency is a condition that causes ...

  13. Crystal structure of quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes. A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Yu, Shukun; Mikkelsen, Rene; Nikolaev, Igor; Mulder, Harm J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2015-12-01

    The quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH, E.C. 1.1.5.2) from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes IFO 14464 oxidizes primary alcohols (e.g. ethanol, butanol), secondary alcohols (monosaccharides), as well as aldehydes, polysaccharides, and cyclodextrins. The recombinant protein, expressed in Pichia pastoris, was crystallized, and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the native form, with PQQ and a Ca(2+) ion, and of the enzyme in complex with a Zn(2+) ion and a bound substrate mimic were determined at 1.72 Å and 1.84 Å resolution, respectively. PQQ-ADH displays an eight-bladed β-propeller fold, characteristic of Type I quinone-dependent methanol dehydrogenases. However, three of the four ligands of the Ca(2+) ion differ from those of related dehydrogenases and they come from different parts of the polypeptide chain. These differences result in a more open, easily accessible active site, which explains why PQQ-ADH can oxidize a broad range of substrates. The bound substrate mimic suggests Asp333 as the catalytic base. Remarkably, no vicinal disulfide bridge is present near the PQQ, which in other PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases has been proposed to be necessary for electron transfer. Instead an associated cytochrome c can approach the PQQ for direct electron transfer.

  14. [Iodine deficiency during pregnancy ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O

    2005-09-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient, it would be administered every day with our diet. The main role of this micronutrient is the synthesis of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones are related with brain development and metabolic regulation. Iodine deficit is related with goitre, and an important problem "diseases related with iodine deficiency", including high rate of neonatal mortality, decrease of intelligence, delayed of growth, high rate of aborts and congenital abnormalities.A risk group is pregnant women. Some authors have been demonstrated the utility of iodine supplementation during pregnancy. A systematic review of Cochrane group has shown that iodine supplementation during pregnancy decreased neonatal mortality RR 0.71 (0.56-0.9), and decrease the incidence of cretinism in children under 4 years RR 0.27 (0.12-0.6). As final recommendations, a program in pregnant women must be development to treat with iodine such as we make with folic acid. Pills with iron and iodine (1 mg iron and 25 ug iodine) have been demonstrated better results that pills with iodine. Tablets are the main presentation due to the role of the women in our Society and the work time. Programs of iodine enriched salt have been demonstrated a follow up of 50%. PMID:16386080

  15. Iodine deficiency disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T C

    1987-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) affects 800 million people in the world, yet iodine supplementation is one of the most cost-effective nutritional interventions known. Iodine is incorporated into thyroid hormones, necessary for regulating metabolic rate, growth, and development of the brain and nervous system. IDD may appear as goiter in adults, usually not a serious problem, or in cretinism in children, which is marked by severe mental and physical retardation, with irreversible hearing and speech defects and either deaf-mutism, squint and paralysis, or stunting and edema. Children supplemented by age 1 or 2 can sometimes be helped. Foods contain variable amounts of iodine dependent on the soil where they are grown, hence mountainous and some inland regions have high goiter and IDD incidence. There are also goitrogenic foods, typically those of the cabbage family. Diagnosis is clinical or by blood tests for thyroid hormone levels and ratios. Finger-stick methods are available. Prevention of IDD is simple with either iodized salt or flour, iodinated central water supplies, injectable or oral iodine-containing oil. All cost about $.04 per person per year, except injections, which cost about $1 per person, but have the advantage that they could be combined with immunizations. Local problems with supplements are loss of iodine in salt with storage in tropics, and local production of cheaper uniodinated salt. Emphasis should be given to pregnant women and young children. There is no harm in giving pregnant women iodine injections in 2nd or 3rd trimester. PMID:12343033

  16. Differential diagnosis of tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, A; Ponzone, A; Curtius, H C

    1985-01-01

    Six hundred and seventy-three children (483 newborns and 190 older selected children) were screened for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency by HPLC of urine pterins and BH4 load test. One patient with GTP cyclohydrolase I deficiency, 36 patients with dihydrobiopterin synthetase (DHBS) deficiency (of which six were in the newborn and 30 in the older children) and 14 with dihydropteridine reductase deficiency (DHPR) were found. All 37 patients with defective BH4 biosynthesis responded to a BH4 load by lowering of the elevated serum phenylalanine concentration but four of 14 patients with DHPR deficiency did not. Measurement of DHPR activity in blood spots on Guthrie cards is recommended. Since subvariants of patients with BH4 deficiency exist, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, pterins, phenylalanine, and tyrosine in cerebrospinal fluid should be measured for diagnosis and the control of therapy. The activity of the phosphate-eliminating enzyme (a key enzyme in BH4 biosynthesis and part of "DHBS") was measured in human liver and activities of approx. 1 n U (mg protein)-1 were found. In the liver biopsy of a patient with DHBS deficiency no activity (less than 3% of controls) was demonstrated. PMID:3930839

  17. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breymann, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Anemia is a common problem in obstetrics and perinatal care. Any hemoglobin below 10.5 g/dL can be regarded as true anemia regardless of gestational age. Reasons for anemia in pregnancy are mainly nutritional deficiencies, parasitic and bacterial diseases, and inborn red blood cell disorders such as thalassemias. The main cause of anemia in obstetrics is iron deficiency, which has a worldwide prevalence between estimated 20%-80% and consists of a primarily female population. Stages of iron deficiency are depletion of iron stores, iron-deficient erythropoiesis without anemia, and iron deficiency anemia, the most pronounced form of iron deficiency. Pregnancy anemia can be aggravated by various conditions such as uterine or placental bleedings, gastrointestinal bleedings, and peripartum blood loss. In addition to the general consequences of anemia, there are specific risks during pregnancy for the mother and the fetus such as intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, feto-placental miss ratio, and higher risk for peripartum blood transfusion. Besides the importance of prophylaxis of iron deficiency, the main therapy options for the treatment of pregnancy anemia are oral iron and intravenous iron preparations.

  18. Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in Inflammatory Bowel Disease by Transferrin Receptor-Ferritin Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitbol, Vered; Borderie, Didier; Polin, Vanessa; Maksimovic, Fanny; Sarfati, Gilles; Esch, Anouk; Tabouret, Tessa; Dhooge, Marion; Dreanic, Johann; Perkins, Geraldine; Coriat, Romain; Chaussade, Stanislas

    2015-07-01

    Iron deficiency is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but can be difficult to diagnose in the presence of inflammation because ferritin is an acute phase reactant. The transferrin receptor-ferritin index (TfR-F) has a high sensitivity and specificity for iron deficiency diagnosis in chronic diseases. The diagnostic efficacy of TfR-F is little known in patients with IBD. The aim of the study was to assess the added value of TfR-F to iron deficiency diagnosis in a prospective cohort of patients with IBD.Consecutive IBD patients were prospectively enrolled. Patients were excluded in case of blood transfusion, iron supplementation, or lack of consent. IBD activity was assessed on markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, endoscopy, fecal calprotectin). Hemoglobin, ferritin, vitamin B9 and B12, Lactate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were assayed. TfR-F was calculated as the ratio sTfR/log ferritin. Iron deficiency was defined by ferritin 2 in the presence of inflammation.One-hundred fifty patients with median age 38 years (16-78) and Crohn disease (n = 105), ulcerative colitis (n = 43), or unclassified colitis (n = 2) were included. Active disease was identified in 45.3%. Anemia was diagnosed in 28%. Thirty-six patients (24%) had ferritin deficiency excluding TfR-F analysis, 13 of 30 (43.3%) had TfR-F >2. Overall, iron deficiency was diagnosed in 32.7% of the patients.TfR-F in addition to ferritin iron deficiency. TfR-F appeared as a useful biomarker that could help physicians to diagnose true iron deficiency in patients with active IBD.

  19. Vitamin D Deficiency in BALB/c Mouse Pregnancy Increases Placental Transfer of Glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesic, Dijana; Hawes, Jazmin E; Zosky, Graeme R; Wyrwoll, Caitlin S

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is increasing and implicated in adverse consequences for the health of offspring in later life. The aim of this study was to determine whether vitamin D deficiency increases fetal exposure to glucocorticoids, which are known to alter fetal development and result in adverse adult health outcomes. Female BALB/c mice were placed on either a vitamin D control (2195 IU/kg) or deficient (0 IU/kg) diet for 5 weeks before and during pregnancy. Maternal serum, placentas and fetal brains were collected at embryonic day 14.5 or 17.5 for morphological and gene expression analysis. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy increased maternal corticosterone concentrations and reduced placental weight. Maternal vitamin D deficiency decreased placental expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II, which inactivates glucocorticoids thereby protecting the fetus from inappropriate glucocorticoid exposure. There was a corresponding increase in placental and fetal expression of the highly glucocorticoid-sensitive factor glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper. Furthermore, placental expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor-A was reduced in vitamin D-deficient pregnancies, with a corresponding decline in fetal capillary volume within the placenta. Overall, we show that prenatal vitamin D deficiency leads to an increase in maternal corticosterone, alterations in genes indicative of increased fetal glucocorticoid exposure and impairment in placental vascular development. Thus, the long-term adverse health consequences of vitamin D deficiency during early development may not just be due to alteration in direct vitamin D-related pathways but also altered fetal glucocorticoid exposure. PMID:26252062

  20. Influence of selenium induced oxidative stress on spermatogenesis and lactate dehydrogenase-X in mice testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ParminderKaur; M.P.Bansal

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of oxidative stress on the spermatogenesis and lactate dehydrogenase-X (LDH-X) activity in mouse testis. Methods: For creating different levels of oxidative stress in mice, three selenium (Se) level diets were fed in separate groups for 8 weeks. Group 1 animals were fed yeast-based Se-deficient (0.02 ppm) diet. Group 2 and Group 3 animals were fed with the same diet supplemented with 0.2 ppm and 1 ppm Se as sodium selenite, respectively. After 8 weeks, biochemical and histopathological observations of the testis were carried out. LDH-X levels in the testis were analyzed by western immunoblot and ELISA. Results: A significant decrease in testis Se level was observed in Group 1 animals, whereas it was enhanced in Group 3 as compared to Group 2. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was significantly reduced in both the liver and testis in Group 1, but not in Group 2 and 3. A significant increase in the testis glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was observed in Group 1,whereas no significant change was seen in Groups 2 and 3. Histological analysis of testis revealed a normal structure in Group 2. A significant decrease in the germ cell population in Group 1 was observed as compared to Group 2 with the spermatids and mature sperm affected the most. Decrease in the lumen size was also observed. In the Se-excess group (Group 3), displacement of germ cell population was observed. Further, a decrease in the LDH-X level in testis was observed in Group 1. Conclusion: Excessive oxidative stress in the Se deficient group, as indicated by changes in the GSH-Px/GST activity, affects the spermatogenic process with a reduction in mature sperm and in turn the LDH-X level. (Asian J Androl 2004 Sep; 6: 227-232)

  1. Pituitary Adenoma With Paraganglioma/Pheochromocytoma (3PAs) and Succinate Dehydrogenase Defects in Humans and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Bullova, Petra; Giubellino, Alessio; Quezado, Martha; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A.; Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Wassif, Christopher A.; Raygada, Margarita; Rentia, Nadia; Dye, Louis; Cougnoux, Antony; Koziol, Deloris; Sierra, Maria de La Luz; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Belyavskaya, Elena; Malchoff, Carl; Moline, Jessica; Eng, Charis; Maher, Louis James; Pacak, Karel; Lodish, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Context: Germline mutations in genes coding succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits A, B, C, and D have been identified in familial paragangliomas (PGLs)/pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and other tumors. We described a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma (PA) caused by SDHD mutation in a patient with familial PGLs. Additional patients with PAs and SDHx defects have since been reported. Design: We studied 168 patients with unselected sporadic PA and with the association of PAs, PGLs, and/or pheochromocytomas, a condition we named the 3P association (3PAs) for SDHx germline mutations. We also studied the pituitary gland and hormonal profile of Sdhb+/− mice and their wild-type littermates at different ages. Results: No SDHx mutations were detected among sporadic PA, whereas three of four familial cases were positive for a mutation (75%). Most of the SDHx-deficient PAs were either prolactinomas or somatotropinomas. Pituitaries of Sdhb+/− mice older than 12 months had an increased number mainly of prolactin-secreting cells and several ultrastructural abnormalities such as intranuclear inclusions, altered chromatin nuclear pattern, and abnormal mitochondria. Igf-1 levels of mutant mice tended to be higher across age groups, whereas Prl and Gh levels varied according to age and sex. Conclusion: The present study confirms the existence of a new association that we termed 3PAs. It is due mostly to germline SDHx defects, although sporadic cases of 3PAs without SDHx defects also exist. Using Sdhb+/− mice, we provide evidence that pituitary hyperplasia in SDHx-deficient cells may be the initial abnormality in the cascade of events leading to PA formation. PMID:25695889

  2. Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A S

    1985-01-01

    The essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized in the early 1960s. The causes of zinc deficiency include malnutrition, alcoholism, malabsorption, extensive burns, chronic debilitating disorders, chronic renal diseases, following uses of certain drugs such as penicillamine for Wilson's disease and diuretics in some cases, and genetic disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica and sickle cell disease. In pregnancy and during periods of growth the requirement of zinc is increased. The clinical manifestations in severe cases of zinc deficiency include bullous-pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, emotional disorder, weight loss, intercurrent infections, hypogonadism in males; it is fatal if unrecognized and untreated. A moderate deficiency of zinc is characterized by growth retardation and delayed puberty in adolescents, hypogonadism in males, rough skin, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, taste abnormalities, and abnormal dark adaptation. In mild cases of zinc deficiency in human subjects, we have observed oligospermia, slight weight loss, and hyperammonemia. Zinc is a growth factor. Its deficiency adversely affects growth in many animal species and humans. Inasmuch as zinc is needed for protein and DNA synthesis and for cell division, it is believed that the growth effect of zinc is related to its effect on protein synthesis. Whether or not zinc is required for the metabolism of somatomedin needs to be investigated in the future. Testicular functions are affected adversely as a result of zinc deficiency in both humans and experimental animals. This effect of zinc is at the end organ level; the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is intact in zinc-deficient subjects. Inasmuch as zinc is intimately involved in cell division, its deficiency may adversely affect testicular size and thus affect its functions. Zinc is required for the functions of several enzymes and whether or not it has an enzymatic role in steroidogenesis is not known at present

  3. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms, alcohol intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, P.; McKay, J. D.; Jenab, M.;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known on the effect of polymorphisms in the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) on the alcohol-related risk of CRC in Caucasian populati......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known on the effect of polymorphisms in the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) on the alcohol-related risk of CRC in Caucasian...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) CLIMB: Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases Muscular Dystrophy Association: Myoadenylate Deaminase Deficiency Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Muscle AMP deaminase deficiency ...

  5. Small for Gestational Age and Magnesium: Intrauterine magnesium deficiency may induce metabolic syndrome in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Takaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy as a result of insufficient or low intake of magnesium is common in developing and developed countries. Previous reports have shown that intracellular magnesium of cord blood platelets is lower among small for gestational age (SGA groups than that of appropriate for gestational age (AGA groups, suggesting that intrauterine magnesium deficiency may result in SGA. Additionally, the risk of adult-onset diseases such as insulin resistance syndrome is greater among children whose mothers were malnourished during pregnancy, and who consequently had a low birth weight. In a number of animal models, poor nutrition during pregnancy leads to offspring that exhibit pathophysiological changes similar to human diseases. The offspring of pregnant rats fed a magensium restricted diet have developed hypermethylation in the hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 promoter. These findings indicate that maternal magnesium deficiencies during pregnancy influence regulation of non-imprinted genes by altering the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, thereby inducing different metabolic phenotypes. Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy may be responsible for not only maternal and fetal nutritional problems, but also lifelong consequences that affect the offspring throughout their life. Epidemiological, clinical, and basic research on the effects of magnesium deficiency now indicates underlying mechanisms, especially epigenetic processes.

  6. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 in aplastic anemia, Fanconi anemia and hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenhove, Lauren D; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Weinberg, Kenneth I

    2016-09-01

    Maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment depends on the ability to metabolize exogenously and endogenously generated toxins, and to repair cellular damage caused by such toxins. Reactive aldehydes have been demonstrated to cause specific genotoxic injury, namely DNA interstrand cross-links. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a member of a 19 isoenzyme ALDH family with different substrate specificities, subcellular localization, and patterns of expression. ALDH2 is localized in mitochondria and is essential for the metabolism of acetaldehyde, thereby placing it directly downstream of ethanol metabolism. Deficiency in ALDH2 expression and function are caused by a single nucleotide substitution and resulting amino acid change, called ALDH2*2. This genetic polymorphism affects 35-45% of East Asians (about ~560 million people), and causes the well-known Asian flushing syndrome, which results in disulfiram-like reactions after ethanol consumption. Recently, the ALDH2*2 genotype has been found to be associated with marrow failure, with both an increased risk of sporadic aplastic anemia and more rapid progression of Fanconi anemia. This review discusses the unexpected interrelationship between aldehydes, ALDH2 and hematopoietic stem cell biology, and in particular its relationship to Fanconi anemia. PMID:27650066

  7. Evolutionary Processes and Mental Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Herman H.

    1973-01-01

    The author hypothesizes that central nervous system damage of deficiency associated with mental retardation affects primarily those cortical processes which developed at a late stage in man's evolutionary history. (Author)

  8. [Niacin deficiency and cutaneous immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Sugita, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is required for the synthesis of coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Niacin binds with G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A on cutaneous Langerhans cells and causes vasodilation with flushing in head and neck area. Niacin deficiency due to excessive alcohol consumption, certain drugs or inadequate uptake in diet causes pellagra, a photosensitivity dermatitis. Recently several studies have revealed the mechanism of photosensitivity in niacin deficiency, which may pave a way for new therapeutic approaches. The expression level of prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) is up-regulated in the skin of both pellagra patients and niacin deficient pellagra mouse models. In addition, pellagra is mediated through prostaglandin E₂-EP4 (PGE₂-EP4) signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in keratinocytes. In this article, we have reviewed the role of niacin in immunity and the mechanism of niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity. PMID:25765687

  9. Cutaneous findings of nutritional deficiencies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goskowicz, M; Eichenfield, L F

    1993-08-01

    Nutritional deficiencies may be associated with a variety of cutaneous findings in children. This review emphasizes new developments relating to cutaneous findings of nutritional deficiencies. Zinc deficiency, acrodermatitis enteropathica, and acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruptions are seen with a variety of conditions including cystic fibrosis, anorexia nervosa, and breastfeeding. Similar cutaneous findings not related to zinc deficiency may also occur with such metabolic disorders as methylmalonic aciduria, multiple carboxylase deficiency, essential fatty acid deficiency and other amino acid deficiencies. Vitamin K deficiency is associated with hemorrhagic disease of the newborn and coagulopathy. Vitamin A deficiency presents with a variety of systemic findings and distinctive dermatologic findings. Acute vitamin A deficiency may be seen in children infected with measles and is associated with more severe disease. The systemic and cutaneous findings of vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, are discussed. PMID:8374671

  10. Fructophilic characteristics of Fructobacillus spp. may be due to the absence of an alcohol/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene (adhE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akihito; Tanaka, Naoto; Oikawa, Yo; Okada, Sanae; Dicks, Leon

    2014-04-01

    Fructophilic strains of Leuconostoc spp. have recently been reclassified to a new genus, i.e., Fructobacillus. Members of the genus are differentiated from Leuconostoc spp. by their preference for fructose on growth, requirement of an electron acceptor for glucose metabolism, and the inability to produce ethanol from the fermentation of glucose. In the present study, enzyme activities and genes involved in ethanol production were studied, since this is the key pathway for NAD(+)/NADH cycling in heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria. Fructobacillus spp. has a weak alcohol dehydrogenase activity and has no acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, whereas both enzymes are active in Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The bifunctional alcohol/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene, adhE, was described in Leuconostoc spp., but not in Fructobacillus spp. These results suggested that, due to the deficiency of the adhE gene, the normal pathway for ethanol production is absent in Fructobacillus spp. This leads to a shortage of NAD(+), and the requirement for an electron acceptor in glucose metabolism. Fructophilic characteristics, as observed for Fructobacillus spp., are thus due to the absence of the adhE gene, and a phenotype that most likely evolved as a result of regressive evolution. PMID:24352296

  11. Zinc and its deficiency diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G W

    1986-01-01

    The pervasive role of zinc in the metabolic function of the body results from its function as a cofactor of a multitude of enzymes. Zinc is found in every tissue in the body, and because zinc metalloenzymes are found in every known class of enzymes, the metal has a function in every conceivable type of biochemical pathway. Symptoms resulting from zinc deficiency are as diverse as the enzymes with which the metal is associated. If chronic, severe, and untreated, zinc deficiency can be fatal. Less drastic symptoms include infections, hypogonadism, weight loss, emotional disturbance, dermatitis, alopecia, impaired taste acuity, night blindness, poor appetite, delayed wound healing, and elevated blood ammonia levels. Many symptoms of zinc deficiency result from poor diet consumption, but often the most severe symptoms result from other factors including excessive alcohol use, liver diseases, malabsorption syndromes, renal disease, enteral or parenteral alimentation, administration of sulfhydryl-containing drugs, and sickle cell disease. The most severe symptoms of zinc deficiency occur in young children affected with the autosomal-recessive trait, acrodermatitis enteropathica. This disease results in decreased synthesis of picolinic acid which causes an impaired ability to utilize zinc from common food. Because simple laboratory analyses are often not reliable in determining zinc nutriture of a patient, those symptoms caused by suspected zinc deficiency are best verified by the oral administration of zinc dipicolinate. This zinc compound is efficacious and safe and would provide an accurate means of identifying symptoms that do result from zinc deficiency. PMID:3514057

  12. The catalytic reaction mechanism of drosophilid alcohol dehydrogenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imin Wushur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review describes the current knowledge about the reaction mechanism of drosophilid alcohol dehydrogenases (DADH, a member of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR superfamily. Included is the binding order of the substrates to the enzyme, rate limiting steps, stereochemistry of the reaction, active site topology, role of important amino acids and water molecules in the reaction and pH dependence of kinetic coefficients. We focus on the contribution from steady state kinetics where alternative substrates, dead end and product inhibitors, isotopes and mutated DADHs have been used as well as on the contributions from X-ray crystallography, NMR and theoretical calculations. Furthermore, we also raise some open questions in order to fully understand the reaction mechanism of this enzyme.

  13. [Cooperative properties of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagradova, N K

    1977-03-01

    The structure of the active center of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and the arrangement of subunits in the tetrameric molecule is delineated. The mechanism of cooperative effects in the oligomer is considered, and the involvement of various regions of the active center and of different-subunit contact area in the realization of the cooperative phenomena is discussed. A special attention is paid to the effect of NAD+ bound to one of the subunits of the tetramer on the structure of an adjacent subunit and to the problem of the participation of the coenzyme in the creation of anion-binding sites of the enzyme. The conditions of reversible dissociation of the tetrameric apoenzyme molecule into dimers are depicted, and the role of NAD+ in the organization of the quaternary structure of the dehydrogenase is discussed. The problem of catalytic activity of the dimeric form of the enzyme is argued. PMID:193581

  14. Direct Observation of Correlated Interdomain Motion in Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Biehl, R.; Hoffmann, B.; Monkenbusch, M.; Falus, P.; Préost, S.; Merkel, R.; Richter, D.

    2008-01-01

    Interdomain motions in proteins are essential to enable or promote biochemical function. Neutron spinecho spectroscopy is used to directly observe the domain dynamics of the protein alcohol dehydrogenase. The collective motion of domains as revealed by their coherent form factor relates to the cleft opening dynamics between the binding and the catalytic domains enabling binding and release of the functional important cofactor. The cleft opening mode hardens as a result of an overall stiffenin...

  15. Regulation of human class I alcohol dehydrogenases by bile acids

    OpenAIRE

    Langhi, Cédric; Pedraz-Cuesta, Elena; Haro, Diego; Marrero, Pedro F; Rodríguez, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    Class I alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s) are the rate-limiting enzymes for ethanol and vitamin A (retinol) metabolism in the liver . Because previous studies have shown that human ADH1 enzymes may participate in bile acid metabolism, we investigated whether the bile acid-activated nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates ADH1 genes. In human hepatocytes, both the endogenous FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid and synthetic FXR-specific agonist GW4064 increased ADH1 mRNA, protein, and ...

  16. Retinol dehydrogenase 10 is indispensible for spermatogenesis in juvenile males

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Ming-Han; Yang, Qi-En; Davis, Jeffrey C.; Griswold, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), an active vitamin A derivative, is essential for mammalian spermatogenesis. Genetic studies have revealed that oxidation of vitamin A to retinal by retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10) is critical for embryonic RA biosynthesis. However, physiological roles of RDH10 in postnatal RA synthesis remain unclear, given that Rdh10 loss-of-function mutations lead to early embryonic lethality. We conducted in vivo genetic studies of Rdh10 in postnatal mouse testes and found that an RDH1...

  17. The pivotal role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases in metabolic flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuai; Hulver, Matthew W.; McMillan, Ryan P.; Cline, Mark A.; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Metabolic flexibility is the capacity of a system to adjust fuel (primarily glucose and fatty acids) oxidation based on nutrient availability. The ability to alter substrate oxidation in response to nutritional state depends on the genetically influenced balance between oxidation and storage capacities. Competition between fatty acids and glucose for oxidation occurs at the level of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The PDC is normally active in most tissues in the fed state,...

  18. R-lipoic acid inhibits mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotchkina, Lioubov G; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand S

    2004-10-01

    The four pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) and two pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase (PDP) isoenzymes that are present in mammalian tissues regulate activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of its pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) component. The effect of lipoic acids on the activity of PDKs and PDPs was investigated in purified proteins system. R-lipoic acid, S-lipoic acid and R-dihydrolipoic acid did not significantly affect activities of PDPs and at the same time inhibited PDKs to different extents (PDK1>PDK4 approximately PDK2>PDK3 for R-LA). Since lipoic acids inhibited PDKs activity both when reconstituted in PDC and in the presence of E1 alone, dissociation of PDK from the lipoyl domains of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase in the presence of lipoic acids is not a likely explanation for inhibition. The activity of PDK1 towards phosphorylation sites 1, 2 and 3 of E1 was decreased to the same extent in the presence of R-lipoic acid, thus excluding protection of the E1 active site by lipoic acid from phosphorylation. R-lipoic acid inhibited autophosphorylation of PDK2 indicating that it exerted its effect on PDKs directly. Inhibition of PDK1 by R-lipoic acid was not altered by ADP but was decreased in the presence of pyruvate which itself inhibits PDKs. An inhibitory effect of lipoic acid on PDKs would result in less phosphorylation of E1 and hence increased PDC activity. This finding provides a possible mechanism for a glucose (and lactate) lowering effect of R-lipoic acid in diabetic subjects. PMID:15512796

  19. A guide to 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, J; Jakob, F J

    2001-01-22

    17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSD) are pivotal in controlling the biological potency of steroid hormones by catalyzing oxidation or reduction at position 17. Several 17beta-HSDs may as well metabolize further substrates including alcohols, bile acids, fatty acids and retinols. This review summarizes recent progress in the field of 17beta-HSD research provides an update of nomenclature. PMID:11165003

  20. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) in bacteria: a bioinformatic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiela, Michael; Skarka, Adam; Ebert, Bettina; Maser, Edmund

    2012-03-01

    Steroidal compounds including cholesterol, bile acids and steroid hormones play a central role in various physiological processes such as cell signaling, growth, reproduction, and energy homeostasis. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), which belong to the superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) or aldo-keto reductases (AKR), are important enzymes involved in the steroid hormone metabolism. HSDs function as an enzymatic switch that controls the access of receptor-active steroids to nuclear hormone receptors and thereby mediate a fine-tuning of the steroid response. The aim of this study was the identification of classified functional HSDs and the bioinformatic annotation of these proteins in all complete sequenced bacterial genomes followed by a phylogenetic analysis. For the bioinformatic annotation we constructed specific hidden Markov models in an iterative approach to provide a reliable identification for the specific catalytic groups of HSDs. Here, we show a detailed phylogenetic analysis of 3α-, 7α-, 12α-HSDs and two further functional related enzymes (3-ketosteroid-Δ(1)-dehydrogenase, 3-ketosteroid-Δ(4)(5α)-dehydrogenase) from the superfamily of SDRs. For some bacteria that have been previously reported to posses a specific HSD activity, we could annotate the corresponding HSD protein. The dominating phyla that were identified to express HSDs were that of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Moreover, some evolutionarily more ancient microorganisms (e.g., Cyanobacteria and Euryachaeota) were found as well. A large number of HSD-expressing bacteria constitute the normal human gastro-intestinal flora. Another group of bacteria were originally isolated from natural habitats like seawater, soil, marine and permafrost sediments. These bacteria include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Rhodococcus. In conclusion, HSDs are found in a wide variety of microorganisms including

  1. Characterization of the rat Class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase gene promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Y Q; Takimoto, K; Pitot, H. C.; Miskimins, W K; Lindahl, R

    1996-01-01

    The Class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH-3) is differentially expressed. Expression is either constitutive or xenobiotic inducible via an aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-mediated pathway, depending upon the tissue. A series of studies were performed to examine the regulation of rat ALDH-3 basal expression. DNase I footprint analysis identified four DNA regions within the proximal 1 kb of the 5' flanking region of rat ALDH-3 which interact with regulatory proteins. Reporter gene and ge...

  2. Encapsulation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Mannitol by Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Shiga; Hiromi Joreau; Tze Loon Neoh; Takeshi Furuta; Hidefumi Yoshii

    2014-01-01

    The retention of the enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been studied in various drying processes such as spray drying. The aim of this study is to encapsulate ADH in mannitol, either with or without additive in order to limit the thermal denaturation of the enzyme during the drying process. The retention of ADH activity was investigated at different drying temperatures. When mannitol was used, the encapsulated ADH was found inactive in all the dried powders. This is presumably...

  3. An efficient ribitol-specific dehydrogenase from Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjitha; Singh, Raushan; Kim, In-Won; Sigdel, Sujan; Kalia, Vipin C; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2015-05-01

    An NAD(+)-dependent ribitol dehydrogenase from Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC 2190 (EaRDH) was cloned and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The complete 729-bp gene was amplified, cloned, expressed, and subsequently purified in an active soluble form using nickel affinity chromatography. The enzyme had an optimal pH and temperature of 11.0 and 45°C, respectively. Among various polyols, EaRDH exhibited activity only toward ribitol, with Km, Vmax, and kcat/Km values of 10.3mM, 185Umg(-1), and 30.9s(-1)mM(-1), respectively. The enzyme showed strong preference for NAD(+) and displayed no detectable activity with NADP(+). Homology modeling and sequence analysis of EaRDH, along with its biochemical properties, confirmed that EaRDH belongs to the family of NAD(+)-dependent ribitol dehydrogenases, a member of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SCOR) family. EaRDH showed the highest activity and unique substrate specificity among all known RDHs. Homology modeling and docking analysis shed light on the molecular basis of its unusually high activity and substrate specificity.

  4. Delineation of an in vivo inhibitor for Aspergillus glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Rajarshi; Noor, Shahid; Varadarajalu, Lakshmi Prabha; Punekar, Narayan S

    2008-01-01

    NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) along with glutamine synthetase plays a pivotal role in ammonium assimilation. Specific inhibitors were valuable in defining the importance of glutamine synthetase in nitrogen metabolism. Selective in vivo inhibition of NADP-GDH has so far been an elusive desideratum. Isophthalate, a potent in vitro inhibitor of Aspergillus niger NADP-GDH [Noor S, Punekar NS. Allosteric NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase from aspergilli: purification, characterization and implications for metabolic regulation at the carbon-nitrogen interface. Microbiology 2005;151:1409-19], was evaluated for its efficacy in vivo. Dimethyl ester of isophthalate (DMIP), but not isophthalate, inhibited A. niger growth on agar as well as in liquid culture. This was ascribed to the inability of isophthalate to enter fungal mycelia. Subsequent to DMIP addition however, intracellular isophthalate could be demonstrated. Apart from NAD-GDH, no other enzyme including NAD-glutamate synthase was inhibited by isophthalate. A cross-over at NADP-GDH step of metabolism was observed as a direct consequence of isophthalate (formed in vivo from DMIP) inhibiting this enzyme. Addition of ammonium to DMIP-treated A. niger mycelia resulted in intensive vacuolation, retraction of cytoplasm and autolysis. Taken together, these results implicate glutamate dehydrogenase and NADP-GDH in particular, as a key target of in vivo isophthalate inhibition during ammonium assimilation. PMID:22578865

  5. On the molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein deficiency type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija L Mehtälä

    Full Text Available Molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein (D-BP deficiency was studied with wild type and five disease-causing variants of 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase fragment of the human MFE-2 (multifunctional enzyme type 2 protein. Complementation analysis in vivo in yeast and in vitro enzyme kinetic and stability determinants as well as in silico stability and structural fluctuation calculations were correlated with clinical data of known patients. Despite variations not affecting the catalytic residues, enzyme kinetic performance (K(m, V(max and k(cat of the recombinant protein variants were compromised to a varying extent and this can be judged as the direct molecular cause for D-BP deficiency. Protein stability plays an additional role in producing non-functionality of MFE-2 in case structural variations affect cofactor or substrate binding sites. Structure-function considerations of the variant proteins matched well with the available data of the patients.

  6. Molecular Characterization of G6PD Deficient Variants in Nineveh Province, Northwestern Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashmoola, Muna A; Eissa, Adil A; Al-Takay, Dahlia T; Al-Allawi, Nasir A S

    2015-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency considered to be the commonest inherited enzymopathies disorders worldwide including Iraq. Studies have addressed its prevalence and molecular characterization in several parts of the country, but no data were available from Nineveh province, northwestern-Iraq regarding molecular basis of this inherited enzymopathy. To determine the molecular basis of G6PD deficient variants in Nineveh province. A total of 61 G6PD deficient male individuals from Nineveh province were enrolled in this study. DNA from all enrolled individuals were extracted and analyzed for four deficient molecular variants using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment polymorphism method. These deficient variants were G6PD-Mediterranean (563 C→T), G6PD-Chatham (1003 G→A), G6PD-A-(202 G→A) and G6PD-Cosenza (1376 G→C). Also enrolled individuals were screened for silent 1311 (C→T) mutation. It was found that 46 (75.41 %) were G6PD-Mediterranean, 1(1.64 %) were G6PD-Chatham, another 1(1.64 %) were G6PD-A-, and 13 (21.31 %) were remained uncharacterized. Also all G6PD-Mediterranean as well as one uncharacterized individuals were carriers of silent 1311 (C→T) mutation. This study documented that G6PD-Mediterranean constitute the bulk of G6PD deficient variants in this province and G6PD-Chatham and A- were encountered less frequently. Also that silent 1311 (C→T) mutation were common among G6PD-Mediterranean deficient variants individuals. PMID:25548459

  7. [Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are global health problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlerup, Jens; Lindgren, Stefan; Moum, Björn

    2015-03-10

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are global health problems leading to deterioration in patients' quality of life and more serious prognosis in patients with chronic diseases. The cause of iron deficiency and anemia is usually a combination of increased loss and decreased intestinal absorption and delivery from iron stores due to inflammation. Oral iron is first line treatment, but often hampered by intolerance. Intravenous iron is safe, and the preferred treatment in patients with chronic inflammation and bowel diseases. The goal of treatment is normalisation of hemoglobin concentration and recovery of iron stores. It is important to follow up treatment to ensure that these objectives are met and also long-term in patients with chronic iron loss and/or inflammation to avoid recurrence of anemia.

  8. Iron deficiency and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Haehling, Stephan; Jankowska, Ewa A; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D

    2015-11-01

    Iron deficiency affects up to one-third of the world's population, and is particularly common in elderly individuals and those with certain chronic diseases. Iron excess can be detrimental in cardiovascular illness, and research has now also brought anaemia and iron deficiency into the focus of cardiovascular medicine. Data indicate that iron deficiency has detrimental effects in patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure (HF), and pulmonary hypertension, and possibly in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Around one-third of all patients with HF, and more than one-half of patients with pulmonary hypertension, are affected by iron deficiency. Patients with HF and iron deficiency have shown symptomatic improvements from intravenous iron administration, and some evidence suggests that these improvements occur irrespective of the presence of anaemia. Improved exercise capacity has been demonstrated after iron administration in patients with pulmonary hypertension. However, to avoid iron overload and T-cell activation, it seems that recipients of cardiac transplantations should not be treated with intravenous iron preparations.

  9. Therapeutic potential of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases in the prevention of hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, M C; Holness, M J

    2002-07-01

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, and links glycolysis to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and ATP production. Adequate flux through PDC is important in tissues with a high ATP requirement, in lipogenic tissues (since it provides cytosolic acetyl-CoA for fatty acid (FA) synthesis), and in generating cytosolic malonyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I). Conversely, suppression of PDC activity is crucial for glucose conservation when glucose is scarce. This review describes recent advances relating to the control of mammalian PDC activity by phosphorylation (inactivation) and dephosphorylation (activation, reactivation), in particular regulation of PDC by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) which phosphorylates and inactivates PDC. PDK activity is that of a family of four proteins (PDK1-4). PDK2 and PDK4 appear to be expressed in most major tissues and organs of the body, PDK1 appears to be limited to the heart and pancreatic islets, and PDK3 is limited to the kidney, brain and testis. PDK4 is selectively upregulated in the longer term in most tissues and organs in response to starvation and hormonal imbalances such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism. Parallel increases in PDK2 and PDK4 expression appear to be restricted to gluconceogenesic tissues, liver and kidney, which take up as well as generate pyruvate. Factors that regulate PDK4 expression include FA oxidation and adequate insulin action. PDK4 is also either a direct or indirect target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha. PPAR alpha deficiency in liver and kidney restricts starvation-induced upregulation of PDK4; however, the role of PPAR alpha in heart and skeletal muscle appears to be more complex. These observations may have important implications for the pharmacological modulation of PDK activity (e.g. use of PPAR alpha activators) for the control of whole

  10. Main: 1W07 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1; Arabidopsis Thaliana Molecule: Acyl-Coa Oxidase; Chain: A, B; Mutation: Yes; Engineered: Yes Oxidoreducta...AGSRHAFEVSDRIARLVASDPVFEKSNRARLSRKELFKSTLRKCAHAFKRIIELRLNEEEAGRLRHFIDQPAYVDLHWGMFVPAI...YLWCSGLPELFAVYVPACTYEGDNVVLQLQVARFLMKTVAQLGSGKVPVGTTAYMGRAAHLLQCRSGVQKAEDWLNPDVVLEAFEARALRMAVTCAKNLSKFENQEQGFQELLADLVEAAI

  11. Folate Deficiency in Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishna Rajesh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dear Sir, While there has been a spurt of interest in genetic alterations associated with pancreatitis in the past few years, interest in the role of environmental factors has largely focused on alcoholism and smoking with insufficient attention being paid to the contributions of nutritional deficiency, and the role of environmental toxins in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Braganza and Dormandy [1] argue convincingly about the role played by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (especially CYP1A enzyme induction by xenobiotics and the resultant oxidative stress, as also the now increasingly recognized reductive stress posed by the metabolites in initiating pancreatic injury. Their article underlines the important part played by the deficiency of methyl and thiol molecules in different stages of the progression of pancreatic damage. Furthermore, they attempt to establish a link between environmental and genetic factors and bring in a holistic view on the etiopathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis. We have recently demonstrated lower plasma methionine levels in two cohorts of chronic pancreatitis patients; one of tropical chronic pancreatitis and the other, of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis as compared to healthy controls [2] which suggests that deficiency of methyl groups may be a factor in various forms of pancreatitis. Similarly, we have shown lower red cell glutathione levels in chronic pancreatitis patients with tropical chronic pancreatitis and alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, indicating deficiency of thiol molecules. In addition, we have demonstrated significantly higher levels of plasma total homocysteine in chronic pancreatitis patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, our study has shown that there is a deficiency of red cell folate in the majority of chronic pancreatitis patients, more so in tropical chronic pancreatitis; and that folate deficiency appeared to be the key factor in hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic pancreatitis patients

  12. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and diagnostic challenges in 1500 immigrants in Denmark examined for haemoglobinopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warny, Marie; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Petersen, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    in Denmark. We found the allele frequency to be between 2.4 and 2.9% in the female immigrants. Furthermore, the mutation pattern in the studied population showed a high prevalence of the G6PD A-(202A) variant in African and African-American immigrants, a high prevalence of the G6PD Mediterranean variant...... in Mediterranean European and Western Asian immigrants, and substantial heterogeneity in the variants found in the Eastern Asian/Pacific immigrants. Inasmuch as many of the patients included in this investigation had various thalassaemic syndromes, we were able to evaluate the effects of the interaction between...

  13. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in two siblings with a Reye-like syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougnères, Pierre F.; Rocchiccioli, Francis; Kølvraa, Steve; Hadchouel, Michèle; Lalau-Keraly, Jean; Chaussain, J.-L.; Wadman, S.K.; Gregersen, Niels

    1985-01-01

    An increasing number of reports indicate that patients with some inherited metabolic diseases may have symptoms resembling those of Reye syndrome. We describe two siblings who developed a Reye-like syndrome at ages 16 and 18 months, respectively, after a viral illness and salicylate therapy. Both ha

  14. Application of NAD-dependent polyol dehydrogenases for enzymatic mannitol/sorbitol production with coenzyme regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, S; Arnaut, F; Soetaert, W; Vandamme, E J

    2003-01-01

    D-Mannitol and D-sorbitol were produced enzymatically from D-fructose using NAD-dependent polyol dehydrogenases. For the production of D-mannitol the Leuconostoc mesenteroides mannitol dehydrogenase could be used. Gluconobacter oxydans cell extract contained however both mannitol and sorbitol dehydrogenase. When this cell extract was used, the reduction of D-fructose resulted in a mixture of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol. To determine the optimal bioconversion conditions the polyol dehydrogenases were characterized towards pH- and temperature-optimum and -stability. As a compromise between enzyme activity and stability, the bioconversion reactions were performed at pH 6.5 and 25 degrees C. Since the polyol dehydrogenases are NADH-dependent, an efficient coenzyme regeneration was needed. Regeneration of NADH was accomplished by formate dehydrogenase-mediated oxidation of formate into CO2.

  15. Iron deficiency in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A F

    1982-06-01

    Iron in food is classified as belonging to the haem pool, the nonhaem pool, and extraneous sources. Haem iron is derived from vegetable and animal sources with varying bioavailability. Hookworm infestation of the intestinal tract affects 450 million people in the tropics. Schistosoma mansoni caused blood loss in 7 Egyptian patients of 7.5- 25.9 ml/day which is equivalent to a daily loss of iron of .6-7.3 mg daily urinary loss of iron in 9 Egyptian patients. Trichuris trichiura infestation by whipworm is widespread in children with blood loss of 5 ml/day/worm. The etiology of anemia in children besides iron deficiency includes malaria, bacterial or viral infections, folate deficiency and sickle-cell disease. Severe infections cause profound iron-deficiency anemia in children in central American and Malaysia. Plasmodium falciparum malaria-induced anaemia in tropical Africa lowers the mean haemoglobin concentration in the population by 2 g/dI, causing profound anaemia in some. The increased risk of premature delivery, low birthweight, fetal abnormalities, and fetal death is directly related to the degree of maternal anemia. Perinatal mortality was reduced from 38 to 4% in treated anemic mothers. Mental performance was significantly lower in anemic school children and improved after they received iron. Supplements of iron, soy-protein, calcium, and vitamins given to villagers with widespread malnutrition, iron deficiency, and hookworm infestation in Colombia reduced enteric infections in children. Severe iron-deficiency anemia was treated in adults in northern Nigeria by daily in Ferastral 10 ml, which is equivalent to 500 mg of iron per day. Choloroquine, folic acid, rephenium hydroxynaphthoate, and tetrachlorethylene treat adults with severe iron deficiency from hookworm infestation in rural tropical Africa. Blood transfusion is indicated if the patient is dying of anaemia or is pregnant with a haemoglobin concentration 6 gm/dl. In South East Asia, mg per day

  16. [Phosphate metabolism and iron deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keitaro

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets(ADHR)is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage. Fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23)is a hormone that inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D biosynthesis. Low iron status plays a role in the pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. It was reported that FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient. In patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, treatment with ferric citrate hydrate resulted in significant reductions in serum phosphate and FGF23.

  17. Induction of PDK4 in the heart muscle of JVS mice, an animal model of systemic carnitine deficiency, does not appear to reduce glucose utilization by the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushikai, Miharu; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Kobayashi, Keiko; Matuda, Sadayuki; Inui, Akio; Takeuchi, Toru; Saheki, Takeyori

    2011-03-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) mRNA has been reported as an up-regulated gene in the heart and skeletal muscle of carnitine-deficient juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice under fed conditions. PDK4 plays an important role in the inhibition of glucose oxidation via the phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). This study evaluated the meaning of increased PDK4 mRNA in glucose metabolism by investigating PDK4 protein levels, PDC activity and glucose uptake by the heart and skeletal muscle of JVS mice. PDK4 protein levels in the heart and skeletal muscle of fed JVS mice were increased in accordance with mRNA levels, and protein was enriched in the mitochondria. PDK4 protein was co-fractionated with PDC in sucrose density gradient centrifugation, like PDK2 protein; however, the activities of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) active form in the heart and skeletal muscle of fed JVS mice were similar to those in fed control mice. Fed JVS mice showed significantly higher glucose uptake in the heart and similar uptake in the skeletal muscle compared with fed control mice. Thus, in carnitine deficiency under fed conditions, glucose was preferentially utilized in the heart as an energy source despite increased PDK4 protein levels in the mitochondria. The preferred glucose utilization may be involved in developing cardiac hypertrophy from carnitine deficiency in fatty acid oxidation abnormality. PMID:21190881

  18. Late-onset form of beta-electron transfer flavoprotein deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curcoy, A; Olsen, Rikke Katrine Jentoft; Ribes, A;

    2003-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) or glutaric aciduria type II (GAII) are a group of metabolic disorders due to deficiency of either electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO). We report the clinical features...... and biochemical and molecular genetic analyses of a patient with a mild late-onset form of GAII due to beta-ETF deficiency. Biochemical data showed an abnormal urine organic acid profile, low levels of free carnitine, increased levels of C(10:1n-6), and C(14:1n-9) in plasma, and decreased oxidation of [9,10-3H......]palmitate and [9,10-3H]myristate in fibroblasts, suggesting MAD deficiency. In agreement with these findings, mutational analysis of the ETF/ETFDH genes demonstrated an ETFB missense mutation 124T>C in exon 2 leading to replacement of cysteine-42 with arginine (C42R), and a 604_606AAG deletion in exon 6...

  19. Characterization of testis-specific isoenzyme of human pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotchkina, Lioubov G; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand S

    2006-04-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), the first component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, has two isoenzymes, somatic cell-specific PDH1 and testis-specific PDH2 with 87% sequence identity in the alpha subunit of alpha(2) beta(2) PDH. The presence of functional testis-specific PDH2 is important for sperm cells generating nearly all their energy from carbohydrates via pyruvate oxidation. Kinetic and regulatory properties of recombinant human PDH2 and PDH1 were compared in this study. Site-specific phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the three phosphorylation sites by four PDH kinases (PDK1-4) and two PDH phosphatases (PDP1-2) were investigated by substituting serines with alanine or glutamate in PDHs. PDH2 was found to be very similar to PDH1 as follows: (i) in specific activities and kinetic parameters as determined by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex assay; (ii) in thermostability at 37 degrees C; (iii) in the mechanism of inactivation by phosphorylation of three sites; and (iv) in the phosphorylation of sites 1 and 2 by PDK3. In contrast, the differences for PDH2 were indicated as follows: (i) by a 2.4-fold increase in binding affinity for the PDH-binding domain of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase as measured by surface plasmon resonance; (ii) by possible involvement of Ser-264 (site 1) of PDH2 in catalysis as evident by its kinetic behavior; and (iii) by the lower activities of PDK1, PDK2, and PDK4 as well as PDP1 and PDP2 toward PDH2. These differences between PDH2 and PDH1 are less than expected from substitution of 47 amino acids in each PDH2 alpha subunit. The multiple substitutions may have compensated for any drastic alterations in PDH2 structure thereby preserving its kinetic and regulatory characteristics largely similar to that of PDH1. PMID:16436377

  20. Identification, Cloning, and Characterization of l-Phenylserine Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakuko Ueshima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding d-phenylserine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15 was identified, and a 9,246-bp nucleotide sequence containing the gene was sequenced. Six ORFs were confirmed in the sequenced region, four of which were predicted to form an operon. A homology search of each ORF predicted that orf3 encoded l-phenylserine dehydrogenase. Hence, orf3 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells and recombinant ORF3 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The purified ORF3 enzyme showed l-phenylserine dehydrogenase activity. The enzymological properties and primary structure of l-phenylserine dehydrogenase (ORF3 were quite different from those of d-phenylserine dehydrogenase previously reported. l-Phenylserine dehydrogenase catalyzed the NAD+-dependent oxidation of the β-hydroxyl group of l-β-phenylserine. l-Phenylserine and l-threo-(2-thienylserine were good substrates for l-phenylserine dehydrogenase. The genes encoding l-phenylserine dehydrogenase and d-phenylserine dehydrogenase, which is induced by phenylserine, are located in a single operon. The reaction products of both enzymatic reactions were 2-aminoacetophenone and CO2.

  1. Structural determinants of stereospecificity in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.

    OpenAIRE

    Weinhold, E G; Glasfeld, A; Ellington, A D; Benner, S A

    1991-01-01

    Replacing Leu-182 by Ala in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH; alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) yields a mutant that retains 34% of its kcat value and makes one stereochemical "mistake" every 850,000 turnovers (instead of approximately 1 error every 7,000,000,000 turnovers in native YADH) in its selection of the 4-Re hydrogen of NADH. Half of the decrease in stereochemical fidelity comes from an increase in the rate of transfer of the 4-Si hydrogen of NADH. The mutant also accepts 5-m...

  2. Functional characterization of a vanillin dehydrogenase in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Wei; Si, Meiru; Zhang, Weipeng; Zhang, Yaoling; Chen, Can; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Shaolin; Shen, Xihui

    2015-01-01

    Vanillin dehydrogenase (VDH) is a crucial enzyme involved in the degradation of lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Herein, the VDH from Corynebacterium glutamicum was characterized. The relative molecular mass (Mr) determined by SDS-PAGE was ~51kDa, whereas the apparent native Mr values revealed by gel filtration chromatography were 49.5, 92.3, 159.0 and 199.2kDa, indicating the presence of dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric forms. Moreover, the enzyme showed its highest level of activity towar...

  3. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  4. Genetic Control of Malate Dehydrogenase Isozymes in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, M. M.; Stuber, C. W.; Lee, C N; Johnson, F. M.

    1980-01-01

    At least six nuclear loci are responsible for the genetic control of malate dehydrogenase (L-malate: NAD oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.37; MDH) in coleoptiles of maize. Three independently segregating loci (Mdh1, Mdh2, Mdh3) govern the production of MDH isozymes resistant to inactivation by ascorbic acid and found largely or solely in the mitochondria. A rare recessive allele found at a fourth nuclear locus (mmm) causes increased electrophoretic mobility of the MDH isozymes governed by the Mdh1, M...

  5. Cloning and characterization of a ribitol dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moon, Hee-Jung; Tiwari, Manish; Jeya, Marimuthu;

    2010-01-01

    Ribitol dehydrogenase (RDH) catalyzes the conversion of ribitol to D-ribulose. A novel RDH gene was cloned from Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis ZM4 and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). DNA sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 795 bp, capable of encoding a polypeptide...... of 266 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 28,426 Da. The gene was overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) and the protein was purified as an active soluble form using glutathione S-transferase affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated...

  6. Essential histidine residue in 3-ketosteroid-Δ1-dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Hiroyuki; Itagaki, Eiji; 板垣, 英治

    1992-01-01

    The variation with pH of kinetic parameters was examined for 3-ketosteroid-Δ1-dehydrogenase from Nocardia corallina. The V(max)/K(m) profile for 4-androstenedione indicates that activity is lost upon protonation of a cationic acid-type group with a pK value of 7.7. The enzyme was inactivated by diethylpyrocarbonate at pH 7.4 and the inactivation was substantially prevented by androstadienedione. Analyses of reactivation with neutral hydroxylamine, pH variation, and spectral changes of the ina...

  7. In vitro hydrogen production by glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A new in vitro enzymatic pathway for the generation of molecular hydrogen from glucose has been demonstrated. The reaction is based upon the oxidation of glucose by Thermoplasma acidophilum glucose dehydrogenase with the concomitant oxidation of NADPH by Pyrococcus furiosus hydrogenase. Stoichiometric yields of hydrogen were produced from glucose with continuous cofactor recycle. This simple system may provide a method for the biological production of hydrogen from renewable sources. In addition, the other product of this reaction, gluconic acid, is a high-value commodity chemical.

  8. Epigenetic Deficiencies and Replicative Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell-specific synthetic lethal interactions entail promising therapeutic possibilities. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Pfister et al. describe a synthetic lethal interaction where cancer cells deficient in H3K36me3 owing to SETD2 loss-of-function mutation are strongly sensitized to inhibiti...

  9. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  10. Congenital β-lipoprotein deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchem, F.S.P. van; Pol, G.; Gier, J. de; Böttcher, C.J.F.; Pries, C.

    1966-01-01

    There are several degrees of β-lipoprotein deficiency. If there is no β-lipoprotein present, or if there are only traces of it, the Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome develops. A constant feature of this syndrome is disturbed fat absorption with accumulation of fat in the epithelium of intestinal mucosa and

  11. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-11-22

    Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40 °C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50 °C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 μmoles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50 °C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

  12. Crystal structure of a chimaeric bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Tânia; Sharkey, Michael A.; Engel, Paul C.; Khan, Amir R.

    2016-05-23

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (EC 1.4.1.2–4) catalyse the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate using NAD(P)+as a cofactor. The bacterial enzymes are hexameric, arranged with 32 symmetry, and each polypeptide consists of an N-terminal substrate-binding segment (domain I) followed by a C-terminal cofactor-binding segment (domain II). The catalytic reaction takes place in the cleft formed at the junction of the two domains. Distinct signature sequences in the nucleotide-binding domain have been linked to the binding of NAD+versusNADP+, but they are not unambiguous predictors of cofactor preference. In the absence of substrate, the two domains move apart as rigid bodies, as shown by the apo structure of glutamate dehydrogenase fromClostridium symbiosum. Here, the crystal structure of a chimaeric clostridial/Escherichia colienzyme has been determined in the apo state. The enzyme is fully functional and reveals possible determinants of interdomain flexibility at a hinge region following the pivot helix. The enzyme retains the preference for NADP+cofactor from the parentE. colidomain II, although there are subtle differences in catalytic activity.

  13. Differing roles of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases during mouse oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaojing; Zhang, Liang; Han, Longsen; Ge, Juan; Ma, Rujun; Zhang, Xuesen; Moley, Kelle; Schedl, Tim; Wang, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs) modulate energy homeostasis in multiple tissues and cell types, under various nutrient conditions, through phosphorylation of the α subunit (PDHE1α, also known as PDHA1) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex. However, the roles of PDKs in meiotic maturation are currently unknown. Here, by undertaking knockdown and overexpression analysis of PDK paralogs (PDK1-PDK4) in mouse oocytes, we established the site-specificity of PDKs towards the phosphorylation of three serine residues (Ser232, Ser293 and Ser300) on PDHE1α. We found that PDK3-mediated phosphorylation of Ser293-PDHE1α results in disruption of meiotic spindle morphology and chromosome alignment and decreased total ATP levels, probably through inhibition of PDH activity. Unexpectedly, we discovered that PDK1 and PDK2 promote meiotic maturation, as their knockdown disturbs the assembly of the meiotic apparatus, without significantly altering ATP content. Moreover, phosphorylation of Ser232-PDHE1α was demonstrated to mediate PDK1 and PDK2 action in meiotic maturation, possibly through a mechanism that is distinct from PDH inactivation. These findings reveal that there are divergent roles of PDKs during oocyte maturation and indicate a new mechanism controlling meiotic structure. PMID:25991547

  14. Crystal structure of a chimaeric bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tânia; Sharkey, Michael A; Engel, Paul C; Khan, Amir R

    2016-06-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (EC 1.4.1.2-4) catalyse the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate using NAD(P)(+) as a cofactor. The bacterial enzymes are hexameric, arranged with 32 symmetry, and each polypeptide consists of an N-terminal substrate-binding segment (domain I) followed by a C-terminal cofactor-binding segment (domain II). The catalytic reaction takes place in the cleft formed at the junction of the two domains. Distinct signature sequences in the nucleotide-binding domain have been linked to the binding of NAD(+) versus NADP(+), but they are not unambiguous predictors of cofactor preference. In the absence of substrate, the two domains move apart as rigid bodies, as shown by the apo structure of glutamate dehydrogenase from Clostridium symbiosum. Here, the crystal structure of a chimaeric clostridial/Escherichia coli enzyme has been determined in the apo state. The enzyme is fully functional and reveals possible determinants of interdomain flexibility at a hinge region following the pivot helix. The enzyme retains the preference for NADP(+) cofactor from the parent E. coli domain II, although there are subtle differences in catalytic activity. PMID:27303899

  15. Engineering of pyranose dehydrogenase for increased oxygen reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Krondorfer

    Full Text Available Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH, a member of the GMC family of flavoproteins, shows a very broad sugar substrate specificity but is limited to a narrow range of electron acceptors and reacts extremely slowly with dioxygen as acceptor. The use of substituted quinones or (organometals as electron acceptors is undesirable for many production processes, especially of food ingredients. To improve the oxygen reactivity, site-saturation mutagenesis libraries of twelve amino acids around the active site of Agaricus meleagris PDH were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We established high-throughput screening assays for oxygen reactivity and standard dehydrogenase activity using an indirect Amplex Red/horseradish peroxidase and a DCIP/D-glucose based approach. The low number of active clones confirmed the catalytic role of H512 and H556. Only one position was found to display increased oxygen reactivity. Histidine 103, carrying the covalently linked FAD cofactor in the wild-type, was substituted by tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and methionine. Variant H103Y was produced in Pichia pastoris and characterized and revealed a five-fold increase of the oxygen reactivity.

  16. Orthodontic Force Application in Correlation with Salivary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Husin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement generate mechanical forces to periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The forces correlate with initial responses of periodontal tissues and involving many metabolic changes. One of the metabolic changes detected in saliva is lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity. Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between orthodontic interrupted force application, lactate dehydrogenase activity and the distance of tooth movement. Methods: upper premolar, pre-retraction of upper canine and 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-retraction of upper canine with 100g interrupted orthodontic force. Results: duration of force (F=11.926 p 14 and 28 days post-retraction of canine. The region of retraction correlated with the distance of tooth movement (F=7.377 p=0.007. The duration of force correlated with the distance of tooth movement (F=66.554 p=0.000. retraction of canine. Conclusion: This study concluded that orthodontic interrupted force application on canine could increase the distance of tooth movement and LDH activity in saliva.

  17. Glutamate dehydrogenase from pumpkin cotyledons: characterization and isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K H; Splittstoesser, W E

    1972-04-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Pior. cultivar Dickinson Field) cotyledons was found in both soluble and particulate fractions with the bulk of the activity in the soluble fraction. Both enzymes used NAD(H) and NADP(H) but NAD(H) was favored. The enzymes were classified as glutamate-NAD oxidoreductase, deaminating (EC 1.4.1.3). Both enzymes were heat stable, had a pH optimum for reductive amination of 8.0, and were inhibited by high concentrations of NH(4) (+) or alpha-ketoglutarate. The soluble enzyme was more sensitive to NH(4) (+) inhibition and was activated by metal ions after ammonium sulfate fractionation while the solubilized particulate enzyme was not. Inhibition by ethylenediaminetetraacetate was restored by several divalent ions and inhibition by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate was reversed by glutathione. Particulate glutamate dehydrogenase showed a greater activity with NADP. The molecular weights of the enzymes are 250,000. Separation of the enzymes by disc gel electrophoresis showed that during germination the soluble isoenzymes increased from 1 to 7 in number, while only one particulate isoenzyme was found at any time. This particulate isoenzyme was identical with one of the soluble isoenzymes. A number of methods indicated that the soluble isoenzymes were not simply removed from the particulate fraction and that true isoenzymes were found.

  18. Structural basis for cellobiose dehydrogenase action during oxidative cellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tien-Chye; Kracher, Daniel; Gandini, Rosaria; Sygmund, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Haltrich, Dietmar; Hällberg, B Martin; Ludwig, Roland; Divne, Christina

    2015-01-01

    A new paradigm for cellulose depolymerization by fungi focuses on an oxidative mechanism involving cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) and copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO); however, mechanistic studies have been hampered by the lack of structural information regarding CDH. CDH contains a haem-binding cytochrome (CYT) connected via a flexible linker to a flavin-dependent dehydrogenase (DH). Electrons are generated from cellobiose oxidation catalysed by DH and shuttled via CYT to LPMO. Here we present structural analyses that provide a comprehensive picture of CDH conformers, which govern the electron transfer between redox centres. Using structure-based site-directed mutagenesis, rapid kinetics analysis and molecular docking, we demonstrate that flavin-to-haem interdomain electron transfer (IET) is enabled by a haem propionate group and that rapid IET requires a closed CDH state in which the propionate is tightly enfolded by DH. Following haem reduction, CYT reduces LPMO to initiate oxygen activation at the copper centre and subsequent cellulose depolymerization. PMID:26151670

  19. Structural basis for cellobiose dehydrogenase action during oxidative cellulose degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tien-Chye; Kracher, Daniel; Gandini, Rosaria; Sygmund, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Haltrich, Dietmar; Hällberg, B. Martin; Ludwig, Roland; Divne, Christina

    2015-01-01

    A new paradigm for cellulose depolymerization by fungi focuses on an oxidative mechanism involving cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) and copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO); however, mechanistic studies have been hampered by the lack of structural information regarding CDH. CDH contains a haem-binding cytochrome (CYT) connected via a flexible linker to a flavin-dependent dehydrogenase (DH). Electrons are generated from cellobiose oxidation catalysed by DH and shuttled via CYT to LPMO. Here we present structural analyses that provide a comprehensive picture of CDH conformers, which govern the electron transfer between redox centres. Using structure-based site-directed mutagenesis, rapid kinetics analysis and molecular docking, we demonstrate that flavin-to-haem interdomain electron transfer (IET) is enabled by a haem propionate group and that rapid IET requires a closed CDH state in which the propionate is tightly enfolded by DH. Following haem reduction, CYT reduces LPMO to initiate oxygen activation at the copper centre and subsequent cellulose depolymerization. PMID:26151670

  20. The pivotal role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases in metabolic flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Hulver, Matthew W; McMillan, Ryan P; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic flexibility is the capacity of a system to adjust fuel (primarily glucose and fatty acids) oxidation based on nutrient availability. The ability to alter substrate oxidation in response to nutritional state depends on the genetically influenced balance between oxidation and storage capacities. Competition between fatty acids and glucose for oxidation occurs at the level of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The PDC is normally active in most tissues in the fed state, and suppressing PDC activity by pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinase (PDK) is crucial to maintain energy homeostasis under some extreme nutritional conditions in mammals. Conversely, inappropriate suppression of PDC activity might promote the development of metabolic diseases. This review summarizes PDKs' pivotal role in control of metabolic flexibility under various nutrient conditions and in different tissues, with emphasis on the best characterized PDK4. Understanding the regulation of PDC and PDKs and their roles in energy homeostasis could be beneficial to alleviate metabolic inflexibility and to provide possible therapies for metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). PMID:24520982

  1. Toxicity of Nitrification Inhibitors on Dehydrogenase Activity in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferisman Tindaon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs such as 3,4-dimethylpyrazolephosphate=DMPP, 4-Chlor-methylpyrazole phosphate=ClMPP and dicyandiamide,DCD which might be expected to inhibit microbial activity, on dehydrogenase activity (DRA,in three different soils in laboratory conditions. Dehydrogenase activity were assessed via reduction of 2-p-Iodophenyl-3-p-nitrophenyl-5-phenyltetrazoliumchloride (INT. The toxicity and dose response curve of three NIs were quantified under laboratory conditions using a loamy clay, a sandy loam and a sandy soil. The quantitative determination of DHA was carried out spectrophotometrically. In all experiments, the influence of 5-1000 times the base concentration were examined. To evaluate the rate of inhibition with the increasing NI concentrations, dose reponse curves were presented and no observable effect level =NOEL, as well as effective dose ED10 and ED 50(10% and 50% inhibition were calculated. The NOEL for common microbial activity such as DHA was about 30–70 times higher than base concentration in all investigated soils. ClMPP exhibited the strongest influence on the non target microbial processes in the three soils if it compare to DMPP and DCD. The NOEL,ED10 and ED50 values higher in clay than in loamy or sandy soil. The NIs were generally most effective in sandy soils. The three NIs considered at the present state of knowledge as environmentally safe in use.

  2. Cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F Werder

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Steven F Werder1,21Kansas University School of Medicine – Wichita, Wichita, KS, USA; 2Community Health Center of Southeast Kansas, Pittsburg, KS, USAIntroduction: Although consensus guidelines recommend checking serum B12 in patients with dementia, clinicians are often faced with various questions: (1 Which patients should be tested? (2 What test should be ordered? (3 How are inferences made from such testing? (4 In addition to serum B12, should other tests be ordered? (5 Is B12 deficiency compatible with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type? (6 What is to be expected from treatment? (7 How is B12 deficiency treated?Methods: On January 31st, 2009, a Medline search was performed revealing 1,627 citations related to cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia. After limiting the search terms, all abstracts and/or articles and other references were categorized into six major groups (general, biochemistry, manifestations, associations and risks, evaluation, and treatment and then reviewed in answering the above questions.Results: The six major groups above are described in detail. Seventy-five key studies, series, and clinical trials were identified. Evidence-based suggestions for patient management were developed.Discussion: Evidence is convincing that hyperhomocysteinemia, with or without hypovitaminosis B12, is a risk factor for dementia. In the absence of hyperhomocysteinemia, evidence is less convincing that hypovitaminosis B12 is a risk factor for dementia. B12 deficiency manifestations are variable and include abnormal psychiatric, neurological, gastrointestinal, and hematological findings. Radiological images of individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia frequently demonstrate leukoaraiosis. Assessing serum B12 and treatment of B12 deficiency is crucial for those cases in which pernicious anemia is suspected and may be useful for mild cognitive impairment and mild to moderate dementia. The serum B12 level is the standard initial test

  3. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    HU, Rehman

    1984-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency occurs primarily as a result  of insufficient dietary intake or poor absorp-tion. There is widespread global prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting in considerable morbidity.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions TH deficiency tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency ...

  5. The alcohol dehydrogenase system in the xylose-fermenting yeast Candida maltosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH system plays a critical role in sugar metabolism involving in not only ethanol formation and consumption but also the general "cofactor balance" mechanism. Candida maltosa is able to ferment glucose as well as xylose to produce a significant amount of ethanol. Here we report the ADH system in C. maltosa composed of three microbial group I ADH genes (CmADH1, CmADH2A and CmADH2B, mainly focusing on its metabolic regulation and physiological function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic analysis indicated that CmADH2A and CmADH2B tandemly located on the chromosome could be derived from tandem gene duplication. In vitro characterization of enzymatic properties revealed that all the three CmADHs had broad substrate specificities. Homo- and heterotetramers of CmADH1 and CmADH2A were demonstrated by zymogram analysis, and their expression profiles and physiological functions were different with respect to carbon sources and growth phases. Fermentation studies of ADH2A-deficient mutant showed that CmADH2A was directly related to NAD regeneration during xylose metabolism since CmADH2A deficiency resulted in a significant accumulation of glycerol. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results revealed that CmADH1 was responsible for ethanol formation during glucose metabolism, whereas CmADH2A was glucose-repressed and functioned to convert the accumulated ethanol to acetaldehyde. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of function separation and glucose repression of ADH genes in xylose-fermenting yeasts. On the other hand, CmADH1 and CmADH2A were both involved in ethanol formation with NAD regeneration to maintain NADH/NAD ratio in favor of producing xylitol from xylose. In contrast, CmADH2B was expressed at a much lower level than the other two CmADH genes, and its function is to be further confirmed.

  6. Cobalamin deficiency in children: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, Synne Helland

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review is to present cobalamin deficiency in children with a specific focus on infants. Background: Cobalamin deficiency is caused by inadequate intake, malabsorption or inborn errors of vitamin B12 metabolism. Cobalamin deficiency in infants is usually caused by deficiency in the mother. There is often a diagnostic delay among infants because the most frequent symptoms are unspecific, e.g., developmental delay, apathy, hypotonia, anorexia and failure to thrive. Chi...

  7. Iron Deficiency in Autism and Asperger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A.; Heinz, P.; Cook, R.

    2002-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the full blood count and, when available, serum ferritin measurements of 96 children (52 with autism and 44 with Asperger syndrome) found six autistic children had iron deficiency and 12 of the 23 autistic children with serum ferritin measures were iron deficient. Far fewer Asperger children were iron deficient. Results…

  8. The oxyanion hole of Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase: a novel structural motif for electrostatic stabilisation in alcohol dehydrogenase active sites

    OpenAIRE

    Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The side chains of Asn-191 and Asn-300 constitute a characteristic structural motif of the active site of Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase that lacks precedent in known alcohol dehydrogenases and resembles the canonical oxyanion binding pocket of serine proteases. We have used steady-state and transient kinetic studies of the effects of varied pH and deuterium isotopic substitutions in substrates and solvent on the enzymatic rates to delineate catalytic con...

  9. Effect of the allelic variants of aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2*2 and alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*2 on blood acetaldehyde concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Giia-Sheun; Yin Shih-Jiun

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Alcoholism is a complex behavioural disorder. Molecular genetics studies have identified numerous candidate genes associated with alcoholism. It is crucial to verify the disease susceptibility genes by correlating the pinpointed allelic variations to the causal phenotypes. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are the principal enzymes responsible for ethanol metabolism in humans. Both ADH and ALDH exhibit functional polymorphisms among racial populations; the...

  10. The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Laniewska, Magdalena; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are present in gastric cancer cells (GC). Moreover, the activity of total ADH and class IV isoenzymes is significantly higher in cancer tissue than in healthy mucosa. The activity of these enzymes in cancer cells is probably reflected in the sera and could thus be helpful for diagnostics of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of ADH and ALDH as tumor markers for gastric cancer. We defined diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive value for positive and negative results, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve for tested enzymes. Serum samples were taken from 168 patients with gastric cancer before treatment and from 168 control subjects. Total ADH activity and class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by photometric but ALDH activity and ADH I and II by the fluorometric method, with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. There was significant increase in the activity of ADH IV isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of gastric cancer patients compared to the control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH IV was 73%, specificity 79%, positive and negative predictive values were 81 and 72% respectively. Area under ROC curve for ADH IV was 0.67. The results suggest a potential role for ADH IV as marker of gastric cancer.

  11. Evaluation of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes as bi-enzymatic anodes in a membraneless ethanol microfluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Arjona, N.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) enzymes were immobilized by covalent binding and used as the anode in a bi-enzymatic membraneless ethanol hybrid microfluidic fuel cell. The purpose of using both enzymes was to optimize the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction (EOR) by using ADH toward its direct oxidation and AldH for the oxidation of aldehydes as by-products of the EOR. For this reason, three enzymatic bioanode configurations were evaluated according with the location of enzymes: combined, vertical and horizontally separated. In the combined configuration, a current density of 16.3 mA cm-2, a voltage of 1.14 V and a power density of 7.02 mW cm-2 were obtained. When enzymes were separately placed in a horizontal and vertical position the ocp drops to 0.94 V and to 0.68 V, respectively. The current density also falls to values of 13.63 and 5.05 mA cm-2. The decrease of cell performance of bioanodes with separated enzymes compared with the combined bioanode was of 31.7% and 86.87% for the horizontal and the vertical array.

  12. Structural basis for the dysfunctioning of human 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, A.F.; Kok, de A.

    2002-01-01

    2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes are a ubiquitous family of multienzyme systems that catalyse the oxidative decarboxylation of various 2-oxo acid substrates. They play a key role in the primary energy metabolism: in glycolysis (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex), the citric acid cycle (2-oxoglutarate

  13. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assay. 864.7360 Section 864.7360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device used to measure the activity of the enzyme...

  14. The lactate dehydrogenase of the icefish heart: biochemical adaptations to hypoxia tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, G; Pauly, J P; Smal, A; O'Carra, P; Gerday, C

    1991-09-20

    Cardiac lactate dehydrogenase from the hemoglobin- and myoglobin-free antarctic icefish has been purified by affinity chromatography. Structural and kinetic properties of the enzyme were found close or identical to those of its skeletal muscle counterpart and other M-type lactate dehydrogenases. A model involving a dual oxidative-anaerobic metabolism of the icefish heart is proposed. PMID:1911860

  15. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D.; Dowling, Kirsten G; Škrabáková, Zuzana;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been described as being pandemic, but serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] distribution data for the European Union are of very variable quality. The NIH-led international Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing existing...... 25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys. OBJECTIVE: This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D...... sera. These data were combined with standardized serum 25(OH)D data from 4 previously standardized studies (for a total n = 55,844). Prevalence estimates of vitamin D deficiency [using various serum 25(OH)D thresholds] were generated on the basis of standardized 25(OH)D data. RESULTS: An overall pooled...

  16. DNA repair deficiency in neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Stevnsner, Tinna V.

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive...... neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative...... base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby...

  17. Vitamin D deficiency in Fibromyalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To check the Vitamin D levels in patients diagnosed as fibromyagia in our population. Methods: Study was done at Medical OPD of Civil Hospital Karachi, from January to March 2009. Female patients diagnosed as Fibromyalgia according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and exclusion of systemic illness on examination, and normal reports of blood CP, ESR, serum calcium, phosphate and Alkaline Phosphatase, were asked to get Vitamin D levels in their serum. Vitamin D deficiency is defined as 30 ng/ml. Result: Forty female patients were included in the study. The mean age was 37.65 +- 11.5 years. Mean Vitamin D level was 17.41 +- 5.497 ng/ml. Thirty two (80%) of patients had Vitamin D deficiency, mean levels of 15.855 +- 4.918 ng/ml and 8(20%) had Vitamin D insufficiency, mean levels of 23.64 +- 2.39 ng/ml. Patients with vitamin D deficiency and age less than 45 years were 22 (68.75%), had mean vitamin D level 16.87 +- 4.48 ng/ml whereas in age ranging from 46-75 years were 10 (31.25%) had mean vitamin D level 16.09 +- 6.45 ng/ml. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is frequently seen in patients diagnosed as fibromyalgia and nonspecific musculoskeletal pain in our population. Although the sample size of the study is small, but the figures are so alarming that it is an eye opener towards the need of a population based study, including normal population as well as those presenting with musculoskeletal pain. (author)

  18. Mellemkaedet acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Winter, V; Andresen, B S;

    1992-01-01

    death or "near miss". Characterization of a prevalent disease-causing mutation (G985) in the MCAD gene has increased the diagnostic possibilities, since 75% of all patients with MCAD deficiency are homozygous for the mutation. Analysis for this mutation in genomic DNA from a bloodspot on a PKU...

  19. [Iodine deficiency in cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, I; Magyari, M; Stief, L

    1998-08-30

    The thyroid hormone deficiency on cardiovascular function can be characterized with decreased myocardial contractility and increased peripheral vascular resistance as well as with the changes in lipid metabolism. 42 patients with cardiovascular disease (mean age 65 +/- 13 yr, 16 males) were investigated if iodine insufficiency can play a role as a risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases. The patients were divided in 5 subgroups on the ground of the presence of hypertension, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, coronary disfunction and arrhythmia. Urine iodine concentration (5.29 +/- 4.52 micrograms/dl) was detected with Sandell-Kolthoff colorimetric reaction. The most decreased urine iodine concentration was detected in the subgroups with arrhythmia and congestive heart failure (4.7 +/- 4.94 micrograms/dl and 4.9 +/- 4.81 micrograms/dl, respectively). An elevated TSH level was found by 3 patients (5.3 +/- 1.4 mlU/l). An elevation in lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglyceride) associated with all subgroups without arrhythmia. In conclusion, the occurrence of iodine deficiency in cardiovascular disease is frequent. Iodine supplementation might prevent the worsing effect of iodine deficiency on cardiovascular disease.

  20. Isolation, characterization and evaluation of the Pichia pastoris sorbitol dehydrogenase promoter for expression of heterologous proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy, Sankar; Govindappa, Nagaraj; Sreenivas, Suma; Sastry, Kedarnath

    2013-11-01

    Sorbitol is used as a non-repressive carbon source to develop fermentation process for Mut(s) recombinant clones obtained using the AOX1 promoter in Pichia pastoris. Sorbitol dehydrogenase is an enzyme in the carbohydrate metabolism that catalyzes reduction of D-fructose into D-sorbitol in the presence of NADH. The small stretch of 211bps upstream region of sorbitol dehydrogenase coding gene has all the promoter elements like CAAT box, GC box, etc. It is able to promote protein production under repressive as well as non-repressive carbon sources. In this study, the strength of the sorbitol dehydrogenase promoter was evaluated by expression of two heterologous proteins: human serum albumin and erythrina trypsin inhibitor. Sorbitol dehydrogenase promoter allowed constitutive expression of recombinant proteins in all carbon sources that were tested to grow P. pastoris and showed activity similar to GAP promoter. The sorbitol dehydrogenase promoter was active in all the growth phases of the P. pastoris.

  1. Identification and Overexpression of a Bifunctional Aldehyde/Alcohol Dehydrogenase Responsible for Ethanol Production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Shuo; Just Mikkelsen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii contains four genes, adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE, predicted to code for alcohol dehydrogenases involved in ethanol metabolism. These alcohol dehydrogenases were characterized as NADP(H)-dependent primary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA), secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh......B), butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and NAD(H)-dependent bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE), respectively. Here we observed that AdhE is an important enzyme responsible for ethanol production in T. mathranii based on the constructed adh knockout strains. An adhE knockout strain fails to produce...... ethanol as a fermentation product, while other adh knockout strains showed no significant difference from the wild type. Further analysis revealed that the ΔadhE strain was defective in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but still maintained alcohol dehydrogenase activity. This showed that AdhE is the major...

  2. Mutations of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Durham, Santa-Maria and A+ Variants Are Associated with Loss Functional and Structural Stability of the Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Gómez-Manzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common enzymopathy in the world. More than 160 mutations causing the disease have been identified, but only 10% of these variants have been studied at biochemical and biophysical levels. In this study we report on the functional and structural characterization of three naturally occurring variants corresponding to different classes of disease severity: Class I G6PD Durham, Class II G6PD Santa Maria, and Class III G6PD A+. The results showed that the G6PD Durham (severe deficiency, and the G6PD Santa Maria and A+ (less severe deficiency (Class I, II and III, respectively affect the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes, are more sensitive to temperature denaturing, and affect the stability of the overall protein when compared to the wild type WT-G6PD. In the variants, the exposure of more and buried hydrophobic pockets was induced and monitored with 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS fluorescence, directly affecting the compaction of structure at different levels and probably reducing the stability of the protein. The degree of functional and structural perturbation by each variant correlates with the clinical severity reported in different patients.

  3. Mutations of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Durham, Santa-Maria and A+ Variants Are Associated with Loss Functional and Structural Stability of the Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; González-Valdez, Abigail; García-Torres, Itzhel; Martínez-Rosas, Víctor; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzymopathy in the world. More than 160 mutations causing the disease have been identified, but only 10% of these variants have been studied at biochemical and biophysical levels. In this study we report on the functional and structural characterization of three naturally occurring variants corresponding to different classes of disease severity: Class I G6PD Durham, Class II G6PD Santa Maria, and Class III G6PD A+. The results showed that the G6PD Durham (severe deficiency), and the G6PD Santa Maria and A+ (less severe deficiency) (Class I, II and III, respectively) affect the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes, are more sensitive to temperature denaturing, and affect the stability of the overall protein when compared to the wild type WT-G6PD. In the variants, the exposure of more and buried hydrophobic pockets was induced and monitored with 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence, directly affecting the compaction of structure at different levels and probably reducing the stability of the protein. The degree of functional and structural perturbation by each variant correlates with the clinical severity reported in different patients. PMID:26633385

  4. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in ...

  5. Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in barrel cactus populations of Drosophila mojavensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, S; Hocutt, G D; Breitmeyer, C M; Markow, T A; Pfeiler, E

    1996-07-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis revealed that the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-2) locus was polymorphic in two populations (from Agua Caliente, California and the Grand Canyon, Arizona) of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that utilize barrel cactus (Ferocactus acanthodes) as a host plant. Electromorphs representing products of a slow (S) and a fast (F) allele were found in adult flies. The frequency of the slow allele was 0.448 in flies from Agua Caliente and 0.659 in flies from the Grand Canyon. These frequencies were intermediate to those of the low (Baja California peninsula, Mexico) and high (Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona) frequency Adh-2S populations of D. mojavensis that utilize different species of host cacti. PMID:8765684

  6. Over-Expression, Purification and Crystallization of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y. S.; Ciszak, Ewa; Patel, Mulchand

    2000-01-01

    Dehydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3; dihydrolipoan-tide:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.8.1.4) is a common catalytic component found in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and branched-chain cc-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. E3 is also a component (referred to as L protein) of the glycine cleavage system in bacterial metabolism (2). Active E3 forms a homodimer with four distinctive subdomain structures (FAD binding, NAD+ binding, central and interface domains) with non-covalently but tightly bound FAD in the holoenzyme. Deduced amino acids from cloned full-length human E3 gene showed a total of 509 amino acids with a leader sequence (N-terminal 35 amino acids) that is excised (mature form) during transportation of expressed E3 into mitochondria membrane. So far, three-dimensional structure of human E3 has not been reported. Our effort to achieve the elucidation of the X-ray crystal structure of human E3 will be presented. Recombinant pPROEX-1 expression vector (from GIBCO BRL Life Technologies) having the human E3 gene without leader sequence was constructed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and subsequent ligation, and cloned in E.coli XL1-Blue by transformation. Since pPROEX-1 vector has an internal His-tag (six histidine peptide) located at the upstream region of a multicloning site, one-step affinity purification of E3 using nickelnitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin, which has a strong affinity to His-tag, was feasible. Also a seven-amino-acid spacer peptide and a recombinant tobacco etch virus protease recognition site (seven amino acids peptide) found between His-tag and first amino acid of expressed E3 facilitated the cleavage of His-tag from E3 after the affinity purification. By IPTG induction, ca. 15 mg of human E3 (mature form) was obtained from 1L LB culture with overnight incubation at 25C. Over 98% of purity of E3 from one-step Ni-NTA agarose affinity purification was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. For

  7. IMP Dehydrogenase: Structural Schizophrenia and an Unusual Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstrom,L.; Gan, L.

    2006-01-01

    Textbooks describe enzymes as relatively rigid templates for the transition state of a chemical reaction, and indeed an enzyme such as chymotrypsin, which catalyzes a relatively simple hydrolysis reaction, is reasonably well described by this model. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) undergoes a remarkable array of conformational transitions in the course of a complicated catalytic cycle, offering a dramatic counterexample to this view. IMPDH displays several other unusual mechanistic features, including an Arg residue that may act as a general base catalyst and a dynamic monovalent cation site. Further, IMPDH appears to be involved in 'moon-lighting' functions that may require additional conformational states. How the balance between conformational states is maintained and how the various conformational states interconvert is only beginning to be understood.

  8. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isoenzymes patterns in ocular tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Rajendra

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isoenzymes in the serum and aqueous humor was carried out in 15 cases of benign ocular tumour, 15 cases of malignant tumor and 15 normal cases. Cases of both sexes aged between 1 year and 75 years were included. LDH, isoenzymes specially LDH4 and LDH5 are higher and LDH1 and LDH2 lower in sera of patients with malignant tumor specially retinoblastoma as compared to benign tumor cases and control cases. LDH isoenzymes in aqueous humor are significantly higher and show a characteristic pattern in retinoblastoma cases, the concentration was presumably too low in the control, malignant tumor other than retinoblastoma and benign tumor cases as its fractionation was not possible.

  9. The reaction of choline dehydrogenase with some electron acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M C; Dawson, A P

    1975-12-01

    1. The choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) WAS SOLUBILIZED FROM ACETONE-DRIED POWDERS OF RAT LIVER MITOCHONDRIA BY TREATMENT WITH Naja naja venom. 2. The kinetics of the reaction of enzyme with phenazine methosulphate and ubiquinone-2 as electron acceptors were investigated. 3. With both electron acceptors the reaction mechanism appears to involve a free, modified-enzyme intermediate. 4. With some electron acceptors the maximum velocity of the reaction is independent of the nature of the acceptor. With phenazine methosulphate and ubiquinone-2 as acceptors the Km value for choline is also independent of the nature of the acceptor molecule. 5. The mechanism of the Triton X-100-solubilized enzyme is apparently the smae as that for the snake venom solubilized enzyme.

  10. Engineered PQQ-Glucose Dehydrogenase as a Universal Biosensor Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhong; Murphy, Lindy; Stein, Viktor; Johnston, Wayne A; Alcala-Perez, Siro; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2016-08-17

    Biosensors with direct electron output hold promise for nearly seamless integration with portable electronic devices. However, so far, they have been based on naturally occurring enzymes that significantly limit the spectrum of detectable analytes. Here, we present a novel biosensor architecture based on analyte-driven intermolecular recombination and activity reconstitution of a re-engineered component of glucometers: PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase. We demonstrate that this sensor architecture can be rapidly adopted for the detection of immunosuppressant drugs, α-amylase protein, or protease activity of thrombin and Factor Xa. The biosensors could be stored in dried form without appreciable loss of activity. We further show that ligand-induced activity of the developed biosensors could be directly monitored by chronoamperometry, enabling construction of disposable sensory electrodes. We expect that this architecture could be expanded to the detection of other biochemical activities, post-translational modifications, nucleic acids, and inorganic molecules. PMID:27463000

  11. Lactate dehydrogenase assay for assessment of polycation cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parhamifar, Ladan; Andersen, Helene; Moghimi, Seyed Moien

    2013-01-01

    Cellular toxicity and/or cell death entail complex mechanisms that require detailed evaluation for proper characterization. A detailed mechanistic assessment of cytotoxicity is essential for design and construction of more effective polycations for nucleic acid delivery. A single toxicity assay...... cannot stand alone in determining the type and extent of damage or cell death mechanism. In this chapter we describe a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay for high-throughput screening that can be used as a starting point for further detailed cytotoxicity determination. LDH release is considered an early...... event in necrosis but a late event in apoptosis. An accurate temporal assessment of the toxic responses is crucial as late apoptosis may convert into necrosis as well as in situations where cell death is initiated without any visible cell morphological changes or responses in assays measuring late...

  12. Cytokinin oxidase or dehydrogenase? Mechanism of cytokinin degradation in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galuszka, P.; Frebort, I.; Sebela, M.;

    2001-01-01

    An enzyme degrading cytokinins with isoprenoid side chain, previously named cytokinin oxidase, was purified to near homogeneity from wheat and barley grains. New techniques were developed for the enzyme activity assay and staining on native electrophoretic gels to identify the protein. The purified...... wheat enzyme is a monomer 60 kDa, its N-terminal amino-acid sequence shows similarity to hypothetical cytokinin oxidase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, but not to the enzyme from maize. N-6-isopentenyl-2-(2-hydroxyethylamino)-9-methyladenine is the best substrate from all the cytokinins tested....... Interestingly, oxygen was not required and hydrogen peroxide not produced during the catalytic reaction, so the enzyme behaves as a dehydrogenase rather than an oxidase. This was confirmed by the ability of the enzyme to transfer electrons to artificial electron acceptors, such as phenazine methosulfate and 2...

  13. Involvement of snapdragon benzaldehyde dehydrogenase in benzoic acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michael C; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Kaminaga, Yasuhisa; Ho, Kwok Ki; Kish, Christine M; Schnepp, Jennifer; Sherman, Debra; Weiner, Henry; Rhodes, David; Dudareva, Natalia

    2009-07-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) is an important building block in a wide spectrum of compounds varying from primary metabolites to secondary products. Benzoic acid biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine requires shortening of the propyl side chain by two carbons, which can occur via a beta-oxidative pathway or a non-beta-oxidative pathway, with benzaldehyde as a key intermediate. The non-beta-oxidative route requires benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BALDH) to convert benzaldehyde to BA. Using a functional genomic approach, we identified an Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) BALDH, which exhibits 40% identity to bacterial BALDH. Transcript profiling, biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant protein, molecular homology modeling, in vivo stable isotope labeling, and transient expression in petunia flowers reveal that BALDH is capable of oxidizing benzaldehyde to BA in vivo. GFP localization and immunogold labeling studies show that this biochemical step occurs in the mitochondria, raising a question about the role of subcellular compartmentalization in BA biosynthesis.

  14. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase from chitosan-treated Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaid, Mariam M; Sircar, Debabrata; Beuerle, Till; Mitra, Adinpunya; Beerhues, Ludger

    2009-09-01

    Cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia respond to the addition of chitosan with the accumulation of the biphenyl phytoalexin aucuparin. The carbon skeleton of this inducible defense compound is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS) from benzoyl-CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA. The formation of benzoyl-CoA proceeds via benzaldehyde as an intermediate. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BD), which converts benzaldehyde into benzoic acid, was detected in cell-free extracts from S. aucuparia cell cultures. BD and BIS were induced by chitosan treatment. The preferred substrate for BD was benzaldehyde (K(m)=49 microM). Cinnamaldehyde and various hydroxybenzaldehydes were relatively poor substrates. BD activity was strictly dependent on the presence of NAD(+) as a cofactor (K(m)=67 microM).

  15. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath eSutendra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current drug development in oncology is non-selective as it typically focuses on pathways essential for the survival of all dividing cells. The unique metabolic profile of cancer, which is characterized by increased glycolysis and suppressed mitochondrial glucose oxidation provides cancer cells with a proliferative advantage, conducive with apoptosis resistance and even increased angiogenesis. Recent evidence suggests that targeting the cancer-specific metabolic and mitochondrial remodeling may offer selectivity in cancer treatment. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK is a mitochondrial enzyme that is activated in a variety of cancers and results in the selective inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH, a complex of enzymes that converts cytosolic pyruvate to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, the substrate for the Krebs’ cycle. Inhibition of PDK with either small interfering RNAs or the orphan drug dichloroacetate (DCA shifts the metabolism of cancer cells from glycolysis to glucose oxidation and reverses the suppression of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, this therapeutic strategy increases the production of diffusible Krebs’ cycle intermediates and mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS, activating p53 or inhibiting pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic transcription factors like nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α. These effects result in decreased tumor growth and angiogenesis in a variety of cancers with high selectivity. In a small but mechanistic clinical trial in patients with glioblastoma, a highly aggressive and vascular form of brain cancer, DCA decreased tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth, suggesting that metabolic targeting therapies can be translated directly to patients. Therefore, reversing the mitochondrial suppression with metabolic-modulating drugs, like PDK inhibitors holds promise in the rapidly expanding field of metabolic oncology.

  16. Inhibitor-bound structures of human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Tokmakov, Alexander; Terada, Takaho; Ohbayashi, Naomi; Fujimoto, Takako; Gomi, Sumiko; Shiromizu, Ikuya; Kawamoto, Masaki; Matsusue, Tomokazu; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2011-09-01

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. PDC activity is tightly regulated by four members of a family of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoforms (PDK1-4), which phosphorylate and inactivate PDC. Recently, the development of specific inhibitors of PDK4 has become an especially important focus for the pharmaceutical management of diabetes and obesity. In this study, crystal structures of human PDK4 complexed with either AMPPNP, ADP or the inhibitor M77976 were determined. ADP-bound PDK4 has a slightly wider active-site cleft and a more disordered ATP lid compared with AMPPNP-bound PDK4, although both forms of PDK4 assume open conformations with a wider active-site cleft than that in the closed conformation of the previously reported ADP-bound PDK2 structure. M77976 binds to the ATP-binding pocket of PDK4 and causes local conformational changes with complete disordering of the ATP lid. M77976 binding also leads to a large domain rearrangement that further expands the active-site cleft of PDK4 compared with the ADP- and AMPPNP-bound forms. Biochemical analyses revealed that M77976 inhibits PDK4 with increased potency compared with the previously characterized PDK inhibitor radicicol. Thus, the present structures demonstrate for the first time the flexible and dynamic aspects of PDK4 in the open conformation and provide a basis for the development of novel inhibitors targeting the nucleotide-binding pocket of PDK4. PMID:21904029

  17. Evaluation of Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.T. Trindade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactate dehydrogenase is a citosolic enzyme involved in reversible transformation of pyruvate to lactate. It participates in anaerobic glycolysis of skeletal muscle and red blood cells, in liver gluconeogenesis and in aerobic metabolism of heart muscle. The determination of its activity helps in the diagnosis of various diseases, because it is increased in serum of patients suffering from myocardial infarction, acute hepatitis, muscular dystrophy and cancer. This paper presents a learning object, mediated by computer, which contains the simulation of the laboratory determination serum lactate dehydrogenase activity measured by the spectrophotometric method, based in the decrease of absorbance at 340 nm. Materials and Methods: Initially, pictures and videos were obtained recording the procedure of the methodology. The most representative images were selected, edited and inserted into an animation developed with the aid of the tool Adobe ® Flash ® CS3. The validation of the object was performed by the students of Biochemistry I (Pharmacy-UFRGS from the second semester of 2009 and both of 2010. Results and Discussion: The analysis of students' answers revealed that 80% attributed the excellence of the navigation program, the display format and to aid in learning. Conclusion: Therefore, this software can be considered an adequate teaching resource as well as an innovative support in the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge of Biochemistry. Available at: http://www6.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/LDH

  18. Recommended nomenclature for the vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duester, G; Farrés, J; Felder, M R; Holmes, R S; Höög, J O; Parés, X; Plapp, B V; Yin, S J; Jörnvall, H

    1999-08-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family encodes enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Studies on 19 vertebrate animals have identified ADH orthologs across several species, and this has now led to questions of how best to name ADH proteins and genes. Seven distinct classes of vertebrate ADH encoded by non-orthologous genes have been defined based upon sequence homology as well as unique catalytic properties or gene expression patterns. Each class of vertebrate ADH shares 80% sequence identity such as the case for class I ADH where humans have three class I ADH genes, horses have two, and mice have only one. Presented here is a nomenclature that uses the widely accepted vertebrate ADH class system as its basis. It follows the guidelines of human and mouse gene nomenclature committees, which recommend coordinating names across species boundaries and eliminating Roman numerals and Greek symbols. We recommend that enzyme subunits be referred to by the symbol "ADH" (alcohol dehydrogenase) followed by an Arabic number denoting the class; i.e. ADH1 for class I ADH. For genes we recommend the italicized root symbol "ADH" for human and "Adh" for mouse, followed by the appropriate Arabic number for the class; i.e. ADH1 or Adh1 for class I ADH genes. For organisms where multiple species-specific isoenzymes exist within a class, we recommend adding a capital letter after the Arabic number; i.e. ADH1A, ADH1B, and ADH1C for human alpha, beta, and gamma class I ADHs, respectively. This nomenclature will accommodate newly discovered members of the vertebrate ADH family, and will facilitate functional and evolutionary studies. PMID:10424757

  19. Deficiencies in the Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia During Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jacquelyn M; Daniel, Catherine L; McCavit, Timothy L; Buchanan, George R

    2016-04-01

    Limited high-quality evidence supports the management of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). To assess our institutional performance in this area, we retrospectively reviewed IDA treatment practices in 195 consecutive children referred to our center from 2006 to mid-2010. The majority of children were ≤4 years old (64%) and had nutritional IDA (74%). In 11- to 18-year-old patients (31%), the primary etiology was menorrhagia (42%). Many were referred directly to the emergency department and/or prescribed iron doses outside the recommended range. Poor medication adherence and being lost-to-follow-up were common. Substantial improvements are required in the management of IDA.

  20. Lactate dehydrogenase concentration in nasal wash fluid indicates severity of rhinovirus-induced wheezy bronchitis in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiano, Giulia; Proietti, Elena; Kronig, Marie Noelle; Kieninger, Elisabeth; Sadeghi, Christine D; Gorgievski, Meri; Barbani, Maria Teresa; Midulla, Fabio; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent; Alves, Marco P; Regamey, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    The clinical course of rhinovirus (RV)-associated wheezing illnesses is difficult to predict. We measured lactate dehydrogenase concentrations, RV load, antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines in nasal washes obtained from 126 preschool children with RV wheezy bronchitis. lactate dehydrogenase values were inversely associated with subsequent need for oxygen therapy. lactate dehydrogenase may be a useful biomarker predicting disease severity in RV wheezy bronchitis.

  1. Genetic bases and clinical manifestations of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ 10) deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbats, Maria Andrea; Lunardi, Giada; Doimo, Mara; Trevisson, Eva; Salviati, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q(10) is a remarkable lipid involved in many cellular processes such as energy production through the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC), beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and pyrimidine biosynthesis, but it is also one of the main cellular antioxidants. Its biosynthesis is still incompletely characterized and requires at least 15 genes. Mutations in eight of them (PDSS1, PDSS2, COQ2, COQ4, COQ6, ADCK3, ADCK4, and COQ9) cause primary CoQ(10) deficiency, a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable age of onset (from birth to the seventh decade) and associated clinical phenotypes, ranging from a fatal multisystem disease to isolated steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) or isolated central nervous system disease. The pathogenesis is complex and related to the different functions of CoQ(10). It involves defective ATP production and oxidative stress, but also an impairment of pyrimidine biosynthesis and increased apoptosis. CoQ(10) deficiency can also be observed in patients with defects unrelated to CoQ(10) biosynthesis, such as RC defects, multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, and ataxia and oculomotor apraxia.Patients with both primary and secondary deficiencies benefit from high-dose oral supplementation with CoQ(10). In primary forms treatment can stop the progression of both SRNS and encephalopathy, hence the critical importance of a prompt diagnosis. Treatment may be beneficial also for secondary forms, although with less striking results.In this review we will focus on CoQ(10) biosynthesis in humans, on the genetic defects and the specific clinical phenotypes associated with CoQ(10) deficiency, and on the diagnostic strategies for these conditions.

  2. Cardiac-specific VLCAD deficiency induces dilated cardiomyopathy and cold intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dingding; He, Huamei; James, Jeanne; Tokunaga, Chonan; Powers, Corey; Huang, Yan; Osinska, Hanna; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Purevjav, Enkhsaikhan; Balschi, James A.; Javadov, Sabzali; McGowan, Francis X.; Strauss, Arnold W.

    2013-01-01

    The very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) enzyme catalyzes the first step of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Patients with VLCAD deficiency present with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and cardiomyopathy, which can be exacerbated by fasting and/or cold stress. Global VLCAD knockout mice recapitulate these phenotypes: mice develop cardiomyopathy, and cold exposure leads to rapid hypothermia and death. However, the contribution of different tissues to development of these phenotypes has not been studied. We generated cardiac-specific VLCAD-deficient (cVLCAD−/−) mice by Cre-mediated ablation of the VLCAD in cardiomyocytes. By 6 mo of age, cVLCAD−/− mice demonstrated increased end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular dimensions and decreased fractional shortening. Surprisingly, selective VLCAD gene ablation in cardiomyocytes was sufficient to evoke severe cold intolerance in mice who rapidly developed severe hypothermia, bradycardia, and markedly depressed cardiac function in response to fasting and cold exposure (+5°C). We conclude that cardiac-specific VLCAD deficiency is sufficient to induce cold intolerance and cardiomyopathy and is associated with reduced ATP production. These results provide strong evidence that fatty acid oxidation in myocardium is essential for maintaining normal cardiac function under these stress conditions. PMID:24285112

  3. Investigating complex I deficiency in Purkinje cells and synapses in patients with mitochondrial disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysostomou, Alexia; Grady, John P.; Laude, Alex; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Cerebellar ataxia is common in patients with mitochondrial disease, and despite previous neuropathological investigations demonstrating vulnerability of the olivocerebellar pathway in patients with mitochondrial disease, the exact neurodegenerative mechanisms are still not clear. We use quantitative quadruple immunofluorescence to enable precise quantification of mitochondrial respiratory chain protein expression in Purkinje cell bodies and their synaptic terminals in the dentate nucleus. Methods We investigated NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 13 protein expression in 12 clinically and genetically defined patients with mitochondrial disease and ataxia and 10 age‐matched controls. Molecular genetic analysis was performed to determine heteroplasmy levels of mutated mitochondrial DNA in Purkinje cell bodies and inhibitory synapses. Results Our data reveal that complex I deficiency is present in both Purkinje cell bodies and their inhibitory synapses which surround dentate nucleus neurons. Inhibitory synapses are fewer and enlarged in patients which could represent a compensatory mechanism. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy demonstrated similarly high levels of mutated mitochondrial DNA in cell bodies and synapses. Conclusions This is the first study to use a validated quantitative immunofluorescence technique to determine complex I expression in neurons and presynaptic terminals, evaluating the distribution of respiratory chain deficiencies and assessing the degree of morphological abnormalities affecting synapses. Respiratory chain deficiencies detected in Purkinje cell bodies and their synapses and structural synaptic changes are likely to contribute to altered cerebellar circuitry and progression of ataxia. PMID:26337858

  4. Dimerization and enzymatic activity of fungal 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristan Katja

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17β-HSDcl is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR superfamily. SDR proteins usually function as dimers or tetramers and 17β-HSDcl is also a homodimer under native conditions. Results We have investigated here which secondary structure elements are involved in the dimerization of 17β-HSDcl and examined the importance of dimerization for the enzyme activity. Sequence similarity with trihydroxynaphthalene reductase from Magnaporthe grisea indicated that Arg129 and His111 from the αE-helices interact with the Asp121, Glu117 and Asp187 residues from the αE and αF-helices of the neighbouring subunit. The Arg129Asp and His111Leu mutations both rendered 17β-HSDcl monomeric, while the mutant 17β-HSDcl-His111Ala was dimeric. Circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conservation of the secondary structure in both monomers. The three mutant proteins all bound coenzyme, as shown by fluorescence quenching in the presence of NADP+, but both monomers showed no enzymatic activity. Conclusion We have shown by site-directed mutagenesis and structure/function analysis that 17β-HSDcl dimerization involves the αE and αF helices of both subunits. Neighbouring subunits are connected through hydrophobic interactions, H-bonds and salt bridges involving amino acid residues His111 and Arg129. Since the substitutions of these two amino acid residues lead to inactive monomers with conserved secondary structure, we suggest dimerization is a prerequisite for catalysis. A detailed understanding of this dimerization could lead to the development of compounds that will specifically prevent dimerization, thereby serving as a new type of inhibitor.

  5. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase contributes to skeletal muscle homeostasis independent of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semjonous, Nina M

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) metabolism by the enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) within the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen generates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) to provide the redox potential for the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) to activate glucocorticoid (GC). H6PDH knockout (KO) mice have a switch in 11β-HSD1 activity, resulting in GC inactivation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. Importantly, H6PDHKO mice develop a type II fiber myopathy with abnormalities in glucose metabolism and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). GCs play important roles in muscle physiology, and therefore, we have examined the importance of 11β-HSD1 and GC metabolism in mediating aspects of the H6PDHKO myopathy. To achieve this, we examined 11β-HSD1\\/H6PDH double-KO (DKO) mice, in which 11β-HSD1 mediated GC inactivation is negated. In contrast to H6PDHKO mice, DKO mice GC metabolism and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis set point is similar to that observed in 11β-HSD1KO mice. Critically, in contrast to 11β-HSD1KO mice, DKO mice phenocopy the salient features of the H6PDHKO, displaying reduced body mass, muscle atrophy, and vacuolation of type II fiber-rich muscle, fasting hypoglycemia, increased muscle glycogen deposition, and elevated expression of UPR genes. We propose that muscle G6P metabolism through H6PDH may be as important as changes in the redox environment when considering the mechanism underlying the activation of the UPR and the ensuing myopathy in H6PDHKO and DKO mice. These data are consistent with an 11β-HSD1-independent function for H6PDH in which sarcoplasmic reticulum G6P metabolism and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-(oxidized)\\/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) redox status are important for maintaining muscle homeostasis.

  6. Muscle phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naini, Ali; Toscano, Antonio; Musumeci, Olimpia;

    2009-01-01

    storage disease type X and novel mutations in the gene encoding the muscle subunit of PGAM (PGAM2). DESIGN: Clinical, pathological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospitals and academic institutions. Patients A 37-year-old Danish man of Pakistani origin who had...... PGAM deficiency, and molecular studies revealed 2 novel homozygous mutations, a nonsense mutation and a single nucleotide deletion. Pathological studies of muscle showed mild glycogen accumulation but prominent tubular aggregates in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found that glycogen storage disease...

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Guadalajara--a case of chronic non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia responding to splenectomy and the role of splenectomy in this disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J W; Jones, F G C; McMullin, Mary Frances

    2004-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme of the pentose phosphate shunt pathway a major function of which is to prevent cellular oxidative damage. Deficiency in red blood cells is associated with a number of varied clinical manifestations. Chronic non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia is uncommon but is usually characterized by chronic haemolysis, often with severe anaemia. In the past splenectomy in this condition has been thought to be of questionable benefit. We report a case of G6PD Guadalajara where splenectomy produced transfusion independence and have reviewed the literature. Those cases with exon 10 mutations often have a severe clinical phenotype, which responds to splenectomy. This procedure should be considered in this condition.

  8. 5´AMP activated protein kinase α2 controls substrate metabolism during post-exercise recovery via regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Lundsgaard, Anne-Marie; Jeppesen, Jacob;

    2015-01-01

    after prolonged exercise and during the following six hours post exercise in 5´AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK)α2 and α1 knock-out (KO) and wild type (WT) mice with free access to food. Substrate oxidation was similar during exercise at the same relative intensity between genotypes. During post...... in muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) mRNA expression in WT and AMPKα2 KO was observed following exercise, which is consistent with AMPKα2 -deficiency not affecting the exercise-induced activation of the PDK4 transcriptional regulators, HDAC4 and SIRT1. Interestingly, PDK4 protein content...... increased (63 %, P protein content, lower (P

  9. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase-mediated Glycolytic Metabolic Shift in the Dorsal Root Ganglion Drives Painful Diabetic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Habibur; Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Kim, Jong-Heon; Nam, Youngpyo; Lee, Maan Gee; Go, Younghoon; Harris, Robert A; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-03-11

    The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a highly vulnerable site in diabetic neuropathy. Under diabetic conditions, the DRG is subjected to tissue ischemia or lower ambient oxygen tension that leads to aberrant metabolic functions. Metabolic dysfunctions have been documented to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diverse pain hypersensitivities. However, the contribution of diabetes-induced metabolic dysfunctions in the DRG to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy remains ill-explored. In this study, we report that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK2 and PDK4), key regulatory enzymes in glucose metabolism, mediate glycolytic metabolic shift in the DRG leading to painful diabetic neuropathy. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes substantially enhanced the expression and activity of the PDKs in the DRG, and the genetic ablation of Pdk2 and Pdk4 attenuated the hyperglycemia-induced pain hypersensitivity. Mechanistically, Pdk2/4 deficiency inhibited the diabetes-induced lactate surge, expression of pain-related ion channels, activation of satellite glial cells, and infiltration of macrophages in the DRG, in addition to reducing central sensitization and neuroinflammation hallmarks in the spinal cord, which probably accounts for the attenuated pain hypersensitivity. Pdk2/4-deficient mice were partly resistant to the diabetes-induced loss of peripheral nerve structure and function. Furthermore, in the experiments using DRG neuron cultures, lactic acid treatment enhanced the expression of the ion channels and compromised cell viability. Finally, the pharmacological inhibition of DRG PDKs or lactic acid production substantially attenuated diabetes-induced pain hypersensitivity. Taken together, PDK2/4 induction and the subsequent lactate surge induce the metabolic shift in the diabetic DRG, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy. PMID:26769971

  10. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Is Expressed in Neutrophils and Restrains an Inflammatory Response in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Agnes E; Kipari, Tiina M J; Zhang, Zhenguang; Esteves, Cristina L; Lucas, Christopher D; Gilmour, James S; Webster, Scott P; Walker, Brian R; Hughes, Jeremy; Savill, John S; Seckl, Jonathan R; Rossi, Adriano G; Chapman, Karen E

    2016-07-01

    Endogenous glucocorticoid action within cells is enhanced by prereceptor metabolism by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts intrinsically inert cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone into active cortisol and corticosterone, respectively. 11β-HSD1 is highly expressed in immune cells elicited to the mouse peritoneum during thioglycollate-induced peritonitis and is down-regulated as the inflammation resolves. During inflammation, 11β-HSD1-deficient mice show enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells and delayed acquisition of macrophage phagocytic capacity. However, the key cells in which 11β-HSD1 exerts these effects remain unknown. Here we have identified neutrophils (CD11b(+),Ly6G(+),7/4(+) cells) as the thioglycollate-recruited cells that most highly express 11β-HSD1 and show dynamic regulation of 11β-HSD1 in these cells during an inflammatory response. Flow cytometry showed high expression of 11β-HSD1 in peritoneal neutrophils early during inflammation, declining at later states. In contrast, expression in blood neutrophils continued to increase during inflammation. Ablation of monocytes/macrophages by treatment of CD11b-diphtheria-toxin receptor transgenic mice with diphtheria toxin prior to thioglycollate injection had no significant effect on 11β-HSD1 activity in peritoneal cells, consistent with neutrophils being the predominant 11β-HSD1 expressing cell type at this time. Similar to genetic deficiency in 11β-HSD1, acute inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity during thioglycollate-induced peritonitis augmented inflammatory cell recruitment to the peritoneum. These data suggest that neutrophil 11β-HSD1 increases during inflammation to contribute to the restraining effect of glucocorticoids upon neutrophil-mediated inflammation. In human neutrophils, lipopolysaccharide activation increased 11β-HSD1 expression, suggesting the antiinflammatory effects of 11β-HSD1 in neutrophils may be conserved in humans. PMID:27145012

  11. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase-mediated Glycolytic Metabolic Shift in the Dorsal Root Ganglion Drives Painful Diabetic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Habibur; Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Kim, Jong-Heon; Nam, Youngpyo; Lee, Maan Gee; Go, Younghoon; Harris, Robert A; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-03-11

    The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a highly vulnerable site in diabetic neuropathy. Under diabetic conditions, the DRG is subjected to tissue ischemia or lower ambient oxygen tension that leads to aberrant metabolic functions. Metabolic dysfunctions have been documented to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diverse pain hypersensitivities. However, the contribution of diabetes-induced metabolic dysfunctions in the DRG to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy remains ill-explored. In this study, we report that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK2 and PDK4), key regulatory enzymes in glucose metabolism, mediate glycolytic metabolic shift in the DRG leading to painful diabetic neuropathy. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes substantially enhanced the expression and activity of the PDKs in the DRG, and the genetic ablation of Pdk2 and Pdk4 attenuated the hyperglycemia-induced pain hypersensitivity. Mechanistically, Pdk2/4 deficiency inhibited the diabetes-induced lactate surge, expression of pain-related ion channels, activation of satellite glial cells, and infiltration of macrophages in the DRG, in addition to reducing central sensitization and neuroinflammation hallmarks in the spinal cord, which probably accounts for the attenuated pain hypersensitivity. Pdk2/4-deficient mice were partly resistant to the diabetes-induced loss of peripheral nerve structure and function. Furthermore, in the experiments using DRG neuron cultures, lactic acid treatment enhanced the expression of the ion channels and compromised cell viability. Finally, the pharmacological inhibition of DRG PDKs or lactic acid production substantially attenuated diabetes-induced pain hypersensitivity. Taken together, PDK2/4 induction and the subsequent lactate surge induce the metabolic shift in the diabetic DRG, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy.

  12. Affinity chromatography of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide-linked dehydrogenases on immobilized derivatives of the dinucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, S; O'Carra, P

    1973-12-01

    1. Three established methods for immobilization of ligands through primary amino groups promoted little or no attachment of NAD(+) through the 6-amino group of the adenine residue. Two of these methods (coupling to CNBr-activated agarose and to carbodi-imide-activated carboxylated agarose derivatives) resulted instead in attachment predominantly through the ribosyl residues. Other immobilized derivatives were prepared by azolinkage of NAD(+) (probably through the 8 position of the adenine residue) to a number of different spacer-arm-agarose derivatives. 2. The effectiveness of these derivatives in the affinity chromatography of a variety of NAD-linked dehydrogenases was investigated, applying rigorous criteria to distinguish general or non-specific adsorption effects from truly NAD-specific affinity (bio-affinity). The ribosyl-attached NAD(+) derivatives displayed negligible bio-affinity for any of the NAD-linked dehydrogenases tested. The most effective azo-linked derivative displayed strong bio-affinity for glycer-aldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, weaker bio-affinity for lactate dehydrogenase and none at all for malate dehydrogenase, although these three enzymes have very similar affinities for soluble NAD(+). Alcohol dehydrogenase and xanthine dehydrogenase were subject to such strong non-specific interactions with the hydrocarbon spacer-arm assembly that any specific affinity was completely eclipsed. 3. It is concluded that, in practice, the general effectiveness of a general ligand may be considerably distorted and attenuated by the nature of the immobilization linkage. However, this attenuation can result in an increase in specific effectiveness, allowing dehydrogenases to be separated from one another in a manner unlikely to be feasible if the general effectiveness of the ligand remained intact. 4. The bio-affinity of the various derivatives for lactate dehydrogenase is correlated with the known structure of the NAD(+)-binding site of this enzyme. Problems

  13. Purification of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase by using immobilized metal affinity cryogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akduman, Begüm [Chemistry Department, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Uygun, Murat [Koçarlı Vocational and Training School, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Uygun, Deniz Aktaş, E-mail: daktas@adu.edu.tr [Chemistry Department, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Akgöl, Sinan [Biochemistry Department, Ege University, İzmir (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Chemistry Department, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-12-01

    In this study, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate–glycidylmethacrylate) [poly(HEMA–GMA)] cryogels were prepared by radical cryocopolymerization of HEMA with GMA as a functional comonomer and N,N′-methylene-bisacrylamide (MBAAm) as a crosslinker. Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functional groups were attached via ring opening of the epoxy group on the poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels and then Zn(II) ions were chelated with these structures. Characterization of cryogels was performed by FTIR, SEM, EDX and swelling studies. These cryogels have interconnected pores of 30–50 μm size. The equilibrium swelling degree of Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels was approximately 600%. Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels were used in the adsorption of alcohol dehydrogenase from aqueous solutions and adsorption was performed in continuous system. The effects of pH, alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, temperature, and flow rate on adsorption were investigated. The maximum amount of alcohol dehydrogenase adsorption was determined to be 9.94 mg/g cryogel at 1.0 mg/mL alcohol dehydrogenase concentration and in acetate buffer at pH 5.0 with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Desorption of adsorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was carried out by using 1.0 M NaCI at pH 8.0 phosphate buffer and desorption yield was found to be 93.5%. Additionally, these cryogels were used for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from yeast with a single-step. The purity of desorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was shown by silver-stained SDS–PAGE. This purification process can successfully be used for the purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from unclarified yeast homogenates and this work is the first report about the usage of the cryogels for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase. - Highlights: • Poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels were synthesized by radical cryocopolymerization technique. • Prepared cryogels were functionalized with IDA, then Zn(II) ions were chelated to the cryogel. • Zn(II) chelated poly

  14. Vitamin D deficiency and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D comprises a group of fat-soluble pro-hormones, obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements, and it must undergo two hydroxylation reactions to be activated in the body. Several studies have shown the role of vitamin D in mineral metabolism regulation, especially calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism. Some factors such as inadequate vitamin intake and liver or kidney disorders can lead to vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, vitamin D malnutrition may also be linked to susceptibility to chronic diseases such as heart failure, peripheral artery disease, high blood pressure, cognitive impairment including foggy brain and memory loss, and autoimmune diseases including diabetes type I. Recent research has revealed that low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity (Sato et al., 2004 and mortality (Pilz et al., 2008. Also, hypertension contributes to a reduction in bone mineral density and increase in the incidence of stroke and death. This article reviews the function and physiology of vitamin D and examines the effects of vitamin D deficiency on susceptibility to stroke, as a cardiovascular event, and its morbidity and subsequent mortality.

  15. The X-ray crystal structure of Escherichia coli succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase; structural insights into NADP+/enzyme interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Langendorf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mammals succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH plays an essential role in the metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA to succinic acid (SA. Deficiency of SSADH in humans results in elevated levels of GABA and gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB, which leads to psychomotor retardation, muscular hypotonia, non-progressive ataxia and seizures. In Escherichia coli, two genetically distinct forms of SSADHs had been described that are essential for preventing accumulation of toxic levels of succinic semialdehyde (SSA in cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we structurally characterise SSADH encoded by the E coli gabD gene by X-ray crystallographic studies and compare these data with the structure of human SSADH. In the E. coli SSADH structure, electron density for the complete NADP+ cofactor in the binding sites is clearly evident; these data in particular revealing how the nicotinamide ring of the cofactor is positioned in each active site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our structural data suggest that a deletion of three amino acids in E. coli SSADH permits this enzyme to use NADP+, whereas in contrast the human enzyme utilises NAD+. Furthermore, the structure of E. coli SSADH gives additional insight into human mutations that result in disease.

  16. No evidence for promoter region methylation of the succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate hydratase tumour suppressor genes in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovic Alexander

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH and fumarate hydratase (FH are tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle enzymes that are also known to act as tumour suppressor genes. Increased succinate or fumarate levels as a consequence of SDH and FH deficiency inhibit hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylases leading to sustained HIF-1α expression in tumours. Since HIF-1α is frequently expressed in breast carcinomas, DNA methylation at the promoter regions of the SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD and FH genes was evaluated as a possible mechanism in silencing of SDH and FH expression in breast carcinomas. Findings No DNA methylation was identified in the promoter regions of the SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD and FH genes in 72 breast carcinomas and 10 breast cancer cell lines using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting which detects both homogeneous and heterogeneous methylation. Conclusion These results show that inactivation via DNA methylation of the promoter CpG islands of SDH and FH is unlikely to play a major role in sporadic breast carcinomas.

  17. Multispectral Analysis of Color Vision Deficiency Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Sergejs FOMINS; Ozolinsh, Maris

    2011-01-01

    Color deficiency tests are usually produced by means of polygraphy technologies and help to diagnose the type and severity of the color deficiencies. Due to different factors, as lighting conditions or age of the test, standard characteristics of these tests fail, thus not allowing diagnosing unambiguously the degree of different color deficiency. Multispectral camera was used to acquire the spectral images of the Ishihara and Rabkin pseudoisochromatic plates in the visible spectrum. Spectral...

  18. Prevalence of Color Vision Deficiency in Qazvin

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad khalaj; Ameneh Barikani; Mozhgan Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Color vision deficiency (CVD) is an X chromosome-linked recessive autosomal dominant. Determine the prevalence of color blindness in Qazvin population. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study color vision deficiency examined in 1853 individuals with age 10-25 years old who participated in private clinics and eye clinic of Bu-Ali hospital in Qazvin in 2010. The screening of color vision deficiency was performed using Ishihara test. Data were analyzed by SPSS-16 with χP...

  19. Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Milanlıoğlu, Aysel

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause psychiatric manifestations preceding the hematological and neurological symptoms. Despite a variety of symptoms, data on the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in depression are sparse. We report a case with B12 deficiency that is diagnosed with psychotic depression and treated successively with vitamin B12 replacement instead of using conventional therapy. Future investigations should focus on the role of vitamin B12 status in depression and other neurops...

  20. Atypical B12 Deficiency with Nonresolving Paraesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, S.; Ahmad, N; Anaissie, E J; Abdel Karim, N.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. We report a case of elderly female who presented with neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency where the final work-up revealed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS). This case suggests that, although POEMS syndrome is a rare entity, it can present with vitamin-B12 deficiency and thus specific work up for early diagnosis of P...