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Sample records for acyl carrier protein

  1. Characterization of the "Escherichia Coli" Acyl Carrier Protein Phosphodiesterase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a small essential protein that functions as a carrier of the acyl intermediates of fatty acid synthesis. ACP requires the posttranslational attachment of a 4'phosphopantetheine functional group, derived from CoA, in order to perform its metabolic function. A Mn[superscript 2+] dependent enzymatic activity that removes…

  2. Acylation of the Type 3 Secretion System Translocon Using a Dedicated Acyl Carrier Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie P Viala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens often deliver effectors into host cells using type 3 secretion systems (T3SS, the extremity of which forms a translocon that perforates the host plasma membrane. The T3SS encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1 is genetically associated with an acyl carrier protein, IacP, whose role has remained enigmatic. In this study, using tandem affinity purification, we identify a direct protein-protein interaction between IacP and the translocon protein SipB. We show, by mass spectrometry and radiolabelling, that SipB is acylated, which provides evidence for a modification of the translocon that has not been described before. A unique and conserved cysteine residue of SipB is identified as crucial for this modification. Although acylation of SipB was not essential to virulence, we show that this posttranslational modification promoted SipB insertion into host-cell membranes and pore-forming activity linked to the SPI-1 T3SS. Cooccurrence of acyl carrier and translocon proteins in several γ- and β-proteobacteria suggests that acylation of the translocon is conserved in these other pathogenic bacteria. These results also indicate that acyl carrier proteins, known for their involvement in metabolic pathways, have also evolved as cofactors of new bacterial protein lipidation pathways.

  3. A Cerulenin Insensitive Short Chain 3-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase in Spinacia oleracea Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Jan G.; Clough, Richard C.; Barnum, Susan R.

    1989-01-01

    A cerulenin insensitive 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase has been assayed in extracts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaf. The enzyme was active in the 40 to 80% ammonium sulfate precipitate of whole leaf homogenates and catalyzed the synthesis of acetoacetyl-acyl carrier protein. This condensation reaction was five-fold faster than acetyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase, and the initial rates of acyl-acyl carrier protein synthesis were independent of the presence of cerulenin. In the presence of fatty acid synthase cofactors and 100 micromolar cerulenin, the principal fatty acid product of de novo synthesis was butyric and hexanoic acids. Using conformationally sensitive native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for separation, malonyl-, acetyl-, butyryl-, hexanoyl, and long chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins could be detected by immunoblotting and autoradiography. In the presence of 100 micromolar cerulenin, the accumulation of butyryl- and hexanoyl-acyl carrier protein was observed, with no detectable long chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins or fatty acids being produced. In the absence of cerulenin, the long chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins also accumulated. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16666765

  4. Isolation and function of spinach leaf β-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthases

    OpenAIRE

    Shimakata, Takashi; Stumpf, Paul K.

    1982-01-01

    Crude spinach leaf extract readily forms the stearoyl derivative of acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) when acetyl-ACP and malonyl-ACP are incubated together. Palmitoyl-ACP is also elongated by malonyl-ACP to stearoyl-ACP. When β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase {3-oxoacyl-[ACP] synthase; acyl-[ACP]:malonyl-[ACP] C-acyltransferase (decarboxylating), EC 2.3.1.41} is purified with decanoyl-ACP as the assay substrate, palmitoyl-ACP elongation activity is lost. When palmitoyl-ACP is the assay substrate, another pro...

  5. Structure, High Affinity, and Negative Cooperativity of the Escherichia coli Holo-(Acyl Carrier Protein):Holo-(Acyl Carrier Protein) Synthase Complex

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    Marcella, Aaron M.; Culbertson, Sannie J.; Shogren-Knaak, Michael A.; Barb, Adam W.

    2017-11-01

    The Escherichia coli holo-(acyl carrier protein) synthase (ACPS) catalyzes the coenzyme A-dependent activation of apo-ACPP to generate holo-(acyl carrier protein) (holo-ACPP) in an early step of fatty acid biosynthesis. E. coli ACPS is sufficiently different from the human fatty acid synthase to justify the development of novel ACPS-targeting antibiotics. Models of E. coli ACPS in unliganded and holo-ACPP-bound forms solved by X-ray crystallography to 2.05 and 4.10 Å, respectively, revealed that ACPS bound three product holo-ACPP molecules to form a 3:3 hexamer. Solution NMR spectroscopy experiments validated the ACPS binding interface on holo-ACPP using chemical shift perturbations and by determining the relative orientation of holo-ACPP to ACPS by fitting residual dipolar couplings. The binding interface is organized to arrange contacts between positively charged ACPS residues and the holo-ACPP phosphopantetheine moiety, indicating product contains more stabilizing interactions than expected in the enzyme:substrate complex. Indeed, holo-ACPP bound the enzyme with greater affinity than the substrate, apo-ACPP, and with negative cooperativity. The first equivalent of holo-ACPP bound with a KD = 62 ± 13 nM, followed by the binding of two more equivalents of holo-ACPP with KD = 1.2 ± 0.2 μM. Cooperativity was not observed for apo-ACPP which bound with KD = 2.4 ± 0.1 μM. Strong product binding and high levels of holo-ACPP in the cell identify a potential regulatory role of ACPS in fatty acid biosynthesis.

  6. Role of acyl carrier protein isoforms in plant lipid metabolism: Progress report

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    Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research from my lab has revealed that several higher plant species have multiple isoforms of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and therefore this trait appears highly conserved among higher plants. This level of conservation suggests that the existence of ACP isoforms is not merely the results of neutral gene duplications. We have developed techniques to examine a wider range of species. Acyl carrier proteins can be labelled very specifically and to high specific activity using H-palmitate and the E. coli enzyme acyl-ACP synthetase. Isoforms were then resolved by western blotting and native PAGE of H-palmitate labelled ACP's. Multiple isoforms of ACP were observed the leaf tissue of the monocots Avena sativa and Hordeum vulgare and dicots including Arabidopsis thallina, Cuphea wrightii, and Brassica napus. Lower vascular plants including the cycad, Dioon edule, Ginkgo biloba, the gymnosperm Pinus, the fern Anernia phyllitidis and Psilotum nudum, the most primitive known extant vascular plant, were also found to have multiple ACP isoforms as were the nonvascular liverwort, Marchantia and moss, Polytrichum. Therefore, the development of ACP isoforms occurred early in evolution. However, the uniellular alge Chlamydomonas and Dunaliella and the photosynthetic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Agmnellum have only a single elecrophotetic form of ACP. Thus, multiple forms of ACP do not occur in all photosynthetic organisms but may be associated with multicellular plants.

  7. A simple method for isolation and construction of markerless cyanobacterial mutants defective in acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kouji; Keta, Sumie; Uesaka, Kazuma; Kato, Akihiro; Takatani, Nobuyuki; Ihara, Kunio; Omata, Tatsuo; Aichi, Makiko

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacterial mutants defective in acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (Aas) secrete free fatty acids (FFAs) into the external medium and hence have been used for the studies aimed at photosynthetic production of biofuels. While the wild-type strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is highly sensitive to exogenously added linolenic acid, mutants defective in the aas gene are known to be resistant to the externally provided fatty acid. In this study, the wild-type Synechocystis cells were shown to be sensitive to lauric, oleic, and linoleic acids as well, and the resistance to these fatty acids was shown to be enhanced by inactivation of the aas gene. On the basis of these observations, we developed an efficient method to isolate aas-deficient mutants from cultures of Synechocystis cells by counter selection using linoleic acid or linolenic acid as the selective agent. A variety of aas mutations were found in about 70 % of the FFA-resistant mutants thus selected. Various aas mutants were isolated also from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, using lauric acid as a selective agent. Selection using FFAs was useful also for construction of markerless aas knockout mutants from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Thus, genetic engineering of FFA-producing cyanobacterial strains would be greatly facilitated by the use of the FFAs for counter selection.

  8. Novel Structural Components Contribute to the High Thermal Stability of Acyl Carrier Protein from Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Guen; Jung, Min-Cheol; Song, Heesang; Jeong, Ki-Woong; Bang, Eunjung; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-01-22

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium that lives in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. It causes severe infections because of high antibiotic resistance. E. faecalis can endure extremes of temperature and pH. Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a key element in the biosynthesis of fatty acids responsible for acyl group shuttling and delivery. In this study, to understand the origin of high thermal stabilities of E. faecalis ACP (Ef-ACP), its solution structure was investigated for the first time. CD experiments showed that the melting temperature of Ef-ACP is 78.8 °C, which is much higher than that of Escherichia coli ACP (67.2 °C). The overall structure of Ef-ACP shows the common ACP folding pattern consisting of four α-helices (helix I (residues 3-17), helix II (residues 39-53), helix III (residues 60-64), and helix IV (residues 68-78)) connected by three loops. Unique Ef-ACP structural features include a hydrophobic interaction between Phe(45) in helix II and Phe(18) in the α1α2 loop and a hydrogen bonding between Ser(15) in helix I and Ile(20) in the α1α2 loop, resulting in its high thermal stability. Phe(45)-mediated hydrophobic packing may block acyl chain binding subpocket II entry. Furthermore, Ser(58) in the α2α3 loop in Ef-ACP, which usually constitutes a proline in other ACPs, exhibited slow conformational exchanges, resulting in the movement of the helix III outside the structure to accommodate a longer acyl chain in the acyl binding cavity. These results might provide insights into the development of antibiotics against pathogenic drug-resistant E. faecalis strains. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Structural characterization and comparison of three acyl-carrier-protein synthases from pathogenic bacteria

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    Halavaty, Andrei S. [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Kim, Youngchang [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Minasov, George; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Winsor, James [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Zhou, Min [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Onopriyenko, Olena; Skarina, Tatiana [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L6 (Canada); Papazisi, Leka; Kwon, Keehwan; Peterson, Scott N. [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Joachimiak, Andrzej [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Savchenko, Alexei [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L6 (Canada); Anderson, Wayne F., E-mail: wf-anderson@northwestern.edu [Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, (United States); Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The structural characterization of acyl-carrier-protein synthase (AcpS) from three different pathogenic microorganisms is reported. One interesting finding of the present work is a crystal artifact related to the activity of the enzyme, which fortuitously represents an opportunity for a strategy to design a potential inhibitor of a pathogenic AcpS. Some bacterial type II fatty-acid synthesis (FAS II) enzymes have been shown to be important candidates for drug discovery. The scientific and medical quest for new FAS II protein targets continues to stimulate research in this field. One of the possible additional candidates is the acyl-carrier-protein synthase (AcpS) enzyme. Its holo form post-translationally modifies the apo form of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), which assures the constant delivery of thioester intermediates to the discrete enzymes of FAS II. At the Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID), AcpSs from Staphylococcus aureus (AcpS{sub SA}), Vibrio cholerae (AcpS{sub VC}) and Bacillus anthracis (AcpS{sub BA}) have been structurally characterized in their apo, holo and product-bound forms, respectively. The structure of AcpS{sub BA} is emphasized because of the two 3′, 5′-adenosine diphosphate (3′, 5′-ADP) product molecules that are found in each of the three coenzyme A (CoA) binding sites of the trimeric protein. One 3′, 5′-ADP is bound as the 3′, 5′-ADP part of CoA in the known structures of the CoA–AcpS and 3′, 5′-ADP–AcpS binary complexes. The position of the second 3′, 5′-ADP has never been described before. It is in close proximity to the first 3′, 5′-ADP and the ACP-binding site. The coordination of two ADPs in AcpS{sub BA} may possibly be exploited for the design of AcpS inhibitors that can block binding of both CoA and ACP.

  10. Acyl-Acyl carrier protein regulates transcription of fatty acid biosynthetic genes via the FabT repressor in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerga, Agoston; Rock, Charles O

    2009-06-05

    Long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins (acyl-ACP) are established biochemical regulators of bacterial type II fatty acid synthases due to their ability to feedback-inhibit the early steps in the biosynthetic pathway. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the expression of the fatty acid synthase (fab) genes is controlled by a helix-turn-helix transcriptional repressor called FabT. A screen of pathway intermediates identified acyl-ACP as a ligand that increased the affinity of FabT for DNA. FabT bound to a wide range of acyl-ACP chain lengths in the absence of DNA, but only the long-chain acyl-ACPs increase the affinity of FabT for DNA. FabT affinity for DNA increased with increasing acyl-ACP chain length with cis-vaccenoyl-ACP being the most effective ligand. Thus, FabT is a new ACP-interacting partner that acts as a transcriptional rheostat to fine tune the expression of the fab genes based on the demand for fatty acids.

  11. Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Regulates Transcription of Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Genes via the FabT Repressor in Streptococcus pneumoniae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerga, Agoston; Rock, Charles O.

    2009-01-01

    Long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins (acyl-ACP) are established biochemical regulators of bacterial type II fatty acid synthases due to their ability to feedback-inhibit the early steps in the biosynthetic pathway. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the expression of the fatty acid synthase (fab) genes is controlled by a helix-turn-helix transcriptional repressor called FabT. A screen of pathway intermediates identified acyl-ACP as a ligand that increased the affinity of FabT for DNA. FabT bound to a wide range of acyl-ACP chain lengths in the absence of DNA, but only the long-chain acyl-ACPs increase the affinity of FabT for DNA. FabT affinity for DNA increased with increasing acyl-ACP chain length with cis-vaccenoyl-ACP being the most effective ligand. Thus, FabT is a new ACP-interacting partner that acts as a transcriptional rheostat to fine tune the expression of the fab genes based on the demand for fatty acids. PMID:19376778

  12. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fatty acid synthase complex: β-hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein] dehydratase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Thuillier, Irene; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Sánchez, Rosario; Garcés, Rafael; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    Two sunflower hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein] dehydratases evolved into two different isoenzymes showing distinctive expression levels and kinetics' efficiencies. β-Hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein (ACP)]-dehydratase (HAD) is a component of the type II fatty acid synthase complex involved in 'de novo' fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. This complex, formed by four intraplastidial proteins, is responsible for the sequential condensation of two-carbon units, leading to 16- and 18-C acyl-ACP. HAD dehydrates 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP generating trans-2-enoyl-ACP. With the aim of a further understanding of fatty acid biosynthesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds, two β-hydroxyacyl-[ACP] dehydratase genes have been cloned from developing seeds, HaHAD1 (GenBank HM044767) and HaHAD2 (GenBank GU595454). Genomic DNA gel blot analyses suggest that both are single copy genes. Differences in their expression patterns across plant tissues were detected. Higher levels of HaHAD2 in the initial stages of seed development inferred its key role in seed storage fatty acid synthesis. That HaHAD1 expression levels remained constant across most tissues suggest a housekeeping function. Heterologous expression of these genes in E. coli confirmed both proteins were functional and able to interact with the bacterial complex 'in vivo'. The large increase of saturated fatty acids in cells expressing HaHAD1 and HaHAD2 supports the idea that these HAD genes are closely related to the E. coli FabZ gene. The proposed three-dimensional models of HaHAD1 and HaHAD2 revealed differences at the entrance to the catalytic tunnel attributable to Phe166/Val1159, respectively. HaHAD1 F166V was generated to study the function of this residue. The 'in vitro' enzymatic characterization of the three HAD proteins demonstrated all were active, with the mutant having intermediate K m and V max values to the wild-type proteins.

  13. The X-ray structure of Brassica napus ß-keto acyl carrier protein reductase and its implications for substrate binding and catalysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, M.; Kroon, J.T.M.; Martindale, W.; Stuitje, A.R.; Slabas, A.R.; Rafferty, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Background: β-Keto acyl carrier protein reductase (BKR) catalyzes the pyridine-nucleotide-dependent reduction of a 3-oxoacyl form of acyl carrier protein (ACP), the first reductive step in de novo fatty acid biosynthesis and a reaction often performed in polyketide biosynthesis. The Brassica napus

  14. Evaluation of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Inhibitors as Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Quenching Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Molin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which is responsible for a wide range of infections. Production of virulence factors and biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa are partly regulated by cell-to-cell communication quorum-sensing systems. Identification of quorum-quenching reagents which block the quorum-sensing process can facilitate development of novel treatment strategies for P. aeruginosa infections. We have used molecular dynamics simulation and experimental studies to elucidate the efficiencies of two potential quorum-quenching reagents, triclosan and green tea epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, which both function as inhibitors of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP reductase (ENR from the bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis pathway. Our studies suggest that EGCG has a higher binding affinity towards ENR of P. aeruginosa and is an efficient quorum-quenching reagent. EGCG treatment was further shown to be able to attenuate the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa.

  15. Evaluation of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Inhibitors as Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Quenching Reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Yang; Sternberg, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which is responsible for a wide range of infections. Production of virulence factors and biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa are partly regulated by cell-to-cell communication quorum-sensing systems. Identification of quorum-quenching reagents...... which block the quorum-sensing process can facilitate development of novel treatment strategies for P. aeruginosa infections. We have used molecular dynamics simulation and experimental studies to elucidate the efficiencies of two potential quorum-quenching reagents, triclosan and green tea...... epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which both function as inhibitors of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (ENR) from the bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis pathway. Our studies suggest that EGCG has a higher binding affinity towards ENR of P. aeruginosa and is an efficient quorum-quenching reagent...

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis acyl carrier protein synthase adopts two different pH-dependent structural conformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Aggarwal, Anup; Shipman, Lance [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843-3474 (United States); Besra, Gurdyal S. [University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Sacchettini, James C., E-mail: sacchett@tamu.edu [Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843-3474 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial acyl carrier protein synthase plays an essential role in the synthesis of fatty acids, nonribosomal peptides and polyketides. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, AcpS or group I phosphopentatheine transferase exhibits two different structural conformations depending upon the pH. The crystal structures of acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Corynebacterium ammoniagenes determined at pH 5.3 and pH 6.5, respectively, are reported. Comparison of the Mtb apo-AcpS structure with the recently reported structure of the Mtb AcpS–ADP complex revealed that AcpS adopts two different conformations: the orthorhombic and trigonal space-group structures show structural differences in the α2 helix and in the conformation of the α3–α4 connecting loop, which is in a closed conformation. The apo-AcpS structure shows electron density for the entire model and was obtained at lower pH values (4.4–6.0). In contrast, at a higher pH value (6.5) AcpS undergoes significant conformational changes, resulting in disordered regions that show no electron density in the AcpS model. The solved structures also reveal that C. ammoniagenes AcpS undergoes structural rearrangement in two regions, similar to the recently reported Mtb AcpS–ADP complex structure. In vitro reconstitution experiments show that AcpS has a higher post-translational modification activity between pH 4.4 and 6.0 than at pH values above 6.5, where the activity drops owing to the change in conformation. The results show that apo-AcpS and AcpS–ADP adopt different conformations depending upon the pH conditions of the crystallization solution.

  17. Acyl carrier proteins from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and their influence on FatA and FatB acyl-ACP thioesterase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2016-08-01

    The kinetics of acyl-ACP thioesterases from sunflower importantly changed when endogenous ACPs were used. Sunflower FatB was much more specific towards saturated acyl-ACPs when assayed with them. Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) are small (~9 kDa), soluble, acidic proteins involved in fatty acid synthesis in plants and bacteria. ACPs bind to fatty acids through a thioester bond, generating the acyl-ACP lipoproteins that are substrates for fatty acid synthase (FAS) complexes, and that are required for fatty acid chain elongation, acting as important intermediates in de novo fatty acid synthesis in plants. Plants, usually express several ACP isoforms with distinct functionalities. We report here the cloning of three ACPs from developing sunflower seeds: HaACP1, HaACP2, and HaACP3. These proteins were plastidial ACPs expressed strongly in seeds, and as such they are probably involved in the synthesis of sunflower oil. The recombinant sunflower ACPs were expressed in bacteria but they were lethal to the prokaryote host. Thus, they were finally produced using the GST gene fusion system, which allowed the apo-enzyme to be produced and later activated to the holo form. Radiolabelled acyl-ACPs from the newly cloned holo-ACP forms were also synthesized and used to characterize the activity of recombinant sunflower FatA and FatB thioesterases, important enzymes in plant fatty acids synthesis. The activity of these enzymes changed significantly when the endogenous ACPs were used. Thus, FatA importantly increased its activity levels, whereas FatB displayed a different specificity profile, with much high activity levels towards saturated acyl-CoA derivatives. All these data pointed to an important influence of the ACP moieties on the activity of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis.

  18. Enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase inhibitors: an updated patent review (2011 - 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitko, Jan; Doležal, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Enoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase (ENR) is a limiting step enzyme in the Fatty Acid Synthase II system. In mammals, there is no homologue to ENR, which makes it an optimal candidate target for selective anti-infective drugs. Up-to-date, only two ENR inhibitors are used in clinical practice. This review is a survey on important patents on low molecular weight compounds with ENR inhibiting activity published in 2011-2015. Common patent databases (SciFinder, esp@cenet, WIPO) were used to locate patent applications on the proposed topic and in the timespan of 2011-2015. In 2011-2015, we have observed patents in previously known structural groups of diphenyl ethers and acrylamides as well as new structural classes, often identified by high-throughput screening campaigns. The spectrum of activity of applied derivatives covers significant bacteria, mycobacteria, and apicomplexan parasites (Plasmodia and Toxoplasma). Good news from research of ENR inhibitors: a) four selective anti-staphylococcal compounds applied in 2011-2015 or earlier were pushed to Phase I or Phase II clinical trials and some of them proved safety and tolerability after peroral and/or intravenous administration; b) big pharma companies have renewed their interest in the development of new anti-infective compounds against resistant strains of clinical relevance.

  19. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases are associated with floral isolation in sexually deceptive orchids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schluter, P.M.; Shanklin, J.; Xu, S.; Gagliardini, V.; Whittle, E.; Grossniklaus, U.; Schiestl, F. P.

    2011-04-05

    The orchids Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltata are reproductively isolated from each other by the attraction of two different, highly specific pollinator species. For pollinator attraction, flowers chemically mimic the pollinators sex pheromones, the key components of which are alkenes with different double-bond positions. This study identifies genes likely involved in alkene biosynthesis, encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) homologs. The expression of two isoforms, SAD1 and SAD2, is flower-specific and broadly parallels alkene production during flower development. SAD2 shows a significant association with alkene production, and in vitro assays show that O. sphegodes SAD2 has activity both as an 18:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 9} and a 16:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 4} desaturase. Downstream metabolism of the SAD2 reaction products would give rise to alkenes with double-bonds at position 9 or position 12, matching double-bond positions observed in alkenes in the odor bouquet of O. sphegodes. SAD1 and SAD2 show evidence of purifying selection before, and positive or relaxed purifying selection after gene duplication. By contributing to the production of species-specific alkene bouquets, SAD2 is suggested to contribute to differential pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among these species. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that SAD2 is a florally expressed barrier gene of large phenotypic effect and, possibly, a genic target of pollinator-mediated selection.

  20. Analysis of codon use features of stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene in Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lu-Lu; Wang, Yu; Hu, Jian-Hui; Ding, Zhao-Tang; Li, Chen

    2013-10-07

    The stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) gene widely exists in all kinds of plants. In this paper, the Camellia sinensis SAD gene (CsSAD) sequence was firstly analyzed by Codon W, CHIPS, and CUSP programs online, and then compared with genomes of the tea plant, other species and SAD genes from 11 plant species. The results show that the CsSAD gene and the selected 73 of C. sinensis genes have similar codon usage bias. The CsSAD gene has a bias toward the synonymous codons with A and T at the third codon position, the same as the 73 of C. sinensis genes. Compared with monocotyledons such as Triticum aestivum and Zea mays, the differences in codon usage frequency between the CsSAD gene and dicotyledons such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tobacum are less. Therefore, A. thaliana and N. tobacum expression systems may be more suitable for the expression of the CsSAD gene. The analysis result of SAD genes from 12 plant species also shows that most of the SAD genes are biased toward the synonymous codons with G and C at the third codon position. We believe that the codon usage bias analysis presented in this study will be essential for providing a theoretical basis for discussing the structure and function of the CsSAD gene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase I (FabI) Is Essential for the Intracellular Growth of Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Megan E.; Frank, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase catalyzes the last step in each elongation cycle of type II bacterial fatty acid synthesis and is a key regulatory protein in bacterial fatty acid synthesis. Genes of the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes encode two functional enoyl-acyl carrier protein isoforms based on their ability to complement the temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of Escherichia coli strain JP1111 [fabI(Ts)]. The FabI isoform was inactivated by the FabI selective inhibitor AFN-1252, but the FabK isoform was not affected by the drug, as expected. Inhibition of FabI by AFN-1252 decreased endogenous fatty acid synthesis by 80% and lowered the growth rate of L. monocytogenes in laboratory medium. Robust exogenous fatty acid incorporation was not detected in L. monocytogenes unless the pathway was partially inactivated by AFN-1252 treatment. However, supplementation with exogenous fatty acids did not restore normal growth in the presence of AFN-1252. FabI inactivation prevented the intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes, showing that neither FabK nor the incorporation of host cellular fatty acids was sufficient to support the intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes. Our results show that FabI is the primary enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase of type II bacterial fatty acid synthesis and is essential for the intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes. PMID:27736774

  2. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fatty acid synthase complex: enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Thuillier, Irene; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Garcés, Rafael; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductases from sunflower. A major factor contributing to the amount of fatty acids in plant oils are the first steps of their synthesis. The intraplastidic fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in plants is catalysed by type II fatty acid synthase (FAS). The last step in each elongation cycle is carried out by the enoyl-[ACP]-reductase, which reduces the dehydrated product of β-hydroxyacyl-[ACP] dehydrase using NADPH or NADH. To determine the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds, two enoyl-[ACP]-reductase genes have been identified and cloned from developing seeds with 75 % identity: HaENR1 (GenBank HM021137) and HaENR2 (HM021138). The two genes belong to the ENRA and ENRB families in dicotyledons, respectively. The genetic duplication most likely originated after the separation of di- and monocotyledons. RT-qPCR revealed distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. Highest expression of HaENR1 was in roots, stems and developing cotyledons whereas that of H a ENR2 was in leaves and early stages of seed development. Genomic DNA gel blot analyses suggest that both are single-copy genes. In vivo activity of the ENR enzymes was tested by complementation experiments with the JP1111 fabI(ts) E. coli strain. Both enzymes were functional demonstrating that they interacted with the bacterial FAS components. That different fatty acid profiles resulted infers that the two Helianthus proteins have different structures, substrate specificities and/or reaction rates. The latter possibility was confirmed by in vitro analysis with affinity-purified heterologous-expressed enzymes that reduced the crotonyl-CoA substrate using NADH with different V max.

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis acyl carrier protein synthase adopts two different pH-dependent structural conformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Aggarwal, Anup; Shipman, Lance; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Sacchettini, James C. (Birmingham UK); (TAM)

    2011-09-20

    The crystal structures of acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Corynebacterium ammoniagenes determined at pH 5.3 and pH 6.5, respectively, are reported. Comparison of the Mtb apo-AcpS structure with the recently reported structure of the Mtb AcpS-ADP complex revealed that AcpS adopts two different conformations: the orthorhombic and trigonal space-group structures show structural differences in the {alpha}2 helix and in the conformation of the {alpha}3-{alpha}4 connecting loop, which is in a closed conformation. The apo-AcpS structure shows electron density for the entire model and was obtained at lower pH values (4.4-6.0). In contrast, at a higher pH value (6.5) AcpS undergoes significant conformational changes, resulting in disordered regions that show no electron density in the AcpS model. The solved structures also reveal that C. ammoniagenes AcpS undergoes structural rearrangement in two regions, similar to the recently reported Mtb AcpS-ADP complex structure. In vitro reconstitution experiments show that AcpS has a higher post-translational modification activity between pH 4.4 and 6.0 than at pH values above 6.5, where the activity drops owing to the change in conformation. The results show that apo-AcpS and AcpS-ADP adopt different conformations depending upon the pH conditions of the crystallization solution.

  4. Disruption of plastid acyl:acyl carrier protein synthetases increases medium chain fatty acid accumulation in seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjellström, Henrik; Strawsine, Merissa; Silva, Jillian; Cahoon, Edgar B; Ohlrogge, John B

    2013-04-02

    Engineering transgenic plants that accumulate high levels of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) has been least successful for shorter chain lengths (e.g., C8). We demonstrate that one limitation is the activity of acyl-ACP synthetase (AAE) that re-activates fatty acids released by acyl-ACP thioesterases. Seed expression of Cuphea pulcherrima FATB acyl-ACP thioesterase in a double mutant lacking AAE15/16 increased 8:0 accumulation almost 2-fold compared to expression in wild type. These results also provide an in planta demonstration that AAE enzymes participate not only in activation of exogenously added MCFA but also in activation of MCFA synthesized in plastids. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acyl carrier protein (ACP) inhibition and other differences between b-ketoacyl synthase (KAS) I and II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Kirsten Arnvig; McGuire, J.N.; Wettstein-Knowles, Penny von

    2000-01-01

    , whereas KAS I also forms higher multimers. The binding affinities for KAS I and KAS II to C14-acyl carrier protein (ACP) as well as for C14-ACP to KAS I and KAS II were determined. KAS I is sensitive to the ACP released during the transfer reaction, with 50% inhibition at 0.17 µM ACP close...... to the physiological concentration of ACP (0.13 µM). KAS I and II also differ in carrying out the decarboxylation step of the elongation reaction....

  6. Structural and dynamic characterization of a freestanding acyl carrier protein involved in the biosynthesis of cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Subrata; Ishida, Hiroaki; Nguyen, Leonard T; Liu, Zhihong; Vogel, Hans J

    2017-05-01

    Friulimicin is a cyclic lipodecapeptide antibiotic that is produced by Actinoplanes friuliensis. Similar to the related lipopeptide drug daptomycin, the peptide skeleton of friulimicin is synthesized by a large multienzyme nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) system. The LipD protein plays a major role in the acylation reaction of friulimicin. The attachment of the fatty acid group promotes its antibiotic activity. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that LipD is most closely related to other freestanding acyl carrier proteins (ACPs), for which the genes are located near to NRPS gene clusters. Here, we report that the solution NMR structure of apo-LipD is very similar to other four-helix bundle forming ACPs from fatty acid synthase (FAS), polyketide synthase, and NRPS systems. By recording NMR dynamics data, we found that the backbone motions in holo-LipD are more restricted than in apo-LipD due to the attachment of phosphopantetheine moiety. This enhanced stability of holo-LipD was also observed in differential scanning calorimetry experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, unlike several other ACPs, the folding of LipD does not depend on the presence of divalent cations, although the presence of Mg 2+ or Ca 2+ can increase the protein stability. We propose that small structural rearrangements in the tertiary structure of holo-LipD which lead to the enhanced stability are important for the cognate enzyme recognition for the acylation reaction. Our results also highlight the different surface charges of LipD and FAS-ACP from A. friuliensis that would allow the acyl-CoA ligase to interact preferentially with the LipD instead of binding to the FAS-ACP. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabK) from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Jun, E-mail: jun-saito@meiji.co.jp; Yamada, Mototsugu; Watanabe, Takashi; Kitagawa, Hideo; Takeuchi, Yasuo [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Meiji Seika Kaisha Ltd, 760 Morooka-cho, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 222-8567 (Japan)

    2006-06-01

    Enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductases are responsible for bacterial type II fatty-acid biosynthesis and are attractive targets for developing novel antibiotics. The S. pneumoniae enoyl-ACP reductase (FabK) was crystallized and selenomethionine MAD data were collected to 2 Å resolution. The enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase from Streptococcus pneumoniae (FabK; EC 1.3.1.9) is responsible for catalyzing the final step in each elongation cycle of fatty-acid biosynthesis. Selenomethionine-substituted FabK was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 277 K. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.26, b = 126.70, c = 53.63 Å, β = 112.46°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.00 Å resolution using synchrotron beamline BL32B2 at SPring-8. Two molecules were estimated to be present in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 45.1%.

  8. Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mtFabD, a malonyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadbane, Hemza; Brown, Alistair K. [School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kremer, Laurent [Laboratoire de Dynamique des Interactions Membranaires Normales et Pathologiques, Université de Montpellier II et I, CNRS, UMR 5235, Case 107, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier CEDEX 05 (France); INSERM, DIMNP, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier CEDEX 05 (France); Besra, Gurdyal S., E-mail: g.besra@bham.ac.uk; Fütterer, Klaus, E-mail: g.besra@bham.ac.uk [School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-01

    Binding of Ni{sup 2+} ions to the uncleaved affinity tag facilitated de novo phasing of the crystal structure of M. tuberculosis mtFabD to 3.0 Å resolution. Mycobacteria display a unique and unusual cell-wall architecture, central to which is the membrane-proximal mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan core (mAGP). The biosynthesis of mycolic acids, which form the outermost layer of the mAGP core, involves malonyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT). This essential enzyme catalyses the transfer of malonyl from coenzyme A to acyl carrier protein AcpM, thus feeding these two-carbon units into the chain-elongation cycle of the type II fatty-acid synthase. The crystal structure of M. tuberculosis mtFabD, the mycobacterial MCAT, has been determined to 3.0 Å resolution by multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion. Phasing was facilitated by Ni{sup 2+} ions bound to the 20-residue N-terminal affinity tag, which packed between the two independent copies of mtFabD.

  9. Efficient delivery of long-chain fatty aldehydes from the Nostoc punctiforme acyl-acyl carrier protein reductase to its cognate aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warui, Douglas M; Pandelia, Maria-Eirini; Rajakovich, Lauren J; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J Martin; Booker, Squire J

    2015-02-03

    A two-step pathway consisting of an acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (AAR) and an aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) allows various cyanobacteria to convert long-chain fatty acids into hydrocarbons. AAR catalyzes the two-electron, NADPH-dependent reduction of a fatty acid attached to ACP via a thioester linkage to the corresponding fatty aldehyde, while ADO transforms the fatty aldehyde to a Cn-1 hydrocarbon and C1-derived formate. Considering that heptadec(a/e)ne is the most prevalent hydrocarbon produced by cyanobacterial ADOs, the insolubility of its precursor, octadec(a/e)nal, poses a conundrum with respect to its acquisition by ADO. Herein, we report that AAR from the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme is activated almost 20-fold by potassium and other monovalent cations of similar ionic radius, and that AAR and ADO form a tight isolable complex with a Kd of 3 ± 0.3 μM. In addition, we show that when the aldehyde substrate is supplied to ADO by AAR, efficient in vitro turnover is observed in the absence of solubilizing agents. Similarly to studies by Lin et al. with AAR from Synechococcus elongatus [Lin et al. (2013) FEBS J. 280, 4773-4781], we show that catalysis by AAR proceeds via formation of a covalent intermediate involving a cysteine residue that we have identified as Cys294. Moreover, AAR specifically transfers the pro-R hydride of NADPH to the Cys294-thioester intermediate to afford its aldehyde product. Our results suggest that the interaction between AAR and ADO facilitates either direct transfer of the aldehyde product of AAR to ADO or formation of the aldehyde product in a microenvironment allowing for its efficient uptake by ADO.

  10. Male Sterile2 Encodes a Plastid-Localized Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Required for Pollen Exine Development in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.; Shanklin, J.; Yu, X.-H.; Zhang, K.; Shi, J.; De Oliveira, S.; Schreiber, L.; Zhang, D.

    2011-10-01

    Male Sterile2 (MS2) is predicted to encode a fatty acid reductase required for pollen wall development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Transient expression of MS2 in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves resulted in the accumulation of significant levels of C16 and C18 fatty alcohols. Expression of MS2 fused with green fluorescent protein revealed that an amino-terminal transit peptide targets the MS2 to plastids. The plastidial localization of MS2 is biologically important because genetic complementation of MS2 in ms2 homozygous plants was dependent on the presence of its amino-terminal transit peptide or that of the Rubisco small subunit protein amino-terminal transit peptide. In addition, two domains, NAD(P)H-binding domain and sterile domain, conserved in MS2 and its homologs were also shown to be essential for MS2 function in pollen exine development by genetic complementation testing. Direct biochemical analysis revealed that purified recombinant MS2 enzyme is able to convert palmitoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein to the corresponding C16:0 alcohol with NAD(P)H as the preferred electron donor. Using optimized reaction conditions (i.e. at pH 6.0 and 30 C), MS2 exhibits a K{sub m} for 16:0-Acyl Carrier Protein of 23.3 {+-} 4.0 {mu}m, a V{sub max} of 38.3 {+-} 4.5 nmol mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}, and a catalytic efficiency/K{sub m} of 1,873 m{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Based on the high homology of MS2 to other characterized fatty acid reductases, it was surprising that MS2 showed no activity against palmitoyl- or other acyl-coenzyme A; however, this is consistent with its plastidial localization. In summary, genetic and biochemical evidence demonstrate an MS2-mediated conserved plastidial pathway for the production of fatty alcohols that are essential for pollen wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

  11. Isolation and characterization of an enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase gene from microalga Isochrysis galbana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Minggang; Liang, Kepeng; Wang, Bo; Sun, Xiuqin; Yue, Yanyan; Wan, Wenwen; Zheng, Li

    2013-03-01

    In most bacteria, plants and algae, fatty acid biosynthesis is catalyzed by a group of freely dissociable proteins known as the type II fatty acid synthase (FAS II) system. In the FAS II system, enoylacyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) acts as a determinant for completing the cycles of fatty acid elongation. In this study, the cDNA sequence of ENR, designated as IgENR, was isolated from the microalga Isochrysis galbana CCMM5001. RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) was used to isolate the full-length cDNA of IgENR (1 503 bp), which contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 044 bp and encodes a protein of 347 amino acids. The genomic DNA sequence of IgENR is interrupted by four introns. The putative amino acid sequence is homologous to the ENRs of seed plants and algae, and they contain common coenzymebinding sites and active site motifs. Under different stress conditions, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) showed the expression of IgENR was upregulated by high temperature (35°C), and downregulated by depleted nitrogen (0 mol/L). To clarify the mechanism of lipids accumulating lipids, other genes involved in lipids accumulation should be studied.

  12. Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase from higher plants is structurally unrelated to the animal and fungal homologs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) desaturase was purified to homogeneity from avocado mesocarp, and monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against the protein were used to isolate full-length cDNA clones from Ricinus communis (castor) seed and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). The nucleotide sequence of the castor clone pRCD1 revealed an open reading frame of 1.2 kilobases encoding a 396-amino acid protein of 45 kDa. The cucumber clone pCSD1 encoded a homologous 396-amino acid protein with 88% amino acid identity to the castor clone. Expression of pRCD1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of a functional stearoyl-ACP desaturase, demonstrating that the introduction of this single gene product was sufficient to confer soluble desaturase activity to yeast. There was a 48-residue region of 29% amino acid sequence identity between residues 53 and 101 of the castor desaturase and the proximal border of the dehydratase region of the fatty acid synthase from yeast. Stearoyl-ACP mRNA was present at substantially higher levels in developing seeds than in leaf and root tissue, suggesting that expression of the {Delta}{sup 9} desaturase is developmentally regulated.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of two β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I genes from Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wangdan; Wei, Qian; Wu, Pingzhi; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Jun; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang

    2017-07-01

    The β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I (KASI) is involved in de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in many organisms. Two putative KASI genes, JcKASI-1 and JcKASI-2, were isolated from Jatropha curcas. The deduced amino acid sequences of JcKASI-1 and JcKASI-2 exhibit around 83.8% and 72.5% sequence identities with AtKASI, respectively, and both contain conserved Cys-His-Lys-His-Phe catalytic active sites. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that JcKASI-2 belongs to a clade with several KASI proteins from dicotyledonous plants. Both JcKASI genes were expressed in multiple tissues, most strongly in filling stage seeds of J. curcas. Additionally, the JcKASI-1 and JcKASI-2 proteins were both localized to the plastids. Expressing JcKASI-1 in the Arabidopsis kasI mutant rescued the mutant's phenotype and restored the fatty acid composition and oil content in seeds to wild-type, but expressing JcKASI-2 in the Arabidopsis kasI mutant resulted in only partial rescue. This implies that JcKASI-1 and JcKASI-2 exhibit partial functional redundancy and KASI genes play a universal role in regulating fatty acid biosynthesis, growth, and development in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional Characterization of Triclosan-Resistant Enoyl-acyl-carrier Protein Reductase (FabV) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Heng; Lin, Jin-Shui; Ma, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is extremely resistant to triclosan. Previous studies have shown that P. aeruginosa encodes a triclosan-resistant enoyl-acyl-carrier protein reductase (ENR), FabV, and that deletion of fabV causes P. aeruginosa to be extremely sensitive to triclosan. In this report, we complemented a P. aeruginosa fabV deletion strain with several triclosan-resistant ENR encoding genes, including Vibrio cholerae fabV, Bacillus subtilis fabL and Enterococcus faecalis fabK. All complemented strains restored triclosan resistance to the level of the wild-type strain, which confirmed that triclosan-resistant ENR allows P. aeruginosa to be extremely resistant to triclosan. Moreover, fabV exhibits pleiotropic effects. Deletion of fabV led P. aeruginosa to show attenuated swarming motility, decreased rhamnolipid, pyoverdine and acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) production. Complementation of the fabV mutant with any one ENR encoding gene could restore these features to some extent, in comparison with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we found that addition of exogenous AHLs could restore the fabV mutant strain to swarm on semisolid plates and to produce more virulence factors than the fabV mutant strain. These findings indicate that deletion of fabV reduced the activity of ENR in P. aeruginosa, decreased fatty acid synthesis, and subsequently depressed the production of AHLs and other virulence factors, which finally may led to a reduction in the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa. Therefore, fabV should be an ideal target for the control of P. aeruginosa infectivity.

  15. Rational design of broad spectrum antibacterial activity based on a clinically relevant enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebel, Johannes; Chang, Andrew; Shah, Sonam; Lu, Yang; Liu, Li; Pan, Pan; Hirschbeck, Maria W; Tareilus, Mona; Eltschkner, Sandra; Yu, Weixuan; Cummings, Jason E; Knudson, Susan E; Bommineni, Gopal R; Walker, Stephen G; Slayden, Richard A; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Tonge, Peter J; Kisker, Caroline

    2014-06-06

    Determining the molecular basis for target selectivity is of particular importance in drug discovery. The ideal antibiotic should be active against a broad spectrum of pathogenic organisms with a minimal effect on human targets. CG400549, a Staphylococcus-specific 2-pyridone compound that inhibits the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI), has recently been shown to possess human efficacy for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, which constitute a serious threat to human health. In this study, we solved the structures of three different FabI homologues in complex with several pyridone inhibitors, including CG400549. Based on these structures, we rationalize the 65-fold reduced affinity of CG400549 toward Escherichia coli versus S. aureus FabI and implement concepts to improve the spectrum of antibacterial activity. The identification of different conformational states along the reaction coordinate of the enzymatic hydride transfer provides an elegant visual depiction of the relationship between catalysis and inhibition, which facilitates rational inhibitor design. Ultimately, we developed the novel 4-pyridone-based FabI inhibitor PT166 that retained favorable pharmacokinetics and efficacy in a mouse model of S. aureus infection with extended activity against Gram-negative and mycobacterial organisms. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Defective Pollen Wall is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, J.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, H.; Yu, X.-H.; Liu, Y.; Liang, W.; Ranathunge, K.; Franke, R. B.; Schreiber, L.; Wang, Y.; Kai, G.; Ma, H.; Zhang, D.

    2011-06-01

    Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

  17. Toward production of jet fuel functionality in oilseeds: identification of FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases and evaluation of combinatorial expression strategies in Camelina seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E; Vu, Hieu Sy; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nam, Jeong-Won; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-07-01

    Seeds of members of the genus Cuphea accumulate medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; 8:0-14:0). MCFA- and palmitic acid- (16:0) rich vegetable oils have received attention for jet fuel production, given their similarity in chain length to Jet A fuel hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to test genes, including those from Cuphea, for their ability to confer jet fuel-type fatty acid accumulation in seed oil of the emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa. Transcriptomes from Cuphea viscosissima and Cuphea pulcherrima developing seeds that accumulate >90% of C8 and C10 fatty acids revealed three FatB cDNAs (CpuFatB3, CvFatB1, and CpuFatB4) expressed predominantly in seeds and structurally divergent from typical FatB thioesterases that release 16:0 from acyl carrier protein (ACP). Expression of CpuFatB3 and CvFatB1 resulted in Camelina oil with capric acid (10:0), and CpuFatB4 expression conferred myristic acid (14:0) production and increased 16:0. Co-expression of combinations of previously characterized Cuphea and California bay FatBs produced Camelina oils with mixtures of C8-C16 fatty acids, but amounts of each fatty acid were less than obtained by expression of individual FatB cDNAs. Increases in lauric acid (12:0) and 14:0, but not 10:0, in Camelina oil and at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols resulted from inclusion of a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase specialized for MCFAs. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of Camelina β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, however, reduced 12:0 in seeds expressing a 12:0-ACP-specific FatB. Camelina lines presented here provide platforms for additional metabolic engineering targeting fatty acid synthase and specialized acyltransferases for achieving oils with high levels of jet fuel-type fatty acids. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Toward production of jet fuel functionality in oilseeds: identification of FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases and evaluation of combinatorial expression strategies in Camelina seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E.; Vu, Hieu Sy; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nam, Jeong-Won; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of members of the genus Cuphea accumulate medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; 8:0–14:0). MCFA- and palmitic acid- (16:0) rich vegetable oils have received attention for jet fuel production, given their similarity in chain length to Jet A fuel hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to test genes, including those from Cuphea, for their ability to confer jet fuel-type fatty acid accumulation in seed oil of the emerging biofuel crop Camelina sativa. Transcriptomes from Cuphea viscosissima and Cuphea pulcherrima developing seeds that accumulate >90% of C8 and C10 fatty acids revealed three FatB cDNAs (CpuFatB3, CvFatB1, and CpuFatB4) expressed predominantly in seeds and structurally divergent from typical FatB thioesterases that release 16:0 from acyl carrier protein (ACP). Expression of CpuFatB3 and CvFatB1 resulted in Camelina oil with capric acid (10:0), and CpuFatB4 expression conferred myristic acid (14:0) production and increased 16:0. Co-expression of combinations of previously characterized Cuphea and California bay FatBs produced Camelina oils with mixtures of C8–C16 fatty acids, but amounts of each fatty acid were less than obtained by expression of individual FatB cDNAs. Increases in lauric acid (12:0) and 14:0, but not 10:0, in Camelina oil and at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols resulted from inclusion of a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase specialized for MCFAs. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of Camelina β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, however, reduced 12:0 in seeds expressing a 12:0-ACP-specific FatB. Camelina lines presented here provide platforms for additional metabolic engineering targeting fatty acid synthase and specialized acyltransferases for achieving oils with high levels of jet fuel-type fatty acids. PMID:25969557

  19. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N.; Guiltinan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance. PMID:25926841

  20. Studies of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase and implications for the development of antiparasitic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muench, Stephen P. [The Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Prigge, Sean T. [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); McLeod, Rima [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Paediatrics (Infectious Diseases) and Pathology and the Committees on Molecular Medicine, Genetics, Immunology and The College, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rafferty, John B. [The Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Kirisits, Michael J. [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Paediatrics (Infectious Diseases) and Pathology and the Committees on Molecular Medicine, Genetics, Immunology and The College, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Roberts, Craig W. [Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NR, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mui, Ernest J. [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Paediatrics (Infectious Diseases) and Pathology and the Committees on Molecular Medicine, Genetics, Immunology and The College, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rice, David W., E-mail: d.rice@sheffield.ac.uk [The Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-01

    The crystal structures of T. gondii and P. falciparum ENR in complex with NAD{sup +} and triclosan and of T. gondii ENR in an apo form have been solved to 2.6, 2.2 and 2.8 Å, respectively. Recent studies have demonstrated that submicromolar concentrations of the biocide triclosan arrest the growth of the apicomplexan parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii and inhibit the activity of the apicomplexan enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR). The crystal structures of T. gondii and P. falciparum ENR in complex with NAD{sup +} and triclosan and of T. gondii ENR in an apo form have been solved to 2.6, 2.2 and 2.8 Å, respectively. The structures of T. gondii ENR have revealed that, as in its bacterial and plant homologues, a loop region which flanks the active site becomes ordered upon inhibitor binding, resulting in the slow tight binding of triclosan. In addition, the T. gondii ENR–triclosan complex reveals the folding of a hydrophilic insert common to the apicomplexan family that flanks the substrate-binding domain and is disordered in all other reported apicomplexan ENR structures. Structural comparison of the apicomplexan ENR structures with their bacterial and plant counterparts has revealed that although the active sites of the parasite enzymes are broadly similar to those of their bacterial counterparts, there are a number of important differences within the drug-binding pocket that reduce the packing interactions formed with several inhibitors in the apicomplexan ENR enzymes. Together with other significant structural differences, this provides a possible explanation of the lower affinity of the parasite ENR enzyme family for aminopyridine-based inhibitors, suggesting that an effective antiparasitic agent may well be distinct from equivalent antimicrobials.

  1. Functional characterization of triclosan-resistant enoyl-acyl-carrier protein reductase (FabV in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Heng Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is extremely resistant to triclosan. Previous studies have shown that P. aeruginosa encodes a triclosan-resistant enoyl-acyl-carrier protein reductase (ENR, FabV, and that deletion of fabV causes P. aeruginosa to be extremely sensitive to triclosan. In this report, we complemented a P. aeruginosa fabV deletion strain with several triclosan-resistant ENR encoding genes, including Vibrio cholera fabV, Bacillus subtilis fabL and Enterococcus faecalis fabK. All complemented strains restored triclosan resistance to the level of the wild-type strain, which confirmed that triclosan-resistant ENR allows P. aeruginosa to be extremely resistant to triclosan. Moreover, fabV exhibits pleiotropic effects. Deletion of fabV led P. aeruginosa to show attenuated swarming motility, decreased rhamnolipid, pyoverdine and acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs production. Complementation of the fabV mutant with any one ENR encoding gene could restore these features to some extent, in comparison with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we found that addition of exogenous AHLs could restore to the fabV mutant strain the ability to swarm on semisolid plates and to produce more virulence factors than the fabV mutant strain. These findings indicate that deletion of fabV reduced the activity of ENR in P. aeruginosa, decreased fatty acid synthesis, and subsequently depressed the production of AHLs and other virulence factors, which finally may led to a reduction in the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa. Therefore, fabV should be an ideal target for the control of P. aeruginosa infectivity.

  2. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan eZhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP desaturase (SAD. The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance.

  3. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance.

  4. Acyl carrier protein-specific 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase activates 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Kyle C; Hoeferlin, L Alexis; Oleinik, Natalia V; Krupenko, Natalia I; Krupenko, Sergey A

    2010-01-15

    4'-Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTs) catalyze the transfer of 4'-phosphopantetheine (4-PP) from coenzyme A to a conserved serine residue of their protein substrates. In humans, the number of pathways utilizing the 4-PP post-translational modification is limited and may only require a single broad specificity PPT for all phosphopantetheinylation reactions. Recently, we have shown that one of the enzymes of folate metabolism, 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (FDH), requires a 4-PP prosthetic group for catalysis. This moiety acts as a swinging arm to couple the activities of the two catalytic domains of FDH and allows the conversion of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate and CO2. In the current study, we demonstrate that the broad specificity human PPT converts apo-FDH to holoenzyme and thus activates FDH catalysis. Silencing PPT by small interfering RNA in A549 cells prevents FDH modification, indicating the lack of alternative enzymes capable of accomplishing this transferase reaction. Interestingly, PPT-silenced cells demonstrate significantly reduced proliferation and undergo strong G(1) arrest, suggesting that the enzymatic function of PPT is essential and nonredundant. Our study identifies human PPT as the FDH-modifying enzyme and supports the hypothesis that mammals utilize a single enzyme for all phosphopantetheinylation reactions.

  5. A new metabolic link. The acyl carrier protein of lipid synthesis donates lipoic acid to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in Escherichia coli and mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, S W; Cronan, J E

    1997-07-18

    Lipoic acid is an essential enzyme cofactor that requires covalent attachment to its cognate proteins to confer biological activity. The major lipoylated proteins are highly conserved enzymes of central metabolism, the pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. The classical lipoate ligase uses ATP to activate the lipoate carboxyl group followed by attachment of the cofactor to a specific subunit of each dehydrogenase complex, and it was assumed that all lipoate attachment proceeded by this mechanism. However, our previous work indicated that Escherichia coli could form lipoylated proteins in the absence of detectable ATP-dependent ligase activity raising the possibility of a class of enzyme that attaches lipoate to the dehydrogenase complexes by a different mechanism. We now report that E. coli and mitochondria contain lipoate transferases that use lipoyl-acyl carrier protein as the lipoate donor. This finding demonstrates a direct link between fatty acid synthesis and lipoate attachment and also provides the first direct demonstration of a role for the enigmatic acyl carrier proteins of mitochondria.

  6. The role of acyl carrier protein isoforms from Cuphea lanceolata seeds in the de-novo biosynthesis of medium-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, B S; Brummel, M; Schuch, R; Spener, F

    1998-06-01

    To investigate the role of acyl carrier protein (ACP) in determining the fate of the acyl moieties linked to it in the course of de-novo fatty acid biosynthesis in higher plants, we carried out in vitro experiments to reconstitute the fatty acid synthase (FAS) reaction in extracts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves, rape (Brassica napus L.) seeds and Cuphea lanceolata Ait. seeds. The action of two major C. lanceolata ACP isoforms (ACP 1 and ACP 2) compared to ACP from Escherichia coli was monitored by saponification of the corresponding FAS products with subsequent analysis of the liberated fatty acids by high-performance liquid chromatography. In a second approach the preference of the medium-chain acyl-ACP-specific thioesterase (EC 3.1.2.14) of C. lanceolata seeds for the hydrolysis of acyl-ACPs prepared from the three ACP types was investigated. Both ACP isoforms from C. lanceolata seeds supported the synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids in a reconstituted FAS reaction of spinach leaf extracts. Compared to the isoform ACP 1, ACP 2 was more effective in supporting the synthesis of such fatty acids in the FAS reaction of rape seed extracts and caused a higher accumulation of FAS products in all experiments. No preference of the medium-chain thioesterase for one specific ACP isoform was observed. The results indicate that the presence of ACP 2 is essential for the synthesis of decanoic acid in C. lanceolata seeds, and its expression in the phase of accumulation of high levels of this fatty acid provides an additional and highly efficient cofactor for stimulating the FAS reaction.

  7. Escherichia coli Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (FabI) Supports Efficient Operation of a Functional Reversal of the β-Oxidation Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Jacob E.; Clomburg, James M.; Blankschien, Matthew D.; Chou, Alexander; Kim, Seohyoung

    2014-01-01

    We recently used a synthetic/bottom-up approach to establish the identity of the four enzymes composing an engineered functional reversal of the β-oxidation cycle for fuel and chemical production in Escherichia coli (J. M. Clomburg, J. E. Vick, M. D. Blankschien, M. Rodriguez-Moya, and R. Gonzalez, ACS Synth Biol 1:541–554, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/sb3000782). While native enzymes that catalyze the first three steps of the pathway were identified, the identity of the native enzyme(s) acting as the trans-enoyl coenzyme A (CoA) reductase(s) remained unknown, limiting the amount of product that could be synthesized (e.g., 0.34 g/liter butyrate) and requiring the overexpression of a foreign enzyme (the Euglena gracilis trans-enoyl-CoA reductase [EgTER]) to achieve high titers (e.g., 3.4 g/liter butyrate). Here, we examine several native E. coli enzymes hypothesized to catalyze the reduction of enoyl-CoAs to acyl-CoAs. Our results indicate that FabI, the native enoyl-acyl carrier protein (enoyl-ACP) reductase (ENR) from type II fatty acid biosynthesis, possesses sufficient NADH-dependent TER activity to support the efficient operation of a β-oxidation reversal. Overexpression of FabI proved as effective as EgTER for the production of butyrate and longer-chain carboxylic acids. Given the essential nature of fabI, we investigated whether bacterial ENRs from other families were able to complement a fabI deletion without promiscuous reduction of crotonyl-CoA. These characteristics from Bacillus subtilis FabL enabled ΔfabI complementation experiments that conclusively established that FabI encodes a native enoyl-CoA reductase activity that supports the β-oxidation reversal in E. coli. PMID:25527535

  8. OsKASI, a β-ketoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase I, is involved in root development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wona; Lin, Li; Zhang, Botao; Xiang, Xianbo; Wu, Jing; Pan, Zhichong; Zhu, Shihua

    2015-07-01

    The involvement of OsKASI in FA synthesis is found to play a critical role in root development of rice. The root system plays important roles in plant nutrient and water acquisition. However, mechanisms of root development and molecular regulation in rice are still poorly understood. Here, we characterized a rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant with shortened roots due to a defect in cell elongation. Map-based cloning revealed that the mutation occurred in a putative 3-oxoacyl-synthase, an ortholog of β-ketoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase I (KASI) in Arabidopsis, thus designated as OsKASI. OsKASI was found to be ubiquitously expressed in various tissues throughout the plant and OsKASI protein was localized in the plastid. In addition, OsKASI deficiency resulted in reduced fertility and a remarkable change in fatty acid (FA) composition and contents in roots and seeds. Our results demonstrate that involvement of OsKASI in FA synthesis is required for root development in rice.

  9. The role of ß-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III in the condensation steps of fatty acid biosynthesis in sunflower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Mellado, Damián; von Wettstein, Penny; Garcés, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    . Heterologous expression of HaKAS III in Escherichia coli altered their fatty acid content and composition implying an interaction of HaKAS III with the bacterial FAS complex. Testing purified HaKAS III recombinant protein by adding to a reconstituted E. coli FAS system lacking condensation activity revealed......The ß-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (KAS III; EC 2.3.1.180) is a condensing enzyme catalyzing the initial step of fatty acid biosynthesis using acetyl-CoA as primer. To determine the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) developing...... a novel substrate specificity. In contrast to all hitherto characterized plant KAS IIIs, the activities of which are limited to the first cycles of intraplastidial fatty acid biosynthesis yielding C6 chains, HaKAS III participates in at least four cycles resulting in C10 chains....

  10. Role of acylCoA binding protein in acylCoA transport, metabolism and cell signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, J; Jensen, M V; Hansen, J K

    1999-01-01

    Long chain acylCoA esters (LCAs) act both as substrates and intermediates in intermediary metabolism and as regulators in various intracellular functions. AcylCoA binding protein (ACBP) binds LCAs with high affinity and is believed to play an important role in intracellular acylCoA transport and ......) [4]. Additional factors affecting the concentration of free LCA include feed back inhibition of the acylCoA synthetase [5], binding to acylCoA receptors (LCA-regulated molecules and enzymes), binding to membranes and the activity of acylCoA hydrolases [6]....... and pool formation and therefore also for the function of LCAs as metabolites and regulators of cellular functions [1]. The major factors controlling the free concentration of cytosol long chain acylCoA ester (LCA) include ACBP [2], sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2) [3] and fatty acid binding protein (FABP...

  11. Solution structure of the tandem acyl carrier protein domains from a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase reveals beads-on-a-string configuration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uldaeliz Trujillo

    Full Text Available The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA synthases from deep-sea bacteria invariably contain multiple acyl carrier protein (ACP domains in tandem. This conserved tandem arrangement has been implicated in both amplification of fatty acid production (additive effect and in structural stabilization of the multidomain protein (synergistic effect. While the more accepted model is one in which domains act independently, recent reports suggest that ACP domains may form higher oligomers. Elucidating the three-dimensional structure of tandem arrangements may therefore give important insights into the functional relevance of these structures, and hence guide bioengineering strategies. In an effort to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of tandem repeats from deep-sea anaerobic bacteria, we have expressed and purified a fragment consisting of five tandem ACP domains from the PUFA synthase from Photobacterium profundum. Analysis of the tandem ACP fragment by analytical gel filtration chromatography showed a retention time suggestive of a multimeric protein. However, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS revealed that the multi-ACP fragment is an elongated monomer which does not form a globular unit. Stokes radii calculated from atomic monomeric SAXS models were comparable to those measured by analytical gel filtration chromatography, showing that in the gel filtration experiment, the molecular weight was overestimated due to the elongated protein shape. Thermal denaturation monitored by circular dichroism showed that unfolding of the tandem construct was not cooperative, and that the tandem arrangement did not stabilize the protein. Taken together, these data are consistent with an elongated beads-on-a-string arrangement of the tandem ACP domains in PUFA synthases, and speak against synergistic biocatalytic effects promoted by quaternary structuring. Thus, it is possible to envision bioengineering strategies which simply involve the artificial linking of

  12. Solution Structure of the Tandem Acyl Carrier Protein Domains from a Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Synthase Reveals Beads-on-a-String Configuration

    KAUST Repository

    Trujillo, Uldaeliz

    2013-02-28

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthases from deep-sea bacteria invariably contain multiple acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains in tandem. This conserved tandem arrangement has been implicated in both amplification of fatty acid production (additive effect) and in structural stabilization of the multidomain protein (synergistic effect). While the more accepted model is one in which domains act independently, recent reports suggest that ACP domains may form higher oligomers. Elucidating the three-dimensional structure of tandem arrangements may therefore give important insights into the functional relevance of these structures, and hence guide bioengineering strategies. In an effort to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of tandem repeats from deep-sea anaerobic bacteria, we have expressed and purified a fragment consisting of five tandem ACP domains from the PUFA synthase from Photobacterium profundum. Analysis of the tandem ACP fragment by analytical gel filtration chromatography showed a retention time suggestive of a multimeric protein. However, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the multi-ACP fragment is an elongated monomer which does not form a globular unit. Stokes radii calculated from atomic monomeric SAXS models were comparable to those measured by analytical gel filtration chromatography, showing that in the gel filtration experiment, the molecular weight was overestimated due to the elongated protein shape. Thermal denaturation monitored by circular dichroism showed that unfolding of the tandem construct was not cooperative, and that the tandem arrangement did not stabilize the protein. Taken together, these data are consistent with an elongated beads-on-a-string arrangement of the tandem ACP domains in PUFA synthases, and speak against synergistic biocatalytic effects promoted by quaternary structuring. Thus, it is possible to envision bioengineering strategies which simply involve the artificial linking of multiple ACP

  13. Structure of the Francisella tularensis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) in complex with NAD[superscript +] and triclosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehboob, Shahila; Truong, Kent; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Johnson, Michael E. (UIC)

    2010-11-19

    Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) catalyzes the last rate-limiting step in the elongation cycle of the fatty-acid biosynthesis pathway and has been validated as a potential antimicrobial drug target in Francisella tularensis. The development of new antibiotic therapies is important both to combat potential drug-resistant bioweapons and to address the broader societal problem of increasing antibiotic resistance among many pathogenic bacteria. The crystal structure of FabI from F. tularensis (FtuFabI) in complex with the inhibitor triclosan and the cofactor NAD{sup +} has been solved to a resolution of 2.1 {angstrom}. Triclosan is known to effectively inhibit FabI from different organisms. Precise characterization of the mode of triclosan binding is required to develop highly specific inhibitors. Comparison of our structure with the previously determined FtuFabI structure (PDB code 2jjy) which is bound to only NAD{sup +} reveals the conformation of the substrate-binding loop, electron density for which was missing in the earlier structure, and demonstrates a shift in the conformation of the NAD{sup +} cofactor. This shift in the position of the phosphate groups allows more room in the active site for substrate or inhibitor to bind and be better accommodated. This information will be crucial for virtual screening studies to identify novel scaffolds for development into new active inhibitors.

  14. Identification of a malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase and its regulatory role in fatty acid biosynthesis in oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Wen; Liu, Wan-Jun; Hu, Dong-Xiong; Wang, Xiang; Balamurugan, Srinivasan; Alimujiang, Adili; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye

    2017-09-01

    Oleaginous microalgae hold great promises for biofuel production. However, commercialization of microalgal biofuels remains impracticable due to the lack of suitable industrial strains with high growth rate and lipid productivity. Engineering of metabolic pathways is a potential strategy for the improvement of microalgal strains for the production of lipids and also value-added products in microalgae. Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT) has been reported to be involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. Here, we identified a putative MCAT in the oleaginous marine microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica. NoMCAT overexpressing N. oceanica showed a higher growth rate and photosynthetic efficiency. The neutral lipid content of engineered lines showed a significant increase by up to 31% compared to wild type. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that NoMCAT overexpression significantly altered the fatty acid composition. The composition of eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), which is a polyunsaturated fatty acid necessary for animal nutrition, increased by 8%. These results demonstrate the role of MCAT in enhancing fatty acid biosynthesis and growth in microalgae, and also provide an insight into metabolic engineering of microalgae with high industrial potential. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Computer-Aided Design of Orally Bioavailable Pyrrolidine Carboxamide Inhibitors of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Favorable Pharmacokinetic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affiba Florance Kouassi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out a computational structure-based design of new potent pyrrolidine carboxamide (PCAMs inhibitors of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb. Three-dimensional (3D models of InhA-PCAMx complexes were prepared by in situ modification of the crystal structure of InhA-PCAM1 (Protein Data Bank (PDB entry code: 4U0J, the reference compound of a training set of 20 PCAMs with known experimental inhibitory potencies (IC50exp. First, we built a gas phase quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR model, linearly correlating the computed enthalpy of the InhA-PCAM complex formation and the IC50exp. Further, taking into account the solvent effect and loss of inhibitor entropy upon enzyme binding led to a QSAR model with a superior linear correlation between computed Gibbs free energies (ΔΔGcom of InhA-PCAM complex formation and IC50exp (pIC50exp = −0.1552·ΔΔGcom + 5.0448, R2 = 0.94, which was further validated with a 3D-QSAR pharmacophore model generation (PH4. Structural information from the models guided us in designing of a virtual combinatorial library (VL of more than 17 million PCAMs. The VL was adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME focused and reduced down to 1.6 million drug like orally bioavailable analogues and PH4 in silico screened to identify new potent PCAMs with predicted IC50pre reaching up to 5 nM. Combining molecular modeling and PH4 in silico screening of the VL resulted in the proposed novel potent antituberculotic agent candidates with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles.

  16. Crystal structure of enoyl–acyl carrier protein reductase (FabK) from Streptococcus pneumoniae reveals the binding mode of an inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Jun; Yamada, Mototsugu; Watanabe, Takashi; Iida, Maiko; Kitagawa, Hideo; Takahata, Sho; Ozawa, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Fukuichi

    2008-01-01

    Enoyl–acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductases are critical for bacterial type II fatty acid biosynthesis and thus are attractive targets for developing novel antibiotics. We determined the crystal structure of enoyl–ACP reductase (FabK) from Streptococcus pneumoniae at 1.7 Å resolution. There was one dimer per asymmetric unit. Each subunit formed a triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel structure, and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) was bound as a cofactor in the active site. The overall structure was similar to the enoyl–ACP reductase (ER) of fungal fatty acid synthase and to 2-nitropropane dioxygenase (2-ND) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, although there were some differences among these structures. We determined the crystal structure of FabK in complex with a phenylimidazole derivative inhibitor to envision the binding site interactions. The crystal structure reveals that the inhibitor binds to a hydrophobic pocket in the active site of FabK, and this is accompanied by induced-fit movements of two loop regions. The thiazole ring and part of the ureido moiety of the inhibitor are involved in a face-to-face π–π stacking interaction with the isoalloxazine ring of FMN. The side-chain conformation of the proposed catalytic residue, His144, changes upon complex formation. Lineweaver–Burk plots indicate that the inhibitor binds competitively with respect to NADH, and uncompetitively with respect to crotonoyl coenzyme A. We propose that the primary basis of the inhibitory activity is competition with NADH for binding to FabK, which is the first step of the two-step ping-pong catalytic mechanism. PMID:18305197

  17. Acyl-coenzyme A binding protein (ACBP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, B B; Knudsen, J; Poulsen, F M

    1999-01-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins are known from a large group of eukaryote species and to bind a long chain length acyl-CoA ester with very high affinity. Detailed biochemical mapping of ligand binding properties has been obtained as well as in-depth structural studies on the bovine apo-protein a...

  18. β-Hydroxyacyl-acyl Carrier Protein Dehydratase (FabZ) from Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis : Structure Determination, Enzymatic Characterization, and Cross-Inhibition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGillick, Brian E.; Kumaran, Desigan; Vieni, Casey; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2016-02-23

    The bacterial system for fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS) contains several enzymes whose sequence and structure are highly conserved across a vast array of pathogens. This, coupled with their low homology and difference in organization compared to the equivalent system in humans, makes the FAS pathway an excellent target for antimicrobial drug development. To this end, we have cloned, expressed, and purified the β-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase (FabZ) from both Francisella tularensis (FtFabZ) and Yersinia pestis (YpFabZ). We also solved the crystal structures and performed an enzymatic characterization of both enzymes and several mutant forms of YpFabZ. Additionally, we have discovered two novel inhibitors of FabZ, mangostin and stictic acid, which show similar potencies against both YpFabZ and FtFabZ. Lastly, we selected several compounds from the literature that have been shown to be active against single homologues of FabZ and tested them against both YpFabZ and FtFabZ. These results have revealed clues as to which scaffolds are likely to lead to broad-spectrum antimicrobials targeted against FabZ as well as modifications to existing FabZ inhibitors that may improve potency.

  19. Visualization and Identification of Fatty Acylated Proteins Using Chemical Reporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Jacob S.; Zhang, Mingzi M.; Hang, Howard C.

    2011-01-01

    Protein fatty-acylation is the covalent addition of a lipid chain at specific amino acids. This modification changes the inherent hydrophobicity of a protein, often targeting it to cellular membrane compartments. Acylation may also regulate protein activity, stability, and protein-protein interactions. Its study is therefore critical to understanding the biology of the hundreds of proteins described to be lipid-modified, as well as those that are continually being discovered. Fatty-acylation can be analyzed using chemical reporters that mimic natural lipids and contain bioorthogonal chemical handles allowing them to be reacted with detection tags such as fluorophores or affinity tags. Our laboratory has successfully utilized alkynyl-chemical reporters of protein myristoylation, S-palmitoylation, prenylation and acetylation. Protocol 1 describes metabolic incorporation of these chemical reporters onto proteins in living cells. Protocol 2 describes the global visualization of reporter-labeled proteins by selectively reacting alkyne-containing chemical reporter-labeled proteins in cell lysates with azido-rhodamine via the click chemistry and fluorescence gel scanning. Protocol 3 describes analysis of protein acylation on individual candidate proteins using immunoprecipitation, click chemistry and fluorescence gel scanning. Finally, Protocol 4 allows identification of novel fatty acylated proteins by reacting chemical reporter-labeled proteins with azido-biotin via click chemistry and selective retrieval using streptavidin beads. This may be particularly valuable for the examination of S-palmitoylomes in different cell types or activation states, as these modifications do not occur on readily predicted consensus amino acid motifs. Overall, these techniques provide robust, non-radioactive methods for examining the acylation states of full cellular proteomes and individual proteins of interest. PMID:23061028

  20. Regulation of very-long acyl chain ceramide synthesis by acyl-CoA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Natalia Santos; Engelsby, Hanne; Neess, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    and cardiovascular diseases, as well as neurological disorders. Here we show that acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) potently facilitates very-long acyl chain ceramide synthesis. ACBP increases the activity of ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2) by more than 2-fold and CerS3 activity by 7-fold. ACBP binds very...... of ACBP(-/-) mice, concomitant with a significant reduction in long- and very-long-chain ceramide levels. Importantly, we show that ACBP interacts with CerS2 and CerS3. Our data uncover a novel mode of regulation of very-long acyl chain ceramide synthesis by ACBP, which we anticipate is of crucial...

  1. Mass-Tag Labeling Using Acyl-PEG Exchange for the Determination of Endogenous Protein S-Fatty Acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percher, Avital; Thinon, Emmanuelle; Hang, Howard

    2017-08-01

    The covalent coupling of fatty acids to proteins provides an important mechanism of regulation in cells. In eukaryotes, cysteine fatty acylation (S-fatty acylation) has been shown to be critical for protein function in a variety of cellular pathways as well as microbial pathogenesis. While methods developed over the past decade have improved the detection and profiling of S-fatty acylation, these are hampered in their ability to characterize endogenous protein S-fatty acylation levels under physiological conditions. Furthermore, understanding the contribution of specific sites and levels of S-fatty acylation remains a major challenge. To evaluate S-fatty acylation of endogenous proteins as well as to determine the number of S-fatty acylation events, we developed the acyl-PEG exchange (APE) that utilizes cysteine-specific chemistry to exchange S-fatty acylation sites with mass-tags of defined size, which can be readily observed by western blotting. APE provides a readily accessible approach to investigate endogenous S-fatty acylation from any sample source, with high sensitivity and broad applicability that complements the current toolbox of methods for thioester-based post-translational modifications. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Ethanol metabolism modifies hepatic protein acylation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer S Fritz

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial protein acetylation increases in response to chronic ethanol ingestion in mice, and is thought to reduce mitochondrial function and contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 regulates the acetylation status of several mitochondrial proteins, including those involved in ethanol metabolism. The newly discovered desuccinylase activity of the mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT5 suggests that protein succinylation could be an important post-translational modification regulating mitochondrial metabolism. To assess the possible role of protein succinylation in ethanol metabolism, we surveyed hepatic sub-cellular protein fractions from mice fed a control or ethanol-supplemented diet for succinyl-lysine, as well as acetyl-, propionyl-, and butyryl-lysine post-translational modifications. We found mitochondrial protein propionylation increases, similar to mitochondrial protein acetylation. In contrast, mitochondrial protein succinylation is reduced. These mitochondrial protein modifications appear to be primarily driven by ethanol metabolism, and not by changes in mitochondrial sirtuin levels. Similar trends in acyl modifications were observed in the nucleus. However, comparatively fewer acyl modifications were observed in the cytoplasmic or the microsomal compartments, and were generally unchanged by ethanol metabolism. Using a mass spectrometry proteomics approach, we identified several candidate acetylated, propionylated, and succinylated proteins, which were enriched using antibodies against each modification. Additionally, we identified several acetyl and propionyl lysine residues on the same sites for a number of proteins and supports the idea of the overlapping nature of lysine-specific acylation. Thus, we show that novel post-translational modifications are present in hepatic mitochondrial, nuclear, cytoplasmic, and microsomal compartments and ethanol ingestion, and its associated

  3. Thermodynamics of ligand binding to acyl-coenzyme A binding protein studied by titration calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Sigurskjold, B W; Kragelund, B B

    1996-01-01

    Ligand binding to recombinant bovine acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) was examined using isothermal microcalorimetry. Microcalorimetric measurements confirm that the binding affinity of acyl-CoA esters for ACBP is strongly dependent on the length of the acyl chain with a clear preference for acyl-...

  4. Evolution of acyl-substrate recognition by a family of acyl-homoserine lactone synthases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quin H Christensen

    Full Text Available Members of the LuxI protein family catalyze synthesis of acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL quorum sensing signals from S-adenosyl-L-methionine and an acyl thioester. Some LuxI family members prefer acyl-CoA, and others prefer acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP as the acyl-thioester substrate. We sought to understand the evolutionary history and mechanisms mediating this substrate preference. Our phylogenetic and motif analysis of the LuxI acyl-HSL synthase family indicates that the acyl-CoA-utilizing enzymes evolved from an acyl-ACP-utilizing ancestor. To further understand how acyl-ACPs and acyl-CoAs are recognized by acyl-HSL synthases we studied BmaI1, an octanoyl-ACP-dependent LuxI family member from Burkholderia mallei, and BjaI, an isovaleryl-CoA-dependent LuxI family member from Bradyrhizobium japonicum. We synthesized thioether analogs of their thioester acyl-substrates to probe recognition of the acyl-phosphopantetheine moiety common to both acyl-ACP and acyl-CoA substrates. The kinetics of catalysis and inhibition of these enzymes indicate that they recognize the acyl-phosphopantetheine moiety and they recognize non-preferred substrates with this moiety. We find that CoA substrate utilization arose through exaptation of acyl-phosphopantetheine recognition in this enzyme family.

  5. Structure of armadillo ACBP: a new member of the acyl-CoA-binding protein family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costabel, Marcelo D., E-mail: costabel@criba.edu.ar [Grupo de Biofísica, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Ermácora, Mario R. [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Bernal (Argentina); Santomé, José A. [Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas (IQUIFYB), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica (UBA-CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alzari, Pedro M. [Unité de Biochimie Structurale, Institut Pasteur, Paris (France); Guérin, Diego M. A. [Unidad de Biofisica (CSIC-UPV/EHU), PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Grupo de Biofísica, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca (Argentina)

    2006-10-01

    The X-ray structure of the tetragonal form of apo acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from the Harderian gland of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus has been solved. The X-ray structure of the tetragonal form of apo acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from the Harderian gland of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus has been solved. ACBP is a carrier for activated long-chain fatty acids and has been associated with many aspects of lipid metabolism. Its secondary structure is highly similar to that of the corresponding form of bovine ACBP and exhibits the unique flattened α-helical bundle (up–down–down–up) motif reported for animal, yeast and insect ACBPs. Conformational differences are located in loops and turns, although these structural differences do not suffice to account for features that could be related to the unusual biochemistry and lipid metabolism of the Harderian gland.

  6. Purification and characterization of acylation stimulating protein from porcine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Jacobi, Sheila K; Toombs, Candice F; Cianflone, Katherine H; Nersesian, Natalya; Sarath, Gautam; Miner, Jess L

    2002-07-01

    A method for purifying acylation stimulating protein (ASP) from porcine serum is described. The mRNA encoding ASP was cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction which predicted a 76 residue peptide. Based on this sequence, we generated antisera to a C-terminal peptide (ASP(1-20)) which aided ASP purification. Identity of the purified protein was verified by N-terminal sequencing. The molecular mass of porcine ASP is 8926. Porcine ASP stimulated esterification of fatty acid into triacylglycerol in cultured human cells with potency similar to that of human ASP (twofold at 5 microM). Based on this evidence that ASP exists in porcine blood, and that it has acylation stimulating activity, we propose that ASP may play a role in regulation of energy storage in adipose tissue in the pig.

  7. Yeast acyl-CoA-binding protein: acyl-CoA-binding affinity and effect on intracellular acyl-CoA pool size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, J; Faergeman, N J; Skøtt, H

    1994-01-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a 10 kDa protein characterized in vertebrates. We have isolated two ACBP homologues from the yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, named yeast ACBP types 1 and 2. Both proteins contain 86 amino acid residues and are identical except for four conservative substitut...

  8. Acylation of proteins by myristic acid in isolated mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, J W; Lehmann, L H; Siegel, E

    1989-04-15

    Isolated and highly purified mitochondria from rat liver were incubated with [1-14C]myristate, solubilized in boiling sodium dodecyl sulfate, and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Six to eight protein bands were found to be radioactively labeled. If the mitochondria were heated for 5 min at 95 degrees C prior to incubation with this fatty acid, no labeling was observed. By preexposing the mitochondria to unlabeled fatty acids of varying chain lengths, the extent of labeling by [1-14C]myristate was reduced in a chain length-dependent manner, exhibiting maximal inhibition at lauric acid. Reversibility of the labeling was demonstrated by chasing the incorporated radioactivity with unlabeled fatty acids of varying chain length, resulting in a maximal displacement of the tracer again by lauric acid. Fractionation of the labeled mitochondria into mitochondrial matrix and inner mitochondrial membrane components before or after labeling showed that the modified proteins are located inside the inner mitochondrial membrane. In both cases, the pattern of labeling was different from the one observed with intact mitochondria. The labeled bands in the gel were sensitive to alkaline methanol or hydroxylamine treatment. The radioactivity recovered after this treatment co-migrated with myristic acid on thin layer chromatography plates. The chain length specificity and the rapid reversibility of the observed acylation argue for a new type of reaction, different from the acylation observed in whole cells. The possible involvement of the acylated proteins in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation is discussed.

  9. Disruption of the Acyl-CoA binding protein gene delays hepatic adaptation to metabolic changes at weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Bloksgaard, Maria

    The acyl-CoA binding protein/diazepam binding inhibitor (ACBP/DBI) is an evolutionary conserved intracellular protein that binds C14-C22 acyl-CoA esters with very high affinity. ACBP is thought to act as an acyl-CoA transporter, and in vitro analyses have indicated that ACBP can transport acyl...

  10. Evolution of the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burton, Mark; Rose, Timothy M; Faergeman, Nils J

    2005-01-01

    -CoA pool size, donation of acyl-CoA esters for beta-oxidation, vesicular trafficking, complex lipid synthesis and gene regulation. In the present study, we delineate the evolutionary history of ACBP to get a complete picture of its evolution and distribution among species. ACBP homologues were identified...... duplication and/or retrotransposition events. The ACBP protein is highly conserved across phylums, and the majority of ACBP genes are subjected to strong purifying selection. Experimental evidence indicates that the function of ACBP has been conserved from yeast to humans and that the multiple lineage...

  11. Acyl-CoA-binding protein/diazepam-binding inhibitor gene and pseudogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, S; Hummel, R; Ravn, S

    1992-01-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a 10 kDa protein isolated from bovine liver by virtue of its ability to bind and induce the synthesis of medium-chain acyl-CoA esters. Surprisingly, it turned out to be identical to a protein named diazepam-binding Inhibitor (DBI) claimed to be an endogenous...

  12. Fluorescently labelled bovine acyl-CoA-binding protein acting as an acyl-CoA sensor: interaction with CoA and acyl-CoA esters and its use in measuring free acyl-CoA esters and non-esterified fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, M.C.; Villadsen, J.K.; Feddersen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA esters are key metabolites in lipid synthesis and b-oxidation but, at the same time, are important regulators of intermediate metabolism, insulin secretion, vesicular trafficking and gene expression. Key tools in studying the regulatory functions of acyl-CoA esters are reliable...... methods for the determination of free acyl-CoA concentrations. No such method is presently available. In the present study, we describe the synthesis of two acyl-CoA sensors for measuring free acyl-CoA concentrations using acyl-CoA-binding protein as a scaffold. Met24 and Ala53 of bovine acyl...

  13. Fatty acid acylation of proteins: specific roles for palmitic, myristic and caprylic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rioux Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid acylation of proteins corresponds to the co- or post-translational covalent linkage of an acyl-CoA, derived from a fatty acid, to an amino-acid residue of the substrate protein. The cellular fatty acids which are involved in protein acylation are mainly saturated fatty acids. Palmitoylation (S-acylation corresponds to the reversible attachment of palmitic acid (C16:0 via a thioester bond to the side chain of a cysteine residue. N-terminal myristoylation refers to the covalent attachment of myristic acid (C14:0 by an amide bond to the N-terminal glycine of many eukaryotic and viral proteins. Octanoylation (O-acylation typically concerns the formation of an ester bond between octanoic acid (caprylic acid, C8:0 and the side chain of a serine residue of the stomach peptide ghrelin. An increasing number of proteins (enzymes, hormones, receptors, oncogenes, tumor suppressors, proteins involved in signal transduction, eukaryotic and viral structural proteins have been shown to undergo fatty acid acylation. The addition of the acyl moiety is required for the protein function and usually mediates protein subcellular localization, protein-protein interaction or protein-membrane interaction. Therefore, through the covalent modification of proteins, these saturated fatty acids exhibit emerging specific and important roles in modulating protein functions. This review provides an overview of the recent findings on the various classes of protein acylation leading to the biological ability of saturated fatty acids to regulate many pathways. Finally, the nutritional links between these elucidated biochemical mechanisms and the physiological roles of dietary saturated fatty acids are discussed.

  14. Affinity-Guided Oxime Chemistry for Selective Protein Acylation in Live Tissue Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tomonori; Song, Zhining; Amaike, Kazuma; Lee, Shin; Yin, Sifei; Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Hamachi, Itaru

    2017-10-11

    Catalyst-mediated protein modification is a powerful approach for the imaging and engineering of natural proteins. We have previously developed affinity-guided 4-dimethylaminopyridine (AGD) chemistry as an efficient protein modification method using a catalytic acyl transfer reaction. However, because of the high electrophilicity of the thioester acyl donor molecule, AGD chemistry suffers from nonspecific reactions to proteins other than the target protein in crude biological environments, such as cell lysates, live cells, and tissue samples. To overcome this shortcoming, we here report a new acyl donor/organocatalyst system that allows more specific and efficient protein modification. In this method, a highly nucleophilic pyridinium oxime (PyOx) catalyst is conjugated to a ligand specific to the target protein. The ligand-tethered PyOx selectively binds to the target protein and facilitates the acyl transfer reaction of a mild electrophilic N-acyl-N-alkylsulfonamide acyl donor on the protein surface. We demonstrated that the new catalytic system, called AGOX (affinity-guided oxime) chemistry, can modify target proteins, both in test tubes and cell lysates, more selectively and efficiently than AGD chemistry. Low-background fluorescence labeling of the endogenous cell-membrane proteins, carbonic anhydrase XII and the folate receptor, in live cells allowed for the precise quantification of diffusion coefficients in the protein's native environment. Furthermore, the excellent biocompatibility and bioorthogonality of AGOX chemistry were demonstrated by the selective labeling of an endogenous neurotransmitter receptor in mouse brain slices, which are highly complicated tissue samples.

  15. Acylation stimulating protein is associated with pregnancy weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodowski, K; Zwirska-Korczala, K; Kuka, D; Kukla, M; Budziszewska, P; Zebaty, A; Wender-Ozegowska, E; Baumert, M; Wloch, A

    2008-09-01

    Among the proteins secreted by adipocytes, acylation stimulating protein (ASP), which plays a crucial role in energetic balance regulation, merits particular attention. ASP is a protein of the C3 complement system, responsible for glucose and lipids metabolism in an insulin-independent mechanism. ASP's role during pregnancy and its interactions with pregnancy hormones remains unknown. The lipogenic character of ASP may impose a question as to what extent this hormone participates in pregnant women lipogenesis, and what is the basal and postprandial ASP secretion during the second trimester of pregnancy. The results of the examinations of 26 pregnant women during the second trimester of their first pregnancy were analyzed. Due to the limited data available in the literature, a control group was examined. The group consisted of 8 healthy non-pregnant patients within similar age ranges. Blood samples were collected in order to determine ASP, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels. Basal ASP levels present in obese pregnant women (group OBP; 30.20 +/- 2.13 ng/mL) were significantly higher than those in the healthy control group (group LnP; 20.49 +/- 1.97 ng/mL), P<0.05. Mann-Whitney U test- analysis of these group differences indicated that OBP patients had significantly higher ASP levels than controls at 30 (P<0.01), 60 (P<0.01), and 120 (P<0.01) min after a meal. After a meal, the incremental ASP area under the curve in group OBW patients was significantly higher from that observed in control group LnP (718,9 +/- 263,9 ng/mL x 2h vs. 35,1 +/- 14,6 ng/mL x 2h, P<0.05). Basal concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were significantly higher in all pregnant women compared to the group of non-obese non-pregnant women. It was found that lipid parameters were highly dependent upon body mass gain during pregnancy. Group OBP demonstrated significantly higher basal concentrations of all parameters of lipid metabolism in comparison

  16. Selective acylation of primary amines in peptides and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abello, N.; Kerstjens, H.A.M.; Postma, D.S; Bischoff, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters are derivatizing agents that target primary amine groups. However, even a small molar excess of NHS may lead to acylation of hydroxyl-containing amino acids as a side reaction. We report a straightforward method for the selective removal of ester-linked acyl groups

  17. Acyl-CoA binding protein is an essential protein in mammalian cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jens; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, small interference RNA was used to knock-down acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) in HeLa, HepG2 and Chang cells. Transfection with ACBP-specific siRNA stopped growth, detached cells from the growth surface and blocked thymidine and acetate incorporation. The results show that de...

  18. Structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) and a C164Q mutant provide templates for antibacterial drug discovery and identify a buried potassium ion and a ligand-binding site that is an artefact of the crystal form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Bernhard [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Lecker, Laura S. M.; Zoltner, Martin [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Jaenicke, Elmar [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Jakob Welder Weg 26, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Schnell, Robert [Karolinska Institutet, 17 177 Stockholm (Sweden); Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Brenk, Ruth, E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-28

    Three crystal structures of recombinant P. aeruginosa FabF are reported: the apoenzyme, an active-site mutant and a complex with a fragment of a natural product inhibitor. The characterization provides reagents and new information to support antibacterial drug discovery. Bacterial infections remain a serious health concern, in particular causing life-threatening infections of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. The situation is exacerbated by the rise in antibacterial drug resistance, and new treatments are urgently sought. In this endeavour, accurate structures of molecular targets can support early-stage drug discovery. Here, crystal structures, in three distinct forms, of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) are presented. This enzyme, which is involved in fatty-acid biosynthesis, has been validated by genetic and chemical means as an antibiotic target in Gram-positive bacteria and represents a potential target in Gram-negative bacteria. The structures of apo FabF, of a C164Q mutant in which the binding site is altered to resemble the substrate-bound state and of a complex with 3-(benzoylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid are reported. This compound mimics aspects of a known natural product inhibitor, platensimycin, and surprisingly was observed binding outside the active site, interacting with a symmetry-related molecule. An unusual feature is a completely buried potassium-binding site that was identified in all three structures. Comparisons suggest that this may represent a conserved structural feature of FabF relevant to fold stability. The new structures provide templates for structure-based ligand design and, together with the protocols and reagents, may underpin a target-based drug-discovery project for urgently needed antibacterials.

  19. Obesity-inducing diet promotes acylation stimulating protein resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisette, Alexandre; Lapointe, Marc; Cianflone, Katherine

    2013-08-02

    Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipokine derived from the immune complement system that is involved in energy homeostasis and inflammation. ASP acts on and correlates positively with postprandial fat clearance in healthy subjects. However, in obesity, ASP levels are elevated and correlate inversely with fat clearance, indicative of a potential resistance to ASP. Using a mouse model, we hypothesized that, over time, diet-induced obesity (DIO) would result in development of ASP insensitivity, as compared to chow-fed animals as controls. Injection of recombinant ASP in DIO mice failed to accelerate fat clearance to the same extent as in chow-fed mice. DIO mice exhibited higher basal levels of plasma ASP and, after 30weeks of diet, showed lower ASP receptor (C5L2) expression in adipose tissue compared to chow-fed mice. Additionally, ex vivo ASP stimulation failed to induce normal Ser(473)AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue from DIO mice VS chow-fed controls. These results demonstrate for the first time a state of diet-induced ASP resistance. Changes in the ASP-C5L2 pathway dynamics in obesity could alter the development of obesity and co-morbidities such as atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acyl-coenzyme A organizes laterally in membranes and is recognized specifically by acyl-coenzyme A binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen Simonsen, A; Bernchou Jensen, U; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2003-01-01

    Long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) is a biochemically important amphiphilic molecule that is known to partition strongly into membranes by insertion of the acyl chain. At present, microscopically resolved evidence is lacking on how acyl-CoA influences and organizes laterally in membranes. By a...

  1. Cardiolipin molecular species with shorter acyl chains accumulate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants lacking the acyl coenzyme A-binding protein Acb1p: New insights into acyl chain remodeling of cardiolipin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, P.J.; Houtkooper, R.H.; Akbari, H.; Brouwers, J.F.H.M.; Koorengevel, M.C.; de Kruijff, B.; Frentzen, M.; Vaz, F.M.; de Kroon, A.I.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The function of the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) is thought to depend on its acyl chain composition. The present study aims at a better understanding of the way the CL species profile is established in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using depletion of the acyl-CoA-binding protein Acb1p

  2. Production of a Brassica napus low-molecular mass acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein in Arabidopsis alters the acyl-coenzyme A pool and acyl composition of oil in seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-molecular mass (10 kD) cytosolic acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) has a substantial influence over fatty acid (FA) composition in oilseeds, possibly via an effect on the partitioning of acyl groups between elongation and desaturation pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that the expressio...

  3. Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) can mediate intermembrane acyl-CoA transport and donate acyl-CoA for beta-oxidation and glycerolipid synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J T; Færgeman, Nils J.; Kristiansen, K

    1994-01-01

    The dissociation constants for octanoyl-CoA, dodecanoyl-CoA and hexadecanoyl-CoA binding to acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) were determined by using titration microcalorimetry. The KD values obtained, (0.24 +/- 0.02) x 10(-6) M, (0.65 +/- 0.2) x 10(-8) M and (0.45 +/- 0.2) x 10(-13) M respectivel...... on a nitrocellulose membrane, and to donate them to beta-oxidation or glycerolipid synthesis in mitochondria or microsomes, respectively....

  4. Heterogeneous N-terminal acylation of retinal proteins results from the retina's unusual lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereta, Grzegorz; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-05-10

    Protein N-myristoylation occurs by a covalent attachment of a C14:0 fatty acid to the N-terminal Gly residue. This reaction is catalyzed by a N-myristoyltransferase that uses myristoyl-coenzyme A as substrate. But proteins in the retina also undergo heterogeneous N-acylation with C14:2, C14:1, and C12:0 fatty acids. The basis and the role of this retina-specific phenomenon are poorly understood. We studied guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP1) as an example of retina-specific heterogeneously N-acylated protein. The types and the abundance of fatty acids bound to bovine retinal GCAP1 were C14:2, 37.0%; C14:0, 32.4%; C14:1, 22.3%; and C12:0, 8.3% as quantified by liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry. We also devised a method for N-acylating proteins in vitro and used it to modify GCAP1 with acyl moieties of different lengths. Analysis of these GCAPs both confirmed that N-terminal acylation of GCAP1 is critical for its high activity and proper Ca(2+)-dependent response and revealed comparable functionality for GCAP1 with acyl moieties of various lengths. We also tested the hypothesis that retinal heterogeneous N-acylation results from retinal enrichment of unusual N-myristoyltransferase substrates. Thus, acyl-coenzyme A esters were purified from both bovine retina and brain and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry. Substantial differences in acyl-coenzyme A profiles between the retina and brain were detected. Importantly, the ratios of uncommon N-acylation substrates--C14:2- and C14:1-coenyzme A to C14:0-coenzyme A--were higher in the retina than in the brain. Thus, our results suggest that heterogeneous N-acylation, responsible for expansion of retinal proteome, reflects the unique character of retinal lipid metabolism. Additionally, we propose a new hypothesis explaining the physiological relevance of elevated retinal ratios of C14:2- and C14:1-coenzyme A to C14:0-coenzyme A.

  5. Exploring the Leishmania Hydrophilic Acylated Surface Protein B (HASPB) Export Pathway by Live Cell Imaging Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Lorna; Price, Helen; O'Toole, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania major is a human-infective protozoan parasite transmitted by the bite of the female phlebotomine sand fly. The L. major hydrophilic acylated surface protein B (HASPB) is only expressed in infective parasite stages suggesting a role in parasite virulence. HASPB is a "nonclassically" secreted protein that lacks a conventional signal peptide, reaching the cell surface by an alternative route to the classical ER-Golgi pathway. Instead HASPB trafficking to and exposure on the parasite plasma membrane requires dual N-terminal acylation. Here, we use live cell imaging methods to further explore this pathway allowing visualization of key events in real time at the individual cell level. These methods include live cell imaging using fluorescent reporters to determine the subcellular localization of wild type and acylation site mutation HASPB18-GFP fusion proteins, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to analyze the dynamics of HASPB in live cells, and live antibody staining to detect surface exposure of HASPB by confocal microscopy.

  6. The acyl-CoA binding protein is required for normal epidermal barrier function in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Bek, Signe; Marcher, Ann-Britt

    2012-01-01

    The acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is a 10 kDa intracellular protein expressed in all eukaryotic species. Mice with targeted disruption of Acbp (ACBP(-/-) mice) are viable and fertile but present a visible skin and fur phenotype characterized by greasy fur and development of alopecia and scaling...

  7. Impaired response of fibroblasts from patients with hyperapobetalipoproteinemia to acylation-stimulating protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Cianflone, K M; Maslowska, M H; Sniderman, A D

    1990-01-01

    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) is a small, basic, human plasma protein that markedly stimulates triglyceride synthesis in human adipocytes and cultured human skin fibroblasts. The present studies examine the response to ASP of cultured skin fibroblasts from normal subjects patients with hyperapobetalipoproteinemia, patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, and patients with hypertriglyceridemia without hyperapobetalipoproteinemia. Triglyceride synthesis induced by ASP did not differ s...

  8. Food proteins as potential carriers for phenolics

    OpenAIRE

    Bohin, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of phenolic-rich functional foods is often limited by the off-tastes of phenolics that might be counteracted by sequestering these compounds using a carrier, thereby preventing them to interact with bitter taste receptors and salivary proteins. A range of common animal food proteins were tested for binding of phenolics. It appeared that a proline-rich open protein structure, as in β-casein, favored binding of phenolics. Globular proteins other than bovine serum albumin sh...

  9. Computational Prediction of acyl-coA Binding Proteins Structure in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboanatahiry, Nadia Haingotiana; Lu, Guangyuan; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Acyl-coA binding proteins could transport acyl-coA esters from plastid to endoplasmic reticulum, prior to fatty acid biosynthesis, leading to the formation of triacylglycerol. The structure and the subcellular localization of acyl-coA binding proteins (ACBP) in Brassica napus were computationally predicted in this study. Earlier, the structure analysis of ACBPs was limited to the small ACBPs, the current study focused on all four classes of ACBPs. Physicochemical parameters including the size and the length, the intron-exon structure, the isoelectric point, the hydrophobicity, and the amino acid composition were studied. Furthermore, identification of conserved residues and conserved domains were carried out. Secondary structure and tertiary structure of ACBPs were also studied. Finally, subcellular localization of ACBPs was predicted. The findings indicated that the physicochemical parameters and subcellular localizations of ACBPs in Brassica napus were identical to Arabidopsis thaliana. Conserved domain analysis indicated that ACBPs contain two or three kelch domains that belong to different families. Identical residues in acyl-coA binding domains corresponded to eight amino acid residues in all ACBPs of B. napus. However, conserved residues of common ACBPs in all species of animal, plant, bacteria and fungi were only inclusive in small ACBPs. Alpha-helixes were displayed and conserved in all the acyl-coA binding domains, representing almost the half of the protein structure. The findings confirm high similarities in ACBPs between A. thaliana and B. napus, they might share the same functions but loss or gain might be possible.

  10. Food proteins as potential carriers for phenolics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohin, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of phenolic-rich functional foods is often limited by the off-tastes of phenolics that might be counteracted by sequestering these compounds using a carrier, thereby preventing them to interact with bitter taste receptors and salivary proteins. A range of common animal food proteins

  11. Reprogramming Acyl Carrier Protein Interactions of an Acyl-CoA Promiscuous trans-Acyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Zhixia; Musiol-Kroll, Ewa Maria; Weber, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    -ATs with unusual extender unit specificities. Currently, the best-studied trans-AT with nonmalonyl specificity is KirCII from kirromycin biosynthesis. Here, we eveloped an assay to probe ACP interactions based on leveraging the extender unit promiscuity of KirCII. The assay allows us to identify residues...

  12. Effect of heterologous expression of acyl-CoA-binding protein on acyl-CoA level and composition in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, S; Jepsen, R; Skøtt, H

    1993-01-01

    We have expressed a bovine synthetic acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) gene in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the control of the GAL1 promoter. The heterologously expressed bovine ACBP constituted up to 6.4% of total cellular protein and the processing was identical with that of native bovine...... ACBP, i.e. the initiating methionine was removed and the following serine residue was N-acetylated. The expression of this protein did not affect the growth rate of the cells. Determination of the yeast acyl-CoA pool size showed a close positive correlation between the ACBP content of the cells...

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of an acyl-ACP thioesterase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase is a nuclear encoded plastid localized enzyme which plays an essential role in chain termination during de novo fatty acid synthesis in plant. FatB genes coding for this enzyme from a variety of plant species have been isolated and characterized. However, there are few reports on ...

  14. Apolipoprotein A-I Helsinki promotes intracellular acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) protein accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Juan D; Garda, Horacio A; Cabaleiro, Laura V; Cuellar, Angela; Pellon-Maison, Magali; Gonzalez-Baro, Maria R; Gonzalez, Marina C

    2013-05-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport is a process of high antiatherogenic relevance in which apolipoprotein AI (apoA-I) plays an important role. The interaction of apoA-I with peripheral cells produces through mechanisms that are still poorly understood the mobilization of intracellular cholesterol depots toward plasma membrane. In macrophages, these mechanisms seem to be related to the modulation of the activity of acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), the enzyme responsible for the intracellular cholesterol ester biosynthesis that is stored in lipid droplets. The activation of ACAT and the accumulation of lipid droplets play a key role in the transformation of macrophages into foam cells, leading to the formation of atheroma or atherosclerotic plaque. ApoA-I Helsinki (or ∆K107) is a natural apoA-I variant with a lysine deletion in the central protein region, carriers of which have increased atherosclerosis risk. We herein show that treatment of cultured RAW macrophages or CHOK1 cells with ∆K107, but not with wild-type apoA-I or a variant containing a similar deletion at the C-terminal region (∆K226), lead to a marked increase (more than 10 times) in the intracellular ACAT1 protein level as detected by western blot analysis. However, we could only detect a slight increase in cholesteryl ester produced by ∆K107 mainly when Chol loading was supplied by low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although a similar choline-phospholipid efflux is evoked by these apoA-I variants, the change in phosphatidylcholine/sphyngomyelin distribution produced by wild-type apoA-I is not observed with either ∆K107 or ∆K226.

  15. Inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by expression of acyl-CoA-binding protein antisense RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, S; Sorensen, R V; Helledie, T

    1998-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have recently underscored the significance of fatty acids or fatty acid-derived metabolites as signaling molecules in adipocyte differentiation. The acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP), which functions as an intracellular acyl-CoA pool former and transporter, is induced duri...

  16. Recombinant expression, purification, and characterization of an acyl-CoA binding protein from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qing; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Guozhong; Jiang, Lu; Li, Ming; Zeng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    To characterize biochemically the lipid metabolism-regulating acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) from the industrially-important fungus Aspergillus oryzae. A full-length cDNA encoding a candidate ACBP from A. oryzae (AoACBP) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion protein. The MBP-AoACBP protein was purified by an amylose resin chromatography column. SDS-PAGE showed that MBP-AoACBP has an estimated molecular weight of 82 kDa. Microscale thermophoresis binding assay showed that the recombinant AoACBP displayed much greater affinity for palmitoyl-CoA (K d = 80 nM) than for myristoyl-CoA (K d = 510 nM), thus demonstrating the preference of AoACBP for long-chain acyl-CoA. The data support the identification of AoACBP as a long-chain ACBP in A. oryzae.

  17. X-Ray Crystallographic Studies on Butyryl-ACP Reveal Flexibility of the Structure around a Putative Acyl Chain Binding Site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roujeinikova, A.; Baldock, C.; Simon, W.J.; Gilroy, J.; Baker, P.J.; Stuitje, A.R.; Rice, D.W.; Slabas, A.R.; Rafferty, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is an essential cofactor in biosynthesis of fatty acids and many other reactions that require acyl transfer steps. We have determined the first crystal structures of an acylated form of ACP from E. coli, that of butyryl-ACP. Our analysis of the molecular surface of ACP

  18. Acyl-ACP substrate recognition in Burkholderia mallei BmaI1 acyl-homoserine lactone synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montebello, Aubrey N; Brecht, Ryan M; Turner, Remington D; Ghali, Miranda; Pu, Xinzhu; Nagarajan, Rajesh

    2014-10-07

    The acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) autoinducer mediated quorum sensing regulates virulence in several pathogenic bacteria. The hallmark of an efficient quorum sensing system relies on the tight specificity in the signal generated by each bacterium. Since AHL signal specificity is derived from the acyl-chain of the acyl-ACP (ACP = acyl carrier protein) substrate, AHL synthase enzymes must recognize and react with the native acyl-ACP with high catalytic efficiency while keeping reaction rates with non-native acyl-ACPs low. The mechanism of acyl-ACP substrate recognition in these enzymes, however, remains elusive. In this study, we investigated differences in catalytic efficiencies for shorter and longer chain acyl-ACP substrates reacting with an octanoyl-homoserine lactone synthase Burkholderia mallei BmaI1. With the exception of two-carbon shorter hexanoyl-ACP, the catalytic efficiencies of butyryl-ACP, decanoyl-ACP, and octanoyl-CoA reacting with BmaI1 decreased by greater than 20-fold compared to the native octanoyl-ACP substrate. Furthermore, we also noticed kinetic cooperativity when BmaI1 reacted with non-native acyl-donor substrates. Our kinetic data suggest that non-native acyl-ACP substrates are unable to form a stable and productive BmaI1·acyl-ACP·SAM ternary complex and are thus effectively discriminated by the enzyme. These results offer insights into the molecular basis of substrate recognition for the BmaI1 enzyme.

  19. Heterogeneous N-terminal Acylation of Retinal Proteins Results from the Retina’s Unusual Lipid Metabolism†,§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereta, Grzegorz; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Protein N-myristoylation occurs by a covalent attachment of a C14:0 fatty acid to the N-terminal Gly residue. This reaction is catalyzed by a N-myristoyltransferase that uses myristoyl-coenzyme A as substrate. But proteins in the retina also undergo heterogeneous N-acylation with C14:2, C14:1 and C12:0 fatty acids. The basis and the role of this retina-specific phenomenon are poorly understood. We studied guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP1) as an example of retina-specific heterogeneously N-acylated protein. The types and the abundance of fatty acids bound to bovine retinal GCAP1 were: C14:2, 37.0%; C14:0, 32.4%; C14:1, 22.3%; and C12:0, 8.3% as quantified by liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry. We also devised a method for N-acylating proteins in vitro and used it to modify GCAP1 with acyl moieties of different lengths. Analysis of these GCAPs both confirmed that N-terminal acylation of GCAP1 is critical for its high activity and proper Ca2+-dependent response and revealed comparable functionality for GCAP1 with acyl moieties of various lengths. We also tested the hypothesis that retinal heterogeneous N-acylation results from retinal enrichment of unusual N-myristoyltransferase substrates. Thus, acyl-coenzyme A esters were purified from both bovine retina and brain and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry. Substantial differences in acyl-coenzyme A profiles between the retina and brain were detected. Importantly, the ratios of uncommon N-acylation substrates; C14:2- and C14:1-coenyzme A to C14:0-coenzyme A were higher in the retina than in the brain. Thus, our results suggest that heterogeneous N-acylation, responsible for expansion of retinal proteome, reflects the unique character of retinal lipid metabolism. Additionally, we propose a new hypothesis explaining the physiological relevance of elevated retinal ratios of C14:2- and C14:1-coenzyme A to C14:0-coenzyme A. PMID:21449552

  20. Acyl and total ghrelin are suppressed strongly by ingested proteins, weakly by lipids, and biphasically by carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Overduin, Joost; Prudom, Catherine E; Liu, Jianhua; Callahan, Holly S; Gaylinn, Bruce D; Thorner, Michael O; Cummings, David E

    2008-05-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that can increase body weight. Its circulating levels increase before meals and are suppressed after food ingestion. Understanding the effects of specific types of ingested macronutrients on ghrelin regulation could facilitate the design of weight-reducing diets. We sought to understand how ingestion of carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids affect acyl (bioactive) and total ghrelin levels among human subjects, hypothesizing that lipids might suppress ghrelin levels less effectively than do either carbohydrates or proteins. This was a randomized, within-subjects cross-over study. The study was conducted at a University Clinical Research Center. There were 16 healthy human subjects included in the study. Isocaloric, isovolemic beverages composed primarily of carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids were provided. The magnitude of postprandial suppression of total and acyl ghrelin levels (measured with a novel acyl-selective, two-site ELISA) was determined. All beverages suppressed plasma acyl and total ghrelin levels. A significant effect of macronutrient class on decremental area under the curve for both acyl and total ghrelin was observed; the rank order for magnitude of suppression was protein more than carbohydrate more than lipid. Total ghrelin nadir levels were significantly lower after both carbohydrate and protein, compared with lipid beverages. In the first 3 postprandial hours, the rank order for acyl and total ghrelin suppression was carbohydrate more than protein more than lipid. In the subsequent 3 h, there was a marked rebound above preprandial values of acyl and total ghrelin after carbohydrate ingestion alone. These findings suggest possible mechanisms contributing to the effects of high-protein/low-carbohydrate diets to promote weight loss, and high-fat diets to promote weight gain.

  1. Production of a Brassica napus Low-Molecular Mass Acyl-Coenzyme A-Binding Protein in Arabidopsis Alters the Acyl-Coenzyme A Pool and Acyl Composition of Oil in Seeds1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Olga; Singer, Stacy D.; Nykiforuk, Cory L.; Gidda, Satinder; Mullen, Robert T.; Moloney, Maurice M.; Weselake, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Low-molecular mass (10 kD) cytosolic acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) has a substantial influence over fatty acid (FA) composition in oilseeds, possibly via an effect on the partitioning of acyl groups between elongation and desaturation pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that the expression of a Brassica napus ACBP (BnACBP) complementary DNA in the developing seeds of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in increased levels of polyunsaturated FAs at the expense of eicosenoic acid (20:1cisΔ11) and saturated FAs in seed oil. In this study, we investigated whether alterations in the FA composition of seed oil at maturity were correlated with changes in the acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) pool in developing seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BnACBP. Our results indicated that both the acyl-CoA pool and seed oil of transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing cytosolic BnACBP exhibited relative increases in linoleic acid (18:2cisΔ9,12; 17.9%–44.4% and 7%–13.2%, respectively) and decreases in 20:1cisΔ11 (38.7%–60.7% and 13.8%–16.3%, respectively). However, alterations in the FA composition of the acyl-CoA pool did not always correlate with those seen in the seed oil. In addition, we found that targeting of BnACBP to the endoplasmic reticulum resulted in FA compositional changes that were similar to those seen in lines expressing cytosolic BnACBP, with the most prominent exception being a relative reduction in α-linolenic acid (18:3cisΔ9,12,15) in both the acyl-CoA pool and seed oil of the former (48.4%–48.9% and 5.3%–10.4%, respectively). Overall, these data support the role of ACBP in acyl trafficking in developing seeds and validate its use as a biotechnological tool for modifying the FA composition of seed oil. PMID:24740000

  2. Binding of acyl CoA by fatty acid binding protein and the effect on fatty acid activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrier, R.E.; Manson, C.R.; Brecher, P.

    1987-05-01

    The ability of purified rat liver and heart fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) to bind oleoyl CoA and modulate acyl CoA synthesis by microsomal membranes was investigated. Using binding assays employing either Lipidex 1000 or multilamellar liposomes to sequester unbound ligand, rat liver but not rat heart FABP was shown to bind radiolabeled acyl CoA. Binding studies suggest that liver FABP has a single binding site for acyl CoA which is separate from the two binding sites for fatty acids. Experiments were then performed to determine how binding may influence acyl CoA metabolism by liver microsomes or heart sarcoplasmic reticulum. Using liposomes as fatty acid donors, liver FABP stimulated acyl CoA production whereas heart FABP did not stimulate production over control values. /sup 14/C-Fatty acid-FABP complexes were prepared, incubated with membranes and acyl CoA synthetase activity was determined. Up to 70% of the fatty acid could be converted to acyl CoA in the presence of liver FABP but in the presence of heart FABP, only 45% of the fatty acid was converted. The amount of product formed was not changed by additional membrane, enzyme cofactor, or incubation time. Liver but not heart FABP bound the acyl CoA formed and removed it from the membranes. These studies suggest that liver FABP can increase the amount of acyl CoA by binding this ligand thereby removing it from the membrane and possibly aiding transport within the cell.

  3. A novel Dps-type protein from insect gut bacteria catalyses hydrolysis and synthesis of N-acyl amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Liyan; Büchler, Rita; Mithöfer, Axel; Svatos, Ales; Spiteller, Dieter; Dettner, Konrad; Gmeiner, Sophie; Piel, Jörn; Schlott, Bernhard; Boland, Wilhelm

    2007-06-01

    A novel type of a microbial N-acyl amino acid hydrolase (AAH) from insect gut bacteria was purified, cloned and functionally characterized. The enzyme was obtained from Microbacterium arborescens SE14 isolated from the foregut of larvae of the generalist herbivore Spodoptera exigua. The substrates of AAH are N-acyl-glutamines previously reported to elicit plant defence reactions after introduction into the leaf during feeding. The isolated AAH catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond (K(m) = 36 micromol l(-1)) and, less efficient, the formation (K(m) = 3 mmol l(-1)) of the elicitor active N-acyl amino acids. The AAH from M. arborescens SE14 shows no homology to known fatty acyl amidases (EC 3.5.1.4) but belongs to the family of Dps proteins (DNA-binding protein from starved cell). In line with other DPS proteins AAH is a homododecamer (monomer 17 181 Da) and contains iron atoms (c. 1-16 iron atoms per subunit). Unlike genuine DPS proteins the enzyme does not significantly bind DNA. Amino acid hydrolase is the first member of the DPS family that catalyses the cleavage or formation of amide bonds. The participation of a microbial enzyme in the homeostasis of N-acyl-glutamines in the insect gut adds further complexity to the interaction between plants and their herbivores.

  4. Conserved residues and their role in the structure, function, and stability of acyl-coenzyme A binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, B B; Poulsen, K; Andersen, K V

    1999-01-01

    In the family of acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins, a subset of 26 sequence sites are identical in all eukaryotes and conserved throughout evolution of the eukaryotic kingdoms. In the context of the bovine protein, the importance of these 26 sequence positions for structure, function, stability, a...

  5. Regulatory elements in the promoter region of the rat gene encoding the acyl-CoA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, M; Bjerking, G; Knudsen, J

    1996-01-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is an ubiquitously expressed 10-kDa protein which is present in high amounts in cells involved in solute transport or secretion. Rat ACBP is encoded by a gene containing the typical hallmarks of a housekeeping gene. Analysis of the promoter region of the rat ACBP g...

  6. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Penicillin-Binding Protein 3 Demonstrates a Pronounced Preference for Nε-Acylated Substrates†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddi, Sridhar; Nicholas, Robert A.; Gutheil, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are bacterial enzymes involved in the final stages of cell wall biosynthesis, and are the lethal targets of β-lactam antibiotics. Despite their importance, their roles in cell wall biosynthesis remain enigmatic. A series of eight substrates, based on variation of the pentapeptide Boc-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala, were synthesized to test specificity for three features of PBP substrates: 1) the presence or absence of an Nε-acyl group, 2) the presence of D-IsoGln in place of γ-D-Glu, and 3) the presence or absence of the N-terminal L-Ala residue. The capacity of these peptides to serve as substrates for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) PBP3 was assessed. NG PBP3 demonstrated good catalytic efficiency (2.5 × 105 M−1sec−1) with the best of these substrates, with a pronounced preference (50-fold) for Nε-acylated substrates over Nε-nonacylated substrates. This observation suggests that NG PBP3 is specific for the ∼D-Ala-D-Ala moiety of pentapeptides engaged in cross-links in the bacterial cell wall, such that NG PBP3 would act after transpeptidase-catalyzed reactions generate the acylated amino group required for its specificity. NG PBP3 demonstrated low selectivity for γ-D-Glu vs D-IsoGln, and for the presence or absence of the terminal L-Ala residue. The implications of this substrate specificity of NG PBP3 with respect to its possible role in cell wall biosynthesis, and for understanding the substrate specificity of the LMM PBPs in general, are discussed. PMID:19413336

  7. ACBP and cholesterol differentially alter fatty acyl CoA utilization by microsomal ACAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsu; Zhou, Minglong; McIntosh, Avery; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Kier, Ann B

    2003-01-01

    Microsomal acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is stimulated in vitro and/or in intact cells by proteins that bind and transfer both substrates, cholesterol, and fatty acyl CoA. To resolve the role of fatty acyl CoA binding independent of cholesterol binding/transfer, a protein that exclusively binds fatty acyl CoA (acyl CoA binding protein, ACBP) was compared. ACBP contains an endoplasmic reticulum retention motif and significantly colocalized with acyl-CoA cholesteryl acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) and endoplasmic reticulum markers in L-cell fibroblasts and hepatoma cells, respectively. In the presence of exogenous cholesterol, ACAT was stimulated in the order: ACBP > sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) > liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP). Stimulation was in the same order as the relative affinities of the proteins for fatty acyl CoA. In contrast, in the absence of exogenous cholesterol, these proteins inhibited microsomal ACAT, but in the same order: ACBP > SCP-2 > L-FABP. The extracellular protein BSA stimulated microsomal ACAT regardless of the presence or absence of exogenous cholesterol. Thus, ACBP was the most potent intracellular fatty acyl CoA binding protein in differentially modulating the activity of microsomal ACAT to form cholesteryl esters independent of cholesterol binding/transfer ability.

  8. Designed Proteins as Optimized Oxygen Carriers for Artificial Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Optimized Oxygen Carriers for Artificial Blood PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ronald L. Koder, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The City...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Designed Proteins as Optimized Oxygen Carriers for Artificial Blood 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...incorporation into the crosslinked particles that are the goal of year three. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Artificial Blood, Blood Substitute 16. SECURITY

  9. Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi in a ligand-dependent manner in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper S; Færgeman, Nils J; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we microinjected fluorescently labelled liver bovine ACBP (acyl-CoA-binding protein) [FACI-50 (fluorescent acyl-CoA indicator-50)] into HeLa and BMGE (bovine mammary gland epithelial) cell lines to characterize the localization and dynamics of ACBP in living cells. Results s...

  10. Efficacy of Food Proteins as Carriers for Flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohin, M.C.; Vincken, J.P.; Hijden, H.T.W.M.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Enrichment of flavonoids in food is often limited by their off-tastes, which might be counteracted by the use of food proteins as carriers of flavonoids. Various milk proteins, egg proteins, and gelatin hydrolysates were compared for their binding characteristics to two flavan-3-ols. Among the

  11. The gene encoding acyl-CoA-binding protein is subject to metabolic regulation by both sterol regulatory element-binding protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in hepatocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Maria B; Bloksgaard, Maria; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a 10-kDa intracellular lipid-binding protein that transports acylCoA esters. The protein is expressed in most cell types at low levels; however, expression is particularly high in cells with a high turnover of fatty acids. Here we confirm a previous observat...

  12. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by solubil...... by solubilization of the lamellae in phenol/acetic acid/8 M urea. Feeding barley seedlings with [14C]-biotin revealed that the vitamin is not degraded into respiratory substrates by the plant, but is specifically incorporated into biotin carboxyl carrier protein....

  13. Acyl CoA Binding Proteins are Required for Cuticle Formation and Plant Responses to Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ye; Yu, Keshun; Gao, Qing-ming; Wilson, Ella V.; Navarre, Duroy; Kachroo, Pradeep; Kachroo, Aardra

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA) and lipids are well known regulators of plant defense. Our previous studies have shown that components of prokaryotic (plastidal) FA biosynthesis pathway regulate various aspects of plant defense. Here, we investigated the defense related roles of the soluble acyl CoA binding proteins (ACBPs), which are thought to facilitate the intracellular transport of FA/lipids. We show that ACBP3 and 4 are required for maintaining normal lipid levels and that ACBP3 contributes to the lipid flux between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways. We also show that loss of ACBP3, 4, or 6 impair normal development of the cuticle and affect both basal and resistance protein-mediated defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Loss of ACBP3, 4, or 6 also inhibits the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) due to the plants inability to generate SAR inducing signal(s). Together, these data show that ACBP3, ACBP4, and ACBP6 are required for cuticle development as well as defense against microbial pathogens. PMID:23060893

  14. Acyl CoA binding proteins are required for cuticle formation and plant responses to microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye eXia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FA and lipids are well known regulators of plant defense. Our previous studies have shown that components of prokaryotic (plastidal FA biosynthesis pathway regulate various aspects of plant defense. Here, we investigated the defense related roles of the soluble acyl CoA binding proteins (ACBP, which are thought to facilitate the intracellular transport of FA/lipids. We show that ACBP3 and 4 are required for maintaining normal lipids levels and that ACBP3 contributes to the lipid flux between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways. We also show that loss of ACBP 3, 4, or 6 impair normal development of the cuticle and affect both basal and resistance protein-mediated defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Loss of ACBP3, 4, or 6 also inhibits the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR due to the plants inability to generate SAR inducing signal(s. Together, these data show that ACBP3, ACBP4 and ACBP6 are required for cuticle development as well as defense against microbial pathogens.

  15. Selenoprotein K Increases Efficiency of DHHC6 Catalyzed Protein Palmitoylation by Stabilizing the Acyl-DHHC6 Intermediate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Fredericks

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Selenoprotein K (SELENOK is a selenocysteine (Sec-containing protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane where it interacts with the DHHC6 (where single letter symbols represent Asp-His-His-Cys amino acids enzyme to promote protein acyl transferase (PAT reactions. PAT reactions involve the DHHC enzymatic capture of palmitate via a thioester bond to cysteine (Cys residues that form an unstable palmitoyl-DHHC intermediate, followed by transfer of palmitate to Cys residues of target proteins. How SELENOK facilitates this reaction has not been determined. Splenocyte microsomal preparations from wild-type mice versus SELENOK knockout mice were used to establish PAT assays and showed decreased PAT activity (~50% under conditions of SELENOK deficiency. Using recombinant, soluble versions of DHHC6 along with SELENOK containing Sec92, Cys92, or alanine (Ala92, we evaluated the stability of the acyl-DHHC6 intermediate and its capacity to transfer the palmitate residue to Cys residues on target peptides. Versions of SELENOK containing either Ala or Cys residues in place of Sec were equivalently less effective than Sec at stabilizing the acyl-DHHC6 intermediate or promoting PAT activity. These data suggest that Sec92 in SELENOK serves to stabilize the palmitoyl-DHHC6 intermediate by reducing hydrolyzation of the thioester bond until transfer of the palmitoyl group to the Cys residue on the target protein can occur.

  16. Perturbation of intracellular acyl-CoA metabolism induces the unfolded protein response pathway and autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Feddersen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    , a transcription factor regulating the unfolded protein response and membrane biogenesis, as well as Hac1p target genes incl. KAR2 and PDI1. Under similar conditions, we find a massive upregulation of pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS) formation, indicative of upregulation of autophagy. Supplementation....... This and the facts that Acb1p-depleted cells are hypersensitive to the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin and accumulate the transcription factor Msn2p in  the nucleus, indicate that perturbation of intracellular acyl-CoA metabolism leads to  a starvation response that upregulate autophagy, which involves both Ras...... autophagy mainly is a response to the stress of nutrient limitation. In the present study, we demonstrate that perturbation of fatty acid synthesis and transport either through inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) or by depleting cells for the acyl-CoA binding protein, Acb1p, leads to induction of Hac1p...

  17. Pupil response biomarkers distinguish amyloid precursor protein mutation carriers from non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Shaun M; Kanagasingam, Yogesan; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Taddei, Kevin; Bateman, Randall; Morris, John; Benzinger, Tammie; Goate, Alison; Masters, Colin L; Martins, Ralph N

    2013-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is usually only diagnosed many years after pathology begins. Earlier detection would allow emerging interventions to have a greater chance to preserve healthy brain function. A rare form of Alzheimer's disease, caused by autosomal-dominant mutations, affects carriers with 100% certainty and at a younger age specific to their mutation. Studying families with these mutations allows a unique investigation of the temporal sequence of biomarker changes in Alzheimer's disease. To determine whether the pupil flash response (PFR), previously reported to be altered in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, is different in pre-symptomatic mutation carriers. Researchers blinded to participant mutation status collected pupil response data from cognitively normal participants in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN) Study during 2010-2011. The pupil response was examined at the McCusker Alzheimer's Research Foundation in Perth, Western Australia. Participants were from a single family harboring an Amyloid-Beta Precursor Protein genetic mutation (APPGlu693Gln). Six carriers and six non-carriers were available for pupil testing (age 43.0±8.3 years old, 2 males and 10 females, 4 with hypertension). Pupil response parameter comparison between mutation carriers and non-carriers. 75% recovery time was longer in mutation carriers (p<0.0003, ROC AUC 1.000, Sensitivity 100%, Specificity 100%) and percentage recovery 3.5 seconds after stimulus was less in mutation carriers (p<0.006, ROC AUC 1.000, Sensitivity 100%, Specificity 100%). PFR changes occur pre-symptomatically in autosomal dominant AD mutation carriers, supporting further investigation of PFR for early detection of AD.

  18. The effects of acylation stimulating protein supplementation VS antibody neutralization on energy expenditure in wildtype mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ying

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acylation stimulating protein (ASP is an adipogenic hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG synthesis and glucose transport in adipocytes. Previous studies have shown that ASP-deficient C3 knockout mice are hyperphagic yet lean, as they display increased oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation compared to wildtype mice. In the present study, antibodies against ASP (Anti-ASP and human recombinant ASP (rASP were tested in vitro and in vivo. Continuous administration for 4 weeks via osmotic mini-pump of Anti-ASP or rASP was evaluated in wildtype mice on a high-fat diet (HFD to examine their effects on body weight, food intake and energy expenditure. Results In mature murine adipocytes, rASP significantly stimulated fatty acid uptake (+243% vs PBS, P Conclusion In vitro, Anti-ASP effectively neutralized ASP stimulated fatty acid uptake. In vivo, Anti-ASP treatment increased whole body energy utilization while rASP increased energy storage. Therefore, ASP is a potent anabolic hormone that may also be a mediator of energy expenditure.

  19. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF ACYL-COENZYME A BINDING PROTEINS (ACBPs: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Arya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ACBP was originally identified as a mammalian diazepam binding inhibitor – a neuropeptide that has the ability to inhibit diazepam binding to the �-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptor (Guidotti et al., 1983. Typically, ACBPs are small (~10 kDa cytosolic proteins (Burton et al., 2005. However, a number of hybrid ACBPs are reported that are fused with ankyrin repeats, such as ACBP1 and ACBP2 in Arabidopsis thaliana (Chye et al., 1999; Li and Chye, 2003. Other functional domains, such as the human peroxisomal �3/ �2-enoyl-CoA isomerase (Geisbrecht et al., 1999, or any non-functional/ uncharacterized domain are also cited. ACBP predominantly functions as an intracellular acyl-CoA transporter and pool former, and is critical to lipid metabolism in cells (Gossett et al., 1996; Knudsen et al., 2000; Schroeder et al., 1998. Impaired lipid metabolism and other cellular functions in humans arising out of ACBP defects thus need to be explored. ACBP has only been reported in eukaryotes, not in prokaryotes, except for a few pathogenic eubacteria that might have acquired ACBP from eukaryotic hosts via lateral gene transfer (Burton et al., 2005. Whole genome sequences of several prokaryotes and pathogens being available currently, it is worthwhile to extend search for ACBPs beyond eukaryotes as well, to explore their potential as drug targets, given their essential role in lipid metabolism. As a prelude to such investigations, the current review summarizes available knowledge of ACBPs and outlines the scope of future research.

  20. Fluorescence anisotropy-based measurement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa penicillin-binding protein 2 transpeptidase inhibitor acylation rate constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam B; Gao, Ning; Gu, Rong-Fang; Thresher, Jason

    2014-10-15

    High-molecular-weight penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are essential integral membrane proteins of the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane responsible for biosynthesis of peptidoglycan. They are the targets of antibacterial β-lactam drugs, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. β-Lactams covalently acylate the active sites of the PBP transpeptidase domains. Because β-lactams are time-dependent inhibitors, quantitative assessment of the inhibitory activity of these compounds ideally involves measurement of their second-order acylation rate constants. We previously described a fluorescence anisotropy-based assay to measure these rate constants for soluble constructs of PBP3 (Anal. Biochem. 439 (2013) 37-43). Here we report the expression and purification of a soluble construct of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBP2 as a fusion protein with NusA. This soluble PBP2 was used to measure second-order acylation rate constants with the fluorescence anisotropy assay. Measurements were obtained for mecillinam, which reacts specifically with PBP2, and for several carbapenems. The assay also revealed that PBP2 slowly hydrolyzed mecillinam and was used to measure the rate constant for this deacylation reaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The structure of the human sterol carrier protein X/sterol carrier protein 2 gene (SCP2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Takashi; Rennert, H.; Pfeifer, S.M. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Phildelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-15

    Sterol carrier protein X (SCPx) is a 58-kDa protein that is localized to peroxisomes. The amino acid sequence of the protein suggests that SCPx may function as a thiolase. The gene encoding SCPx also codes for a 15.3-kDa protein called sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP{sub 2}). Here the authors report the structure of this gene (SCP2), which spans approximately 80 kb and consists of 16 exons and 15 introns. Multiple transcription start sites were identified. The 5{prime} flanking region has characteristics of other peroxisomal protein promoters, which include the absence of a TATA box and G+C-enriched region containing several reverse GC boxes. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Analysis of an acyl-CoA binding protein in Aspergillus oryzae that undergoes unconventional secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hee Su; Kawaguchi, Kouhei; Kikuma, Takashi; Takegawa, Kaoru; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Higuchi, Yujiro

    2017-11-04

    Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) plays important roles in the metabolism of lipids in eukaryotic cells. In the industrially important filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, although we have previously demonstrated that the A. oryzae ACBP (AoACBP) localizes to punctate structures and exhibits long-range motility, which is dependent on autophagy-related proteins, the physiological role of AoACBP remains elusive. Here, we describe identification and characterization of another ACBP from A. oryzae; we named this ACBP as AoAcb2 and accordingly renamed AoACBP as AoAcb1. The deduced amino acid sequence of AoAcb2 lacked a signal peptide. Phylogenetic analysis classified AoAcb2 into a clade that was same as the ACBP Acb1 of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but was different from that of AoAcb1. In contrast to punctate localization of AoAcb1, AoAcb2 was found to be dispersedly distributed in the cytoplasm, as was previously observed for the S. cerevisiae Acb1. Since we could not generate an Aoacb2 disruptant, we created an Aoacb2 conditional mutant that exhibited less growth under Aoacb2-repressed condition, suggesting that Aoacb2 is an essential gene for growth. Moreover, we observed that A. oryzae AoAcb2, but not A. oryzae AoAcb1, was secreted under carbon-starved condition, suggesting that AoAcb2 might be secreted via the unconventional protein secretion (UPS) pathway, just like S. cerevisiae Acb1. We also demonstrated that the unconventional secretion of AoAcb2 was dependent on the t-SNARE AoSso1, but was independent of the autophagy-related protein AoAtg1, suggesting that the unconventional secretion of AoAcb2, unlike that of S. cerevisiae Acb1, via the UPS pathway, is not regulated by the autophagy machinery. Thus, the filamentous fungus A. oryzae harbors two types of ACBPs, one of which appears to be essential for growth and undergoes unconventional secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison between medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mutant proteins overexpressed in bacterial and mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Bross, P; Andresen, B S

    1995-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a potentially lethal inherited defect in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. By comparing the behaviour of five missense MCAD mutant proteins expressed in COS cells and in Escherichia coli, we can define some of these as "pure folding mutants......." Upon expression in E. coli, these mutant proteins produce activity levels in the range of the wild-type enzyme only if the chaperonins GroESL are co-overproduced. When overexpressed in COS cells, the pure folding mutants display enzyme activities comparable to the wild-type enzyme. The results suggest...

  4. Recombinant acylation stimulating protein administration to C3-/- mice increases insulin resistance via adipocyte inflammatory mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Nancy Munkonda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement 3 (C3, a key component of the innate immune system, is involved in early inflammatory responses. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP; aka C3adesArg, a C3 cleavage product, is produced in adipose tissue and stimulates lipid storage. We hypothesized that, depending on the diet, chronic ASP administration in C3(-/- mice would affect lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity via an adaptive adipose tissue inflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C3(-/- mice on normal low fat diet (ND or high fat diet (HFD were chronically administered recombinant ASP (rASP for 25 days via an osmotic mini-pump. While there was no effect on food intake, there was a decrease in activity, with a relative increase in adipose tissue weight on ND, and a shift in adipocyte size distribution. While rASP administration to C3(-/- mice on a ND increased insulin sensitivity, on a HFD, rASP administration had the opposite effect. Specifically, rASP administration in C3(-/- HFD mice resulted in decreased gene expression of IRS1, GLUT4, SREBF1 and NFκB in muscle, and decreased C5L2 but increased JNK, CD36, CD11c, CCR2 and NFκB gene expression in adipose tissue as well as increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (Rantes, KC, MCP-1, IL-6 and G-CSF. In adipose tissue, although IRS1 and GLUT4 mRNA were unchanged, insulin response was reduced. CONCLUSION: The effects of chronic rASP administration are tissue and diet specific, rASP administration enhances the HFD induced inflammatory response leading to an insulin-resistant state. These results suggest that, in humans, the increased plasma ASP associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease could be an additional factor directly contributing to development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes.

  5. Acylation stimulating protein, complement C3 and lipid metabolism in ketosis-prone diabetic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPDM is new-onset diabetic ketoacidosis without precipitating factors in non-type 1 diabetic patients; after management, some are withdrawn from exogenous insulin, although determining factors remain unclear.Twenty KPDM patients and twelve type 1 diabetic patients (T1DM, evaluated at baseline, 12 and 24 months with/without insulin maintenance underwent a standardized mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT for 2 h.At baseline, triglyceride and C3 were higher during MMTT in KPDM vs. T1DM (p<0.0001 with no differences in non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA while Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP tended to be higher. Within 12 months, 11 KPDM were withdrawn from insulin treatment (KPDM-ins, while 9 were maintained (KPDM+ins. NEFA was lower in KPDM-ins vs. KPDM+ins at baseline (p = 0.0006, 12 months (p<0.0001 and 24 months (p<0.0001 during MMTT. NEFA in KPDM-ins decreased over 30-120 minutes (p<0.05, but not in KPDM+ins. Overall, C3 was higher in KPDM-ins vs KPDM+ins at 12 months (p = 0.0081 and 24 months (p = 0.0019, while ASP was lower at baseline (p = 0.0024 and 12 months (p = 0.0281, with a decrease in ASP/C3 ratio.Notwithstanding greater adiposity in KPDM-ins, greater NEFA decreases and lower ASP levels during MMTT suggest better insulin and ASP sensitivity in these patients.

  6. Acyl-CoA binding proteins; structural and functional conservation over 2000 MYA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergeman, Nils J; Wadum, Majken; Feddersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Besides serving as essential substrates for beta-oxidation and synthesis of triacylglycerols and more complex lipids like sphingolipids and sterol esters, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters are increasingly being recognized as important regulators of enzyme activities and gene transcription. Acyl...... and accumulation of vesicles of variable sizes. In contrast to synthesis and turn-over of glycerolipids, the levels of very-long-chain fatty acids, long-chain bases and ceramide are severely affected by Acb1p depletion, suggesting that Acb1p, rather than playing a general role, serves specific roles in cellular...

  7. Acyl-CoA-binding protein family members in laticifers are possibly involved in lipid and latex metabolism of Hevea brasiliensis (the Para rubber tree)

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Zhiyi; Wang, Yihang; Wu, Chuntai; Li, Yu; Kang, Guijuan; Qin, Huaide; Zeng, Rizhong

    2018-01-01

    Background Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are mainly involved in acyl-CoA ester binding and trafficking in eukaryotic cells, and their various functions have been characterized in model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana), Oryza sativa (rice), and other plant species. In the present study, genome-wide mining and expression analysis of ACBP genes was performed on Hevea brasiliensis (the para rubber tree), the most important latex-producing crop in the world. Results Six membe...

  8. Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addition, a small percentage of carriers have a mutation that cannot be identified through current testing. In this case, it will appear as though the disease has been caused by a single carrier. Carrier Testing A DNA test is the only way to detect carrier ...

  9. New insights into the peroxisomal protein inventory: Acyl-CoA oxidases and -dehydrogenases are an ancient feature of peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camões, Fátima; Islinger, Markus; Guimarães, Sofia C; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Schuster, Martin; Godinho, Luis F; Steinberg, Gero; Schrader, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles which participate in a variety of essential biochemical pathways. An intimate interrelationship between peroxisomes and mitochondria is emerging in mammals, where both organelles cooperate in fatty acid β-oxidation and cellular lipid homeostasis. As mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation is lacking in yeast and plants, suitable genetically accessible model systems to study this interrelationship are scarce. Here, we propose the filamentous fungus Ustilago maydis as a suitable model for those studies. We combined molecular cell biology, bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses and provide the first comprehensive inventory of U. maydis peroxisomal proteins and pathways. Studies with a peroxisome-deficient Δpex3 mutant revealed the existence of parallel and complex, cooperative β-oxidation pathways in peroxisomes and mitochondria, mimicking the situation in mammals. Furthermore, we provide evidence that acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) are bona fide peroxisomal proteins in fungi and mammals and together with acyl-CoA oxidases (ACOX) belong to the basic enzymatic repertoire of peroxisomes. A genome comparison with baker's yeast and human gained new insights into the basic peroxisomal protein inventory shared by humans and fungi and revealed novel peroxisomal proteins and functions in U. maydis. The importance of our findings for the evolution and function of the complex interrelationship between peroxisomes and mitochondria in fatty acid β-oxidation is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Legionella pneumophila secretes a mitochondrial carrier protein during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Dolezal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mitochondrial Carrier Family (MCF is a signature group of integral membrane proteins that transport metabolites across the mitochondrial inner membrane in eukaryotes. MCF proteins are characterized by six transmembrane segments that assemble to form a highly-selective channel for metabolite transport. We discovered a novel MCF member, termed Legionellanucleotide carrier Protein (LncP, encoded in the genome of Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease. LncP was secreted via the bacterial Dot/Icm type IV secretion system into macrophages and assembled in the mitochondrial inner membrane. In a yeast cellular system, LncP induced a dominant-negative phenotype that was rescued by deleting an endogenous ATP carrier. Substrate transport studies on purified LncP reconstituted in liposomes revealed that it catalyzes unidirectional transport and exchange of ATP transport across membranes, thereby supporting a role for LncP as an ATP transporter. A hidden Markov model revealed further MCF proteins in the intracellular pathogens, Legionella longbeachae and Neorickettsia sennetsu, thereby challenging the notion that MCF proteins exist exclusively in eukaryotic organisms.

  11. Handling of human short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) variant proteins in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Peter M; Pedersen, Christina B; Schmidt, Stine P

    2007-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the in vivo handling of human short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) variant proteins, three transgenic mouse lines were produced by pronuclear injection of cDNA encoding the wild-type, hSCAD-wt, and two disease causing folding variants hSCAD-319C > T and hSCAD-625G > A...... indicate that the two hSCAD folding variants are degraded by the mouse mitochondrial protein quality control system. Indeed, pulse-chase studies with isolated mitochondria revealed that soluble variant hSCAD protein was rapidly eliminated. This is in agreement with the fact that no disease phenotype...... developed for any of the lines transgenic for the hSCAD folding variants. The indicated remarkable efficiency of the mouse protein quality control system in the degradation of SCAD folding variants should be further substantiated and investigated, since it might indicate ways to prevent disease...

  12. Squalane as a possible carrier of bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, T; Uji, H; Antoh, M; Hasegawa, H; Kise, T; Eda, S

    1993-07-01

    Gelatin capsules containing squalane partially purified bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) complex were placed on the perimuscular membrane of rats. Two kinds of control, gelatin capsules containing only BMP and those bearing squalane only, were used. The embedded areas were histopathologically examined at 3 and 6 wk after the operation. The observations revealed that the squalane/BMP complex elicited wide heterotopic bone formation with bone marrow tissue, suggesting that squalane is a possible carrier of BMP for clinical applications.

  13. Neisseria gonorrhoeae penicillin-binding protein 3 demonstrates a pronounced preference for N(epsilon)-acylated substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddi, Sridhar; Nicholas, Robert A; Gutheil, William G

    2009-06-23

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are bacterial enzymes involved in the final stages of cell wall biosynthesis and are the lethal targets of beta-lactam antibiotics. Despite their importance, their roles in cell wall biosynthesis remain enigmatic. A series of eight substrates, based on variation of the pentapeptide Boc-l-Ala-gamma-d-Glu-l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala, were synthesized to test specificity for three features of PBP substrates: (1) the presence or absence of an N(epsilon)-acyl group, (2) the presence of d-IsoGln in place of gamma-d-Glu, and (3) the presence or absence of the N-terminal l-Ala residue. The capacity of these peptides to serve as substrates for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) PBP3 was assessed. NG PBP3 demonstrated good catalytic efficiency (2.5 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) with the best of these substrates, with a pronounced preference (50-fold) for N(epsilon)-acylated substrates over N(epsilon)-nonacylated substrates. This observation suggests that NG PBP3 is specific for the approximately d-Ala-d-Ala moiety of pentapeptides engaged in cross-links in the bacterial cell wall, such that NG PBP3 would act after transpeptidase-catalyzed reactions generate the acylated amino group required for its specificity. NG PBP3 demonstrated low selectivity for gamma-d-Glu vs d-IsoGln and for the presence or absence of the terminal l-Ala residue. The implications of this substrate specificity of NG PBP3 with respect to its possible role in cell wall biosynthesis, and for understanding the substrate specificity of the LMM PBPs in general, are discussed.

  14. The Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Maize GL8 Protein Is a Component of the Acyl-Coenzyme A Elongase Involved in the Production of Cuticular Waxes1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojie; Dietrich, Charles R.; Lessire, Rene; Nikolau, Basil J.; Schnable, Patrick S.

    2002-01-01

    The gl8 gene is required for the normal accumulation of cuticular waxes on maize (Zea mays) seedling leaves. The predicted GL8 protein exhibits significant sequence similarity to a class of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of a ketone group to a hydroxyl group. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Escherichia coli-expressed GL8 protein were used to investigate the function of this protein in planta. Subcellular fractionation experiments indicate that the GL8 protein is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Furthermore, polyclonal antibodies raised against the partially purified leek (Allium porrum) microsomal acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) elongase can react with the E. coli-expressed GL8 protein. In addition, anti-GL8 immunoglobulin G inhibited the in vitro elongation of stearoyl-CoA by leek and maize microsomal acyl-CoA elongase. In combination, these findings indicate that the GL8 protein is a component of the acyl-CoA elongase. In addition, the finding that anti-GL8 immunoglobulin G did not significantly inhibit the 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA dehydrase, and (E) 2,3-enoyl-CoA reductase partial reactions of leek or maize acyl-CoA elongase lends further support to our previous hypothesis that the GL8 protein functions as a β-ketoacyl reductase during the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids required for the production of cuticular waxes. PMID:11891248

  15. HIF-1-dependent regulation of lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans by the acyl-CoA-binding protein MAA-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamalnasab, Mehrnaz; Dhaoui, Manel; Thondamal, Manjunatha

    2017-01-01

    In yeast, the broadly conserved acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a negative regulator of stress resistance and longevity. Here, we have turned to the nematode C. elegans as a model organism in which to determine whether ACBPs play similar roles in multicellular organisms. We systematically...... inactivated each of the seven C. elegans ACBP paralogs and found that one of them, maa-1 (which encodes membrane-associated ACBP 1), is indeed involved in the regulation of longevity. In fact, loss of maa-1 promotes lifespan extension and resistance to different types of stress. Through genetic and gene...... of the proteome. Our work extends to C. elegans the role of ACBP in aging, implicates HIF-1 in the increase of lifespan of maa-1-deficient worms, and sheds light on the anti-aging function of HIF-1. Given that both ACBP and HIF-1 are highly conserved, our results suggest the possible involvement of these proteins...

  16. Fatty acid transport protein 4 is the principal very long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase in skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhenzhen; Moulson, Casey L; Pei, Zhengtong; Miner, Jeffrey H; Watkins, Paul A

    2007-07-13

    Fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4) is a fatty acyl-CoA synthetase that preferentially activates very long chain fatty acid substrates, such as C24:0, to their CoA derivatives. To gain better insight into the physiological functions of FATP4, we established dermal fibroblast cell lines from FATP4-deficient wrinkle-free mice and wild type (w.t.) mice. FATP4 -/- fibroblasts had no detectable FATP4 protein by Western blot. Compared with w.t. fibroblasts, cells lacking FATP4 had an 83% decrease in C24:0 activation. Peroxisomal degradation of C24:0 was reduced by 58%, and rates of C24:0 incorporation into major phospholipid species (54-64% decrease), triacylglycerol (64% decrease), and cholesterol esters (58% decrease) were significantly diminished. Because these lipid metabolic processes take place in different subcellular organelles, we used immunofluorescence and Western blotting of subcellular fractions to investigate the distribution of FATP4 protein and measured enzyme activity in fractions from w.t. and FATP4 -/- fibroblasts. FATP4 protein and acyl-CoA synthetase activity localized to multiple organelles, including mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and the mitochondria-associated membrane fraction. We conclude that in murine skin fibroblasts, FATP4 is the major enzyme producing very long chain fatty acid-CoA for lipid metabolic pathways. Although FATP4 deficiency primarily affected very long chain fatty acid metabolism, mutant fibroblasts also showed reduced uptake of a fluorescent long chain fatty acid and reduced levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. FATP4-deficient cells also contained abnormal neutral lipid droplets. These additional defects indicate that metabolic abnormalities in these cells are not limited to very long chain fatty acids.

  17. Protein C/S ratio, an accurate and simple tool to identify carriers of a protein C gene mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Libourel, EJ; Meinardi, [No Value; de Kam, PJ; Ruiters, MHJ; van der Meer, J; van der Schaaf, W; Veenstra, R.

    Hereditary protein C deficiency is demonstrated by lowered protein C plasma levels in a patient and at least one first-degree relative. This approach is insufficient in some cases owing to overlapping protein C levels in carriers and non-carriers of a protein C gene mutation. The protein C/S ratio

  18. Liver protein expression in young pigs in response to a high-fat diet and diet restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    in terms of increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis and decreased urea synthesis. Our results suggest that 5 liver proteins, namely acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain 1, sterol carrier protein 2, apolipoprotein C-III, liver fatty acid binding protein, and acyl-CoA-binding protein, play a role...

  19. Antiproliferative effect of complexes of platinum (II) with plasmanyl-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaevich, I S; Vlasenkova, N K; Gerasimova, G K

    1992-10-01

    Antiproliferative activities of combinations of semisynthetic plasmanyl-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine [PNAE(s)], an inhibitor of protein kinase C, with two antitumor complexes of platinum (II) [cisplatin and ammine(cyclopentylamine)-S-(-)-malatoplatinum (cycloplatam)] were investigated. The exposure of human melanoma BRO cells in culture simultaneously with cisplatin (1-10 microM) and PNAE(s) (100 microM-1 mM) in a molar ratio of 1/100 for 24 h induced a considerable decrease in the ability of these cells to incorporate [3H]thymidine into DNA. A considerable antiproliferative synergism of these agents was observed. The effect of cycloplatam/PNAE(s) combination in similar experiments was significantly different from cisplatin/PNAE(s), i.e. interaction of these agents was complex and synergism was not found.

  20. Transient structure formation in unfolded acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein observed by site-directed spin labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Kragelund, Birthe B; Poulsen, Flemming M

    2002-01-01

    -terminal part of the polypeptide chain, which forms an alpha-helix in the native structure and a high propensity for turn formation in two regions of the polypeptide that form turns in the native structure. The results contribute to the idea that native-like structural elements form transiently in the unfolded......Paramagnetic relaxation has been used to monitor the formation of structure in the folding peptide chain of guanidinium chloride-denatured acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein. The spin label (1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-pyrroline-3-methyl)methanesulfonate (MTSL) was covalently bound to a single...... cysteine residue introduced into five different positions in the amino acid sequence. It was shown that the formation of structure in the folding peptide chain at conditions where 95% of the sample is unfolded brings the relaxation probe close to a wide range of residues in the peptide chain, which...

  1. Expression of the Acyl-Coenzyme A: Cholesterol Acyltransferase GFP Fusion Protein in Sf21 Insect Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtani, H. K.; Richmond, R. C.; Chang, T. Y.; Chang, C. C. Y.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The enzyme acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an important contributor to the pathological expression of plaque leading to artherosclerosis n a major health problem. Adequate knowledge of the structure of this protein will enable pharmaceutical companies to design drugs specific to the enzyme. ACAT is a membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum.t The protein has never been purified to homogeneity.T.Y. Chang's laboratory at Dartmouth College provided a 4-kb cDNA clone (K1) coding for a structural gene of the protein. We have modified the gene sequence and inserted the cDNA into the BioGreen His Baculovirus transfer vector. This was successfully expressed in Sf2l insect cells as a GFP-labeled ACAT protein. The advantage to this ACAT-GFP fusion protein (abbreviated GCAT) is that one can easily monitor its expression as a function of GFP excitation at 395 nm and emission at 509 nm. Moreover, the fusion protein GCAT can be detected on Western blots with the use of commercially available GFP antibodies. Antibodies against ACAT are not readily available. The presence of the 6xHis tag in the transfer vector facilitates purification of the recombinant protein since 6xHis fusion proteins bind with high affinity to Ni-NTA agarose. Obtaining highly pure protein in large quantities is essential for subsequent crystallization. The purified GCAT fusion protein can readily be cleaved into distinct GFP and ACAT proteins in the presence of thrombin. Thrombin digests the 6xHis tag linking the two protein sequences. Preliminary experiments have indicated that both GCAT and ACAT are expressed as functional proteins. The ultimate aim is to obtain large quantities of the ACAT protein in pure and functional form appropriate for protein crystal growth. Determining protein structure is the key to the design and development of effective drugs. X-ray analysis requires large homogeneous crystals that are difficult to obtain in the gravity environment of earth

  2. The crystal structure of BlmI as a model for nonribosomal peptide synthetase peptidyl carrier proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Jeremy R; Ma, Ming; Cuff, Marianne E; Bigelow, Lance; Bearden, Jessica; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, George N; Shen, Ben

    2014-07-01

    Carrier proteins (CPs) play a critical role in the biosynthesis of various natural products, especially in nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) enzymology, where the CPs are referred to as peptidyl-carrier proteins (PCPs) or acyl-carrier proteins (ACPs), respectively. CPs can either be a domain in large multifunctional polypeptides or standalone proteins, termed Type I and Type II, respectively. There have been many biochemical studies of the Type I PKS and NRPS CPs, and of Type II ACPs. However, recently a number of Type II PCPs have been found and biochemically characterized. In order to understand the possible interaction surfaces for combinatorial biosynthetic efforts we crystallized the first characterized and representative Type II PCP member, BlmI, from the bleomycin biosynthetic pathway from Streptomyces verticillus ATCC 15003. The structure is similar to CPs in general but most closely resembles PCPs. Comparisons with previously determined PCP structures in complex with catalytic domains reveals a common interaction surface. This surface is highly variable in charge and shape, which likely confers specificity for interactions. Previous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of a prototypical Type I PCP excised from the multimodular context revealed three conformational states. Comparison of the states with the structure of BlmI and other PCPs reveals that only one of the NMR states is found in other studies, suggesting the other two states may not be relevant. The state represented by the BlmI crystal structure can therefore serve as a model for both Type I and Type II PCPs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Subcellular localization of acyl-CoA binding protein in Aspergillus oryzae is regulated by autophagy machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kouhei; Kikuma, Takashi; Higuchi, Yujiro; Takegawa, Kaoru; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2016-11-04

    In eukaryotic cells, acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is important for cellular activities, such as in lipid metabolism. In the industrially important fungus Aspergillus oryzae, the ACBP, known as AoACBP, has been biochemically characterized, but its physiological function is not known. In the present study, although we could not find any phenotype of AoACBP disruptants in the normal growth conditions, we examined the subcellular localization of AoACBP to understand its physiological function. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged AoACBP construct we showed that AoACBP localized to punctate structures in the cytoplasm, some of which moved inside the cells in a microtubule-dependent manner. Further microscopic analyses showed that AoACBP-EGFP co-localized with the autophagy marker protein AoAtg8 tagged with red fluorescent protein (mDsRed). Expression of AoACBP-EGFP in disruptants of autophagy-related genes revealed aggregation of AoACBP-EGFP fluorescence in the cytoplasm of Aoatg1, Aoatg4 and Aoatg8 disruptant cells. However, in cells harboring disruption of Aoatg15, which encodes a lipase for autophagic body, puncta of AoACBP-EGFP fluorescence accumulated in vacuoles, indicating that AoACBP is transported to vacuoles via the autophagy machinery. Collectively, these results suggest the existence of a regulatory mechanism between AoACBP localization and autophagy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. HIF-1-dependent regulation of lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans by the acyl-CoA-binding protein MAA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamalnasab, Mehrnaz; Dhaoui, Manel; Thondamal, Manjunatha; Harvald, Eva Bang; Færgeman, Nils J; Aguilaniu, Hugo; Fabrizio, Paola

    2017-07-27

    In yeast, the broadly conserved acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a negative regulator of stress resistance and longevity. Here, we have turned to the nematode C. elegans as a model organism in which to determine whether ACBPs play similar roles in multicellular organisms. We systematically inactivated each of the seven C. elegans ACBP paralogs and found that one of them, maa-1 (which encodes membrane-associated ACBP 1), is indeed involved in the regulation of longevity. In fact, loss of maa-1 promotes lifespan extension and resistance to different types of stress. Through genetic and gene expression studies we have demonstrated that HIF-1, a master transcriptional regulator of adaptation to hypoxia, plays a central role in orchestrating the anti-aging response induced by MAA-1 deficiency. This response relies on the activation of molecular chaperones known to contribute to maintenance of the proteome. Our work extends to C. elegans the role of ACBP in aging, implicates HIF-1 in the increase of lifespan of maa-1-deficient worms, and sheds light on the anti-aging function of HIF-1. Given that both ACBP and HIF-1 are highly conserved, our results suggest the possible involvement of these proteins in the age-associated decline in proteostasis in mammals.

  5. Distribution and Spectroscopy of Green Fluorescent Protein and Acyl-CoA: Cholesterol Acytransferase in Sf21 Insect Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R. C.; Mahtani, H.; Lu, X.; Chang, T. Y.; Malak, H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is thought to significantly participate in the pathway of cholesterol esterification that underlies the pathology of artherosclerosis. This enzyme is a membrane protein known to be preferentially bound within the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells, from which location it esterifies cholesterol derived from low density lipoprotein. Cultures of insect cells were separately infected with baculovirus containing the gene for green fluroescent protein (GFP) and with baculovirus containing tandem genes for GFP and ACAT. These infected cultures expressed GFP and the fusion protein GCAT, respectively, with maximum expression occurring on the fourth day after infection. Extraction of GFP- and of GCAT-expressing cells with urea and detergent resulted in recovery of fluorescent protein in aqueous solution. Fluorescence spectra at neutral pH were identical for both GFP and GCAT extracts in aqueous solution, indicating unperturbed tertiary structure for the GFP moiety within GCAT. In a cholesterol esterification assay, GCAT demonstrated ACAT activity, but with less efficiency compared to native ACAT. It was hypothesized that the membrane protein ACAT would lead to differences in localization of GCAT compared to GFP within the respective expressing insect cells. The GFP marker directly and also within the fusion protein GCAT was accordingly used as the intracellular probe that was fluorescently analyzed by the new biophotonics technique of hyperspectral imaging. In that technique, fluorescence imaging was obtained from two dimensional arrays of cells, and regions of interest from within those images were then retrospectively analyzed for the emission spectra that comprises the image. Results of hyperspectral imaging of insect cells on day 4 postinfection showed that GCAT was preferentially localized to the cytoplasm of these cells compared to GFP. Furthermore, the emission spectra obtained for the localized GCAT displayed a peak

  6. Acyl-CoA metabolism and partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevengoed, Trisha J; Klett, Eric L; Coleman, Rosalind A

    2014-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme As (CoAs) are critical regulatory molecules and metabolic intermediates. The initial step in their synthesis is the activation of fatty acids by one of 13 long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms. These isoforms are regulated independently and have different tissue...... expression patterns and subcellular locations. Their acyl-CoA products regulate metabolic enzymes and signaling pathways, become oxidized to provide cellular energy, and are incorporated into acylated proteins and complex lipids such as triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters. Their differing...... metabolic fates are determined by a network of proteins that channel the acyl-CoAs toward or away from specific metabolic pathways and serve as the basis for partitioning. This review evaluates the evidence for acyl-CoA partitioning by reviewing experimental data on proteins that are believed to contribute...

  7. The Role of the β5-α11 Loop in the Active-Site Dynamics of Acylated Penicillin-Binding Protein A from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedarovich, Alena; Nicholas, Robert A.; Davies, Christopher [MUSC; (UNC)

    2013-04-22

    Penicillin-binding protein A (PBPA) is a class B penicillin-binding protein that is important for cell division in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We have determined a second crystal structure of PBPA in apo form and compared it with an earlier structure of apoenzyme. Significant structural differences in the active site region are apparent, including increased ordering of a β-hairpin loop and a shift of the SxN active site motif such that it now occupies a position that appears catalytically competent. Using two assays, including one that uses the intrinsic fluorescence of a tryptophan residue, we have also measured the second-order acylation rate constants for the antibiotics imipenem, penicillin G, and ceftriaxone. Of these, imipenem, which has demonstrable anti-tubercular activity, shows the highest acylation efficiency. Crystal structures of PBPA in complex with the same antibiotics were also determined, and all show conformational differences in the β5–α11 loop near the active site, but these differ for each β-lactam and also for each of the two molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Overall, these data reveal the β5–α11 loop of PBPA as a flexible region that appears important for acylation and provide further evidence that penicillin-binding proteins in apo form can occupy different conformational states.

  8. Plant fatty acyl reductases: enzymes generating fatty alcohols for protective layers with potential for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Primary fatty alcohols are found throughout the biological world, either in free form or in a combined state. They are common components of plant surface lipids (i.e. cutin, suberin, sporopollenin, and associated waxes) and their absence can significantly perturb these essential barriers. Fatty alcohols and/or derived compounds are also likely to have direct functions in plant biotic and abiotic interactions. An evolutionarily related set of alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases (FARs) is present in all kingdoms of life. Plant microsomal and plastid-associated FAR enzymes have been characterized, acting on acyl-coenzymeA (acyl-CoA) or acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) substrates, respectively. FARs have distinct substrate specificities both with regard to chain length and chain saturation. Fatty alcohols and wax esters, which are a combination of fatty alcohol and fatty acid, have a variety of commercial applications. The expression of FARs with desired specificities in transgenic microbes or oilseed crops would provide a novel means of obtaining these valuable compounds. In the present review, we report on recent progress in characterizing plant FAR enzymes and in understanding the biological roles of primary fatty alcohols, as well as describe the biotechnological production and industrial uses of fatty alcohols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transgenic rice seed expressing flavonoid biosynthetic genes accumulate glycosylated and/or acylated flavonoids in protein bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Yuko; Mori, Tetsuya; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specialized (or secondary) metabolites represent an important source of high-value chemicals. In order to generate a new production platform for these metabolites, an attempt was made to produce flavonoids in rice seeds. Metabolome analysis of these transgenic rice seeds using liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed. A total of 4392 peaks were detected in both transgenic and non-transgenic rice, 20–40% of which were only detected in transgenic rice. Among these, 82 flavonoids, including 37 flavonols, 11 isoflavones, and 34 flavones, were chemically assigned. Most of the flavonols and isoflavones were O-glycosylated, while many flavones were O-glycosylated and/or C-glycosylated. Several flavonoids were acylated with malonyl, feruloyl, acetyl, and coumaroyl groups. These glycosylated/acylated flavonoids are thought to have been biosynthesized by endogenous rice enzymes using newly synthesized flavonoids whose biosynthesis was catalysed by exogenous enzymes. The subcellular localization of the flavonoids differed depending on the class of aglycone and the glycosylation/acylation pattern. Therefore, flavonoids with the intended aglycones were efficiently produced in rice seeds via the exogenous enzymes introduced, while the flavonoids were variously glycosylated/acylated by endogenous enzymes. The results suggest that rice seeds are useful not only as a production platform for plant-specialized metabolites such as flavonoids but also as a tool for expanding the diversity of flavonoid structures, providing novel, physiologically active substances. PMID:26438413

  10. The Biological Activity of alpha-Mangostin, a Larvicidal Botanic Mosquito Sterol Carrier Protein-2 Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    DOI: 10.1603/ME09160 ABSTRACT -Mangostin derived from mangosteen was identiÞed as a mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor via high throughput...KEY WORDS sterol carrier protein-2, larvicide, mangostin, detoxiÞcation enzymes, mosquitoes David Fairchild described mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana...after FairchildÕs account, the mangosteen received much scientiÞc at- tention because of its xanthone-rich pericarp. Xan- thones are heterocyclic

  11. Subcellular localization of rice acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) indicates that OsACBP6::GFP is targeted to the peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wei; Hsiao, An-Shan; Gao, Caiji; Jiang, Liwen; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-07-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) show conservation at the acyl-CoA-binding (ACB) domain which facilitates binding to acyl-CoA esters. In Arabidopsis thaliana, six ACBPs participate in development and stress responses. Rice (Oryza sativa) also contains six genes encoding ACBPs. We investigated differences in subcellular localization between monocot rice and eudicot A. thaliana ACBPs. The subcellular localization of the six OsACBPs was achieved via transient expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP) fusions in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) epidermal cells, and stable transformation of A. thaliana. As plant ACBPs had not been reported in the peroxisomes, OsACBP6::GFP localization was confirmed by transient expression in rice sheath cells. The function of OsACBP6 was investigated by overexpressing 35S::OsACBP6 in the peroxisomal abc transporter1 (pxa1) mutant defective in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation. As predicted, OsACBP1::GFP and OsACBP2::GFP were localized to the cytosol, and OsACBP4::GFP and OsACBP5::GFP to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, OsACBP3::GFP displayed subcellular multi-localization while OsACBP6::GFP was localized to the peroxisomes. 35S::OsACBP6-OE/pxa1 lines showed recovery in indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) peroxisomal β-oxidation, wound-induced VEGETATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN1 (VSP1) expression and jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation. These findings indicate a role for OsACBP6 in peroxisomal β-oxidation, and suggest that rice ACBPs are involved in lipid degradation in addition to lipid biosynthesis. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Maturation and activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 is inhibited by acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    Full Text Available Imbalance of lipid metabolism has been linked with pathogenesis of a variety of human pathological conditions such as diabetes, obesity, cancer and neurodegeneration. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs are the master transcription factors controlling the homeostasis of fatty acids and cholesterol in the body. Transcription, expression, and activity of SREBPs are regulated by various nutritional, hormonal or stressful stimuli, yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in these adaptative responses remains elusive. In the present study, we found that overexpressed acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3 (ACBD3, a Golgi-associated protein, dramatically inhibited SREBP1-sensitive promoter activity of fatty acid synthase (FASN. Moreover, lipid deprivation-stimulated SREBP1 maturation was significantly attenuated by ACBD3. With cell fractionation, gene knockdown and immunoprecipitation assays, it was showed that ACBD3 blocked intracellular maturation of SREBP1 probably through directly binding with the lipid regulator rather than disrupted SREBP1-SCAP-Insig1 interaction. Further investigation revealed that acyl-CoA domain-containing N-terminal sequence of ACBD3 contributed to its inhibitory effects on the production of nuclear SREBP1. In addition, mRNA and protein levels of FASN and de novo palmitate biosynthesis were remarkably reduced in cells overexpressed with ACBD3. These findings suggest that ACBD3 plays an essential role in maintaining lipid homeostasis via regulating SREBP1's processing pathway and thus impacting cellular lipogenesis.

  13. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Germicidin Synthase: Analysis of a Type III Polyketide Synthase That Employs Acyl-ACP as a Starter Unit Donor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemler, Joseph A.; Buchholz, Tonia J.; Geders, Todd W.; Akey, David L.; Rath, Christopher M.; Chlipala, George E.; Smith, Janet L.; Sherman, David H. (Michigan)

    2012-08-10

    Germicidin synthase (Gcs) from Streptomyces coelicolor is a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) with broad substrate flexibility for acyl groups linked through a thioester bond to either coenzyme A (CoA) or acyl carrier protein (ACP). Germicidin synthesis was reconstituted in vitro by coupling Gcs with fatty acid biosynthesis. Since Gcs has broad substrate flexibility, we directly compared the kinetic properties of Gcs with both acyl-ACP and acyl-CoA. The catalytic efficiency of Gcs for acyl-ACP was 10-fold higher than for acyl-CoA, suggesting a strong preference toward carrier protein starter unit transfer. The 2.9 {angstrom} germicidin synthase crystal structure revealed canonical type III PKS architecture along with an unusual helical bundle of unknown function that appears to extend the dimerization interface. A pair of arginine residues adjacent to the active site affect catalytic activity but not ACP binding. This investigation provides new and surprising information about the interactions between type III PKSs and ACPs that will facilitate the construction of engineered systems for production of novel polyketides.

  14. Transgenic rice seed expressing flavonoid biosynthetic genes accumulate glycosylated and/or acylated flavonoids in protein bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Yuko; Mori, Tetsuya; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specialized (or secondary) metabolites represent an important source of high-value chemicals. In order to generate a new production platform for these metabolites, an attempt was made to produce flavonoids in rice seeds. Metabolome analysis of these transgenic rice seeds using liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed. A total of 4392 peaks were detected in both transgenic and non-transgenic rice, 20-40% of which were only detected in transgenic rice. Among these, 82 flavonoids, including 37 flavonols, 11 isoflavones, and 34 flavones, were chemically assigned. Most of the flavonols and isoflavones were O-glycosylated, while many flavones were O-glycosylated and/or C-glycosylated. Several flavonoids were acylated with malonyl, feruloyl, acetyl, and coumaroyl groups. These glycosylated/acylated flavonoids are thought to have been biosynthesized by endogenous rice enzymes using newly synthesized flavonoids whose biosynthesis was catalysed by exogenous enzymes. The subcellular localization of the flavonoids differed depending on the class of aglycone and the glycosylation/acylation pattern. Therefore, flavonoids with the intended aglycones were efficiently produced in rice seeds via the exogenous enzymes introduced, while the flavonoids were variously glycosylated/acylated by endogenous enzymes. The results suggest that rice seeds are useful not only as a production platform for plant-specialized metabolites such as flavonoids but also as a tool for expanding the diversity of flavonoid structures, providing novel, physiologically active substances. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Transcriptional regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis is linked to fatty acid metabolism by an acyl-CoA-binding-protein-dependent mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Søren; Neergaard, Thomas B F; Knudsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we have used DNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis to examine the transcriptional changes that occur in response to cellular depletion of the yeast acyl-CoA-binding protein, Acb1p. Depletion of Acb1p resulted in the differential expression of genes encoding...... proteins involved in fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis (e.g. FAS1, FAS2, ACC1, OLE1, INO1 and OPI3), glycolysis and glycerol metabolism (e.g. GPD1 and TDH1), ion transport and uptake (e.g. ITR1 and HNM1) and stress response (e.g. HSP12, DDR2 and CTT1). In the present study, we show that transcription...... or ACC1. Together, these findings revealed an Acb1p-dependent connection between fatty acid metabolism and transcriptional regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in yeast. Finally, expression of an Acb1p mutant which is unable to bind acyl-CoA esters could not normalize the transcriptional changes...

  16. Calcium Sulfate with Stearic Acid as an Encouraging Carrier for Reindeer Bone Protein Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Jalovaara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Various bone proteins and growth factors in specific concentrations are required for bone formation. If the body cannot produce sufficient quantities of these factors, bone trauma can be healed with an implant that includes the required factors in a carrier. This study was designed to evaluate various calcium salt candidates that can be used as carrier with reindeer bone protein extract to induce ectopic bone formation in the muscle pouch model of mouse. The bone protein extract was either impregnated into the disc form of carrier or mixed with carrier powder before implantation. The radiographic analysis indicated increased bone formation in all of the active groups containing the bone protein extract compared to the controls within 21 days follow-up. The highest bone formation was seen in the group with calcium sulfate with stearic acid where new bone and calcified cartilage were clearly visible. The greatest bone formation occurred in the groups that had bone protein extract readily available. This indicates that the bone forming factors in sufficient concentrations are required at the early stage of bone formation. The calcium sulfate with stearic acid was the most suitable and effective carrier for reindeer bone protein extract.

  17. Stealth carriers for low-resolution structure determination of membrane proteins in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maric, Selma; Skar-Gislinge, Nicholas; Midtgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Structural studies of membrane proteins remain a great experimental challenge. Functional reconstitution into artificial nanoscale bilayer disc carriers that mimic the native bilayer environment allows the handling of membrane proteins in solution. This enables the use of small-angle scattering t...

  18. Protein Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Carriers for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohcharoenkal, Warangkana; Wang, Liying; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles have increasingly been used for a variety of applications, most notably for the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. A large number of nanoparticle drug delivery systems have been developed for cancer treatment and various materials have been explored as drug delivery agents to improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of anticancer drugs. Natural biomolecules such as proteins are an attractive alternative to synthetic polymers which are commonly used in drug formulations because of their safety. In general, protein nanoparticles offer a number of advantages including biocompatibility and biodegradability. They can be prepared under mild conditions without the use of toxic chemicals or organic solvents. Moreover, due to their defined primary structure, protein-based nanoparticles offer various possibilities for surface modifications including covalent attachment of drugs and targeting ligands. In this paper, we review the most significant advancements in protein nanoparticle technology and their use in drug delivery arena. We then examine the various sources of protein materials that have been used successfully for the construction of protein nanoparticles as well as their methods of preparation. Finally, we discuss the applications of protein nanoparticles in cancer therapy. PMID:24772414

  19. Protein Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Carriers for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warangkana Lohcharoenkal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have increasingly been used for a variety of applications, most notably for the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. A large number of nanoparticle drug delivery systems have been developed for cancer treatment and various materials have been explored as drug delivery agents to improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of anticancer drugs. Natural biomolecules such as proteins are an attractive alternative to synthetic polymers which are commonly used in drug formulations because of their safety. In general, protein nanoparticles offer a number of advantages including biocompatibility and biodegradability. They can be prepared under mild conditions without the use of toxic chemicals or organic solvents. Moreover, due to their defined primary structure, protein-based nanoparticles offer various possibilities for surface modifications including covalent attachment of drugs and targeting ligands. In this paper, we review the most significant advancements in protein nanoparticle technology and their use in drug delivery arena. We then examine the various sources of protein materials that have been used successfully for the construction of protein nanoparticles as well as their methods of preparation. Finally, we discuss the applications of protein nanoparticles in cancer therapy.

  20. In vitro cytotoxic effects of gold nanoparticles coated with functional acyl homoserine lactone lactonase protein from Bacillus licheniformis and their antibiofilm activity against Proteus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoj, Gopalakrishnan; Pati, Rashmirekha; Sonawane, Avinash; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2015-02-01

    N-acylated homoserine lactonases are known to inhibit the signaling molecules of the biofilm-forming pathogens. In this study, gold nanoparticles were coated with N-acylated homoserine lactonase proteins (AiiA AuNPs) purified from Bacillus licheniformis. The AiiA AuNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The synthesized AiiA AuNPs were found to be spherical in shape and 10 to 30 nm in size. Treatment with AiiA protein-coated AuNPs showed maximum reduction in exopolysaccharide production, metabolic activities, and cell surface hydrophobicity and potent antibiofilm activity against multidrug-resistant Proteus species compared to treatment with AiiA protein alone. AiiA AuNPs exhibited potent antibiofilm activity at 2 to 8 μM concentrations without being harmful to the macrophages. We conclude that at a specific dose, AuNPs coated with AiiA can kill bacteria without harming the host cells, thus representing a potential template for the design of novel antibiofilm and antibacterial protein drugs to decrease bacterial colonization and to overcome the problem of drug resistance. In summary, our data suggest that the combined effect of the lactonase and the gold nanoparticles of the AiiA AuNPs has promising antibiofilm activity against biofilm-forming and multidrug-resistant Proteus species. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Development of a stealth carrier system for structural studies of membrane proteins in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maric, Selma

    Structural studies of membrane proteins remain a great experimental challenge. Functional reconstitution into artificial carriers that mimic the native bilayer environment allows for the handling of membrane proteins in solution and enables the use of small-angle scattering techniques for fast...... and reliable structural analysis. The difficulty with this approach is that the carrier discs contribute to the measured scattering intensity in a highly non-trivial fashion, making subsequent data analysis challenging. This thesis presents the development of a specifically deuterated, stealth nanodisc system...

  2. Characterization of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2.3 RNA extraction and Northern blot analysis. Total RNA from cells was isolated by the method of ... After 24 h of recovery, cells were treated with 50 nM moxesterol (NEN life science products, USA) dissolved .... major egg yolk protein genes, vitellogenin (VTG) (Gold- berger and Deeley 1980; Wolffe and Tata 1983) and the.

  3. Carrier Mediated Systemic Delivery of Protein and Peptide Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rahela; Othman, Iekhan; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades proteins and peptide therapeutics have occupied an enormous fraction of pharmaceutical industry. Despite their high potential as therapeutics, the big challenge often encountered is the effective administration and bioavailability of protein therapeutics in vivo system. Peptide molecules are well known for their in vivo short half-lives. In addition, due to high molecular weight and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation, often it is not easy to administer peptides and proteins orally or through any other noninvasive routes. Conventional drug management system often demands for frequent and regular interval intravenous/subcutaneous administration, which decreases overall patient compliance and increases chances of side-effects related to dose-fluctuation in systemic circulation. A controlled mode of delivery system could address all these short-comings at a time. Therefore, long-acting sustained release formulations for both invasive and noninvasive routes are under rigorous study currently. Long-acting formulations through invasive routes can address patient compliance and dose-fluctuation issues by less frequent administration. Also, any new route of administration other than invasive routes will address cost-effectiveness of the therapeutic by lessening the need to deal with health professional and health care facility. Although a vast number of studies are dealing with novel drug delivery systems, till now only a handful of controlled release formulations for proteins and peptides have been approved by FDA. This study therefore focuses on current and perspective controlled release formulations of existing and novel protein/peptide therapeutics via conventional invasive routes as well as potential novel non-invasive routes of administration, e.g., oral, buccal, sublingual, nasal, ocular, rectal, vaginal and pulmonary.

  4. Characterization of soluble acyl-ACP desaturases from Camelina sativa, Macadamia tetraphylla and Dolichandra unguis-cati.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Manuel Fernando Rodríguez; Sánchez-García, Alicia; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-04-15

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases (EC 1.14.19.2) are soluble enzymes that catalyse the insertion of a double bond into saturated fatty acid bound in saturated acyl chains bound to ACP in higher plants, producing cis-monounsaturated fatty acids. Three types of soluble acyl-ACP desaturases have been described: Δ(9)-acyl-ACP, Δ(6)-acyl-ACP and Δ(4)-acyl-ACP desaturases, which differ in the substrate specificity and the position in which the double bond is introduced. In the present work, Camelina sativa (CsSAD), Macadamia tetraphylla (MtSAD) and Dolichandra unguis-cati (DuSAD) desaturases were cloned, sequenced and characterized. Single copies of CsSAD, MtSAD and DuSAD with three, one and two different alleles, respectively, were found. The corresponding mature proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli for biochemical characterization in protein extracts. The recombinant CsSAD enzyme showed 300-fold higher specificity towards 18:0-ACP than 16:0-ACP. Similar profile exhibited MtSAD although the differences in the specificity were lower, around 170-fold higher for 18:0-ACP than 16:0-ACP. Furthermore, DuSAD presented a profile showing preference towards 16:0-ACP against 18:0-ACP, around twice more, being so a Δ(9) palmitoyl-ACP desaturase. Also, we reported the expression profile of CsSAD, which showed the highest levels of expression in expanding tissues that typically are very active in lipid biosynthesis such as developing seed endosperm. Moreover, the possibility to express a new desaturase in C. sativa (oilseed crop that store high levels of oil and is easy to transform) to create a new line rich in short monounsaturated fatty acid is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP) and acyl-coA binding protein (ACBP) in PPAR-mediated transactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helledie, Torben; Jørgensen, Claus; Antonius, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by a number of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives. By contrast, we have recently shown that acyl-CoA esters display PPAR antagonistic properties in vitro. We have also shown that the adipocyte...

  6. Acyl Fluorides: Fast, Efficient, and Versatile Lysine-Based Protein Conjugation via Plug-and-Play Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgan, Igor; Ursuegui, Sylvain; Erb, Stéphane; Michel, Chloé; Kolodych, Sergii; Cianférani, Sarah; Wagner, Alain

    2017-05-17

    We report a plug-and-play strategy for the preparation of functionally enhanced antibodies with a defined average degree of conjugation (DoC). The first stage (plug) allows the controllable and efficient installation of azide groups on lysine residues of a native antibody using 4-azidobenzoyl fluoride. The second step (play) allows for versatile antibody functionalization with a single payload or combination of payloads, such as a toxin, a fluorophore, or an oligonucleotide, via copper-free strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC). It is notable that in comparison to a classical N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (NHS) strategy, benzoyl fluorides show faster and more efficient acylation of lysine residues in a PBS buffer. This translates into better control of the DoC and enables the efficient and fast functionalization of delicate biomolecules at low temperature.

  7. Structural and bioinformatic characterization of an Acinetobacter baumannii type II carrier protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C. Leigh; Gulick, Andrew M., E-mail: gulick@hwi.buffalo.edu [University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented. Microorganisms produce a variety of natural products via secondary metabolic biosynthetic pathways. Two of these types of synthetic systems, the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), use large modular enzymes containing multiple catalytic domains in a single protein. These multidomain enzymes use an integrated carrier protein domain to transport the growing, covalently bound natural product to the neighboring catalytic domains for each step in the synthesis. Interestingly, some PKS and NRPS clusters contain free-standing domains that interact intermolecularly with other proteins. Being expressed outside the architecture of a multi-domain protein, these so-called type II proteins present challenges to understand the precise role they play. Additional structures of individual and multi-domain components of the NRPS enzymes will therefore provide a better understanding of the features that govern the domain interactions in these interesting enzyme systems. The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented here. Comparison with the closest structural homologs of other carrier proteins identifies the requirements for a conserved glycine residue and additional important sequence and structural requirements within the regions that interact with partner proteins.

  8. Riboflavin carrier protein-targeted fluorescent USPIO for the assessment of vascular metabolism in tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayapaul, J.; Arns, S.; Lederle, W.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Comba, P.; Gätjens, J.; Kiessling, F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Riboflavin (Rf) and its metabolic analogs flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are essential for normal cellular growth and function. Their intracellular transport is regulated by the riboflavin carrier protein (RCP), which has been shown to be over-expressed by

  9. The biological activity of a-mangostin, a larvicidal botanic mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha-mangostin derived from mangosteen was identified as a mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor via high throughput insecticide screening. Alpha-mangostin was tested for its larvicidal activity against 3rd instar larvae of six mosquito species and the LC50 values range from 0.84 to 2.90 ppm....

  10. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT PROTEINS AS CARRIERS FOR RENAL DRUG TARGETING - NAPROXEN LYSOZYME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRANSSEN, EJF; VANAMSTERDAM, RGM; VISSER, J; MOOLENAAR, F; DEZEEUW, D; MEIJER, DKF

    1991-01-01

    Low molecular weight proteins (LMWPs), such as lysozyme, may be suitable carriers to target drugs to the kidney. In this study the antiinflammatory drug naproxen was covalently bound to lysozyme (1:1). Pharmacokinetics of the conjugate, naproxen-lysozyme (nap-LYSO), were compared to that of an

  11. Structural basis for specificity and promiscuity in a carrier protein/enzyme system from the sulfur cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarczyk, Daniel B; Chappell, Paul E; Johnson, Steven; Stelzl, Lukas S; Lea, Susan M; Berks, Ben C

    2015-12-29

    The bacterial Sox (sulfur oxidation) pathway is an important route for the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds. Intermediates in the Sox pathway are covalently attached to the heterodimeric carrier protein SoxYZ through conjugation to a cysteine on a protein swinging arm. We have investigated how the carrier protein shuttles intermediates between the enzymes of the Sox pathway using the interaction between SoxYZ and the enzyme SoxB as our model. The carrier protein and enzyme interact only weakly, but we have trapped their complex by using a "suicide enzyme" strategy in which an engineered cysteine in the SoxB active site forms a disulfide bond with the incoming carrier arm cysteine. The structure of this trapped complex, together with calorimetric data, identifies sites of protein-protein interaction both at the entrance to the enzyme active site tunnel and at a second, distal, site. We find that the enzyme distinguishes between the substrate and product forms of the carrier protein through differences in their interaction kinetics and deduce that this behavior arises from substrate-specific stabilization of a conformational change in the enzyme active site. Our analysis also suggests how the carrier arm-bound substrate group is able to outcompete the adjacent C-terminal carboxylate of the carrier arm for binding to the active site metal ions. We infer that similar principles underlie carrier protein interactions with other enzymes of the Sox pathway.

  12. Chitosan based nanoparticles as a sustained protein release carrier for tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yaping; Hu, Junli; Park, Hyejin; Lee, Min

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan/tripolyphosphate/chondroitin sulfate (Chi/TPP/CS) nanoparticles were prepared by an ionic gelation method to obtain a controlled release of proteins. Using Nel-like molecule-1 (Nell-1), a novel osteogenic protein, as a model protein, it was demonstrated that adjusting the composition of the particles modulated the protein association and release kinetics of incorporated proteins. Increasing the amounts of chitosan crosslinking agents, TPP and CS, in the particles achieved sustained protein release. An increase in crosslinking density decreased degradation rates of the particles. Furthermore, the bioactivity of the protein was preserved during the encapsulating procedure into the particles. To demonstrate the feasibility of Chi/TPP/CS nanoparticles as sustained release carriers for tissue engineering scaffold applications, protein-loaded nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into collagen hydrogels or prefabricated porous poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds without obstructing the integrity of the hydrogels or porous structure of the scaffolds. Thus, we expect that these particles have a potential for efficient protein carriers in tissue engineering applications, and will be further evaluated in vivo. PMID:22275184

  13. Chitosan-based nanoparticles as a sustained protein release carrier for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yaping; Hu, Junli; Park, Hyejin; Lee, Min

    2012-04-01

    Chitosan/tripolyphosphate/chondroitin sulfate (Chi/TPP/CS) nanoparticles were prepared by an ionic gelation method to obtain a controlled release of proteins. Using Nel-like molecule-1 (Nell-1), a novel osteogenic protein, as a model protein, it was demonstrated that adjusting the composition of the particles modulated the protein association and release kinetics of incorporated proteins. Increasing the amounts of Chi crosslinking agents, TPP and CS, in the particles achieved sustained protein release. An increase in crosslinking density decreased degradation rates of the particles. Furthermore, the bioactivity of the protein was preserved during the encapsulating procedure into the particles. To demonstrate the feasibility of Chi/TPP/CS nanoparticles as sustained release carriers for tissue engineering scaffold applications, protein-loaded nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into collagen hydrogels or prefabricated porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds without obstructing the integrity of the hydrogels or porous structure of the scaffolds. Thus, we expect that these particles have a potential for efficient protein carriers in tissue engineering applications, and will be further evaluated in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Acyl homoserine lactone changes the abundance of proteins and the levels of organic acids associated with stationary phase in Salmonella Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Felipe Alves; Pimentel-Filho, Natan de Jesus; Carrijo, Lanna Clícia; Bento, Cláudia Braga Pereira; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Pinto, Uelinton Manoel; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2017-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is cell-cell communication mechanism mediated by signaling molecules known as autoinducers (AIs) that lead to differential gene expression. Salmonella is unable to synthesize the AI-1 acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), but is able to recognize AHLs produced by other microorganisms through SdiA protein. Our study aimed to evaluate the influence of AI-1 on the abundance of proteins and the levels of organic acids of Salmonella Enteritidis. The presence of N-dodecyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) did not interfere on the growth or the total amount of extracted proteins of Salmonella. However, the abundance of the proteins PheT, HtpG, PtsI, Adi, TalB, PmgI (or GpmI), Eno, and PykF enhanced while the abundance of the proteins RplB, RplE, RpsB, Tsf, OmpA, OmpC, OmpD, and GapA decreased when Salmonella Enteritidis was anaerobically cultivated in the presence of C12-HSL. Additionally, the bacterium produced less succinic, lactic, and acetic acids in the presence of C12-HSL. However, the concentration of extracellular formic acid reached 20.46 mM after 24 h and was not detected when the growth was in the absence of AI-1. Considering the cultivation period for protein extraction, their abundance, process and function, as well as the levels of organic acids, we observed in cells cultivated in presence of C12-HSL a correlation with what is described in the literature as entry into the stationary phase of growth, mainly related to nitrogen and amino acid starvation and acid stress. Further studies are needed in order to determine the specific role of the differentially abundant proteins and extracellular organic acids secreted by Salmonella in the presence of quorum sensing signaling molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioglass as a carrier for reindeer bone protein extract in the healing of rat femur defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölli, Hanna; Kujala, Sauli; Levonen, Katri; Jämsä, Timo; Jalovaara, Pekka

    2010-05-01

    Bioactive glasses have been developed as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering but combination with reindeer bone protein extract has not been evaluated. We investigated the effects of bone protein extract implants (5-40 mg dosages) with bioglass (BG) carrier on the healing of rat femur defects. Bioglass implants and untreated defects served as controls. All doses of extract increased bone formation compared with the control groups, and bone union was enhanced with doses of 10 mg or more. In comparison with untreated defect, mean cross-sectional bone area at the defect site was greater when implants with BG + 15 mg of extract or bioglass alone were used, bone density at the defect site was higher in all bioglass groups with and without bone extract, and the BG + 15 mg extract dosage marginally increased bone torsional stiffness in mechanical testing. Bioglass performed well as a carrier candidate for reindeer bone protein extract.

  16. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica Type III Secretion System Effector Proteins as Carriers for Heterologous Vaccine Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Wael Abdel Halim; Xu, Xin; Metelitsa, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    Live attenuated strains of Salmonella enterica have a high potential as carriers of recombinant vaccines. The type III secretion system (T3SS)-dependent translocation of S. enterica can be deployed for delivery of heterologous antigens to antigen-presenting cells. Here we investigated the efficacy of various effector proteins of the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI2)-encoded T3SS for the translocation of model antigens and elicitation of immune responses. The SPI2 T3SS effector proteins SifA, SteC, SseL, SseJ, and SseF share an endosomal membrane-associated subcellular localization after translocation. We observed that all effector proteins could be used to translocate fusion proteins with the model antigens ovalbumin and listeriolysin into the cytosol of host cells. Under in vitro conditions, fusion proteins with SseJ and SteC stimulated T-cell responses that were superior to those triggered by fusion proteins with SseF. However, in mice vaccinated with Salmonella carrier strains, only fusion proteins based on SseJ or SifA elicited potent T-cell responses. These data demonstrate that the selection of an optimal SPI2 effector protein for T3SS-mediated translocation is a critical parameter for the rational design of effective Salmonella-based recombinant vaccines. PMID:22252866

  17. Unveiling the in Vivo Protein Corona of Circulating Leukocyte-like Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, Claudia; Molinaro, Roberto; Taraballi, Francesca; Toledano Furman, Naama E; Hartman, Kelly A; Sherman, Michael B; De Rosa, Enrica; Kirui, Dickson K; Salvatore, Francesco; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2017-03-28

    Understanding interactions occurring at the interface between nanoparticles and biological components is an urgent challenge in nanomedicine due to their effect on the biological fate of nanoparticles. After the systemic injection of nanoparticles, a protein corona constructed by blood components surrounds the carrier's surface and modulates its pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Biomimicry-based approaches in nanotechnology attempt to imitate what happens in nature in order to transfer specific natural functionalities to synthetic nanoparticles. Several biomimetic formulations have been developed, showing superior in vivo features as a result of their cell-like identity. We have recently designed biomimetic liposomes, called leukosomes, which recapitulate the ability of leukocytes to target inflamed endothelium and escape clearance by the immune system. To gain insight into the properties of leukosomes, we decided to investigate their protein corona in vivo. So far, most information about the protein corona has been obtained using in vitro experiments, which have been shown to minimally reproduce in vivo phenomena. Here we directly show a time-dependent quantitative and qualitative analysis of the protein corona adsorbed in vivo on leukosomes and control liposomes. We observed that leukosomes absorb fewer proteins than liposomes, and we identified a group of proteins specifically adsorbed on leukosomes. Moreover, we hypothesize that the presence of macrophage receptors on leukosomes' surface neutralizes their protein corona-meditated uptake by immune cells. This work unveils the protein corona of a biomimetic carrier and is one of the few studies on the corona performed in vivo.

  18. Protein encapsulated magnetic carriers for micro/nanoscale drug delivery systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Y.; Kaminski, M. D.; Mertz, C. J.; Finck, M. R.; Guy, S. G.; Chen, H.; Rosengart, A. J.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine

    2005-01-01

    Novel methods for drug delivery may be based on nanotechnology using non-invasive magnetic guidance of drug loaded magnetic carriers to the targeted site and thereafter released by external ultrasound energy. The key building block of this system is to successfully synthesize biodegradable, magnetic drug carriers. Magnetic carriers using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) as matrix materials were loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by a double-emulsion technique. BSA-loaded magnetic microspheres were characterized for size, morphology, surface charge, and magnetization. The BSA encapsulation efficiency was determined by recovering albumin from the microspheres using dimethyl sulfoxide and 0.05N NaOH/0.5% SDS then quantifying with the Micro-BCA protein assay. BSA release profiles were also determined by the Micro-BCA protein assay. The microspheres had drug encapsulation efficiencies up to 90% depending on synthesis parameters. Particles were spherical with a smooth or porous surface having a size range less than 5 {mu}m. The surface charge (expressed as zeta potential) was near neutral, optimal for prolonged intravascular survival. The magnetization of these BSA loaded magnetic carriers was 2 to 6 emu/g, depending on the specific magnetic materials used during synthesis.

  19. Metabolic alkene labeling and in vitro detection of histone acylation via the aqueous oxidative Heck reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ourailidou, Maria E; Dockerty, Paul; Witte, Martin; Poelarends, Gerrit J; Dekker, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    The detection of protein lysine acylations remains a challenge due to lack of specific antibodies for acylations with various chain lengths. This problem can be addressed by metabolic labeling techniques using carboxylates with reactive functionalities. Subsequent chemoselective reactions with a

  20. Acyl-CoA-binding protein family members in laticifers are possibly involved in lipid and latex metabolism of Hevea brasiliensis (the Para rubber tree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiyi; Wang, Yihang; Wu, Chuntai; Li, Yu; Kang, Guijuan; Qin, Huaide; Zeng, Rizhong

    2018-01-02

    Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are mainly involved in acyl-CoA ester binding and trafficking in eukaryotic cells, and their various functions have been characterized in model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana), Oryza sativa (rice), and other plant species. In the present study, genome-wide mining and expression analysis of ACBP genes was performed on Hevea brasiliensis (the para rubber tree), the most important latex-producing crop in the world. Six members of the H. brasiliensis ACBP family genes, designated HbACBP1-HbACBP6, were identified from the H. brasiliensis genome. They can be categorized into four classes with different amino acid sequences and domain structures based on the categorization of their A. thaliana counterparts. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the HbACBPs were clustered with those of other closely related species, such as Manihot esculenta, Ricinus communis, and Jatropha carcas, but were further from those of A. thaliana, a distantly related species. Expression analysis demonstrated that the HbACBP1 and HbACBP2 genes are more prominently expressed in H. brasiliensis latex, and their expression can be significantly enhanced by bark tapping (a mechanical wound) and jasmonic acid stimulation, whereas HbACBP3-HbACBP6 had almost the same expression patterns with relatively high levels in mature leaves and male flowers, but a markedly low abundance in the latex. HbACBP1 and HbACBP2 may have crucial roles in lipid and latex metabolism in laticifers, so their subcellular location was further investigated and the results indicated that HbACBP1 is a cytosol protein, whereas HbACBP2 is an endoplasmic reticulum-associated ACBP. In this study, the H. brasiliensis ACBP family genes were identified. Phylogenetic analyses of the HbABCPs indicate that there is a high conservation and evolutionary relationship between ACBPs in land plants. The HbACBPs are organ/tissue-specifically expressed and have different expression patterns in response

  1. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway by adiponectin and insulin in mouse adipocytes: requirement of acyl-CoA synthetases FATP1 and Acsl1 and association with an elevation in AMP/ATP ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Gauthier, Marie-Soleil; Sun, Lei; Ruderman, Neil; Lodish, Harvey

    2010-11-01

    Adiponectin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in adipocytes, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that AMP, generated in activating fatty acids to their CoA derivatives, catalyzed by acyl-CoA synthetases, is involved in AMPK activation by adiponectin. Moreover, in adipocytes, insulin affects the subcellular localization of acyl-CoA synthetase FATP1. Thus, we also tested whether insulin activates AMPK in these cells and, if so, whether it activates through a similar mechanism. We examined these hypotheses by measuring the AMP/ATP ratio and AMPK activation on adiponectin and insulin stimulation and after knocking down acyl-CoA synthetases in adipocytes. We show that adiponectin activation of AMPK is accompanied by an ∼2-fold increase in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio. Moreover, FATP1 and Acsl1, the 2 major acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms in adipocytes, are essential for AMPK activation by adiponectin. We also show that after 40 min. insulin activated AMPK in adipocytes, which was coupled with a 5-fold increase in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio. Knockdown studies show that FATP1 and Acsl1 are required for these processes, as well as for stimulation of long-chain fatty acid uptake by adiponection and insulin. These studies demonstrate that a change in cellular energy state is associated with AMPK activation by both adiponectin and insulin, which requires the activity of FATP1 and Acsl1.

  2. MAA-1, a novel acyl-CoA-binding protein involved in endosomal vesicle transport in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Tuck, Simon; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2006-01-01

    The budding and fission of vesicles during membrane trafficking requires many proteins, including those that coat the vesicles, adaptor proteins that recruit components of the coat, and small GTPases that initiate vesicle formation. In addition, vesicle formation in vitro is promoted by the hydro...

  3. [Cell penetration of supercharged green fluorescent protein +36GFP as DNA carrier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Fang, Yourong; Yu, Haitao; Yu, Ying; Yan, Hui

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we expressed and purified supercharged green fluorescent protein (+36GFP) that we used to study its combination with nucleic acid and its cell transduction efficiency as carrier of DNA. We transformed pET+36GFP-HA2 plasmid into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), then expressed and purified the target protein. We used the protein to transduce a variety of mammalian cell lines including B16 cells, 293 cells, A549 cells and HepG2 cells at specified protein concentrations. Transduction efficiency of the protein was analyzed by flow cytometry. Under laser scanning confocal microscope, we observed visually transduction efficiency of +36GFP protein (100 nmol/L) to A549 cells. We incubated +36GFP with plasmid DNA and analyzed their binding ability with gel mobility shift assay. Then we transduced cells with the mixture of plasmid DNA/+36GFP protein at various ratio and detected the expression of reporter gene by using laser scanning confocal microscope and flow cytometry. The experimental results demonstrate that +36GFP had high transduction efficiency, and as the concentration increased, the efficiency improved in a dose-dependent manner. Gel mobility shift assay indicates that +36GFP could bind to plasmid DNA, blocking the migration of DNA in the gel in a concentration-dependent manner. After the plasmid wrapped by +36GFP penetrated into cells, the cells could express target protein efficiently, proving that +36GFP had the ability to carry nucleic acids into cells. Sucussful expression and purification of +36GFP protein confirms its high efficiency of cell transduction and its ability as carrier to deliver exogenous nucleic acids into cells.

  4. Participation of Low Molecular Weight Electron Carriers in Oxidative Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Mandl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative protein folding is mediated by a proteinaceous electron relay system, in which the concerted action of protein disulfide isomerase and Ero1 delivers the electrons from thiol groups to the final acceptor. Oxygen appears to be the final oxidant in aerobic living organisms, although the existence of alternative electron acceptors, e.g. fumarate or nitrate, cannot be excluded. Whilst the protein components of the system are well-known, less attention has been turned to the role of low molecular weight electron carriers in the process. The function of ascorbate, tocopherol and vitamin K has been raised recently. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that these redox-active compounds can contribute to the functioning of oxidative folding. This review focuses on the participation of small molecular weight redox compounds in oxidative protein folding.

  5. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C. Y.; Urano, Yasuomi

    2009-01-01

    The enzymes acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs) are membrane-bound proteins that utilize long-chain fatty acyl-CoA and cholesterol as substrates to form cholesteryl esters. In mammals, two isoenzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2, encoded by two different genes, exist. ACATs play important roles in cellular cholesterol homeostasis in various tissues. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on ACAT-related research in two areas: 1) ACAT genes and proteins and 2) ACAT enzymes as...

  6. Plasma Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Is Strongly Determined by Acylation Stimulating Protein Levels Independent of Insulin Resistance in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumana Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Steatosis is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome often associated with release of liver enzymes and inflammatory adipocytokines linked to cardiovascular risk. Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT is one sensitive liver marker recently identified as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Mechanisms involved in enhanced hepatic lipogenesis causing steatosis are not yet identified and are usually linked to insulin resistance (IR. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP, a potent lipogenic factor, was recently shown to increase in patients with steatosis and was implicated in its pathogenesis. Aim. To investigate the association of plasma ASP levels with liver and metabolic risk markers in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients. Methods. 28 patients and 30 healthy controls were recruited. Their anthropometrics, lipid profile, liver markers, insulin, and ASP levels were measured. Results. In the patients, ASP, liver, and metabolic risk markers were markedly higher than in the controls. ASP strongly predicted GGT levels (B=0.75, P<0.0001, followed by triglycerides (B=0.403, P=0.017, together determining 57.6% variation in GGT levels. Insulin and IR correlated with metabolic risk components but not with liver enzymes. Conclusion. The strong association of ASP with GGT in ACS patients suggests that ASP, independent of IR, may contribute to a vicious cycle of hepatic lipogenic stimulation and GGT release promoting atherogenesis.

  7. Sterol Carrier Protein-2, a Nonspecific Lipid-Transfer Protein, in Intracellular Cholesterol Trafficking in Testicular Leydig Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nancy C.; Fan, Jinjiang; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2016-01-01

    Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP2), also called nonspecific lipid-transfer protein, is thought to play a major role in intracellular lipid transport and metabolism, and it has been associated with diseases involving abnormalities in lipid trafficking, such as Zellweger syndrome. The Scp2 gene encodes the 58 kDa sterol carrier protein-x (SCPX) and 15 kDa pro-SCP2 proteins, both of which contain a 13 kDa SCP2 domain in their C-termini. We found that 22-NBD-cholesterol, a fluorescent analog of cholesterol and a preferred SCP2 ligands, was not localized in the peroxisomes. This raises questions about previous reports on the localization of the SCPX and SCP2 proteins and their relationship to peroxisomes and mitochondria in intracellular cholesterol transport. Immunofluorescent staining of cryosections of mouse testis and of MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cells showed that SCPX and SCP2 are present in both mouse testicular interstitial tissue and in MA-10 cells. Fluorescent fusion proteins of SCPX and SCP2, as well as confocal live-cell imaging, were used to investigate the subcellular targeting of these proteins and the function of the putative mitochondrial targeting sequence. The results showed that SCPX and SCP2 are targeted to the peroxisomes by the C-terminal PTS1 domain, but the putative N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence alone is not potent enough to localize SCPX and SCP2 to the mitochondria. Homology modeling and molecular docking studies indicated that the SCP2 domain binds cholesterol, but lacks specificity of the binding and/or transport. These findings further our understanding of the role of SCPX and SCP2 in intracellular cholesterol transport, and present a new point of view on the role of these proteins in cholesterol trafficking. PMID:26901662

  8. Sterol Carrier Protein-2, a Nonspecific Lipid-Transfer Protein, in Intracellular Cholesterol Trafficking in Testicular Leydig Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy C Li

    Full Text Available Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP2, also called nonspecific lipid-transfer protein, is thought to play a major role in intracellular lipid transport and metabolism, and it has been associated with diseases involving abnormalities in lipid trafficking, such as Zellweger syndrome. The Scp2 gene encodes the 58 kDa sterol carrier protein-x (SCPX and 15 kDa pro-SCP2 proteins, both of which contain a 13 kDa SCP2 domain in their C-termini. We found that 22-NBD-cholesterol, a fluorescent analog of cholesterol and a preferred SCP2 ligands, was not localized in the peroxisomes. This raises questions about previous reports on the localization of the SCPX and SCP2 proteins and their relationship to peroxisomes and mitochondria in intracellular cholesterol transport. Immunofluorescent staining of cryosections of mouse testis and of MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cells showed that SCPX and SCP2 are present in both mouse testicular interstitial tissue and in MA-10 cells. Fluorescent fusion proteins of SCPX and SCP2, as well as confocal live-cell imaging, were used to investigate the subcellular targeting of these proteins and the function of the putative mitochondrial targeting sequence. The results showed that SCPX and SCP2 are targeted to the peroxisomes by the C-terminal PTS1 domain, but the putative N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence alone is not potent enough to localize SCPX and SCP2 to the mitochondria. Homology modeling and molecular docking studies indicated that the SCP2 domain binds cholesterol, but lacks specificity of the binding and/or transport. These findings further our understanding of the role of SCPX and SCP2 in intracellular cholesterol transport, and present a new point of view on the role of these proteins in cholesterol trafficking.

  9. LMAN1 (ERGIC-53) is a potential carrier protein for matrix metalloproteinase-9 glycoprotein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duellman, Tyler; Burnett, John; Shin, Alice; Yang, Jay

    2015-08-28

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a secreted glycoprotein with a major role in shaping the extracellular matrix and a detailed understanding of the secretory mechanism could help identify methods to correct diseases resulting from dysregulation of secretion. MMP-9 appears to follow a canonical secretory pathway through a quality control cycle in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before transport of the properly folded protein to the Golgi apparatus and beyond for secretion. Through a complementation assay, we determined that LMAN1, a well-studied lectin-carrier protein, interacts with a secretion-competent N-glycosylated MMP-9 in the ER while N-glycosylation-deficient secretion-compromised MMP-9 does not. In contrast, co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated protein interaction between LMAN1 and secretion-compromised N-glycosylation-deficient MMP-9. MMP-9 secretion was reduced in the LMAN1 knockout cell line compared to control cells confirming the functional role of LMAN1. These observations support the role of LMAN1 as a lectin-carrier protein mediating efficient MMP-9 secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of a pseudogene related to the human Acyl-CoA binding protein/diazepam binding inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersuk, V.H. [Virginia Mason Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Rose, T.M.; Todaro, G.J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-01-20

    The acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) and the diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) or endozepine are independent isolates of a single 86-amino-acid, 10-kDa protein. ACBP/DBI is highly conserved between species and has been identified in several diverse organisms, including human, cow, rat, frog, duck, insects, plants, and yeast. Although the genomic locus has not yet been cloned in humans, complementary DNA clones with different 5{prime} ends have been isolated and characterized. These cDNA clones appear to be encoded by a single gene. However, Southern blot analyses, in situ hybridizations, and somatic cell hybrid chromosomal mapping all suggest that there are multiple ACBP/DBI-related sequences in the genome. To identify potential members of this gene family, degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to highly conserved regions of ACBP/DBI were used to screen a human genomic DNA library using the polymerase chain reaction. A novel gene, DBIP1, that is closely related to ACBP/DBI but is clearly distinct was identified. DBIP1 bears extensive sequence homology to ACBP/DBI but lacks the introns predicted by rat and duck genomic sequence studies. A 1-base deletion in the coding region results in a frameshift and, along with the absence of introns and the lack of a detectable transcript, suggests that DBIP1 is a pseudogene. ACBP/DBI has previously been mapped to chromosome 2, although this was recently disputed, and a chromosome 6 location was suggested. We show that ACBP/DBI is correctly placed on chromosome 2 and that the gene identified on chromosome 6 is DBIP1. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Conformational changes in guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1 induced by Ca2+ and N-terminal fatty acid acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Tivadar; Bereta, Grzegorz; Miyagi, Masaru; Wang, Benlian; Chance, Mark R; Sousa, Marcelo Carlos; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-13

    Neuronal Ca(2+) sensors (NCS) are high-affinity Ca(2+)-binding proteins critical for regulating a vast range of physiological processes. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) are members of the NCS family responsible for activating retinal guanylate cyclases (GCs) at low Ca(2+) concentrations, triggering synthesis of cGMP and recovery of photoreceptor cells to the dark-adapted state. Here we use amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange and radiolytic labeling, and molecular dynamics simulations to study conformational changes induced by Ca(2+) and modulated by the N-terminal myristoyl group. Our data on the conformational dynamics of GCAP1 in solution suggest that Ca(2+) stabilizes the protein but induces relatively small changes in the domain structure; however, loss of Ca(+2) mediates a significant global relaxation and movement of N- and C-terminal domains. This model and the previously described "calcium-myristoyl switch" proposed for recoverin indicate significant diversity in conformational changes among these highly homologous NCS proteins with distinct functions.

  12. Determination of an ensemble of structures representing the denatured state of the bovine acyl-coenzyme a binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Kristjansdottir, Sigridur; Teilum, Kaare

    2004-01-01

    The denatured state of a protein contains important information about the determinants of the folding process. By combining site-directed spin-labeling NMR experiments and restrained computer simulations, we have determined ensembles of conformations that represent the denatured state of the bovine...... of the protein by using a Monte Carlo sampling scheme. This procedure permits us to sample ensembles of conformations that are compatible with the experimental data and thus to obtain information regarding the distribution of structures in the denatured state. Our results show that the denatured state of ACBP...... that the sequence-dependent patterns of helical propensity and hydrophobicity are important determinants of the structure in the denatured state of ACBP....

  13. Toxic response caused by a misfolding variant of the mitochondrial protein short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stinne P; Corydon, Thomas J; Pedersen, Christina B

    2011-01-01

    for investigation of SCAD with respect to expression, degree of misfolding, and enzymatic SCAD activity. Furthermore, cell proliferation and expression of selected stress response genes were investigated as well as proteomic analysis of mitochondria-enriched extracts in order to study the consequences of p.Arg107...... by an increased demand for the mitochondrial antioxidant SOD2. In addition, we found markers of apoptotic activity in the p.Arg107Cys expressing cells, which points to a possible pathophysiological role of this variant protein....

  14. Synergistic antiproliferative effect of cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (II) and a new anticancer agent, plasmanyl-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaevich, I S; Vlasenkova, N K; Gerasimova, G K

    1991-01-01

    The action of a new anticancer agent, the semisynthetic alkyl-phospholipid plasmanyl-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine (sPNAE), namely 1-O-octadecyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(N-palmitoyl)-ethanolamine, on protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated, and it was found to inhibit in a dose-dependent manner PKC isolated from mouse brain. The inhibition was competitive with respect to phosphatidylserine (K(i) = 20 microM). Lyso-PNAE, a possible cell metabolite of sPNAE, also inhibited PKC. A two-site model was used to calculate the binding affinity and the number of binding sites for phorbol ester in a culture of human melanoma BRO cells. The values of Kd, the dissociation constant, were K'd = 0.5 nM and K"d = 72 nM, whereas the values of Bmax, the number of binding sites, were B'max = 4.6 x 10(4) sites cell-1, and B"max = 2.9 x 10(5) sites cell-1. sPNAE was able to reduce the affinity of BRO cells for phorbol ester with almost no changes in the number of binding sites: K'd = 1.6 nM, K"d = 557 nM, and B'max = 4 x 10(4), B"max = 1.9 x 10(5). These data suggest that sPNAE may inhibit PKC in intact cells. Since various inhibitors of PKC may enhance the antiproliferative activity of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP), we investigated the effect of the combination of sPNAE and cis-DDP on the proliferation of BRO cells. sPNAE synergistically enhanced the antiproliferative activity of cis-DDP.

  15. Acylation of Therapeutic Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Sofie; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Jensen, Simon Bjerregaard

    Oral administration of therapeutic peptides could benefit millions of chronically ill people worldwide, through easier and less stigmatized therapy, and likely improve the long-term effects of currently widespread disease mismanagement. However, oral peptide delivery is a formidable task due......, but it is not widely studied in an oral context. As acylation furthermore increases interactions with the lipid membranes of mammalian cells, it offers several potential benefits for oral delivery of therapeutic peptides, and we hypothesize that tailoring the acylation may be used to optimize intestinal translocation...... to the harsh and selective gastrointestinal system, and development has lacked far behind injection therapy. Peptide acylation is a powerful tool to alter the pharmacokinetics, biophysical properties and chemical stability of injectable peptide drugs, primarily used to prolong blood circulation...

  16. Rational Design of a Carrier Protein for the Production of Recombinant Toxic Peptides in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Pane

    Full Text Available Commercial uses of bioactive peptides require low cost, effective methods for their production. We developed a new carrier protein for high yield production of recombinant peptides in Escherichia coli very well suited for the production of toxic peptides like antimicrobial peptides. GKY20, a short antimicrobial peptide derived from the C-terminus of human thrombin, was fused to the C-terminus of Onconase, a small ribonuclease (104 amino acids, which efficiently drove the peptide into inclusion bodies with very high expression levels (about 200-250 mg/L. After purification of the fusion protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, peptide was obtained by chemical cleavage in diluted acetic acid of an acid labile Asp-Pro sequence with more than 95% efficiency. To improve peptide purification, Onconase was mutated to eliminate all acid labile sequences thus reducing the release of unwanted peptides during the acid cleavage. Mutations were chosen to preserve the differential solubility of Onconase as function of pH, which allows its selective precipitation at neutral pH after the cleavage. The improved carrier allowed the production of 15-18 mg of recombinant peptide per liter of culture with 96-98% purity without the need of further chromatographic steps after the acid cleavage. The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide, with an additional proline at the N-terminus, was tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains and was found to be identical to that measured for synthetic GKY20. This finding suggests that N-terminal proline residue does not change the antimicrobial properties of recombinant (PGKY20. The improved carrier, which does not contain cysteine and methionine residues, Asp-Pro and Asn-Gly sequences, is well suited for the production of peptides using any of the most popular chemical cleavage methods.

  17. Purification of nonspecific lipid transfer protein (sterol carrier protein 2) from human liver and its deficiency in livers from patients with cerebro-hepato-renal (Zellweger) syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, A. van; Helms, J.B.; Krift, T.P. van der; Schutgens, R.B.H.; Wirtz, K.W.A.

    1987-01-01

    The nonspecific lipid transfer protein (i.e., sterol carrier protein 2) from human liver was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, CM-cellulose chromatography, molecular sieve chromatography and fast protein liquid chromatography. Its amino acid composition was determined and

  18. The ETFDH c.158A>G Variation Disrupts the Balanced Binding of ESE and ESS Proteins Causing Missplicing and Multiple acyl-CoA Dehydrogenation Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke K J; Brøner, Sabrina; Sabaratnam, Rugivan

    2013-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency is a disorder of fatty acid and amino acid oxidation caused by defects of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or its dehydrogenase (ETFDH). A clear relationship between genotype and phenotype makes genotyping of patients important not only diagnostica......Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency is a disorder of fatty acid and amino acid oxidation caused by defects of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or its dehydrogenase (ETFDH). A clear relationship between genotype and phenotype makes genotyping of patients important not only...

  19. Beta-tricalcium phosphate particles as a controlled release carrier of osteogenic proteins for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Hou, Yaping; Park, Hyejin; Lee, Min

    2012-07-01

    Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has been widely used as bone substitutes and delivery carriers of osteogenic proteins. However, low protein carrying capacity and agent burst release profiles of β-TCP limit their usage. This study investigates strategies to enhance protein carrying capacity of β-TCP particles with reduced initial burst by surface etching in citric acid solution or by creating apatite coatings with the simulate body fluid immersion approach. The release kinetics of protein from the modified β-TCP particles was investigated using Nel-like molecule-1 (Nell-1), a novel osteogenic protein, as a model protein. Although chemical etching treatments reduced the initial burst release of protein from the particles, a rapid burst release was observed with high protein dose. In contrast, the burst release of protein was significantly reduced by the apatite coating and a high protein dose was successfully delivered over a prolonged period from the apatite-coated particles. Protein release was further modulated by simultaneously delivering proteins from two different substrates: acid-etched and apatite-coated particles. The bioactivity of the protein was preserved during the loading procedure onto the particles. In addition, protein-loaded particles maintained biological activity in the lyophilized state over 4 weeks. These findings suggest that the protein carrying capacity of β-TCP can be modulated by surface modification, which has a potential for use as a protein carrier with controlled release. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Electrospun fish protein fibers as a biopolymer-based carrier – implications for oral protein delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; García-Díaz, María; Jessen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Protein-based electrospun fibers have emerged as novel nanostructured materials for tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their unique structural characteristics, biocompatibility and biodegradability. The aim of this study was to explore the use of electrospun fibers based on fish...

  1. Experimental study of osteoinduction using a new material as a carrier for bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Noriaki; Okubo, Yasunori; Nakao, Kazumasa; Osawa, Kenji; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of artificial collagen as a new carrier for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) by comparing it with that of atelopeptide collagen, which is derived from porcine skin, and which we have previously shown to be useful for the induction of bone. rhBMP-2 5μg with either atelopeptide collagen 3mg or artificial collagen 3mg was implanted into the calf muscle of 10-week-old Wistar rats (n=3 in each group). Three rats were given artificial collagen alone and acted as controls (n=3). Radiographic evaluation, histological analysis, and biochemical examinations were made on day 21 after implantation. Soft radiographs (wavelength 10-0.10nm) showed opaque shadows in both groups. Histological analysis showed that new bone had formed in both experimental groups. Endochondral ossification was found at the outermost edge of the implanted collagen in the atelopeptide group. However, there was less ossification in the implanted collagen in the artificial collagen group. On biochemical examination, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium concentrations in both experimental groups were higher than in the control group, and were higher in the atelopeptide group than in the artificial collagen group. Our results suggest that artificial collagen is useful as a carrier for rhBMP-2 designed to promote the formation of new bone. Copyright © 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of increased CRM₁₉₇ carrier protein dose on meningococcal C bactericidal antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lucia H; Blake, Milan S

    2012-04-01

    New multivalent CRM(197)-based conjugate vaccines are available for childhood immunization. Clinical studies were reviewed to assess meningococcal group C (MenC) antibody responses following MenC-CRM(197) coadministration with CRM(197)-based pneumococcal or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. Infants receiving a total CRM(197) carrier protein dose of ∼50 μg and concomitant diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP)-containing vaccine tended to have lower MenC geometric mean antibody titers and continued to have low titers after the toddler dose. Nevertheless, at least 95% of children in the reported studies achieved a MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer of ≥ 1:8 after the last infant or toddler dose. SBA was measured using an assay with a baby rabbit or human complement source. Additional studies are needed to assess long-term antibody persistence and MenC CRM(197) conjugate vaccine immunogenicity using alternative dosing schedules.

  3. Polyelectrolyte complexes as prospective carriers for the oral delivery of protein therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourganis, Vassilis; Karamanidou, Theodora; Kammona, Olga; Kiparissides, Costas

    2017-02-01

    The oral administration of protein therapeutics is hindered by the multitude of barriers confronted by these molecules along the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., acidic environment, proteolytic degradation, mucosal barrier, etc.). Their unique properties (e.g., high molecular weight, hydrophilicity, charge, etc.) and labile structure are mainly responsible for their instability in the harsh conditions along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and dictate the employment of alternative routes for their administration (e.g., parenteral). The association of proteins with colloidal carriers represents an interesting approach to overcome the aforementioned issues. However, certain requirements, such as stability in the GIT, stimuli-responsiveness, protection of the encapsulated biomolecule from enzymatic degradation and permeability of the mucosa, have to be met in order to efficiently deliver the sensitive payload to the intended site of action, thus resulting in enhanced bioavailability. The formation of colloidal polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) seems to be a promising strategy towards this direction, and the present review aims to provide an insight into PECs (e.g., preparation methods, characteristics) along with their advantages and drawbacks as drug delivery vehicles for the oral administration of protein-based therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 reflects the state of villus architecture in human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gassler, Nikolaus; Kopitz, Jürgen; Tehrani, Arman

    2004-01-01

    . Screening of antibodies from a hybridoma library led to the identification of an acyl-CoA synthetase 5-specific monoclonal antibody. Protein synthesis, mRNA expression, and the enzyme activity of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 were studied by several methods in human small intestinal tissues with Crohn's disease...... or coeliac disease, respectively. Acyl-CoA synthetase 5 mRNA and protein levels were substantially reduced in injured small intestinal mucosa. Moreover, impaired synthesis of the acyl-CoA synthetase 5 protein was reflected by a decrease in intramucosal enzyme activity. Subtle changes of the acyl...

  5. Structure of Dehydroergosterol Monohydrate and Interaction with Sterol Carrier Protein-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Gallegos, Adalberto M.; Storey, Stephen M.; Reibenspies, Joseph H.; Kier, Ann B.; Meyer, Edgar; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroergosterol [ergosta-5,7,9(11),22-tetraen-3β-ol] is a naturally-occurring, fluorescent sterol utilized extensively to probe membrane cholesterol distribution, cholesterol-protein interactions, and intracellular cholesterol transport both in vitro and in vivo. In aqueous solutions, the low solubility of dehydroergosterol results in the formation of monohydrate crystals similar to cholesterol. Low temperature x-ray diffraction analysis reveals that dehydroergosterol monohydrate crystallizes in the space group P21 with 4 molecules in the unit cell and monoclinic crystal parameters a = 9.975(1)Å, b = 7.4731(9)Å, c = 34.054(4)Å, and β = 92.970(2)° somewhat similar to ergosterol monohydrate. The molecular arrangement is in a slightly closer packed bilayer structure resembling cholesterol monohydrate. Since dehydroergosterol fluorescence emission undergoes a quantum yield enhancement and red-shift of its maximum wavelength when crystallized, formation or disruption of microcrystals was monitored with high sensitivity using cuvette-based spectroscopy and multi-photon laser scanning imaging microscopy (MPLSM). This manuscript reports on the dynamical effect of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) interacting between aqueous dispersions of dehydroergosterol monohydrate microcrystal donors and acceptors consisting not only of model membranes but also vesicles derived from plasma membranes isolated by biochemical fractionation and affinity purification from Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Furthermore, this study provides real-time measurements of the effect of increased SCP-2 levels on the rate of disappearance of dehydroergosterol microcrystals in living cells. PMID:19020914

  6. Tragacanth as an oral peptide and protein delivery carrier: Characterization and mucoadhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, M; Ramchandran, L; Vasiljevic, T

    2016-06-05

    Biopolymers such as tragacanth, an anionic polysaccharide gum, can be alternative polymeric carrier for physiologically important peptides and proteins. Characterization of tragacanth is thus essential for providing a foundation for possible applications. Rheological studies colloidal solution of tragacanth at pH 3, 5 or 7 were carried out by means of steady shear and small amplitude oscillatory measurements. Tragacanth mucoadhesivity was also analyzed using an applicable rheological method and compared to chitosan, alginate and PVP. The particle size and zeta potential were measured by a zetasizer. Thermal properties of solutions were obtained using a differential scanning calorimetry. The solution exhibited shear-thinning characteristics. The value of the storage modulus (G') and the loss modulus (G″) increased with an increase in angular frequency (Ω). In all cases, loss modulus values were higher than storage values (G″>G') and viscous character was, therefore, dominant. Tragacanth and alginate showed a good mucoadhesion. Tragacanth upon dispersion created particles of a submicron size with a negative zeta potential (-7.98 to -11.92 mV). These properties were pH dependant resulting in acid gel formation at pH 3.5. Tragacanth has thus a potential to be used as an excipient for peptide/protein delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    -the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay...

  8. Lysine(63)-linked ubiquitylation of PIN2 auxin carrier protein governs hormonally controlled adaptation of Arabidopsis root growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leitner, J.; Petrášek, Jan; Tomanov, K.; Retzer, K.; Pařezová, Markéta; Korbei, B.; Bachmair, A.; Zažímalová, Eva; Luschnig, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 21 (2012), s. 8322-8327 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2476 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : PLASMA-MEMBRANE PROTEIN * EFFLUX CARRIER * INTRACELLULAR TRAFFICKING Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.737, year: 2012

  9. Safety and efficacy of self-assembling bubble carriers stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate for oral delivery of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Yen; Chuang, Er-Yuan; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Hsin-Lung; Lin, Kun-Ju; Juang, Jyuhn-Huarng; Chiang, Ching-Hua; Mi, Fwu-Long; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2017-08-10

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is generally regarded as a potent permeability enhancer in oral formulations; however, one concern related to the use of any permeation enhancer is its possible absorption of unwanted toxins during the period of epithelial permeability enhancement. In this work, the safety and efficacy of an SDS-containing bubble carrier system that is developed from an orally administered enteric-coated capsule are evaluated. The bubble carriers comprise diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) dianhydride, sodium bicarbonate (SBC), SDS, and insulin. Upon exposure to the intestinal fluid, DTPA dianhydride hydrolyzes to yield acids, and SBC rapidly reacts with these acids to generate CO 2 , producing bubble carriers, each containing a self-assembling water film. The hydrophilic insulin is entrapped in the self-assembled water film, which is stabilized by SDS. The SDS in the bubble carrier system can act as a dissolution enhancer in the dispersion of insulin molecules, as a surfactant that stabilizes the bubble carriers, as a protease inhibitor that protects the protein drug, and as a permeation enhancer that augments its oral bioavailability. Hence, a significant increase in the plasma insulin level and an excellent blood glucose-lowering response in diabetic rats are effectively achieved. Moreover, the enhancement of epithelial permeation by this SDS-containing formulation does not promote the absorption of intestinal endotoxins. The above facts indicate that the bubble carrier system that is stabilized by SDS can be used as a safe and potent carrier in the oral delivery of therapeutic proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from Camelina sativa: cloning, enzymatic characterization and implication in seed oil fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Manuel Fernando; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are intraplastidial enzymes that terminate de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in the plastids of higher plants by hydrolyzing the thioester bond between ACP and the fatty acid synthesized. Free fatty acids are then esterified with coenzyme A prior to being incorporated into the glycerolipids synthesized through the eukaryotic pathway. Acyl-ACP thioesterases belong to the TE14 family of thioester-active enzymes and can be classified as FatAs and FatBs, which differ in their amino acid sequence and substrate specificity. Here, the FatA and FatB thioesterases from Camelina sativa seeds, a crop of interest in plant biotechnology, were cloned, sequenced and characterized. The mature proteins encoded by these genes were characterized biochemically after they were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. C. sativa contained three different alleles of both the FatA and FatB genes. These genes were expressed most strongly in expanding tissues in which lipids are very actively synthesized, such as developing seed endosperm. The CsFatA enzyme displayed high catalytic efficiency on oleoyl-ACP and CsFatB acted efficiently on palmitoyl-ACP. The contribution of these two enzymes to the synthesis of C. sativa oil was discussed in the light of these results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ghrelin: The differences between acyl- and des-acyl ghrelin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.D. Delhanty (Patric); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDes-acyl ghrelin (DAG) is one of the three preproghrelin gene-encoded peptides. Compared with ghrelin and obestatin, it has not received the attention it deserves. DAG has long been considered an inert degradation product of acyl ghrelin (AG). Recent evidence, however, indicates that DAG

  12. Plasma protein corona modulates the vascular wall interaction of drug carriers in a material and donor specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Sobczynski

    Full Text Available The nanoscale plasma protein interaction with intravenously injected particulate carrier systems is known to modulate their organ distribution and clearance from the bloodstream. However, the role of this plasma protein interaction in prescribing the adhesion of carriers to the vascular wall remains relatively unknown. Here, we show that the adhesion of vascular-targeted poly(lactide-co-glycolic-acid (PLGA spheres to endothelial cells is significantly inhibited in human blood flow, with up to 90% reduction in adhesion observed relative to adhesion in simple buffer flow, depending on the particle size and the magnitude and pattern of blood flow. This reduced PLGA adhesion in blood flow is linked to the adsorption of certain high molecular weight plasma proteins on PLGA and is donor specific, where large reductions in particle adhesion in blood flow (>80% relative to buffer is seen with ∼60% of unique donor bloods while others exhibit moderate to no reductions. The depletion of high molecular weight immunoglobulins from plasma is shown to successfully restore PLGA vascular wall adhesion. The observed plasma protein effect on PLGA is likely due to material characteristics since the effect is not replicated with polystyrene or silica spheres. These particles effectively adhere to the endothelium at a higher level in blood over buffer flow. Overall, understanding how distinct plasma proteins modulate the vascular wall interaction of vascular-targeted carriers of different material characteristics would allow for the design of highly functional delivery vehicles for the treatment of many serious human diseases.

  13. Effect of anticoagulants on the protein corona-induced reduced drug carrier adhesion efficiency in human blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczynski, Daniel J; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2017-01-15

    Plasma proteins rapidly coat the surfaces of particulate drug carriers to form a protein corona upon their injection into the bloodstream. The high presence of immunoglobulins in the corona formed on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) surfaces was recently shown to negatively impact their adhesion to activated endothelial cells (aECs) in vitro. Here, we characterized the influence of anticoagulants, or their absence, on the binding efficiency of VTCs of various materials via modulation of their protein corona. Specifically, we evaluated the adhesion of PLGA, poly(lactic acid) (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), silica, and polystyrene VTCs to aECs in heparinized, citrated, and non-anticoagulated (serum and whole) blood flows relative to buffer control. Particle adhesion is substantially reduced in non-anticoagulated blood flows regardless of the material type while only moderate to minimal reduction is observed for VTCs in anticoagulant-containing blood flow depending on the anticoagulant and material type. The substantial reduction in VTC adhesion in blood flows was linked to a high presence of immunoglobulin-sized proteins in the VTC corona via SDS-PAGE analysis. Of all the materials evaluated, PLGA was the most sensitive to plasma protein effects while PCL was the most resistant, suggesting particle hydrophobicity is a critical component of the observed negative plasma protein effects. Overall, this work demonstrates that anticoagulant positively alters the effect of plasma proteins in prescribing VTC adhesion to aECs in human blood flow, which has implication in the use of in vitro blood flow assays for functional evaluation of VTCs for in vivo use. This study addresses the impact of anticoagulant on altering the extent of the previously observed protein corona-induced adhesion reduction of vascular-targeted drug carriers in human blood flows. Specifically, serum blood flow (no anticoagulant) magnifies the negative effect of the

  14. Transcriptional Analysis of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase Genes from Olive (Olea europaea) in Relation to the Oleic Acid Content of the Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Farshid; Sicardo, M Dolores; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Martinez-Rivas, Jose M; Hernandez, M Luisa

    2016-10-02

    The specific contribution of different stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) genes to the oleic acid content in olive (Olea europaea) fruit has been studied. Towards that end, we isolated three distinct cDNA clones encoding three SAD isoforms from olive (cv. Picual), as revealed by sequence analysis. The expression levels of olive SAD genes were determined in different tissues from Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including developing mesocarp and seed, together with the unsaturated fatty acid content. Lipid and gene expression analysis indicate that OeSAD2 seems to be the main gene contributing to the oleic acid content of the olive fruit and, therefore, of the virgin olive oil. This conclusion was confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo and Manzanilla cultivars. Furthermore, our data indicate that the olive microsomal oleate desaturase gene OeFAD2-2, but not OeSAD2, is responsible for the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil.

  15. The Peroxisomal Targeting Signal 1 in sterol carrier protein 2 is autonomous and essential for receptor recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bond Charles S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of peroxisomal matrix proteins destined for translocation into the peroxisomal lumen are recognised via a C-terminal Peroxisomal Target Signal type 1 by the cycling receptor Pex5p. The only structure to date of Pex5p in complex with a cargo protein is that of the C-terminal cargo-binding domain of the receptor with sterol carrier protein 2, a small, model peroxisomal protein. In this study, we have tested the contribution of a second, ancillary receptor-cargo binding site, which was found in addition to the characterised Peroxisomal Target Signal type 1. Results To investigate the function of this secondary interface we have mutated two key residues from the ancillary binding site and analyzed the level of binding first by a yeast-two-hybrid assay, followed by quantitative measurement of the binding affinity and kinetics of purified protein components and finally, by in vivo measurements, to determine translocation capability. While a moderate but significant reduction of the interaction was found in binding assays, we were not able to measure any significant defects in vivo. Conclusions Our data therefore suggest that at least in the case of sterol carrier protein 2 the contribution of the second binding site is not essential for peroxisomal import. At this stage, however, we cannot rule out that other cargo proteins may require this ancillary binding site.

  16. S-naproxen-ss-1-O-acyl glucuronide degradation kinetic studies by stopped-flow high-performance liquid chromatography-H-1 NMR and high-performance liquid chromatography-UV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, R. W.; Corcoran, O.; Cornett, Claus

    2001-01-01

    Acyl-migrated isomers of drug beta -1-O-acyl glucuronides have been implicated in drug toxicity because they can bind to proteins. The acyl migration and hydrolysis of S-naproxen-beta -1-O-acyl glucuronide (S-nap-g) was followed by dynamic stopped-flow HPLC-H-1 NMR and HPLC methods. Nine first or...

  17. Enhanced discrimination of malignant from benign pancreatic disease by measuring the CA 19-9 antigen on specific protein carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yue

    Full Text Available The CA 19-9 assay detects a carbohydrate antigen on multiple protein carriers, some of which may be preferential carriers of the antigen in cancer. We tested the hypothesis that the measurement of the CA 19-9 antigen on individual proteins could improve performance over the standard CA 19-9 assay. We used antibody arrays to measure the levels of the CA 19-9 antigen on multiple proteins in serum or plasma samples from patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma or pancreatitis. Sample sets from three different institutions were examined, comprising 531 individual samples. The measurement of the CA 19-9 antigen on any individual protein did not improve upon the performance of the standard CA 19-9 assay (82% sensitivity at 75% specificity for early-stage cancer, owing to diversity among patients in their CA 19-9 protein carriers. However, a subset of cancer patients with no elevation in the standard CA 19-9 assay showed elevations of the CA 19-9 antigen specifically on the proteins MUC5AC or MUC16 in all sample sets. By combining measurements of the standard CA 19-9 assay with detection of CA 19-9 on MUC5AC and MUC16, the sensitivity of cancer detection was improved relative to CA 19-9 alone in each sample set, achieving 67-80% sensitivity at 98% specificity. This finding demonstrates the value of measuring glycans on specific proteins for improving biomarker performance. Diagnostic tests with improved sensitivity for detecting pancreatic cancer could have important applications for improving the treatment and management of patients suffering from this disease.

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)-Targeted, Galectin-Mediated Retrograde Transport by Using a HaloTag Carrier Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Hyun; Seko, Akira; Daikoku, Shusaku; Fujikawa, Kohki; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Ito, Yukishige; Kanie, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Investigations into metabolic processes within the cell have often relied on genetic methods such as forced expression and knockout or knockdown techniques. An alternative approach would be introducing a molecule into the desired location inside the cell. To translocate compounds from outside cells into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), we constructed a delivery carrier protein. This comprised N-terminal galectin-1 for cell-surface binding (G1), a protease cleavable sequence (ps), a HaloTag domain for attaching exogenous compounds (Halo), and a C-terminal KDEL sequence for ER retention. Fluorescently labeled G1-ps-Halo-KDEL passed through the Golgi apparatus and reached the ER. By using Man9 GlcNAc2 -BODIPY as a cargo compound, the carrier protein was also delivered into the ER with concomitant processing of mannose to Man5,6, by the ER-resident α1,2-mannosidase. G1-ps-Halo-KDEL might serve as a new type of delivery carrier protein to direct compounds into the ER. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Acylation of Ferrocene: A Greener Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwhistell, Kurt R.; Nguyen, Andy; Ramos, Eric J.; Kobelja, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The acylation of ferrocene is a common reaction used in organic laboratories to demonstrate Friedel-Crafts acylation and the purification of compounds using column chromatography. This article describes an acylation of ferrocene experiment that is more eco-friendly than the conventional acylation experiment. The traditional experiment was modified…

  20. Glucose transport carrier of human erythrocytes. Radiation-target size of glucose-sensitive cytochalasin B binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C Y; Hsu, T L; Hah, J S; Cha, C; Haas, M N

    1980-01-25

    Apparent molecular sizes of D-glucose-sensitive cytochalasin B binding protein of human erythrocyte membranes are assessed by applying classical target theory to irradiation-inactivation data. Molecular weights of this protein as it occurs in untreated ghosts, EDTA-treated ghosts, and reconstituted vesicles of Triton extract of ghosts are 220,000, 180,000, and 220,000, respectively. These results, in conjunction with other findings in the literature, suggest that the native form of the glucose transport carrier of human erythrocytes is a tetrameric assembly of a 50,000-dalton monomer or is a dimer of 100,000 daltons.

  1. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, Elaina M. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY (United States); Cerny, Ronald L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); DiRusso, Concetta C. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Black, Paul N., E-mail: pblack2@unl.edu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  2. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Elaina M; Cerny, Ronald L; DiRusso, Concetta C; Black, Paul N

    2013-11-01

    In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The trafficking of exogenous C16:0 and C22:6 into PA was significant where there was 6.9- and 5.3-fold increased incorporation, respectively, over the control; C18:3 and C20:4 also trended to increase in the PA pool while there were no changes for C18:1 and C18:2. The trafficking of C18:3 into PC and PI trended higher and approached significance. In the case of C20:4, expression of

  3. Immunodepletion experiments suggest that acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) protein plays a major catalytic role in adult human liver, adrenal gland, macrophages, and kidney, but not in intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, O; Chang, C C; Lee, W; Chang, T Y

    1998-08-01

    The first acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) cDNA cloned and expressed in 1993 is designated as ACAT-1. In various human tissue homogenates, ACAT-1 protein is effectively solubilized with retention of enzymatic activity by the detergent CHAPS along with high salt. After using anti-ACAT-1 antibodies to quantitatively remove ACAT-1 protein from the solubilized enzyme, measuring the residual ACAT activity remaining in the immunodepleted supernatants allows us to assess the functional significance of ACAT-1 protein in various human tissues. The results showed that ACAT activity was immunodepleted 90% in liver (83% in hepatocytes), 98% in adrenal gland, 91% in macrophages, 80% in kidney, and 19% in intestines, suggesting that ACAT-1 protein plays a major catalytic role in all of the human tissue/cell homogenates examined except intestines. Intestinal ACAT activity is largely resistant to immunodepletion and is much more sensitive to inhibition by the ACAT inhibitor Dup 128 than liver ACAT activity.

  4. Structure of human Fe-S assembly subcomplex reveals unexpected cysteine desulfurase architecture and acyl-ACP-ISD11 interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Seth A; Van Vranken, Jonathan G; Brignole, Edward J; Patra, Shachin; Winge, Dennis R; Drennan, Catherine L; Rutter, Jared; Barondeau, David P

    2017-07-03

    In eukaryotes, sulfur is mobilized for incorporation into multiple biosynthetic pathways by a cysteine desulfurase complex that consists of a catalytic subunit (NFS1), LYR protein (ISD11), and acyl carrier protein (ACP). This NFS1-ISD11-ACP (SDA) complex forms the core of the iron-sulfur (Fe-S) assembly complex and associates with assembly proteins ISCU2, frataxin (FXN), and ferredoxin to synthesize Fe-S clusters. Here we present crystallographic and electron microscopic structures of the SDA complex coupled to enzyme kinetic and cell-based studies to provide structure-function properties of a mitochondrial cysteine desulfurase. Unlike prokaryotic cysteine desulfurases, the SDA structure adopts an unexpected architecture in which a pair of ISD11 subunits form the dimeric core of the SDA complex, which clarifies the critical role of ISD11 in eukaryotic assemblies. The different quaternary structure results in an incompletely formed substrate channel and solvent-exposed pyridoxal 5'-phosphate cofactor and provides a rationale for the allosteric activator function of FXN in eukaryotic systems. The structure also reveals the 4'-phosphopantetheine-conjugated acyl-group of ACP occupies the hydrophobic core of ISD11, explaining the basis of ACP stabilization. The unexpected architecture for the SDA complex provides a framework for understanding interactions with acceptor proteins for sulfur-containing biosynthetic pathways, elucidating mechanistic details of eukaryotic Fe-S cluster biosynthesis, and clarifying how defects in Fe-S cluster assembly lead to diseases such as Friedreich's ataxia. Moreover, our results support a lock-and-key model in which LYR proteins associate with acyl-ACP as a mechanism for fatty acid biosynthesis to coordinate the expression, Fe-S cofactor maturation, and activity of the respiratory complexes.

  5. A clinical trial examining the effect of increased total CRM(197) carrier protein dose on the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b CRM(197) conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usonis, Vytautas; Bakasenas, Vytautas; Lockhart, Stephen; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William; Laudat, France

    2008-08-18

    CRM(197) is a carrier protein in certain conjugate vaccines. When multiple conjugate vaccines with the same carrier protein are administered simultaneously, reduced response to vaccines and/or antigens related to the carrier protein may occur. This study examined responses of infants who, in addition to diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) received either diphtheria CRM(197)-based Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (HbOC) or HbOC and a diphtheria CRM(197)-based combination 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine/meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine. Administration of conjugate vaccines with CRM(197) carrier protein load >50 microg did not reduce response to CRM(197) conjugate vaccines or immunogenicity to immunologically cross-reactive diphtheria toxoid.

  6. Intermediates in the Sox sulfur oxidation pathway are bound to a sulfane conjugate of the carrier protein SoxYZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarczyk, Daniel B; Berks, Ben C

    2017-01-01

    The Sox pathway found in many sulfur bacteria oxidizes thiosulfate to sulfate. Pathway intermediates are covalently bound to a cysteine residue in the carrier protein SoxYZ. We have used biochemical complementation by SoxYZ-conjugates to probe the identity of the intermediates in the Sox pathway. We find that unconjugated SoxYZ and SoxYZ-S-sulfonate are unlikely to be intermediates during normal turnover in disagreement with current models. By contrast, conjugates with multiple sulfane atoms are readily metabolised by the Sox pathway. The most parsimonious interpretation of these data is that the true carrier species in the Sox pathway is a SoxYZ-S-sulfane adduct.

  7. Intermediates in the Sox sulfur oxidation pathway are bound to a sulfane conjugate of the carrier protein SoxYZ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Grabarczyk

    Full Text Available The Sox pathway found in many sulfur bacteria oxidizes thiosulfate to sulfate. Pathway intermediates are covalently bound to a cysteine residue in the carrier protein SoxYZ. We have used biochemical complementation by SoxYZ-conjugates to probe the identity of the intermediates in the Sox pathway. We find that unconjugated SoxYZ and SoxYZ-S-sulfonate are unlikely to be intermediates during normal turnover in disagreement with current models. By contrast, conjugates with multiple sulfane atoms are readily metabolised by the Sox pathway. The most parsimonious interpretation of these data is that the true carrier species in the Sox pathway is a SoxYZ-S-sulfane adduct.

  8. Caveolar fatty acids and acylation of caveolin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cai

    Full Text Available Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a pivotal role in subcellular location including targeting to caveolae. However, the fatty acid compositions of caveolae and the type of acylation of caveolar proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the fatty acids in caveolae and caveolin-1 bound fatty acids.Caveolae were isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. The caveolar fatty acids were extracted with Folch reagent, methyl esterificated with BF3, and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS. The caveolin-1 bound fatty acids were immunoprecipitated by anti-caveolin-1 IgG and analyzed with GC/MS.In contrast to the whole CHO cell lysate which contained a variety of fatty acids, caveolae mainly contained three types of fatty acids, 0.48 µg palmitic acid, 0.61 µg stearic acid and 0.83 µg oleic acid/caveolae preparation/5 × 10(7 cells. Unexpectedly, GC/MS analysis indicated that caveolin-1 was not acylated by myristic acid; instead, it was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid.Caveolae contained a special set of fatty acids, highly enriched with saturated fatty acids, and caveolin-1 was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. The unique fatty acid compositions of caveolae and acylation of caveolin-1 may be important for caveolae formation and for maintaining the function of caveolae.

  9. Caveolar Fatty Acids and Acylation of Caveolin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Guo, Ling; Gao, Haiqing; Li, Xiang-An

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a pivotal role in subcellular location including targeting to caveolae. However, the fatty acid compositions of caveolae and the type of acylation of caveolar proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the fatty acids in caveolae and caveolin-1 bound fatty acids. Methods Caveolae were isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The caveolar fatty acids were extracted with Folch reagent, methyl esterificated with BF3, and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The caveolin-1bound fatty acids were immunoprecipitated by anti-caveolin-1 IgG and analyzed with GC/MS. Results In contrast to the whole CHO cell lysate which contained a variety of fatty acids, caveolae mainly contained three types of fatty acids, 0.48 µg palmitic acid, 0.61 µg stearic acid and 0.83 µg oleic acid/caveolae preparation/5×107 cells. Unexpectedly, GC/MS analysis indicated that caveolin-1 was not acylated by myristic acid; instead, it was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. Conclusion Caveolae contained a special set of fatty acids, highly enriched with saturated fatty acids, and caveolin-1 was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. The unique fatty acid compositions of caveolae and acylation of caveolin-1 may be important for caveolae formation and for maintaining the function of caveolae. PMID:23593340

  10. Structure of the complex between teicoplanin and a bacterial cell-wall peptide: use of a carrier-protein approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economou, Nicoleta J.; Zentner, Isaac J. [Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 North 15th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102 (United States); Lazo, Edwin; Jakoncic, Jean; Stojanoff, Vivian [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Weeks, Stephen D.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Cocklin, Simon; Loll, Patrick J. [Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 North 15th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Using a carrier-protein strategy, the structure of teicoplanin bound to its bacterial cell-wall target has been determined. The structure reveals the molecular determinants of target recognition, flexibility in the antibiotic backbone and intrinsic radiation sensitivity of teicoplanin. Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are commonly treated with glycopeptide antibiotics such as teicoplanin. This drug inhibits bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis by binding and sequestering a cell-wall precursor: a d-alanine-containing peptide. A carrier-protein strategy was used to crystallize the complex of teicoplanin and its target peptide by fusing the cell-wall peptide to either MBP or ubiquitin via native chemical ligation and subsequently crystallizing the protein–peptide–antibiotic complex. The 2.05 Å resolution MBP–peptide–teicoplanin structure shows that teicoplanin recognizes its ligand through a combination of five hydrogen bonds and multiple van der Waals interactions. Comparison of this teicoplanin structure with that of unliganded teicoplanin reveals a flexibility in the antibiotic peptide backbone that has significant implications for ligand recognition. Diffraction experiments revealed an X-ray-induced dechlorination of the sixth amino acid of the antibiotic; it is shown that teicoplanin is significantly more radiation-sensitive than other similar antibiotics and that ligand binding increases radiosensitivity. Insights derived from this new teicoplanin structure may contribute to the development of next-generation antibacterials designed to overcome bacterial resistance.

  11. Purification and characterization of the carrier protein for juvenile hormone from the hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta Johannson (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, K J; Dunn, P E; Peterson, R C; Seballos, H L; Sanburg, L L; Law, J H

    1976-08-25

    The larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, contains a carrier protein that binds specifically and with high affinity the juvenile hormone, an important regulator of insect development. This protein serves to transport the hormone and to protect it from the action of degradative enzymes during early larval stages. Using hemolymph from the last larval stage, we have isolated a pure carrier protein using acetone precipitation, gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, and preparative isoelectric focusing. Gel filtration, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate, and equilibrium ultracentrifugation established that the carrier protein is a single chain polypeptide of approximately 28,000 daltons. The amino acid composition is unexceptional, and no evidence for hexosamine has been obtained. An ion exchange filter disc assay method was used to determine the formation of the complex between the carrier protein and isotopically labeled juvenile hormone. With this technique it was shown that each carrier protein binds one hormone molecule with a dissociation constant of 4.4 +/- 0.2 X 10(-7) M at 0 degrees.

  12. Induced circular dichroism as a tool to investigate the binding of drugs to carrier proteins: Classic approaches and new trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Daniele; Bertucci, Carlo

    2015-09-10

    Induced circular dichroism (ICD) is a spectroscopic phenomenon that provides versatile and useful methods for characterizing the structural and dynamic properties of the binding of drugs to target proteins. The understanding of biorecognition processes at the molecular level is essential to discover and validate new pharmacological targets, and to design and develop new potent and selective drugs. The present article reviews the main applications of ICD to drug binding studies on serum carrier proteins, going from the classic approaches for the derivation of drug binding parameters and the identification of binding sites, to an overview of the emerging trends for the characterization of binding modes by means of quantum chemical (QC) techniques. The advantages and limits of the ICD methods for the determination of binding parameters are critically reviewed; the capability to investigate the binding interactions of drugs and metabolites to their target proteins is also underlined, as well as the possibility of characterizing the binding sites to obtain a complete picture of the binding mechanism and dynamics. The new applications of ICD methods to identify stereoselective binding modes of drug/protein complexes are then reviewed with relevant examples. The combined application of experimental ICD spectroscopy and QC calculations is shown to identify qualitatively the bound conformations of ligands to target proteins even in the absence of a detailed structure of the binding sites, either obtained from experimental X-ray crystallography and NMR measurements or from computational models of the complex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antiviral effects of milk proteins : Acylation results in polyanionic compounds with potent activity against human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, P J; Kuipers, M E; Smit, C; Pauwels, R; deBéthune, M P; de Clercq, E; Meijer, D K; Huisman, J G

    1996-01-01

    A number of native and modified milk proteins from bovine or human sources were analyzed for their inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 in vitro in an MT4 cell test system, The proteins investigated were lactoferrin, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin A, and

  14. The Acylation State of Surface Lipoproteins of Mollicute Acholeplasma laidlawii*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryakova, Marina V.; Demina, Irina A.; Galyamina, Maria A.; Kondratov, Ilya G.; Ladygina, Valentina G.; Govorun, Vadim M.

    2011-01-01

    Acylation of the N-terminal Cys residue is an essential, ubiquitous, and uniquely bacterial posttranslational modification that allows anchoring of proteins to the lipid membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, acylation proceeds through three sequential steps requiring lipoprotein diacylglyceryltransferase, lipoprotein signal peptidase, and finally lipoprotein N-acyltransferase. The apparent lack of genes coding for recognizable homologs of lipoprotein N-acyltransferase in Gram-positive bacteria and Mollicutes suggests that the final step of the protein acylation process may be absent in these organisms. In this work, we monitored the acylation state of eight major lipoproteins of the mollicute Acholeplasma laidlawii using a combination of standard two-dimensional gel electrophoresis protein separation, blotting to nitrocellulose membranes, and MALDI-MS identification of modified N-terminal tryptic peptides. We show that for each A. laidlawii lipoprotein studied a third fatty acid in an amide linkage on the N-terminal Cys residue is present, whereas diacylated species were not detected. The result thus proves that A. laidlawii encodes a lipoprotein N-acyltransferase activity. We hypothesize that N-acyltransferases encoded by genes non-homologous to N-acyltransferases of Gram-negative bacteria are also present in other mollicutes and Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:21540185

  15. Potential protective immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid and Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197) when used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Michael

    2016-03-03

    When tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT) or Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197), a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant protein, are used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugate vaccines, these carriers induce a protein specific antibody response as measured by in vitro assays. Here, it was evaluated whether or not glycoconjugates based on TT, DT or CRM197 can induce a protective immune response as measured by potency tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia. It could be shown, that the conjugate carriers TT and DT can induce a protective immune response against a lethal challenge by toxins in animals, while glycoconjugates based on CRM197 failed to induce a protective immune response. Opportunities for new applications of glycoconjugates are discussed.

  16. Isolation and characterization of 26- and 30-kDa rat liver proteins immunoreactive to anti-sterol carrier protein-2 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, L; Foxworth, W B; Kier, A B; Annan, R S; Carr, S A; Edmondson, R; Russell, D; Wood, W G; Schroeder, F

    1998-08-01

    Although the existing literature suggests that the sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) gene has only two initiation sites encoding for a 58- and a 15-kDa protein, respectively, this does not explain the profusion of other putative SCP-2-related proteins detectable on Western blotting. Two of these additional anti-SCP-2 immunoreactive proteins, 13.2 and 46 kDa, appear due to proteolytic processing of the two gene transcripts. However, the origin of additional immunoreactive rat liver proteins near 26 and 30 kDa is unclear. The latter proteins were consistently detected on Western blotting by three independent types of polyclonal antisera: anti-13.2-kDa SCP-2, anti-synthetic peptide from the amino-terminus of the 13.2-kDa SCP-2, and Protein A affinity-purified anti-synthetic peptide to the amino-terminus of 13.2-kDa SCP-2. To resolve whether the 26- and 30-kDa proteins are SCP-2 gene products, each protein was isolated from rat liver and purified to homogeneity as indicated by Tricine-SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and/or mass spectroscopy. Their masses, determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy, were 25.7 and 29.8 kDa, respectively. However, the mass spectral data were not consistent with either protein being an SCP-2 gene product. Peptide mass mapping of the 25.7-kDa protein revealed identity to the rat 25,784.79-Da glutathione-S-transferase. Furthermore, neither the mass nor the amino acid composition of the 29.8-kDa protein correlated with any SCP-2 gene product or dimerized SCP-2 gene product. A database search of the amino acid composition identified the protein as rat carbonic anhydrase. In summary, although the 26- and 29.8-kDa proteins may share some common epitopes with the 13.2-kDa SCP-2, they were not SCP-2 gene products. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  17. Conformational changes in guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP1) induced by Ca2+ and N-terminal fatty acid acylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Tivadar; Bereta, Grzegorz; Miyagi, Masaru; Wang, Benlian; Chance, Mark R.; Sousa, Marcelo Carlos; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal Ca2+ sensors (NCS) are high affinity Ca2+-binding proteins critical for regulating a vast range of physiological processes. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) are members of the NCS family responsible for activating retinal guanylate cyclases (GCs) at low Ca2+ concentrations, triggering synthesis of cGMP and recovery of photoreceptor cells to the dark-adapted state. Here we use amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange and radiolytic labeling, and molecular dynamics simulations to study conformational changes induced by Ca2+ and modulated by the N-terminal myristoyl group. Our data on the conformational dynamics of GCAP1 in solution suggest that Ca2+ stabilizes the protein but induces relatively small changes in the domain structure; however, loss of Ca+2 mediates a significant global relaxation and movement of N- and C-terminal domains. This model and the previously described “calcium-myristoyl switch” proposed for recoverin indicate significant diversity in conformational changes among these highly homologous NCS proteins with distinct functions. PMID:20152158

  18. Biochemical Characterization and Analyses of Polysialic-Acid-Associated Carrier Proteins and Genes in Piglets during Neonatal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ren, He; Zhang, Nai; Troy, Frederic A; Wang, Bing

    2017-07-04

    Polysialic acid plays a key role in cancer metastasis and neurodevelopment. Our aim was to determine the developmental gene-expression profiles for the two polysialyltransferases ST8Sia II and ST8Sia IV, neural cell-adhesion molecules (NCAMs), SynCAM 1, neuropilin-2 (NRP2) and their polysialylated cognate glycans in different regions of the piglet brain during postnatal development. Our findings show that: 1) the cellular levels of mRNA coding for ST8Sia II and ST8Sia IV, NCAMs, SynCAM 1, NRP2 and polySia are age-dependent and cell-type-specific during neonatal brain development, 2) there was a lack of correlation between abundance level of mRNA coding for ST8Sia II and ST8Sia IV and the abundance level of the post-translation expression of polySia in all nine brain regions, 3) expression levels of polySia did not correlate with the levels of the carrier proteins NCAM-140, SynCAM 1 and NRP2 in nine brain regions, and 4) the cellular abundance of ST8Sia II and ST8Sia IV in nine subregions of piglet brain is regulated at the level of translation/post-translation, and not at the level of transcription. Collectively, our findings suggest that neuronal and glial cells within different regions of the brain have different transcriptional programs that can direct cell division at different rates based on the activity levels of ST8Sia II and ST8Sia IV and the level of their carrier proteins during neurodevelopment. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A novel mitochondrial carrier protein Mme1 acts as a yeast mitochondrial magnesium exporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yixian; Zhao, Shanke; Wang, Juan; Wang, Xudong; Gao, Bingquan; Fan, Qiangwang; Sun, Fei; Zhou, Bing

    2015-03-01

    The homeostasis of magnesium (Mg2+), an abundant divalent cation indispensable for many biological processes including mitochondrial functions, is underexplored. Previously, two mitochondrial Mg2+ importers, Mrs2 and Lpe10, were characterized for mitochondrial Mg2+ uptake. We now show that mitochondrial Mg2+ homeostasis is accurately controlled through the combined effects of previously known importers and a novel exporter, Mme1 (mitochondrial magnesium exporter 1). Mme1 belongs to the mitochondrial carrier family and was isolated for its mutation that is able to suppress the mrs2Δ respiration defect. Deletion of MME1 significantly increased steady-state mitochondrial Mg2+ concentration, while overexpression decreased it. Measurements of Mg2+ exit from proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified Mme1 provided definite evidence for Mme1 as an Mg2+ exporter. Our studies identified, for the first time, a mitochondrial Mg2+ exporter that works together with mitochondrial importers to ensure the precise control of mitochondrial Mg2+ homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlation of acidic and basic carrier ampholyte and immobilized pH gradient two-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns based on mass spectrometric protein identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawrocki, A; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Podtelejnikov, A V

    1998-01-01

    Separation of proteins on either carrier ampholyte-based or immobilized pH gradient-based two-dimensional (2-D) gels gives rise to electrophoretic patterns that are difficult to compare visually. In this paper we have used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI......-references demonstrated that there is no obvious pattern by which the mobility of a protein in one gel system can be used to predict its mobility in the other. Thus, as laboratories adopt the immobilized pH gradient-based 2-D gel systems, the only reliable means of translating the data gained with the carrier ampholyte...

  1. Essential Role of Acyl-ACP Synthetase in Acclimation of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus Strain PCC 7942 to High-Light Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatani, Nobuyuki; Use, Kazuhide; Kato, Akihiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Kojima, Kouji; Aichi, Makiko; Maeda, Shin-Ichi; Omata, Tatsuo

    2015-08-01

    Most organisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis have an aas gene encoding an acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (Aas), which activates free fatty acids (FFAs) via esterification to acyl carrier protein. Cyanobacterial aas mutants are often used for studies aimed at photosynthetic production of biofuels because the mutation leads to intracellular accumulation of FFAs and their secretion into the external medium, but the physiological significance of the production of FFAs and their recycling involving Aas has remained unclear. Using an aas-deficient mutant of Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942, we show here that remodeling of membrane lipids is activated by high-intensity light and that the recycling of FFAs is essential for acclimation to high-light conditions. Unlike wild-type cells, the mutant cells could not increase their growth rate as the light intensity was increased from 50 to 400 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1), and the high-light-grown mutant cells accumulated FFAs and the lysolipids derived from all the four major classes of membrane lipids, revealing high-light-induced lipid deacylation. The high-light-grown mutant cells showed much lower PSII activity and Chl contents as compared with the wild-type cells or low-light-grown mutant cells. The loss of Aas accelerated photodamage of PSII but did not affect the repair process of PSII, indicating that PSII is destabilized in the mutant. Thus, Aas is essential for acclimation of the cyanobacterium to high-light conditions. The relevance of the present finding s to biofuel production using cyanobacteria is discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Hydrogel based drug carriers for controlled release of hydrophobic drugs and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ke Peng,

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare in situ forming hydrogels based on biocompatible polymers for the controlled release of hydrophobic drug and proteins. In order to load hydrophobic drug to the hydrophilic hydrogel matrix, beta-cyclodextrin and human serum albumin was introduced to the hydrogel

  3. Determination of hydrophobic coenzyme a esters and other lipids using a biosensor comprising a modified coenzyme a- and acyl-coa binding protein (acbp)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a biochemical assay for wide class of hydrophobic Coenzyme A esters wherein the analyte is caused to react with a specifically binding, modified protein, and thereby causing a detectable signal. A one step assay for hydrophobic carboxylic acid esters in whole blood, serum...... an assay, a kit for assaying hydrophobic CoA esters, hydrophobic carboxylic acids, triacylglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterolesters....

  4. Isolation of recombinant proteins from culture broth by co-precipitation with an amino acid carrier to form stable dry powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Barry D; Deere, Joseph; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Ingram, Andrew; van der Walle, Christopher F

    2010-08-01

    Protein-coated microcrystals can be generated by co-precipitation of protein and a water-soluble crystalline carrier by addition to excess water miscible organic solvent. We have investigated this novel process for its utility in the concentration and partial purification of a recombinant protein exported into the culture broth during expression by Pichia pastoris. Co-precipitation with a L-glutamine carrier selectively isolated the protein content of the culture broth, with a minimal number of steps, and simultaneously removed contaminants including a novel yeast metabolite. This pigment co-elutes during aqueous chromatography but its elucidation as a benzoylated glycosamine suggested a simple route of removal by partition during the co-precipitation process. Scale-up of the process was readily achieved through in-line mixing and subsequent reconstitution of the dried protein-coated microcrystals yielded natively folded, bioactive protein. Additional washing of the crystals with saturated L-glutamine facilitated further purification of the recombinant protein immobilized on the L-glutamine carrier. Thus, we present a novel method for the harvesting of recombinant protein from culture broth as a dry powder, which may be of general applicability to bioprocessing. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hyaluronan microgel as a potential carrier for protein sustained delivery by tailoring the crosslink network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chunhong; Zhao, Jianhao; Tu, Mei; Zeng, Rong; Rong, Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) microgels with different crosslink network, i.e. HGPs-1, HGPs-1.5, HGPs-3, HGPs-6 and HGPs-15, were synthesized using divinyl sulfone (DVS) as the crosslinker in an inverse microemulsion system for controlling the sustained delivery of bovine serum albumin (BSA). With increasing the crosslinker content, the average particle size slightly increased from 1.9 ± 0.3 μm to 3.6 ± 0.5 μm by dynamic laser scattering analysis. However, the crosslinker content had no significant effect on the morphology of HA microgels by scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis proved more sulfur participated in the crosslink reaction when raising the crosslinker amount. The water swelling test confirmed the increasing crosslink density with the crosslinker content by calculating the average molecular weight between two crosslink points to be 8.25 ± 2.51 × 10(5), 1.26 ± 0.43 × 10(5), 0.96 ± 0.09 × 10(5), 0.64 ± 0.03 × 10(5), and 0.11 ± 0.01 × 10(5) respectively. The degradation of HA microgels by hyaluronidase slowed down by enhancing the crosslink density, only about 5% of HGPs-15 was degraded as opposed to over 90% for HGPs-1. BSA loading had no obvious influence on the surface morphology of HA microgels but seemed to induce their aggregation. The increase of crosslink density decreased the BSA loading capacity but facilitated its long-term sustained delivery. When the molar ratio of DVS to repeating unit of HA reached 3 or higher, similar delivery profiles were obtained. Among all these HA microgels, HGPs-3 was the optimal carrier for BSA sustained delivery in this system because it possessed both high BSA loading capacity and long-term delivery profile simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hyaluronan microgel as a potential carrier for protein sustained delivery by tailoring the crosslink network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Chunhong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Jianhao, E-mail: jhzhao@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Tu, Mei; Zeng, Rong; Rong, Jianhua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Engineering Research Center of Artificial Organs and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) microgels with different crosslink network, i.e. HGPs-1, HGPs-1.5, HGPs-3, HGPs-6 and HGPs-15, were synthesized using divinyl sulfone (DVS) as the crosslinker in an inverse microemulsion system for controlling the sustained delivery of bovine serum albumin (BSA). With increasing the crosslinker content, the average particle size slightly increased from 1.9 ± 0.3 μm to 3.6 ± 0.5 μm by dynamic laser scattering analysis. However, the crosslinker content had no significant effect on the morphology of HA microgels by scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis proved more sulfur participated in the crosslink reaction when raising the crosslinker amount. The water swelling test confirmed the increasing crosslink density with the crosslinker content by calculating the average molecular weight between two crosslink points to be 8.25 ± 2.51 × 10{sup 5}, 1.26 ± 0.43 × 10{sup 5}, 0.96 ± 0.09 × 10{sup 5}, 0.64 ± 0.03 × 10{sup 5}, and 0.11 ± 0.01 × 10{sup 5} respectively. The degradation of HA microgels by hyaluronidase slowed down by enhancing the crosslink density, only about 5% of HGPs-15 was degraded as opposed to over 90% for HGPs-1. BSA loading had no obvious influence on the surface morphology of HA microgels but seemed to induce their aggregation. The increase of crosslink density decreased the BSA loading capacity but facilitated its long-term sustained delivery. When the molar ratio of DVS to repeating unit of HA reached 3 or higher, similar delivery profiles were obtained. Among all these HA microgels, HGPs-3 was the optimal carrier for BSA sustained delivery in this system because it possessed both high BSA loading capacity and long-term delivery profile simultaneously. - Highlights: • HA microgels with different crosslink densities were prepared. • The crosslinker content had little effect on the morphology and size of HA microgels. • The crosslink density

  7. Relations Between Atherogenic Index of Plasma, Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Lecithin Cholesterol Acyl Transferase and Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein of Controlled and Uncontrolled Type 2 DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Susanti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Diabetes Melitus are proven to be prone to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, especially type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM patient who have higher risk and mortality for cardiovascular risk factor. The Dyslipidemia condition is very common in T2DM as one of the risk factors. Diabetic dyslipidemia is marked by the increased triglyceride (TG, low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased small dense LDL and apolipoprotein B. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess the differential and correlation between Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP, ratio of small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL/lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT and ratio of sdLDL/cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP of controlled and uncontrolled T2DM. METHODS: This study was observational with cross sectional design. In total of 72 patients with T2DM consist of 36 controlled and 36 uncontrolled, participated in this study. The serum TG, HDL-C, sdLDL, LCAT and CETP were examined in their relationship with to T2DM risk. RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that the AIP (p<0.001 increase controlled and uncontrolled T2DM and the ratio of sdLDL/CETP (p=0.004, odds ratio of AIP was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 and odds ratio of sdLDL/CETP ratio was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 in uncontrolled T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP had a significant correlation with the uncontrolled T2DM. The AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP increase was found at the uncontrolled T2DM to be 4 times greater than the controlled T2DM. KEYWORDS: T2DM, atherosclerosis, atherogenic index of plasma, small dense LDL, LCAT, CETP, ratio of sdLDL/LCAT, ratio of sdLDL/CETP.

  8. Impact of nanoparticle aggregation on protein recovery through a pentadentate chelate ligand on magnetic carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, P Fraga; Freiherr von Roman, M; Reinlein, S; Wolf, M; Berensmeier, S

    2014-08-27

    The growing need for more efficient separation techniques still dominates downstream processing of biomolecules, thus encouraging the continuous development of advanced nanomaterials. In this paper we present an improved process for recovering recombinant histidine tagged green fluorescent protein from an E. coli cell lysate. Superparamagnetic core-shell nanocarriers are functionalized with a pentadentate chelate affinity ligand and then loaded with metal ions (Cu(2+), Ni(2+), or Zn(2+)). The separation process yields high binding capacity (250 mg/g), good selectivity, purity >98%, good recyclability with 90% capacity after 9 cycles, and long-term stability. We determined the main physical properties of the magnetite-based nanoparticles such as saturation magnetization (59 A m(2)/kg), primary particle diameter (22 ± 4 nm), and specific surface area (89 m(2)/g). Our results show that this material is a promising tool for bioseparation applications. One special focus of the work includes analyzing the changes in the hydrodynamic size distribution using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. We relate these effects to different interaction levels in the system and discuss how the stronger aggregation of the magnetite core is the main limiting factor for the separation yield, leading to a considerable decrease in the number of metal ions available for biomolecular capture. Otherwise weaker interactions lead instead to agglomeration effects that have no impact on the binding capacity of the system. The simple relation between the size of the aggregated units and the size of the primary particles corresponds approximately to the relation between the number of existing binding sites and the actual protein binding in the separation process. Compared with that, the effect of steric hindrance among proteins is of less significance.

  9. Immunologic memory response induced by a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine using the P64k recombinant protein as carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirola, María; Urquiza, Dioslaida; Alvarez, Anabel; Cannan-Haden, Leonardo; Caballero, Evelin; Guillén, Gerardo

    2006-03-01

    In this study, we used an adoptive lymphocyte transfer experiment to evaluate the ability of the P64k recombinant protein to recruit T-helper activity and induce immunologic memory response to the polysaccharide moiety in a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine. Adoptive transfer of splenocytes from mice immunized with the glycoconjugate conferred antipolysaccharide immunologic memory to naive recipient mice. The observed anamnestic immune response was characterized by more rapid kinetics, isotype switching from IgM to IgG and higher antipolysaccharide antibody titers compared with those reached in groups transferred with splenocytes from plain polysaccharide or phosphate-immunized mice. The memory response generated was also long lasting. Sera from mice transferred with cells from conjugate-immunized mice were the only protective in the infant rat passive protection assay, and also showed higher bactericidal titers. We demonstrated that priming the mice immune system with the glycoconjugate using the P64k protein as carrier induced a memory response to the polysaccharide, promoting a switch of the T-cell-independent response to a T-cell dependent one.

  10. Analysis of the linker region joining the adenylation and carrier protein domains of the modular nonribosomal peptide synthetases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley R; Sundlov, Jesse A; Drake, Eric J; Makin, Thomas A; Gulick, Andrew M

    2014-10-01

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are multimodular proteins capable of producing important peptide natural products. Using an assembly line process, the amino acid substrate and peptide intermediates are passed between the active sites of different catalytic domains of the NRPS while bound covalently to a peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domain. Examination of the linker sequences that join the NRPS adenylation and PCP domains identified several conserved proline residues that are not found in standalone adenylation domains. We examined the roles of these proline residues and neighboring conserved sequences through mutagenesis and biochemical analysis of the reaction catalyzed by the adenylation domain and the fully reconstituted NRPS pathway. In particular, we identified a conserved LPxP motif at the start of the adenylation-PCP linker. The LPxP motif interacts with a region on the adenylation domain to stabilize a critical catalytic lysine residue belonging to the A10 motif that immediately precedes the linker. Further, this interaction with the C-terminal subdomain of the adenylation domain may coordinate movement of the PCP with the conformational change of the adenylation domain. Through this work, we extend the conserved A10 motif of the adenylation domain and identify residues that enable proper adenylation domain function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Analysis of the Linker Region Joining the Adenylation and Carrier Protein Domains of the Modular Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley R.; Sundlov, Jesse A.; Drake, Eric J.; Makin, Thomas A.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetases (NRPSs) are multi-modular proteins capable of producing important peptide natural products. Using an assembly-line process the amino acid substrate and peptide intermediates are passed between the active sites of different catalytic domains of the NRPS while bound covalently to a peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domain. Examination of the linker sequences that join the NRPS adenylation and PCP domains identified several conserved proline residues that are not found in standalone adenylation domains. We examined the roles of these proline residues and neighboring conserved sequences through mutagenesis and biochemical analysis of the reaction catalyzed by the adenylation domain and the fully reconstituted NRPS pathway. In particular, we identified a conserved LPxP motif at the start of the adenylation-PCP linker. The LPxP motif interacts with a region on the adenylation domain to stabilize a critical catalytic lysine residue belonging to the A10 motif that immediately precedes the linker. Further, this interaction with the C-terminal sub-domain of the adenylation domain may coordinate movement of the PCP with the conformational change of the adenylation domain. Through this work, we extend the conserved A10 motif of the adenylation domain and identify residues that enable proper adenylation domain function. PMID:24975514

  12. Structure of the complex between teicoplanin and a bacterial cell-wall peptide: use of a carrier-protein approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Nicoleta J; Zentner, Isaac J; Lazo, Edwin; Jakoncic, Jean; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weeks, Stephen D; Grasty, Kimberly C; Cocklin, Simon; Loll, Patrick J

    2013-04-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are commonly treated with glycopeptide antibiotics such as teicoplanin. This drug inhibits bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis by binding and sequestering a cell-wall precursor: a D-alanine-containing peptide. A carrier-protein strategy was used to crystallize the complex of teicoplanin and its target peptide by fusing the cell-wall peptide to either MBP or ubiquitin via native chemical ligation and subsequently crystallizing the protein-peptide-antibiotic complex. The 2.05 Å resolution MBP-peptide-teicoplanin structure shows that teicoplanin recognizes its ligand through a combination of five hydrogen bonds and multiple van der Waals interactions. Comparison of this teicoplanin structure with that of unliganded teicoplanin reveals a flexibility in the antibiotic peptide backbone that has significant implications for ligand recognition. Diffraction experiments revealed an X-ray-induced dechlorination of the sixth amino acid of the antibiotic; it is shown that teicoplanin is significantly more radiation-sensitive than other similar antibiotics and that ligand binding increases radiosensitivity. Insights derived from this new teicoplanin structure may contribute to the development of next-generation antibacterials designed to overcome bacterial resistance.

  13. Preparation of bioconjugates by solid-phase conjugation to ion exchange matrix-adsorbed carrier proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, G.; Olsen, D.T.; Hansen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    protein was conjugated with glutathione, the conjugation ratio determined by acid hydrolysis, and amino acid analysis performed with quantification of carboxymethyl cysteine. Elution of conjugates from the resin by a salt gradient revealed considerable heterogeneity in the degree of derivatization...... of ovalbumin and various peptides were prepared in a similar manner and used for production of peptide antisera by direct immunization with the conjugates bound to the ion exchanger. Advantages of the method are its solid-phase nature, allowing fast and efficient reactions and intermediate washings...

  14. Carbohydrate particles as protein carriers and scaffolds: physico-chemical characterization and collagen stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Ivone; Rocha, Sandra; Loureiro, Joana A.; Carmo Pereira, Maria do [University of Porto, LEPAE, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering (Portugal); Ivanova, Galya [Universidade do Porto, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias (Portugal); Coelho, Manuel, E-mail: mcoelho@fe.up.pt [University of Porto, LEPAE, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering (Portugal)

    2012-09-15

    The preservation of protein properties after entrapping into polymeric matrices and the effects of drying the emulsions still remains uncertain and controversial. Carbohydrate particles were designed and prepared by homogenization of gum arabic and maltodextrin mixture, with collagen hydrolysate (CH) followed by spray-drying. The encapsulation of CH in the carbohydrate matrix was achieved with an efficiency of 85 {+-} 2 %. The morphology and the size of the particles, before (40-400 nm) and after spray-drying (<20 {mu}m), were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Measurements of the nuclear relaxation times and application of diffusion ordered spectroscopy, obtained through pulsed field gradient NMR experiments, have been performed to determine the structure of the CH-polysaccharide conjugates and to clarify the mechanism of CH immobilization in the polysaccharide matrix. In vitro release profiles in ultrapure water and in cellular medium reveal that the diffusion rate of CH from the polymeric matrix to the dialysis solution decreases in average 30-50 % over time, compared to free CH molecules. In cellular medium at 37 Degree-Sign C, the complete release of CH from the particles is achieved only after 24 h, demonstrating a significant decrease in the CH mass transfer process when compared with free CH. The findings of this study outline the ability of gum arabic/maltodextrin matrices to entrap and preserve CH original properties after the spray-drying process and support the potential of the polymeric scaffold for protein delivery and tissue engineering.

  15. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT PROTEINS AS CARRIERS FOR RENAL DRUG TARGETING - NAPROXEN COUPLED TO LYSOZYME VIA THE SPACER L-LACTIC ACID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRANSSEN, EJF; MOOLENAAR, F; DEZEEUW, D; MEIJER, DKF

    Low molecular weight proteins (LMWPs) are potential carriers for targeting drugs to the kidney. To test whether ester bonds are suitable for the reversible drug conjugation, the antiinflammatory drug naproxen (Nap) was conjugated to the LMWP lysozyme (LYSO) via an ester bond using an L-lactic acid

  16. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Matthew W; Kaczocha, Martin; Berger, William T; Leung, KwanNok; Ralph, Brian P; Wang, Liqun; Sweeney, Joseph M; Miyauchi, Jeremy T; Tsirka, Stella E; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale G

    2015-04-03

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) occur naturally in marijuana (Cannabis) and may be formulated, individually or in combination in pharmaceuticals such as Marinol or Sativex. Although it is known that these hydrophobic compounds can be transported in blood by albumin or lipoproteins, the intracellular carrier has not been identified. Recent reports suggest that CBD and THC elevate the levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) when administered to humans, suggesting that phytocannabinoids target cellular proteins involved in endocannabinoid clearance. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular proteins that mediate AEA transport to its catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). By computational analysis and ligand displacement assays, we show that at least three human FABPs bind THC and CBD and demonstrate that THC and CBD inhibit the cellular uptake and catabolism of AEA by targeting FABPs. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to rodent FAAH, CBD does not inhibit the enzymatic actions of human FAAH, and thus FAAH inhibition cannot account for the observed increase in circulating AEA in humans following CBD consumption. Using computational molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis we identify key residues within the active site of FAAH that confer the species-specific sensitivity to inhibition by CBD. Competition for FABPs may in part or wholly explain the increased circulating levels of endocannabinoids reported after consumption of cannabinoids. These data shed light on the mechanism of action of CBD in modulating the endocannabinoid tone in vivo and may explain, in part, its reported efficacy toward epilepsy and other neurological disorders. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Three decades of the class A beta-lactamase acyl-enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jed F; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2009-10-01

    The discovery that the mechanism of beta-lactam hydrolysis catalyzed by the class A (active site serine-dependent) beta-lactamases proceeds via an acyl-enzyme intermediate was made thirty years ago. Since this discovery, the active site circumstance that enables acylation of the active site serine and further enables hydrolytic deacylation of the acyl-serine intermediate, has received extraordinary scrutiny. The justification for this scrutiny is the direct relevance of the beta-lactamases to the manifestation of bacterial resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics, and the subsequent (to the discovery of the beta-lactamase acyl-enzyme) recognition of the direct evolutionary relationship between the serine beta-lactamase acyl-enzyme, and the penicillin binding protein acyl-enzyme that is key to beta-lactam antibiotic activity. This short review describes the early events leading to the recognition that serine beta-lactamase catalysis proceeds via an acyl-enzyme intermediate, and summarizes several of the key mechanistic studies--including infrared spectroscopy, cryoenzymology, beta-lactam design, and x-ray crystallography--that have been exploited to understand this pivotal catalytic intermediate.

  18. Interchangeability of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines with different carrier proteins in the United Kingdom infant immunisation schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Andrews, Nick J; Waight, Pauline; Hallis, Bassam; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Borrow, Ray; Burbidge, Polly; Pearce, Emma; Goldblatt, David; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-29

    An open, non-randomised study was undertaken in England during 2011-12 to evaluate vaccine antibody responses in infants after completion of the routine primary infant immunisation schedule, which included two doses of meningococcal group C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 3 and 4 months. Any of the three licensed MCC vaccines could be used for either dose, depending on local availability. Healthy term infants registered at participating general practices (GPs) in Hertfordshire and Gloucestershire, UK, were recruited prospectively to provide a single blood sample four weeks after primary immunisation, which was administered by the GP surgery. Vaccination history was obtained at blood sampling. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and IgG antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), pertussis toxin (PT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and thirteen pneumococcal serotypes were analysed according to MCC vaccines received. MenC SBA responses differed significantly (Pvaccine schedule as follows: MenC SBA geometric mean titres (GMTs) were significantly lower in infants receiving a diphtheria cross-reacting material-conjugated MCC (MCC-CRM) vaccine followed by TT-conjugated MCC (MCC-TT) vaccine (82.0; 95% CI, 39-173; n=14) compared to those receiving two MCC-CRM (418; 95% CI, 325-537; n=82), two MCC-TT (277; 95% CI, 223-344; n=79) or MCC-TT followed by MCC-CRM (553; 95% CI, 322-949; n=18). The same group also had the lowest Hib geometric mean concentrations (0.60 μg/mL, 0.27-1.34) compared to 1.85 μg/mL (1.23-2.78), 2.86 μg/mL (2.02-4.05) and 4.26 μg/mL (1.94-9.36), respectively. Our results indicate that MCC vaccines with different carrier proteins are not interchangeable. When several MCC vaccines are available, children requiring more than one dose should receive MCC vaccines with the same carrier protein or, alternatively, receive MCC-TT first wherever possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Trichodysplasia Spinulosa-Associated Polyomavirus Capsid Protein as a New Carrier for Construction of Chimeric Virus-Like Particles Harboring Foreign Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedvilaite, Alma; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Lasickiene, Rita; Timinskas, Albertas; Vaitiekaite, Ausra; Ziogiene, Danguole; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2015-07-29

    Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising tool for protein engineering. Recently, trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) viral protein 1 (VP1) was efficiently produced in yeast expression system and shown to self-assemble to VLPs. In the current study, TSPyV VP1 protein was exploited as a carrier for construction of chimeric VLPs harboring selected B and T cell-specific epitopes and evaluated in comparison to hamster polyomavirus VP1 protein. Chimeric VLPs with inserted either hepatitis B virus preS1 epitope DPAFR or a universal T cell-specific epitope AKFVAAWTLKAAA were produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Target epitopes were incorporated either at the HI or BC loop of the VP1 protein. The insertion sites were selected based on molecular models of TSPyV VP1 protein. The surface exposure of the insert positions was confirmed using a collection of monoclonal antibodies raised against the intact TSPyV VP1 protein. All generated chimeric proteins were capable to self-assemble to VLPs, which induced a strong immune response in mice. The chimeric VLPs also activated dendritic cells and T cells as demonstrated by analysis of cell surface markers and cytokine production profiles in spleen cell cultures. In conclusion, TSPyV VP1 protein represents a new potential carrier for construction of chimeric VLPs harboring target epitopes.

  20. Exploring chemoselective S-to-N acyl transfer reactions in synthesis and chemical biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Helen M.; McSweeney, Lauren; Scanlan, Eoin M.

    2017-05-01

    S-to-N acyl transfer is a high-yielding chemoselective process for amide bond formation. It is widely utilized by chemists for synthetic applications, including peptide and protein synthesis, chemical modification of proteins, protein-protein ligation and the development of probes and molecular machines. Recent advances in our understanding of S-to-N acyl transfer processes in biology and innovations in methodology for thioester formation and desulfurization, together with an extension of the size of cyclic transition states, have expanded the boundaries of this process well beyond peptide ligation. As the field develops, this chemistry will play a central role in our molecular understanding of Biology.

  1. S-acylation dependent post-translational cross-talk regulates large conductance calcium- and voltage- activated potassium (BK channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Shipston

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms that control surface expression and/or activity of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK channels are important determinants of their (pathophysiological function. Indeed, BK channel dysfunction is associated with major human disorders ranging from epilepsy to hypertension and obesity. S-acylation (S-palmitoylation represents a major reversible, post-translational modification controlling the properties and function of many proteins including ion channels. Recent evidence reveals that both pore-forming and regulatory subunits of BK channels are S-acylated and control channel trafficking and regulation by AGC-family protein kinases. The pore-forming α-subunit is S-acylated at two distinct sites within the N- and C-terminus, each site being regulated by different palmitoyl acyl transferases (zDHHCs and acyl thioesterases. (APTs. S-acylation of the N-terminus controls channel trafficking and surface expression whereas S-acylation of the C-terminal domain determines regulation of channel activity by AGC-family protein kinases. S-acylation of the regulatory β4-subunit controls ER exit and surface expression of BK channels but does not affect ion channel kinetics at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, a significant number of previously identified BK-channel interacting proteins have been shown, or are predicted to be, S-acylated. Thus, the BK channel multi-molecular signalling complex may be dynamically regulated by this fundamental post-translational modification and thus S-acylation likely represents an important determinant of BK channel physiology in health and disease.

  2. Design and evaluation of lipoprotein resembling curcumin-encapsulated protein-free nanostructured lipid carrier for brain targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanfei; Asghar, Sajid; Xu, Yurui; Wang, Jianping; Jin, Xin; Wang, Zhilin; Wang, Jing; Ping, Qineng; Zhou, Jianping; Xiao, Yanyu

    2016-06-15

    Many nanoparticle matrixes have been demonstrated to be efficient in brain targeting, but there are still certain limitations for them. To overcome the shortcomings of the existing nanoparticulate systems for brain-targeted delivery, a lipoprotein resembling protein-free nanostructured lipid carrier (PS80-NLC) loaded with curcumin was constructed and assessed for in vitro and in vivo performance. Firstly, single factor at a time approach was employed to investigate the effects of various formulation factors. Mean particle sizes of ≤100nm, high entrapment efficiency (EE, about 95%) and drug loading (DL, >3%) were obtained for the optimized formulations. In vitro release studies in the presence of plasma indicated stability of the formulation under physiological condition. Compared with NLC, PS80-NLC showed noticeably higher affinity for bEnd.3 cells (1.56 folds greater than NLC) but with lower uptake in macrophages. The brain coronal sections showed strong and widely distributed fluorescence intensity of PS80-NLC than that of NLC in the cortex. Ex vivo imaging studies further confirmed that PS80-NLC could effectively permeate BBB and preferentially accumulate in the brain (2.38 times greater than NLC). The considerable in vitro and in vivo performance of the safe and biocompatible PS80-NLC makes it a suitable option for further investigations in brain targeted drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Iron carrier proteins facilitate engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow and enduring hemopoietic chimerism in the lethally irradiated host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierpaoli, W.; Dall' Ara, A.; Yi, C.X.; Neri, P.; Santucci, A.; Choay, J. (Institute for Biomedical Research, Quartino (Switzerland))

    1991-04-15

    Cell-free supernatants of rabbit bone marrow were fractionated, separated, and purified by Ultrogel and Superose chromatography. A single fraction promoted engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow and enduring hemopoietic chimerism across the H-2 barrier in lethally irradiated mice. This 'bio-active' fraction, analyzed by reducing SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and transblotted on PVDF membrane, and purified by reverse-phase HPLC and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis yielded a main prealbumin band that when examined for primary structure by Edman degradation, proved to be rabbit transferrin. This was also attested by highly specific precipitation of the prealbumin band with polyclonal antibodies to rabbit transferrin. Iron-saturated human transferrin, lactotransferrin, and egg transferrin (conalbumin) were assayed in irradiated C57BL/6 mice infused with bone marrow from histoincompatible BALB/c donors. Mice treated with iron-loaded transferrins survive and develop enduring allogeneic chimerism with no discernible signs of graft-versus-host disease. Iron carrier proteins thus provide an unique means of achieving successful engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow in immunologically hostile murine H-2 combinations.

  4. Bioinformatic evidence for a widely distributed, ribosomally produced electron carrier precursor, its maturation proteins, and its nicotinoprotein redox partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haft Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    as N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (NDMA for the enzyme to cycle. Conclusions Taken together, these findings suggest that the mycofactocin precursor is modified by the Rv0693 family rSAM protein and other enzymes in its cluster. It becomes an electron carrier molecule that serves in vivo as NDMA and other artificial electron acceptors do in vitro. Subclasses from three different nicotinoprotein families show "only-if" relationships to mycofactocin because they require its presence. This framework suggests a segregated redox pool in which mycofactocin mediates communication among enzymes with non-exchangeable cofactors.

  5. Gravistimulation changes expression of genes encoding putative carrier proteins of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Miyamoto, K.; Tanimoto, E.; Ueda, J.

    STS-95 space experiment has showed that auxin polar transport in etiolated epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings is controlled by gravistimulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana auxin polar transport has considered to be regulated by efflux and influx carrier proteins in plasma membranes, AtPIN1 and AtAUX1, respectively. In order to know how gravistimuli control auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls at molecular levels, strenuous efforts have been made, resulting in successful isolation of full-length cDNAs of a putative auxin efflux and influx carriers, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (accession no. AY222857, Chawla and DeMason, 2003) and AtPINs, and also among PsAUX1, AtAUX1 and their related genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 relating to lateral transport of auxin, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1 relating to auxin polar transport. In the present study, we examined the effects of gravistimuli on the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 in etiolated pea seedlings by northern blot analysis. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in hook region of 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat increased as compared with that of the seedlings grown under 1 g conditions. On the other hand, that of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the 1st internode region under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat also increased, while that of PsPIN2 was affected little. These results suggest that expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 regulating polar/lateral transport of auxin is substantially under the control of gravity. A possible role of PsPINs and PsAUX1 of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings will also be discussed.

  6. Glycosylation of solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2016-01-01

    Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well...

  7. Acylation of Glucagon-like peptide-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Sofie; Linderoth, Lars; Bjerregaard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    These results show that membrane interactions play a prominent role during intestinal translocation of an acylated peptide. Acylation benefits permeation for shorter and medium chains due to increased membrane interactions, however, for longer chains insertion in the membrane becomes dominant and...

  8. Acylated flavone glycosides from Veronica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albach, Dirk C.; Grayer, Renée J.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2003-01-01

    A survey of the flavonoid glycosides of selected taxa in the genus Veronica yielded two new acylated 5,6,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (6-hydroxyluteolin) glycosides and two rare allose-containing acylated 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (isoscutellarein) glycosides. The new compounds were isolated fr...

  9. Enhanced growth and recombinant protein production of Escherichia coli by a perfluorinated oxygen carrier in miniaturized fed-batch cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubauer Peter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liquid perfluorochemicals (PFCs are interesting oxygen carriers in medicine and biotechnology with a high solubility for oxygen. They have been repeatedly used for improving oxygen transfer into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell cultures, however their application is still limited. Here we show the great benefit of air/oxygen saturated perfluorodecalin (PFD for high cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli in microwell plates and their positive effect on the soluble production of a correctly folded heterologously expressed alcohol dehydrogenase. Results In EnBase® cultivations the best effect was seen with PFD saturated with oxygen enriched air (appr. 10 μM oxygen per ml when PFD was added at the time of induction. In contrast the effect of PFD was negligible when it was added already at the time of inoculation. Optimisation of addition time and content of loaded oxygen into the PFD resulted in an increased the cell density by 40% compared to control cultures, and correspondingly also the product yield increased, demonstrated at the example of a recombinant alcohol dehydrogenase. Conclusions PFCs are a valuable additive in miniaturized cell culture formats. For production of recombinant proteins in low cell density shaken cultures the addition of oxygen-enriched PFD makes the process more robust, i.e. a high product yield is not any more limited to a very narrow cell density window during which the induction has to be done. The positive effect of PFD was even more obvious when it was added during high cell density cultures. The effect of the PFD phase depends on the amount of oxygen which is loaded into the PFD and which thus is a matter of optimisation.

  10. Human apolipoprotein A-I. Post-translational modification by fatty acid acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeg, J M; Meng, M S; Ronan, R; Fairwell, T; Brewer, H B

    1986-03-25

    The human apolipoproteins are secretory proteins some of which have been shown to undergo proteolytic processing and post-translational addition of carbohydrate. Apolipoprotein A-I (apo-A-I), the predominant protein associated with high density lipoproteins, undergoes co-translational proteolytic processing as well as post-translational conversion of proapo-A-I to mature apo-A-I following cellular secretion. Utilizing the human hepatoma cell line HEP-G2, we have established that, in addition to proteolytic processing, secreted nascent apo-A-I is acylated with palmitate. Uniformly labeled [14C]palmitate and [1-14C]palmitate were each incorporated into apo-A-I when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The acylation of apo-A-I with palmitate was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Hydroxylamine treatment resulted in the deacylation of apo-A-I. Although three of the apo-A-I isoforms analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were shown to contain radio-labeled palmitate, 80% of acylated apo-A-I was in the proapolipoprotein A-I isoform. [14C]Oleate was not incorporated in secreted apo-A-I, indicating the specificity of the acylation of apo-A-I. Incubation of [14C] palmitate-acylated apo-A-I in serum and plasma under conditions in which proapo-A-I is proteolytically cleaved to mature apo-A-I did not result in deacylation. These data establish that fatty acid acylation occurs in human secretory proteins in addition to the previously reported acylation of cellular membrane proteins. These results suggest that the covalent linkage of lipids to apolipoproteins may play a critical role in apolipoprotein and lipoprotein metabolism.

  11. Alkylation and acylation of cyclotriphosphazenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Mark A; Zacchini, Stefano; Boomishankar, Ramamoorthy; Chan, Yuri; Steiner, Alexander

    2007-08-20

    Phosphazenes (RNH)6P3N3 (R = n-propyl, isobutyl, isopropyl, cyclohexyl, tert-butyl, benzyl) are readily alkylated at ring N sites by alkyl halides forming N-alkyl phosphazenium cations. Alkylation of two ring N sites occurred after prolonged heating in the presence of methyl iodide or immediately at room temperature with methyl triflate yielding N,N'-dimethyl phosphazenium dications. Geminal dichloro derivatives Cl2(RNH)4P3N3 are methylated by methyl iodide at the ring N site adjacent to both P centers carrying four RNH groups. X-ray crystal structures showed that the alkylation of ring N sites leads to substantial elongation of the associated P-N bonds. Both N-alkyl and N,N'-dialkyl phosphazenium salts form complex supramolecular networks in the solid state via NH...X interactions. Systems carrying less-bulky RNH groups show additional NH...N bonds between N-alkyl phosphazenium ions. N-Alkyl phosphazenium halides form complexes with silver ions upon treatment with silver nitrate. Depending on the steric demand of RNH substituents, either one or both of the vacant ring N sites engage in coordination to silver ions. Treatment of (RNH)6P3N3 (R = isopropyl) with acetyl chloride and benzoyl chloride, respectively, yielded N-acyl phosphazenium ions. X-ray crystal structures revealed that elongation of P-N bonds adjacent to the acylated ring N site is more pronounced than it is in the case of N-alkylated species. Salts containing N-alkyl phosphazenium ions are stable toward water and other mild nucleophiles, while N,N'-dialkyl and N-acyl phosphazenium salts are readily hydrolyzed. The reaction of (RNH)6P3N3 with bromoacetic acid led to N-alkylation at one ring N site in addition to formation of an amide via condensation of an adjacent RNH substituent with the carboxylic acid group. The resulting bromide salt contains mono cations of composition (RNH)5P3N3CH2CONR in which a CH2-C(O) unit is embedded between a ring N and an exocyclic N site of the phosphazene.

  12. Role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters in the regulation of metabolism and in cell signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Knudsen, J

    1997-01-01

    (Ki for acyl-CoA is 5 nM) indicates strongly that the free cytosolic acyl-CoA concentration is below 5 nM under these conditions. Only a limited number of the reported experiments on the effects of acyl-CoA on cellular functions and enzymes have been carried out at low physiological concentrations......The intracellular concentration of free unbound acyl-CoA esters is tightly controlled by feedback inhibition of the acyl-CoA synthetase and is buffered by specific acyl-CoA binding proteins. Excessive increases in the concentration are expected to be prevented by conversion into acylcarnitines...... or by hydrolysis by acyl-CoA hydrolases. Under normal physiological conditions the free cytosolic concentration of acyl-CoA esters will be in the low nanomolar range, and it is unlikely to exceed 200 nM under the most extreme conditions. The fact that acetyl-CoA carboxylase is active during fatty acid synthesis...

  13. Friedel-Crafts Acylation with Amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Erum K.; DeSchepper, Daniel J.; Nilsson Lill, Sten O.; Klumpp, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Friedel-Crafts acylation has been known since the 1870s and it is an important organic synthetic reaction leading to aromatic ketone products. Friedel-Crafts acylation is usually done with carboxylic acid chlorides or anhydrides while amides are generally not useful substrates in these reactions. Despite being the least reactive carboxylic acid derivative, we have found a series of amides capable of providing aromatic ketones in good yields (55–96%, 17 examples). We propose a mechanism involving diminished C-N resonance through superelectrophilic activation and subsequent cleavage to acyl cations. PMID:22690740

  14. Development of a membrane fusible drug carrier from erythrocytes by the spontaneous transfer of viral fusion protein from influenza virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, K; Okuda, O; Itoh, T; Hayashi, K; Ueno, M

    1997-05-01

    In order to develop a membrane fusible drug carrier from human erythrocytes, we attempted the reconstitution of influenza virus fusion protein hemagglutinin (HA) to an erythrocyte membrane. In this study, we succeeded in the preparation of HA-reconstituted erythrocytes (HA-erythrocytes) by the incubation of erythrocytes with influenza virus-infected CV-1 cells, and confirmed the ability of HA-erythrocytes to fuse with the cell membrane. Furthermore, by using an HA-reconstituted ghost (HA-ghost), which entrapped fluorescent-labeled ovalbumin, 25% of the protein was incorporated into cells through the fusion of the HA-ghost with the cell membrane.

  15. ALS-Related Mutant FUS Protein Is Mislocalized to Cytoplasm and Is Recruited into Stress Granules of Fibroblasts from Asymptomatic FUS P525L Mutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Bello, Margherita; Di Fini, Francesca; Notaro, Antonietta; Spataro, Rossella; Conforti, Francesca L; La Bella, Vincenzo

    2017-10-17

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) shows a strong genetic basis, with SOD1, FUS, TARDBP, and C9ORF72 being the genes most frequently involved. This has allowed identification of asymptomatic mutation carriers, which may be of help in understanding the molecular changes preceding disease onset. We studied the cellular expression of FUS protein and the effect of heat-shock- and dithiothreitol-induced stress in fibroblasts from FUS P525L mutation carriers, healthy controls, and patients with sporadic ALS. Western blots and immunocytochemistry were performed to study the subcellular localization of FUS protein. Control and stressed cells were double stained with FUS and the stress marker TIA-R. Fibroblasts from healthy controls and sporadic ALS cases showed a prominent nuclear FUS expression. In the 2 FUS P525L mutation carriers, instead, most cells showed a protein localization in both nucleus and cytoplasm, or exclusively in the cytoplasm. Stress prompted the formation of cytoplasmic granules in all subjects and in sporadic ALS FUS mislocalization to the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic FUS was recruited into stress granules, which showed a time-dependent decrease in all subjects. However, in the FUS P525L fibroblasts, the granules persisted longer, and they were more numerous than those detected in the cells from controls and sporadic ALS patients. We show that in fibroblasts of FUS P525L mutation carriers, FUS mislocalized to the cytoplasm where it redistributed into stress granules with likely a dose effect, i.e. a higher number of cells with granules, which persist longer, than in controls and ALS cases. These data represent an early molecular change occurring before ALS onset, suggesting a transient preaggregative state. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Synthesis and biological activities of turkesterone 11?-acyl derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Dinan

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkesterone is a phytoecdysteroid possessing an 11alpha-hydroxyl group. It is an analogue of the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Previous ecdysteroid QSAR and molecular modelling studies predicted that the cavity of the ligand-binding domain of the ecdysteroid receptor would possess space in the vicinity of C-11/C-12 of the ecdysteroid. We report the regioselective synthesis of a series of turkesterone 11alpha-acyl derivatives in order to explore this possibility. The structures of the analogues have been unambiguously determined by spectroscopic means (NMR and low-resolution mass spectrometry. Purity was verified by HPLC. Biological activities have been determined in Drosophila melanogaster BII cell-based bioassay for ecdysteroid agonists and in an in vitro radioligand-displacement assay using bacterially expressed D. melanogaster EcR/USP receptor proteins. The 11alpha-acyl derivatives do retain a significant amount of biological activity relative to the parent ecdysteroid. Further, although activity initially drops with the extension of the acyl chain length (C2 to C4, it then increases (C6 to C10, before decreasing again (C14 and C20. The implications of these findings for the interaction of ecdysteroids with the ecdysteroid receptor and potential applications in the generation of affinity-labelled and fluorescently-tagged ecdysteroids are discussed.

  17. Advancement in recombinant protein production using a marine oxygen carrier to enhance oxygen transfer in a CHO-S cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, Fiona; Bossard, Morgane; Dutheil, Delphine; Rousselot, Morgane; Polard, Valérie; Férec, Claude; Leize, Elisabeth; Delépine, Pascal; Zal, Franck

    2015-06-01

    Recombinant proteins, particularly proteins used as therapeutics, are widely expressed for bioprocessing manufacturing processes. Mammalian cell lines represent the major host cells for bioproduction, according to their capacities of post-translational modifications and folding of secreted proteins. Many parameters can affect cell productivity, especially the rate of oxygen transfer. Dissolved oxygen, in high or low proportions, is a crucial parameter which can affect cell viability and thus productivity. HEMARINA has developed a new technology, commercially proposed as HEMOXCell(®), to improve cell culture at a large production scale. HEMOXCell(®) is a marine oxygen carrier having properties of high oxygen sensitivity, to be used as an oxygen additive during cell culture manufacturing. In this study, we investigated the effects of HEMOXCell(®) on the culture of the commonly used CHO-S cell line. Two main objectives were pursued: 1) cell growth rate and viability during a batch mode process, and 2) the determination of the effect of this oxygen carrier on recombinant protein production from a CHO-transfected cell line. Our results show an increase of CHO-S cellular growth at a rate of more than four-fold in culture with HEMOXCell(®). Moreover, an extension of the growth exponential phase and high cell viability were observed. All of these benefits seem to contribute to the improvement of recombinant protein production. This work underlines several applications using this marine-type oxygen carrier for large biomanufacturing. It is a promising cell culture additive according to the increasing demand for therapeutic products such as monoclonal antibodies.

  18. Antifibrotic Activity of Acylated and Unacylated Ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Angelino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis can affect almost all tissues and organs, it often represents the terminal stage of chronic diseases, and it is regarded as a major health issue for which efficient therapies are needed. Tissue injury, by inducing necrosis/apoptosis, triggers inflammatory response that, in turn, promotes fibroblast activation and pathological deposition of extracellular matrix. Acylated and unacylated ghrelin are the main products of the ghrelin gene. The acylated form, through its receptor GHSR-1a, stimulates appetite and growth hormone (GH release. Although unacylated ghrelin does not bind or activate GHSR-1a, it shares with the acylated form several biological activities. Ghrelin peptides exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic activities, suggesting that they might represent an efficient approach to prevent or reduce fibrosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the effects of acylated and unacylated ghrelin on different pathologies and experimental models in which fibrosis is a predominant characteristic.

  19. Fatty acyl-CoA reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Steven E.; Somerville, Chris R.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention relates to bacterial enzymes, in particular to an acyl-CoA reductase and a gene encoding an acyl-CoA reductase, the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the reductase polypeptide and gene, respectively, and to methods of obtaining such enzymes, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences. The invention also relates to the use of such sequences to provide transgenic host cells capable of producing fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes.

  20. Modulating Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Cargo Receptors for Improving Secretion of Carrier-Fused Heterologous Proteins in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Huy-Dung; Maruyama, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are excellent hosts for industrial protein production due to their superior secretory capacity; however, the yield of heterologous eukaryotic proteins is generally lower than that of fungal or endogenous proteins. Although activating protein folding machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) improves the yield, the importance of intracellular transport machinery for heterologous protein secretion is poorly understood. Here, using Aspergillus oryzae as a model filamentous fungus, we studied the involvement of two putative lectin-like cargo receptors, A. oryzae Vip36 (AoVip36) and AoEmp47, in the secretion of heterologous proteins expressed in fusion with the endogenous enzyme α-amylase as the carrier. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that mDsRed-tagged AoVip36 localized in the Golgi compartment, whereas AoEmp47 showed localization in both the ER and the Golgi compartment. Deletion of AoVip36 and AoEmp47 improved heterologous protein secretion, but only AoVip36 deletion had a negative effect on the secretion of α-amylase. Analysis of ER-enriched cell fractions revealed that AoVip36 and AoEmp47 were involved in the retention of heterologous proteins in the ER. However, the overexpression of each cargo receptor had a different effect on heterologous protein secretion: AoVip36 enhanced the secretion, whereas AoEmp47 promoted the intracellular retention. Taken together, our data suggest that AoVip36 and AoEmp47 hinder the secretion of heterologous proteins by promoting their retention in the ER but that AoVip36 also promotes the secretion of heterologous proteins. Moreover, we found that genetic deletion of these putative ER-Golgi cargo receptors significantly improves heterologous protein production. The present study is the first to propose that ER-Golgi transport is a bottleneck for heterologous protein production in filamentous fungi. PMID:25362068

  1. Binding of 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100) and/or its metabolites to mammalian biliary carrier proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.; Huwe, J.; Hakk, H. [USDA ARS Biosciences Research Lab, Fargo, ND (United States); Low, M.; Rutherford, D. [Concordia College, Moorhead, MN (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in the textile and electronics industries and are globally produced in the range of 150,000 tons annually. Because they are very lipophilic, structurally similar to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and biphenyls, environmentally persistent, and display an increasing number of toxicological effects, there is growing concern that this class of compounds may be emerging as a new environmental contaminant. Recent reports have documented their presence in human plasma, milk, and adipose tissue and in aquatic species such as sperm whales, harbor seals, and whitebeaked dolphins. Only a few PBDE congeners are consistently found and reported in the environment, e.g. BDE-47, 99, 100, 153 and 154, and 209. Of this group, only BDE-47 and 99 have been studied in mammals. Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons can associate with endogenous carrier proteins in the urine and bile of rats, either as the parent or as metabolites. Toxic and non-toxic dioxins, PCB's, and PBDE's all have this capacity. Based on its lipophilicity, BDE-100 would be expected to require carrier proteins for mammalian in vivo transport. The purpose of the association has not been established but may be part of the process involved in mammalian elimination of these xenobiotics. However, the association may affect the normal function of these carrier proteins. One of the purposes of the present research was to administer a single oral dose of BDE-100 to male rats and measure the amount eliminated in the urine and bile, as well as characterize the nature and extent of binding to any proteins in these excreta.

  2. Anti-Group B Streptococcus Glycan-Conjugate Vaccines Using Pilus Protein GBS80 As Carrier and Antigen: Comparing Lysine and Tyrosine-directed Conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilo, Alberto; Morelli, Laura; Passalacqua, Irene; Brogioni, Barbara; Allan, Martin; Carboni, Filippo; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Zerbini, Francesca; Maione, Domenico; Fabbrini, Monica; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Hu, Qi-Ying; Margarit, Immaculada; Berti, Francesco; Adamo, Roberto

    2015-07-17

    Gram-positive Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive infections in pregnant women, newborns, and elderly people. Vaccination of pregnant women represents the best strategy for prevention of neonatal disease, and GBS polysaccharide-based conjugate vaccines are currently under clinical testing. The potential of GBS pilus proteins selected by genome-based reverse vaccinology as protective antigens for anti-streptococcal vaccines has also been demonstrated. Dressing pilus proteins with surface glycan antigens could be an attractive approach to extend vaccine coverage. We have recently developed an efficient method for tyrosine-directed ligation of large glycans to proteins via copper-free azide-alkyne [3 + 2] cycloaddition. This method enables targeting of predetermined sites of the protein, ensuring that protein epitopes are preserved prior to glycan coupling and a higher consistency in glycoconjugate batches. Herein, we compared conjugates of the GBS type II polysaccharide (PSII) and the GBS80 pilus protein obtained by classic lysine random conjugation and by the recently developed tyrosine-directed ligation. PSII conjugated to CRM197, a carrier protein used for vaccines in the market, was used as a control. We found that the constructs made from PSII and GBS80 were able to elicit murine antibodies recognizing individually the glycan and protein epitopes on the bacterial surface. The generated antibodies were efficacious in mediating opsonophagocytic killing of strains expressing exclusively PSII or GBS80 proteins. The two glycoconjugates were also effective in protecting newborn mice against GBS infection following vaccination of the dams. Altogether, these results demonstrated that polysaccharide-conjugated GBS80 pilus protein functions as a carrier comparably to CRM197, while maintaining its properties of protective protein antigen. Glycoconjugation and reverse vaccinology can, therefore, be combined to design

  3. Imaging N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Louise Dahl; van Gennip, Maria; Jakobsen, Tim Holm

    2011-01-01

    In order to study N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing in vivo, we present a protocol using an Escherichia coli strain equipped with a luxR-based monitor system, which in the presence of exogenous AHL molecules expresses a green fluorescent protein (GFP). Lungs from mice challenged...... intratracheally with alginate beads containing both a P. aeruginosa strain together with the E. coli monitor strain can be investigated at different time points postinfection. Epifluorescent or confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) is used to detect the GFP-expressing E. coli monitor strain in the lung...

  4. Microbial tailoring of acyl peptidic siderophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauglitz, Julia M; Iinishi, Akira; Ito, Yusai; Butler, Alison

    2014-04-29

    Marine bacteria produce an abundance of suites of acylated siderophores characterized by a unique, species-dependent headgroup that binds iron(III) and one of a series of fatty acid appendages. Marinobacter sp. DS40M6 produces a suite of seven acylated marinobactins, with fatty acids ranging from saturated and unsaturated C12-C18 fatty acids. In the present study, we report that in the late log phase of growth, the fatty acids are hydrolyzed by an amide hydrolase producing the peptidic marinobactin headgroup. Halomonas aquamarina str. DS40M3, another marine bacterium isolated originally from the same sample of open ocean water as Marinobacter sp. DS40M6, produces the acyl aquachelins, also as a suite composed of a peptidic headgroup distinct from that of the marinobactins. In contrast to the acyl marinobactins, hydrolysis of the suite of acyl aquachelins is not detected, even when H. aquamarina str. DS40M3 is grown into the stationary phase. The Marinobacter cell-free extract containing the acyl amide hydrolase is active toward exogenous acyl-peptidic siderophores (e.g., aquachelin C, loihichelin C, as well as octanoyl homoserine lactone used in quorum sensing). Further, when H. aquamarina str. DS40M3 is cultured together with Marinobacter sp. DS40M6, the fatty acids of both suites of siderophores are hydrolyzed, and the aquachelin headgroup is also produced. The present study demonstrates that coculturing bacteria leads to metabolically tailored metabolites compared to growth in a single pure culture, which is interesting given the importance of siderophore-mediated iron acquisition for bacterial growth and that Marinobacter sp. DS40M6 and H. aquamarina str. DS40M3 were isolated from the same sample of seawater.

  5. How prenylation and S-acylation regulate subcellular targeting and function of ROP GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek, Nadav; Henis, Yoav I; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2011-07-01

    Rho of Plants (ROP) small G proteins function at discrete domains of the plasma and possibly endo membranes. ROPs are synthesized as soluble proteins and their attachment to membranes and partitioning in membrane microdomains are facilitated by the posttranslational lipid modifications prenylation and/or S-acylation. Based on their amino acid sequences, ROPs can be classified into two major subgroups: type-I ROPs terminate with a canonical CaaX box motif and are prenylated primarily by geranylgeranyltransferase-I (GGT-I) and to a lesser extent by farnesyltransferase (FT). Type-II ROPs terminate with a plant specific GC-CG box domain and are attached to the plasma membrane by stable S-acylation. In addition, type-I and possibly also type-II ROPs undergo activation dependent transient S-acylation in the G-domain and consequent partitioning into lipid rafts. Surprisingly, although geranylgeranylation is required for the membrane attachment of type-I ROPs and the γ subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, Arabidopsis mutants lacking GGT-I function have a mild phenotype compared to wild type plants. The mild phenotype of the ggt-I mutants suggested that farnesylation by FT may compensate for the loss of GGT-I function and that possibly the prenylated type-I and S-acylated type-II ROPS have some overlapping functions. In a paper recently published in Plant Physiology we examined the role of the prenyl group type in type-I ROP function and membrane interaction dynamics and the functional redundancy between type-I and type-II ROPs. This study complements a second paper in which we examined the role of G-domain transient S-acylation in the membrane interaction dynamics and signaling by type-I ROPs. Together these two studies provide a framework for realizing the role of prenylation and S-acylation in subcellular targeting, membrane interaction dynamics and signaling by ROP GTPases.

  6. Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnant are offered carrier screening for cystic fibrosis, hemoglobinopathies , and spinal muscular atrophy . You can have screening ... caused by a change in genes or chromosomes. Hemoglobinopathies: Any inherited disorder caused by changes in the ...

  7. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy......, with potentially far-reaching consequences for the countries of the region. The Chinese have bought several retired carriers, which they have studied in great detail. The largest is the Russian-built carrier Varyag of the Kuznetsov class, which today is anchored in the Chinese Naval Base at Dalian. If they decide...

  8. Self-assembling stereocomplex nanoparticles by enantiomeric poly(γ-glutamic acid)-poly(lactide) graft copolymers as a protein delivery carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ye; Akagi, Takami; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2014-04-01

    Amphiphilic graft copolymers, poly(γ-glutamic acid)-graft-poly(lactide) (γ-PGA-g-PLA) bearing pendent poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) of different main chain lengths and grafting degrees, self-assemble in aqueous solution to form monodispersed stereocomplex nanoparticles (NPs). The mean diameter and degree of crystallinity of these stereocomplex NPs can be controlled by changing the grafting degree of the copolymers or the preparation methods. Moreover, the stereocomplex NPs exhibit a lower critical aggregation concentration as well as stronger thermodynamic stability compared with the corresponding isomer NPs. The surface-functionalized ability and protein encapsulation capacity of the stereocomplex NPs as potential targeting protein carriers are evaluated. Furthermore, these stereocomplex NPs have strong kinetic stability and can be expected to serve as stable delivery vehicles for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Traceless chemical ligation from S-, O-, and N-acyl isopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Siva S; Hall, C Dennis; Oliferenko, Alexander A; Katritzky, Alan R

    2014-04-15

    Peptides are ubiquitous in nature where they play crucial roles as catalysts (enzymes), cell membrane ion transporters, and structural elements (proteins) within biological systems. In addition, both linear and cyclic peptides have found use as pharmaceuticals and components of various conjugate molecular systems. Small wonder then that chemists throughout the ages have sought to mimic nature by synthesis of the amide polymers known as peptides and proteins. The fundamental reaction in the formation of a peptide bond is condensation of an amine of one amino acid with the activated carbonyl group of another. This "fragment condensation" has been achieved in many ways both in solution and by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPSS) on resin. The most successful method for in-solution coupling is known as native chemical ligation (NCL), and the technique dates back to the pioneering work of Wieland (1953) and subsequently Kent (1994) among many others. This Account builds on the established principles of NCL as applied specifically to S-, O-, and N-isopeptides, molecules that are generally more soluble and less prone to aggregation than native peptides. This Account also covers NCL of isopeptides containing terminal and nonterminal S-acylated cysteine units, reactions that enable the synthesis of native peptides from S-acyl peptides without the use of auxiliaries. With C-terminal S-acyl isopeptides, NCL was carried out under microwave irradiation in phosphate buffer (pH 7.3) at 50 °C. Intramolecular acyl migration was observed through 5-19-membered transition states with relative rates, as assessed by product analysis, in the order, 5 > 10 > 11 > 14, 16, or 17 > 12 > 13, 15, or 19 > 18 ≫ 9 > 8. The rate/pH profile for the 15-membered TS showed a maximum for ligated product versus transacylation at pH 7.0-7.3 presumably associated with the pKa of the N-nucleophile in the hydrogen-bonded TS. Cysteine occurs at low abundance (1.7%) in natural peptides and is rarely

  10. In silico prediction of acyl glucuronide reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Tim; Lewis, Richard; Luker, Tim; Bonnert, Roger; Bernstein, Michael A.; Birkinshaw, Timothy N.; Thom, Stephen; Wenlock, Mark; Paine, Stuart

    2011-11-01

    Drugs and drug candidates containing a carboxylic acid moiety, including many widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often metabolized to form acyl glucuronides (AGs). NSAIDs such as Ibuprofen are amongst the most widely used drugs on the market, whereas similar carboxylic acid drugs such as Suprofen have been withdrawn due to adverse events. Although the link between these AG metabolites and toxicity is not proven, there is circumstantial literature evidence to suggest that more reactive acyl glucuronides may, in some cases, present a greater risk of exhibiting toxic effects. We wished therefore to rank the reactivity of potential new carboxylate-containing drug candidates, and performed kinetic studies on synthetic acyl glucuronides to benchmark our key compounds. Driven by the desire to quickly rank the reactivity of compounds without the need for lengthy synthesis of the acyl glucuronide, a correlation was established between the degradation half-life of the acyl glucuronide and the half life for the hydrolysis of the more readily available methyl ester derivative. This finding enabled a considerable broadening of chemical property space to be investigated. The need for kinetic measurements was subsequently eliminated altogether by correlating the methyl ester hydrolysis half-life with the predicted 13C NMR chemical shift of the carbonyl carbon together with readily available steric descriptors in a PLS model. This completely in silico prediction of acyl glucuronide reactivity is applicable within the earliest stages of drug design with low cost and acceptable accuracy to guide intelligent molecular design. This reactivity data will be useful alongside the more complex additional pharmacokinetic exposure and distribution data that is generated later in the drug discovery process for assessing the overall toxicological risk of acidic drugs.

  11. Acyl silicates and acyl aluminates as activated intermediates in peptide formation on clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. H.; Kennedy, R. M.; Macklin, J.

    1984-01-01

    Glycine reacts with heating on dried clays and other minerals to give peptides in much better yield than in the absence of mineral. This reaction was proposed to occur by way of an activated intermediate such as an acyl silicate or acyl aluminate analogous to acyl phosphates involved in several biochemical reactions including peptide bond synthesis. The proposed mechanism has been confirmed by trapping the intermediate, as well as by direct spectroscopic observation of a related intermediate. The reaction of amino acids on periodically dried mineral surfaces represents a widespead, geologically realistic setting for prebiotic peptide formation via in situ activation.

  12. Lipid phosphate phosphatase 3 participates in transport carrier formation and protein trafficking in the early secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Enric; Fernández-Ulibarri, Inés; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Johannes, Ludger; Pyne, Susan; Sarri, Elisabet; Egea, Gustavo

    2013-06-15

    The inhibition of phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) activity by propanolol indicates that diacylglycerol (DAG) is required for the formation of transport carriers at the Golgi and for retrograde trafficking to the ER. Here we report that the PAP2 family member lipid phosphate phosphatase 3 (LPP3, also known as PAP2b) localizes in compartments of the secretory pathway from ER export sites to the Golgi complex. The depletion of human LPP3: (i) reduces the number of tubules generated from the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and the Golgi, with those formed from the Golgi being longer in LPP3-silenced cells than in control cells; (ii) impairs the Rab6-dependent retrograde transport of Shiga toxin subunit B from the Golgi to the ER, but not the anterograde transport of VSV-G or ssDsRed; and (iii) induces a high accumulation of Golgi-associated membrane buds. LPP3 depletion also reduces levels of de novo synthesized DAG and the Golgi-associated DAG contents. Remarkably, overexpression of a catalytically inactive form of LPP3 mimics the effects of LPP3 knockdown on Rab6-dependent retrograde transport. We conclude that LPP3 participates in the formation of retrograde transport carriers at the ER-Golgi interface, where it transitorily cycles, and during its route to the plasma membrane.

  13. Acyl-CoA esters antagonize the effects of ligands on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha conformation, DNA binding, and interaction with Co-factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, M; Dam, I; Jorgensen, C

    2001-01-01

    palmitoyl-CoA analog, antagonizes the effects of agonists on PPARalpha conformation and function in vitro. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, S-hexadecyl-CoA prevented agonist-induced binding of the PPARalpha-retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimer to the acyl-CoA oxidase peroxisome proliferator...... to the buffering effect of high affinity acyl-CoA-binding proteins, especially the acyl-CoA-binding protein. By using PPARalpha expressed in Sf21 cells for electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrate that S-hexadecyl-CoA was able to increase the mobility of the PPARalpha-containing heterodimer even...

  14. Genomic organization and reproductive regulation of a carrier/storage protein in the Varroa Mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genomic region and corresponding transcript of the most abundant protein in the phoretic varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman), were sequenced and found to be homologous with hemelipoglyco-proteins (HeLP/CP) of acarines. The genomic arrangement showed the presence of 14 in...

  15. Expanding the Reader Landscape of Histone Acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abid; Bridgers, Joseph B; Strahl, Brian D

    2017-04-04

    In this issue of Structure,Klein et al. (2017) expand our understanding of what reader domains bind to by showing that MORF, a double PHD domain containing lysine acetyltransferase, is a preferential reader of histone lysine acylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acylated Flavonoid from Vaccinium Corymbosum (Ericaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and the genus of Vaccinium. This is the first report on characterization of these phenolic compounds and the possible utilization of blueberry flowers for nutraceutical and functional food applications. Keywords: Vaccinium corymbosum, Blueberry, Acylated flavonoid, Yeast α-Glucosidase, Inhibitory activity, Nutraceuticals ...

  17. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) Nanoparticle Agglomerates as Carriers in Dry Powder Aerosol Formulation of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Laura J.; Roberts, Lydia; Berkland, Cory

    2013-01-01

    A dry powder aerosol drug delivery system was designed with both nano- and microstructure to maximize the protein loading via surface adsorption and to facilitate delivery to the deep lung, respectively. Ovalbumin was employed as a model protein to adsorb to and controllably flocculate DOTAP-coated PLG nanoparticles into “nanoclusters” possessing low density microstructure. The mechanism of nanoparticle flocculation was probed by evaluating the effects of ionic strength, shear force, and protein concentration on the geometric and aerodynamic diameters of the nanoclusters as well as the protein adsorption efficiency. Salt ions were found to compete with ovalbumin adsorption to nanoparticles and facilitate flocculation; therefore, formulation of nanoclusters for inhaled drug delivery may require the lowest possible ionic strength to maximize protein adsorption. Additional factors, such as shear force and total protein–particle concentration can be altered to optimize nanocluster size, suggesting the possibility of regional lung delivery. Immediate release of ovalbumin was observed, and native protein structure upon release was confirmed by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy studies. Controlled flocculation of nanoparticles may provide a useful alternative to spray drying when formulating dry powders for pulmonary or nasal administration of protein therapeutics or antigens. PMID:18680321

  18. Binding and Release between Polymeric Carrier and Protein Drug: pH-Mediated Interplay of Coulomb Forces, Hydrogen Bonding, van der Waals Interactions, and Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Sergio; Chen, Fan; Seal, Prasenjit; Stenzel, Martina H; Smith, Sean C

    2017-11-13

    The accelerating search for new types of drugs and delivery strategies poses challenge to understanding the mechanism of delivery. To this end, a detailed atomistic picture of binding between the drug and carrier is quintessential. Although many studies focus on the electrostatics of drug-vector interactions, it has also been pointed out that entropic factors relating to water and counterions can play an important role. By carrying out extensive molecular dynamics simulations and subsequently validating with experiments, we shed light herein on the binding in aqueous solution between a protein drug and polymeric carrier. We examined the complexation between the polymer poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate-b-poly(carboxyethyl acrylate (PEGMEA-b-PCEA) and the protein egg white lysozyme, a system that acts as a model for polymer-vector/protein-drug delivery systems. The complexation has been visualized and characterized using contact maps and hydrogen bonding analyses for five independent simulations of the complex, each running over 100 ns. Binding at physiological pH is, as expected, mediated by Coulombic attraction between the positively charged protein and negatively charged carboxylate groups on the polymer. However, we find that consideration of electrostatics alone is insufficient to explain the complexation behavior at low pH. Intracomplex hydrogen bonds, van der Waals interactions, as well as water-water interactions dictate that the polymer does not release the protein at pH 4.8 or indeed at pH 3.2 even though the Coulombic attractions are largely removed as carboxylate groups on the polymer become titrated. Experiments in aqueous solution carried out at pH 7.0, 4.5, and 3.0 confirm the veracity of the computed binding behavior. Overall, these combined simulation and experimental results illustrate that coulomb interactions need to be complemented with consideration of other entropic forces, mediated by van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding

  19. Interaction Of GCAP1 With Retinal Guanylyl Cyclase And Calcium: Sensitivity to Fatty Acylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Peshenko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAP1 are calcium/magnesium binding proteins within neuronal calcium sensor proteins group (NCS of the EF-hand proteins superfamily. GCAPs activate retinal guanylyl cyclase (RetGC in vertebrate photoreceptors in response to light-dependent fall of the intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations. GCAPs consist of four EF-hand domains and contain N-terminal fatty acylated glycine, which in GCAP1 is required for the normal activation of RetGC. We analyzed the effects of a substitution prohibiting N-myristoylation (Gly2 → Ala on the ability of the recombinant GCAP1 to co-localize with its target enzyme when heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. We also compared Ca2+ binding and RetGC-activating properties of the purified non-acylated G2A mutant and C14:0 acylated GCAP1 in vitro. The G2A GCAP1 expressed with a C-terminal GFP tag was able to co-localize with the cyclase, albeit less efficiently than the wild type, but much less effectively stimulated cyclase activity in vitro. Ca2+ binding isotherm of the G2A GCAP1 was slightly shifted toward higher free Ca2+ concentrations and so was Ca2+ sensitivity of RetGC reconstituted with the non-acylated mutant. At the same time, myristoylation had little effect on the high-affinity Ca2+-binding in the EF-hand that is proximal to the myristoyl residue in the three-dimensional GCAP1 structure. These data indicate that the N-terminal fatty acyl group may alter the activity of EF-hands in the distal portion of the GCAP1 molecule via presently unknown intramolecular mechanism.

  20. * Demineralized Bone Matrix as a Carrier for Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2: Burst Release Combined with Long-Term Binding and Osteoinductive Activity Evaluated In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Elisabeth; Pobloth, Anne-Marie; Bormann, Nicole; Kolarczik, Nicolai; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Schell, Hanna; Schwabe, Philipp; Duda, Georg N; Wildemann, Britt

    2017-12-01

    To allow bone defect regeneration, autologous bone grafting still represents the gold standard. However, autograft harvesting has limitations, including an additional surgery, donor site morbidity, and limited availability. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) would represent an alternative, yet lacks sufficient osteoinductive properties. Combining DBM with a potent agent, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) might be a feasible alternative approach, optimizing an established grafting material with strong osteoinductive properties. A unique mixing device has been developed that enables perioperative handling to reach a homogeneous and standardized paste for bone defect filling. DBM proved in vitro to be a suitable carrier for BMP-2, with a documented release over 56 days at concentrations sufficient to stimulate osteogenic differentiation. At the end of the elution experiment, 56 days, bioactive BMP was still captured within the DBM. Using a sheep drill hole defect model, DBM perioperatively mixed with BMP-2 showed strong osteoinductive properties comparable to those of autologous bone and outnumbering the one of DBM alone or empty defects. Bone defect healing was enabled at diaphyseal and metaphyseal defects and thus BMP-2-doped DBM represented an easy perioperative enriching method and an efficient carrier for BMP-2. With the comparability to the clinical gold standard autologous bone, DBM mixed with BMP-2 might serve as possible alternative grafting material enabling a controlled osteogenic stimulation.

  1. The ppm operon is essential for acylation and glycosylation of lipoproteins in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Mohiman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to their contribution to bacterial virulence, lipoproteins and members of the lipoprotein biogenesis pathway represent potent drug targets. Following translocation across the inner membrane, lipoprotein precursors are acylated by lipoprotein diacylglycerol transferase (Lgt, cleaved off their signal peptides by lipoprotein signal peptidase (Lsp and, in Gram-negative bacteria, further triacylated by lipoprotein N-acyl transferase (Lnt. The existence of an active apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase (Ms-Ppm2 involved in the N-acylation of LppX was recently reported in M. smegmatis. Ms-Ppm2 is part of the ppm operon in which Ppm1, a polyprenol-monophosphomannose synthase, has been shown to be essential in lipoglycans synthesis but whose function in lipoprotein biosynthesis is completely unknown. RESULTS: In order to clarify the role of the ppm operon in lipoprotein biosynthesis, we investigated the post-translational modifications of two model lipoproteins (AmyE and LppX in C. glutamicum Δppm1 and Δppm2 mutants. Our results show that both proteins are anchored into the membrane and that their N-termini are N-acylated by Cg-Ppm2. The acylated N-terminal peptide of LppX was also found to be modified by hexose moieties. This O-glycosylation is localized in the N-terminal peptide of LppX and disappeared in the Δppm1 mutant. While compromised in the absence of Cg-Ppm2, LppX O-glycosylation could be restored when Cg-Ppm1, Cg-Ppm2 or the homologous Mt-Ppm1 of M. tuberculosis was overexpressed. CONCLUSION: Together, these results show for the first time that Cg-Ppm1 (Ppm synthase and Cg-Ppm2 (Lnt operate in a common biosynthetic pathway in which lipoprotein N-acylation and glycosylation are tightly coupled.

  2. Evaluation of the amount of acyl-CoA elongases in leek (Allium porrum L) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessoule, J J; Creach, A; Lessire, R; Cassagne, C

    1992-07-21

    Polyclonal antibodies have been raised against the acyl-CoA elongase purified from leek epidermal cells. The antibodies recognize the fractions containing the elongating activity after DEAE or Ultrogel chromatography and their response with the other fractions is very low. The immune complex is immunoprecipitable with Protein A-Sepharose. 1% of the solubilized proteins from leek epidermis microsomes are immunoprecipitated. The immunoprecipitate contains an elongating activity which is 86 +/- 20-times that of the unbound fraction.

  3. Functional and in vitro gastric digestibility of the whey protein hydrogel loaded with nanostructured lipid carriers and gelled via citric acid-mediated crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Behnaz; Madadlou, Ashkan; Salami, Maryam

    2017-12-15

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) with mean size of 347nm were fabricated and added into a heat-denatured whey protein solution. The subsequent crosslinking of proteins by citric acid or CaCl2 resulted in the formation of cold-set hydrogels. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) proposed formation of more hydrogen bonds in gel due to NLC loading or citric acid-mediated gelation. It was also found based on FITR spectroscopy that citric acid crosslinking disordered whey proteins. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed a non-porous and finely meshed microstructure for the crosslinked gels compared to non-crosslinked counterparts. Crosslinking also increased the firmness and water-holding capacity of gels. In pepsin-free fluid, a strong correlation existed between reduction in gel swellability and digestibility over periods up to 60min due to NLC loading and citric acid gelation. However, in peptic fluid, NLC loading and citric acid crosslinking brought about much higher decrease in digestibility than swellability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A study of synthetic approaches to 2-acyl DHA lysophosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Itoh, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Keiko

    2017-10-04

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a chemical mediator with a very simple glycerophospholipid structure. 1-Acyl LPA and 2-acyl LPA are biosynthesized in vivo. Unlike 1-acyl LPA, the biological function of 2-acyl LPA has been hardly elucidated and even organic synthesis of 2-acyl LPA had not been established. We suppressed acyl migration by formation of a salt with a phosphate group in order to synthesize 2-acyl LPA condensed with docosahexaenoic acid.

  5. Non-viral bone morphogenetic protein 2 transfection of rat dental pulp stem cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles as carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Dolder, J. van den; Yang, F.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles have shown potential as non-viral vectors for gene delivery. The aim of this study was to induce bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)2 transfection in rat dental pulp stem cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles as a gene vector and then to evaluate the efficiency and

  6. Disposable Amperometric Immunosensor for the Determination of Human P53 Protein in Cell Lysates Using Magnetic Micro-Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pedrero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric magnetoimmunosensor for the determination of human p53 protein is described in this work using a sandwich configuration involving the covalent immobilization of a specific capture antibody onto activated carboxylic-modified magnetic beads (HOOC-MBs and incubation of the modified MBs with a mixture of the target protein and horseradish peroxidase-labeled antibody (HRP-anti-p53. The resulting modified MBs are captured by a magnet placed under the surface of a disposable carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE and the amperometric responses are measured at −0.20 V (vs. an Ag pseudo-reference electrode, upon addition of hydroquinone (HQ as a redox mediator and H2O2 as the enzyme substrate. The magnetoimmunosensing platform was successfully applied for the detection of p53 protein in different cell lysates without any matrix effect after a simple sample dilution. The results correlated accurately with those provided by a commercial ELISA kit, thus confirming the immunosensor as an attractive alternative for rapid and simple determination of this protein using portable and affordable instrumentation.

  7. Changes in blood levels of proteinase inhibitors, pregnancy zone protein, steroid carriers and complement factors induced by oral contraceptives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Poulsen, H K; Teisner, B

    1993-01-01

    levels of antithrombin III (AT III), alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1at), complement factors (factor B, C3, C4), pregnancy zone protein (PZP), corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin were measured before treatment and during...

  8. Two novel variants of human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). K364R, a folding mutation, and R256T, a catalytic-site mutation resulting in a well-folded but totally inactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Reilly, Linda P; Andresen, Brage S; Engel, Paul C

    2005-01-01

    the gene for K364R was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, the synthesized mutant protein only exhibited activity when the gene for chaperonin GroELS was co-overexpressed. Levels of activity correlated with the amounts of native MCAD protein visible in western blots. The R256T mutant, by contrast, displayed...... no activity either with or without chaperonin, but in this case a strong MCAD protein band was seen in the western blots throughout. The proteins were also purified, and the enzyme function and thermostability investigated. The K364R protein showed only moderate kinetic impairment, whereas the R256T protein...... was again totally inactive. Neither mutant showed marked depletion of FAD. The pure K364R protein was considerably less thermostable than wild-type MCAD. Western blots indicated that, although the R256T mutant protein is less thermostable than normal MCAD, it is much more stable than K364R. Though...

  9. Alpha C Protein as a Carrier for Type III Capsular Polysaccharide and as a Protective Protein in Group B Streptococcal Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravekamp, Claudia; Kasper, Dennis L.; Paoletti, Lawrence C.; Madoff, Lawrence C.

    1999-01-01

    The alpha C protein, a protective surface protein of group B streptococci (GBS), is present in most non-type III GBS strains. Conjugate vaccines composed of the alpha C protein and type III capsular polysaccharide (CPS) might be protective against most GBS infections. In this study, the type III CPS was covalently coupled to full-length, nine-repeat alpha C protein (resulting in III-α9r conjugate vaccine) or to two-repeat alpha C protein (resulting in III-α2r conjugate vaccine) by reductive amination. Initial experiments with the III-α9r vaccine showed that it was poorly immunogenic in mice with respect to both vaccine antigens and was suboptimally efficacious in providing protection in mice against challenge with GBS. Therefore, modified vaccination protocols were used with the III-α2r vaccine. Female mice were immunized three times with 0.5, 5, or 20 μg of the III-α2r vaccine with an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and bred. Ninety-five percent of neonatal mice born to dams immunized with the III-α2r vaccine survived challenge with GBS expressing type III CPS, and 60% survived challenge with GBS expressing wild-type (nine-repeat) alpha C protein; 18 and 17%, respectively, of mice in the negative control groups survived (P, <0.0001). These protection levels did not differ significantly from those obtained with the type III CPS-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine and the unconjugated two-repeat alpha C protein, which protected 98 and 58% of neonates from infection with GBS expressing type III CPS or the alpha C protein, respectively. Thus, the two-repeat alpha C protein in the vaccine was immunogenic and simultaneously enhanced the immunogenicity of type III CPS. III-α vaccines may be alternatives to GBS polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid vaccines, eliciting additional antibodies protective against GBS infection. PMID:10225912

  10. X-ray crystal structure of teicoplanin A₂-2 bound to a catalytic peptide sequence via the carrier protein strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sunkyu; Le, Binh V; Hajare, Holly S; Baxter, Richard H G; Miller, Scott J

    2014-09-19

    We report the X-ray crystal structure of a site-selective peptide catalyst moiety and teicoplanin A2-2 complex. The expressed protein ligation technique was used to couple T4 lysozyme (T4L) and a synthetic peptide catalyst responsible for the selective phosphorylation of the N-acetylglucosamine sugar in a teicoplanin A2-2 derivative. The T4L-Pmh-dPro-Aib-dAla-dAla construct was crystallized in the presence of teicoplanin A2-2. The resulting 2.3 Å resolution protein-peptide-teicoplanin complex crystal structure revealed that the nucleophilic nitrogen of N-methylimidazole in the Pmh residue is in closer proximity (7.6 Å) to the N-acetylglucosamine than the two other sugar rings present in teicoplanin (9.3 and 20.3 Å, respectively). This molecular arrangement is consistent with the observed selectivity afforded by the peptide-based catalyst when it is applied to a site-selective phosphorylation reaction involving a teicoplanin A2-2 derivative.

  11. Characterization of SLCO5A1/OATP5A1, a solute carrier transport protein with non-classical function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sebastian

    Full Text Available Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP/SLCO have been identified to mediate the uptake of a broad range of mainly amphipathic molecules. Human OATP5A1 was found to be expressed in the epithelium of many cancerous and non-cancerous tissues throughout the body but protein characterization and functional analysis have not yet been performed. This study focused on the biochemical characterization of OATP5A1 using Xenopus laevis oocytes and Flp-In T-REx-HeLa cells providing evidence regarding a possible OATP5A1 function. SLCO5A1 is highly expressed in mature dendritic cells compared to immature dendritic cells (∼6.5-fold and SLCO5A1 expression correlates with the differentiation status of primary blood cells. A core- and complex- N-glycosylated polypeptide monomer of ∼105 kDa and ∼130 kDa could be localized in intracellular membranes and on the plasma membrane, respectively. Inducible expression of SLCO5A1 in HeLa cells led to an inhibitory effect of ∼20% after 96 h on cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling with these cells identified immunologically relevant genes (e.g. CCL20 and genes implicated in developmental processes (e.g. TGM2. A single nucleotide polymorphism leading to the exchange of amino acid 33 (L→F revealed no differences regarding protein expression and function. In conclusion, we provide evidence that OATP5A1 might be a non-classical OATP family member which is involved in biological processes that require the reorganization of the cell shape, such as differentiation and migration.

  12. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaohui; Wu, Qian; Dalal, Jyoti; Vasani, Naresh; Lopez, Harry O; Sederoff, Heike W; Qu, Rongda

    2017-01-01

    With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt.) was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0) and myristate (C14:0) were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0), from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production.

  13. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Hu

    Full Text Available With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt. was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0 and myristate (C14:0 were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0, from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production.

  14. Mechanism for adaptive modification during cold acclimation of phospholipid acyl chain composition in Tetrahymena. II. Activities of 2-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphorylcholine and 2-acyl-sn-glycerol-3- phosphorylethanolamine acyltransferases involving the reacylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, S; Kameyama, Y; Nozawa, Y

    1984-03-27

    The deacylation-reacylation process is very important for the alteration of phospholipid fatty acyl composition on lowering of growth temperature in Tetrahymena pyriformis (Kameyama, Y., Yoshioka, S. and Nozawa, Y., (1984) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 793, 28-33). Microsomes isolated from Tetrahymena cells have reacylation activities not only for 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphorylcholine (1-acyl-GPC) and 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphorylethanolamine (1-acyl-GPE) but also for 2-acyl-GPC and 2-acyl-GPE. Unsaturated fatty acyl-CoAs were in general much better substrates than saturated fatty acyl-CoAs for acylations of 1-acyl-GPC and 1-acyl-GPE. The acylation rates for 1-acyl-GPE were almost the same in palmitoleoyl-CoA, oleoyl-CoA, linoleoyl-CoA and gamma-linoleoyl-CoA. However, the acylation activity for 1-acyl-GPC was more than 2-fold higher with palmitoleoyl-CoA than with any other unsaturated fatty acyl-CoAs. In contrast, both 2-acyl-GPC and 2-acyl-GPE acyltransferases did not show a distinct preference for various acyl-CoAs, although palmitoyl-CoA was incorporated into both 2-acylphospholipids at higher rates than into 1-acylphospholipids. These specificities for various acyl-CoAs of 1-acyl- and 2-acyl-GPC and 1-acyl- and 2-acyl-GPE acyltransferases were not changed in the microsomes isolated from cells grown isothermally at 39 degrees C and 15 degrees C and cells shifted from 39 degrees C to 15 degrees C. However, the acylating ratio of linoleoyl-CoA to palmitoyl-CoA, which were chosen as typical unsaturated and saturated fatty acyl-CoAs, in the microsomes from cells grown at 15 degrees C was 1.5-3.0-times higher than in the microsomes from 39 degrees C-grown cells in four acyltransferase activities. These results suggest that the changes of acyl-CoA specificities in reacylation enzyme activities during temperature down-shift would make little contribution to the increase in unsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids, although reacylating enzymes from isothermally grown

  15. Eukaryotic LYR Proteins Interact with Mitochondrial Protein Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Angerer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria host ancient essential bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways. LYR (leucine/tyrosine/arginine motif proteins (LYRMs of the Complex1_LYR-like superfamily interact with protein complexes of bacterial origin. Many LYR proteins function as extra subunits (LYRM3 and LYRM6 or novel assembly factors (LYRM7, LYRM8, ACN9 and FMC1 of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS core complexes. Structural insights into complex I accessory subunits LYRM6 and LYRM3 have been provided by analyses of EM and X-ray structures of complex I from bovine and the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, respectively. Combined structural and biochemical studies revealed that LYRM6 resides at the matrix arm close to the ubiquinone reduction site. For LYRM3, a position at the distal proton-pumping membrane arm facing the matrix space is suggested. Both LYRMs are supposed to anchor an acyl-carrier protein (ACPM independently to complex I. The function of this duplicated protein interaction of ACPM with respiratory complex I is still unknown. Analysis of protein-protein interaction screens, genetic analyses and predicted multi-domain LYRMs offer further clues on an interaction network and adaptor-like function of LYR proteins in mitochondria.

  16. Perturbed rhythmic activation of signaling pathways in mice deficient for Sterol Carrier Protein 2-dependent diurnal lipid transport and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffe, Céline; Gobet, Cédric; Martin, Eva; Métairon, Sylviane; Morin-Rivron, Delphine; Masoodi, Mojgan; Gachon, Frédéric

    2016-04-21

    Through evolution, most of the living species have acquired a time keeping system to anticipate daily changes caused by the rotation of the Earth. In all of the systems this pacemaker is based on a molecular transcriptional/translational negative feedback loop able to generate rhythmic gene expression with a period close to 24 hours. Recent evidences suggest that post-transcriptional regulations activated mostly by systemic cues play a fundamental role in the process, fine tuning the time keeping system and linking it to animal physiology. Among these signals, we consider the role of lipid transport and metabolism regulated by SCP2. Mice harboring a deletion of the Scp2 locus present a modulated diurnal accumulation of lipids in the liver and a perturbed activation of several signaling pathways including PPARα, SREBP, LRH-1, TORC1 and its upstream regulators. This defect in signaling pathways activation feedbacks upon the clock by lengthening the circadian period of animals through post-translational regulation of core clock regulators, showing that rhythmic lipid transport is a major player in the establishment of rhythmic mRNA and protein expression landscape.

  17. Spectroscopic studies of the interaction between alprazolam and apo-human serum transferrin as a drug carrier protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian Amroabadi, Marzieh; Taheri-Kafrani, Asghar; Heidarpoor Saremi, Leily; Rastegari, Ali Asghar

    2018-03-01

    The interaction between apo-human serum transferrin (Apo-hTf) and alprazolam was investigated using various spectroscopic techniques. The drug quenched the fluorescence intensity of Apo-hTf and the mechanism behind the quenching was static. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS) that obtained from tryptophan fluorescence study revealed that the interactions between alprazolam and Apo-hTf were spontaneous. Collectively, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding most likely played major roles in Apo-hTf/alprazolam interactions. Also, the absorption spectra of Apo-hTf increased in the presence of increasing concentration of alprazolam, reflecting Apo-hTf structural alteration after drug's binding. The CD results demonstrated that the Apo-hTf/alprazolam interaction does not affect the protein secondary and tertiary structure significantly until the molar ratios (alprazolam/Apo-hTf) of 10, but the conformational changes become visible at higher molar ratios. The DSC results suggested that alprazolam stabilized the Apo-hTf at alprazolam/Apo-hTf molar ratio of 20. Based on the achieved results, this potentially therapeutic agent can significantly bind to Apo-hTf which also further confirmed by molecular docking study. This study on the interaction of the drug with Apo-hTf should be helpful for understanding the transportation and distribution of drugs in vivo, as well as the action mechanism and dynamics of a drug at the molecular level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z Zhang; R Zhou; J Sauder; P Tonge; S Burley; S Swaminathan

    2011-12-31

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  19. And then there were acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyl transferase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Marijn C.; Franssen, Remco; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The reputation of acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors has changed profoundly from promising new drugs for cardiovascular prevention to drugs without clinical benefits or possibly even with adverse effects. RECENT FINDINGS: ACAT inhibitors decrease the

  20. Cloning the sterol carrier protein 2 genes of Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) and Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) and its tissue expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yu-Cheng; Zhuge, Hui; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Shu-Fang; Yang, Xian-Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this study, to clarify the bioactive polypeptides included in the skins and secretions of Bufo, we screened the Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) skin cDNA liary by colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and obtained a transcript of 1 075 bp consisting of 1 37 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), 515 bp 3' UTR and a 423 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 140 amino acid residues (GenBank accession number: KF359945). Homolog analysis showed a 70%-96% homology with sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) present in other animals, which is implicated in lipid metabolism of other organisms. The gene SCP-2 of Chinese toad (B. gargarizans) was cloned from a first strand cDNA of Bufo skin (GenBank accession number: KF381341) via PCR, whose encoding polypeptide has only one amino acid difference from that of Japanese toad. Tissue distribution analysis showed that SCP-2 expressed in all organs tested, though in the liver and spleen it manifested lower expression than in other organs. These findings might indicate SCP-2 being one of the active ingredients in toad skin. These findings may in turn have implications for further drug development from traditional Chinese medicine sources.

  1. Core-Shell Soy Protein-Soy Polysaccharide Complex (Nano)particles as Carriers for Improved Stability and Sustained Release of Curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei-Ping; Ou, Shi-Yi; Tang, Chuan-He

    2016-06-22

    Using soy protein isolate (SPI) and soy-soluble polysaccharides (SSPS) as polymer matrixes, this study reported a novel process to fabricate unique core-shell complex (nano)particles to perform as carriers for curcumin (a typical poorly soluble bioactive). In the process, curcumin-SPI nanocomplexes were first formed at pH 7.0 and then coated by SSPS. At this pH, the core-shell complex was formed in a way the SPI nanoparticles might be incorporated into the interior of SSPS molecules without distinctly affecting the size and morphology of particles. The core-shell structure was distinctly changed by adjusting pH from 7.0 to 4.0. At pH 4.0, SSPS was strongly bound to the surface of highly aggregated SPI nanoparticles, and as a consequence, much larger complexes were formed. The bioaccessibility of curcumin in the SPI-curcumin complexes was unaffected by the SSPS coating. However, the core-shell complex formation greatly improved the thermal stability and controlled release properties of encapsulated curcumin. The improvement was much better at pH 4.0 than that at pH 7.0. All of the freeze-dried core-shell complex preparations exhibited good redispersion behavior. The findings provide a simple approach to fabricate food-grade delivery systems for improved water dispersion, heat stability, and even controlled release of poorly soluble bioactives.

  2. Veronica: Acylated flavone glycosides as chemosystematic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albach, Dirk C.; Grayer, Renée J.; Kite, Geoffrey C.

    2005-01-01

    HPLC/DAD and LCeMS of an extract of Veronica spicata subgenus Pseudolysimachium, Plantaginaceae) revealed the presence of six 6-hydroxyluteolin glycosides acylated with phenolic acids, three of which are new compounds and which we called spicosides. A flavonoid survey of seven more species...... instead. Spicosides appeared to be common in subgenus Pseudolysimachium (detected in five out of eight species), but we did not find them in subgenus Pentasepalae. Previously, acetylated 8-hydroxyflavone glycosides have been isolated from or detected in eight species of V. subgenus Pentasepalae (in 13...

  3. THAP and ATF-2 regulated sterol carrier protein-2 promoter activities in the larval midgut of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Peng

    Full Text Available Expression of sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2 in Aedes aegypti shows a distinct temporal/spatial pattern throughout the life cycle. In order to identify the transcription factors responsible for the larval temporal/spatial regulation of AeSCP-2 transcription, AeSCP-2 promoter activities were studied in vivo via transient transfection of promoter/reporter gene assays. Regulatory sequences upstream -1.3 kb of the transcription start site of AeSCP-2 were found to be critical for the in vivo temporal/spatial promoter activity. Interestingly, the -1.6 kb promoter sequence efficiently drove the larval midgut-specific siRNA expression, indicating that the -1.6 kb upstream sequence is sufficient for temporal/spatial AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity. Four transcription factors were identified in the midgut nuclear extract from feeding larvae via labeled -1.6/-1.3 kb DNA probe pull-down and proteomic analysis. Co-transfection of the promoter/reporter gene with inducible siRNA expression of each transcription factor was performed to confirm the regulatory function of individual transcription factor on AeSCP-2 transcriptional activities in the larval midgut. The results indicate that two of the identified transcription factors, Thanatos-associated protein (THAP and activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2, antagonistically control AeSCP-2 transcriptional activity in the midgut of feeding larvae via the regulatory sequences between -1.6 to -1.3 kb 5' upstream of the transcription start site. In vivo expression knockdown of THAP and ATF-2 resulted in significant changes in developmental progression, which may be partially due to their effects on AeSCP-2 expression.

  4. Fatty acylated caveolin-2 is a substrate of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin receptor substrate-1-directed signaling activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hayeong; Lee, Jaewoong; Jeong, Kyuho; Jang, Donghwan; Pak, Yunbae

    2015-05-01

    Here, we demonstrate that insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase catalyzes Tyr-19 and Tyr-27 phosphorylation of caveolin-2 (cav-2), leading to stimulation of signaling proteins downstream of IR, and that the catalysis is dependent on fatty acylation status of cav-2, promoting its interaction with IR. Cav-2 is myristoylated at Gly-2 and palmitoylated at Cys-109, Cys-122, and Cys-145. The fatty acylation deficient mutants are unable to localize in the plasma membrane and not phosphorylated by IR tyrosine kinase. IR interacts with the C-terminal domain of cav-2 containing the cysteines for palmitoylation. IR mutants, Y999F and K1057A, but not W1220S, fail interaction with cav-2. Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is recruited to interact with the IR-catalyzed phospho-tyrosine cav-2, which facilitates IRS-1 association with and activation by IR to initiate IRS-1-mediated downstream signaling. Cav-2 fatty acylation and tyrosine phosphorylation are necessary for the IRS-1-dependent PI3K-Akt and ERK activations responsible for glucose uptake and cell survival and proliferation. In conclusion, fatty acylated cav-2 is a new substrate of IR tyrosine kinase, and the fatty acylation and phosphorylation of cav-2 present novel mechanisms by which insulin signaling is activated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Crystal structures of the mitochondrial deacylase Sirtuin 4 reveal isoform-specific acyl recognition and regulation features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, Martin; Simic, Zeljko; Fuszard, Matthew; Meleshin, Marat; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Schutkowski, Mike; Steegborn, Clemens

    2017-11-15

    Sirtuins are evolutionary conserved NAD+-dependent protein lysine deacylases. The seven human isoforms, Sirt1-7, regulate metabolism and stress responses and are considered therapeutic targets for aging-related diseases. Sirt4 locates to mitochondria and regulates fatty acid metabolism and apoptosis. In contrast to the mitochondrial deacetylase Sirt3 and desuccinylase Sirt5, no prominent deacylase activity and structural information are available for Sirt4. Here we describe acyl substrates and crystal structures for Sirt4. The enzyme shows isoform-specific acyl selectivity, with significant activity against hydroxymethylglutarylation. Crystal structures of Sirt4 from Xenopus tropicalis reveal a particular acyl binding site with an additional access channel, rationalizing its activities. The structures further identify a conserved, isoform-specific Sirt4 loop that folds into the active site to potentially regulate catalysis. Using these results, we further establish efficient Sirt4 activity assays, an unusual Sirt4 regulation by NADH, and Sirt4 effects of pharmacological modulators.

  6. Expanded carrier screening in gamete donors of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Maria Teresa; Benjamin, Isaac; Medina, Randolfo; Jiménez, José; Trías, Laura; Lerner, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    To discuss the implications of expanded genetic carrier screening for preconception purposes based on our practice. One hundred and forty-three potential gamete donors aged 20-32 years old (µ=24, 127 females and 16 males), signed informed consent forms and were selected according to the REDLARA guidelines. Blood or saliva samples were examined by one of these genetic carrier screening methods: Genzyme screening for Cystic Fibrosis (CF), Fragile X and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA); Counsyl Universal panel or Recombine Carrier Map. Genotyping results for all donors were analyzed; 41% (58/143) of donors were identified as carriers for at least one condition. We found a carrier frequency of 1/24 for CF, 1/72 for SMA and 0/120 for Fragile X syndrome. Among the high-impact most prevalent conditions in our study (Carrier Map group) were: 21-Hydroxilase-Deficient Congenital Nonclassical Adrenal Hyperplasia (1/8), Factor V deficiency (1/12), Hemochromatosis: Type 1: HFE Related (1/12), Short Chain Acyl-CoA (1/14) and MTHFR deficiency 1/3 (39%). The rate of gamete donors identified as carriers of at least one condition was 41%, which supports the offering of expanded carrier screening to our population. Studies in Latin American populations could help customize screening panels. The ART patient population has a unique opportunity to be offered expanded carrier screening and appropriate counseling, to make its best-informed decisions.

  7. Deciphering the acylation pattern of Yersinia enterocolitica lipid A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reinés, Mar; Llobet, Enrique; Dahlström, Käthe M; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Llompart, Catalina M; Torrecabota, Nuria; Salminen, Tiina A; Bengoechea, José A

    2012-01-01

    ...°C, lipid A is hexa-acylated and may be modified with aminoarabinose or palmitate. At 37°C, Y. enterocolitica expresses a tetra-acylated lipid A consistent with the 3'-O-deacylation of the molecule...

  8. Understanding Acyl Chain and Glycerolipid Metabolism in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlrogge, John B.

    2013-11-05

    Progress is reported in these areas: acyl-editing in initial eukaryotic lipid assembly in soybean seeds; identification and characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana lysophosphatidyl acyltransferases with preference for lysophosphatidylethanolamine; and characterization and subcellular distribution of lysolipid acyl transferase activity of pea leaves.

  9. Stomach regulates energy balance via acylated ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin

    OpenAIRE

    Asakawa, A; Inui, A; Fujimiya, M; Sakamaki, R; Shinfuku, N; Ueta, Y; Meguid, M M; Kasuga, M

    2005-01-01

    Background/Aims: The gastric peptide ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth-hormone secretagogue receptor, has two major molecular forms: acylated ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin. Acylated ghrelin induces a positive energy balance, while desacyl ghrelin has been reported to be devoid of any endocrine activities. The authors examined the effects of desacyl ghrelin on energy balance.

  10. The gene encoding the Acyl-CoA-binding protein is activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma through an intronic response element functionally conserved between humans and rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helledie, Torben; Grøntved, Lars; Jensen, Søren S

    2002-01-01

    metabolic and regulatory purposes. The protein is particularly abundant in cells with a high level of lipogenesis and de novo fatty acid synthesis and is significantly induced during adipocyte differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of ACBP expression in mammalian cells...

  11. Structure and Function of the RedJ Protein, a Thioesterase from the Prodiginine Biosynthetic Pathway in Streptomyces coelicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicher, Jonathan R.; Florova, Galina; Sydor, Paulina K.; Singh, Renu; Alhamadsheh, Mamoun; Challis, Gregory L.; Reynolds, Kevin A.; Smith, Janet L. (Michigan); (Warwick); (Portland SU)

    2011-08-17

    Prodiginines are a class of red-pigmented natural products with immunosuppressant, anticancer, and antimalarial activities. Recent studies on prodiginine biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor have elucidated the function of many enzymes within the pathway. However, the function of RedJ, which was predicted to be an editing thioesterase based on sequence similarity, is unknown. We report here the genetic, biochemical, and structural characterization of the redJ gene product. Deletion of redJ in S. coelicolor leads to a 75% decrease in prodiginine production, demonstrating its importance for prodiginine biosynthesis. RedJ exhibits thioesterase activity with selectivity for substrates having long acyl chains and lacking a {beta}-carboxyl substituent. The thioesterase has 1000-fold greater catalytic efficiency with substrates linked to an acyl carrier protein (ACP) than with the corresponding CoA thioester substrates. Also, RedJ strongly discriminates against the streptomycete ACP of fatty acid biosynthesis in preference to RedQ, an ACP of the prodiginine pathway. The 2.12 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of RedJ provides insights into the molecular basis for the observed substrate selectivity. A hydrophobic pocket in the active site chamber is positioned to bind long acyl chains, as suggested by a long-chain ligand from the crystallization solution bound in this pocket. The accessibility of the active site is controlled by the position of a highly flexible entrance flap. These data combined with previous studies of prodiginine biosynthesis in S. coelicolor support a novel role for RedJ in facilitating transfer of a dodecanoyl chain from one acyl carrier protein to another en route to the key biosynthetic intermediate 2-undecylpyrrole.

  12. Des-acyl ghrelin inhibits the capacity of macrophages to stimulate the expression of aromatase in breast adipose stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, CheukMan C; Docanto, Maria M; Zahid, Heba; Raffaelli, Francesca-Maria; Ferrero, Richard L; Furness, John B; Brown, Kristy A

    2017-06-01

    Des-acyl ghrelin is the unacylated form of the well-characterized appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin. It affects a number of physiological processes, including increasing adipose lipid accumulation and inhibiting adipose tissue inflammation. Breast adipose tissue inflammation in obesity is associated with an increase in the expression of the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, and is hypothesized to create a hormonal milieu conducive to tumor growth. We previously reported that des-acyl ghrelin inhibits the expression and activity of aromatase in isolated human adipose stromal cells (ASCs), the main site of aromatase expression in the adipose tissue. The current study aimed to examine the effect of des-acyl ghrelin on the capacity of mouse macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) and human adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) to stimulate aromatase expression in primary human breast ASCs. RAW264.7 cells were treated with 0, 10 and 100pM des-acyl ghrelin following activation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and cells and conditioned media were collected after 6 and 24h. The effect of des-acyl ghrelin on macrophage polarization was examined by assessing mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory M1-specific marker Cd11c and anti-inflammatory M2-specific marker Cd206, as well as expression of Tnf and Ptgs2, known mediators of the macrophage-dependent stimulation of aromatase. TNF protein in conditioned media was assessed by ELISA. The effect of RAW264.7 and ATM-conditioned media on aromatase expression in ASCs was assessed after 6h. Results demonstrate des-acyl ghrelin significantly increases the expression of Cd206 and suppresses the expression of Cd11c, Tnf and Ptgs2 in activated RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of RAW264.7 and ATMs with des-acyl ghrelin also significantly reduces the capacity of these cells to stimulate aromatase transcript expression in human breast ASCs. Overall, these findings suggest that in addition to direct effects on aromatase in ASCs, des-acyl ghrelin also

  13. Erbium trifluoromethanesulfonate-catalyzed Friedel–Crafts acylation using aromatic carboxylic acids as acylating agents under monomode-microwave irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Hoang; Hansen, Poul Erik; Nguyen, Hai Truong

    2015-01-01

    Erbium trifluoromethanesulfonate is found to be a good catalyst for the Friedel–Crafts acylation of arenes containing electron-donating substituents using aromatic carboxylic acids as the acylating agents under microwave irradiation. An effective, rapid and waste-free method allows the preparation...... of a wide range of aryl ketones in good yields and in short reaction times with minimum amounts of waste...

  14. Enzymatic preparation of arbutin derivatives: lipase-catalyzed direct acylation without the need of vinyl ester as an acyl donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kohji; Katsube, Yasuko; Kumazawa, Nozomi; Kuratani, Mari; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi

    2010-06-01

    Direct and regioselective acylation of arbutin with aromatic or aliphatic acid using a lipase obtained from Candida antarctica in an organic solvent was investigated. We achieved the enzymatic synthesis of feruloyl arbutin and lipoyl arbutin without the need of vinyl ferulate and vinyl lipoate as acyl donors, respectively. (c) 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Friedel-Craft Acylation of ar-Himachalene: Synthesis of Acyl-ar-Himachalene and a New Acyl-Hydroperoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Karim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Friedel-Craft acylation at 100 °C of 2,5,9,9-tetramethyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocycloheptene [ar-himachalene (1], a sesquiterpenic hydrocarbon obtained by catalytic dehydrogenation of α-, β- and γ-himachalenes, produces a mixture of two compounds: (3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocyclohepten-2-yl-ethanone (2, in 69% yield, with a conserved reactant backbone, and 3, with a different skeleton, in 21% yield. The crystal structure of 3 reveals it to be 1-(8-ethyl-8-hydroperoxy-3,5,5-trimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl-ethanone. In this compound O-H…O bonds form dimers. These hydrogen-bonds, in conjunction with weaker C-H…O interactions, form a more extended supramolecular arrangement in the crystal.

  16. A rare disease-associated mutation in the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene changes a conserved arginine, previously shown to be functionally essential in short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Bross, P; Jensen, T G

    1993-01-01

    157 mutation was verified in genomic DNA from the patient and her mother by a PCR-based assay. The mutation changes conserved arginine at position 28 (R28C) of the mature MCAD protein. The effect of the T157 mutation on MCAD protein was investigated by expression of mutant MCAD cDNA in COS-7 cells....... On the basis of knowledge about the three-dimensional structure of the MCAD protein, we suggest that the mutation destroys a salt bridge between arginine28 and glutamate86, thereby affecting the formation of enzymatically active protein. Twenty-two additional families with compound heterozygous patients were......-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) gene of a patient with SCAD deficiency, suggesting that the conserved arginine is crucial for formation of active enzyme in the straight-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases....

  17. A facile Friedel-Crafts acylation for the synthesis of polyethylenimine-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes as efficient gene delivery vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Azadeh Hashem; Amini, Abbas; Taghavi, Sahar; Eshghi, Hossein; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2016-04-11

    Low chemical reactivity of carbon nanotubes is one of the major obstacles in their functionalization via chemical reactions. As a non-destructive method, Friedel-Crafts acylation was suggested among the explored reactions for which only a few methods have been reported under harsh reaction conditions, e.g., high temperature all leading to low yields. In this study, we propose a novel method for the acylation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at a low temperature (i.e., 42°C), using SiO2-Al2O3 as a catalyst and 6-bromohexanoic acid as the acylating agent to produce high yield functionalized MWCNTs. After acylation, MWCNTs are conjugated with polyethylenimines (PEIs) with three molecular weights (1.8, 10 and 25kDa). Three different MWCNT-PEI conjugates are synthesized and evaluated for their condensation ability, viability, size and zeta potential properties. The transfection efficiency of the functionalized MWCNTs is evaluated using luciferase assay and flow cytometry in a Neuroblastoma cell line. MWCNT-PEI (10 kDa) conjugate shows the highest transfection efficacy compared to others. For this carrier transfection efficacy exceeds the amount of PEI 25 kDa at similar carrier to plasmid weight ratio (C/P) and is around 3 times higher compared to PEI 25 kDa at C/P=0.8 as positive control regarding its high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantification of large and middle proteins of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) as a novel tool for the identification of inactive HBV carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, Maria; Böhm, Stephan; Schott, Tina; Deichsel, Danilo; Bremer, Corinna M; Schröder, Kathrin; Gerlich, Wolfram H; Glebe, Dieter; Berg, Thomas; van Bömmel, Florian

    2017-09-26

    Among individuals with chronic hepatitis B, those with hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis (CHB) can be difficult to distinguish from those with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection, also referred to as inactive HBV carriers (ICs), but both require different medical management. The level of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) has been proposed as a marker to discriminate between chronic infection and hepatitis stages. HBsAg consists of large, middle and small HBs. The aim of this study was to determine whether the composition of HBsAg improved the identification of ICs among HBsAg-positive subjects with different phases of HBV infections. HBV large surface proteins (LHBs) and HBV middle surface proteins (MHBs) were quantified in serum samples from 183 clinically well-characterised untreated patients with acute (n=14) HBV infection, ICs (n=44), CHBs (n=46), chronic HBeAg-positive phase (n=68) and hepatitis delta coinfection (n=11) using an ELISA, with well-defined monoclonal antibodies against the preS1 domain (LHBs) and the preS2-domain (MHBs). A Western blot analysis was used to verify the quantitation of the components of HBsAg. Total HBsAg was quantified using a modified commercially available assay (HBsAg V.6.0, Enzygnost, Siemens, Erlangen). The composition of HBsAg showed specific patterns across different phases of hepatitis B. Individuals in the IC phase had significantly lower proportions of LHBs and MHBs than patients in acute or chronic phases irrespective of their HBV e-antigen status (p<0.0001) or HBsAg level. Both LHBs and MHBs ratios better predicted the IC phase than total HBsAg levels. Quantification of MHBs, particularly LHBs represents a novel tool for the identification of the IC stage. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Acylated pelargonidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides in Matthiola incana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, N; Tatsuzawa, F; Hongo, A; Win, K W; Yokoi, M; Shigihara, A; Honda, T

    1996-04-01

    Ten acylated pelargonidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides were isolated from the red-purple flowers of Matthiola incana, and also pelargonidin 3-glucoside was isolated from the brownish-red flowers of this plant. FAB mass measurements of 10 acylated anthocyanins gave their molecular ions [M]+ at 903-1195 m/z, which were based on acylated pelargonidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides with malonic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and/or ferulic acid. This was confirmed by the analysis of NMR spectra and the experiments of acid and alkaline hydrolysis. By spectral and chemical methods, seven of the 10 pigments were determined to be pelargonidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(acyl-I)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)- 6-O-(acyl-II)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-beta-D- glucopyranoside], in which acyl moieties varied between sinapic, ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids. The occurrence of these pigments was examined in 10 red-purple, 10 salmon-pink, three apricot and three copper colour cultivars of M. incana by HPLC. The acylated pelargonidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides were present as the dominant pigments in the red-purple, salmon-pink and apricot colour cultivars. On the other hand, pelargonidin 3-glucoside was present as a dominant anthocyanin in the copper colour cultivars and also pelargonidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside was confirmed by HPLC as a minor pigment in the copper colour flowers.

  20. Acylated flavonol glycoside from Platanus orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantry, Mudasir A; Akbar, Seema; Dar, Javid A; Irtiza, Syed; Galal, Ahmed; Khuroo, Mohammad A; Ghazanfar, Khalid

    2012-03-01

    The ethylacetate and n-butanol fractions of ethanolic extract of Platanus orientalis leaves led to the isolation of new acylated flavonol glycoside as 3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavonol 3-[O-2-O-(2,4-Dihydroxy)-E-cinnamoyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, along with seven known compounds. All the compounds were characterized by NMR including 2D NMR techniques. The isolates were evaluated for NF-κB, nitric oxide (NO), aromatase and QR2 chemoprevention activities and some of them appeared to be modestly active. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Grafting of chitosan with fatty acyl derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiandotti, Roberto S.; Rodrigues, Paula C.; Akcelrud, Leni, E-mail: leni@leniak.ne [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The internal plasticization of chitosan with covalently linked long aliphatic branches, typically 12C, was accomplished through the condensation of the amino groups of chitosan with acidic derivatives of lauric acid, as lauroyl anhydride or lauroyl chloride, that are more reactive than the fatty acid itself. The chemical pathway led to selective N-acylation. The degree of substitution was quantitatively determined by FTIR and {sup 1}H NMR and varied between 3 and 35%. The FTIR quantitative analysis was based in a calibration method with good accuracy. The modified chitosan products were soluble in neutral water and/or DMF according to the degree of substitution. The modified chitosan films were more flexible than the pristine, non-modified ones. (author)

  2. N-acyl amino acids and N-acyl neurotransmitter conjugates: neuromodulators and probes for new drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Mark; Vaughan, Chris W; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2010-08-01

    The myriad functions of lipids as signalling molecules is one of the most interesting fields in contemporary pharmacology, with a host of compounds recognized as mediators of communication within and between cells. The N-acyl conjugates of amino acids and neurotransmitters (NAANs) have recently come to prominence because of their potential roles in the nervous system, vasculature and the immune system. NAAN are compounds such as glycine, GABA or dopamine conjugated with long chain fatty acids. More than 70 endogenous NAAN have been reported although their physiological role remains uncertain, with various NAAN interacting with a low affinity at G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and ion channels. Regardless of their potential physiological function, NAAN are of great interest to pharmacologists because of their potential as flexible tools to probe new sites on GPCRs, transporters and ion channels. NAANs are amphipathic molecules, with a wide variety of potential fatty acid and headgroup moieties, a combination which provides a rich source of potential ligands engaging novel binding sites and mechanisms for modulation of membrane proteins such as GPCRs, ion channels and transporters. The unique actions of subsets of NAAN on voltage-gated calcium channels and glycine transporters indicate that the wide variety of NAAN may provide a readily exploitable resource for defining new pharmacological targets. Investigation of the physiological roles and pharmacological potential of these simple lipid conjugates is in its infancy, and we believe that there is much to be learnt from their careful study.

  3. Bacterial Carriers for Glioblastoma Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mehta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of aggressive glioblastoma brain tumors is challenging, largely due to diffusion barriers preventing efficient drug dosing to tumors. To overcome these barriers, bacterial carriers that are actively motile and programmed to migrate and localize to tumor zones were designed. These carriers can induce apoptosis via hypoxia-controlled expression of a tumor suppressor protein p53 and a pro-apoptotic drug, Azurin. In a xenograft model of human glioblastoma in rats, bacterial carrier therapy conferred a significant survival benefit with 19% overall long-term survival of >100 days in treated animals relative to a median survival of 26 days in control untreated animals. Histological and proteomic analyses were performed to elucidate the safety and efficacy of these carriers, showing an absence of systemic toxicity and a restored neural environment in treated responders. In the treated non-responders, proteomic analysis revealed competing mechanisms of pro-apoptotic and drug-resistant activity. This bacterial carrier opens a versatile avenue to overcome diffusion barriers in glioblastoma by virtue of its active motility in extracellular space and can lead to tailored therapies via tumor-specific expression of tumoricidal proteins.

  4. An intronic variation in SLC52A1 causes exon skipping and transient riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosegaard, Signe; Bruun, Gitte Hoffmann; Flyvbjerg, Karen Freund; Bliksrud, Yngve Thomas; Gregersen, Niels; Dembic, Maja; Annexstad, Ellen; Tangeraas, Trine; Olsen, Rikke Katrine Jentoft; Andresen, Brage S

    2017-11-02

    Vitamin B2, riboflavin is essential for cellular function, as it participates in a diversity of redox reactions central to human metabolism, through its role as precursor for the cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which are electron carriers. The electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) and its dehydrogenase (ETFDH), uses FAD as cofactor. The ETF and ETFDH are forming the electron transport pathway for many mitochondrial flavoprotein dehydrogenases involved in fatty acid, amino acid and choline metabolism. A variation in either ETF or ETFDH causes multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD), but genetic variations in the riboflavin metabolism or transportation of riboflavin can also cause MADD. The most common variations are located in the riboflavin transporter 2 (RFVT2) and 3 (RFVT3), that are highly expressed in brain and intestinal tissues, respectively. Deficiency of riboflavin transporter 1 (RFVT1), encoded by the SLC52A1 gene, highly expressed in the placenta, has only been reported once. We here report a case of transient MADD, caused by a heterozygous intronic variation, c.1134+11G>A, in the SLC52A1 gene encoding RFVT1. This variation creates a binding site for the splice inhibitory hnRNP A1 protein and causes exon 4 skipping. Riboflavin deficiency and maternal malnutrition during pregnancy might have been the determining factor in the outcome of this case. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD in cells expressing the Ca2+-binding proteins calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin in the adult rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eRivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The N-acylethanolamines (NAEs oleoylethanolamide and palmithylethanolamide are known to be endogenous ligands of PPARα receptors, and their presence requires the activation of a specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD associated with intracellular Ca2+ fluxes. Thus, the identification of a specific population of NAPE-PLD/PPARα-containing neurons that express selective Ca2+-binding proteins (CaBPs may provide a neuroanatomical basis to better understand the PPARα system in the brain. For this purpose, we used double-label immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy for the characterization of the co-existence of NAPE-PLD/PPARα and the CaBPs calbindin D28k, calretinin and parvalbumin in the rat hippocampus. PPARα expression was specifically localized in the cell nucleus and, occasionally, in the cytoplasm of the principal cells (dentate granular and CA pyramidal cells and some non-principal cells of the hippocampus. PPARα was expressed in the calbindin-containing cells of the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG and the SP of CA1. These principal PPARα+/calbindin+ cells were closely surrounded by NAPE-PLD+ fiber varicosities. No pyramidal PPARα+/calbindin+ cells were detected in CA3. Most cells containing parvalbumin expressed both NAPE-PLD and PPARα in the principal layers of the DG and CA1/3. A small number of cells containing PPARα and calretinin was found along the hippocampus. Scattered NAPE-PLD+/calretinin+ cells were specifically detected in CA3. NAPE-PLD+ puncta surrounded the calretinin+ cells localized in the principal cells of the DG and CA1. The identification of the hippocampal subpopulations of NAPE-PLD/PPARα-containing neurons that express selective CaBPs should be considered when analyzing the role of NAEs/PPARα-signaling system in the regulation of hippocampal functions.

  6. Localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) in cells expressing the Ca2+-binding proteins calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin in the adult rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Patricia; Arrabal, Sergio; Vargas, Antonio; Blanco, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Francisco J.; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmithylethanolamide (PEA) are known to be endogenous ligands of PPARα receptors, and their presence requires the activation of a specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) associated with intracellular Ca2+ fluxes. Thus, the identification of a specific population of NAPE-PLD/PPARα-containing neurons that express selective Ca2+-binding proteins (CaBPs) may provide a neuroanatomical basis to better understand the PPARα system in the brain. For this purpose, we used double-label immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy for the characterization of the co-existence of NAPE-PLD/PPARα and the CaBPs calbindin D28k, calretinin and parvalbumin in the rat hippocampus. PPARα expression was specifically localized in the cell nucleus and, occasionally, in the cytoplasm of the principal cells (dentate granular and CA pyramidal cells) and some non-principal cells of the hippocampus. PPARα was expressed in the calbindin-containing cells of the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the SP of CA1. These principal PPARα+/calbindin+ cells were closely surrounded by NAPE-PLD+ fiber varicosities. No pyramidal PPARα+/calbindin+ cells were detected in CA3. Most cells containing parvalbumin expressed both NAPE-PLD and PPARα in the principal layers of the DG and CA1/3. A small number of cells containing PPARα and calretinin was found along the hippocampus. Scattered NAPE-PLD+/calretinin+ cells were specifically detected in CA3. NAPE-PLD+ puncta surrounded the calretinin+ cells localized in the principal cells of the DG and CA1. The identification of the hippocampal subpopulations of NAPE-PLD/PPARα-containing neurons that express selective CaBPs should be considered when analyzing the role of NAEs/PPARα-signaling system in the regulation of hippocampal functions. PMID:24672435

  7. Anomalous carrier life-time relaxation mediated by head group interaction in surface anchored MnSe quantum dots conjugated with albumin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2017-02-01

    We report on the radiative emission decay dynamics of a less known, γ-phase manganese selenide quantum dot system (MnSe QDs) subjected to bio-functionalization. A short-ligand thioglycolic acid (TGA), and a long-chain sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants were used as surface anchors prior bioconjugation with albumin proteins (BSA). Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectra of the QDs have revealed bi-exponential decay trends with the fast (τ{sub 1}) and slow (τ{sub 2}) decay parameters assigned to the core state recombination and surface trapped excitons; respectively. The average lifetime (τ{sub avg}) was found to get shortened from a value of ∼0.87 ns–0.72 ns in unconjugated and BSA conjugated MnSe-TGA QDs; respectively. Conversely, MnSe-SDS QDs with BSA conjugation exhibited nearly four-fold enhancement of τ{sub avg} with respect to its unconjugated counterpart. Moreover, a considerable amount of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) was found to occur from the TGA coated MnSe QDs to BSA and with an ensuing efficiency of ∼61%. The origin of anomalous carrier life-time relaxation features has also been encountered through a simplified model as regards head group interaction experienced by the MnSe QDs with different surfactant types. Exploiting luminescence decay characteristics of a magneto-fluorescent candidate could find immense scope in diverse biological applications including assays, labeling and imaging. - Highlights: • Surface anchored manganese selenide quantum dots (MnSe QDs) have been synthesized via a physico-chemical reduction route. • Time resolved luminescence spectra of the QDs have displayed bi-exponential decay trend. • Thioglycolic acid (TGA) coated QDs exhibited shorter lifetime as compared to sodium dodecyl sulfo-succinate (SDS) coated ones. • Upon BSA conjugation, the average life time is four-fold enhanced in MnSe-SDS QDs. • An efficient FRET process has been revealed in BSA conjugated TGA coated MnSe QDs.

  8. N-(acyl)-N'-(ferrocenylidene) hydrazines and their nickel (II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2), where acyl = acetyl in 1 and benzoyl in 2 and H represents the dissociable amide proton) were synthesized in high yields (74 and 81%) by condensation reactions of equimolar amounts of ferrocene-carboxaldehyde and the corresponding ...

  9. Acylated cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides in Matthiola incana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, N; Tatsuzawa, F; Nishiyama, A; Yokoi, M; Shigihara, A; Honda, T

    1995-03-01

    Four acylated cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides were isolated from purple-violet flowers of Matthiola incana and their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Three acylated anthocyanins were cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-acyl-2-O-(2-O-sinapyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-beta-D- glucopyranosides)-5-O-(6-O-malonyl-beta-D-glucopyranosides), in which the acyl group is p-coumaryl, caffeyl or ferulyl, respectively. The remaining pigment is free from malonic acid and was identified as cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-trans-ferulyl-2-O-(2- O-trans-sinapyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside)-5-O- (beta-D-glucopyranoside). Analysis of the anthocyanin constituents in 16 purple-violet cultivars revealed that they contained the above triacylated anthocyanins in variable amounts as main pigments. An aromatic pair of pigments containing sinapic and ferulic acids are considered to produce an important intramolecular effect, making bluish colours in these flowers.

  10. Oxidative conversion of daminozide of methylating and acylating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Casida, J.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    Oxidation of the plant growth regulator daminozide (Alar; succinic acid, mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide)) with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (MCPBA), sodium hypochlorite, or hydrogen peroxide forms not only a methylating species (probably a diazo hydroxide) that converts carboxylic acids to methyl esters but also the acylating agent succinic anhydride. Additional products are dimethylnitrosamine and methanol on MCPBA or hydrogen peroxide oxidation and 0.6 equiv of nitrogen on treatment of daminozide with 2 eqiv of MCPBA or hypochlorite. Reactive intermediates formed on oxidation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine with 2 equiv of MCPBA also evolve nitrogen and methylate 3-chlorobenzoic acid. Metabolites of ({sup 14}C) daminozide bind to hemoglobin, liver protein, and a liver DNA fraction of treated mice and to human hemoglobin iv vitro via hydrogen peroxide oxidation, in each case with equal labeling form the ({sub 14}C) methyl and ({sub 14}C)succinyl moieties. Reactions of daminozide in these chemical oxidation models may be relevant to those in biological systems.

  11. Rapid Hydrogen Shift Reactions in Acyl Peroxy Radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Hasse Christian; Jørgensen, Solvejg

    2017-01-01

    We have used quantum mechanical chemical calculations (CCSD(T)-F12a/cc-pVDZ-F12//M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ) to investigate the hydrogen shift (H-shift) reactions in acyl peroxy and hydroperoxy acyl peroxy radicals. We have focused on the H-shift reactions from a hydroperoxy group (OOH) (1,X-OOH H...

  12. Manipulating fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae for biofuel through protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatti, Jillian L; Beld, Joris; Behnke, Craig A; Mendez, Michael; Mayfield, Stephen P; Burkart, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for renewable fuels, and algal metabolic engineering can lead to crop improvement, thus accelerating the development of commercially viable biodiesel production from algae biomass. We demonstrate that protein-protein interactions between the fatty acid acyl carrier protein (ACP) and thioesterase (TE) govern fatty acid hydrolysis within the algal chloroplast. Using green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr) as a model, a structural simulation of docking CrACP to CrTE identifies a protein-protein recognition surface between the two domains. A virtual screen reveals plant TEs with similar in silico binding to CrACP. Employing an activity-based crosslinking probe designed to selectively trap transient protein-protein interactions between the TE and ACP, we demonstrate in vitro that CrTE must functionally interact with CrACP to release fatty acids, while TEs of vascular plants show no mechanistic crosslinking to CrACP. This is recapitulated in vivo, where overproduction of the endogenous CrTE increased levels of short-chain fatty acids and engineering plant TEs into the C. reinhardtii chloroplast did not alter the fatty acid profile. These findings highlight the critical role of protein-protein interactions in manipulating fatty acid biosynthesis for algae biofuel engineering as illuminated by activity-based probes.

  13. Manipulating Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Microalgae for Biofuel through Protein-Protein Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatti, Jillian L.; Beld, Joris; Behnke, Craig A.; Mendez, Michael; Mayfield, Stephen P.; Burkart, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for renewable fuels, and algal metabolic engineering can lead to crop improvement, thus accelerating the development of commercially viable biodiesel production from algae biomass. We demonstrate that protein-protein interactions between the fatty acid acyl carrier protein (ACP) and thioesterase (TE) govern fatty acid hydrolysis within the algal chloroplast. Using green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr) as a model, a structural simulation of docking CrACP to CrTE identifies a protein-protein recognition surface between the two domains. A virtual screen reveals plant TEs with similar in silico binding to CrACP. Employing an activity-based crosslinking probe designed to selectively trap transient protein-protein interactions between the TE and ACP, we demonstrate in vitro that CrTE must functionally interact with CrACP to release fatty acids, while TEs of vascular plants show no mechanistic crosslinking to CrACP. This is recapitulated in vivo, where overproduction of the endogenous CrTE increased levels of short-chain fatty acids and engineering plant TEs into the C. reinhardtii chloroplast did not alter the fatty acid profile. These findings highlight the critical role of protein-protein interactions in manipulating fatty acid biosynthesis for algae biofuel engineering as illuminated by activity-based probes. PMID:23028438

  14. Manipulating fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae for biofuel through protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian L Blatti

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a promising feedstock for renewable fuels, and algal metabolic engineering can lead to crop improvement, thus accelerating the development of commercially viable biodiesel production from algae biomass. We demonstrate that protein-protein interactions between the fatty acid acyl carrier protein (ACP and thioesterase (TE govern fatty acid hydrolysis within the algal chloroplast. Using green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr as a model, a structural simulation of docking CrACP to CrTE identifies a protein-protein recognition surface between the two domains. A virtual screen reveals plant TEs with similar in silico binding to CrACP. Employing an activity-based crosslinking probe designed to selectively trap transient protein-protein interactions between the TE and ACP, we demonstrate in vitro that CrTE must functionally interact with CrACP to release fatty acids, while TEs of vascular plants show no mechanistic crosslinking to CrACP. This is recapitulated in vivo, where overproduction of the endogenous CrTE increased levels of short-chain fatty acids and engineering plant TEs into the C. reinhardtii chloroplast did not alter the fatty acid profile. These findings highlight the critical role of protein-protein interactions in manipulating fatty acid biosynthesis for algae biofuel engineering as illuminated by activity-based probes.

  15. Gclust Server: 93058 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequences Related Sequences(241) 390 MOD1 (MOSAIC DEATH 1); enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADH)/...length 390 Representative annotation MOD1 (MOSAIC DEATH 1); enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADH)/

  16. Gclust Server: 93035 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequences Related Sequences(241) 390 MOD1 (MOSAIC DEATH 1); enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADH)/...length 390 Representative annotation MOD1 (MOSAIC DEATH 1); enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADH)/

  17. Main: 1W0I [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Synonym: 3-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase, Mitochondrial Beta-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase; Chai...VIVLEEYEHAKRRGAKIYAELCGYGMSGDAHHITQPPEDGKGAVLAMTRALRQSGLCPNQIDYVNAHATSTPIGDAVEARAI...KTVFSEHATSGTLAFSSTKGATGHLLGAAGAVEAIFSILAIHHGVAPMTLNVKNPDPIFDKRFMPLTTSKKMLVRTAMSNSFGFGGTNASLLFASI arabi_1W0I.jpg ...

  18. Structure, stability, and antiplatelet activity of O-acyl derivatives of salicylic acid and lipophilic esters of acetylsalicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodnik, Ilya B; Lapshina, Elena; Sudnikovich, Elena; Boncler, Magdalena; Luzak, Bogusława; Rózalski, Marcin; Helińska, Magdalena; Watała, Cezary

    2009-01-01

    The anti-thrombotic activity of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has been shown to be due to specific irreversible acetylation of blood platelet cyclooxygenase. The aim of our study was to investigate the associations between the antiplatelet activities of derivatives of both ASA and salicylic acid (SA), as well as the structure, stability, and molecular properties of these compounds. Homologous series of O-acyl derivatives of salicylic acid (propionyl-, butyrylsalicylic acids, PSA, BSA) and lipophilic dodecyl (C12)-, hexadecyl (C16)-, and cholesteryl acetylsalicylates were synthesized and tested for structure-activity relationships. The molecular properties (heat of formation, molecular surface area, dipole moment) of ASA and SA derivatives obtained by theoretical calculations changed with the increasing length of the acyl or alkyl residue. The inhibition of whole blood platelet aggregation and the reduction in thromboxane (TX) generation by O-acyl derivatives were concentration-dependent and decreased along with increasing the length of acyl hain. These effects correlated with the extent of platelet reactivity and P-selectin expression inhibition in collagen-activated platelets. In contrast to ASA and O-acyl derivatives of SA, none of the lipophilic ASA derivatives had a significant inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. In conclusion, all SA and ASA derivatives studied under in vitro conditions showed much lower antiplatelet activities than ASA itself, despite their higher affinity to plasma proteins or membrane components and their equivalent ability to acetylate protein free amino groups.We suggest the significance of the carboxylic group, dipole moment, geometry, and size of these pharmaceuticals in their ability to bind to the active site of cyclooxygenase and their antiplatelet efficacy.

  19. Cell plate-restricted association of Arabidopsis dynamin related proteins and PIN auxin efflux carriers is required for PIN endocytic trafficking during cytokinesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mravec, J.; Petrasek, J.; Li, N.; Boeren, J.A.; Karlova, R.B.; Kitakura, S.; Naramoto, S.; Nodzynski, T.; Dhonukshe, P.B.; Vries, de S.C.; Zazimalova, E.; Friml, J.

    2011-01-01

    The polarized transport of the phytohormone auxin [1], which is crucial for the regulation of different stages of plant development [ [2] and [3] ], depends on the asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers [4 A. Vieten, M. Sauer, P.B. Brewer and J. Friml,

  20. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1B 531K Allele Carriers Sustain a Higher Respiratory Quotient after Aerobic Exercise, but β3-Adrenoceptor 64R Allele Does Not Affect Lipolysis: A Human Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Eduardo; Ríos-Martínez, Martín Efrén; Castro-Rodríguez, Elena Margarita; Del-Toro-Equíhua, Mario; Ramírez-Flores, Mario; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Pérez-Huitimea, Ana Lilia; Baltazar-Rodríguez, Luz Margarita; Velasco-Pineda, Gilberto; Muñiz-Murguía, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IB (CPT1B) and adrenoceptor beta-3 (ADRB3) are critical regulators of fat metabolism. CPT1B transports free acyl groups into mitochondria for oxidation, and ADRB3 triggers lipolysis in adipocytes, and their respective polymorphisms E531K and W64R have been identified as indicators of obesity in population studies. It is therefore important to understand the effects of these mutations on ADRB3 and CPT1B function in adipose and skeletal muscle tissue, respectively. This study aimed to analyze the rate of lipolysis of plasma indicators (glycerol, free fatty acids, and beta hydroxybutyrate) and fat oxidation (through the non-protein respiratory quotient). These parameters were measured in 37 participants during 30 min of aerobic exercise at approximately 62% of maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 30 min of recovery. During recovery, mean respiratory quotient values were higher in K allele carriers than in non-carriers, indicating low post-exercise fatty acid oxidation rates. No significant differences in lipolysis or lipid oxidation were observed between R and W allele carriers of ADRB3 at any time during the aerobic load. The substitution of glutamic acid at position 531 by lysine in the CPT1B protein decreases the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway, which increases the non-protein respiratory quotient value during recovery from exercise. This may contribute to weight gain or reduced weight-loss following exercise. PMID:24905907

  1. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B 531K allele carriers sustain a higher respiratory quotient after aerobic exercise, but β3-adrenoceptor 64R allele does not affect lipolysis: a human model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gómez-Gómez

    Full Text Available Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IB (CPT1B and adrenoceptor beta-3 (ADRB3 are critical regulators of fat metabolism. CPT1B transports free acyl groups into mitochondria for oxidation, and ADRB3 triggers lipolysis in adipocytes, and their respective polymorphisms E531K and W64R have been identified as indicators of obesity in population studies. It is therefore important to understand the effects of these mutations on ADRB3 and CPT1B function in adipose and skeletal muscle tissue, respectively. This study aimed to analyze the rate of lipolysis of plasma indicators (glycerol, free fatty acids, and beta hydroxybutyrate and fat oxidation (through the non-protein respiratory quotient. These parameters were measured in 37 participants during 30 min of aerobic exercise at approximately 62% of maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 30 min of recovery. During recovery, mean respiratory quotient values were higher in K allele carriers than in non-carriers, indicating low post-exercise fatty acid oxidation rates. No significant differences in lipolysis or lipid oxidation were observed between R and W allele carriers of ADRB3 at any time during the aerobic load. The substitution of glutamic acid at position 531 by lysine in the CPT1B protein decreases the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway, which increases the non-protein respiratory quotient value during recovery from exercise. This may contribute to weight gain or reduced weight-loss following exercise.

  2. Influence of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon acyl groups at the surface of bovine carbonic anhydrase II on the kinetics of denaturation by sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Mirica, Katherine A; Whitesides, George M

    2011-02-10

    This paper examines the influence of acylation of the Lys-ε-NH(3)(+) groups of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA, EC 4.2.1.1) to Lys-ε-NHCOR (R = -CH(3), -CH(2)CH(3), and -CH(CH(3))(2), -CF(3)) on the rate of denaturation of this protein in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Analysis of the rates suggested separate effects due to electrostatic charge and hydrophobic interactions. Rates of denaturation (k(Ac,n)) of each series of acylated derivatives depended on the number of acylations (n). Plots of log k(Ac,n) vs n followed U-shaped curves. Within each series of derivatives, rates of denaturation decreased as n increased to ∼7; this decrease was compatible with increasingly unfavorable electrostatic interactions between SDS and protein. In this range of n, rates of denaturation also depended on the choice of the acyl group as n increased to ∼7, in a manner compatible with favorable hydrophobic interactions between SDS and the -NHCOR groups. As n increased in the range 7 denaturation stayed approximately constant; analysis suggested that these rates were compatible with an increasingly important contribution to denaturation that depended both on the net negative charge of the protein and on the hydrophobicity of the R group. The mechanism of denaturation thus seems to change with the extent of acylation of the protein. For derivatives with the same net electrostatic charge, rates of denaturation increased with the acyl group (by a factor of ∼3 for n ∼ 14) in the order CH(3)CONH- < CH(3)CH(2)CONH- < (CH(3))(2)CHCONH- < CF(3)CONH-. These results suggested that the hydrophobicity of CF(3)CONH- is slightly greater (by a factor of <2) than that of RHCONH- with similar surface area.

  3. The Influence of Fluorocarbon and Hydrocarbon Acyl Groups at the Surface of Bovine Carbonic Anhydrase II on the Kinetics of Denaturation by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Mirica, Katherine A.; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of acylation of the Lys-ε-NH3+ groups of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA, E.C. 4.2.1.1) to Lys-ε-NHCOR (R = -CH3, -CH2CH3, and -CH(CH3)2, -CF3) on the rate of denaturation of this protein in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Analysis of the rates suggested separate effects due to electrostatic charge and hydrophobic interactions. Rates of denaturation (kAc,n) of each series of acylated derivatives depended on the number of acylations (n). Plots of log kAc,n vs. n followed U-shaped curves. Within each series of derivatives, rates of denaturation decreased as n increased to ~7; this decrease was compatible with increasingly unfavorable electrostatic interactions between SDS and protein. In this range of n, rates of denaturation also depended on the choice of the acyl group as n increased to ~7, in a manner compatible with favorable hydrophobic interactions between SDS and the -NHCOR groups. As n increased in the range 7 denaturation stayed approximately constant; analysis suggested these rates were compatible with an increasingly important contribution to denaturation that depended both on the net negative charge of the protein and on the hydrophobicity of the R group. The mechanism of denaturation thus seems to change with the extent of acylation of the protein. For derivatives with the same net electrostatic charge, rates of denaturation increased with the acyl group (by a factor of ~3 for n ~ 14) in the order CH3CONH- < CH3CH2CONH- < (CH3)2CHCONH- < CF3CONH-. These results suggested that the hydrophobicity of CF3CONH- is slightly greater (by a factor of < 2) than that of RHCONH- similar in surface area. PMID:21182314

  4. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    /or prodrugs to these carriers in order to increasing oral bioavailability and distribution. A number of absorptive intestinal transporters are described in terms of gene and protein classification, driving forces, substrate specificities and cellular localization. When targeting absorptive large capacity...... membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption......, and renal re-absorption, respectively. In contrast, when targeting low-capacity transporters such as vitamin transporters, dose independent saturable absorption kinetics are suggested. We thus believe that targeting drug substrates for absorptive intestinal membrane transporters could be a feasible strategy...

  5. Acyl-CoA binding protein and epidermal barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Neess, Ditte; Færgeman, Nils J

    2014-01-01

    includes tousled and greasy fur, development of alopecia and scaling of the skin with age. Furthermore, epidermal barrier function is compromised causing a ~50% increase in transepidermal water loss relative to that of wild type mice. Lipidomic analyses indicate that this is due to significantly reduced...

  6. Crystal structure of LysK, an enzyme catalyzing the last step of lysine biosynthesis in Thermus thermophilus, in complex with lysine: Insight into the mechanism for recognition of the amino-group carrier protein, LysW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Satomi; Cho, Su-Hee; Yoshida, Ayako; Hasebe, Fumihito; Tomita, Takeo; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2017-09-16

    LysK is an M20 peptidase family enzyme that hydrolyzes the isopeptide bond between the carrier protein LysW and lysine in order to release lysine, which is the last step of lysine biosynthesis in Thermus thermophilus. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of LysK in complex with lysine at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The α-amino group of the bound lysine was oriented toward the catalytic center, which was composed of the residues coordinating divalent metal ions for the hydrolysis of the isopeptide bond. An 11 Å-long path was observed from the active site binding lysine to the protein surface, which may be responsible for recognizing the C-terminal extension domain of LysW with the conserved EDWGE sequence. A positively-charged surface region was detected around the exit of the path, similar to other lysine biosynthetic enzymes using LysW as the carrier protein. Mutational studies of the surface residues provided a plausible model for the electrostatic interaction with LysW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Method for manufacturing carrier containing e.g. proteins for human during oral drug delivery operation for food and drug administration application in pharmaceutical industry, involves providing active ingredient to core layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    ingredient. USE - Method for manufacturing a multi-layered micro-container i.e. carrier, containing an active ingredient e.g. small organic molecules, proteins, peptides, vitamins, antibodies, antibody fragments, vaccines, RNA, DNA and antibiotics, for a patient e.g. human and animal, during an oral drug...... delivery operation for a food and drug administration (FDA) application in a pharmaceutical industry. ADVANTAGE - The method enables allowing an individual micro-structure stuck in an embossing stamp to be demolded under the conditions such that demolding operation is done by treating elastically...

  8. An Evaluation of Acylated Ghrelin and Obestatin Levels in Childhood Obesity and Their Association with Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Nourbakhsh, Mitra; Pourmoteabed, Abdolreza; Nourbakhsh, Mona; Ilbeigi, Davod; Khosravi, Mohsen

    2016-06-23

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide with an orexigenic property, which is predominantly produced by the stomach. Acylated ghrelin is the active form of this hormone. Obestatin is a 23-amino acid peptide which is produced by post-translational modification of a protein precursor that also produces ghrelin. Obestatin has the opposite effect of ghrelin on food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate acylated ghrelin and obestatin levels and their ratio in obese and normal-weight children and adolescents, and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) parameters. Serum acyl-ghrelin, obestatin, leptin, insulin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profile, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated in 73 children and adolescents (42 obese and 31 control). Insulin resistance was calculated by a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). MetS was determined according to IDF criteria. Acyl-ghrelin levels were significantly lower in obese subjects compared to the control group and lower in obese children with MetS compared to obese subjects without MetS. Obestatin was significantly higher in obese subjects compared to that of the control, but it did not differ significantly among those with or without MetS. Acyl-ghrelin to obestatin ratio was significantly lower in obese subjects compared to that in normal subjects. Acyl-ghrelin showed significant negative and obestatin showed significant positive correlations with body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, leptin, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Acyl-ghrelin had a significant negative correlation with MDA as an index of oxidative stress. Ghrelin is decreased and obestatin is elevated in obesity. Both of these hormones are associated with insulin resistance, and ghrelin is associated with oxidative stress. The balance between ghrelin and obestatin seems to be disturbed in obesity.

  9. Acylated flavonol glycosides from the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Nigel C; Regos, Ionela; Kite, Geoffrey C; Treutter, Dieter

    2011-04-01

    Ten acylated flavonol glycosides were isolated from aqueous acetone extracts of the aerial parts of the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia, and their structures determined using spectroscopic methods. Among these were eight previously unreported examples which comprised either feruloylated or sinapoylated derivatives of 3-O-di- and 3-O-triglycosides of kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) or quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone). The diglycosides were acylated at the primary Glc residue of O-α-Rhap(1→6)-β-Glcp (rutinose), whereas the triglycosides were acylated at the terminal Rha residues of the branched trisaccharides, O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Galp or O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Glcp. Identification of the primary 3-O-linked hexose residues as either Gal or Glc was carried out by negative ion electrospray and serial MS, and cryoprobe NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of UV and MS spectra of the acylated flavonol glycosides provided additional diagnostic features relevant to direct characterisation of these compounds in hyphenated analyses. Quantitative analysis of the acylated flavonol glycosides present in different aerial parts of sainfoin revealed that the highest concentrations were in mature leaflets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High resolution crystal structures of unliganded and liganded human liver ACBP reveal a new mode of binding for the acyl-CoA ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskinen, Jukka P; van Aalten, Daan M; Knudsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is essential for the fatty acid metabolism, membrane structure, membrane fusion, and ceramide synthesis. Here high resolution crystal structures of human cytosolic liver ACBP, unliganded and liganded with a physiological ligand, myristoyl-CoA are described...

  11. Regulation of C. elegans fat uptake and storage by acyl-CoA synthase-3 is dependent on NR5A family nuclear hormone receptor nhr-25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullaney, Brendan C; Blind, Raymond D; Lemieux, George A

    2010-01-01

    Acyl-CoA synthases are important for lipid synthesis and breakdown, generation of signaling molecules, and lipid modification of proteins, highlighting the challenge of understanding metabolic pathways within intact organisms. From a C. elegans mutagenesis screen, we found that loss of ACS-3......, a long-chain acyl-CoA synthase, causes enhanced intestinal lipid uptake, de novo fat synthesis, and accumulation of enlarged, neutral lipid-rich intestinal depots. Here, we show that ACS-3 functions in seam cells, epidermal cells anatomically distinct from sites of fat uptake and storage, and that acs-3...

  12. Ghrelin O-Acyl Transferase: Bridging Ghrelin and Energy Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Shlimun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT is a recently identified enzyme responsible for the unique n-acyl modification of ghrelin, a multifunctional metabolic hormone. GOAT structure and activity appears to be conserved from fish to man. Since the acyl modification is critical for most of the biological actions of ghrelin, especially metabolic functions, GOAT emerged as a very important molecule of interest. The research on GOAT is on the rise, and several important results reiterating its significance have been reported. Notable among these discoveries are the identification of GOAT tissue expression patterns, effects on insulin secretion, blood glucose levels, feeding, body weight, and metabolism. Several attempts have been made to design and test synthetic compounds that can modulate endogenous GOAT, which could turn beneficial in favorably regulating whole body energy homeostasis. This paper will focus to provide an update on recent advances in GOAT research and its broader implications in the regulation of energy balance.

  13. Putative neuroprotective actions of N-acyl-ethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Moesgaard, B.; Petersen, G.

    2002-01-01

    N-Acyl-ethanolamines (NAEs) and their precursors, N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids (NAPEs), are present in the mammalian brain at levels of a few hundred picomoles/gram tissue and a few nanomoles/gram tissue, respectively. NAE-containing arachidonic acid is called anandamide, and it has attracted...... and monounsaturated fatty acids. Formation of NAPE and NAE is catalyzed by an N-acyltransferase and an NAPE-hydrolyzing phospholipase D, respectively, two enzymes that have been characterized only preliminary. Interestingly, NAPEs and NAEs accumulate in the brain in response to neurodegenerative insults at a time...

  14. Quantum chemical study of penicillin: Reactions after acylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Feng, Dacheng; Zhu, Feng

    The density functional theory methods were used on the model molecules of penicillin to determine the possible reactions after their acylation on ?-lactamase, and the results were compared with sulbactam we have studied. The results show that, the acylated-enzyme tetrahedral intermediate can evolves with opening of ?-lactam ring as well as the thiazole ring; the thiazole ring-open products may be formed via ?-lactam ring-open product or from tetrahedral intermediate directly. Those products, in imine or enamine form, can tautomerize via hydrogen migration. In virtue of the water-assisted, their energy barriers are obviously reduced.

  15. Acyl-lupeol esters from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Mário G. de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available From the roots of Parahancornia amapa, family Apocynaceae, the following compounds were isolated and identified nine new and ten known 3beta-O-acyl lupeol esters, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterone, the triterpenoids beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, lupeol and their acetyl derivatives. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic data, mainly ¹H and 13C (HBBD and DEPT NMR spectra. The methyl esters obtained by hydrolysis of acyl lupeol esters and methylation of the corresponding acids were characterized by MS-GC analysis.

  16. Expansion of the Lysine Acylation Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian A.

    2012-01-01

    Leaving marks: The number of known posttranslational modifications for lysine has been expanded considerably. In addition to acetylation of side-chain amino functionalities of lysine residues in proteins, crotonylation, succinylation, and malonylation have now been identified as posttranslational...... modifications in histone and in non-histone proteins....

  17. Long-chain acyl-CoA esters in metabolism and signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Sørensen, Signe Bek; Engelsby, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters are key intermediates in numerous lipid metabolic pathways, and recognized as important cellular signaling molecules. The intracellular flux and regulatory properties of acyl-CoA esters have been proposed to be coordinated by acyl-CoA-binding domain containing...

  18. Fatty acyl chain-dependent but charge-independent association of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-12-30

    Dec 30, 2012 ... phobic core. Both Pmlck and Pmpplck are anchored to the bilayer via their acyl chains. In Pmlck, the peptide chain is associated with the bilayer. In the triply acylated peptide. Pmpplck, the peptide chain is oriented away from the bilay- er. Differential acylation thus governs the orientation of the. Figure 3.

  19. Continuous affinity-gradient nano-stationary phase served as a column for reversed-phase electrochromatography and matrix carrier in time-of-flight mass spectrometry for protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Kuei; Yang, Chung-Shi; Wu, Yi-Shiuan; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2015-08-19

    This study developed an affinity-gradient nano-stationary phase (AG-NSP) for protein analysis using nanofluidic capillary electrochromatography (nano-CEC) conjugated with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The AG-NSP can be used for protein pre-separation in nano-CEC and as a matrix carrier for protein analysis in MALDI-TOF-MS. A hydrophobicity gradient in AG-NSP was photochemically formed by grafting 4-azidoaniline hydrochloride on vertically arrayed multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through gray-level exposure to UV light. The reversed-phase gradient stationary phase in AG-NSP was tailored according to the properties of the mobile phase gradient in capillary electrochromatography. As a result, the operation of the system is easily automated using a single buffer solution without the need for multiple solvents for elution. The use of nano-CEC with AG-NSP demonstrated excellent separation efficiency and high resolution for various types of DNA/protein/peptide. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis was then performed directly on the separated proteins and peptides on the chip. The proposed system was then used for the detection of three types of proteins with different molecular weights and PI values, including Cytochrome c (12,360, pI = 10), Lysozyme (14,300, pI = 11), and BSA (86,000, pI = 5)), and digested IgG fragments. The proposed system provided resolution of 1000 Da for the proteins in this study and the separation of digested IgG fragments at a low concentration of 1.2 pmol μL(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 321441 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein Chamaesiphon minutus PCC 6605 MTIDFKELSELLAAIAANNITELTLKNSDFELT...VSKGQPLISTGGSSTTIADINSTVISVPTPEYQPAAIEQRPTTPTIDSKWIEIKSPMVGTFYRSPAPDEPPFASIGDRIRAGQTVCIIEAMKLMNEIEAESAGQVMQVLVENGQPIEFGQPLMYVNPS ...

  1. Solute carrier family 35 member F2 is indispensable for papillary thyroid carcinoma progression through activation of transforming growth factor-β type I receptor/apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Jin, Yiting; Zhou, Mingxia; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Wanna; Wang, Yiwei; Gu, Siwen; Cao, Yun; Chu, Chengyu; Liu, Xiuping; Zou, Qiang

    2017-12-22

    Solute carrier family members control essential physiological functions and are tightly linked to human diseases. Solute carrier family 35 member F2 (SLC35F2) is aberrantly activated in several malignancies. However, the biological function and molecular mechanism of SLC35F2 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are yet to be fully explored. Here, we showed that SLC35F2 was prominently upregulated in PTC tissues at both protein and mRNA expression level compared with matched adjacent normal tissues. Besides, the high expression of SLC35F2 was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis in patients with PTC. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of SLC35F2 attenuated the tumorigenic properties of PTC, including cell proliferation, migration and invasion and induced G1 phase arrest. In contrast, ectopic expression of SLC35F2 brought about aggressive malignant phenotypes of PTC cells. Moreover, SLC35F2 expedited the proliferation and migration of PTC cells by targeting transforming growth factor-β type I receptor (TGFBR1) and phosphorylation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (p-ASK-1), thereby activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. The malignant behaviors induced by overexpression of SLC35F2 could be abrogated by silencing of TGFBR1 using a specific inhibitor. We conducted the first study on SLC35F2 in thyroid cancer with the aim of elucidating the functional significance and molecular mechanism of SLC35F2. Our findings suggest that SLC35F2 exerts its oncogenic effect on PTC progression through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, with dependence on activation of TGFBR-1 and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  2. Membrane and luminal proteins reach the apicoplast by different trafficking pathways in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Rahul; Dey, Vishakha; Narayan, Aishwarya; Sharma, Shobhona; Patankar, Swati

    2017-01-01

    The secretory pathway in Plasmodium falciparum has evolved to transport proteins to the host cell membrane and to an endosymbiotic organelle, the apicoplast. The latter can occur via the ER or the ER-Golgi route. Here, we study these three routes using proteins Erythrocyte Membrane Protein-1 (PfEMP1), Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) and glutathione peroxidase-like thioredoxin peroxidase (PfTPxGl) and inhibitors of vesicular transport. As expected, the G protein-dependent vesicular fusion inhibitor AlF4(-) and microtubule destabilizing drug vinblastine block the trafficking of PfEMP-1, a protein secreted to the host cell membrane. However, while both PfTPxGl and ACP are targeted to the apicoplast, only ACP trafficking remains unaffected by these treatments. This implies that G protein-dependent vesicles do not play a role in classical apicoplast protein targeting. Unlike the soluble protein ACP, we show that PfTPxGl is localized to the outermost membrane of the apicoplast. Thus, the parasite apicoplast acquires proteins via two different pathways: first, the vesicular trafficking pathway appears to handle not only secretory proteins, but an apicoplast membrane protein, PfTPxGl; second, trafficking of apicoplast luminal proteins appear to be independent of G protein-coupled vesicles.

  3. Antileishmanial Activity of Aldonamides and N-Acyl-Diamine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine S. Coimbra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of lipophilic N-acyl-diamines and aldonamides have been synthesized and tested for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against Leishmania amazonensis and L. chagasi. Ribonamides, having one amino group, displayed good to moderate inhibition of parasite growth. The best result was obtained for compounds 10 and 15 with IC50 against L. chagasi below 5 μM.

  4. Experimental and theoretical rearrangement of N-acyl-2, 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The acid isomerization of N-acyl-2,2-dimethylaziridines 1 in concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature leads to oxazolines 2 but the neutral hydrolysis of 1 in pure water at room temperature leads to amidoalcohols 3. However, the use of aqueous solutions of H2SO4 at different concentrations at room temperature leads ...

  5. A new acylated isoflavone glucoside from Pterocarpus santalinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, K S; Srinivasa Rao, J V

    2000-09-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the constituents of heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus resulted in the isolation of a new acylated isoflavone glucoside. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectral studies as 4',5-dihydroxy-7-O-methyl isoflavone 3'-O-D-(3''-E-cinnamoyl)glucoside.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recurrent seizures (epilepsy), and loss of vision and hearing. Most children with peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency do not survive past early childhood. Related Information What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What is ...

  7. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waddell, Leigh; Wiley, Veronica; Carpenter, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The fatty acid oxidation disorder most commonly identified by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening is the potentially fatal medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD). In clinically presenting cases, 80% are homozygous for the common mutation, c.985A > G and 18% heterozygous. We ...

  8. Tannin Acyl Hydrolase Production by Citrobacter sp. isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    Environ. Manage. December, 2009. Vol. 13(4) 95 - 97. Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Tannin Acyl Hydrolase Production by Citrobacter sp. isolated from Tannin rich. Environment, using Tamarindus indica seed powder. 1WILSON PETER A.; 2ROJAN P. JOHN;1PRAVEEN KUMAR; 1*SABU THOMAS.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of an acyl-ACP thioesterase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl11

    , 280(5):3621-3627. Moreno-Pérez AJ, Sánchez-García A, Salas JJ, Garcés R, Martínez-. Force E (2011). Acyl-ACP thioesterases from macadamia. (Macadamia tetraphylla) nuts: Cloning, characterization and their impact on oil composition.

  10. Exploring Protein Interactions on a Minimal Type II Polyketide Synthase Using a Yeast Two-Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Castaldo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between proteins that form the ’minimal’ type II polyketide synthase in the doxorubicin producing biosynthetic pathway from Streptomyces peucetius were investigated using a yeast two-hybrid system (Y2H. Proteins that function as the so called ’chain length factor’ (DpsB and putative transacylase (DpsD were found to interact with the ketosynthase subunit (DpsA, which can also interact with itself. On the basis of these results we propose a head-to-tail homodimeric structure, which is consistent with previously published in vivo mutagenesis studies. No interactions were found between the acyl-carrier protein (DpsG and any of the other constituents of the complex, however, transient interactions, not detectable using the Y2H system, cannot be discounted and warrant further investigation.

  11. Influence of acylation on the adsorption of GLP-2 to hydrophobic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, Charlotte; Kapp, Sebastian J; Bukrinsky, Jens T

    2013-01-01

    of this work was to study the effect of acylation on the adsorption of GLP-2 from aqueous solution to a hydrophobic surface by comparing the adsorption of the 3766 Da GLP-2 with that of a GLP-2 variant acylated with a 16-carbon fatty acid chain through a ß-alanine linker. Adsorption of GLP-2 and acylated GLP-2......-2. Acylation increased the amount of GLP-2 adsorbing per unit surface area and decreased the initial adsorption rate of GLP-2. Finally, acylation increased the strength of the adsorption, as judged by the lower fraction desorbing upon rinsing with buffer....

  12. Lack of rivaroxaban influence on a prothrombinase-based assay for the detection of activated C protein resistance: an Italian ex vivo and in vitro study in normal subjects and factor V Leiden carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessoni, G; Valverde, S; Valle, L; Gessoni, F; Caruso, P; Valle, R

    2017-08-01

    Activated protein C resistance (APCr) leads to hypercoagulability and is due, often but not exclusively, to Factor V Leiden (FVL). The aim of this study was to assess the ex vivo and in vitro interference of the direct factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban (RIV) on a prothrombinase-based assay for APCr detection. An ex vivo study was performed on fresh plasma samples obtained from 44 subjects with FV wild-type and seven with FVL heterozygous, all treated with RIV. An in vitro study was performed on 15 plasma samples (six from normal subjects, six from heterozygous, and three from homozygous FVL carriers, all frozen specimens) spiked with RIV. RIV concentration was evaluated using a chromogenic assay, and APCr was evaluated by a prothrombinase-based assay. No significant interference of RIV on APCr results obtained by a prothrombinase-based assay was observed for drug concentrations up to 400 ng/mL in FV wild-type and FVL carriers (homozygous and heterozygous). These results were confirmed both ex vivo and in vitro. RIV did not significantly interfere with the prothrombinase-based assay used for the assessment of APCr, and this was observed to occur independently of FV status. However, only concentrations up to 400 ng/mL were tested and, therefore, what occurs in the presence of higher doses remains to be investigated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Fatty acyl-CoA reductases of birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellenbrand Janine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birds clean and lubricate their feathers with waxes that are produced in the uropygial gland, a holocrine gland located on their back above the tail. The type and the composition of the secreted wax esters are dependent on the bird species, for instance the wax ester secretion of goose contains branched-chain fatty acids and unbranched fatty alcohols, whereas that of barn owl contains fatty acids and alcohols both of which are branched. Alcohol-forming fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR catalyze the reduction of activated acyl groups to fatty alcohols that can be esterified with acyl-CoA thioesters forming wax esters. Results cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl-CoA reductases were cloned from the uropygial glands of barn owl (Tyto alba, domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus and domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that they encode membrane associated enzymes which catalyze a NADPH dependent reduction of acyl-CoA thioesters to fatty alcohols. By feeding studies of transgenic yeast cultures and in vitro enzyme assays with membrane fractions of transgenic yeast cells two groups of isozymes with different properties were identified, termed FAR1 and FAR2. The FAR1 group mainly synthesized 1-hexadecanol and accepted substrates in the range between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, whereas the FAR2 group preferred stearoyl-CoA and accepted substrates between 16 and 20 carbon atoms. Expression studies with tissues of domestic chicken indicated that FAR transcripts were not restricted to the uropygial gland. Conclusion The data of our study suggest that the identified and characterized avian FAR isozymes, FAR1 and FAR2, can be involved in wax ester biosynthesis and in other pathways like ether lipid synthesis.

  14. The impact of sugar and fatty acid on the bioactivity of N-fatty acyl-L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SRIKANTH VUDHGIRI

    biological activities to examine the impact of sugar and fatty acid on the bioactivity of N-fatty acyl-L-tyrosine derivatives. 2. Experimental. 2.1 Materials and methods. All the chemicals used in these schemes were of analyti- cal grade and they were obtained from different commercial sources and were used without any further ...

  15. The impact of sugar and fatty acid on the bioactivity of N-fatty acyl-L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The glycosylation of aglycone moiety with different carbohydrates was performed using the Lewis acid, BF3.Et2O. All the synthesized compounds were tested against a panel of four cancer cell lines. The glycosylated N-fatty acyl-L-tyrosines showed moderate activity against all the cell lines and the IC50 values were in the ...

  16. Acylation of salmon calcitonin modulates in vitro intestinal peptide flux through membrane permeability enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Sofie; Linderoth, Lars; Bjerregaard, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Acylation of peptide drugs with fatty acid chains has proven beneficial for prolonging systemic circulation, as well as increasing enzymatic stability and interactions with lipid cell membranes. Thus, acylation offers several potential benefits for oral delivery of therapeutic peptides, and we...... hypothesize that tailoring the acylation may be used to optimize intestinal translocation. This work aims to characterize acylated analogues of the therapeutic peptide salmon calcitonin (sCT), which lowers blood calcium, by systematically increasing acyl chain length at two positions, in order to elucidate...... is due to a solubilization of the cell membrane, similar to transcellular oral permeation enhancers. The effect is dependent on pH, with larger effect at lower pH, and is impacted by acylation chain length and position. Compared to the unacylated peptide backbone, N-terminal acylation with a short chain...

  17. Enzymic synthesis of 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylethanolamine through ethanolaminephosphotransferase activity in the neuronal and glial cells of rabbit in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, R; Binaglia, L; Francescangeli, E; Goracci, G; Porcellati, G

    1975-03-01

    The transfer of radioactivity from cytidine-5'-diphosphate ethanolamine into 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophosphorylethanolamine of neuronal and glial cells from adult rabbit brain cortex has been investigated in vitro. The synthesis of 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophosphorylethanolamine in both cell populations was stimulated 23-25-fold by the addition of 6 mM alkylacylglycerol. The neuronal cell-enriched fraction was found to possess/unit protein a 1.7-1.8-fold ethanolaminephosphotransferase activity (EC 2.7.8.1), as compared to the glial fraction, when saturating concentrations (6 mM) of alkylacylglycerols were added in the incubation system. The neuronal/glial ratio was 2.6-2.8 in the absence of lipid acceptor or with low concentrations of alkylacylglycerol. Under most favorable conditions, 6.4 and 3.3 nmoles 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophosphorylethanolamine/mg protein/30 min was obtained for neurons and glia, respectively. Various kinetic properties of the 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophosphorylethanolamine synthesizing phosphotransferase activity were found to be similar both in neurons and glia.

  18. The effects of a protein osmolyte on the stability of the integral membrane protein glycerol facilitator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baturin, Simon; Galka, Jamie J; Piyadasa, Hadeesha; Gajjeraman, S; O'Neil, Joe D

    2014-01-01

    .... The effects of the osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as well as the influence of detergent head group and acyl chain length on the stability of the Escherichia coli integral membrane protein glycerol facilitator (GF...

  19. Lysosomal Lipases PLRP2 and LPLA2 Process Mycobacterial Multi-acylated Lipids and Generate T Cell Stimulatory Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleron, Martine; Lepore, Marco; Layre, Emilie; Cala-De Paepe, Diane; Mebarek, Naila; Shayman, James A; Canaan, Stéphane; Mori, Lucia; Carrière, Frédéric; Puzo, Germain; De Libero, Gennaro

    2016-09-22

    Complex antigens require processing within antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to form T cell stimulatory complexes with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. It remains unknown whether lipids with multi-acylated moieties also necessitate digestion by lipases to become capable of binding CD1 molecules and stimulate T cells. Here, we show that the mycobacterial tetra-acylated glycolipid antigens phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIM) are digested to di-acylated forms by pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2) and lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) within APCs. Recombinant PLRP2 and LPLA2 removed the sn1- and sn2-bound fatty acids from the PIM glycerol moiety, as revealed by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. PLRP2 or LPLA2 gene silencing in APCs abolished PIM presentation to T cells, thus revealing an essential role of both lipases in vivo. These findings show that endosomal lipases participate in lipid antigen presentation by processing lipid antigens and have a role in T cell immunity against mycobacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana GH3.5 acyl acid amido synthetase mediates metabolic crosstalk in auxin and salicylic acid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Corey S; Sherp, Ashley M; Zubieta, Chloe; Alvarez, Sophie; Schraft, Evelyn; Marcellin, Romain; Ramirez, Loren; Jez, Joseph M

    2016-11-29

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the acyl acid amido synthetase Gretchen Hagen 3.5 (AtGH3.5) conjugates both indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid (SA) to modulate auxin and pathogen response pathways. To understand the molecular basis for the activity of AtGH3.5, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the enzyme in complex with IAA and AMP. Biochemical analysis demonstrates that the substrate preference of AtGH3.5 is wider than originally described and includes the natural auxin phenylacetic acid (PAA) and the potential SA precursor benzoic acid (BA). Residues that determine IAA versus BA substrate preference were identified. The dual functionality of AtGH3.5 is unique to this enzyme although multiple IAA-conjugating GH3 proteins share nearly identical acyl acid binding sites. In planta analysis of IAA, PAA, SA, and BA and their respective aspartyl conjugates were determined in wild-type and overexpressing lines of A thaliana This study suggests that AtGH3.5 conjugates auxins (i.e., IAA and PAA) and benzoates (i.e., SA and BA) to mediate crosstalk between different metabolic pathways, broadening the potential roles for GH3 acyl acid amido synthetases in plants.

  1. Comparative study on the anticancer activities and binding properties of a hetero metal binuclear complex [Co(dipic)2Ni(OH2)5]·2H2O (dipic=dipicolinate) with two carrier proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Somaye; Shiri, Fereshteh; Majd, Mostafa Heidari; Razmara, Zohreh

    2017-10-25

    Recognizing of binding mechanisms between drugs and carrier proteins is basic for us to understand the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of them. In this research, the anticancer activities of a binuclear complex [Co(dipic) 2 Ni(OH 2 ) 5 ]·2H 2 O (dipic=dipicolinate) against MDA-MB-231 cell lines were studied. Results of MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis revealed that above complex can induce the cytotoxicity and the apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. So, this complex was selected to investigate its binding to human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine β-lactoglobulin (βLG) by spectroscopic methods (UV-visible, fluorescence and FT-IR) along with molecular docking technique. The fluorescence data showed Co-Ni complex quench the fluorescence of both proteins by a static quenching mechanism and HSA has stronger binding affinity toward Co-Ni complex than βLG. The binding constant (K b ), number of binding sites (n) and thermodynamic parameters were calculated and showed that the Co-Ni complex binds to protein (HSA and βLG) through hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces with one binding site. The results of UV-visible measurements indicated that the binding of above complex to HSA and βLG may induce conformational and micro-environmental changes of studied proteins. Protein-ligand docking analysis confirmed that the Co-Ni complex binds to residues located in the subdomain IIA of HSA and site II of βLG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Future Carrier vs. Super Carrier: New Issues and Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Sean P

    2004-01-01

    .... This paper explores whether the era of the super carrier--a large aircraft carrier that is superior in size, capability and status--is coming to a close by examining the United States' need for large carriers...

  3. Chlamydomonas carries out fatty acid β-oxidation in ancestral peroxisomes using a bona fide acyl-CoA oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fantao; Liang, Yuanxue; Légeret, Bertrand; Beyly-Adriano, Audrey; Blangy, Stéphanie; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A; Beisson, Fred; Peltier, Gilles; Li-Beisson, Yonghua

    2017-04-01

    Peroxisomes are thought to have played a key role in the evolution of metabolic networks of photosynthetic organisms by connecting oxidative and biosynthetic routes operating in different compartments. While the various oxidative pathways operating in the peroxisomes of higher plants are fairly well characterized, the reactions present in the primitive peroxisomes (microbodies) of algae are poorly understood. Screening of a Chlamydomonas insertional mutant library identified a strain strongly impaired in oil remobilization and defective in Cre05.g232002 (CrACX2), a gene encoding a member of the acyl-CoA oxidase/dehydrogenase superfamily. The purified recombinant CrACX2 expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the oxidation of fatty acyl-CoAs into trans-2-enoyl-CoA and produced H2 O2 . This result demonstrated that CrACX2 is a genuine acyl-CoA oxidase, which is responsible for the first step of the peroxisomal fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation spiral. A fluorescent protein-tagging study pointed to a peroxisomal location of CrACX2. The importance of peroxisomal FA β-oxidation in algal physiology was shown by the impact of the mutation on FA turnover during day/night cycles. Moreover, under nitrogen depletion the mutant accumulated 20% more oil than the wild type, illustrating the potential of β-oxidation mutants for algal biotechnology. This study provides experimental evidence that a plant-type FA β-oxidation involving H2 O2 -producing acyl-CoA oxidation activity has already evolved in the microbodies of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Acyl chains of phospholipase D transphosphatidylation products in Arabidopsis cells: a study using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Rainteau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phospholipases D (PLD are major components of signalling pathways in plant responses to some stresses and hormones. The product of PLD activity is phosphatidic acid (PA. PAs with different acyl chains do not have the same protein targets, so to understand the signalling role of PLD it is essential to analyze the composition of its PA products in the presence and absence of an elicitor. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Potential PLD substrates and products were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells treated with or without the hormone salicylic acid (SA. As PA can be produced by enzymes other than PLD, we analyzed phosphatidylbutanol (PBut, which is specifically produced by PLD in the presence of n-butanol. The acyl chain compositions of PBut and the major glycerophospholipids were determined by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mass spectrometry. PBut profiles of untreated cells or cells treated with SA show an over-representation of 160/18:2- and 16:0/18:3-species compared to those of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine either from bulk lipid extracts or from purified membrane fractions. When microsomal PLDs were used in in vitro assays, the resulting PBut profile matched exactly that of the substrate provided. Therefore there is a mismatch between the acyl chain compositions of putative substrates and the in vivo products of PLDs that is unlikely to reflect any selectivity of PLDs for the acyl chains of substrates. CONCLUSIONS: MRM mass spectrometry is a reliable technique to analyze PLD products. Our results suggest that PLD action in response to SA is not due to the production of a stress-specific molecular species, but that the level of PLD products per se is important. The over-representation of 160/18:2- and 16:0/18:3-species in PLD products when compared to putative substrates might be related to a regulatory role of the heterogeneous distribution of glycerophospholipids in membrane sub-domains.

  5. Acyl Chains of Phospholipase D Transphosphatidylation Products in Arabidopsis Cells: A Study Using Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainteau, Dominique; Humbert, Lydie; Delage, Elise; Vergnolle, Chantal; Cantrel, Catherine; Maubert, Marie-Anne; Lanfranchi, Sandrine; Maldiney, Régis; Collin, Sylvie; Wolf, Claude; Zachowski, Alain; Ruelland, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Background Phospholipases D (PLD) are major components of signalling pathways in plant responses to some stresses and hormones. The product of PLD activity is phosphatidic acid (PA). PAs with different acyl chains do not have the same protein targets, so to understand the signalling role of PLD it is essential to analyze the composition of its PA products in the presence and absence of an elicitor. Methodology/Principal findings Potential PLD substrates and products were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells treated with or without the hormone salicylic acid (SA). As PA can be produced by enzymes other than PLD, we analyzed phosphatidylbutanol (PBut), which is specifically produced by PLD in the presence of n-butanol. The acyl chain compositions of PBut and the major glycerophospholipids were determined by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry. PBut profiles of untreated cells or cells treated with SA show an over-representation of 160/18∶2- and 16∶0/18∶3-species compared to those of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine either from bulk lipid extracts or from purified membrane fractions. When microsomal PLDs were used in in vitro assays, the resulting PBut profile matched exactly that of the substrate provided. Therefore there is a mismatch between the acyl chain compositions of putative substrates and the in vivo products of PLDs that is unlikely to reflect any selectivity of PLDs for the acyl chains of substrates. Conclusions MRM mass spectrometry is a reliable technique to analyze PLD products. Our results suggest that PLD action in response to SA is not due to the production of a stress-specific molecular species, but that the level of PLD products per se is important. The over-representation of 160/18∶2- and 16∶0/18∶3-species in PLD products when compared to putative substrates might be related to a regulatory role of the heterogeneous distribution of glycerophospholipids in membrane sub-domains. PMID:22848682

  6. DEPENDENCE BETWEEN ACYLATION DEGREE AND SPECIFIC LYSIS ACTITIVY OF THE PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA М6 BACTERIOPHAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of various degrees of protein’s acylation on lytic activity and other biological properties of Pseudomonas M6 bacteriophage. Materials and methods. The subject of the study were samples of the Pseudomonas O 12 bacteriophage, hereinafter named the M6 phage. Pure phage lines were obtained from individual standard-morphology phage plaques (plaque-forming units, or PFUs after ten passes over the indicator strain. In subsequent experiments, M6 phage samples were selected that had a sufficient level of purity (homogeneous in the morphology of virions that inactivated the homologic antiphage serum by no less than 99.0% and the heterologic antibacterial serum by no more than 1%, and a titer no lower than 10 PFU per ml (PFU/ml. Titration of the phages was conducted using the standard bilayer agar. The crude protein content in the phage suspensions was determined using the spectroscopic method (at 280 and 260 nm. Succinylation of the phage samples was conducted according to the method developed by T.J. Molenaar. The phage’s lytic activity spectrum was determined through spot tests on 224 strains of the Pseudomonas genus and 106 strains of other genera (correspondingly, of strains Enterobacter -40, Escherichia -10, Citrobacter -8, Hafnia -7, Serratia -6, Shigella -10, Salmonella -8, Proteus -7 through the use of a phage suspension containing 10 5 - 10 6 PFU/ml. (This concentration of infectious phage corpuscles corresponds with the critical distribution of the M6 phage. The results of the research were subjected to statistical processing using single-factor dispersion analysis. Results and discussion. One hundred percent phage protein acylation leads to a loss of adsorption ability on sensitive cells and is accompanied by a significant (more than 103 times decrease in the level of specific lytic activity in the phage preparations. The succinylation type being studied does not cause

  7. Antigenicity in sheep of synthetic peptides derived from stress-regulated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins and comparison with recombinant protein and complex native antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Ratna B; Begg, Douglas J; Purdie, Auriol C; Whittington, Richard J

    2014-03-15

    Serum antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is the most commonly used test for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in ruminants. However, the assay requires serum preabsorption with Mycobacterium phlei proteins to reduce cross reactions potentially contributed by the exposure of livestock to environmental mycobacteria. To trial the discovery of novel antigens which do not require serum absorption, synthetic MAP-specific peptides were selected based on in silico research to identify putative B cell epitopes. Four peptides from previously identified stress-regulated proteins were synthesized and evaluated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific antibodies in sheep. Two peptides were from hypothetical MAP proteins (MAP3567 and MAP1168c) and two were from proteins with known function (MAP2698c, an acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase-DesA2 and MAP2487c a carbonic anhydrase). The ability of each peptide to discriminate between unexposed and MAP exposed (infected and vaccinated) animals was similar to that of the parent recombinant MAP antigen, with area under receiver operating curve values of 0.86-0.93. Assays run with a combination of two peptides showed slightly higher reactivity than those of individual peptides. Peptides evaluated in this study had diagnostic potential similar to corresponding recombinant proteins but not superior to a complex native MAP antigen or a commercial assay. Further study is required to investigate other peptides for their diagnostic potential, and this may be simpler and cheaper than subunit protein-based research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ORF Alignment: NC_003028 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tructure Of Beta-Ketoacyl-[acyl Carrier ... Protein] Synthase Ii From Streptococcus Pneumoniae, ... ...tein] Synthase Ii From ... Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Triclinic Form pdb|1O...i From Streptococcus ... Pneumoniae, Triclinic Form pdb|1OXH|A Chain A, The ... Crystal Struct...ure Of Beta-Ketoacyl-[acyl Carrier ... Protein] Synthase Ii From Streptococcus Pneumonia...acyl-[acyl Carrier Protein] Synthase Ii From ... Streptococcus Pneumoniae ... Length = 409 ... Qu

  9. ORF Alignment: NC_003098 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tructure Of Beta-Ketoacyl-[acyl Carrier ... Protein] Synthase Ii From Streptococcus Pneumoniae, ... ...tein] Synthase Ii From ... Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Triclinic Form pdb|1O...i From Streptococcus ... Pneumoniae, Triclinic Form pdb|1OXH|A Chain A, The ... Crystal Struct...ure Of Beta-Ketoacyl-[acyl Carrier ... Protein] Synthase Ii From Streptococcus Pneumonia...acyl-[acyl Carrier Protein] Synthase Ii From ... Streptococcus Pneumoniae ... Length = 409 ... Qu

  10. A Grapevine Anthocyanin Acyltransferase, Transcriptionally Regulated by VvMYBA, Can Produce Most Acylated Anthocyanins Present in Grape Skins1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Amy R.; Cavallini, Erika; Jia, Yong; Moss, Sarah M.A.; McDavid, Debra A.J.; Hooper, Lauren C.; Robinson, Simon P.; Tornielli, Giovanni B.; Zenoni, Sara; Ford, Christopher M.; Boss, Paul K.; Walker, Amanda R.

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are flavonoid compounds responsible for red/purple colors in the leaves, fruit, and flowers of many plant species. They are produced through a multistep pathway that is controlled by MYB transcription factors. VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 activate anthocyanin biosynthesis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and are nonfunctional in white grapevine cultivars. In this study, transgenic grapevines with altered VvMYBA gene expression were developed, and transcript analysis was carried out on berries using a microarray technique. The results showed that VvMYBA is a positive regulator of the later stages of anthocyanin synthesis, modification, and transport in cv Shiraz. One up-regulated gene, ANTHOCYANIN 3-O-GLUCOSIDE-6″-O-ACYLTRANSFERASE (Vv3AT), encodes a BAHD acyltransferase protein (named after the first letter of the first four characterized proteins: BEAT [for acetyl CoA:benzylalcohol acetyltransferase], AHCT [for anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase], HCBT [for anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase], and DAT [for deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase]), belonging to a clade separate from most anthocyanin acyltransferases. Functional studies (in planta and in vitro) show that Vv3AT has a broad anthocyanin substrate specificity and can also utilize both aliphatic and aromatic acyl donors, a novel activity for this enzyme family found in nature. In cv Pinot Noir, a red-berried grapevine mutant lacking acylated anthocyanins, Vv3AT contains a nonsense mutation encoding a truncated protein that lacks two motifs required for BAHD protein activity. Promoter activation assays confirm that Vv3AT transcription is activated by VvMYBA1, which adds to the current understanding of the regulation of the BAHD gene family. The flexibility of Vv3AT to use both classes of acyl donors will be useful in the engineering of anthocyanins in planta or in vitro. PMID:26395841

  11. 40 CFR 180.1207 - N-acyl sarcosines and sodium N-acyl sarcosinates; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N-acyl sarcosines and sodium N-acyl... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR... (surfactants) at levels not to exceed 10% in pesticide formulations containing glyphosate: Name CAS Reg. No. N...

  12. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis with different acyl acceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanović Nevena D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine that is environmentally acceptable. Conventionally, biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides and short alcohols in the presence of an acid or an alkaline catalyst. There are several problems associated with this kind of production that can be resolved by using lipase as the biocatalyst. The aim of the present work was to investigate novel acyl acceptors for biodiesel production. 2-Propanol and n-butanol have a less negative effect on lipase stability, and they also improve low temperature properties of the fuel. However, excess alcohol leads to inactivation of the enzyme, and glycerol, a major byproduct, can block the immobilized enzyme, resulting in low enzymatic activity. This problem was solved by using methyl acetate as acyl acceptor. Triacetylglycerol is produced instead of glycerol, and it has no negative effect on the activity of the lipase.

  13. Glycosyltransferases from oat (Avena) implicated in the acylation of avenacins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owatworakit, Amorn; Townsend, Belinda; Louveau, Thomas; Jenner, Helen; Rejzek, Martin; Hughes, Richard K; Saalbach, Gerhard; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Roy, Abhijeet Deb; Mugford, Sam T; Goss, Rebecca J M; Field, Robert A; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-02-08

    Plants produce a huge array of specialized metabolites that have important functions in defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of these compounds are glycosylated by family 1 glycosyltransferases (GTs). Oats (Avena spp.) make root-derived antimicrobial triterpenes (avenacins) that provide protection against soil-borne diseases. The ability to synthesize avenacins has evolved since the divergence of oats from other cereals and grasses. The major avenacin, A-1, is acylated with N-methylanthranilic acid. Previously, we have cloned and characterized three genes for avenacin synthesis (for the triterpene synthase SAD1, a triterpene-modifying cytochrome P450 SAD2, and the serine carboxypeptidase-like acyl transferase SAD7), which form part of a biosynthetic gene cluster. Here, we identify a fourth member of this gene cluster encoding a GT belonging to clade L of family 1 (UGT74H5), and show that this enzyme is an N-methylanthranilic acid O-glucosyltransferase implicated in the synthesis of avenacin A-1. Two other closely related family 1 GTs (UGT74H6 and UGT74H7) are also expressed in oat roots. One of these (UGT74H6) is able to glucosylate both N-methylanthranilic acid and benzoic acid, whereas the function of the other (UGT74H7) remains unknown. Our investigations indicate that UGT74H5 is likely to be key for the generation of the activated acyl donor used by SAD7 in the synthesis of the major avenacin, A-1, whereas UGT74H6 may contribute to the synthesis of other forms of avenacin that are acylated with benzoic acid.

  14. Glycosyltransferases from Oat (Avena) Implicated in the Acylation of Avenacins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owatworakit, Amorn; Townsend, Belinda; Louveau, Thomas; Jenner, Helen; Rejzek, Martin; Hughes, Richard K.; Saalbach, Gerhard; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Roy, Abhijeet Deb; Mugford, Sam T.; Goss, Rebecca J. M.; Field, Robert A.; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a huge array of specialized metabolites that have important functions in defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of these compounds are glycosylated by family 1 glycosyltransferases (GTs). Oats (Avena spp.) make root-derived antimicrobial triterpenes (avenacins) that provide protection against soil-borne diseases. The ability to synthesize avenacins has evolved since the divergence of oats from other cereals and grasses. The major avenacin, A-1, is acylated with N-methylanthranilic acid. Previously, we have cloned and characterized three genes for avenacin synthesis (for the triterpene synthase SAD1, a triterpene-modifying cytochrome P450 SAD2, and the serine carboxypeptidase-like acyl transferase SAD7), which form part of a biosynthetic gene cluster. Here, we identify a fourth member of this gene cluster encoding a GT belonging to clade L of family 1 (UGT74H5), and show that this enzyme is an N-methylanthranilic acid O-glucosyltransferase implicated in the synthesis of avenacin A-1. Two other closely related family 1 GTs (UGT74H6 and UGT74H7) are also expressed in oat roots. One of these (UGT74H6) is able to glucosylate both N-methylanthranilic acid and benzoic acid, whereas the function of the other (UGT74H7) remains unknown. Our investigations indicate that UGT74H5 is likely to be key for the generation of the activated acyl donor used by SAD7 in the synthesis of the major avenacin, A-1, whereas UGT74H6 may contribute to the synthesis of other forms of avenacin that are acylated with benzoic acid. PMID:23258535

  15. Acylated flavonoids in callus cultures of Citrus aurantifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhow, M A; Bennett, R D; Poling, S M; Vannier, S; Hidaka, T; Omura, M

    1994-07-01

    Two new acylated flavonol glycosides were isolated along with kaempferol 3-O-beta-rutinoside from 10-year-old callus cultures of Mexican lime. The structures of these new compounds are kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-6"-(3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutarate) and kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-6"-(3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutarate)-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Synthase Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Daniel; Frane, Nicole D; Brecht, Ryan M; Keeler, Jesse; Nagarajan, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Quorum sensing is cell-to-cell communication that allows bacteria to coordinate attacks on their hosts by inducing virulent gene expression, biofilm production, and other cellular functions, including antibiotic resistance. AHL synthase enzymes synthesize N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones, commonly referred to as autoinducers, to facilitate quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria. Studying the synthases, however, has proven to be a difficult road. Two assays, including a radiolabeled assay and a colorimetric (DCPIP) assay are well-documented in literature to study AHL synthases. In this paper, we describe additional methods that include an HPLC-based, C-S bond cleavage and coupled assays to investigate this class of enzymes. In addition, we compare and contrast each assay for both acyl-CoA- and acyl-ACP-utilizing synthases. The expanded toolkit described in this study should facilitate mechanistic studies on quorum sensing signal synthases and expedite discovery of antivirulent compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Defluoridation potential of jute fibers grafted with fatty acyl chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Suvendu; Saha, Prosenjit [Materials Science Centre, IIT Kharagpur, WB 721302 (India); Roy, Debasis, E-mail: debasis@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, WB 721302 (India); Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, IIT Kharagpur, WB 721302 (India); Adhikari, Basudam [Materials Science Centre, IIT Kharagpur, WB 721302 (India)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Acyl chain grafted jute has been shown to accumulate fluoride ions. • Covalent and hydrogen bonding and protonation were the contributing factors. • The process is relatively inexpensive and maintenance-free. • Acyl chain grafted jute showed higher fluoride ions accumulation than alternatives. - Abstract: Waterborne fluoride is usually removed from water by coagulation, adsorption, ion exchange, electro dialysis or reverse osmosis. These processes are often effective over narrow pH ranges, release ions considered hazardous to human health or produce large volumes of toxic sludge that are difficult to handle and dispose. Although plant matters have been shown to remove waterborne fluoride, they suffer from poor removal efficiency. Following from the insight that interaction between microbial carbohydrate biopolymers and anionic surfaces is often facilitated by lipids, an attempt has been made to enhance fluoride adsorption efficiency of jute by grafting the lignocellulosic fiber with fatty acyl chains found in vegetable oils. Fluoride removal efficiency of grafted jute was found to be comparable or higher than those of alternative defluoridation processes. Infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic evidence indicated that hydrogen bonding, protonation and C−F bonding were responsible for fluoride accumulation on grafted jute. Adsorption based on grafted jute fibers appears to be an economical, sustainable and eco-friendly alternative technique for removing waterborne fluoride.

  18. Monodisperse 130 kDa and 260 kDa Recombinant Human Hemoglobin Polymers as Scaffolds for Protein Engineering of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Marquardt, David A.; Doyle, Michael P.; Davidson, Jeffrey S.; Epp, Janet K.; Aitken, Jacqueline F.; Lemon, Douglas D.; Anthony-Cahill, Spencer J.

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant 130 kDa dihemoglobin which is made up of a single-chain tetra-α globin and four β globins has been expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli. The sequence of the single chain tetra-α is: αI-Gly-αII-(SerGlyGly)5Ser-αIII-Gly-αIV. This dihemoglobin has been purified and characterized in vitro by size exclusion chromatography, electrospray mass spectroscopy, equilibrium oxygen binding, and analytical ultracentrifugation. The observed values of P50 and nmax for the dihemoglobin are s...

  19. Mutations in the medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanaka, K; Yokota, I; Coates, P M

    1992-01-01

    of 172 unrelated patients each representing an independent pedigree, a total of 8 different mutations have been identified. Among them, a single prevalent mutation, 985A-->G, was found in 90% of 344 variant alleles. 985A-->G causes glutamate substitution for lysine-304 in the mature MCAD subunit, which...... causes impairment of tetramer assembly and instability of the protein. Three of 7 rarer mutations have been identified in a few unrelated patients, while the remaining 4 have each been found in only a single pedigree. In addition to tabulating the mutations, the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene family......, the structure of the MCAD gene and the evolution of 985A-->G mutation are briefly discussed....

  20. Exploring the Mechanism of β-Lactam Ring Protonation in the Class A β-lactamase Acylation Mechanism Using Neutron and X-ray Crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandavasi, Venu Gopal; Weiss, Kevin L.; Cooper, Jonathan B.; Erskine, Peter T.; Tomanicek, Stephen J.; Ostermann, Andreas; Schrader, Tobias E.; Ginell, Stephan L.; Coates, Leighton

    2016-01-14

    The catalytic mechanism of class A beta-lactamases is often debated due in part to the large number of amino acids that interact with bound beta-lactam substrates. The role and function of the conserved residue Lys 73 in the catalytic mechanism of class A type beta-lactamase enzymes is still not well understood after decades of scientific research. To better elucidate the functions of this vital residue, we used both neutron and high-resolution X-ray diffraction to examine both the structures of the ligand free protein and the acyl-enzyme complex of perdeuterated E166A Toho-1 beta-lactamase with the antibiotic cefotaxime. The E166A mutant lacks a critical glutamate residue that has a key role in the deacylation step of the catalytic mechanism, allowing the acyl-enzyme adduct to be captured for study. In our ligand free structures, Lys 73 is present in a single conformation, however in all of our acyl-enzyme structures, Lys 73 is present in two different conformations, in which one conformer is closer to Ser 70 while the other conformer is positioned closer to Ser 130, which supports the existence of a possible pathway by which proton transfer from Lys 73 to Ser 130 can occur. This and further clarifications of the role of Lys 73 in the acylation mechanism may facilitate the design of inhibitors that capitalize on the enzymes native machinery.

  1. Regulation of C. elegans fat uptake and storage by acyl-CoA synthase-3 is dependent on NR5A family nuclear hormone receptor nhr-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Brendan C; Blind, Raymond D; Lemieux, George A; Perez, Carissa L; Elle, Ida C; Faergeman, Nils J; Van Gilst, Marc R; Ingraham, Holly A; Ashrafi, Kaveh

    2010-10-06

    Acyl-CoA synthases are important for lipid synthesis and breakdown, generation of signaling molecules, and lipid modification of proteins, highlighting the challenge of understanding metabolic pathways within intact organisms. From a C. elegans mutagenesis screen, we found that loss of ACS-3, a long-chain acyl-CoA synthase, causes enhanced intestinal lipid uptake, de novo fat synthesis, and accumulation of enlarged, neutral lipid-rich intestinal depots. Here, we show that ACS-3 functions in seam cells, epidermal cells anatomically distinct from sites of fat uptake and storage, and that acs-3 mutant phenotypes require the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-25, a key regulator of C. elegans molting. Our findings suggest that ACS-3-derived long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs, perhaps incorporated into complex ligands such as phosphoinositides, modulate NHR-25 function, which in turn regulates an endocrine program of lipid uptake and synthesis. These results reveal a link between acyl-CoA synthase function and an NR5A family nuclear receptor in C. elegans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transitional change in rat fetal cell proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin during the last stage of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Nakahara, Keiko [Department of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Kangawa, Kenji [Department of Biochemistry, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishirodai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Murakami, Noboru, E-mail: a0d201u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan)

    2010-03-12

    Expression of mRNA for the ghrelin receptor, GHS-R1a, was detected in various peripheral and central tissues of fetal rats, including skin, bone, heart, liver, gut, brain and spinal cord, on embryonic day (ED)15 and ED17. However, its expression in skin, bone, heart and liver, but not in gut, brain and spinal cord, became relatively weak on ED19 and disappeared after birth (ND2). Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin facilitated the proliferation of cultured fetal (ED17, 19), but not neonatal (ND2), skin cells. On the other hand, with regard to cells from the spinal cord and hypothalamus, the proliferative effect of ghrelin continued after birth, whereas the effect of des-acyl ghrelin on neurogenesis in these tissues was lost at the ED19 fetal and ND2 neonatal stages. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cells in the hypothalamus induced to proliferate by ghrelin at the ND2 stage were positive for nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. These results suggest that in the period immediately prior to, and after birth, rat fetal cells showing proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are at a transitional stage characterized by alteration of the expression of GHS-R1a and an undefined des-acyl ghrelin receptor, their responsiveness varying among different tissues.

  3. N-Acyl amino acids and N-acyl neurotransmitter conjugates: neuromodulators and probes for new drug targets

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Mark; Vaughan, Chris W; Vandenberg, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The myriad functions of lipids as signalling molecules is one of the most interesting fields in contemporary pharmacology, with a host of compounds recognized as mediators of communication within and between cells. The N-acyl conjugates of amino acids and neurotransmitters (NAANs) have recently come to prominence because of their potential roles in the nervous system, vasculature and the immune system. NAAN are compounds such as glycine, GABA or dopamine conjugated with long chain fatty acids...

  4. Organocatalytic enantioselective acyl transfer onto racemic as well as meso alcohols, amines, and thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian E; Schreiner, Peter R

    2011-06-27

    Acyl transfer is at the heart of functional-group transfers utilized both in nature and in the chemical laboratory. Acylations are part of the natural assembly machinery for the generation of complex molecules and for energy transport in biological systems. The recognition of covalent acyl-enzyme intermediates led to both mechanistic studies as well as the development of biomimetic approaches. Consequently, chemists first used the tools of nature in the form of enzymes and naturally occurring alkaloids as catalysts, before eventually developing a large variety of synthetic small molecules for selective acyl transfer. In contrast to nature, chemists utilize acylation reactions as a practical way for stereoselection and functional-group protection. Indeed, the number of studies concerning acyl transfer has significantly increased over the last 15 years. This Review examines and highlights these recent developments with the focus as given in the title. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Characterization of Lipid A Variants by Energy-Resolved Mass Spectrometry: Impact of Acyl Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Christopher M.; Akin, Lucas D.; Morrison, Lindsay J.; Trent, M. Stephen; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2017-06-01

    Lipid A molecules consist of a diglucosamine sugar core with a number of appended acyl chains that vary in their length and connectivity. Because of the challenging nature of characterizing these molecules and differentiating between isomeric species, an energy-resolved MS/MS strategy was undertaken to track the fragmentation trends and map genealogies of product ions originating from consecutive cleavages of acyl chains. Generalizations were developed based on the number and locations of the primary and secondary acyl chains as well as variations in preferential cleavages arising from the location of the phosphate groups. Secondary acyl chain cleavage occurs most readily for lipid A species at the 3' position, followed by primary acyl chain fragmentation at both the 3' and 3 positions. In the instances of bisphosphorylated lipid A variants, phosphate loss occurs readily in conjunction with the most favorable primary and secondary acyl chain cleavages. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Postprandial response of plasma insulin, amylin and acylated ghrelin to various test meals in lean and obese cats

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Lucile J. M.; Siliart, Brigitte; Lutz, Thomas A.; Biourge, Vincent; Nguyen, Patrick; Dumon, Henri J. W.

    2010-01-01

    The propensity of diets of different composition to promote obesity is a current topic in feline medicine. The effects of three meals with different protein:fat ratios on hormones (insulin, acylated ghrelin and amylin) involved in the control of food intake and glucose metabolism were compared. Five lean (two females and three males, 28.6 (sd 3.4) % body fat mass (BFM), mean body weight (BW) 4590 g) and five obese (two females and three males, 37.1 (sd 4.1) % BFM, mean BW 4670 g) adult cats w...

  7. Structural properties of pepsin-solubilized collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Conghu [The Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); College of Life Sciences, Anqing Normal University, Anqing 246011 (China); Tian, Zhenhua; Liu, Wentao [The Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Guoying, E-mail: liguoyings@163.com [The Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-10-01

    The structural properties of pepsin-solubilized calf skin collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride were investigated in this paper. Compared with native collagen, acylated collagen retained the unique triple helix conformation, as determined by amino acid analysis, circular dichroism and X-ray diffraction. Meanwhile, the thermostability of acylated collagen using thermogravimetric measurements was enhanced as the residual weight increased by 5%. With the temperature increased from 25 to 115 °C, the secondary structure of native and acylated collagens using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements was destroyed since the intensity of the major amide bands decreased and the positions of the major amide bands shifted to lower wavenumber, respectively. Meanwhile, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy revealed that the most sensitive bands for acylated and native collagens were amide I and II bands, respectively. Additionally, the corresponding order of the groups between native and acylated collagens was different and the correlation degree for acylated collagen was weaker than that of native collagen, suggesting that temperature played a small influence on the conformation of acylated collagen, which might be concluded that the hydrophobic interaction improved the thermostability of collagen. - Highlights: • Acylated collagen retained the unique triple helix conformation. • Acylated collagen had stronger thermostability than native collagen. • Amide I was the most sensitive band to the temperature for acylated collagen. • Amide II was the most sensitive band to the temperature for native collagen. • Auto-peak at 1680 cm{sup −1} for acylated collagen disappeared at higher temperature.

  8. Production of structured lipids: acyl migration during enzymatic interesterification and downstream processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    1997-01-01

    -2 position or sn-1,3 positions of glycerol backbone. These kinds of lipids are reported to be promising for both enteral and parenteral nutrition. However, acyl migration occurs in the reaction stage and downstream purification process. This side-reaction causes by-products which are harmful...... to the required products. In this paper, the reasons of acyl migration and factors affecting the acyl migration were reviewed and discussed. The possible solutions were also evaluated....

  9. A rapid and specific derivatization procedure to identify acyl-glucuronides by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Alfin D N; Wang, Wei Wei; Bessire, Andrew J; Sharma, Raman; Hagen, Anne E

    2010-07-30

    A simple procedure is described to identify acyl-glucuronides by coupled liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after derivatization to a hydroxamic acid with hydroxylamine. The reaction specificity obviates the need for isolation of the acyl-glucuronide from an extract. Glucuronides derived from carbamic acids, and alkyl- and aromatic amines, are inert to the derivatization reaction conditions, making the hydroxamic acid derivative a fingerprint for acyl-glucuronides. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Immune sensitization to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI resulting from skin exposure: albumin as a carrier protein connecting skin exposure to subsequent respiratory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redlich Carrie A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI, a reactive chemical used for commercial polyurethane production, is a well-recognized cause of occupational asthma. The major focus of disease prevention efforts to date has been respiratory tract exposure; however, skin exposure may also be an important route for inducing immune sensitization, which may promote subsequent airway inflammatory responses. We developed a murine model to investigate pathogenic mechanisms by which MDI skin exposure might promote subsequent immune responses, including respiratory tract inflammation. Methods Mice exposed via the skin to varying doses (0.1-10% w/v of MDI diluted in acetone/olive oil were subsequently evaluated for MDI immune sensitization. Serum levels of MDI-specific IgG and IgE were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA, while respiratory tract inflammation, induced by intranasal delivery of MDI-mouse albumin conjugates, was evaluated based on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Autologous serum IgG from "skin only" exposed mice was used to detect and guide the purification/identification of skin proteins antigenically modified by MDI exposure in vivo. Results Skin exposure to MDI resulted in specific antibody production and promoted subsequent respiratory tract inflammation in animals challenged intranasally with MDI-mouse albumin conjugates. The degree of (secondary respiratory tract inflammation and eosinophilia depended upon the (primary skin exposure dose, and was maximal in mice exposed to 1% MDI, but paradoxically limited in mice receiving 10-fold higher doses (e.g. 10% MDI. The major antigenically-modified protein at the local MDI skin exposure site was identified as albumin, and demonstrated biophysical changes consistent with MDI conjugation. Conclusions MDI skin exposure can induce MDI-specific immune sensitivity and promote subsequent respiratory tract inflammatory responses and thus, may play an important role in MDI asthma

  11. Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi Produces N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Autoinducers

    OpenAIRE

    Brett L. Mellbye; Bottomley, Peter J.; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrobacter winogradskyi is a chemolithotrophic bacterium that plays a role in the nitrogen cycle by oxidizing nitrite to nitrate. Here, we demonstrate a functional N-acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) synthase in this bacterium. The N. winogradskyi genome contains genes encoding a putative acyl-HSL autoinducer synthase (nwi0626, nwiI) and a putative acyl-HSL autoinducer receptor (nwi0627, nwiR) with amino acid sequences 38 to 78% identical to those in Rhodopseudomonas palustris and other Rhi...

  12. Encapsulation of proteins in hydrogel carrier systems for controlled drug delivery: influence of network structure and drug size on release rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertz, Andreas; Wöhl-Bruhn, Stefanie; Miethe, Sebastian; Tiersch, Brigitte; Koetz, Joachim; Hust, Michael; Bunjes, Heike; Menzel, Henning

    2013-01-20

    Novel hydrogels based on hydroxyethyl starch modified with polyethylene glycol methacrylate (HES-P(EG)₆MA) were developed as delivery system for the controlled release of proteins. Since the drug release behavior is supposed to be related to the pore structure of the hydrogel network the pore sizes were determined by cryo-SEM, which is a mild technique for imaging on a nanometer scale. The results showed a decreasing pore size and an increase in pore homogeneity with increasing polymer concentration. Furthermore, the mesh sizes of the hydrogels were calculated based on swelling data. Pore and mesh size were significantly different which indicates that both structures are present in the hydrogel. The resulting structural model was correlated with release data for bulk hydrogel cylinders loaded with FITC-dextran and hydrogel microspheres loaded with FITC-IgG and FITC-dextran of different molecular size. The initial release depended much on the relation between hydrodynamic diameter and pore size while the long term release of the incorporated substances was predominantly controlled by degradation of the network of the much smaller meshes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. X-ray Crystal Structure of Teicoplanin A2-2 Bound to a Catalytic Peptide Sequence via the Carrier Protein Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We report the X-ray crystal structure of a site-selective peptide catalyst moiety and teicoplanin A2-2 complex. The expressed protein ligation technique was used to couple T4 lysozyme (T4L) and a synthetic peptide catalyst responsible for the selective phosphorylation of the N-acetylglucosamine sugar in a teicoplanin A2-2 derivative. The T4L-Pmh-dPro-Aib-dAla-dAla construct was crystallized in the presence of teicoplanin A2-2. The resulting 2.3 Å resolution protein–peptide–teicoplanin complex crystal structure revealed that the nucleophilic nitrogen of N-methylimidazole in the Pmh residue is in closer proximity (7.6 Å) to the N-acetylglucosamine than the two other sugar rings present in teicoplanin (9.3 and 20.3 Å, respectively). This molecular arrangement is consistent with the observed selectivity afforded by the peptide-based catalyst when it is applied to a site-selective phosphorylation reaction involving a teicoplanin A2-2 derivative. PMID:25147913

  14. Monodisperse 130 kDa and 260 kDa Recombinant Human Hemoglobin Polymers as Scaffolds for Protein Engineering of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline F. Aitken

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant 130 kDa dihemoglobin which is made up of a single-chain tetra-α globin and four β globins has been expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli. The sequence of the single chain tetra-α is: αI-Gly-αII-(SerGlyGly5Ser-αIII-Gly-αIV. This dihemoglobin has been purified and characterized in vitro by size exclusion chromatography, electrospray mass spectroscopy, equilibrium oxygen binding, and analytical ultracentrifugation. The observed values of P50 and nmax for the dihemoglobin are slightly lower than those observed for the recombinant hemoglobin rHb1.1 (a “monohemoglobin” comprised of two β globins and an αI-Gly-αII diα-globin chain. Titration of the deoxy form of dihemoglobin with CO shows that all eight heme centers bind ligand. In vivo, dihemoglobin showed increased circulating halflife and a reduced pressor response in conscious rats when compared to rHb1.1. These observations suggest that dihemoglobin is an oxygen carrying molecule with desirable in vivo properties and provides a platform for an isooncotic hemoglobin solution derived solely from a recombinant source. A 260 kDa tetrahemoglobin has also been produced by chemical crosslinking of a dihemoglobin that contains a Lys16Cys mutation in the C-terminal α-globin subunit. Tetrahemoglobin also shows reduced vasoactivity in conscious rats that is comparable to that observed for dihemoglobin.

  15. Water-immiscible dissolved oxygen carriers in combination with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    ) ... The use of perfluorinated organic oils as oxygen carriers ..... Note: Quantities of reagents are listed at their final concentration in the nutrient medium. ... protein, polysaccharide and oxygen concentration profiles on biofilm.

  16. The Effect of Turmeric (Curcuma longa Extract on the Functionality of the Solute Carrier Protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4 and Interleukin-10 (IL-10 Variants Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. McCann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic relapsing disease. Genetic predisposition to the disease reduces an individual’s capacity to respond appropriately to environmental challenges in the intestine leading to inappropriate inflammation. IBD patients often modify their diet to mitigate or reduce the severity of inflammation. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae has historically been used in Chinese, Hindu, and Ayurvedic medicine over several centuries to treat inflammatory disorders. To understand how turmeric may influence the consequences of a genetic predisposition to inappropriate inflammation, we used HEK293 cells to examine the in vitro capacity of turmeric extract and fractions to affect the functionality of two gene variants, solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4, rs1050152 and interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1800896 associated with IBD. We found that a turmeric extract and several chromatographically separated fractions beneficially affected the variants of SLC22A4 and IL-10 associated with IBD, by reducing inappropriate epithelial cell transport (SLC22A4, 503F and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine gene promoter activity (IL-10, −1082A. The effect of turmeric on the IL-10 variant was strongly associated with the curcumin content of the extract and its fractions.

  17. The effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract on the functionality of the solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) variants associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Mark J; Johnston, Sarah; Reilly, Kerri; Men, Xuejing; Burgess, Elaine J; Perry, Nigel B; Roy, Nicole C

    2014-10-13

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease. Genetic predisposition to the disease reduces an individual's capacity to respond appropriately to environmental challenges in the intestine leading to inappropriate inflammation. IBD patients often modify their diet to mitigate or reduce the severity of inflammation. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) has historically been used in Chinese, Hindu, and Ayurvedic medicine over several centuries to treat inflammatory disorders. To understand how turmeric may influence the consequences of a genetic predisposition to inappropriate inflammation, we used HEK293 cells to examine the in vitro capacity of turmeric extract and fractions to affect the functionality of two gene variants, solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4, rs1050152) and interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1800896) associated with IBD. We found that a turmeric extract and several chromatographically separated fractions beneficially affected the variants of SLC22A4 and IL-10 associated with IBD, by reducing inappropriate epithelial cell transport (SLC22A4, 503F) and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine gene promoter activity (IL-10, -1082A). The effect of turmeric on the IL-10 variant was strongly associated with the curcumin content of the extract and its fractions.

  18. Acylated flavonol glycosides from the flower of Inula britannica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E J; Kim, Y; Kim, J

    2000-01-01

    Three new acylated flavonol glycosides, patuletin 7-O-(6' '-isobutyryl)glucoside (1), patuletin 7-O-[6' '-(2-methylbutyryl)]glucoside (2), and patuletin 7-O-(6' '-isovaleryl)glucoside (3), were isolated from the n-BuOH extract of Inula britannica flowers by bioassay-guided fractionation, together with other known flavonoids. The structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, FABMS, and other spectral analyses. The eight flavonoids, including new compounds (1-3), patulitrin (7), nepitrin (8), axillarin (10), patuletin (11), and luteolin (12), showed profound antioxidant activity in DPPH assay and cytochrome-c reduction assay using HL-60 cell culture system.

  19. Domain analysis of 3 Keto Acyl-CoA synthase for structural variations in Vitis vinifera and Oryza brachyantha using comparative modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Mamta; Pandey, Neetesh; Qamar, Naseha; Singh, Brijendra; Shukla, Akanksha

    2015-03-01

    The long chain fatty acids incorporated into plant lipids are derived from the iterative addition of C2 units which is provided by malonyl-CoA to an acyl-CoA after interactions with 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), found in several plants. This study provides functional characterization of three 3 ketoacyl CoA synthase like proteins in Vitis vinifera (one) and Oryza brachyantha (two proteins). Sequence analysis reveals that protein of Oryza brachyantha shows 96% similarity to a hypothetical protein in Sorghum bicolor; total 11 homologs were predicted in Sorghum bicolor. Conserved domain prediction confirm the presence of FAE1/Type III polyketide synthase-like protein, Thiolase-like, subgroup; Thiolase-like and 3-Oxoacyl-ACP synthase III, C-terminal and chalcone synthase like domain but very long chain 3-keto acyl CoA domain is absent. All three proteins were found to have Chalcone and stilbene synthases C terminal domain which is similar to domain of thiolase and β keto acyl synthase. Its N terminal domain is absent in J3M9Z7 protein of Oryza brachyantha and F6HH63 protein of Vitis vinifera. Differences in N-terminal domain is responsible for distinguish activity. The J3MF16 protein of Oryza brachyantha contains N terminal domain and C terminal domain and characterized using annotation of these domains. Domains Gcs (streptomyces coelicolor) and Chalcone-stilbene synthases (KAS) in 2-pyrone synthase (Gerbera hybrid) and chalcone synthase 2 (Medicago sativa) were found to be present in three proteins. This similarity points toward anthocyanin biosynthetic process. Similarity to chalcone synthase 2 reveals its possible role in Naringenine and Chalcone synthase like activity. In 3 keto acyl CoA synthase of Oryza brachyantha. Active site residues C-240, H-407, N-447 are present in J3MF16 protein that are common in these three protein at different positions. Structural variations among dimer interface, product binding site, malonyl-CoA binding sites, were predicted in

  20. Asymmetric Carrier Random PWM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Lungeanu, Florin; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2010-01-01

    index. The flat motor current spectrum generates an acoustical noise close to the white noise, which may improve the acoustical performance of the drive. The new carrier wave is easy to implement digitally, without employing any external circuits. The modulation method can be used in open, as well...

  1. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing excessively large “factors of safety” in designing and install-. Enthalpy .... calculates and makes equipment selections – (often by software). – the flow ..... HVAC engineers today are not. Even today the. Carrier System. Design Manual is an integral part of every air conditioning organization. Suggested Reading. [1] Cloud ...

  2. Willis H Carrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/02/0117-0138. Keywords. W H Carrier; rational psychrometric formulae; psychrometric chart; invention of centrifugal machine; law of dew-point depression. Author Affiliations. R V Simha1. Director Airtron Consulting Engineers Pvt Ltd, No. 502/A, Ist Main Jayanagar ...

  3. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  4. Partial purification of the acyl-CoA elongase of Allium porrum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessoule, J J; Lessire, R; Cassagne, C

    1989-02-01

    Acyl-CoA elongase has been partially purified from leek (Allium porrum L.) epidermal cells. The microsomal elongase is first solubilized by Triton X-100. The solubilized proteins are then submitted to anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and, finally, to gel filtration on Ultrogel 34 AcA. The purification of the elongase activity is accompanied by the enrichment in three major protein bands of 59, 61, and 65 kDa. The partially purified elongase is highly delipidated (about 10 mol lipid/mol of 60- to 65-kDa protein) and phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine account respectively for 60 and 40% of the remaining phospholipids. The partially purified elongase retains some activities associated with fatty acid biosynthesis. The overall activity is strongly stimulated by the addition of exogenous lipids. In the presence of a mixture of PS, PE, and PC the C18-CoA elongase activity is increased more than sixfold. The Km value of stearoyl-CoA, in the presence of lipid vesicles, was determined to be 1.7 microM.

  5. Acyl-CoA Synthetase Is Located in the Outer Membrane and Acyl-CoA Thioesterase in the Inner Membrane of Pea Chloroplast Envelopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Keegstra, K

    1983-07-01

    Both acyl-CoA synthetase and acyl-CoA thioesterase activities are present in chloroplast envelope membranes. The functions of these enzymes in lipid metabolism remains unresolved, although the synthetase has been proposed to be involved in either plastid galactolipid synthesis or the export of plastid-synthesized fatty acids to the cytoplasm. We have examined the locations of both enzymes within the two envelope membranes of pea (Pisum sativum var Laxton's Progress No. 9) chloroplasts. Inner and outer envelope membranes were purified from unfractionated envelope preparations by linear density sucrose gradient centrifugation. Acyl-CoA synthetase was located in the outer envelope membrane while acyl-CoA thioesterase was located in the inner envelope membrane. Thus, it seems unlikely that the synthetase is directly involved in galactolipid assembly. Instead, its localization supports the hypothesis that it functions in the transport of plastid-synthesized fatty acids to the endoplasmic reticulum.

  6. An ordered reaction mechanism for bacterial toxin acylation by the specialized acyltransferase HlyC: formation of a ternary complex with acylACP and protoxin substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanley, Peter; Hyland, Caroline; Koronakis, Vassilis; Hughes, Colin

    1999-01-01

    .... Using an in vitro maturation reaction containing purified protoxin peptides and acylACP, we show unambiguously that HlyC possesses an apparently unique acyltransferase activity fully described by Michaelis–Menten analysis...

  7. Thermodynamics of micellization of nonionic saccharide-based N-acyl-N-alkylaldosylamine and N-acyl-N-alkylamino-1-deoxyalditol surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pestman, J.M.; Kevelam, J.; Blandamer, M.J.; Doren, H.A. van; Kellogg, R.M.; Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    1999-01-01

    Eight homologous series of nonionic carbohydrate-derived surfactants in which the alkyl chains are linked through N-acylated amine bonds were synthesized, and their critical micelle concentrations (cmc's) and standard enthalpies of micellization were determined using titration microcalorimetry.

  8. Acylation of Antioxidant of Bamboo Leaves with Fatty Acids by Lipase and the Acylated Derivatives’ Efficiency in the Inhibition of Acrylamide Formation in Fried Potato Crisps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiang; Wang, Erpei; Lu, Yuyun; Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Yan, Rian

    2015-01-01

    This study selectively acylated the primary hydroxyl groups on flavonoids in antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) using lauric acid with Candida antarctica lipase B in tert-amyl-alcohol. The separation and isolation of acylated derivatives were performed using silica gel column chromatography with a mixture of dichloromethane/diethyl ether/methanol as eluents. Both thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the high efficiency of the isolation process with the purified orientin-6″-laurate, isoorientin-6″-laurate, vitexin-6″-laurate, and isovitexin-6″-laurate that were obtained. The addition of AOB and acylated AOB reduced acrylamide formation in fried potato crisps. Results showed that 0.05% AOB and 0.05% and 0.1% acylated AOB groups significantly (p acrylamide in potato crisps by 30.7%, 44.5%, and 46.9%, respectively. PMID:26098744

  9. Acylation of Antioxidant of Bamboo Leaves with Fatty Acids by Lipase and the Acylated Derivatives' Efficiency in the Inhibition of Acrylamide Formation in Fried Potato Crisps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ma

    Full Text Available This study selectively acylated the primary hydroxyl groups on flavonoids in antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB using lauric acid with Candida antarctica lipase B in tert-amyl-alcohol. The separation and isolation of acylated derivatives were performed using silica gel column chromatography with a mixture of dichloromethane/diethyl ether/methanol as eluents. Both thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the high efficiency of the isolation process with the purified orientin-6″-laurate, isoorientin-6″-laurate, vitexin-6″-laurate, and isovitexin-6″-laurate that were obtained. The addition of AOB and acylated AOB reduced acrylamide formation in fried potato crisps. Results showed that 0.05% AOB and 0.05% and 0.1% acylated AOB groups significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the content of acrylamide in potato crisps by 30.7%, 44.5%, and 46.9%, respectively.

  10. Acylation of Antioxidant of Bamboo Leaves with Fatty Acids by Lipase and the Acylated Derivatives' Efficiency in the Inhibition of Acrylamide Formation in Fried Potato Crisps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiang; Wang, Erpei; Lu, Yuyun; Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Yan, Rian

    2015-01-01

    This study selectively acylated the primary hydroxyl groups on flavonoids in antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) using lauric acid with Candida antarctica lipase B in tert-amyl-alcohol. The separation and isolation of acylated derivatives were performed using silica gel column chromatography with a mixture of dichloromethane/diethyl ether/methanol as eluents. Both thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the high efficiency of the isolation process with the purified orientin-6″-laurate, isoorientin-6″-laurate, vitexin-6″-laurate, and isovitexin-6″-laurate that were obtained. The addition of AOB and acylated AOB reduced acrylamide formation in fried potato crisps. Results showed that 0.05% AOB and 0.05% and 0.1% acylated AOB groups significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the content of acrylamide in potato crisps by 30.7%, 44.5%, and 46.9%, respectively.

  11. Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi Produces N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Autoinducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellbye, Brett L; Bottomley, Peter J; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A

    2015-09-01

    Nitrobacter winogradskyi is a chemolithotrophic bacterium that plays a role in the nitrogen cycle by oxidizing nitrite to nitrate. Here, we demonstrate a functional N-acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) synthase in this bacterium. The N. winogradskyi genome contains genes encoding a putative acyl-HSL autoinducer synthase (nwi0626, nwiI) and a putative acyl-HSL autoinducer receptor (nwi0627, nwiR) with amino acid sequences 38 to 78% identical to those in Rhodopseudomonas palustris and other Rhizobiales. Expression of nwiI and nwiR correlated with acyl-HSL production during culture. N. winogradskyi produces two distinct acyl-HSLs, N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) and a monounsaturated acyl-HSL (C10:1-HSL), in a cell-density- and growth phase-dependent manner, during batch and chemostat culture. The acyl-HSLs were detected by bioassay and identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with information-dependent acquisition mass spectrometry (UPLC-IDA-MS). The C=C bond in C10:1-HSL was confirmed by conversion into bromohydrin and detection by UPLC-IDA-MS. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Influence of Lipid A Acylation Pattern on Membrane Permeability and Innate Immune Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Ernst

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, is an essential component in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It can stimulate the innate immune system via Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD2, leading to the release of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically investigated. The lipid A species were isolated and identified by matrix assisted laser ionization desorption-time of flight/tandem mass spectrometry. N-Phenyl naphthylamine uptake assay and antibiotic susceptibility test showed that membrane permeability of these strains were different. The lower the number of acyl chains in lipid A, the stronger the membrane permeability. LPS purified from these strains were used to stimulate human or mouse macrophage cells, and different levels of cytokines were induced. Compared with wild type hexa-acylated LPS, penta-acylated, tetra-acylated and tri-acylated LPS induced lower levels of cytokines. These results suggest that the lipid A acylation pattern influences both the bacterial membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation. The results would be useful for redesigning the bacterial membrane structure and for developing lipid A vaccine adjuvant.

  13. Acylation of aromatic alcohols and phenols over InCl 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Montmorillonite K-10 clay supported InCl3 is a highly active catalyst for the acylation of aromatic alcohols and phenols with different acyl chlorides. This catalyst can be reused in reactions a number of times without very significant loss of catalytic activity.

  14. Fatty acyl chain-dependent but charge-independent association of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While myristoylation at the N-terminus is sufficient for providing membrane anchorage, multiple acylation determines orientation of the peptide chain with respect to the lipid bilayer. Hence, fatty acylation serves more than just a lipid anchor. It has an important role in regulating the spatial orientation of the peptide domain ...

  15. Effect of the human plasma apolipoproteins and phosphatidylcholine acyl donor on the activity of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutar, A K; Garner, C W; Baker, H N; Sparrow, J T; Jackson, R L; Gotto, A M; Smith, L C

    1975-07-15

    The human plasma apoproteins apoA-I and apoC-I enhanced the activity of partially purified lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase five to tenfold with chemically defined phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol single bilayer vesicles as substrates. By contrast, apoproteins apoA-II, apoC-II, and apoC-III did not give any enhancement of enzyme activity. The activation by apoA-I and apoC-I differed, depending upon the nature of the hydrocarbon chains of phosphatidylcholine acyl donor. ApoA-I was most effective with a phosphatidylcholine containing an unsaturated fatty acyl chain. ApoC-I activated LCAT to the same extent with both saturated and unsaturated phosphatidylcholine substrates. Two of the four peptides obtained by cyanogen bromide cleavage of apoA-I retained some ability to activate LCAT. The efficacy of each of these peptides was approximately 25% that of the whole protein. Cyanogen bromide fragments of apoC-I were inactive. The apoproteins from HDL, HDL2, and HDL3, at low protein concentrations, were equally effective as activators of LCATand less effective than apoA-I. Higher concentrations of apoHDL, apoHDL2, and apoHDL3 inhibited LCAT activity. ApoC and apoA-II were both found to inhibit the activation of LCAT by apoA-I. The inhibition of LCAT by higher concentrations of apoHDL was not correlated with the aopA-II and apoC content.

  16. Membrane Permeability of Fatty Acyl Compounds Studied via Molecular Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermaas, Josh V. [Biosciences; Beckham, Gregg T. [National; Crowley, Michael F. [Biosciences

    2017-11-01

    Interest in fatty acid-derived products as fuel and chemical precursors has grown substantially. Microbes can be genetically engineered to produce fatty acid-derived products that are able to cross host membranes and can be extracted into an applied organic overlay. This process is thought to be passive, with a rate dependent on the chemistry of the crossing compound. The relationship between the chemical composition and the energetics and kinetics of product accumulation within the overlay is not well understood. Through biased and unbiased molecular simulation, we compute the membrane permeability coefficients from production to extraction for different fatty acyl products, including fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty aldehydes, alkanes, and alkenes. These simulations identify specific interactions that accelerate the transit of aldehydes across the membrane bilayer relative to other oxidized products, specifically the lack of hydrogen bonds to the surrounding membrane environment. However, since extraction from the outer membrane leaflet into the organic phase is found to be rate limiting for the entire process, we find that fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes would both manifest similar fluxes into a dodecane overlay under equivalent conditions, outpacing the accumulation of acids or alkanes into the organic phase. Since aldehydes are known to be highly reactive as well as toxic in high quantities, the findings suggest that indeed fatty alcohols are the optimal long-tail fatty acyl product for extraction.

  17. Acyl coenzyme A carboxylase of Propionibacterium shermanii: detection and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, L A; Ahmad, P M; Ahmad, F

    1981-01-01

    An acyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase, which catalyzes the adenosine triphosphate-dependent fixation of CO2 into acetyl-, propionyl-, and butyryl-CoA, was detected in fractionated cell extracts of Propionibacterium shermanii. Catalytic activity was inhibited by avidin but was unaffected by avidin pretreated with excess biotin. The carboxylase levels detected were relatively small and were related to cellular growth. Maximal carboxylase activity was detected in cells grown for about 96 h. Thereafter, the activity declined rapidly. Optimal CO2 fixation occurred at pH 7.5. Other parameters of the assay system were optimized, and the apparent Km values for substrates were determined. The end product of the reaction (with acetyl-CoA as the substrate) was identified as malonyl-CoA. The stoichiometry of the reaction was such that, for every mole of acetyl-CoA and adenosine triphosphate consumed, 1 mol each of malonyl-CoA, adenosine diphosphate, and orthophosphate was formed. These data provide the first evidence for the presence of another biotin-containing enzyme, an acyl-CoA carboxylase, in these bacteria in addition to the well-characterized methylmalonyl-CoA carboxyltransferase. PMID:6796564

  18. P53 Mutations Change Phosphatidylinositol Acyl Chain Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Naguib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP second messengers relay extracellular growth cues through the phosphorylation status of the inositol sugar, a signal transduction system that is deregulated in cancer. In stark contrast to PIP inositol head-group phosphorylation, changes in phosphatidylinositol (PI lipid acyl chains in cancer have remained ill-defined. Here, we apply a mass-spectrometry-based method capable of unbiased high-throughput identification and quantification of cellular PI acyl chain composition. Using this approach, we find that PI lipid chains represent a cell-specific fingerprint and are unperturbed by serum-mediated signaling in contrast to the inositol head group. We find that mutation of Trp53 results in PIs containing reduced-length fatty acid moieties. Our results suggest that the anchoring tails of lipid second messengers form an additional layer of PIP signaling in cancer that operates independently of PTEN/PI3-kinase activity but is instead linked to p53.

  19. N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines affect the lateral distribution of cholesterol in membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Térová, B.; Slotte, J.P.; Petersen, G.

    2005-01-01

    -acyl-POPE) or N-acyl-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (N-acyl-DPPE), and how the molecules interacted with cholesterol. The gel ¿ liquid crystalline transition temperature of sonicated N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine vesicles in water correlated positively with the number of palmitic acyl chains...... in the molecules. Based on diphenylhexatriene steady state anisotropy measurements, the presence of 33 mol% cholesterol in the membranes removed the phase transition from N-oleoyl-POPE bilayers, but failed to completely remove it from N-palmitoyl-DPPE and N-palmitoyl-POPE bilayers, suggesting rather weak...... interaction of cholesterol with the N-saturated NAPEs. The rate of cholesterol desorption from mixed monolayers containing N-palmitoyl-DPPE and cholesterol (1:1 molar ratio) was much higher compared to cholesterol/DPPE binary monolayers, suggesting a weak cholesterol interaction with N-palmitoyl-DPPE also...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10056 - Benzenemethanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. 721.10056 Section 721.10056 Protection of Environment...-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides (PMN P-03-47; CAS No. 90194-13-1) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7270 - 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride. 721.7270 Section 721.7270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-soya acyl derivs., chloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs...

  2. Relationships between acylated ghrelin with growth hormone, insulin resistance, lipid profile, and cardio respiratory function in lean and obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Matin Homaee

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Obese and lean inactive young men had different levels of acylated ghrelin, GH, insulin, insulin resistance index, cardiorespiratory function and body fat percent. Body fat percent, insulin, and GH levels appear to be best determinant factors of acylated ghrelin levels. Also, in both obese and lean young men, higher levels of cardiovascular function were associated with higher levels of acylated ghrelin.

  3. An Ultrahigh Resolution Structure of TEM-1 beta-Lactamase Suggests a Role for Glu166 as the General Base in Acylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minasov, George; Wang, Xiaojun; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    Although TEM-1 {beta}-lactamase is among the best studied enzymes, its acylation mechanism remains controversial. To investigate this problem, the structure of TEM-1 in complex with an acylation transition-state analogue was determined at ultrahigh resolution (0.85 {angstrom}) by X-ray crystallography. The quality of the data was such as to allow for refinement to an R-factor of 9.1% and an R{sub free} of 11.2%. In the resulting structure, the electron density features were clear enough to differentiate between single and double bonds in carboxylate groups, to identify multiple conformations that are occupied by residues and loops, and to assign 70% of the protons in the protein. Unexpectedly, even at pH 8.0 where the protein was crystallized, the active site residue Glu166 is clearly protonated. This supports the hypothesis that Glu166 is the general base in the acylation half of the reaction cycle. This structure suggests that Glu166 acts through the catalytic water to activate Ser70 for nucleophilic attack on the {beta}-lactam ring of the substrate. The hydrolytic mechanism of class A {beta}-lactamases, such as TEM-1, appears to be symmetrical, as are the serine proteases. Apart from its mechanistic implications, this atomic resolution structure affords an unusually detailed view of the structure, dynamics, and hydrogen-bonding networks of TEM-1, which may be useful for the design of inhibitors against this key antibiotic resistance target.

  4. Sequence-motif Detection of NAD(P)-binding Proteins: Discovery of a Unique Antibacterial Drug Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yun Hao; Wu, Chih Yuan; Sargsyan, Karen; Lim, Carmay

    2014-09-01

    Many enzymes use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)) as essential coenzymes. These enzymes often do not share significant sequence identity and cannot be easily detected by sequence homology. Previously, we determined all distinct locally conserved pyrophosphate-binding structures (3d motifs) from NAD(P)-bound protein structures, from which 1d sequence motifs were derived. Here, we aim to establish the precision of these 3d and 1d motifs to annotate NAD(P)-binding proteins. We show that the pyrophosphate-binding 3d motifs are characteristic of NAD(P)-binding proteins, as they are rarely found in nonNAD(P)-binding proteins. Furthermore, several 1d motifs could distinguish between proteins that bind only NAD and those that bind only NADP. They could also distinguish between NAD(P)-binding proteins from nonNAD(P)-binding ones. Interestingly, one of the pyrophosphate-binding 3d and corresponding 1d motifs was found only in enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductases, which are enzymes essential for bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. This unique 3d motif serves as an attractive novel drug target, as it is conserved across many bacterial species and is not found in human proteins.

  5. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    A quantitative treatment of a carrier pump operating with two carrier forms C and Z is presented. Asymmetric metabolic reactions are assumed to transform Z into C on one and C into Z on the other side of the membrane, establishing a carrier cycle. The kinetical consequences of this mechanism...

  6. β-Lapachone ameliorates lipotoxic cardiomyopathy in acyl CoA synthase transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Hee Jeong

    Full Text Available Lipotoxic cardiomyopathy is caused by myocardial lipid accumulation and often occurs in patients with diabetes and obesity. This study investigated the effects of β-lapachone (β-lap, a natural compound that activates Sirt1 through elevation of the intracellular NAD+ level, on acyl CoA synthase (ACS transgenic (Tg mice, which have lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. Oral administration of β-lap to ACS Tg mice significantly attenuated heart failure and inhibited myocardial accumulation of triacylglycerol. Electron microscopy and measurement of mitochondrial complex II protein and mitochondrial DNA revealed that administration of β-lap restored mitochondrial integrity and biogenesis in ACS Tg hearts. Accordingly, β-lap administration significantly increased the expression of genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid metabolism that were down-regulated in ACS Tg hearts. β-lap also restored the activities of Sirt1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, the two key regulators of metabolism, which were suppressed in ACS Tg hearts. In H9C2 cells, β-lap-mediated elevation of AMPK activity was retarded when the level of Sirt1 was reduced by transfection of siRNA against Sirt1. Taken together, these results indicate that β-lap exerts cardioprotective effects against cardiac lipotoxicity through the activation of Sirt1 and AMPK. β-lap may be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy.

  7. Growth arrest of vascular smooth muscle cells in suspension culture using low-acyl gellan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natori, Tomomi; Fujiyoshi, Masachika; Uchida, Masashi; Abe, Natsuki; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Ishii, Itsuko

    2017-03-01

    The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) causes restenosis in biomaterial vascular grafts. The purposes of this study were to establish a suspension culture system for SMCs by using a novel substrate, low-acyl gellan gum (GG) and to maintain SMCs in a state of growth inhibition. When SMCs were cultured in suspension with GG, their proliferation was inhibited. Their viability was 70% at day 2, which was maintained at more than 50% until day 5. In contrast, the viability of cells cultured in suspension without GG was 5.6% at day 2. By cell cycle analysis, the ratio of SMCs in the S phase when cultured in suspension with GG was lower than when cultured on plastic plates. In SMCs cultured in suspension with GG, the ratio of phosphorylated retinoblastoma (Rb) protein to Rb protein was decreased and p27Kip1 expression was unchanged in comparison with SMCs cultured on plastic plates. In addition, SMCs could be induced to proliferate again by changing the culture condition from suspension with GG to plastic plates. These results suggest that our established culturing method for SMCs is useful to maintain SMCs in a state of growth inhibition with high viability.

  8. Reversible acylation of factor Xa as a potential therapy for hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P H; Laibelman, A M; Sinha, U

    1997-11-15

    Current therapies for treatment of hemophilia A involve infusion of factor VIII, but are ineffective for patients who develop inhibitory antibodies. We have previously proposed that bypassing the intrinsic pathway (VIIIa/IXa) with reversibly acylated factor Xa offers an improvement on existing therapies as it provides a time-dependent release of procoagulant activity without the addition of factors VIII or IX. The present study was designed to determine the effect of substituted 4-amidinophenyl benzoates on the acylation of factor Xa, as well as the subsequent deacylation rates of the resulting acyl Xa. A subset of this series of acyl Xa's were incorporated into the prothrombinase complex and recovery of catalytic activity was measured by activation of prothrombin to thrombin. Similarly, some acyl Xa's were also evaluated for their capacity to enhance clotting times of human plasma. Our study indicates that by choosing the appropriate acyl Xa, the time course of factor Xa regeneration can be modulated extensively. Animal studies will be required to show that the use of acyl Xa as a procoagulant agent is feasible in an in vivo system.

  9. Accessing Stable Magnesium Acyl Compounds: Reductive Cleavage of Esters by Magnesium(I) Dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutland, Aaron J; Lamsfus, Carlos A; Maitland, Brant; Maron, Laurent; Stasch, Andreas; Jones, Cameron

    2017-10-09

    The first examples of magnesium acyls, [(Nacnac)Mg{μ-C(Ph)O}(μ-OR)Mg(Nacnac)] (R=Me, tBu or Ph; Nacnac=[HC(MeCNAr)2 ](-) ; Ar=C6 H2 Me3 -2,4,6 ((Mes) Nacnac), C6 H3 Et2 -2,6 ((Dep) Nacnac), C6 H3 iPr2 -2,6 ((Dip) Nacnac)), have been prepared by reductive cleavage of a series of esters using dimeric magnesium(I) reducing agents, [{(Nacnac)Mg}2 ]. Crystallographic studies reveal the complexes to be dimeric, being bridged by both phenyl-acyl and alkoxide/aryloxide fragments. The crystal structures, combined with results of spectroscopic and computational studies suggest that the nature of the acyl ligands within these complexes should be viewed as lying somewhere between anionic umpolung acyl and oxo-carbene. However, reactions of the acyl complexes with a variety of organic electrophiles did not provide evidence of umpolung acyl reactivity. A number of attempts to prepare alkoxide free magnesium acyls were carried out, and while these were unsuccessful, they did lead to unusual products, the crystallographic and spectroscopic details of which are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Acyl spermidines in inflorescence extracts of elder (Sambucus nigra L., Adoxaceae) and elderflower drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Larsson, Sonny; Veitch, Nigel C; Porter, Elaine A; Ding, Ning; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2013-04-10

    LC-UV-MS analyses of inflorescence extracts of Sambucus nigra L. (elder, Adoxaceae) revealed the presence of numerous acyl spermidines, with isomers of N,N-diferuloylspermidine and N-acetyl-N,N-diferuloylspermidine being most abundant. Pollen was the main source of the acyl spermidines in the inflorescence. Three of the major acyl spermidines were isolated and their structures determined by NMR spectroscopy as N⁵,N¹⁰-di-(E,E)-feruloylspermidine and the new compounds N¹-acetyl-N⁵,N¹⁰-di-(Z,E)-feruloylspermidine and N¹-acetyl-N⁵,N¹⁰-di-(E,E)-feruloylspermidine. An isomer of N,N,N-triferuloylspermidine was also obtained and identified as N¹,N⁵,N¹⁰-tri-(E,E,E)-feruloylspermidine. In addition to stereoisomers of the isolated acyl spermidines, other acyl spermidines detected by the positive ion LC-UV-MS were isomers of N-caffeoyl-N,N-diferuloylspermidine, N-coumaroyl-N,N-diferuloylspermidine, N-caffeoyl-N-feruloylspermidine, N-coumaroyl-N-feruloylspermidine, N-acetyl-N-caffeoyl-N-feruloylspermidine, and N-acetyl-N-coumaroyl-N-feruloylspermidine. Analysis of commercial elderflower drinks showed that acyl spermidines were persistent in these processed elderflower products. Examination of inflorescence extracts from Sambucus canadensis L. (American elder) revealed the presence of acyl spermidines that were different from those of S. nigra.

  11. A New Acylated Flavonol Glycoside from Chenopodium foliosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova, , , , , and

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new acylated flavonol glycoside, namely gomphrenol-3-O-( 5 '''-O-E-feruloyl-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→2[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 was isolated from the aerial parts of Chenopodium foliosum Asch. The structure of 1 was determined by means of spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, and HRESIMS. Radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of 1 were established using DPPH and ABTS radicals, FRAP assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LP in linoleic acid system by the ferric thiocyanate method. Compound 1 showed low activity (DPPH and ABTS or lack of activity (FRAP and LP. In combination with CCl 4, 1 reduced the damage caused by the hepatotoxic agent and preserved cell viability and GSH level, decreased LDH leakage and reduced lipid damage. Effects were concentration dependent, most visible at the highest concentration (100 µg/m L , and similar to those of silymarin .

  12. Synthesis of acyl derivatives of salicin, salirepin, and arbutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Elena V; Belyanin, Maxim L; Filimonov, Victor D

    2014-03-31

    The total synthesis of two natural phenolglycosides of the family Salicaceae, namely: populoside and 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy) cinnamoate and nine not found yet in plants acyl derivatives of phenoglycosides: 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzylcinnamoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzyl (4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzyl (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (3,4-dihydroxy) cinnamoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzylcinnamoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-benzoyloxy benzylbenzoate and 4-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-phenylbenzoate, starting from readily available phenols and glucose was developed for the first time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tunable Oleo-Furan Surfactants by Acylation of Renewable Furans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Sung; Joseph, Kristeen E.; Koehle, Maura; Krumm, Christoph; Ren, Limin; Damen, Jonathan N.; Shete, Meera H.; Lee, Han Seung; Zuo, Xiaobing; Lee, Byeongdu; Fan, Wei; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Lobo, Raul F.; Tsapatsis, Michael; Dauenhauer, Paul J.

    2016-11-23

    An important advance in fluid surface control was the amphiphilic surfactant comprised of coupled molecular structures (i.e. hydrophilic and hydrophobic) to reduce surface tension between two distinct fluid phases. However, implementation of simple surfactants has been hindered by the broad range of applications in water containing alkaline earth metals (i.e. hard water), which disrupt surfactant function and require extensive use of undesirable and expensive chelating additives. Here we show that sugar-derived furans can be linked with triglyceride-derived fatty acid chains via Friedel-Crafts acylation within single layer (SPP) zeolite catalysts. These alkylfuran surfactants independently suppress the effects of hard water while simultaneously permitting broad tunability of size, structure, and function, which can be optimized for superior capability for forming micelles and solubilizing in water.

  14. Heterocyclic inhibitors of AChE acylation and peripheral sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Andrisano, Vincenza; Bartolini, Manuela; Cavalli, Andrea; Minarini, Anna; Recanatini, Maurizio; Rosini, Michela; Tumiatti, Vincenzo; Melchiorre, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    Notwithstanding the criticism to the so called " cholinergic hypothesis", the therapeutic strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been mainly centered on the restoration of cholinergic functionality and, until the last year, the only drugs licensed for the management of AD were the acetycholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. Target enzyme AChE consists of a narrow gorge with two separate ligand binding sites: an acylation site at the bottom of the gorge containing the catalytic triad and a peripheral site located at the gorge rim, which encompasses binding sites for allosteric ligands. The aim of this short review is to update the knowledge on heterocyclic AChE inhibitors able to interact with the two sites of enzymes, structurally related to the well known inhibitors physostigmine, rivastigmine and propidium. The therapeutic potential of the dual site inhibithors in inhibiting amyloid-beta aggregatrion and deposition is also briefly summarised.

  15. Cholesterol oxides inhibit cholesterol esterification by lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder de Carvalho Pincinato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol oxides are atherogenic and can affect the activity of diverse important enzymes for the lipidic metabolism. The effect of 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol,5,6β-epoxycholesterol, 5,6α-epoxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol on esterification of cholesterol by lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT, EC 2.3.1.43 and the transfer of esters of cholesterol oxides from high density lipoprotein (HDL to low density lipoproteins (LDL and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP was investigated. HDL enriched with increasing concentrations of cholesterol oxides was incubated with fresh plasma as source of LCAT. Cholesterol and cholesterol oxides esterification was followed by measuring the consumption of respective free sterol and oxysterols. Measurements of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides were done by gas-chromatography. 14C-cholesterol oxides were incorporated into HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions and then incubated with fresh plasma containing LCAT and CETP. The transfer of cholesterol oxide esters was followed by measuring the 14C-cholesterol oxide-derived esters transferred to LDL and VLDL. All the cholesterol oxides studied were esterified by LCAT after incorporation into HDL particles, competing with cholesterol by LCAT. Cholesterol esterification by LCAT was inversely related to the cholesterol oxide concentration. The esterification of 14C-cholesterol oxides was higher in HDL3 and the transfer of the derived esters was greater from HDL2 to LDL and VLDL. The results suggest that cholesterol esterification by LCAT is inhibited in cholesterol oxide-enriched HDL particles. Moreover, the cholesterol oxides-derived esters are efficiently transferred to LDL and VLDL. Therefore, we suggest that cholesterol oxides may exert part of their atherogenic effect by inhibiting cholesterol esterification on the HDL surface and thereby disturbing

  16. A New Rapid In Vitro Assay for Assessing Reactivity of Acyl Glucuronides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Sheng; Jones, Russell; Lu, Wenzhe; Schadt, Simone; Ottaviani, Giorgio

    2015-11-01

    Idiosyncratic drug toxicity is a major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry since complex and multifactorial steps are involved, the dose-dependency is unclear, and its occurrence is not reliably predictable. Whereas the exact mechanisms leading to idiosyncratic toxicity remain elusive in many cases, there are often hints at the involvement of reactive metabolites, such as acyl glucuronides formed by conjugation of carboxylic acids with glucuronic acid. Because the patient-related susceptibilities leading to idiosyncratic toxicity are not sufficiently understood, the best option for the pharmaceutical industry is to minimize drug-related risk factors such as potential acyl glucuronide formation. Here, we describe a rapid in vitro assay for the assessment of the reactivity of acyl glucuronides, on the basis of acyl glucuronide migration, that can support the selection of low-risk drug candidates in the drug discovery phase. Twenty marketed compounds with a wide range of half-lives were tested, their acyl glucuronide migration rates were determined and compared with the half-lives of the respective acyl glucuronides. Ranking of acyl glucuronide stability using this method compared well with the results from existing methodologies. With this method, migration rates >20% would indicate higher risk of reactivity. This simpler approach using the acyl glucuronide migration rate is not dependent on authentic standards, therefore eliminating the requirement for either lengthy chemical synthesis or in vitro biosynthesis and purification of the 1-O-β-glucuronide. This methodology provides a rapid in vitro assay to assess acyl glucuronide stability and reactivity that is well suited for use early in the drug discovery phase. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Recombinant Passenger Proteins Can Be Conveniently Purified by One-Step Affinity Chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-zhen Wang

    Full Text Available Fusion tag is one of the best available tools to date for enhancement of the solubility or improvement of the expression level of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Typically, two consecutive affinity purification steps are often necessitated for the purification of passenger proteins. As a fusion tag, acyl carrier protein (ACP could greatly increase the soluble expression level of Glucokinase (GlcK, α-Amylase (Amy and GFP. When fusion protein ACP-G2-GlcK-Histag and ACP-G2-Amy-Histag, in which a protease TEV recognition site was inserted between the fusion tag and passenger protein, were coexpressed with protease TEV respectively in E. coli, the efficient intracellular processing of fusion proteins was achieved. The resulting passenger protein GlcK-Histag and Amy-Histag accumulated predominantly in a soluble form, and could be conveniently purified by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. However, the fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag was processed incompletely by the protease TEV coexpressed in vivo, and a large portion of the resulting target protein GFP-Histag aggregated in insoluble form, indicating that the intracellular processing may affect the solubility of cleaved passenger protein. In this context, the soluble fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag, contained in the supernatant of E. coli cell lysate, was directly subjected to cleavage in vitro by mixing it with the clarified cell lysate of E. coli overexpressing protease TEV. Consequently, the resulting target protein GFP-Histag could accumulate predominantly in a soluble form, and be purified conveniently by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. The approaches presented here greatly simplify the purification process of passenger proteins, and eliminate the use of large amounts of pure site-specific proteases.

  18. Potential role of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol transferase (ACAT) Inhibitors as hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerosis drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Carlos; Hill, John S; Wasan, Kishor M

    2005-10-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol transferase (ACAT) is an integral membrane protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. ACAT catalyzes the formation of cholesteryl esters from cholesterol and fatty acyl coenzyme A. The cholesteryl esters are stored as cytoplasmic lipid droplets inside the cell. This process is very important to the organism as high cholesterol levels have been associated with cardiovascular disease. In mammals, two ACAT genes have been identified, ACAT1 and ACAT2. ACAT1 is ubiquitous and is responsible for cholesteryl ester formation in brain, adrenal glands, macrophages, and kidneys. ACAT2 is expressed in the liver and intestine. The inhibition of ACAT activity has been associated with decreased plasma cholesterol levels by suppressing cholesterol absorption and by diminishing the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins such as very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). ACAT inhibition also prevents the conversion of macrophages into foam cells in the arterial walls, a critical event in the development of atherosclerosis. This review paper will focus on the role of ACAT in cholesterol metabolism, in particular as a target to develop novel therapeutic agents to control hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease.

  19. 49 CFR 369.2 - Classification of carriers-motor carriers of property, household goods carriers, and dual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification of carriers-motor carriers of property, household goods carriers, and dual property carriers. 369.2 Section 369.2 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS REPORTS OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 369.2 Classification of...

  20. Formation of N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine and N-acylethanolamine (including anandamide) during glutamate-induced neurotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Moesgaard, B.; Hansen, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    of NAPE are mainly 16:0 and 18:1, corresponding to the fatty acids in the sn-1 acyl group of the donor phospholipids. The NAPE-hydrolyzing phospholipase D also seems not to be acyl-group specific. In mouse neocortical neurons in primary culture, formation of NAPE and NAE is stimulated by glutamate via......N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) is present in very small amounts in mammalian tissues (less than 0.1% of total phospholipids). However, NAPE as well as its degradation production, N-acylethanolamine (NAE), can be formed in certain neuronal tissues in response to increased [Ca ](i). A high...... [Ca ](i) will activate the NAPE-forming N-acyl-transferase using the sn-1 acyl group of a donor phospholipid as substrate in the transfer reaction. This membrane-bound enzyme seems to have no substrate specificity with respect to transfer of acyl groups; thus the fatty acids in the N-acyl group...

  1. Composite hybrid cam carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madin, Mark Michael; Wicks, Christopher Donald

    2017-11-21

    A cam carrier assembly includes a body made of a material lighter than aluminum. The body has a first side operably coupled with a cylinder head and a second side having bearing surfaces with bearing inserts. The bearing inserts support the camshaft. A series of apertures extend between the first and second sides of the body. Lobes of the camshaft operably couple with the valves of the cylinder head through the series of apertures extending between the first and second sides of the body.

  2. Affinity of 3-acyl substituted 4-quinolones at the benzodiazepine site of GABAA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lager, Erik; Nilsson, Jakob; Nielsen, Elsebet Østergaard

    2008-01-01

    The finding that alkyl 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate and N-alkyl-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxamide derivatives may be high-affinity ligands at the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABA(A) receptor, prompted a study of 3-acyl-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline (3-acyl-4-quinolones......). In general, the affinity of the 3-acyl derivatives was found to be comparable with the 3-carboxylate and the 3-carboxamide derivatives, and certain substituents (e.g., benzyl) in position 6 were again shown to be important. As it is believed that the benzodiazepine binding site is situated between an alpha...

  3. Selective Acylation Enhances Membrane Charge Sensitivity of the Antimicrobial Peptide Mastoparan-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etzerodt, Thomas Povl; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Rasmussen, Palle

    2011-01-01

    to previous reports where peptide acylation enhanced membrane affinity but also resulted in impaired selectivity. Our result may provide a method of enhancing selectivity of antimicrobial peptides toward bacterial membranes due to their high negative charge—a finding that should be investigated for other......, more potent antimicrobial peptides in future studies.......The partitioning of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan-X (MPX) into neutral and negatively charged lipid membranes has been compared with two new synthetic analogs of MPX where the Nα-terminal of MPX was acylated with propanoic acid (PA) and octanoic acid (OA). The acylation caused a considerable...

  4. Exploring Cooperative Effects in Oxidative NHC Catalysis: Regioselective Acylation of Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, David L; Bera, Srikrishna; Studer, Armido

    2016-05-23

    The utility of oxidative NHC catalysis for both the regioselective and chemoselective functionalization of carbohydrates is explored. Chiral NHCs allow for the highly regioselective oxidative esterification of various carbohydrates using aldehydes as acylation precursors. The transformation was also shown to be amenable to both cis/trans diol isomers, free amino groups, and selective for specific sugar epimers in competition experiments. Efficiency and regioselectivity of the acylation can be improved upon using two different NHC catalysts that act cooperatively. The potential of the method is documented by the regioselective acylation of an amino-linked neodisaccharide. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Ma, Biao; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean (Glycine max) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351, encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1, BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2, 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III, DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1, and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean (Glycine soja) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. PMID:28184009

  6. Solubilization and reconstitution characteristics of the carrier protein(s) responsible for the transport of ceftibuten, a substrate for the oligopeptide transporters, in rat renal brush-border membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naasani, I; Kikuchi, T; Sugawara, M; Kobayashi, M; Iseki, K; Miyazaki, K

    1996-09-04

    Optimal procedures for the reconstitution of the transport activity of ceftibuten, a dianionic beta-lactam antibiotic, from rat kidney brush-border membrane were developed. The uptake activity into reconstituted proteoliposomes appeared to be particularly sensitive to the extraction conditions, and to the lipid composition used for reconstitution. Changes in the concentration of octyl glucoside significantly affected the extraction of ceftibuten transport activity, and optimal extraction was achieved at a concentration of 60 mM. Optimal reconstitution was achieved using a lipid composition of asolectin, cholesterol and phosphatidylserine in a w/w percent ratio of 60:30:10, respectively, and with a lipid-to-protein ratio of 10. The uptake of ceftibuten into the resulting proteoliposomes showed temperature and pH dependency, was inhibitable by a range of cephem antibiotics, oligopeptides and the organic anion PAH, and was trans-stimulated by cephalexin and dipeptides. This reconstitution system will likely prove useful in future studies on the functional analysis of the peptide transport system in a purified form.

  7. Purification of a jojoba embryo fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase and expression of its cDNA in high erucic acid rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, J G; Pollard, M R; Anderson, L; Hayes, T R; Lassner, M W

    2000-03-01

    The jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plant produces esters of long-chain alcohols and fatty acids (waxes) as a seed lipid energy reserve. This is in contrast to the triglycerides found in seeds of other plants. We purified an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR) from developing embryos and cloned the cDNA encoding the enzyme. Expression of a cDNA in Escherichia coli confers FAR activity upon those cells and results in the accumulation of fatty alcohols. The FAR sequence shows significant homology to an Arabidopsis protein of unknown function that is essential for pollen development. When the jojoba FAR cDNA is expressed in embryos of Brassica napus, long-chain alcohols can be detected in transmethylated seed oils. Resynthesis of the gene to reduce its A plus T content resulted in increased levels of alcohol production. In addition to free alcohols, novel wax esters were detected in the transgenic seed oils. In vitro assays revealed that B. napus embryos have an endogenous fatty acyl-coenzyme A: fatty alcohol acyl-transferase activity that could account for this wax synthesis. Thus, introduction of a single cDNA into B. napus results in a redirection of a portion of seed oil synthesis from triglycerides to waxes.

  8. A systems view of the differences between APOE ε4 carriers and non-carriers in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available APOE ε4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD and accounts for 50-65% of late-onset AD. Late-onset AD patients carrying or not carrying APOE ε4 manifest many clinico-pathological distinctions. Thus, we applied a weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify specific co-expression modules in AD based on APOE ε4 stratification. Two specific modules were identified in AD APOE ε4 carriers and one module was identified in non-carriers. The hub genes of one module of AD APOE ε4 carriers were ISOC1, ENO3, GDF10, GNB3, XPO4, ACLY and MATN2. The other module of AD APOE ε4 carriers consisted of 10 hub genes including ANO3, ARPP21, HPCA, RASD2, PCP4 and ADORA2A. The module of AD APOE ε4 non-carriers consisted of 16 hub genes including DUSP5, TNFRSF18, ZNF331, DNAJB5 and RIN1. The module of AD APOE ε4 carriers including ISOC1 and ENO3 and the module of non-carriers contained the most highly connected hub gene clusters. mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of the ISOC1 and ENO3 module of carriers was shown to be correlated in a time-dependent manner under APOE ε4 treatment but not under APOE ε3 treatment. In contrast, mRNA expression of the genes in the cluster of non-carriers’ module was correlated under APOE ε3 treatment but not under APOE ε4 treatment. The modules of carriers demonstrated genetic bases and were mainly enriched in hereditary disorders and neurological diseases, energy metabolism-associated signaling and G protein-coupled receptor-associated pathways. The module including ISOC1 and ENO3 harbored two conserved promoter motifs in its hub gene cluster that could be regulated by common transcription factors and miRNAs. The module of non-carriers was mainly enriched in neurological, immunological and cardiovascular diseases and was correlated with Parkinson’s disease. These data demonstrate that AD in APOE ε4 carriers involves more genetic factors and particular

  9. Apicoplast lipoic acid protein ligase B is not essential for Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Günther

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid (LA is an essential cofactor of alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes (KADHs and the glycine cleavage system. In Plasmodium, LA is attached to the KADHs by organelle-specific lipoylation pathways. Biosynthesis of LA exclusively occurs in the apicoplast, comprising octanoyl-[acyl carrier protein]: protein N-octanoyltransferase (LipB and LA synthase. Salvage of LA is mitochondrial and scavenged LA is ligated to the KADHs by LA protein ligase 1 (LplA1. Both pathways are entirely independent, suggesting that both are likely to be essential for parasite survival. However, disruption of the LipB gene did not negatively affect parasite growth despite a drastic loss of LA (>90%. Surprisingly, the sole, apicoplast-located pyruvate dehydrogenase still showed lipoylation, suggesting that an alternative lipoylation pathway exists in this organelle. We provide evidence that this residual lipoylation is attributable to the dual targeted, functional lipoate protein ligase 2 (LplA2. Localisation studies show that LplA2 is present in both mitochondrion and apicoplast suggesting redundancy between the lipoic acid protein ligases in the erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum.

  10. Permeation and metabolism of a series of novel lipophilic ascorbic acid derivatives, 6-O-acyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acids with a branched-acyl chain, in a human living skin equivalent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Akihiro; Goto, Satomi; Ishiguro, Yutaka; Suzuki, Kazuko; Nitoda, Teruhiko; Yamamoto, Itaru

    2004-02-09

    A series of novel lipophilic vitamin C derivatives, 6-O-acyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acids possessing a branched-acyl chain of varying length from C(8) to C(16) (6-bAcyl-AA-2G), were evaluated as topical prodrugs of ascorbic acid (AA) with transdermal activity in a human living skin equivalent model. The permeability of 6-bAcyl-AA-2G was compared with those of the derivatives having a straight-acyl chain (6-sAcyl-AA-2G). Out of 10 derivatives of 6-sAcyl-AA-2G and 6-bAcyl-AA-2G, 6-sDode-AA-2G and 6-bDode-AA-2G exhibited most excellent permeability in this model. Measurement of the metabolites permeated from the skin model suggested that 6-bDode-AA-2G was mainly hydrolyzed via 6-O-acyl AA to AA by tissue enzymes, while 6-sDode-AA-2G was hydrolyzed via 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid to AA. The former metabolic pathway seems to be advantageous for a readily available source of AA, because 6-O-acyl AA, as well as AA, is able to show vitamin C activity.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acylcarnitine (PDF) Formal Treatment/Management Guidelines (2 links) British Inherited Metabolic Disease Group: MCADD Dietary Management Guidelines ( ... Orphanet: Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency Screening, Technology, and Research in Genetics Virginia Department of Health ( ...

  12. A New Acyl-homoserine Lactone Molecule Generated by Nitrobacter winogradskyi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Qiuxuan; Gao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Liu, Shuangjiang; Liu, Zijun; Wang, Yinghuan; Guo, Baoyuan; Zhuang, Xuliang; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    .... In this study, the nwiI gene of Nitrobacter winogradskyi was confirmed to be a homoserine lactone synthase by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli that synthesized several acyl-homoserine...

  13. Metabolic regulation of histone acetyltransferases by endogenous Acyl-CoA cofactors | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unraveling the metabolic regulation of lysine acetyltransferases (KATs). Montgomery et al. detail the application of a competitive chemoproteomic strategy to quantitatively characterize the interactions of acyl-CoA metabolites with cellular KAT enzymes.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living with Inherited Metabolic Disease (CLIMB) Children's Mitochondrial Disease Network (UK) FOD (Fatty Oxidation Disorders) Family Support Group National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation GeneReviews (1 link) Short-Chain Acyl-CoA ...

  15. The Acute Effects of Swimming on Appetite, Food Intake, and Plasma Acylated Ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. King

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swimming may stimulate appetite and food intake but empirical data are lacking. This study examined appetite, food intake, and plasma acylated ghrelin responses to swimming. Fourteen healthy males completed a swimming trial and a control trial in a random order. Sixty min after breakfast participants swam for 60 min and then rested for six hours. Participants rested throughout the control trial. During trials appetite was measured at 30 min intervals and acylated ghrelin was assessed periodically (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7.5 h. =10. Appetite was suppressed during exercise before increasing in the hours after. Acylated ghrelin was suppressed during exercise. Swimming did not alter energy or macronutrient intake assessed at buffet meals (total trial energy intake: control 9161 kJ, swimming 9749 kJ. These findings suggest that swimming stimulates appetite but indicate that acylated ghrelin and food intake are resistant to change in the hours afterwards.

  16. [Design, synthesis and activity of N-acyl-thiochromenothiazol-2-amine as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng-Yue; Zhang, Yuan-Gong; Yang, Qi; Li, Jun-Jie; Yang, Geng-Liang

    2014-09-01

    A series of novel N-acyl-thiochromenothiazol-2-amine derivatives were designed and synthesized, furthermore, their inhibition effect on acetylcholinesterase was investigated. N-Acyl-thiochromenothiazol-2-amines were prepared from thiophenol by Hantzsch reaction, acylation reaction and substitution reaction. Moreover, their bioactivities as AChE inhibitors in vitro were measured with Ellman spectrophotometry. The results showed that most of them had a certain inhibition activity on AChE, and the compound 10a was the best in them. The IC50 of 10a to AChE is 7.92 μmol x L(-1), and the value is better than that of rivastigmine. N-Acyl-thiochromenothiazol-2-amine derivatives showed a certain bioactivity in vitro, which were worth further investigation.

  17. A bacterial acyl aminoacyl peptidase couples flexibility and stability as a result of cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocca, Stefania; Ferrari, Cristian; Barbiroli, Alberto; Pesce, Alessandra; Lotti, Marina; Nardini, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Life in cold environments requires an overall increase in the flexibility of macromolecular and supramolecular structures to allow biological processes to take place at low temperature. Conformational flexibility supports high catalytic rates of enzymes in the cold but in several cases is also a cause of instability. The three-dimensional structure of the psychrophilic acyl aminoacyl peptidase from Sporosarcina psychrophila (SpAAP) reported in this paper highlights adaptive molecular changes resulting in a fine-tuned trade-off between flexibility and stability. In its functional form SpAAP is a dimer, and an increase in flexibility is achieved through loosening of intersubunit hydrophobic interactions. The release of subunits from the quaternary structure is hindered by an 'arm exchange' mechanism, in which a tiny structural element at the N terminus of one subunit inserts into the other subunit. Mutants lacking the 'arm' are monomeric, inactive and highly prone to aggregation. Another feature of SpAAP cold adaptation is the enlargement of the tunnel connecting the exterior of the protein with the active site. Such a wide channel might compensate for the reduced molecular motions occurring in the cold and allow easy and direct access of substrates to the catalytic site, rendering transient movements between domains unnecessary. Thus, cold-adapted SpAAP has developed a molecular strategy unique within this group of proteins: it is able to enhance the flexibility of each functional unit while still preserving sufficient stability. Structural data are available in the Protein Data Bank under the accession number 5L8S. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Up-regulation of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) in nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Liang, Kaihui

    2002-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that hypercholesterolemia in rats with puromycin-induced nephrotic syndrome (NS) is associated with up-regulation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and relative down-regulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Ch-7alpha), which represent the rate-limiting steps in cholesterol biosynthesis and catabolism. Expression of HMG-CoA reductase is inhibited and Ch-7alpha is augmented by intracellular free cholesterol, which is avidly esterified by acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). Therefore, we hypothesized that NS may result in up-regulation of hepatic ACAT. Hepatic tissue ACAT mRNA (Northern blot), protein (Western blot) and enzymatic activity were determined in rats with puromycin-induced NS, placebo-treated control rats and Nagase hypoalbuminemic (NAG) rats. The NS group exhibited heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, normal creatinine clearance, severe hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Despite severe hypoalbuminemia, NAG rats with inherited hypoalbuminemia exhibited only a mild elevation of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Severe hypercholesterolemia in the NS group was coupled with depressed liver tissue free cholesterol concentration and marked increases in hepatic ACAT mRNA, protein and enzymatic activity. In contrast, ACAT mRNA and protein contents of the liver were normal and ACAT activity was mildly elevated in the NAG group. NS results in marked up-regulation of hepatic ACAT, which is primarily due to proteinuria and not hypoalbuminemia, since the latter alone, as seen in NAG rats, does not significantly impact ACAT expression. Elevated ACAT in NS can contribute to dysregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis and catabolism by limiting the normal cholesterol signaling involved in regulation of these processes.

  19. The Pseudomonas putida Lon protease is involved in N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoni Livia

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pseudomonas putida and Pseduomonas aeruginosa, the similar PpuR/RsaL/PpuI and LasR/RsaL/LasI acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs quorum sensing (QS systems have been shown to be under considerable regulation by other global regulators. A major regulator is the RsaL protein which strongly directly represses the transcription of the P. putida ppuI and P. aeruginosa lasI AHL synthases. In this study we screened a transposon mutant bank of P. putida in order to identify if any other regulators were involved in negative regulation of AHL QS. Results In our screen we identified three Tn5 mutants which displayed overproduction of AHLs in P. putida strain WCS358. Two of the mutants had a Tn5 located in the rsaL gene, whereas in one mutant the transposon was located in the lon protease gene. Lon proteases play important roles in protein quality control via degradation of misfolded proteins. It was determined that in the P. putida lon mutant, AHL levels, PpuR levels and ppuI promoter activity all increased significantly; we therefore postulated that PpuR is a target for Lon. The Lon protease had no effect on AHL production in P. aeruginosa. Conclusion The Lon protease is a negative regulator of AHL production in P. putida WCS358. The Lon protease has also been shown by others to influence AHL QS in Vibrio fischeri and Agrobacterium tumefaciens and can thus become an important regulator of AHL QS timing and regulation in bacteria.

  20. Purification and Characterization of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhameed Sabu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannin acyl hydrolase produced extracellularly by the fungal strain Aspergillus niger ATTC 16620 in solid state fermentation was purified from the cell free culture broth by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by DEAE–Sephadex A-50 chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the enzyme protein molecular mass was 168 kDa. Enzyme activity was stable up to the temperature of 40 °C and the enzyme activity was optimal at pH=6. Tannase activity was maximal at 0.01 M concentration of the substrate. The addition of metal ions like Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Ca2+, Mg2+and Fe2+ inhibited the enzyme activity. Only K+ ions enhanced tannase activity, and an activity of 4.31 U/mL was reported here. Enzyme activity was maximal after 15–20 min of incubation time, with an activity of 3.9 U/mL. Km was found to be 1.03 mM and Vmax=4.25 mmol/min. Since the enzyme is active over a wide range of pH and temperature it could find potential use in the food-processing industry.