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Sample records for acyclovir

  1. Acyclovir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs hoarseness fast heartbeat weakness pale skin difficulty sleeping fever, sore throat, chills, cough, and other signs of infection unusual bruising or bleeding blood in the urine ...

  2. Oral acyclovir (Zovirax) in herpes simplex dendritic corneal ulceration.

    OpenAIRE

    Collum, L M; McGettrick, P.; Akhtar, J.; Lavin, J.; Rees, P J

    1986-01-01

    Sixty patients with simple dendritic corneal ulceration were randomly assigned to double blind treatment with either acyclovir tablets (400 mg) or acyclovir ophthalmic ointment administered five times daily. There was no significant difference in the proportions of patients healed in either treatment group (88.9% on oral acyclovir and 96.6% on acyclovir ointment). The median healing time was five days in both groups. No systemic or significant local side effects were noted in either treatment...

  3. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Cortesi; Laura Ravani; Enea Menegatti; Drechsler, M.; Elisabetta Esposito

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was...

  4. Acyclovir prodrug for the intestinal di/tri-peptide transporter PEPT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anne Engelbrecht; Christensen, Michael Søberg; Bagger, Morten Aavad;

    2004-01-01

    a measure for intracellular accumulation. In addition, bi-directional transport studies of Glu(acyclovir)-Sar across Caco-2 cell monolayers and in vitro metabolism studies of Glu(acyclovir)-Sar in various media of rat origin were performed. For these purposes HPLC-UV analysis was applied. Oral......(acyclovir)-Sar, acyclovir and valacyclovir were given to rats and the collected blood samples were analysed via LC-MS-MS. Furthermore, Caco-2 cell monolayers were exposed apically to Glu(acyclovir)-Sar, acyclovir, and valacyclovir and the concentration of drug and prodrugs in the cell extracts were determined and taken as...

  5. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Rita; Ravani, Laura; Menegatti, Enea; Drechsler, M; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells. PMID:23112407

  6. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Rita; Ravani, Laura; Menegatti, Enea; Drechsler, M; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells.

  7. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Cortesi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells.

  8. Polymeric micelles for acyclovir drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawdon, Alicia J; Peng, Ching-An

    2014-10-01

    Polymeric prodrug micelles for delivery of acyclovir (ACV) were synthesized. First, ACV was used directly to initiate ring-opening polymerization of ɛ-caprolactone to form ACV-polycaprolactone (ACV-PCL). Through conjugation of hydrophobic ACV-PCL with hydrophilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) or chitosan, polymeric micelles for drug delivery were formed. (1)H NMR, FTIR, and gel permeation chromatography were employed to show successful conjugation of MPEG or chitosan to hydrophobic ACV-PCL. Through dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and critical micelle concentration (CMC), the synthesized ACV-tagged polymeric micelles were characterized. It was found that the average size of the polymeric micelles was under 200nm and the CMCs of ACV-PCL-MPEG and ACV-PCL-chitosan were 2.0mgL(-1) and 6.6mgL(-1), respectively. The drug release kinetics of ACV was investigated and cytotoxicity assay demonstrates that ACV-tagged polymeric micelles were non-toxic.

  9. Cocrystals of acyclovir with promising physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anindita; Rohani, Sohrab

    2015-01-01

    Cocrystal forming ability of antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) with different coformers was studied. Three cocrystals containing ACV with fumaric acid, malonic acid, and DL-tartaric acid were isolated. Methods of cocrystallization included grinding with dropwise solvent addition and solvent evaporation. The cocrystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The crystal structure of the cocrystal with fumaric acid as conformer was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Formation of supramolecular synthon was observed in the cocrystal. Stability with respect to relative humidity for the three cocrystals was evaluated. The aqueous solubility of the ACV-cocrystal materials was significantly improved with a maximum of malonic acid cocrystal, which was about six times more soluble at 35°C compared with that of parent ACV. The dissolution profile indicates that at any particular dissolution time, the concentration of cocrystals in the solution was higher than that of the parent ACV, and malonic acid cocrystals had a maximum release of about twice than the hydrated ACV.

  10. Formulation and Optimization of Mucoadhesive Nanodrug Delivery System of Acyclovir

    OpenAIRE

    Bhosale, UV; Kusum, Devi V; Jain, N

    2011-01-01

    Acyclovir is an antiviral drug used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections, with an oral bioavailability of only 10–20% [limiting absorption in gastrointestinal tract to duodenum and jejunum] and half-life of about 3 h, and is soluble only at acidic pH (pKa 2.27). Mucoadhesive polymeric nanodrug delivery systems of acyclovir have been designed and optimized using 23 full factorial design. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (50:50) was used as the polymer along with polycarbop...

  11. Acyclovir in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, S J; Linde, J; Bonnevie, O;

    1990-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that reactivation of a latent herpes simplex virus infection may be a cause of recurrent duodenal ulceration. Patients with recently healed duodenal ulcer were entered into a double blind, randomised study of maintenance treatment with the antiviral drug acyclovir...

  12. Design and development of microemulsion drug delivery system of acyclovir for improvement of oral bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Pradip Kumar; Majithiya, Rita J.; Umrethia, Manish L.; Murthy, Rayasa S. R.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to develop an oral microemulsion formulation for enhancing the bioavailability of acyclovir. A Labrafac-based microemulsion formulation with Labrasol as surfactant and Plurol Oleique as cosurfactant was developed for oral delivery of acyclovir. Phase behavior and solubilization capacity of the microemulsion system were characterized, and in vivo oral absorption of acyclovir from the microemulsion was investigated in rats. A single isotropic region, which was ...

  13. Alopecia following oral acyclovir for the treatment of herpes simplex keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report acyclovir-induced alopecia in a patient treated for herpetic keratouveitis. A 32-years-old female was diagnosed with herpetic keratouveitis. She was placed on prednisolone acetate (1% suspension four times a day, atropine sulfate (1% thrice a day, and oral acyclovir 400 mg twice-daily. Three weeks following oral acylovir, keratouveitis improved, but she developed alopecia without any drug eruptions. Oral acyclovir was discontinued. Three months later, alopecia completely resolved. Alopecia may be considered a possible complication following oral acyclovir.

  14. Formulation and evaluation of acyclovir microcapsules using bakers yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnan PN; Saraswathi R; Dilip C; Ramarao N

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To formulate and evaluate acyclovir microcapsules using bakers yeast. Methods:Acyclovir, pretreated yeast and deionised water were taken at a volumetric ratio of 1:2:4 respectively. This suspension was agitated in a magnetic stirrer at 25℃, 30℃, 35℃, and 40℃for 4 hours. The suspension was then centrifuged for 10 minutes at 2 000 rpm. The supernatant solution was decanted and the cells were washed 5 times with deionised water. Then the suspended drug entrapped yeast cells were dried in a lyophillizer for 48 hours. The yield was noted. Results:The first four formulations were done with 200 mg of the drug, followed by 400 mg for the next four formulations and 800 mg the last four formulations. SEM showed that the surface of the microcapsules was intact, with no burst characteristics. FTIR showed no interaction between acyclovir and the cell wall. DSC showed that the peak was within the standard values. The mean particle size for all the samples was 8 μm in diameter. The dissolution studies were done for all the twelve samples and showed a Fickian model of diffusion. Conclusions:From the results it is inferred that the samples prepared at 40℃(FY-4, FY-8, FY-12) show better entrapment and release. So these samples are formulated in the form of a suspension and compared with marketed acyclovir suspension using HPLC technique. The formulated suspensions with FY-4, FY-8 and FY-12 shows drug content in accordance with the standards of the pharmacopoeial limits.

  15. In vitro absorption studies of acyclovir using natural permeation enhancers

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Remeth J.; Mali, Kailas K.; Ghorpade, Vishwajeet S.; Garje, Sandeep B.; Havaldar, Vijay D.

    2010-01-01

    Gastroretentive Delivery Systems are employed to improve the bioavailability of drugs which are absorbed through upper part of GIT, by increasing their retention time. Incorporation of permeability enhancers in the formulations of such drugs can further increase their bioavailability; however their use in the formulations is questionable due to the toxicity exhibited by them. Acyclovir is a class III drug having low oral bioavailability due to improper absorption. Mucoadhesive tab...

  16. Design and Optimization of Floating Drug Delivery System of Acyclovir

    OpenAIRE

    Kharia A; Hiremath S; Singhai A; Omray L; Jain S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to design and optimize floating drug delivery systems of acyclovir using psyllium husk and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization of drug release profile. The amount of psyllium husk (X1) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M (X2) were selected as independent variables. The times required for 50...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of novel dipeptide ester prodrugs of acyclovir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashed, Yasser E.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2003-07-01

    Four dipeptide (Gly-Gly, Gly-Val, Val-Val, Val-Gly) ester prodrugs of 9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine (acyclovir, ACV) were synthesized. LC/MS was used to characterize the new prodrugs. Both 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the four prodrugs of ACV were measured and assigned based on spectral comparison with compounds of similar structures.

  18. Galactose decorated PLGA nanoparticles for hepatic delivery of acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swati; Agarwal, Abhinav; Gupta, Nishant Kumar; Saraogi, Gauravkant; Agrawal, Himanshu; Agrawal, G P

    2013-12-01

    The present study explores prospective of surface tailored nanoparticles for targeted delivery of acyclovir along with the interception of minimal side effects. Acyclovir loaded plain and galactosylated poly lectic co glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were efficiently prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. The formulations were evaluated for in vitro drug release and hemolysis. Further, biodistribution study and fluorescent microscopic studies were carried out to determine the targeting potential of formulations. SEM revealed smooth morphology and spherical shape of the nanoparticles. In vitro, the galactosylated nanoparticles were found to be least hemolytic and exhibited a sustained release pattern. In vivo studies exhibited an augmented bioavailability, increased residence time and enhanced delivery of acyclovir to the liver upon galactosylation. It may therefore be concluded that galactose conjugated PLGA nanoparticles can be used suitably as vehicles for delivery of bioactives specifically to the hepatic tissues and may be thus exploited in the effective management of various liver disorders.

  19. Design of Nanoparticles Loaded Acyclovir for Controlled Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadab Shahsavari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this research was to develop a new drug release systems based on Nanoparticles. In this study, the natural polymer chitosan was used for preparation of nanoparticles due to its unique properties, such as biocompatibility and biodegradability. Methods: The polymeric nano-drug controlled release system has been designed with experimental design D-optimal response surface methodology, for varied variables such as the concentration of acyclovir, concentration ratio of chitosan/ TPP and pH using the ionic gelation method. The nanoparticles were characterized morphologically by scanning electron microcopy (SEM, particle size analyser (DLS for determining size, zeta and PdI, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR Spectroscopy for determination of structure of nanoparticlesand thermo gravimetric analysis (TGAfor studying thermal behavior. The optimized nanoparticles were characterized. Results: The size of the particles was detected to be 132±24.3 nm; zeta potential was 32±2.87 mV; PdI of particles was 0.159±0.05; and calculated EE% was 85±4.38%. An in-vitro release study of the prepared nanoparticles illustrated that the percentage of acyclovir released from the nanoparticles was 80.17±2.45% within 48 hrs. Conclusion: The optimized nanoparticles according to SEM image, exhibited segregated and non-aggregated nanoparticles with sub-spherical smooth morphology and also the high thermal stability of acyclovir nanoparticles at temperature up to 200°C due to TGA analysis, which indicated a well-established structure of nanoparticles.

  20. Controlled delivery of acyclovir from porous silicon micro- and nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniya, Nalin H.; Patel, Sanjaykumar R.; Murthy, Z.V.P., E-mail: zvpm2000@yahoo.com

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous silicon (PSi) was fabricated by electrochemical etching process. • Micro- and nanoparticles were prepared by ultrasonic fracture of PSi films. • Acyclovir was loaded into native, oxidized, and hydrosilylated PSi particles. • Micro- and nanoparticles displays controlled release behaviour for several days. • Drug release behaviour and release kinetics from PSi particles were studied. - Abstract: In this work, micro- and nanoparticles of porous silicon (PSi) are demonstrated to act as effective carrier for the controlled delivery of acyclovir (ACV). PSi films prepared by electrochemical etching were fractured by ultrasonication to prepare micro- and nanoparticles. PSi native particles were thermally oxidized (TOPSi) and thermally hydrosilylated using undecylenic acid (UnPSi). PSi particles with three different surface chemistries were then loaded with ACV by physical adsorption and covalent attachment. Such particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro ACV release experiments in phosphate buffered saline showed sustained release behaviour from both micro- and nanoparticles and order of release was found to be native PSi > TOPSi > UnPSi. Drug release kinetics study using Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested a combination of both drug diffusion and Si scaffold erosion based drug release mechanisms.

  1. Biphasic gastroretentive drug delivery system of acyclovir: formulation and in vitro evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Bandari, Suresh; Yamsani, Madhusudan R.

    2010-01-01

    A biphasic gastroretentive drug delivery system of acyclovir consisted of loading dose tablet and floating multiple matrix tablets was prepared by direct compression process. The delivery system was designed by hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose as retardant polymer with an effervescent component to get the desired buoyant and sustained release characteristics. All formulations compile within the limits. The FTIR studies did not show any evidence of an interaction between acyclovir a...

  2. Preparation and evaluation of gastroretentive floating tablets of acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajeev; Gupta, G D

    2009-10-01

    The present study performed by preparation and evaluation of floating tablets of Acyclovir as model drug for prolongation of gastric residence time. Floating effervescent tablets were formulated by various materials like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K 4M, K 15M, psyllium husk, swelling agent as crospovidone and microcrystalline cellulose and gas generating agent like sodium bicarbonate and citric acid and evaluated for floating properties, swelling characteristics and in vitro drug release studies. Floating noneffervescent tablets were prepared by polypropylene foam powder and different matrix forming polymers like HPMC K 4M, Carbopol 934P, xanthan gum and sodium alginate. In vitro drug release studies were performed and drug release kinetics evaluated using the linear regression method was found to follow both the Higuchi and the Korsmeyer and Peppas equation. The drug release mechanism was found fickian type in most of the formulations.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of gastroretentive floating tablets of acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajeev; Gupta, G D

    2009-10-01

    The present study performed by preparation and evaluation of floating tablets of Acyclovir as model drug for prolongation of gastric residence time. Floating effervescent tablets were formulated by various materials like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K 4M, K 15M, psyllium husk, swelling agent as crospovidone and microcrystalline cellulose and gas generating agent like sodium bicarbonate and citric acid and evaluated for floating properties, swelling characteristics and in vitro drug release studies. Floating noneffervescent tablets were prepared by polypropylene foam powder and different matrix forming polymers like HPMC K 4M, Carbopol 934P, xanthan gum and sodium alginate. In vitro drug release studies were performed and drug release kinetics evaluated using the linear regression method was found to follow both the Higuchi and the Korsmeyer and Peppas equation. The drug release mechanism was found fickian type in most of the formulations. PMID:19751200

  4. Controlled delivery of acyclovir from porous silicon micro- and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniya, Nalin H.; Patel, Sanjaykumar R.; Murthy, Z. V. P.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, micro- and nanoparticles of porous silicon (PSi) are demonstrated to act as effective carrier for the controlled delivery of acyclovir (ACV). PSi films prepared by electrochemical etching were fractured by ultrasonication to prepare micro- and nanoparticles. PSi native particles were thermally oxidized (TOPSi) and thermally hydrosilylated using undecylenic acid (UnPSi). PSi particles with three different surface chemistries were then loaded with ACV by physical adsorption and covalent attachment. Such particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro ACV release experiments in phosphate buffered saline showed sustained release behaviour from both micro- and nanoparticles and order of release was found to be native PSi > TOPSi > UnPSi. Drug release kinetics study using Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested a combination of both drug diffusion and Si scaffold erosion based drug release mechanisms.

  5. The effects of oral Acyclovir in the treatment of necrotizing Herpetic keratouveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Hosseini Tehrani M;Poormostadam B;Vallaei N;Raiszadeh F "

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of administering oral acyclovir in conjunction with topical acyclovir and steroids in the treatment of necrotizing herpetic keratouveitis. All patients with necrotizing herpetic keratouveits who have been consulted during 1996-1997 at the farbi Eye Hospital were studied . the patients were randomly assigned to two groups. In the first group, topical acyclovir ointment and topical steroids were administered, while the second group took oral acyclovir, 1600 mg in four divided does in addition to the above mentioned treatment. The patients undervent follow-up examination every three days in the first three weeks and therafter periodically for one year.After three weeks, 92% and 88% improvement was observed in the first and second groups, respectively. The observed difference was not statistically significant. Making nonpharmacologic interventions such as application of soft contact lenses, corneal grafts, and conjunctival flaps were inevitable in some cases in both groups. Secondary infection was observed in three patients (first grop and two patients (2 and group.The sample size was not large enough to draw a definite statistical conclusion, but it seems that the addition of oral acyclovir has no added effect in the treatment of necrotizing herpetic keratouveitis than topical acyclovir and steroids. In this study , the males were affected more frequently than females.

  6. Acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis in a solid-organ transplant recipient on systemic immunosuppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner LD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liam Daniel Turner,1 Peter Beckingsale1,2,31Princess Alexandra Hospital; 2Terrace Eye Centre; 3Laser Sight, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaPurpose: To report a case of acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis in a solid-organ lung transplant recipient that was effectively treated with topical trifluridine.Methods: A case of a 35-year-old female with herpetic epithelial keratitis resistant to acyclovir is described. The patient presented following treatment for 4 weeks with topical acyclovir ointment five times per day and oral valacyclovir 1 g three times per day for herpetic keratitis with no resolution of the epithelial defect or symptoms. Corneal scrapes and swabs were taken for confirmation of the diagnosis and resistance testing. The results were positive for herpes simplex virus 1 and showed acyclovir resistance (inhibitor concentration 90 = 200 µg/mL and foscarnet sensitivity (inhibitor concentration 90 = 200 µg/mL. The patient was treated with topical trifluridine 2-hourly for 3 weeks and weaned off the drops over the following week.Results: The patient showed resolution of the epithelial defect, but did have significant corneal toxicity associated with the use of the trifluridine. At 8 weeks, the patient had some stromal shadowing associated with the recent active infection, but symptoms had settled.Conclusion: This case documents the effective use of topical trifluridine in proven acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis. It highlights three things: (1 the importance of considering topical trifluridine as an alternative to topical acyclovir in unresponsive disease; (2 the need to consider solid-organ transplant recipients in the immunocompromised population with resistant herpetic disease, and (3 the need to look for alternatives to treatment of resistant herpetic disease.Keywords: acyclovir resistance, herpetic keratitis, trifluridine

  7. Sustained Release Floating Microspheres Of Acyclovir: Formulation, Optimization, Characterization And In Vitro Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar Kunal Vinodbhai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to prepare floating microspheres of acyclovir to prolong residence time in stomach and to sustain the release of acyclovir. Acyclovir loaded floating microspheres were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The 32 full factorial design was applied to optimize the formulation. The resultant microspheres were evaluated for average particle size, percentage encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release and model fitting kinetics. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were used to investigate the physical state of the drug in the microspheres. The particle size of microspheres was in the range of 275-340 µm. Percentage encapsulation efficiency was between 59%-77% w/w. Microspheres remained buoyant for more than about 12 h. The results of FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry indicated the stable character of acyclovir in microspheres and also revealed absence of drugpolymer interaction. The in vitro drug release study showed that acyclovir release from the microspheres was slow and sustained for more than about 10 h. Drug release followed Korsemeyer-peppas model. The results of factorial batches revealed that the concentration of ethyl cellulose and stirring speed significantly affected drug encapsulation efficiency and particle size of the microspheres. Thus we can conclude that floating microspheres can successfully be developed to sustain the drug release.

  8. Design and optimization of floating drug delivery system of acyclovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharia A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to design and optimize floating drug delivery systems of acyclovir using psyllium husk and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization of drug release profile. The amount of psyllium husk (X1 and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M (X2 were selected as independent variables. The times required for 50% (t 50% and 70% (t 70% drug dissolution were selected as dependent variables. All the designed nine batches of formulations were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content uniformity, swelling index, in vitro buoyancy, and in vitro drug release profile. All formulations had floating lag time below 3 min and constantly floated on dissolution medium for more than 24 h. Validity of the developed polynomial equation was verified by designing two check point formulations (C1 and C2. The closeness of predicted and observed values for t 50% and t 70% indicates validity of derived equations for the dependent variables. These studies indicated that the proper balance between psyllium husk and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M can produce a drug dissolution profile similar to the predicted dissolution profile. The optimized formulations followed Higuchi′s kinetics while the drug release mechanism was found to be anomalous type, controlled by diffusion through the swollen matrix.

  9. [Diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for acyclovir-resistant herpes encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Acyclovir (ACV), which inhibits the replication of herpes simplex virus, is the standard drug for the treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis. Thanks to the introduction of ACV, the morbidity and mortality of HSE patients have significantly improved. However, the disease is still the severe infection, because it makes some patients with HSE suffer from severe consequences. The sensitivity test of the etiological HSV to ACV is very difficult due to the inability of isolation of the virus from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The cases of the ACV treatment-resistant HSE patients have been reported. However, these cases were not virologically confirmed. The first case of encephalitis in newborn baby with HSE caused by an ACV-resistant HSV-1, which was virologically confirmed, was reported by our group. According to the sensitivity profile of the causative viruses to antiviral drugs, the drugs of choice for HSE should be properly considered. Strategy for diagnoses of HSE including antiviral sensitivity assessment and selection of drugs in HSE is reviewed.

  10. Design and optimization of floating drug delivery system of acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharia, A A; Hiremath, S N; Singhai, A K; Omray, L K; Jain, S K

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present work was to design and optimize floating drug delivery systems of acyclovir using psyllium husk and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. A 3(2) full factorial design was used for optimization of drug release profile. The amount of psyllium husk (X1) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M (X2) were selected as independent variables. The times required for 50% (t(50%)) and 70% (t(70%)) drug dissolution were selected as dependent variables. All the designed nine batches of formulations were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content uniformity, swelling index, in vitro buoyancy, and in vitro drug release profile. All formulations had floating lag time below 3 min and constantly floated on dissolution medium for more than 24 h. Validity of the developed polynomial equation was verified by designing two check point formulations (C1 and C2). The closeness of predicted and observed values for t(50%) and t(70%) indicates validity of derived equations for the dependent variables. These studies indicated that the proper balance between psyllium husk and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M can produce a drug dissolution profile similar to the predicted dissolution profile. The optimized formulations followed Higuchi's kinetics while the drug release mechanism was found to be anomalous type, controlled by diffusion through the swollen matrix. PMID:21694992

  11. Polish consensus guidelines on the use of acyclovir in the treatment and prevention of VZV and HSV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenborn, Leszek; Kraszewska-Głomba, Barbara; Jackowska, Teresa; Duszczyk, Ewa; Majda-Stanisławska, Ewa; Marczyńska, Magdalena; Ołdak, Elżbieta; Pawłowska, Małgorzata; Służewski, Wojciech; Wysocki, Jacek; Stryczyńska-Kazubska, Joanna; Kuchar, Ernest

    2016-02-01

    A physician has to perform a benefit-risk assessment each time acyclovir is prescribed "off label" for children. A group of Polish infectious disease experts was created to develop evidence-based guidelines on the use of acyclovir in the treatment and prevention of varicella zoster and herpes simplex infections. In primary varicella zoster virus infections, oral acyclovir treatment is recommended in children over 12 years of age and should be considered in younger children who fall into one of the groups at risk of severe varicella. Intravenous acyclovir therapy in varicella is recommended in patients with immune deficiencies, newborns and in complicated cases. When there is a justified need for prevention of varicella, oral acyclovir prophylaxis may be considered if immunoglobulin cannot be administered, and if it is too late for vaccination. Oral acyclovir treatment of herpes zoster may be beneficial to otherwise healthy patients with a rash in places other than the trunk and in patients over 50 years of age. In immunocompetent patients with herpes simplex infections, indications for treatment with oral acyclovir include primary (genital herpes, skin herpes in children with atopic dermatitis, ocular herpes simplex, severe gingivostomatitis, paronychia and pharyngitis) and recurrent infections. Intravenous acyclovir should be administered for herpes infections in neonates, immunocompromised patients and patients who develop complications including neurological. PMID:26643900

  12. Enhancement of transdermal penetration and bioavailability of poorly soluble acyclovir using solid lipid nanoparticles incorporated in gel cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Gide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to increase the amount of acyclovir in the basal epidermis, site of herpes virus simplex infection, using the solid lipid nanoparticles loaded gel cream as carriers. Solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by high pressure homogenisation method and incorporated in a semisolid submicron gel cream. Acyclovir distribution into rat skin after topical application of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded gel cream was determined by fabricated Franz diffusion cell. The results showed that, the quantity of the acyclovir in the basal epidermis with the solid lipid nanoparticles loaded submicron gel cream was two folds times more than marketed acyclovir gel cream. This type of carrier can improve acyclovir loaded therapy since it increases drug retention in the basal epidermis.

  13. [A young patient of acute encephalitis complicated with acyclovir encephalopathy without renal dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Koji; Isozumi, Kazuo; Motohashi, Sachiko; Komatsumoto, Satoru; Fukuuchi, Yasuo

    2003-08-01

    A previously healthy 30-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of impaired consciousness after convulsion. A temporary diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was made, and intravenous acyclovir (ACV) therapy (250 mg four times daily in normal saline over 2 hours) was started. Three days later, she became confused, and was having hallucinations, dysarthria and generalized painful seizures occurred without focal neurologic deficit. Whether the neuropsychiatric symptoms were related to herpes simplex encephalitis or acyclovir neurotoxity was initially unclear. The brain MRI and lumbar puncture findings were initially normal, but abnormal FLAIR lesions appeared later. ACV-associated encephalopathy was considered. ACV was discontinued, and she recovered from the neurological disorder within 24 hours. Although blood levels of acyclovir were not determined, it is unlikely that they were in a toxic range, in view of her normal renal function.

  14. Necrotizing Keratitis Caused by Acyclovir-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus

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    Koji Toriyama

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report a case of necrotizing keratitis caused by acyclovir (ACV-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV with a clinical appearance similar to a previous fungal keratitis infection. Methods: Observational case report. Results: Penetrating keratoplasty was performed in the left eye with a history of herpetic keratitis that resolved with periodic treatment with ACV ointment and a topical steroid. The left eye was painful and red with an abscess and corneal erosion in the peripheral donor cornea. Examination of the scraped corneal epithelium by light microscopy and culturing identified Candida albicans; polymerase chain reaction (PCR was negative for human herpes viruses. After antifungal treatment, the ocular pain gradually decreased and the lesions slowly improved but recurred with a similar clinical appearance. A second light microscopy examination and cultures were negative for pathogens including C. albicans. PCR was positive for HSV-1 DNA; treatment with 3% topical ACV ointment was unsuccessful. A third examination showed only HSV-1 DNA. Despite antiviral ACV ointment, no clinical improvement occurred based on the HSV DNA copy numbers, which were the same before and after treatment, indicating a possible ACV-resistant strain. When topical trifluorothymidine was substituted for ACV, clinical improvement occurred and the HSV DNA copy numbers decreased. Conclusion: Necrotizing keratitis induced by ACV-resistant HSV occurred independently after fungal keratitis, with a similar clinical appearance in this case, making diagnosis and treatment difficult. Monitoring the HSV DNA load by real-time PCR could be useful for refractory cases even with atypical clinical appearances.

  15. Simultaneous delivery of tenofovir and acyclovir via an intravaginal ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, John A; Malone, Amanda M; Smith, Thomas J; Kennedy, Sean; Kopin, Etana; Nguyen, Cali; Gilman, Josh; Butkyavichene, Irina; Vincent, Kathleen L; Motamedi, Massoud; Friend, David R; Clark, Meredith R; Baum, Marc M

    2012-02-01

    Vaginal microbicides may play an important role in protecting women from HIV infection. A strong synergy between HSV and HIV has been observed, and epidemiological studies demonstrate that HSV infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition. Incorporation of the antiretroviral tenofovir (TFV) along with the antiherpetic acyclovir (ACV) into combination intravaginal rings (IVRs) for sustained mucosal delivery of both compounds could lead to increased microbicide product adherence and efficacy compared with conventional vaginal formulations. A novel, dual-protection "pod IVR" platform developed in-house and delivering ACV and TFV was evaluated in rabbit and sheep models. The devices were safe and exhibited sustained release of both drugs independently and at controlled rates over the 28-day studies. Daily release rates were estimated based on residual drug content of the used devices: rabbits, 343 ± 335 μg day(-1) (ACV) and 321 ± 207 μg day(-1) (TFV); sheep, 174 ± 14 μg day(-1) (ACV) and 185 ± 34 μg day(-1) (TFV). Mean drug levels in sheep vaginal samples were as follows: secretions, 5.25 ± 7.31 μg ml(-1) (ACV) and 20.6 ± 16.2 μg ml(-1) (TFV); cervicovaginal lavage fluid, 118 ± 113 ng ml(-1) (ACV) and 191 ± 125 ng ml(-1) (TFV); tissue, 173 ng g(-1) (ACV) and 93 ng g(-1) (TFV). An in vitro-in vivo correlation was established for both drugs and will allow the development of future formulations delivering target levels for prophylaxis and therapy. These data suggest that the IVR based on the pod design has potential in the prevention of transmission of HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted pathogens.

  16. Enhanced dermal delivery of acyclovir using solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanyog; Mistry, Meghal A; Swarnakar, Nitin K

    2011-10-01

    The present investigation was enthused by the possibility to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of hydrophilic drug acyclovir (ACV) and evaluate their potential as the carrier for dermal delivery. ACV-loaded SLNs (ACV-SLNs) were prepared by the optimized double emulsion process using Compritol 888 ATO as solid lipid. The prepared SLNs were smooth and spherical in shape with average diameter, polydispersity index, and entrapment efficiency of 262 ± 13 nm, 0.280 ± 0.01, and 40.08 ± 4.39% at 10% (w/w) theoretical drug loading with respect to Compritol 888 ATO content. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that ACV was present in the amorphous state inside the SLNs. In vitro skin permeation studies on human cadaver and Sprague-Dawley rat skin revealed 17.65 and 15.17 times higher accumulation of ACV-SLNs in the dermal tissues in comparison to commercially available ACV cream after 24 h. Mechanism of topical permeation and dermal distribution was studied qualitatively using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While free dye (calcein) failed to penetrate skin barrier, the same encapsulated in SLNs penetrated deeply into the dermal tissue suggesting that pilosebaceous route was followed by SLNs for skin penetration. Histological examination and transdermal epidermal water loss measurement suggested that no major morphological changes occurred on rat skin surface due to the application of SLNs. Overall, it was concluded that ACV-loaded SLNs might be beneficial in improving dermal delivery of antiviral agent(s) for the treatment of topical herpes simplex infection.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Stereoisomeric Dipeptide Prodrugs of Acyclovir Following Intravenous and Oral Administrations in Rats: A Study Involving In vivo Corneal Uptake of Acyclovir Following Oral Dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S.Talluri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To delineate the plasma pharmacokinetics and determine the corneal uptake of valine based stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. Pharmacokinetics of ACV, L-valine-acyclovir (LACV, L-valine- D-valine-acyclovir (LDACV and D-valine-L-valine acyclovir (DLACV prodrugs were delineated. These compounds were administered intravenously as a bolus via jugular vein cannula and orally by gavage. Samples were purified by protein precipitation method and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Pertinent pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by using WinNonlin. Corneal uptake studies of LDACV and LACV were studied following oral administration. Results: Following i.v. administration, the area under the curve (AUC in µM*min of generated ACV was in the order of LACV › LDACV › DLACV indicating their rate of metabolism. The AUC values of total drug obtained in the systemic circulation after oral administration LACV and LDACV were 1077.93 ± 236.09 and 1141.76 ± 73.67 µM*min, respectively. DLACV exhibited poor oral absorption. Cmax (µM and AUC of the intact prodrug obtained in the systemic circulation following oral administration of LDACV were almost 4–5 times higher than LACV. Moreover, concentrations achieved in the cornea after oral administration of LDACV were almost two times of LACV. Conclusions: LDACV increased both the oral bioavailability and subsequent in vivo corneal uptake of ACV. Hence, LDACV can be considered as the most promising drug candidate for delivery of ACV, in treatment of both genital herpes and ocular herpes keratitis after oral administration.

  18. Influence of Low Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Concentration on the Interactions and Properties of Hemoglobin with Acyclovir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-Qing; GUO Rong

    2006-01-01

    The effects of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the properties of hemoglobin (Hb) at low CTAB concentration were studied in Hb/acyclovir/CTAB system by the methods of UV-Vis spectrum, fluorescence, zeta potential, conductivity and negative-staining transmission electron microscope (TEM). With the increase of CTAB concentration, the UV peak intensity at 276 nm, the intrinsic fluorescence, the zeta potential of Hb and the system conductivity were all enhanced. Hb was easily oxidized to oxyHb and hemichrome. In Hb/acyclovir/CTAB system,CTAB made the UV-Vis spectrum, fluorescence, conductivity and conformation of Hb tend to be returned to those of the original Hb but the zeta potential not to do so. The UV absorption peak of Hb-acyclovir complex disappeared,and the tight structure of Hb aroused by acyclovir was refolded. When CTAB concentration was higher than 5 ×10-5 mol/L, the two absorption peaks at 536 and 576 nm appeared again, and the Hb structure became looser again.

  19. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of Oral Acyclovir in Renal Allograft Recipients

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    Walter F Schlech

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty renal transplant patients were randomized to receive either 800 mg acyclovir by mouth four times daily or identical placebo tablets for prophylaxis of herpes simplex infection. Patients were followed weekly to assess reactivation of herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus or cytomegalovirus (CMV infections. The patients received standard immunosuppressive regimens including cyclosporine A. Acyclovir suppressed secretion of herpes simplex virus in treated patients (P=0.001. Three episodes of mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus occurred in placebo recipients and one in a noncompliant acyclovir recipient. A clinically important difference in graft survival was demonstrated, but because of sample size failed to reach statistical significance (P=0.11. No reactivation of varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus or CMV infection was detected in either group. Toxicity was limited to central nervous irritability. The authors conclude that high dose oral acyclovir provides effective prophylaxis for prevention of herpes simplex virus infections in renal transplantation and may be associated with increased graft survival, perhaps from suppression of CMV infection.

  20. Acyclovir-resistant corneal HSV-1 isolates from patients with herpetic keratitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Duan (Rui); R.D. de Vries (Rory); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab); L. Remeijer (Lies); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe prevalence and molecular characteristics of isolates from 173 immunocompetent patients with herpetic keratitis (HK) whowere infected with acyclovir (ACV)-resistant(ACVR) corneal herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 was determined. Isolates from 11 (6.4%) of the patients were ACVR, and 9 of t

  1. Prevalence of intrathecal acyclovir resistant virus in herpes simplex encephalitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Mitterreiter (Johanna G.); M.J. Titulaer (Maarten); G.P. van Nierop (Gijsbert); J.J.A. van Kampen (Jeroen); G.I. Aron; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George); W.J.D. Ouwendijk (Werner )

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHerpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a life-threatening complication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Acyclovir (ACV) is the antiviral treatment of choice, but may lead to emergence of ACV-resistant (ACVR) HSV due to mutations in the viral UL23 gene encoding for the ACV-targeted

  2. A randomized, double-blind, comparative trial comparing high- and standard-dose oral acyclovir for first-episode genital herpes infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, A; Benedetti, J; Davis, G.; Remington, M; Winter, C; Corey, L

    1994-01-01

    Orally administered acyclovir ameliorates the clinical course and decreases the duration of viral shedding in patients with first-episode genital herpes infections. We investigated in a randomized, double-blind, comparative trial whether a higher (4 g) than standard (1 g) daily dose of oral acyclovir results in greater clinical benefit and influences the time to first recurrence. A total of 139 patients with first-episode genital herpes were randomized to receive orally 4 or 1 g of acyclovir ...

  3. Acyclovir and hydrocortisone cream for the early treatment of recurrent cold sores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A Sailer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrie A Sailer1, Spotswood L Spruance2, Christopher M Hull11Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USAAbstract: Current antiviral therapies for herpes simplex labialis primarily reduce healing time. Since the host immune response also plays a role in both controlling recurrent infection as well as producing clinical symptoms, new studies are showing efficacy using topical corticosteroids. This review will evaluate the safety and efficacy of 5% acyclovir–1% hydrocortisone cream (Xerese™[US], Xerclear®[Europe] for treatment of patients with herpes simplex labialis. A large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study recently demonstrated that treatment with 5% acyclovir–1% hydrocortisone cream significantly decreased the percentage of ulcerative lesions, reduced lesion healing time, and decreased mean lesion area compared with both topical acyclovir alone and vehicle.Keywords: herpes labialis, herpes simplex virus, HSV, acyclovir, hydrocortisone, ME-609, Xerese, Xerclear

  4. Differential scanning calorimetry as a screening technique in compatibility studies of acyclovir extended release formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Fernanda M.; Vecchia, Debora D. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Lab. de Controle de Qualidade; Tagliari, Monika P.; Ferreira, Andrea Granada; Silva, Marcos A.S.; Stulzer, Hellen K., E-mail: hellen.stulzer@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Lab. de Controle de Qualidade

    2009-07-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) has been investigated during the past years, mainly due to its antiviral activity. Assessment of possible incompatibility between an active component and different excipients along with the evaluation of thermal stability are crucial parts of a normal study prior to the final formulation setting of a medicine. Thermal analysis studies were used as important and complementary tools during pre-formulation to determine the compatibility of drug excipients with the purpose of developing an acyclovir extended release formulation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction analyses were also realized. The results showed that ACV only exhibited interaction which could influence the stability of the product in the binary mixtures of ACV/magnesium stearate. (author)

  5. In vitro transcutaneous permeation of acyclovir sodium from HPMC gels: role of chemical permeation enhancers

    OpenAIRE

    MATETI, ASHOK; Jukanti, Raju; Bandari, Suresh; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the permeation of acyclovir sodium (ACV) across stratum corneum (SC) from HPMC gel formulations. We have also investigated the role of chemical permeation enhancers like dimethyl sulfoxide, ethanol, limonene and sodium taurodeoxycholate on the transcutaneous permeation of ACV from HPMC gels. The optimized formulations were characterized and subjected to in vitro permeation study using excised rat abdominal skin. The histologica...

  6. 阿昔洛韦杂质F的合成%Synthesis of Acyclovir Impurity F

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁大伟

    2016-01-01

    In order to perform the quality control of acyclovir, the acyclovir impurity F was required as a chemical reference substance. Therefore, the impurity F was prepared by a highly regioselective O-deacetylation of acyclovir N,O-diacetate. The structure of the target compound was confirmed by 1H-NMR and MS, and the purity was over 99%by HPLC. The specified impurity could be used as the reference substance of the quality control in the development and manufacture of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and drug products.%以阿昔洛韦的合成中间体双乙酰阿昔洛韦为起始原料,经过一步区域选择性水解脱除O-乙酰基,得到阿昔洛韦杂质F。目标化合物的结构经过1H-NMR与MS确证,HPLC检测纯度达99%以上,可作为阿昔洛韦原料药质量控制的杂质对照品。

  7. Oxidation of the antiviral drug acyclovir and its biodegradation product carboxy-acyclovir with ozone: kinetics and identification of oxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, Carsten; Wagner, Manfred; Schulz, Ralf; Ternes, Thomas A

    2012-02-21

    The oxidation of the antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) and its main biotransformation product carboxy-acyclovir (carboxy-ACV) by ozone was investigated. Both compounds have recently been detected in surface water, and carboxy-ACV has also been detected in drinking water. The experiments revealed a strong pH dependence of the oxidation of ACV and carboxy-ACV with reaction rate constants increasing by 4 orders of magnitude between the protonated, positively charged form (k(ox,PH(+)), ∼2.5 × 10(2) M(-1) s(-1)) and the deprotonated, negatively charged form (k(ox,P(-)), 3.4 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). At pH 8 a single oxidation product was formed which was identified via LC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS and NMR as N-(4-carbamoyl-2-imino-5-oxoimidazolidin)formamido-N-methoxyacetic acid (COFA). Using Vibrio fischeri , an acute bacterial toxicity was found for COFA while carboxy-ACV revealed no toxic effects. Ozonation experiments with guanine and guanosine at pH 8 led to the formation of the respective 2-imino-5-oxoimidazolidines, confirming that guanine derivatives such as carboxy-ACV are undergoing the same reactions during ozonation. Furthermore, COFA was detected in finished drinking water of a German waterworks after ozonation and subsequent activated carbon treatment.

  8. The comparison between the efficacy of high dose acyclovir and erythromycin on the period and signs of pitiriasis rosea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsani Amirhooshang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pityriasis Rosea (PR is an acute inflammatory and self-limiting skin disorder, sometimes with troublesome symptoms. To date, there are few treatments available for this disorder. Aim: Compare the traditional treatment with erythromycin to a newly introduced antiviral treatment acyclovir for PR. Materials and Methods: Patients with clinically confirmed diagnosis of PR, matching our exclusion criteria, were enrolled. They were randomized in two groups that received high-dose oral acyclovir or erythromycin. The participants were evaluated two, four, and eight weeks after commencement of the study and followed for one year. Results: A total of 30 patients including 15 males and 15 females completed the study. After eight weeks, 13 patients in the acyclovir group experienced complete response, while in the erythromycin group only six patients had complete response (P < 0.05. Also, patients in the acyclovir group experienced faster resolution of pruritus in comparison with the erythromycin group (not significant. No adverse drug reaction was detected in both groups. Conclusion: It seemed that a high-dose of oral acyclovir was a safe and effective therapy for PR, although this remained to be confirmed in larger studies.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of acyclovir and/or human amniotic membrane on herpes virus culture and quantitative virus inactivity by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feride; Aylin; Kantarci; Ali; Reza; Faraji; Aykut; Ozkul; Fikret; Akata

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To investigate the permeability of amniotic membrane in herpes virus cell culture to acyclovir with real time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).·METHODS: Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney(MDBK) cell culture and Bovine Herpes Virus(BHV1) type 1 were used in the study. Cell cultures were grouped into two on the basis of herpes virus inoculation. Each group was sub-grouped into three. Amniotic membrane(V-HAM),acyclovir(V-A), and amniotic membrane and acyclovir(V-HAM-A) were applied to these subgroup cultures,respectively. After the application of the membrane and the drug, the cultures were evaluated at 24 and 48 h for cytopathic effect positive(CPE +) with a tissue culture microscope. In the CPE(+) samples, the DNA was extracted for viral DNA analysis by RT-PCR.·RESULTS: In control cultures without herpes virus CPE was not detected. Besides, amniotic membrane and acyclovir did not have cytotoxic effect on cell cultures.CPE were detected in Bovine Herpesvirus type-1inoculated cell cultures after amniotic membrane and/or acyclovir application. DNA analysis with RT-PCR indicated that Cycle threshold(Ct) values were lower in the BHV1 and membrane applied group(amniotic membrane group < acyclovir group < membrane and acyclovir group). This showed that membrane did not have antiviral effect. The membrane and acyclovir cell culture groups with high Ct values indicated thatmembrane was permeable and had a low barrier effect to drug.·CONCLUSION: In our in-vitro study, we found that amniotic membrane, which can be used in the treatment of corneal diseases, did not have antiviral effect. Besides,we detected that amniotic membrane was permeable to acyclovir in BHV-1 inoculated MDBK cell culture.However, more studies are necessary to investigate the quantitative effects of amniotic membrane and acyclovir.

  10. Acyclovir for treating varicella in otherwise healthy children and adolescents: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartling Lisa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acyclovir has the potential to shorten the course of chickenpox which may result in reduced costs and morbidity. We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials that evaluated acyclovir for the treatment of chickenpox in otherwise healthy children. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched. The reference lists of relevant articles were examined and primary authors and Glaxo Wellcome were contacted to identify additional trials. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, assessed study quality using the Jadad scale and allocation concealment, and extracted data. Continuous data were converted to a weighted mean difference (WMD. Overall estimates were not calculated due to differences in the age groups studied. Results Three studies were included. Methodological quality was 3 (n = 2 and 4 (n = 1 on the Jadad scale. Acyclovir was associated with a significant reduction in the number of days with fever, from -1.0 (95% CI -1.5,-0.5 to -1.3 (95% CI -2.0,-0.6. Results were inconsistent with respect to the number of days to no new lesions, the maximum number of lesions and relief of pruritis. There were no clinically important differences between acyclovir and placebo with respect to complications or adverse effects. Conclusion Acyclovir appears to be effective in reducing the number of days with fever among otherwise healthy children with chickenpox. The results were inconsistent with respect to the number of days to no new lesions, the maximum number of lesions and the relief of itchiness. The clinical importance of acyclovir treatment in otherwise healthy children remains controversial.

  11. Amino acid substitutions in the thymidine kinase gene of induced acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Ainulkhir; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) is an antiviral drug of choice in healthcare setting to treat infections caused by herpes viruses, including, but not limited to genital herpes, cold sores, shingles and chicken pox. Acyclovir resistance has emerged significantly due to extensive use and misuse of this antiviral in human, especially in immunocompromised patients. However, it remains unclear about the amino acid substitutions in thymidine (TK) gene, which specifically confer the resistance-associated mutation in herpes simplex virus. Hence, acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 was selected at high concentration (2.0 - 4.5 μg/mL), and the TK-gene was subjected to sequencing and genotypic characterization. Genotypic sequences comparison was done using HSV-1 17 (GenBank Accesion no. X14112) for resistance-associated mutation determination whereas HSV-1 KOS, HSV-1 473/08 and HSV clinical isolates sequences were used for polymorphism-associated mutation. The result showed that amino acid substitutions at the non-conserved region (UKM-1: Gln34Lys, UKM-2: Arg32Ser & UKM-5: Arg32Cys) and ATP-binding site (UKM-3: Tyr53End & UKM-4: Ile54Leu) of the TK-gene. These discoveries play an important role to extend another dimension to the evolution of acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 and suggest that selection at high ACV concentration induced ACV-resistant HSV-1 evolution. These findings also expand the knowledge on the type of mutations among acyclovir-resistant HSV-1. In conclusion, HSV-1 showed multiple strategies to exhibit acyclovir resistance, including amino acid substitutions in the TK gene.

  12. Evaluation of cross-linked chitosan microparticles containing acyclovir obtained by spray-drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stulzer, Hellen Karine [Laboratorio Quitech, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratorio de Controle de Qualidade, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratorio de Controle de Qualidade, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (Brazil)], E-mail: hellen.stulzer@gmail.com; Tagliari, Monika Piazzon [Laboratorio de Controle de Qualidade, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Parize, Alexandre Luis [Laboratorio Quitech, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Silva, Marcos Antonio Segatto [Laboratorio de Controle de Qualidade, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laranjeira, Mauro Cesar Marghetti [Laboratorio Quitech, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain microparticles containing acyclovir (ACV) and chitosan cross-linked with tripolyphosphate using the spray-drying technique. The resultant system was evaluated through loading efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in vitro release and stability studies. The results obtained indicated that the polymer/ACV ratio influenced the final properties of the microparticles, with higher ratios giving the best encapsulation efficiency, dissolution profiles and stability. The DSC and XRPD analyses indicated that the ACV was transformed into amorphous form during the spray-drying process.

  13. Development and Validation of Acyclovir HPLC External Standard Method in Human Plasma: Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvadurai Muralidharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and selective RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of acyclovir in human plasma. The method involves a simple protein precipitation technique. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a reverse phase C18 column using mixture of 5 mM ammonium acetate (pH 4.0 and acetonitrile (40 : 60, v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 290 nm. The retention time of acyclovir was 4.12 minutes. The method was validated and found to be linear in the range of 25.0–150.0 ng/mL. Validation studies were achieved by using the fundamental parameters, including accuracy, precision, selectivity, sensitivity, linearity and range, stability studies, limit of detection (LOD, and limit of quantitation (LOQ. It shows recovery at 91.0% which is more precise and accurate compared to the other method. These results indicated that the bioanalytical method was linear, precise, and accurate. The new bioanalytical method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic linearity study in human plasma.

  14. Cellulose Acetate 398-10 Asymmetric Membrane Capsules for Osmotically Regulated Delivery of Acyclovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Sonkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at developing cellulose acetate asymmetric membrane capsules (AMCs of acyclovir for its controlled delivery at the absorption site. The AMCs were prepared by phase inversion technique using wet process. A 23 full factorial design assessed the effect of independent variables (level(s of polymer, pore former, and osmogen on the cumulative drug release from AMCs. The buoyant optimized formulation F7 (low level of cellulose acetate; high levels of both glycerol and sodium lauryl sulphate displayed maximum drug release of 97.88±0.77% in 8 h that was independent of variation in agitational intensity and intentional defect on the cellulose acetate AMC. The in vitro data best fitted zero-order kinetics (r2=0.9898. SEM micrograph of the transverse section confirmed the asymmetric nature of the cellulose acetate capsular membrane. Statistical analysis by Design Expert software indicated no interaction between the independent variables confirming the efficiency of the design in estimating the effects of variables on drug release. The optimized formulation F7 (desirability = 0.871 displayed sustenance of drug release over the drug packed in AMC in pure state proving the superiority of osmotically active formulation. Conclusively the AMCs have potential for controlled release of acyclovir at its absorption site.

  15. Synergistic penetration of ethosomes and lipophilic prodrug on the transdermal delivery of acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Wei, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Xin-An

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the lipophilic prodrug as a means of promoting acyclovir (ACV) that exhibited biphasic insolubility into the ethosomes for optimum skin delivery. Acyclovir Palmitate (ACV-C(16)) was synthesized as the lipophilic prodrug of ACV. The ethosomal system and the liposomal system bearing ACV or ACV-C(16) were prepared, respectively. The systems were characterized for shape, zeta potential value, particle size, and entrapment efficiency. Franz diffusion cells and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used for the percutaneous absorption studies. The results showed that the entrapment efficiency of ACV-C(16) ethosomes (87.75%) were much higher than that of ACV ethosomes (39.13%). The quantity of drug in the skin from ACV-C(16) ethosomes at the end of the 24 h transdermal experiment (622.89 microg/cm(2)) was 5.30 and 3.43 times higher than that from ACV-C(16) hydroalcoholic solution and ACV ethosomes, respectively. This study indicated that the binary combination of the lipophilic prodrug ACV-C(16) and the ethosomes synergistically enhanced ACV absorption into the skin.

  16. The Influence of Chitosan on the Oral Bioavailability of Acyclovir-a Comparative Bioavailability Study in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubbinga, M.; Nguyen, M.A.; Staubach, P.; Teerenstra, S.; Langguth, P.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effects of chitosan hydrochloride on the oral absorption of acyclovir in humans were studied to confirm the absorption enhancing effects reported for in vitro and rat studies, respectively. METHODS: A controlled, open-label, randomized, 3-phase study was conducted in 12 healthy human vo

  17. Influences of Triton X-100 on Hemoglobin Behaviors in Hemoglobin/Acyclovir/Triton X-100/H2O System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Tian-Qing; GUO,Rong

    2007-01-01

    The influences of Triton X-100 on hemoglobin(Hb)behaviors were studied by the methods of UV-Vis spectrum,fluorescence spectrum,HPLC,conductivity,zeta potential and negative-staining transmission electron microscope in Hb/acyclovir/Triton X-100/H2O system.With the increase of Triton X-100 concentration in the system,the percentage of the free acyclovir increased from 58%-63% to 90%-94%.The static quenching constant and the association number of acyclovir to Hb decreased.The fluorescence spectrum,conductivity,zeta potential,fluorescence polarization and negative-staining morphology of Hb tended to recover to those of the original state of Hb in the same concentration of Hb.The interaction between Triton X-100 and Hb is stronger than that between acyclovir and Hb.Most Triton-X-100 was associated with Hb at low Triton X-100 concentration.But the interaction of Triton X-100 with Hb was apparently dominant in high Triton X-100 concentration.The Hb structure was unfolded and finally denatured.

  18. A case report of Epstein-Barr virus-associated retinal vasculitis: successful treatment using only acyclovir therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keorochana, Narumon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a presumed case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated retinal vasculitis in a 42-year-old female with sudden unilateral vision loss and successful treatment with acyclovir therapy. Diagnostic vitreous biopsy of the right eye was performed to test for EBV and other known infectious causes of retinitis and evaluate vitreous cells and serological testing. Vitreous polymerase chain reaction viral DNA testing result was positive for EBV but negative for herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus. Serologic testing was negative for toxoplasma gondii, syphilis, tuberculosis, and HIV. Histopathologic analysis of vitreous cells revealed atypical lymphocytes. Fluorescein angiography showed disk leakage, occluded retinal artery, peripheral vascular leakage, and ischemic area of the right eye. Intravenous acyclovir, 10 mg/kg/d, was prescribed for 14 days followed by oral acyclovir for 3 months. All lesions have become quiet. EBV may be a cause of retinal disease, and intravenous acyclovir is a successful treatment choice. PMID:27524923

  19. A case report of Epstein–Barr virus-associated retinal vasculitis: successful treatment using only acyclovir therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keorochana, Narumon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a presumed case of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated retinal vasculitis in a 42-year-old female with sudden unilateral vision loss and successful treatment with acyclovir therapy. Diagnostic vitreous biopsy of the right eye was performed to test for EBV and other known infectious causes of retinitis and evaluate vitreous cells and serological testing. Vitreous polymerase chain reaction viral DNA testing result was positive for EBV but negative for herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus. Serologic testing was negative for toxoplasma gondii, syphilis, tuberculosis, and HIV. Histopathologic analysis of vitreous cells revealed atypical lymphocytes. Fluorescein angiography showed disk leakage, occluded retinal artery, peripheral vascular leakage, and ischemic area of the right eye. Intravenous acyclovir, 10 mg/kg/d, was prescribed for 14 days followed by oral acyclovir for 3 months. All lesions have become quiet. EBV may be a cause of retinal disease, and intravenous acyclovir is a successful treatment choice. PMID:27524923

  20. Disposition kinetics of a dipeptide ester prodrug of acyclovir and its metabolites following intravenous and oral administrations in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talluri, Ravi S; Gaudana, Ripal; Hariharan, Sudharshan; Jain, Ritesh; Mitra, Ashim K

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the disposition kinetics of valine-valine-acyclovir (VVACV), a dipeptide ester prodrug of acyclovir following intravenous and oral administrations in rat. A validated LC-MS/MS analytical method was developed for the analysis VVACV, Valine-Acyclovir (VACV), and Acyclovir (ACV) using a linear Ion Trap Quadrupole. ACV was administered orally for comparison purpose. In the VVACV group, both blood and urine samples and in the ACV group only blood samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. The LLOQ for ACV, VACV, and VVACV were 10, 10, and 50 ng/ml, respectively. Relevant pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analyses of data with WinNonlin. Following i.v. administration of VVACV, AUC(0-inf) (min*µM) values for VVACV, VACV, and ACV were 55.06, 106, and 466.96, respectively. The AUC obtained after oral administration of ACV was 178.8. However, following oral administration of VVACV, AUC(0-inf) values for VACV and ACV were 89.28 and 810.77, respectively. Thus the exposure of ACV obtained following oral administration of VVACV was almost 6-fold higher than ACV. This preclinical pharmacokinetic data revealed that VVACV has certainly improved the oral bioavailability of ACV and is an effective prodrug for oral delivery of ACV.

  1. Comparative permeability of some acyclovir derivatives through native mucus and crude mucin dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legen; Kristl, A

    2001-08-01

    The permeability of some guanine derivatives (acyclovir [ACV], deoxyacyclovir [DCV], and their N-acetyl congeners) through native porcine mucus and crude porcine mucin dispersions (30% and 50% w/v) was investigated in two-compartment dialysis cells. High correlation between apparent permeability coefficients Papp of tested substances determined in these two models was observed, although the examined compounds permeated faster through the native mucus. It was also established that Papp values decrease with increasing hydrophilicity and molecular mass of the tested substances. Furthermore, the influence of some substances that affect mucus structure (cysteine, N-acetylcysteine [NCY], sodium taurocholate [ST], and sodium chloride) on the permeation rate of the examined compounds through mucus and mucin dispersions was examined. It was shown that the Papp values of guanine derivatives were generally lower after the addition of these substances to the native mucus and mucin dispersions, although the lowering effect was more pronounced in the case of native mucus.

  2. A Case of Hailey-Hailey Disease That Responds Dramatically to Acyclovir Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İjlal Erturan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hailey-Hailey disease is an autosomal dominantly inherited chronic bullous dermatosis that tends to remain localized to flexural areas. The typical onset of the disease is through papulovesicles or flaccid bullae on an erythematous background. Lesions are often painful and itchy and sometimes cause a burning sensation. Although there is no effective treatment for the disease, topical and systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics are often used in the treatment. Hailey-Hailey disease creates a predisposition to infections due to the deterioration of skin barrier function. Underlying secondary infections should be investigated, particularly in cases with treatment failure. In this article we present a case of Hailey-Hailey disease who did not obtain benefits with conventional treatment modalities and was showing dramatic improvement due to treatment with acyclovir.

  3. Latent acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 in trigeminal ganglia of immunocompetent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Monique; van Loenen, Freek B; Meesters, Roland J W; de Graaf, Miranda; Remeijer, Lies; Luider, Theo M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2012-05-15

    Specific mutations within the hypervariable herpes simplex virus (HSV) gene thymidine kinase (TK) gene lead to acyclovir (ACV) resistance. To uncover the existence of latent ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1, we determined the genetic and functional variability of the HSV-1 TK gene pool in paired trigeminal ganglia (TG) of 5 immunocompetent individuals. The latent virus pool consisted of a donor-specific HSV-1 quasispecies, including one major ACV-sensitive (ACV(S)) and multiple phylogenetic-related minor ACV(S) and ACV(R) TK variants. Contrary to minor variants, major TK variants were shared between paired TG. The data demonstrate the coexistence of phylogenetic-related ACV(S) and ACV(R) latent HSV-1 in human TG.

  4. Acyclovir-resistant corneal HSV-1 isolates from patients with herpetic keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Rui; de Vries, Rory D; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Remeijer, Lies; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2008-09-01

    The prevalence and molecular characteristics of isolates from 173 immunocompetent patients with herpetic keratitis (HK) who were infected with acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(R)) corneal herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 was determined. Isolates from 11 (6.4%) of the patients were ACV(R), and 9 of these 11 patients were refractory to therapy with ACV; the ACV(R) isolates from 5 and 1 of these 9 patients were cross-resistant to gancyclovir and to both gancyclovir and foscarnet, respectively. Of the 11 ACV(R) isolates, 10 had, in the thymidine kinase gene, mutations that presumably conferred the ACV(R) phenotype. These data demonstrate a relatively high prevalence of corneal HSV-1 ACV(R) isolates in patients with HK, which emphasizes the need to monitor for ACV susceptibility in patients with HK who are refractory to therapy with ACV.

  5. Lack of effect of treatment with penciclovir or acyclovir on the establishment of latent HSV-1 in primary sensory neurons in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Morroni, J; Wilcox, C L

    2001-10-01

    Recent studies suggest reductions in establishment of herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) latency using the nucleoside analog penciclovir compared with acyclovir in the murine model. These observations raise the possibility that the new analogs may have novel activities that directly interfere with the establishment of the latent infection, suggesting a mechanism other than simply blocking the productive infection. To determine if penciclovir has a direct action on the establishment of latency, we compared the effects of penciclovir versus acyclovir in an in vitro model of HSV-1 latency in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons in culture. In neurons in culture, both penciclovir and acyclovir were highly effective in blocking the productive infection. However, neither penciclovir nor acyclovir blocked establishment of latency as demonstrated by similar percentages of neurons expressing the latency-associated transcript (LAT). Following removal of the respective nucleoside analog, latency was maintained until reactivation was induced by nerve growth factor deprivation. Similar virus titers were recovered after induction of reactivation of latent infections, which were established in the presence of either penciclovir or acyclovir. These results indicate that neither penciclovir nor acyclovir treatment directly prevents the establishment of latent HSV-1 infections in primary sensory neurons in culture. PMID:11530184

  6. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects of your treatment using laboratory tests and physical examinations. It is important to keep all appointments ... health care provider as soon as possible: tenderness warmth irritation drainage redness swelling pain

  7. Randomized clinical study comparing Compeed (R) cold sore patch to acyclovir cream 5% in the treatment of herpes simplex labialis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmark, T.; Goodman, J.J.; Drouault, Y.;

    2008-01-01

    Background Hydrocolloid technology has been proven effective in treating dermal wounds. A previous study showed that a newly developed thin hydrocolloid patch [Compeed (R) cold sore patch (CSP)] provided multiple wound-healing benefits across all stages of a herpes simplex labialis (HSL) outbreak....... Methods An assessment of CSP efficacy and safety was conducted in an international, multicentre, assessor-blinded study, which enrolled 728 subjects with a history of recurrent HSL. Of these, 351 experienced an HSL outbreak and were randomized to use CSP (n = 179) or acyclovir cream 5% (n = 172...... with acyclovir, P = 0.37). Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion CSP using hydrocolloid technology provides an efficacious and safe alternative to topical antivirals in treating HSL as a wound while affording additional immediate benefits of wound protection, discretion and relief of social...

  8. Comparison of the Efficacy of Combination Therapy of Prednisolone-Acyclovir with Prednisolone Alone in Bell’s Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali KHAJEH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Khajeh A, Fayyazi A, Soleimani Gh, Miri-Aliabad Gh, Shaykh Veisi S, Khajeh B. Comparison of the Efficacy ofCombination Therapy of Prednisolone-Acyclovir with Prednisolone Alone in Bell’s Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015; 9(2:17-20.AbstractObjectiveBell’s palsy is a rapid onset, usually, unilateral paralysis of the facial nerve that causes significant changes in an individual’s life such as a decline in personal, social, and educational performance. This study compared efficacy of combined prednisolone and acyclovir therapy with prednisolone alone.Materials & MethodsThis study is a randomized controlled trial conducted on 43 Children (2–18 years old with Bell’s palsy. The first group of 23 patients was treated with prednisolone and the remaining patients were treated with a combination of prednisolone and acyclovir. The required data were extracted, using an informational form based on the House-Brackmann Scale, which grades facial nerve paralysis. The data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney test using SPSS version 16.ResultsThe mean age of the first and second group were 8.65 ± 5.07 and 8.35 ± 4.92 years, respectively, (p=0.84. Sixty one percent and 39% of patients in the first group, and 45% and 55% of patients in the second group were male and female, respectively. No significant differences exist between the groups in terms of age and gender. The rate of complete recovery was 65.2% in group I and 90% in the group II (p=0.04.ConclusionThe results of this study showed that the combined prednisolone and acyclovir therapy of patients with Bell’s palsy is far more effective than treatment with prednisolone alone. Actually, age and gender had no impact on the rate of recovery.

  9. Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Pilar Sánchez-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8–9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV.

  10. Development of a multi-layered vaginal tablet containing dapivirine, levonorgestrel and acyclovir for use as a multipurpose prevention technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Christopher; Major, Ian; Devlin, Brid; Brimer, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) are preferably single dosage forms designed to simultaneously address multiple sexual and reproductive health needs, such as unintended pregnancy, HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This manuscript describes the development of a range of multi-layered vaginal tablets, with both immediate and sustained release layers capable of delivering the antiretroviral drug dapivirine, the contraceptive hormone levonorgestrel, and the anti-herpes simplex virus drug acyclovir at independent release rates from a single dosage form. Depending on the design of the tablet in relation to the type (immediate or sustained release) or number of layers, the dose of each drug could be individually controlled. For example one tablet design was able to provide immediate release of all three drugs, while another tablet design was able to provide immediate release of both acyclovir and levonorgestrel, while providing sustained release of Dapivirine for up to 8h. A third tablet design was able to provide immediate release of both acyclovir and levonorgestrel, a large initial burst of Dapivirine, followed by sustained release of Dapivirine for up to 8h. All of the tablets passed the test for friability with a percent friability of less than 1%. The hardness of all tablet designs was between 115 and 153N, while their drug content met the European Pharmacopeia 2.9.40 Uniformity of Dosage units acceptance value at levels 1 and 2. Finally, the accelerated stability of all three actives was significantly enhanced in comparison with a mixed drug control. PMID:27163243

  11. A newfangled study using risk silhouette and uncertainty approximation for quantification of acyclovir in diverse formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karan Mittal; Riddhish Patadia; Chintan Vora; Rajashree C. Mashru

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment and uncertainty approximation are two major and important parameters that need to be adopted for the development of pharmaceutical process to ensure reliable results. Additionally, there is a need to switch from the traditional method validation checklist to provide a high level of assurance of method reliability to measure quality attribute of a drug product. In the present work, evaluation of risk profile, combined standard uncertainty and expanded uncertainty in the analysis of acyclovir were studied. Uncertainty was calculated using cause-effect approach, and to make it more accurately applicable a method was validated in our laboratory as per the ICH guidelines. While assessing the results of validation, the calibration model was justified by the lack of fit and Levene’s test. Risk profile represents the future applications of this method. In uncertainty the major contribution is due to sample concentration and mass. This work demonstrates the application of theoretical concepts of calibration model tests, relative bias, risk profile and uncertainty in routine methods used for analysis in pharmaceutical field.

  12. Electrospun formulations of acyclovir, ciprofloxacin and cyanocobalamin for ocular drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskakova, Alexandra; Awwad, Sahar; Jiménez, Jennifer Quirós; Gill, Hardyal; Novikov, Oleg; Khaw, Peng T; Brocchini, Steve; Zhilyakova, Elena; Williams, Gareth R

    2016-04-11

    Two series of fibers containing the active ingredients acyclovir, ciprofloxacin and cyanocobalamin, and combinations of these drugs, were prepared by electrospinning. One set used the hydrophilic poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) as the filament-forming polymer, while the other used the slow-dissolving poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). The fibers were found to have cylindrical morphologies, although there was evidence for solvent occlusion with the PVP systems and for some drug particles in the PCL materials. The active ingredients were generally present in the amorphous physical form in the case of PVP, but evidence of crystallinity was observed with PCL. The existence of intermolecular interactions between the drugs and polymers was proven using simple molecular modeling calculations. Drug release from the various fibers was tested in a validated in vitro outflow model of the eye, and the fiber formulations found to be capable of extending drug release. We thus conclude that electrospun matrices such as those prepared in this work have potential for use as intravitreal implants. PMID:26899973

  13. Effect of Purine Nucleoside Analogue-Acyclovir on The Sperm Parameters and Testosterone Production in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acyclovir (ACV, a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue derived fromguanosine, is known to be toxic to gonads and the aim of this study was to evaluate theeffect of ACV on the sperm parameters and testosterone production in rat.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats (220± 20 g were randomly divided into five groups (n=8 for each group. One groupserved as control and one group served as sham control [distilled water was intraperitoneally(i.p. injected]. ACV was administered intraperitoneally in the drugtreatment groups (4, 16 and 48 mg/kg/day for 15 days. Eighteen days after the lastinjection, rats were sacrificed by CO2 inhalation. After that, cauda epididymideswere removed surgically. At the end, sperm concentrations in the cauda epididymis,sperm motility, morphology, viability, chromatin quality and DNA integrity wereanalyzed. Serum testosterone concentrations were determined.Results: The results showed that ACV did not affect sperm count, but decreased spermmotility and sperm viability at 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels. Sperm abnormalities increasedat 48 mg/kg dose-level of ACV. Further, ACV significantly increases DNA damageat 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels and chromatin abnormality at all doses. Besides, asignificant decrease in serum testosterone concentrations was observed at 16 and 48 mg/kg doses.Conclusion: The present results highly support the idea that ACV induces testicular toxicityby adverse effects on the sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in malerats.

  14. Turning an antiviral into an anticancer drug: nanoparticle delivery of acyclovir monophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jing; Zhang, Yuan; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Wang, Yuhua; Huang, Leaf

    2013-09-28

    Anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) drug acyclovir (ACV) is phosphorylated by the viral thymidine kinase (TK), but not the cellular TK. Phosphorylated ACV inhibits cellular DNA synthesis and kills the infected cells. We hypothesize that ACV monophosphate (ACVP), which is an activated metabolite of ACV, should be efficient in killing cells independent of HSV-TK. If so, ACVP should be a cytotoxic agent if properly delivered to the cancer cells. The Lipid/Calcium/Phosphate (LCP) nanoparticles (NPs) with a membrane/core structure were used to encapsulate ACVP to facilitate the targeted delivery of ACVP to the tumor. The LCP NPs showed entrapment efficiency of ~70%, the nano-scaled particle size and positive zeta potential. Moreover, ACVP-loaded LCP NPs (A-LCP NPs) exhibited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against H460 cells and increased S-phase arrest. More importantly, a significant reduction of the tumor volume over 4 days following administration (pACV and ACVP) and blank LCP NPs showed little or no therapeutic effect. It was also found that the high efficacy of A-LCP NPs was associated with the ability to induce dramatic apoptosis of the tumor cells, as well as significantly inhibit tumor cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. In conclusion, with the help of LCP NPs, monophosphorylation modification of ACV can successfully modify an HSV-TK-dependent antiviral drug into an anti-tumor drug.

  15. Inclusion complex of the antiviral drug acyclovir with cyclodextrin in aqueous solution and in solid phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos von Plessing Rossel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Complexation between acyclovir (ACV, an antiviral drug used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infection, and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD was studied in solution and in solid states. Complexation in solution was evaluated using solubility studies and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR. In the solid state, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and dissolution studies were used. Solubility studies suggested the existence of a 1:1 complex between ACV and beta-CD. ¹H-NMR spectroscopy studies showed that the complex formed occurs with a stoichiometry ratio of 1:1. Powder X-ray diffraction indicated that ACV exists in a semicrystalline state in the complexed form with beta-CD. DSC studies showed the existence of a complex of ACV with beta-CD. The TGA studies confirmed the DSC results of the complex. Solubility of ACV in solid complexes was studied by the dissolution method and it was found to be much more soluble than the uncomplexed drug.

  16. Preparation and characterization of nanoparticles of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate containing acyclovir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, Venkata Bharadwaz; Chopra, Maulick; Joseph, Emil; Mazumder, Sonal

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate complexed with the poorly soluble antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) were produced by precipitation process and the formulation process and properties of nanoparticles were investigated. Two different particle synthesis methods were explored—a conventional precipitation method and a rapid precipitation in a multi-inlet vortex mixer. The particles were processed by rotavap followed by freeze-drying. Particle diameters as measured by dynamic light scattering were dependent on the synthesis method used. The conventional precipitation method did not show desired particle size distribution, whereas particles prepared by the mixer showed well-defined particle size ~125-450 nm before and after freeze-drying, respectively, with narrow polydispersity indices. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed chemical stability and intactness of entrapped drug in the nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the drug was in amorphous state in the polymer matrix. ACV drug loading was around 10 wt%. The release studies showed increase in solution concentration of drug from the nanoparticles compared to the as-received crystalline drug.

  17. Proteomic characterization of acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Han, Ya-Juan; Xu, Jia-Dong; Xing, Wen-Min; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) is an effective and widely used antiviral agent. However, its clinical application is limited by severe nephrotoxicity. We assessed ACV-induced nephrotoxicity and identified the differentially expressed proteins using mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis. In total, 30 ICR mice were intraperitoneally administrated ACV (150 or 600 mg/kg per day) for 9 days. After administration of ACV, levels of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen increased significantly. In addition, mouse kidneys exhibited histopathological changes and reduced expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR2. In the proteomic analysis, more than 1,000 proteins were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and a total of 20 proteins were up- or down-regulated in the ACV group compared with the saline group. Among these, six proteins (MHC class II antigen, glyoxalase 1, peroxiredoxin 1, αB-crystallin, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1-IIIb, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb) were identified in association with ACV-induced nephrotoxicity. These findings were confirmed by Western blotting analysis. The differential expression levels of α-BC, Prx1, Glo I and CcO Vb suggest that oxidative damage and mitochondrial injury may be involved in ACV-induced nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, VEGF and FGF may play a role in tissue repair and the restoration process following ACV nephrotoxicity.

  18. In vivo application of chitosan to facilitate intestinal acyclovir absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Ayumi; Goto, Yuko; Kurosaki, Yuji; Aiba, Tetsuya

    2012-07-01

    The effect of chitosan on the intestinal absorption of acyclovir (ACV) was evaluated in rats, and factors influencing its facilitative effect on the ACV absorption were examined. When ACV solution containing 1% chitosan with an average molecular weight of 150 kDa was administered into the upper jejunum, a significant increase in the plasma ACV concentration was observed, with the peak ACV concentration being eight times greater than that observed with the chitosan-free solution. The chitosan-free ACV solution, whose viscosity was adjusted to remain unchanged with polyethylene glycol, did not cause an increase in the plasma concentration, and neither did the chitosan-free solutions substitutionally containing low molecular cationic compounds, triethanolamine and kanamycin. When chitosan was digested with chitosanase to shorten its polycationic polysaccharide structure, chitosan subjected to 150-min digestion retained its facilitative effect on ACV absorption, but that subjected to 420-min digestion no longer caused facilitation, in which its average molecular weight was reduced to around 10 kDa. It is therefore indicated that intestinal ACV absorption can be facilitated with chitosan, and that it is necessary for chitosan to have a certain length of polycationic polysaccharide structure to exert such facilitation.

  19. Antiherpetic properties of acyclovir 5'-hydrogenphosphonate and the mutation analysis of herpes virus resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus'kova, Anna A; Skoblov, Mikhail Yu; Korovina, Anna N; Yasko, Maxim V; Karpenko, Inna L; Kukhanova, Marina K; Andronova, Valeria L; Galegov, George A; Skoblov, Yuri S

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we continued to study antiherpetic properties of acyclovir 5'-hydrogenphosphonate (Hp-ACV) in cell cultures and animal models. Hp-ACV was shown to inhibit the development of herpetic infection in mice induced by the HSV-1/L(2) strain. The compound suppressed replication of both ACV-sensitive HSV-1/L(2) and ACV-resistant HSV-1/L(2)/R strains in Vero cell culture. Viral population resistant to Hp-ACV (HSV-1/L(2)/R(Hp-ACV)) was developed much slower than ACV-resistant population. The analysis of Hp-ACV-resistant clones isolated from the HSV-1/L(2)/R(Hp-ACV) population demonstrated their partial cross-resistance to ACV. The mutations determining the resistance of HSV-1 clones to Hp-ACV were partly overlapped with mutations defining ACV resistance but did not always coincide. HSV-1/L(2)/R(Hp-ACV) herpes virus thymidine kinase is shortened from the C-terminus by 100 amino acid residues in length.

  20. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of acyclovir in pharmaceutical preparations using a pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilgin, Didem Giray; Karakaya, Serkan

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a new selective and sensitive voltammetric procedure for determination of acyclovir (ACV) was proposed using a disposable electrode, pencil graphite electrode (PGE). Cyclic and differential pulse voltammograms of ACV were recorded in Britton-Robinson buffer solution containing 0.10 M KCl with pH of 4.0 at PGE. The PGE displayed a very good electrochemical behavior with significant enhancement of the peak current compared to a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Under experimental conditions, the PGE had a linear response range from 1.0 μM to 100.0 μM ACV with a detection limit of 0.3 μM (based on 3 Sb). Relative standard deviations of 4.8 and 3.6% were obtained for five successive determinations of 10.0 and 50.0 μM ACV, respectively, which indicate acceptable repeatability. This voltammetric method was successfully applied to the direct determination of ACV in real pharmaceutical samples. The effect of various interfering compounds on the ACV peak current was studied.

  1. Phosphoramidate derivatives of acyclovir: synthesis and antiviral activity in HIV-1 and HSV-1 models in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Natalia F; Shipitsyn, Alexander V; Jasko, Maxim V; Prokofjeva, Maria M; Andronova, Valeria L; Galegov, Georgiy A; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Kochetkov, Sergey N

    2012-10-01

    The antiviral activity against HIV and HSV and the chemical stability of ACV phosphoramidate derivatives were studied. The phosphoramidates of ACV demonstrated moderate activity. The best compound appeared to be 9-(2-hydroxymethyl)guanine phosphoromonomorpholidate (7), which inhibited virus replication in pseudo-HIV-1 particles by 50% at 50 μM. It also inhibited replication of wild-type HSV-1 (9.7 μM) as well as an acyclovir-resistant strain (25 μM). None of the synthesised compounds showed any cytotoxicity.

  2. Prevalence of Intrathecal Acyclovir Resistant Virus in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterreiter, Johanna G; Titulaer, Maarten J; van Nierop, Gijsbert P; van Kampen, Jeroen J A; Aron, Georgina I; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Verjans, Georges M G M; Ouwendijk, Werner J D

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a life-threatening complication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Acyclovir (ACV) is the antiviral treatment of choice, but may lead to emergence of ACV-resistant (ACVR) HSV due to mutations in the viral UL23 gene encoding for the ACV-targeted thymidine kinase (TK) protein. Here, we determined the prevalence of intrathecal ACVR-associated HSV TK mutations in HSE patients and compared TK genotypes of sequential HSV isolates in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blister fluid of mucosal HSV lesions. Clinical samples were obtained from 12 HSE patients, encompassing 4 HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and 8 HSV-2 encephalitis patients. HSV DNA load was determined by real-time PCR and complete HSV TK gene sequences were obtained by nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. All HSV-1 HSE patients contained viral TK mutations encompassing 30 unique nucleotide and 13 distinct amino acid mutations. By contrast, a total of 5 unique nucleotide and 4 distinct amino acid changes were detected in 7 of 8 HSV-2 patients. Detected mutations were identified as natural polymorphisms located in non-conserved HSV TK gene regions. ACV therapy did not induce the emergence of ACVR-associated HSV TK mutations in consecutive CSF and mucocutaneous samples of 5 individual patients. Phenotypic susceptibility analysis of these mucocutaneous HSV isolates demonstrated ACV-sensitive virus in 2 HSV-1 HSE patients, whereas in two HSV-2 HSE patients ACVR virus was detected in the absence of known ACVR-associated TK mutations. In conclusion, we did not detect intrathecal ACVR-associated TK mutations in HSV isolates obtained from 12 HSE patients.

  3. UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF ACYCLOVIR IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Raju Padala

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Analytical method development being a vital part of pre formulation-formulation research and development obviates the need to develop reliable, effective, eco friendly and cost effective methodologies for routine analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients. UV spectroscopy is one of the earliest, yet of wide applications in drug analysis in different stages of formulations and quality control; despite the availabilities of sophisticated chromatographic techniques and other hyphenated techniques. Current research attempts to develop simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and economical UV spectrophotometric methods for the routine analysis of acyclovir in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms using two separate alkaline media, 0.1N NaOH (method A and 0.1N KOH (method B and validate them as per ICH guidelines. In both the methods maximum absorbance was observed at 264 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration of 2.5-40 µg / mL in method A and 2.5-30 µg / mL in method B with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The % recovery carried out by adding known amount of standard drug to pre-analyzed tablet solutions was 98.75 ± 0.52 % to 99.78 ± 0.69 % (method A and 98.55 ± 0.31 % to 99.78 ± 0.22 % (method B. Intra and interday precision expressed in % RSD were 0.38 ± 0.01 and 0.27 ± 0.02 - 0.44 ± 0.01 respectively and the percent purity was 99.85 ± 0.05 %. The methods were validated statistically as per ICH guidelines and the results obtained were within the acceptance criteria for the parameters relating to linearity, accuracy, precision.

  4. A comparison of the physicochemical properties and a sensory test of Acyclovir creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yutaka; Furuya, Kayoko; Matumoto, Miruto; Murata, Isamu; Kimura, Masayuki; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2012-10-15

    In external medicine, types and ratios of additives are not necessarily the same for well-known brand-name drugs and generic drugs. This study sought to compare the physicochemical properties and sensory test results of a brand-name Acyclovir (ACV) cream and two generic ACV creams. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy revealed changes in absorption spectra attributed to differences in the oil and water content of the 3 creams. In addition, ACV-B and ACV-C had similar NIR absorption spectra. Microscopic examination revealed crystallization in each of the creams and droplets in ACV-C. Powder X-ray diffraction measurement revealed diffraction peaks due to ACV for ACV-A and ACV-B. Assessment of viscoelasticity indicated that stress of subjection to 35 °C caused no changes in the viscoelasticity of ACV-B and ACV-C in comparison to stress of subjection to 25 °C but it did cause the viscoelasticity of ACV-A to decrease. ACV-A had a greater tolerance to stress and a higher viscosity, tan δ, and yield value than the other 2 creams. Results of a sensory test revealed significant differences in adhesiveness, spreadability, and feel for ACV-A in comparison to ACV-B and ACV-C. Thus, differences in the viscosity and elasticity of the creams due to differences in types and ratios of additives were noted. These differences are surmised to be differences in physical properties. In addition, results suggested that viscoelasticity and spreadability in the sensory test reflected differences in physical properties.

  5. Prevalence of Intrathecal Acyclovir Resistant Virus in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterreiter, Johanna G.; Titulaer, Maarten J.; van Nierop, Gijsbert P.; van Kampen, Jeroen J. A.; Aron, Georgina I.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Verjans, Georges M. G. M.; Ouwendijk, Werner J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a life-threatening complication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Acyclovir (ACV) is the antiviral treatment of choice, but may lead to emergence of ACV-resistant (ACVR) HSV due to mutations in the viral UL23 gene encoding for the ACV-targeted thymidine kinase (TK) protein. Here, we determined the prevalence of intrathecal ACVR–associated HSV TK mutations in HSE patients and compared TK genotypes of sequential HSV isolates in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blister fluid of mucosal HSV lesions. Clinical samples were obtained from 12 HSE patients, encompassing 4 HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and 8 HSV-2 encephalitis patients. HSV DNA load was determined by real-time PCR and complete HSV TK gene sequences were obtained by nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. All HSV-1 HSE patients contained viral TK mutations encompassing 30 unique nucleotide and 13 distinct amino acid mutations. By contrast, a total of 5 unique nucleotide and 4 distinct amino acid changes were detected in 7 of 8 HSV-2 patients. Detected mutations were identified as natural polymorphisms located in non-conserved HSV TK gene regions. ACV therapy did not induce the emergence of ACVR-associated HSV TK mutations in consecutive CSF and mucocutaneous samples of 5 individual patients. Phenotypic susceptibility analysis of these mucocutaneous HSV isolates demonstrated ACV-sensitive virus in 2 HSV-1 HSE patients, whereas in two HSV-2 HSE patients ACVR virus was detected in the absence of known ACVR-associated TK mutations. In conclusion, we did not detect intrathecal ACVR-associated TK mutations in HSV isolates obtained from 12 HSE patients. PMID:27171421

  6. Assessment of the physical properties and stability of mixtures of tetracycline hydrochloride ointment and acyclovir cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yutaka; Furuya, Kayoko; Maeda, Rikimaru; Murata, Isamu; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2013-04-15

    In dermatology, ointments are often mixed as part of drug therapy, but mixing often leads to incompatibility. Three combinations of tetracycline ointment (TC-o) and acyclovir cream (ACV-cr) were prepared at a TC-o:ACV-cr ratio of 1:1 using a brand-name ACV-cr and two generic ACV-cr (samples TC-o+ACV-A, TC-o+ACV-B, and TC-o+ACV-C). Microscopic examination revealed separation in TC-o+ACV-C. Viscosity and elasticity measurement indicated that the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of each of the TC-o+ACV-cr mixtures behaved similarly to those of an ACV-cr and the loss tangent (tanδ) behaved similarly to that of a TC ointment. In addition, differences in the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of the TC-o+ACV-cr mixtures were noted. To assess stability, each TC-o+ACV-cr mixture was stored away from direct sunlight at 25 °C and an RH of 84% and at 4 °C (in a refrigerator). HPLC revealed that the ACV content in each TC-o+ACV-cr mixture remained at 95-105% for up to 14 days under both sets of storage conditions. A decline in TC content in each TC-o+ACV-cr mixture was not noted with storage at 4 °C but was noted over time with storage at 25 °C and an RH of 84%. In addition, significant differences in the percent decline in TC content in each TC-o+ACV-cr mixture occurred with storage at 25 °C and an RH of 84%. Thus, differences in physical properties and stability may occur when combining brand-name and generic drugs, and temperature and humidity may be the cause of the TC-o's incompatibility.

  7. The antiviral drug acyclovir is a slow-binding inhibitor of (D)-amino acid oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katane, Masumi; Matsuda, Satsuki; Saitoh, Yasuaki; Sekine, Masae; Furuchi, Takemitsu; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Nakagome, Izumi; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Hirono, Shuichi; Homma, Hiroshi

    2013-08-20

    d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a degradative enzyme that is stereospecific for d-amino acids, including d-serine and d-alanine, which are believed to be coagonists of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. To identify a new class of DAO inhibitor(s) that can be used to elucidate the molecular details of the active site environment of DAO, manifold biologically active compounds of microbial origin and pre-existing drugs were screened for their ability to inhibit DAO activity, and several compounds were identified as candidates. One of these compounds, acyclovir (ACV), a well-known antiviral drug used for the treatment of herpesvirus infections, was characterized and evaluated as a novel DAO inhibitor in vitro. Analysis showed that ACV acts on DAO as a reversible slow-binding inhibitor, and interestingly, the time required to achieve equilibrium between DAO, ACV, and the DAO/ACV complex was highly dependent on temperature. The binding mechanism of ACV to DAO was investigated in detail by several approaches, including kinetic analysis, structural modeling of DAO complexed with ACV, and site-specific mutagenesis of an active site residue postulated to be involved in the binding of ACV. The results confirm that ACV is a novel, active site-directed inhibitor of DAO that can be a valuable tool for investigating the structure-function relationships of DAO, including the molecular details of the active site environment of DAO. In particular, it appears that ACV can serve as an active site probe to study the structural basis of temperature-induced conformational changes of DAO.

  8. Influence of drug loading and type of ointment base on the in vitro performance of acyclovir ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Xu, Xiaoming; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Rahman, Ziyaur; Yang, Yang; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-11-30

    The availability of in vitro performance tests such as in vitro drug release testing (IVRT) and in vitro permeation testing (IVPT) are critical to comprehensively assure consistent delivery of the active component(s) from semisolid ophthalmic drug products. The objective was to study the impact of drug loading and type of ointment base on the in vitro performance (IVRT and IVPT) of ophthalmic ointments using acyclovir as a model drug candidate. The in vitro drug release for the ointments was evaluated using a modified USP apparatus 2 with Enhancer cells. The transcorneal permeation was carried out using rabbit cornea on modified vertical Franz cells. The drug retention in cornea (DRC) was also determined at the end of transcorneal drug permeation study. The in vitro drug release, transcorneal drug permeation as well as DRC exhibited a proportional increase with increasing drug loading in the ointment. On comparing the in vitro drug release profile with transcorneal permeation profile, it appears that drug release from the ointment is controlling acyclovir transport through the cornea. Furthermore, enhanced in vitro transcorneal permeation relative to the in vitro drug release underscores the importance of the interplay between the physiology of the ocular tissue and ointment formulation. The results indicated that IVRT and IVPT could be used to discriminate the impact of changes in drug load and formulation composition of ophthalmic ointments.

  9. Genotypic detection of acyclovir-resistant HSV-1: characterization of 67 ACV-sensitive and 14 ACV-resistant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobert, Emilie; Cortay, Jean-Claude; Ooka, Tadamasa; Najioullah, Fatiha; Thouvenot, Danielle; Lina, Bruno; Morfin, Florence

    2008-07-01

    Infections due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) resistant to acyclovir (ACV) represent an important clinical concern in immunocompromised patients. In order to switch promptly to an appropriate treatment, rapid viral susceptibility assays are required. We developed herein a genotyping analysis focusing on thymidine kinase gene (TK) mutations in order to detect acyclovir-resistant HSV in clinical specimens. A total of 85 HSV-1 positive specimens collected from 69 patients were analyzed. TK gene could be sequenced directly for 81 clinical specimens (95%) and 68 HSV-1 specimens could be characterized as sensitive or resistant by genotyping (84%). Genetic characterization of 67 susceptible HSV-1 specimens revealed 10 polymorphisms never previously described. Genetic characterization of 14 resistant HSV-1 revealed 12 HSV-1 with either TK gene additions/deletions (8 strains) or substitutions (4 strains) and 2 HSV-1 with no mutation in the TK gene. DNA polymerase gene was afterwards explored. With this rapid PCR-based assay, ACV-resistant HSV could be detected directly in clinical specimens within 24 h.

  10. Novel water-soluble prodrugs of acyclovir cleavable by the dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV/CD26) enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Torrubia, Alberto; Cabrera, Silvia; de Castro, Sonia; García-Aparicio, Carlos; Mulder, Gwenn; De Meester, Ingrid; Camarasa, María-José; Balzarini, Jan; Velázquez, Sonsoles

    2013-01-01

    We herein report for the first time the successful use of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26) prodrug approach to guanine derivatives such as the antiviral acyclovir (ACV). The solution- and solid-phase synthesis of the tetrapeptide amide prodrug 3 and the tripeptide ester conjugate 4 of acyclovir are reported. The synthesis of the demanding tetrapeptide amide prodrug of ACV 3 was first established in solution and successfully transferred onto solid support by using Ellman's dihydropyran (DHP) resin. In contrast with the valyl ester prodrug (valacyclovir, VACV), the tetrapeptide amide prodrug 3 and the tripeptide ester conjugate 4 of ACV proved fully stable in PBS. Both prodrugs converted to VACV (for 4) or ACV (for 3) upon exposure to purified DPPIV/CD26 or human or bovine serum. Vildagliptin, a potent inhibitor of DPPIV/CD26 efficiently inhibited the DPPIV/CD26-catalysed hydrolysis reaction. Both amide and ester prodrugs of ACV showed pronounced anti-herpetic activity in cell culture and significantly improved the water solubility in comparison with the parent drug.

  11. Silicone-Acyclovir Controlled Release Devices Suppress Primary Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and Varicella Zoster Virus Infections In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L. Berkower

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following initial infection, herpesviruses retreat into a permanent latent state with periodic reactivation resulting in an enhanced likelihood of transmission and clinical disease. The nucleoside analogue acyclovir reduces clinical symptoms of the three human alpha herpesviruses, HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV. Long-term administration of acyclovir (ACV can reduce the frequency and severity of reactivation, but its low bioavailability and short half-life require a daily drug regimen. Our lab is working to develop a subcutaneous delivery system to provide long-lasting, sustained release of ACV. Previously, we demonstrated that an implantable silicone (MED-4050 device, impregnated with ACV protected against HSV-1 both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we extend our in vitro observations to include protection against both HSV-2 and VZV. We also demonstrate protection against HSV-2 in vitro using MED-4750, a silicone polymer designed for long-term use in humans. When release of ACV from MED-4750 is quantitated on a daily basis, an initial burst of 5 days is observed, followed by a long period of slow release with near-zero-order kinetics, with an average daily release of 1.3923 ± 0.5908 μg ACV over days 20–60. Development of a slow-release implant has the potential to significantly impact the treatment of human alpha herpesvirus infections.

  12. Evaluation of sorivudine (BV-araU) versus acyclovir in the treatment of acute localized herpes zoster in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodsworth, NJ; Boag, F; Burdge, D; Genereux, M; Borleffs, JCC; Evans, BA; Modai, J; Colebunders, R; Thomas, M; DeHertogh, D; Pacelli, L; Thomis, J; Knight, E.L.; McNulty, AM; Delaney, C; VanHove, D; Sacks, S; Gage, L; McLeod, A; DiazMitoma, F; Fong, J; MacFadden, D; Martel, A; Rachlis, A; Salit, [No Value; Shafran, S; Szabo, J; Toma, E; Deschenes, L; Gill, J; Lalonde, R; Kaufhold, R; Molina, JM; Dellamonica, P; Rozenbaum, W; Kolsters, FP; Meenhorst, PL; Danner, S; Sprenger, HG; EllisPegler, RB; Moragas, J; Moyle, G; Colman, J; Parnell, A; McLean, KA; Holmes, DA; Kitchen, C.M.R.; Linde, A; Dahl, H; Dwyer, D

    1997-01-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of sorivudine as treatment for acute cutaneous tester in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults was compared with that of acyclovir in a double-blinded randomized study, A total of 125 patients with laboratory-confirmed tester rash present for less than or equa

  13. Acyclovir Therapy Reduces the CD4+ T Cell Response against the Immunodominant pp65 Protein from Cytomegalovirus in Immune Competent Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Pachnio

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV infects the majority of the global population and leads to the development of a strong virus-specific immune response. The CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune response can comprise between 10 and 50% of the T cell pool within peripheral blood and there is concern that this may impair immunity to other pathogens. Elderly individuals with the highest magnitude of CMV-specific immune response have been demonstrated to be at increased risk of mortality and there is increasing interest in interventions that may serve to moderate this. Acyclovir is an anti-viral drug with activity against a range of herpes viruses and is used as long term treatment to suppress reactivation of herpes simplex virus. We studied the immune response to CMV in patients who were taking acyclovir to assess if therapy could be used to suppress the CMV-specific immune response. The T cell reactivity against the immunodominant late viral protein pp65 was reduced by 53% in people who were taking acyclovir. This effect was seen within one year of therapy and was observed primarily within the CD4+ response. Acyclovir treatment only modestly influenced the immune response to the IE-1 target protein. These data show that low dose acyclovir treatment has the potential to modulate components of the T cell response to CMV antigen proteins and indicate that anti-viral drugs should be further investigated as a means to reduce the magnitude of CMV-specific immune response and potentially improve overall immune function.

  14. Screening of herpes simplex virus type 1 isolates for acyclovir resistance using DiviTum® assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbrei, Andreas; Vödisch, Susanne; Bohn, Kathrin; Schacke, Michael; Gronowitz, Simon

    2013-03-01

    Rapid alternative methods are required to evaluate easily acyclovir (ACV) sensitivity of clinical herpes simplex virus (HSV) isolates. The objective of this study was to screen 54 ACV-sensitive and 41 ACV-resistant clinical HSV-1 isolates, well characterized by phenotypic and genotypic methods, for the phosphorylation activity of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) using a commercially available and modified non-radioactive DiviTum® test on the basis of an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The ACV-sensitive HSV-1 isolates had high TK activity values between 31.5±6.4 DiviTum® Units per liter (DU/L) and 487.4±60.1 DU/L. The mean activity of all ACV-sensitive isolates was calculated as 212.3±15.7 DU/L. By contrast, the mean activity of all ACV-resistant HSV-1 isolates was significantly lower at 5.5±1.3 DU/L. Out of the 41 ACV-resistant HSV-1 isolates, 38 had no or very low phosphorylation activities of the viral TK between 0 DU/L and 9.3±3.2 DU/L. The remaining three ACV-resistant viral isolates had TK activities between 44.6±5.1 DU/L and 80.9±13.3D U/L. In conclusion, the modified DiviTum® test can be used to screen HSV-1 isolates for their sensitivity to ACV. Acyclovir-sensitive HSV-1 isolates show TK activities >30 DU/L and ACV-resistant isolates have activity values ACV-resistant HSV-1 isolates can have TK activity values >30 DU/L. These strains are most likely ACV-resistant TK-altered mutants, but no evidence was provided for an alteration of the TK.

  15. Absence of rapid selection for acyclovir or penciclovir resistance following suboptimal oral prodrug therapy of HSV-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacon Teresa H

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acyclovir (ACV resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV isolates can be readily selected in animal infection models receiving suboptimal ACV treatment, however no comparative studies of the emergence of resistance following suboptimal treatment with valacyclovir (VCV or famciclovir (FCV, the prodrugs of acyclovir and penciclovir, respectively, have been reported. Methods Mice (n = 30 were infected with HSV type 1 or 2 in the ear pinnae and administered oral prodrugs at one fifth a dose previously shown to be effective. To select and amplify drug-resistant HSV, a total of seven consecutive in vivo passages with suboptimal treatment were performed for each virus sample and progeny virus from each passage was characterized by the plaque reduction (PRA and plating efficiency assays (PEA. Results No drug-resistant HSV-2 and only a single drug-resistant HSV-1 variant were identified. Virus recovered from the first three sequential passages of this HSV-1 sample was susceptible by PRA, although the proportion of resistant virus recovered gradually increased upon passage. The resistant HSV-1 phenotype was confirmed by PRA after four sequential passages in mice. Unexpectedly, this in vivo-selected drug-resistant HSV-1 failed to yield an infection completely refractory to treatment in subsequent passages. Conclusions Sub-optimal therapy of immunocompetent mice with either VCV or FCV did not readily select for HSV-mutants resistant to either ACV or PCV, suggesting that selection of resistance with either prodrug remains difficult using this system. Futhermore, this study suggests that the PEA may represent a useful adjunct to the PRA for monitoring alterations in the proportion of drug-resistant virus even when no change in IC50 is apparent.

  16. A comparative study of lamellar gel phase systems and emzaloids as transdermal drug delivery systems for acyclovir and methotrexate / Sonique Reynecke

    OpenAIRE

    Reynecke, Sonique

    2004-01-01

    The skin forms an attractive and accessible route for systemic delivery of drugs as alternative to other methods of administration, such as the oral and parental methods because of the problems associated with last mentioned methods. The lipophilic character of the stratum corneum, coupled with its intrinsic tortuosity, ensures that it almost always provides the principal barrier to the entry of drug molecules into the skin. Due to the fact that methotrexate (MTX) and acyclovir...

  17. 口服阿昔洛韦治疗水痘的疗效评价%The curative effect of oral acyclovir in treatment of chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建军; 黄国珍; 朱渝; 喻韬; 万朝敏

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of oral acyclovir in treatment of chickenpox. METHODS Updated evidences were identified by searching Cochrane library, MEDUNE and EMBASE. Only systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi- RCTs were included. The efficacy of oral acyclovir in treatment of chickenpox in healthy children was analyzed through evidence-based methods. RESULTS Oral acyclovir was associated with the reductions in the number of days with fever and in the number of rash. There were less supportive evidences in shortening the number of days to get new rash and relieving pruritus. CONCLUSION The clinical importance of oral acyclovir treatment in healthy children remains uncertain.%目的 对口服阿昔洛韦治疗水痘的疗效进行循证评价.方法 使用相关检索词对Cochrane图书馆、MEDLINE及EMBASE等数据库进行检索,获得关于口服阿昔洛韦治疗水痘的疗效的系统评价及随机对照实验,用循证医学的方法对口服阿昔洛韦治疗水痘的疗效进行评价.结果 口服阿昔洛韦能减少患者发热的天数及水痘皮疹的数量,但在缩短新生皮损出现时间及减轻皮肤瘙痒等方面尚不明确.结论 阿昔洛韦在治疗平素健康儿童水痘患者的重要性仍不明确.

  18. Nephrotoxicity of acyclovir and ganciclovir in rats: evaluation of glomerular hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, M de F; Dos Santos, O F; Boim, M A; Razvickas, C V; de Moura, L A; Ajzen, H; Schor, N

    1997-03-01

    Whole-kidney function and glomerular hemodynamics were evaluated after acute (50 mg/kg, iv, in bolus) and short-term chronic (50 mg mg/kg, ip, 5 days) acyclovir (ACV) and short-term chronic ganciclovir (Gan; 30 mg/kg, ip, 5 days) treatment in envolemic Munich-Wistar rats. The evaluation of whole-kidney function of the ACV groups showed a significant reduction in total GFR (0.96 +/- 0.10 to 0.28 +/- 0.02 mL/min in the acute group, P < 0.05, and 1.04 +/- 0.09 to 0.33 +/- 0.04 mL/min in the chronic group, P < 0.05) with a marked increase in total renal vascular resistance (TRVR) (33 +/- 5 to 122 +/- 26 mm Hg.min/mL in the acute group and 28 +/- 3 to 74 +/- 18 mm Hg.min/mL in the chronic group, P < 0.05) and a reduction in RPF (2.29 +/- 0.25 to 0.81 +/- 0.15 mL/min in the acute group and 2.57 +/- 0.36 to 1.30 +/- 0.40 mL/min in the chronic group, P < 0.05). Conversely, urinary flow (V') was unchanged (3.6 +/- 0.4 to 3.6 +/- 0.2 microL/min in the acute group) or elevated (3.7 +/- 0.6 to 6.6 +/- 1.4 microL/min in the chronic group, P < 0.05). The evaluation of glomerular hemodynamics after ACV treatment showed a reduction in single-nephron GFR (SNGFR) (46.4 +/- 5.3 to 26.2 +/- 3.4 nL/min in the acute group and 38.7 +/- 5.7 to 21.1 +/- 5.7 nL/min in the chronic group, P < 0.05), a significant elevation in total arteriolar resistance (RT) (2.90 +/- 0.44 to 4.94 +/- 0.77 x 10(10) dyn.s.cm-5 in the acute group and 3.72 +/- 0.45 to 9.00 +/- 2.40 x 10(10) dyn.s.cm-5 in the chronic group, P < 0.05) and a severe reduction in glomerular plasma flow rate (QA) (152.6 +/- 29.5 to 103.8 +/- 27.8 nL/min in the acute group and 149.1 +/- 29.8 to 68.5 +/- 10.0 nL/min in the chronic group, P < 0.05). However, the glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient, Kf, was changed only in the chronic group (0.1002 +/- 0.0165 to 0.0499 +/- 0.0090 nL/(s.mm Hg), P < 0.05). After Gan treatment, no changes were observed in GFR (1.04 +/- 0.09 to 0.96 +/- 0.08 mL/min, with the maintenance of RPF (2.57 +/- 0

  19. Utilization of nanotechnology to enhance percutaneous absorption of acyclovir in the treatment of herpes simplex viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Subaie MM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutlaq M Al-Subaie,1 Khaled M Hosny,1,2 Khalid Mohamed El-Say,1,3 Tarek A Ahmed,1,3 Bader M Aljaeid1 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: This study aimed to formulate an optimized acyclovir (ACV nanoemulsion hydrogel in order to provide a solution for the slow, variable, and incomplete oral drug absorption in patient suffering from herpes simplex viral infection. Solubility of ACV in different oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants was explored utilizing a cubic model mixture design to obtain a nanoemulsion with minimum globule size. Preparation of an optimized ACV nanoemulsion hydrogel using a three-factor, three-level Box–Behnken statistical design was conducted. The molecular weight of chitosan (X1, percentage of chitosan (X2, and percentage of Eugenol as a skin permeation enhancer (X3 were selected to study their effects on hydrogel spreadability (Y1 and percent ACV permeated through rat skin after 2.5 hours (Y2. A pharmacokinetic study of the optimized ACV nanoemulsion hydrogel was conducted in rats. Mixtures of clove oil and castor oil (3:1 ratio, Tween 80 and Span 80 (3:1 ratio, and propylene glycol and Myo-6V (3:1 ratio were selected as the oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant phases, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the molecular weight of chitosan has a significant antagonistic effect on spreadability, but has no significant effect on the percent ACV permeated. The percentage of chitosan also has a significant antagonistic effect on the spreadability and percent ACV permeated. On the other hand, the percentage of Eugenol has a significant synergistic effect on percent ACV permeated, with no effect on

  20. Mechanisms associated with HIV-1 resistance to acyclovir by the V75I mutation in reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchesnokov, Egor P; Obikhod, Aleksandr; Massud, Ivana; Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Brichacek, Beda; Balzarini, Jan; McGuigan, Christopher; Derudas, Marco; Margolis, Leonid; Schinazi, Raymond F; Götte, Matthias

    2009-08-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the anti-herpetic drug acyclovir (ACV) also displays antiviral activity against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The triphosphate form of ACV is accepted by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), and subsequent incorporation leads to classical chain termination. Like all approved nucleoside analogue RT inhibitors (NRTIs), the selective pressure of ACV is associated with the emergence of resistance. The V75I mutation in HIV-1 RT appears to be dominant in this regard. By itself, this mutation is usually not associated with resistance to currently approved NRTIs. Here we studied the underlying biochemical mechanism. We demonstrate that V75I is also selected under the selective pressure of a monophosphorylated prodrug that was designed to bypass the bottleneck in drug activation to the triphosphate form (ACV-TP). Pre-steady-state kinetics reveal that V75I discriminates against the inhibitor at the level of catalysis, whereas binding of the inhibitor remains largely unaffected. The incorporated ACV-monophosphate (ACV-MP) is vulnerable to excision in the presence of the pyrophosphate donor ATP. V75I compromises binding of the next nucleotide that can otherwise provide a certain degree of protection from excision. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that ACV is sensitive to two different resistance pathways, which warrants further investigation regarding the detailed resistance profile of ACV. Such studies will be crucial in assessing the potential clinical utility of ACV and its derivatives in combination with established NRTIs.

  1. Resistance of herpes simplex viruses to acyclovir: an update from a ten-year survey in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobert, Emilie; Burrel, Sonia; Ducastelle-Lepretre, Sophie; Billaud, Geneviève; Ader, Florence; Casalegno, Jean-Sébastien; Nave, Viviane; Boutolleau, David; Michallet, Mauricette; Lina, Bruno; Morfin, Florence

    2014-11-01

    The widespread use of acyclovir (ACV) and the increasing number of immunocompromised patients have raised concern about an increase in ACV-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV). ACV resistance has traditionally been a major concern for immunocompromised patients with a frequency reported between 2.5% and 10%. The aim of this study was to reassess the status of HSV resistance to ACV in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients over a ten year period, between 2002 and 2011. This was done by retrospectively following 1425 patients. In immunocompetent patients, prevalence of resistance did not exceed 0.5% during the study period; whereas in immunocompromised patients, a significant increase was observed, rising from 3.8% between 2002 and 2006 (7/182 patients) to 15.7% between 2007 and 2011 (28/178) (p=0.0001). This sharp rise in resistance may largely be represented by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients, in which the prevalence of ACV resistance rose similarly from 14.3% (4/28) between 2002 and 2006 to 46.5% (26/56) between 2007 and 2011 (p=0.005). No increase in ACV resistance was detected in association with other types of immune deficiencies. Genotypic characterization of HSV UL23 thymidine kinase and UL30 DNA polymerase genes revealed 11 and 7 previously unreported substitutions, respectively. These substitutions may be related to potential polymorphisms, drug resistance, or other mutations of unclear significance.

  2. A metabolic profiling analysis of the nephrotoxicity of acyclovir in rats using ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wenmin; Gu, Lili; Zhang, Xinyue; Xu, Jiadong; Lu, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) exposure is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). The toxicity mechanism of ACV has always been a matter of debate. The present study investigated into the time-effect relationship and dose-effect relationship of ACV-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using metabonomics. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four groups: a 0.9% NaCl solution group, and 100, 300, and 600mg/kg ACV-treated groups; the ACV or vehicle solution was administered with a single intravenous injection. Urine was collected at different time periods (12h before administration, and 0-6h, 7-12h, and 13-24h after administration). Routine urinalysis was conducted by a urine automatic analyzer. Renal markers, including urine urea nitrogen, urine creatinine, and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity, were determined using established protocols. Urinary metabolites were evaluated using ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS). In the ACV-treated rats, increased levels of protein (PRO), occult blood (BLD), white blood cell (WBC), and NAG activity in urine were observed, while the urine creatinine and urea nitrogen levels showed a decrease compared with the control. Moreover, urine metabolites significantly changed after the treatment with ACV, and all the effects induced by ACV were dose-time dependent. Finally, 4 metabolites (guanine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, creatinine, and urea) were identified, which can be used for further research on the mechanism of ACV-induced nephrotoxicity.

  3. Monitoring of bystander effect of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/acyclovir system using fluorescence resonance energy transfer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tao; Li, Yongjun; Ni, Fenge; Zhang, Feng

    2012-02-01

    Cytotoxic gene therapy mediated by gene transfer of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene followed by acyclovir (ACV) treatment has been reported to inhibit malignant tumor growth in a variety of studies. The magnitude of "bystander effect" is an essential factor for this anti-tumor approach in vivo. However, the mechanism by which HSV-tk/ACV brings "bystander effect" is poorly understood. In this report, the plasmid CD3 (ECFP-CRS-DsRed) and TK-GFP were transferred to the human adenoid cystic carcinoma line ACC-M cell line. The CD3-expressing cells apoptosis was monitored using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. First, CD3 and TK-GFP co-expressing ACC-M cells apoptosis was monitored using FRET technique. The apoptosis was induced by ACV and initiated by caspase3. The FRET efficient was remarkably decreased and then disappeared during cellular apoptosis, which indicated that the TK-GFP expressing ACC-M cells apoptosis, induced by ACV, was via a caspase3-dependent pathway. Secondly, CD3 and TK-GFP mixed expressing ACC-M cells apoptosis, induced by ACV, were monitored using FRET technique. The apoptotic phenomena appeared in the CD3-expressing ACC-M cells. The results show that HSV-tk/ACV system killed ACC-M cells using its bystander effect. These results confirm that HSV-tk/ACV system is potential for cancer gene therapy.

  4. Conformational Analysis, Molecular Structure and Solid State Simulation of the Antiviral Drug Acyclovir (Zovirax Using Density Functional Theory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Clara Alvarez-Ros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The five tautomers of the drug acyclovir (ACV were determined and optimised at the MP2 and B3LYP quantum chemical levels of theory. The stability of the tautomers was correlated with different parameters. On the most stable tautomer N1 was carried out a comprehensive conformational analysis, and the whole conformational parameters (R, β, Φ, φ1, φ2, φ3, φ4, φ5 were studied as well as the NBO Natural atomic charges. The calculations were carried out with full relaxation of all geometrical parameters. The search located at least 78 stable structures within 8.5 kcal/mol electronic energy range of the global minimum, and classified in two groups according to the positive or negative value of the torsional angle j1. In the nitrogen atoms and in the O2' and O5' oxygen atoms of the most stable conformer appear a higher reactivity than in the natural nucleoside deoxyguanosine. The solid state was simulated through a dimer and tetramer forms and the structural parameters were compared with the X-ray crystal data available. Several general conclusions were emphasized.

  5. Treatment of relapse in herpes simplex on labial and facial areas and of primary herpes simplex on genital areas and "area pudenda" with low-power He-Ne laser or Acyclovir administered orally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Gonzalez, Mariano; Urrea-Arbelaez, Alejandro; Nicolas, M.; Serra-Baldrich, E.; Perez, J. L.; Pavesi, M.; Camarasa, J. M.; Trelles, Mario A.

    1996-01-01

    Sixty patients (greater than 16 yrs old) suffering primary or relapse genital herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and relapse labial HSV were appointed for this study. Three or more relapses were experienced per year. Patients (under treatment) were divided into two groups (distribution areas), corresponding to either labial herpes or genital herpes. These groups were sub-divided into 3 groups. The total number of labial or facial HSV patients was 36 (10 in group 1, 12 in group 2, 14 in group 3) and 24 for genital, buttocks, or 'area pudenda' HSV patients (6 in group 1, 8 in group 2, 10 in group 3). The design was a randomized, double- blind study. The setting was hospital and outpatient. The patients diagnosed as having the HVS disease were sent to the dermatology department and were assigned to a group at random. Treatment was begun as follows: During the treatment signs and symptoms were assessed and after the treatment, the relapses were also assessed (biochemical and hematological tests before and after the treatment) and the diagnosis of the HSV type I and II. The statistical evaluation of the results was performed and carried out with the SPSS and BMDP program. The relapses of the herpes infection in the lips and the face were significantly reduced (p less than 0.026) in patients treated with laser He-Ne and laser He-Ne plus Acyclovir. The interim between the relapses also increased significantly (p less than 0.005) in relation with the group treated with Acyclovir. The duration of the herpetic eruptions was clearly reduced in all locations in patients treated with laser He-Ne plus Acyclovir. No differences were noted between patients treated with laser He-Ne only or Acyclovir only. Therefore it is probable that therapeutic synergism took place. In relation with this, laser He-Ne shows the same therapeutic efficacy as Acyclovir taken orally. The association of Acyclovir and laser Ne-Ne could be an alternative method for the treatment of HSV in the face. The number

  6. Clinical and virologic response to episodic acyclovir for genital ulcers among HIV-1 seronegative, herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositive African women: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Jared M; Reid, Stewart E; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Hughes, James P; Wang, Richard S; Wilcox, Ellen; Limbada, Mohammed; Akpomiemie, Godspower; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna; Celum, Connie

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized trial among African women with recurrent genital herpes, episodic acyclovir therapy resulted in modestly greater likelihood of lesion healing (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48, P = 0.098; mean, 5.1 vs. 6.0 days) and cessation of herpes simplex virus shedding (HR = 1.88, P = 0.008; mean, 3.0 vs. 5.0 days) compared with placebo, similar to results of studies in high-income countries (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00808405).

  7. Utilization of nanotechnology to enhance percutaneous absorption of acyclovir in the treatment of herpes simplex viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Subaie, Mutlaq M; Hosny, Khaled M; El-Say, Khalid Mohamed; Ahmed, Tarek A; Aljaeid, Bader M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to formulate an optimized acyclovir (ACV) nanoemulsion hydrogel in order to provide a solution for the slow, variable, and incomplete oral drug absorption in patient suffering from herpes simplex viral infection. Solubility of ACV in different oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants was explored utilizing a cubic model mixture design to obtain a nanoemulsion with minimum globule size. Preparation of an optimized ACV nanoemulsion hydrogel using a three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken statistical design was conducted. The molecular weight of chitosan (X1), percentage of chitosan (X2), and percentage of Eugenol as a skin permeation enhancer (X3) were selected to study their effects on hydrogel spreadability (Y1) and percent ACV permeated through rat skin after 2.5 hours (Y2). A pharmacokinetic study of the optimized ACV nanoemulsion hydrogel was conducted in rats. Mixtures of clove oil and castor oil (3:1 ratio), Tween 80 and Span 80 (3:1 ratio), and propylene glycol and Myo-6V (3:1 ratio) were selected as the oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant phases, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the molecular weight of chitosan has a significant antagonistic effect on spreadability, but has no significant effect on the percent ACV permeated. The percentage of chitosan also has a significant antagonistic effect on the spreadability and percent ACV permeated. On the other hand, the percentage of Eugenol has a significant synergistic effect on percent ACV permeated, with no effect on spreadability. The ex vivo study demonstrated that the optimized ACV nanoemulsion hydrogel showed a twofold and 1.5-fold higher permeation percentage than the control gel and marketed cream, respectively. The relative bioavailability of the optimized ACV nanoemulsion hydrogel improved to 535.2% and 244.6% with respect to the raw ACV hydrogel and marketed cream, respectively, confirming improvement of the relative bioavailability of ACV in the formulated nanoemulsion

  8. Utilization of nanotechnology to enhance percutaneous absorption of acyclovir in the treatment of herpes simplex viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Subaie, Mutlaq M; Hosny, Khaled M; El-Say, Khalid Mohamed; Ahmed, Tarek A; Aljaeid, Bader M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to formulate an optimized acyclovir (ACV) nanoemulsion hydrogel in order to provide a solution for the slow, variable, and incomplete oral drug absorption in patient suffering from herpes simplex viral infection. Solubility of ACV in different oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants was explored utilizing a cubic model mixture design to obtain a nanoemulsion with minimum globule size. Preparation of an optimized ACV nanoemulsion hydrogel using a three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken statistical design was conducted. The molecular weight of chitosan (X1), percentage of chitosan (X2), and percentage of Eugenol as a skin permeation enhancer (X3) were selected to study their effects on hydrogel spreadability (Y1) and percent ACV permeated through rat skin after 2.5 hours (Y2). A pharmacokinetic study of the optimized ACV nanoemulsion hydrogel was conducted in rats. Mixtures of clove oil and castor oil (3:1 ratio), Tween 80 and Span 80 (3:1 ratio), and propylene glycol and Myo-6V (3:1 ratio) were selected as the oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant phases, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the molecular weight of chitosan has a significant antagonistic effect on spreadability, but has no significant effect on the percent ACV permeated. The percentage of chitosan also has a significant antagonistic effect on the spreadability and percent ACV permeated. On the other hand, the percentage of Eugenol has a significant synergistic effect on percent ACV permeated, with no effect on spreadability. The ex vivo study demonstrated that the optimized ACV nanoemulsion hydrogel showed a twofold and 1.5-fold higher permeation percentage than the control gel and marketed cream, respectively. The relative bioavailability of the optimized ACV nanoemulsion hydrogel improved to 535.2% and 244.6% with respect to the raw ACV hydrogel and marketed cream, respectively, confirming improvement of the relative bioavailability of ACV in the formulated nanoemulsion

  9. Pharmacokinetics of amino acid ester prodrugs of acyclovir after oral administration: interaction with the transporters on Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, Suresh; Jain, Ritesh; Kwatra, Deep; Hariharan, Sudharshan; Mitra, Ashim K

    2008-10-01

    In vivo systemic absorption of the amino acid prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) after oral administration was evaluated in rats. Stability of the prodrugs, L-alanine-ACV (AACV), L-serine-ACV (SACV), L-isoleucine-ACV (IACV), gamma-glutamate-ACV (EACV) and L-valine-ACV (VACV) was evaluated in various tissues. Interaction of these prodrugs with the transporters on Caco-2 cells was studied. In vivo systemic bioavailability of these prodrugs upon oral administration was evaluated in jugular vein cannulated rats. The amino acid ester prodrugs showed affinity towards various amino acid transporters as well as the peptide transporter on the Caco-2 cells. In terms of stability, EACV was most enzymatically stable compared to other prodrugs especially in liver homogenate. In oral absorption studies, ACV and AACV showed high terminal elimination rate constants (lambda(z)). SACV and VACV exhibited approximately five-fold increase in area under the curve (AUC) values relative to ACV (pACV. C(last(T)) (concentration at the last time point) of SACV was observed to be 0.18+/-0.06 microM in plasma which is two times better than VACV and three times better than ACV. Amino acid ester prodrugs of ACV were absorbed at varying amounts (C(max)) and eliminated at varying rates (lambda(z)) thereby leading to varying extents (AUC). The amino acid ester prodrug SACV owing to its enhanced stability, higher AUC and better concentration at last time point seems to be a promising candidate for the oral treatment of herpes infections.

  10. 阿昔洛韦与更昔洛韦治疗成人水痘的疗效比较%Comparison of Therapeutic Efficacy of Acyclovir and Ganciciovir in the Treatment of Adult Chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈孝虹; 林敏

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic efficacy of acyclovir vs. Ganciclovir in the treatment of adult chickenpox. METHODS: 140 patients with chickenpox in our hospital were randomly divided into acyclovir group and ganciclovir group, according to odd and even days of hospitalization. They were given acyclovir and ganciclovir 10 mg·kg-1, bid, iv.gtt. The average defervescence time, the time for herpes forming a scab, total effective rate and adverse drug reaction were observed in 2 groups. RESULTS: The defervescence time of ganciclovir group was significantly shorter in acyclovir group, the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05); Total effective rte of ganciclovir group was significantly higher than that of acyclovir group, the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). No adverse drug reaction was found in 2 groups during the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic efficacy of ganciclovir in the treatment of adult varicella is significantly better than acyclovir, and the defervescence time of ganciclovir is shorter than acyclovir.%目的:比较阿昔洛韦与更昔洛韦治疗成人水痘的疗效.方法:将我院140例水痘患者,按住院单双日随机均分为阿昔洛韦组与更昔洛韦组,分别给予阿昔洛韦与更昔洛韦10 mg·kg-1,bid,静脉滴注.观察并记录2组患者的退热时间、皮疹结痂时间、总有效率和不良反应.结果:更昔洛韦组患者的退热时间明显短于阿昔洛韦组,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);2组的皮疹结痂时间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);更昔洛韦组的总有效率明显高于阿昔洛韦组(P<0.05).2组治疗过程中,均未见不良反应发生.结论:更昔洛韦治疗成人水痘的疗效显著优于阿昔洛韦,且退热时间短于阿昔洛韦.

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of nucleoside analogues than contain silatrane on the basis of the structure of acyclovir (ACV) as novel inhibitors of hepatitis B virus (HBV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Anyue; Li, Lingna; Qing, Kuiyou; Qi, Xiaolu; Hou, Leping; Luo, Xintong; Shi, Shaohua; Ye, Faqing

    2013-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes major public health problems worldwide. Acyclovir (ACV) is mainly used to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV) rather than HBV. In this study, we used the combination principle to design and synthesize nucleoside analogues that contain silatrane on the basis of the structure of ACV. We found that the compounds were effective inhibitors of HBV, both in vitro and in vivo. All of the compounds showed suppressive activity on the expression of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV e antigen (HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 cell line with low cytotoxicity. One of compounds was studied in HBV transgenic mice model, and the test results showed its ability to reduce the levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA by ELASE and qPCR. Furthermore, significant improvement of T lymphocyte was observed after treatment, as evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM).

  12. Modification of glassy carbon electrode with a bilayer of multiwalled carbon nanotube/tiron-doped polypyrrole: Application to sensitive voltammetric determination of acyclovir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel voltammetric sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a thin film of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with an electropolymerized layer of tiron-doped polypyrrole was developed and the resulting electrode was applied for the determination of acyclovir (ACV). The surface morphology and property of the modified electrode were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The electrochemical performance of the modified electrode was investigated by means of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The effect of several experimental variables, such as pH of the supporting electrolyte, drop size of the cast MWCNTssuspension, number of electropolymerization cycles and accumulation time was optimized by monitoring the LSV response of the modified electrode toward ACV. The best response was observed at pH 7.0 after accumulation at open circuit for 160 s. Under the optimized conditions, a significant electrochemical improvement was observed toward the electrooxidation of ACV on the modified electrode surface relative to the bare GCE, resulting in a wide linear dynamic range (0.03–10.0 μM) and a low detection limit (10.0 nM) for ACV. Besides high sensitivity, the sensor represented high stability and good reproducibility for ACV analysis, and provided satisfactory results for the determination of this compound in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations. - Highlights: • A simple method was employed to construct a thin film modified electrode. • Tiron-doped polypyrrole was electropolymerized on MWCNT precast glassy carbon electrode. • Electrode surface characterization was performed by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. • The modified electrode showed nano-molar detection limit for acyclovir. • The modified electrode was applied for the detection of ACV in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations

  13. QbD-Enabled Development of Novel Stimuli-Responsive Gastroretentive Systems of Acyclovir for Improved Patient Compliance and Biopharmaceutical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Kaur, Anterpreet; Dhiman, Shashi; Garg, Babita; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur; Beg, Sarwar

    2016-04-01

    The current studies entail systematic quality by design (QbD)-based development of stimuli-responsive gastroretentive drug delivery systems (GRDDS) of acyclovir using polysaccharide blends for attaining controlled drug release profile and improved patient compliance. The patient-centric quality target product profile was defined and critical quality attributes (CQAs) earmarked. Risk assessment studies, carried out through Ishikawa fish bone diagram and failure mode, effect, and criticality analysis, helped in identifying the plausible risks or failure modes affecting the quality attributes of the drug product. A face-centered cubic design was employed for systematic development and optimization of the concentration of sodium alginate (X 1) and gellan (X 2) as the critical material attributes (CMAs) in the stimuli-responsive formulations, which were evaluated for CQAs viz. viscosity, gel strength, onset of floatation, and drug release characteristics. Mathematical modeling was carried out for generation of design space, and optimum formulation was embarked upon, exhibiting formulation characteristics marked by excellent floatation and bioadhesion characteristics along with promising drug release control up to 24 h. Drug-excipient compatibility studies through FTIR and DSC revealed absence of any interaction(s) among the formulation excipients. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in Wistar rats corroborated extension in the drug absorption profile from the optimized stimuli-responsive GR formulations vis-à-vis the marketed suspension (ZOVIRAX®). Establishment of in vitro/in vivo correlation (IVIVC) revealed a high degree of correlation between the in vitro and in vivo data. In a nutshell, the present investigations report the successful development of stimuli-responsive GRDDS of acyclovir, which can be applicable as a platform approach for other drugs too.

  14. Modification of glassy carbon electrode with a bilayer of multiwalled carbon nanotube/tiron-doped polypyrrole: Application to sensitive voltammetric determination of acyclovir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed, E-mail: shahrokhian@sharif.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-3516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Technology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azimzadeh, Mahnaz [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-3516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Mohammad K. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    A novel voltammetric sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a thin film of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with an electropolymerized layer of tiron-doped polypyrrole was developed and the resulting electrode was applied for the determination of acyclovir (ACV). The surface morphology and property of the modified electrode were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The electrochemical performance of the modified electrode was investigated by means of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The effect of several experimental variables, such as pH of the supporting electrolyte, drop size of the cast MWCNTssuspension, number of electropolymerization cycles and accumulation time was optimized by monitoring the LSV response of the modified electrode toward ACV. The best response was observed at pH 7.0 after accumulation at open circuit for 160 s. Under the optimized conditions, a significant electrochemical improvement was observed toward the electrooxidation of ACV on the modified electrode surface relative to the bare GCE, resulting in a wide linear dynamic range (0.03–10.0 μM) and a low detection limit (10.0 nM) for ACV. Besides high sensitivity, the sensor represented high stability and good reproducibility for ACV analysis, and provided satisfactory results for the determination of this compound in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations. - Highlights: • A simple method was employed to construct a thin film modified electrode. • Tiron-doped polypyrrole was electropolymerized on MWCNT precast glassy carbon electrode. • Electrode surface characterization was performed by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. • The modified electrode showed nano-molar detection limit for acyclovir. • The modified electrode was applied for the detection of ACV in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.

  15. 阿昔洛韦、干扰素治疗传染性单核细胞增多症疗效对比%Comparing the efficacy of acyclovir and interferon on treating infectious mononucleosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冬梅

    2012-01-01

      ObjectiveTo compare the efficacy and satety of acyclovir and α-interferon on treating infectious mononucleosis(IM).Methods46 children with infectious mononucleosis were randomly divided into two groups and treated with acyclovir and α-interferon respectively.The efficacy and multipce clinical indicators of two groups were observed.ResultsThe excelence rate of acyclovir group and α-interferon group were respectively 86.96% and 82.61%,The two groups were no signifiant difference(p>0.05).ConclusionThe efficacy of acyclovir andα-interferon for the treatment of infectious mononuclrosis are without difference.%  目的比较阿昔洛韦、α-干扰素治疗传染性单核细胞增多症的疗效及安全性.方法将46例传染性单核细胞增多症患儿随机分成两组,分别给予阿昔洛韦及α-干扰素治疗.观察两组患儿治疗疗效及多个临床指标的差异.结果阿昔洛韦组与α-干扰素组有效率分别为86.96%和82.61%,阿昔洛韦组与α-干扰素组比较无显著差异(P>0.05).结论阿昔洛韦、α-干扰素用于治疗传染性单核细胞增多症临床疗效无差异.

  16. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the thymidine kinase of ACV-resistant HSV-1 derived from an acyclovir-sensitive herpes simplex virus type 1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki; Suzutani, Tatsuo; De Clercq, Erik; Niikura, Masahiro; Maeda, Akihiko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro

    2002-12-01

    Twenty-four strains of acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(r)) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were generated from the HSV-1 TAS strain by exposure to ACV, and the genotype and phenotype of the thymidine kinase (TK) from these mutants were analyzed. The TK polypeptide of the ACV(r) HSV-1 strains was examined by Western blot using an anti-HSV-1 TK rabbit serum. The sensitivity of each strain to ACV, foscarnet and cidofovir (CDV) was also determined. A single guanine (G) insertion or a single cytosine (C) deletion was detected in 12 of the 24 ACV(r) strains at the G or C homopolymer stretches within the TK gene. Genotypic analysis predicted that two thirds of the ACV(r) HSV-1 strains expressed truncated TK polypeptides, while one third expressed viral TK polypeptide with a single amino acid substitution at various sites. Western blot abnormalities in the viral TK polypeptides were identified in 21 ACV(r) strains. There was an inverse correlation between the susceptibility of the HSV-1 mutant strains to ACV and that to CDV. Nucleotide sequencing of the TK gene and Western blot analysis of the viral TK polypeptides are considered to be one of the methods for predicting virus sensitivity to ACV and CDV.

  17. Characterization of DNA polymerase-associated acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1: mutations, sensitivity to antiviral compounds, neurovirulence, and in-vivo sensitivity to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Xin; Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Kinoshita-Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Suzutani, Tatsuo; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(r)) mutants were generated from plaque-purified ACV-sensitive herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) by culturing the virus in Vero cells in the presence of 2-amino-7-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl) purine (S2242). Three DNA polymerase (DNApol)-associated ACV(r) HSV-1 generated under ACV selection in a previous study (Suzutani, T., Ishioka, K., De Clercq, E., et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 47, 1707-1713, 2003) were also included. The sensitivity of the mutants to other antivirals and their neurovirulence were determined. The treatment efficacy of ACV and ganciclovir (GCV) against ACV(r) HSV-1 infections was evaluated in mice. Amino acid substitutions were demonstrated in conserved regions II and III in DNApol in 5 of the 6 mutants, while the other substitution was located in non-conserved regions. DNApol-associated ACV(r) clones showed cross-resistance to foscarnet, penciclovir, and vidarabine but were sensitive or hypersensitive to GCV, brivudin, sorivudine, and spongothymidine. The ACV(r) clone with an N815S mutation in DNApol showed similar neurovirulence to that of the parent virus; however, those with other mutations showed attenuation. GCV was effective in the treatment of the ACV(r) clone with similar virulence to that of parent HSV-1, while ACV was less effective in mice. These results indicate the importance of the characterization of HSV-1 isolates for the proper treatment of HSV-1 infections exhibiting ACV-resistance.

  18. Binding characteristics of homogeneous molecularly imprinted polymers for acyclovir using an (acceptor-donor-donor)-(donor-acceptor-acceptor) hydrogen-bond strategy, and analytical applications for serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suqin; Tan, Lei; Wang, Ganquan; Peng, Guiming; Kang, Chengcheng; Tang, Youwen

    2013-04-12

    This paper demonstrates a novel approach to assembling homogeneous molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) based on mimicking multiple hydrogen bonds between nucleotide bases by preparing acyclovir (ACV) as a template and using coatings grafted on silica supports. (1)H NMR studies confirmed the AAD-DDA (A for acceptor, D for donor) hydrogen-bond array between template and functional monomer, while the resultant monodisperse molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) were evaluated using a binding experiment, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and solid phase extraction. The Langmuir isothermal model and the Langmuir-Freundlich isothermal model suggest that ACV-MIMs have more homogeneous binding sites than MIPs prepared through normal imprinting. In contrast to previous MIP-HPLC columns, there were no apparent tailings for the ACV peaks, and ACV-MIMs had excellent specific binding properties with a Ka peak of 3.44 × 10(5)M(-1). A complete baseline separation is obtained for ACV and structurally similar compounds. This work also successfully used MIMs as a specific sorbent for capturing ACV from serum samples. The detection limit and mean recovery of ACV was 1.8 ng/mL(-1) and 95.6%, respectively, for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with HPLC. To our knowledge, this was the first example of MIPs using AAD-DDA hydrogen bonds.

  19. Study on the Formula of Self-emulsifying Drug Delivery System for Acyclovir%阿昔洛韦自乳化释药系统的处方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶蕾; 徐诗梦; 胡卢丰; 张秀华

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究阿昔洛韦自乳化释药系统的处方.方法:通过阿昔洛韦在介质中的溶解度试验,处方配伍,三元图绘制和粒径考察,以介质溶解度,溶液澄清度,是否有淡蓝色乳光,自微乳化时间和粒径大小为指标,筛选油相、乳化剂和助乳化剂之间的最佳配伍和比例.结果:阿昔洛韦自乳化释药系统的最佳处方为肉豆蔻酸异丙酯(IPM)、聚氧乙烯蓖麻油(Cremophor EL)和甘油,配伍比为0.25:0.375:0.375,该系统自乳化能力强,性质稳定.结论:初步成功地制备了阿昔洛韦自乳化释药系统制剂,有效改善了阿昔洛韦的溶解度.%Objective: To study the formula of acyclovir-loaded self-emulsifying drug delivery system ( SEDDS ). Method: The optimal compatibility and ratio of the oil phase, the emulsifier and the co-emulsifier were screened using solubility experiment, formula compatibility, the ternary phase diagram and size observation with the acyclovir solubility in the solvents, clarity, light blue opalescent, self-emulsifying time and particle size as the indices. Result: The optimal formula consisted of IPM, Cremophor EL and glycerin( 0. 25 :0. 375=0. 375 ) . The optimal SEDDS was promising in self-emulsification and stability. Conclusion: Acyclovir-loaded self-emulsifying preparation is prepared successfully, which can improve the solubility and bioavailability in vivo.

  20. Protocol for German trial of Acyclovir and corticosteroids in Herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis (GACHE: a multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled German, Austrian and Dutch trial [ISRCTN45122933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schielke Eva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of Herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis (HSVE remains a major unsolved problem in Neurology. Current gold standard for therapy is acyclovir, a drug that inhibits viral replication. Despite antiviral treatment, mortality remains up to 15%, less than 20% of patients are able to go back to work, and the majority of patients suffer from severe disability. This is a discouraging, unsatisfactory situation for treating physicians, the disabled patients and their families, and constitutes an enormous burden to the public health services. The information obtained from experimental animal research and from recent retrospective clinical observations, indicates that a substantial benefit in outcome can be expected in patients with HSVE who are treated with adjuvant dexamethasone. But currently there is no available evidence to support the routine use of adjuvant corticosteroid treatment in HSVE. A randomized multicenter trial is the only useful instrument to address this question. Design GACHE is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial of treatment with acyclovir and adjuvant dexamethasone, as compared with acyclovir and placebo in adults with HSVE. The statistical design will be that of a 3-stage-group sequential trial with potential sample size adaptation in the last stage. Conclusion 372 patients with proven HSVE (positive HSV-DNA-PCR, aged 18 up to 85 years; with focal neurological signs no longer than 5 days prior to admission, and who give informed consent will be recruited from Departments of Neurology of academic medical centers in Germany, Austria and The Netherlands. Sample size will potentially be extended after the second interim analysis up to a maximum of 450 patients. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN45122933

  1. Clinical observation the effects of combination application of salvia miltiorrhiza and acyclovir (ACV) on acute retinal necrosis (ARN)%丹参、无环鸟苷联合治疗急性视网膜坏死

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋美峰; 方春庭

    2000-01-01

    目的:为了探讨急性视网膜坏死(acute retinal necrosis,ARN)的有效疗法.方法:对6例(8只眼)ARN患者采用丹参、无环鸟苷(acyclovir,ACV)联合治疗.结果:随访6~18个月,7只眼视力有不同程度提高,视力提高达88.8%.结论:丹参、ACV联合应用是治疗ARN的一种有效方法.

  2. 单纯口服阿昔洛韦治疗单疱病毒性角膜炎57例临床观察%Clinical Observation of 57 Cases of Herpes Simplex Keratitis Treated with Oral Acyclovir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁柯

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨单纯口服阿昔洛韦治疗单疱病毒性角膜炎疗效。方法单疱病毒性角膜炎患者了57例82只眼,其中上皮型49例74只眼(90.2%);深层型8例8只眼(9.8%)。口服阿昔洛韦1g/d,分5次口服,当病情好转稳定后,改阿昔洛韦800mg/d,分2次口服。结果上皮型49例74只眼及深层型7例7只眼痊愈,治愈率为98.7%,1例1只眼(深层型),好转,总有效率为100%。随访6个月~2年,平均随访1.2年,仅1眼复发。结论单纯口服无环鸟苷治疗单疱病毒性角膜炎具有复发率低,用法简单、安全、有效的优点。%Objective To investigate a simple oral acyclovir treatment of herpes simplex virus keratitis ef icacy.Methods Patients with herpes simplex virus keratitis 82 eyes of 57 cases,including 49 cases of epithelial type 74 eyes (90.2%);8 cases of deep 8 eyes (9.8%).Oral acyclovir daily lg,5 times oral y,when her condition improved stability,change of acyclovir 800 mg/d,2 times a day oral y. Results 49 cases of epithelial type 74 deep eyes and 7 cases seven eyes healed,the cure rate was 98.7%,one case of an eye (deep type),improved,the total ef ective rate was 100%.Fol ow-up in June to 2 years,with an average fol ow-up of 1.2 years,only one relapse.Conclusion The simple oral acyclovir treatment of herpes simplex virus keratitis have recur ence rate,usage is simple,safe and ef ective advantages.

  3. 中药佐治老年HIV/AIDS合并带状疱疹疗效观察%Effect of traditional Chinese medicine combined with acyclovir on herpes zoster in elderly with HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁飞立; 苏文桂; 何艳英; 余丰; 方鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the effect of traditional Chinese medicine combined with acyclovir on herpes zoster in 30 elderly patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods Sixty elderly patients with HIV/AIDS were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty patients in treatment group were treated with external application of traditional Chinese medicine combined with acyclovir; thirty patients in control group were treated with acyclovir only. Results In treatment group, 17 cases were cured and 9 cases were improved, the effective rate was 87% . In control group, 14 cases were cured and 4 cases were improved, the effective rate was 60% . There was significantly difference in effective rate between both groups. The cured time of skin lesions was ( 16.17 ± 5. 47 ) days in treatment group, and was ( 20. 50 ± 6. 35 ) days in control group, there was significant difference between both groups. Conclusion External application of traditional Chinese medicine combined with acyclovir can shorten healing time of skin lesions caused by herpes zoster in the elderly with IV/AIDS and increase cure rate.%目的 探讨中药外敷配合阿昔洛韦治疗老年HIV/AIDS合并带状疱疹的疗效.方法 60例患者随机分为2组,治疗组30例用中药外敷及阿昔洛韦静脉滴注,对照组30例单用阿昔洛韦静脉滴注.结果 治疗组治愈17 例,好转9例,未愈4例,治愈好转率87%(26/30);对照组治愈14 例,好转4例,未愈12例,治愈好转率60%(18/30);2组治愈好转率比较有显著性差异(2 =5.455,P<0.05).治疗组疱疹愈合时间(16.17±5.47)d,对照组(20.50±6.35)d,2组疱疹愈合时间比较有显著性差异(t=-2.833,P<0.05).结论 中药外敷配合阿昔洛韦治疗老年HIV/AIDS 合并带状疱疹患者能缩短疱疹愈合时间,提高治愈好转率.

  4. Intravenous drip acyclovir hematuria in 1 case analysis%静脉滴注阿昔洛韦致血尿1例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋庆锋; 吴建军

    2015-01-01

    阿昔洛韦是第三代广谱抗病毒药物,为合成的嘌呤核苷类似物,用于治疗单纯疱疹病毒感染和带状疱疹病毒感染,由英国葛兰素-威尔康研发并于1981年5月在英国首次上市,目前已被世界上包括美国在内的50多个国家批准上市使用,是世界上销售量最大的抗病毒药物之一,具有高效、低毒、广谱、对病毒选择性高的特点。临床用于单纯疱疹病毒感染的治疗与预防,带状疱疹以及免疫缺陷者水痘的治疗。%Acyclovir is the third generation of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs, for the synthesis of purine nucleoside analogues, used in the treatment of herpes simplex virus infection, and herpes zoster virus infection by the British glaxo - will, research and development and in May 1981 for the first time in the UK, has been the world more than 50 countries, including the United States, approved to use, is one of the largest antiviral drug sales in the world, and has high efficiency, low toxicity and the characteristics of broad spectrum, high selectivity to the virus. Clinical used in the treatment of herpes simplex virus infection and prevention, the treatment of herpes zoster and immunodeficiency chickenpox.

  5. Efficacy of Early Treatment of Bell’s Plasy With Prednisone and Acyclovir%早期泼尼松联合阿昔洛韦治疗 Bell 麻痹的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶涛; 杨军; 秦新月; 李倩

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较单用泼尼松与泼尼松联合阿昔洛韦治疗急性期 Bell 麻痹的疗效。方法164例发病时间在72h以内的 Bell 麻痹患者。其中,单纯泼尼松治疗组79例,泼尼松联合阿昔洛韦治疗组85例。以 House -Brackmann 分级法作为治疗后3个月面神经功能的评估标准。结果治疗3个月后,泼尼松联合阿昔洛韦治疗组面瘫完全恢复率为87.1%,略高于单用泼尼松组的84.8%(=0.024,P >0.05)。入院时严重瘫痪的患者,联合治疗组面瘫完全恢复率为85.5%,单用泼尼松治疗完全恢复率为81.8%,两组间比较差异无统计学意义(=0.313,P >0.05)。结论早期泼尼松联合阿昔洛韦治疗 Bell 麻痹疗效并不优于单用泼尼松治疗组。%Objective To compare the therapeutic efficacy of prednisolone alone to acyclovir plus prednisolone in patients with acute idiopathic facial palsy. Methods Using a prospective design. A total of 164 patients suffering from Bell’s plasy within 72 hours after the onset of symptoms were divided into prednisolone group(n = 79)and prednisolone plus acyclovir group(n = 85).The demographic data and clinical characteristics in both groups were collected. Facial nerve function outcomes were evaluated 3 months after the onset with House-Brackmann grading system. Results The proportions of patients who had completely recovered at 3 months in prednisolone plus acyclovir group were slightly higher than that in the prednisolone group(87. 1% vs 84. 8% , =0. 024, P > 0. 05). Patients with severe plasy, the recovery rate that treated with prednisolone plus acyclovir and prednisolone a-lone were 85. 5% and 81. 8% , respectively. There was no significant difference( = 0. 313, P > 0. 05). Conculsion Patients with Bell’s palsy, early treatment with prednisolone in combination with acyclovir is no better than the single treatment with pred-nisolone.

  6. Radiosensitization of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo with acyclovir and mutant HSV-TK75 expressed from adenovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We recently reported that an adenovirus-expressing mutant HSV-TK75 (AdCMV-TK75) radiosensitized rat syngeneic gliomas in combination with low concentrations of acyclovir (ACV) much more effectively than a virus expressing wild-type herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK). In this report we have examined whether similar radiosensitizing effects are also seen with human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Human U87 MG glioma cells were transduced with AdCMV-TK75 and exposed to ACV followed by single-dose irradiation and colony-forming survival assays. Similarly, U87 MG xenografts were infused with AdCMV-TK75 or Adβgal control virus, followed by ACV administration and fractionated irradiation. Therapeutic efficacy was monitored by tumor growth. Results: U87 MG cells transduced with AdCMV-TK75 were significantly more sensitive to ACV (3 μM) than cells transduced with either wild-type HSV-TK or control virus. To determine whether human cells also demonstrate improved radiosensitization similar to that seen with rat glioma cells and tumors, we transduced U87 MG cells with either AdCMV-TK75, AdCMV-TK, expressing wild-type HSV-TK, or Adβgal and then treated the cells with 3 μM of ACV. Cells transduced with AdCMV-TK75 were significantly more radiosensitive (dose enhancement ratio [D37]: 2.6) by colony-forming survival assay than cells transduced with either AdCMV-TK or Adβgal. Furthermore, we found that U87 MG xenografts infused with AdCMV-TK75 by slow positive pressure infusion were more radiosensitive after administration of ACV than tumors infused with Adβgal. A more dramatic result was achieved when fractionated irradiation was carried out concurrently with ACV administration, in which case AdCMV-TK75-treated tumors did not grow at all. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that transduction of human glioma cells in vitro and infusion of xenografts in vivo with AdCMV-TK75 and treatment with concentrations of ACV that can be

  7. 高压氧联合阿昔洛韦治疗Bell麻痹效果观察%Observation of Curative Effect in Treatment of Bell Palsy with Hyperbaric Oxygen and Acyclovir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平; 郭光汉; 刘顺饶; 王耀辉; 李想

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨高压氧联合阿昔洛韦治疗Bell麻痹的效果.方法 我院2008年12月~2010年12月收治Bell麻痹71例,随机分为治疗组和对照组.治疗组37例予高压氧治疗每日1次;对照组34例施以针灸治疗,每日1次.两组均予呋喃硫胺20mg和维生素B120.5mg肌内注射每日1次,阿昔洛韦6~10 mg/(kg·d)静脉滴注每日1次,地塞米松3~5 mg/(kg·d)静脉滴注每日1次,疗程10 d.结果 治疗组治愈率51.35%,总有效率100%;对照组治愈率29.41%,总有效率94.12%.两组治愈率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 高压氧联合阿昔洛韦治疗Bell麻痹安全有效,可作为Bell麻痹治疗首选方案.%Objective To explore the curative effect in treatment of Bell palsy with hyperbaric oxygen and acyclovir. Methods 71 patients with Bell palsy in our hospital during Dec. 2008 and Dec. 2010 were randomized into treatment group and control group. The treatment group received Hyperbaric oxygen therapy qd. The control group received acupuncture therapy qd. Both groups were given 20 mg of Fursultiamine, 0.5 mg im of Vitamin B12, qd, 6-10 mg/(kg·d), iv, Acyclovir, qd, and 3-5mg/ (kg·d), iv, Dexamethasone qd. The course of treatment was 10 d. Results The curative ratio and total effective rate of treatment group were 51.35% , 100% . In control group, the curative ratio was 29.41 % and total effective rate was 94.12% . There was significant difference in curative ratio between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Hyperbaric oxygen and Acyclovir approach is safe and effective in the treatment of Bell palsy, and is preferred in curing Bells palsy.

  8. Desenvolvimento e validação de um método analítico simples e rápido por espectroscopia UV para quantificação de aciclovir em matrizes hidrofílicas de liberação prolongada Development and validation of a simple and rapid analytical method by UV spectroscopy for acyclovir quantification in hydrophilic matrices for sustained release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Malaquias Barboza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the validation of an analytical UV spectrophotometric method to assay acyclovir in hydrophilic matrices (assay and dissolution studies. The method was linear in the range between 2.5-20 µg mL-1, presenting a good correlation coefficient ( r = 0,9999. Precision and accuracy analysis showed low relative standart deviation (< 2.0 % and a good recoveries percentual (98.9-100 %. The procedure was linear, accurate, and robust. The method is simple and cheap. It does not use polluting reagents and can be applied in dissolution studies, being an adequate alternative to assay acyclovir in hydrophilic matrices tablets.

  9. Effect of Acyclovir on the Neurological Function and Cytokines of Children with Viral Meningitis%阿昔洛韦对病毒性脑膜炎患儿神经功能及细胞因子的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖平; 罗毅

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of acyclovir on neurological function and cytokines of children with viral menin-gitis. METHODS:Totally 70 children with viral meningitis were randomly divided into control group and observation group. All children were given routine treatment,including defervescence,reducing intracranial pressure and regulating water and electrolyte balance,etc. Based on it,the control group was treated by Ribavirin glucose injection 15 mg/kg,iv,bid;observation group was treated by Acyclovir glucose injection 5 mg/kg,iv,tid. The course for both was 7 d. The clinical data was compared,including the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum,insu-lin-like growth factor-Ⅱ(IGF-Ⅱ) and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3(IGFBP-3) in CSF before and after treatment and the incidence of adverse reactions. There were no obvious adverse reactions during the treatment. RESULTS:After treatment, the VEGF and MMP-9 in serum and the VEGF,MMP-9,IGF-Ⅱ and IGFBP-3 in CSF in 2 groups were significantly lower than before,and observation group was lower than control group,with significant differences(P<0.05). There was no adverse reactions in 2 groups during the treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Compared with ribavirin,acyclovir can more obviously improve the neurological function and cytokines of children with viral meningitis,with similar safety.%目的:观察阿昔洛韦对病毒性脑膜炎患儿神经功能及细胞因子的作用。方法:70例病毒性脑膜炎患儿随机均分为对照组和观察组。两组患儿均给予退热、降低颅内压、调节水电解质平衡等常规治疗。在此基础上,对照组患儿给予利巴韦林葡萄糖注射液15 mg/kg静脉滴注,每日2次;观察组患儿给予阿昔洛韦葡萄糖注射液5 mg/kg静脉滴注,每日3次。两组患儿疗程均为7 d。观察两组患儿治疗前后血清及脑脊液中内皮生长因子

  10. 阿昔洛韦在小儿病毒性脑膜炎中的疗效与安全性分析%Study on the effectivesess and safety of acyclovir in the treatment of children with viral meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭泽丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析阿昔洛韦在小儿病毒性脑膜炎中的疗效与安全性。方法选取2010-08-2013-06于本院进行治疗的76例病毒性脑膜炎患儿为研究对象,随机分为对照组(利巴韦林组)38例和观察组(阿昔洛韦组)38例,然后将2组中轻症与重症患儿的总有效率、不良反应发生率及治疗前后的血清、脑脊液NSE、PCT、IL-6水平进行比较。结果观察组中轻症与重症患儿的总有效率分别高于对照组,不良反应发生率低于对照组,而治疗后的血清、脑脊液NSE、PCT、IL-6水平均低于观察组治疗前及对照组治疗后( P<0.05)。结论阿昔洛韦在小儿病毒性脑膜炎中的疗效与安全性均相对较佳,对于改善神经功能及控制炎症均有积极作用。%Objective To study and analyze the effectiveness and safety of acyclovir in the treatment of children with viral meningitis .Methods 76 children with viral meningitis in our hospital from August 2010 to June 2013 were selected as research objects ,and were randomly divided into control group(ribavirin group)38 cases and observation group(acyclovir group)38 ca-ses ,then the total effective rates of mild and severe viral meningitis ,incidence of adverse reaction and NSE ,PCT ,IL-6 levels in serum ,cerebrospinal fluid before and after the treatment of two groups were compared .Results The total effective rates of mild and severe viral meningitis in observation group were respectively higher than those of control group ,incidence of adverse reaction was lower than that of control group ,serum and cerebrospinal fluid NSE ,PCT and IL-6 levels after the treatment were all lower than those of observation group before treatment and those of control group after the treatment ,all(P<0 .05) ,there were all significant differences .Conclusion The effect and safety of acyclovir in the treatment of children with viral meningitis is relatively better ,and it plays an active role in improving

  11. 阿昔洛韦治疗小儿传染性单核细胞增多症疗效评价%Evaluate the Curative effect of Acyclovir in Treatment of children with infectious Mononucleosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文庆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To Observe and evaluate the clinical efficacy of acyclovir treatment of pediatric infectious mononucleosis syndrome.Methods Select 104 Children patients for the study who had pediatric infectious mononucleosis syndrome treated from June 2012 to January 2014 in our hospital, according to the diferent treatments divided into study groups (52 cases) and control group(52 cases).The study group was treated with acyclovir, the control group by Ribavirin.Compared with two group Children patient's treatment results,fever subsided time,the lymph node reduced time, in hospital time,untoward efect and so on.Appraises the difference of two methods’ curative.Results Treatment results of study group are significantly better than the control group(P<0.05),fever subsided time, the lymph node reduced time,in hospital time are less than the control group(P<0.05).Two groups of Children patients had no untoward effect.ConclusionAcyclovir can efectively aleviate the symptoms.Fever subsided time and the lymph node reduced time be short, untoward efect be few.%目的:观察与评价阿昔洛韦治疗小儿传染性单核细胞增多症的临床疗效。方法选取2012年6月至2014年1月在我院接受小儿传染性单核细胞增多症治疗的104例患儿为研究对象,按照治疗方式不同分为研究组(52例)和对照组(52例)。研究组患儿采用阿昔洛韦治疗,对照组患儿采用利巴韦林治疗,比较两组患儿的治疗效果、发热消退时间、淋巴结缩小时间、住院时间、不良反应等情况,评价两种治疗方法的疗效差异。结果研究组患儿的治疗效果明显优于对照组(P<0.05);发热消退时间、淋巴结缩小时间、住院时间明显少于对照组(P<0.05)。两组患儿均无不良反应发生。结论采用阿昔洛韦治疗小儿传染性单核细胞增多症能够有效缓解患儿症状,发热消退和淋巴结缩小时间短,康复快,疗效明显,不良反应少,安全可靠。

  12. Bone marrow transplantation in a child with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome latently infected with acyclovir-resistant (ACV(r)) herpes simplex virus type 1: emergence of foscarnet-resistant virus originating from the ACV(r) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki; Yasuda, Yukiharu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Kato, Shunichi; Suzutani, Tatsuo; De Clercq, Erik; Niikura, Masahiro; Maeda, Akihiko; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2002-09-01

    A human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed in a 13-year-old patient with the congenital immunodeficiency syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. The patient had a history of acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(r)) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections prior to BMT. After BMT, the skin lesions caused by HSV-1 relapsed on the face and genito-anal areas. Ganciclovir (GCV) therapy was initiated, but the mucocutaneous lesions worsened. An HSV-1 isolate recovered from the lesions during this episode was resistant to both ACV and GCV. The ACV(r) isolate was confirmed to have the same mutation in the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene as that of the previously isolated ACV(r) isolates from the patient. After treatment switch to foscarnet (PFA), there was a satisfactory remission but not a complete recovery. Although the mucocutaneous lesions improved, a PFA-resistant (PFA(r)) HSV-1 was isolated 1 month after the start of PFA therapy. The PFA(r) HSV-1 isolate coded for the same mutation in the viral TK gene as the ACV(r) HSV-1 isolates. Furthermore, the PFA(r) isolate also expressed a mutated viral DNA polymerase (DNA pol) with an amino acid (Gly) substitution for Val at position 715. This is the first report on the clinical course of a BMT-associated ACV(r) HSV-1 infection that subsequently developed resistance to foscarnet as well.

  13. Evaluation of effectiveness of acyclovir and interferon in treatment of genital herpes%对无环乌苷及干扰素治生殖器疱疹的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢立亚; 张忠祥; 崔荣

    1997-01-01

    114 patients with genital herpes(GH)divided into three groups at random were treated separately with acyclovir(ACV,0.8g daily orally),interferon(IFN,one million u.in.)and routine external therapy,such as 3% boric acid solution or 0.1% rivanol solution.There was no difference in age and time of onset between these three groups.The effect of drugs was observed at the fourth and eighth days of treatment.A definite effectiveness was manifested in 10(37%)and 21 cases(77.8%)in ACV group,14(48.3%)and 25 cases(86.2%)in IFN group,and only 9(6.9%)and 13cases(22.4%)in routine therapy group.Statistical analysis revealed that ACV and IFN were much mor effective than routine therapy in terms of shortened course and symptoms relieved(P<0.05),but they could not prevent the recurrence of CH.

  14. 清热散瘟口服液联合更昔洛韦治疗传染性单核细胞增多症的疗效观察%Effect of Qingre Sanwen Oral Liquid Combined with Acyclovir for Infectious Mononucleosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑梅; 杨德光; 杨杰; 赵永生; 石军祥; 史桂荣

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨清热散瘟口服液联合更昔洛韦治疗传染性单核细胞增多症的疗效与安全性。方法将46例患儿随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组24例采用清热散瘟口服液联合更昔洛韦治疗,对照组22例,单纯给予更昔洛韦治疗,观察比较两组临床症状的转归及临床疗效,并对观察结果进行研究分析。结果观察组的临床效果高于对照组,显效率明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论使用清热散瘟口服液联合更昔洛韦治疗传染性单核细胞增多症能够显着提高有效率。%Objective Observe the acyclovir and Qingre Sanwen oral liquid for the treatment of infectious mononucleosis. Method 46 cases of infectious mononucleosis children were randomly divided into two groups, Observation group of 24 patients with acyclovir and therapy, and the observation results of the 22patients analysis for the treatment of infectious mononucleosis. Compare of two groups of clinical symptoms and clinical curative effect. Result The effect of observation group was obviously higher than that of control group, significant efficiency was better than control group, the difference was statistically signiifcant(P<0.05). Conclusion Using the Qingre Sanwen oral liquid with acyclovir therapy type infectious mononucleosis can signiifcantly improve the efifciency.

  15. The Effects of Combination of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Acyclovir (ACV) and Corticosteroid on Acute Retinal Necrosis (ARN)%中药、无环鸟苷、皮质激素联合治疗急性视网膜坏死

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫玲; 杨志坤; 滕颖; 马晓萍

    2001-01-01

    目的:为了探讨急性视网膜坏死(acute retinal necrosis,ARN)的有效疗法.方法:对8例(11只眼)ARN患者用中药、无环鸟苷(acyclovir,ACV)、激素联合治疗.结果:随访3~36个月,10只眼视力有不同程度提高,视力提高达90.9%结论:中药、ACV、激素联合应用是治疗ARN的一种有效方法.

  16. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded protein kinase, EBV-PK, but not the thymidine kinase (EBV-TK), is required for ganciclovir and acyclovir inhibition of lytic viral production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qiao; Hagemeier, Stacy R; Fingeroth, Joyce D; Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S; Kenney, Shannon C

    2010-05-01

    Ganciclovir (GCV) and acyclovir (ACV) are guanine nucleoside analogues that inhibit lytic herpesvirus replication. GCV and ACV must be monophosphorylated by virally encoded enzymes to be converted into nucleotides and incorporated into viral DNA. However, whether GCV and/or ACV phosphorylation in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells is mediated primarily by the EBV-encoded protein kinase (EBV-PK), the EBV-encoded thymidine kinase (EBV-TK), or both is controversial. To examine this question, we constructed EBV mutants containing stop codons in either the EBV-PK or EBV-TK open reading frame and selected for stable 293T clones latently infected with wild-type EBV or each of the mutant viruses. Cells were induced to the lytic form of viral replication with a BZLF1 expression vector in the presence and absence of various doses of GCV and ACV, and infectious viral titers were determined by a green Raji cell assay. As expected, virus production in wild-type EBV-infected 293T cells was inhibited by both GCV (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 1.5 microM) and ACV (IC(50) = 4.1 microM). However, the EBV-PK mutant (which replicates as well as the wild-type (WT) virus in 293T cells) was resistant to both GCV (IC(50) = 19.6 microM) and ACV (IC(50) = 36.4 microM). Expression of the EBV-PK protein in trans restored GCV and ACV sensitivity in cells infected with the PK mutant virus. In contrast, in 293T cells infected with the TK mutant virus, viral replication remained sensitive to both GCV (IC(50) = 1.2 microM) and ACV (IC(50) = 2.8 microM), although susceptibility to the thymine nucleoside analogue, bromodeoxyuridine, was reduced. Thus, EBV-PK but not EBV-TK mediates ACV and GCV susceptibilities.

  17. Combined effects of interferon and acyclovir on herpes simplex virus in vitro%干扰素联合无环鸟苷抑制单纯疱疹病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡楠; 龚启荣; 管怀进

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨干扰素( interferon, IFN )与无环鸟苷( acyclovir,ACV)联合使用抑制单纯疱疹病毒 (herpes simplex virus ,HSV) 时的药效及病毒耐药性产生情况.方法将HSV-Ⅰ分别接种于经IFN-α作用24h及未经IFN-α处理的非洲绿猴肾细胞中,加入不同浓度的ACV,培养72h后固定、染色、清点空斑数并计算ACV的半数有效剂量(ED50).将HSV-Ⅰ在含ACV及IFN-α与ACV的环境中连续培养10代, 分别在第3、5、7和10代测定ACV的ED50.结果 ACV对野生HSV-Ⅰ的ED50为142.0×10-9mol* L-1, IFN-α与ACV联合用药时ACV对野生HSV-Ⅰ的ED50为47.4×10-9mol* L-1 .HSV-Ⅰ在含ACV的环境中连续培养7代后即产生了耐药性,其ED50为第1代的82倍,而HSV-Ⅰ在含有ACV和IFN-α的环境中培养10代后未产生耐药性.结论 IFN和ACV联合应用具有协同作用,可以减少ACV的用量,提高疗效;联合用药可以有效延缓病毒对ACV耐药性的产生.

  18. Influence of the treatment protocol upon the in vivo efficacy of cidofovir (HPMPC) and of acyclovir (ACV) formulations in topical treatment of cutaneous HSV-1 infection in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afouna, M I; Mehta, S C; Ghanem, A H; Higuchi, W I; Kern, E R; DeClercq, E; El-Shattawy, H H

    1999-05-01

    In recent studies we found that the topical effectiveness of acyclovir (ACV) formulations was a single-valued function of C-the target site free drug concentration. The topical efficacy was the same when the therapy was initiated 0, 1, or 2 days after intracutaneous herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) inoculation in hairless mice. The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that the topical effectiveness of cidofovir (HPMPC) would not be a single valued function of C and that it would be dependent upon when the therapy was initiated relative to the time of viral infection. Formulations of HPMPC and ACV in 95% DMSO as a vehicle were used. Hairless mice intracutaneously infected with HSV-1 were used, and 20 microL of the test formulation was topically applied twice a day. In protocol A, the treatment was continued until the fourth day after virus inoculation, whereas in protocol B the treatment was terminated on the day of virus inoculation. Treatment was initiated on various days ranging from day -6 to day 4, and the lesions were scored on day 5. Treatment of ACV according to protocol A proved efficacious whether started as early as 6 days before virus inoculation or later, whereas the efficacy of ACV was annihilated if applied following protocol B. For HPMPC, on the other hand, the in vivo efficacies were found to be strongly dependent on how early the therapy was initiated, and significant efficacy was observed even when the treatment was terminated on the day of virus inoculation. This difference was attributed to the virus-independent intracellular phosphorylation of HPMPC and slow clearance of its metabolites from the cell. It was also noted that, similar to ACV, for HPMPC the topical efficacy is likely to be a function of C for a fixed protocol. However, unlike for ACV, for HPMPC the efficacy was not a single-valued function of C.

  19. Lights and shadows in the challenge of binding acyclovir, a synthetic purine-like nucleoside with antiviral activity, at an apical-distal coordination site in copper(II)-polyamine chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Toro, Inmaculada; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane; Vílchez-Rodríguez, Esther; González-Pérez, Josefa María; Castiñeiras, Alfonso; Niclós-Gutiérrez, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Several nucleic acid components and their metal complexes are known to be involved in crucial metabolic steps. Therefore the study of metal-nucleic acid interactions becomes essential to understand these biological processes. In this work, the synthetic purine-like nucleoside acyclovir (acv) has been used as a model of guanosine recognition with copper(II)-polyamine chelates. The chemical stability of the N9-acyclic arm in acv offers the possibility to use this antiviral drug to deepen the knowledge of metal-nucleoside interactions. Cu(II) chelates with cyclam, cyclen and trien were used as suitable receptors. All these copper(II) tetraamine chelates have in common the potential ability to yield a Cu-N7(apical) bond assisted by an appropriate (amine)N-H⋯O6(acv) intra-molecular interligand interaction. A series of synthesis afforded the following compounds: [Cu(cyclam)(ClO4)2] (1), {[Cu(cyclam)(μ2-NO3)](NO3)}n (2), {[Cu(cyclam)(μ2-SO4)]·MeOH}n (3), {[Cu(cyclam)(μ2-SO4)]·5H2O}n (4), [Cu(cyclen)(H2O)]SO4·2H2O (5), [Cu(cyclen)(H2O)]SO4·3H2O (6), [Cu(trien)(acv)](NO3)2·acv (7) and [Cu(trien)(acv)]SO4·0.71H2O (8). All these compounds have been characterized by X-ray crystallography and FT-IR spectroscopy. Our results reveal that the macrochelates Cu(cyclen)(2+) and Cu(cyclam)(2+) are unable to bind acv at an apical site. In contrast, the Cu(trien)(2+) complex has proved to be an efficient receptor for acv in compounds (7) and (8). In the ternary complex [Cu(trien)(acv)](2+), the metal binding pattern of acv consists of an apical Cu-N7 bond assisted by an intra-molecular (primary amino)N-H⋯O6(acv) interligand interaction. Structural comparisons reveal that this unprecedented apical role of acv is due to the acyclic nature of trien together with the ability of the Cu(trien)(2+) chelate to generate five-coordinated (type 4+1) copper(II) complexes.

  20. Effects of honey to acyclovir in the rabbit eye transport kinetics%蜂蜜对阿昔洛韦在兔眼内转运动力学特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何群; 王适; 张湘晖; 张健; 姜宇; 许江丽

    2011-01-01

    目的:从药动学角度探索蜂蜜增强阿昔洛韦(ACV)治疗单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎(HSK)药效的作用机制,为2药合用处方及给药方案设计提供依据.方法:分别单次给予兔眼内含5%蜂蜜和0%蜂蜜的目安眼膏,于不同时间取兔眼房水,高效液相色谱法测房水内ACV含量,建立数学模型,通过数学及统计学处理提取药动学参数,比较各参数差异.结果:含5%蜂蜜和0%蜂蜜的目安眼膏在兔眼内的转运均属于二室模型,含5%蜂蜜的目安眼膏在房水中吸收半衰期为不含蜂蜜目安眼膏的2.30倍,分布半衰期为2.12倍,达峰浓度为1.17倍,达峰时间为1.36倍,AUC为1.41倍.结论:蜂蜜可显著提高ACV在眼内的浓度及生物利用度,延长ACV在靶细胞内的作用时间,提高ACV在靶分子的滞留能力,使ACV在靶组织药效持久,从而提高疗效.%Objective: Using phaimacokinetics to explore the mechanism of honey to enhance the efficacy of acyclovir ( ACV) treatment of herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) , providing the basis for combination of the prescription of two drugs and dosage regimen designed. Method: Single dosages of 5% honey and 0% honey Meyasu eye ointment are injected into rabbit eyes. The aqueous humor of rabbit eye is measured at different times, specifically the content of ACV in aqueous humor by HPLC. Mathematical models are established, from which pharmacokinetic parameters are extracted and compared by mathematics and statistics methods. Result; Both the 5% and 0% honey Meyasu eye ointment in rabbit eyes are belong to a two-compartment model. The absorption half-life of the 5% Meyasu eye ointment in aqueous humor is as 2. 30 times longer, the distribution half-life is 2. 12 times longer, the peak concentration is 1. 17 times longer, the peak time is 1. 36 times longer, AUC is 1. 41 times longer when compared to the 0% Meyasu eye ointment. Conclusion: Honey can significantly increase the ACV concentration and bioavailability

  1. Ternary complexes metal [Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)]--ortho-iodohippurate (I-hip)--acyclovir. X-ray characterization of isostructural [(Co, Ni or Zn)(I-hip)(2)(ACV)(H(2)O)(3)] with stacking as a recognition factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló-Oliver, M; Terrón, A; García-Raso, A; Fiol, J J; Molins, E; Miravitlles, C

    2004-11-01

    Four ternary metal--ortho-iodohippurate (I-hip)--acyclovir (ACV) complexes, [M(I-hip)(2)(ACV)(H(2)O)(3)] where M is Co(II) (1), Ni(II) (2), Cu (3) and Zn(II) have been obtained by reaction between the corresponding binary complexes M(II)(I-hip)(2)xnH(2)O and ACV. Three ternary complexes (M=Co, Ni and Zn) and the corresponding Zn(II)--ortho-iodohippurate binary derivative have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction: The studies show these three ternary complexes are isostructural and present, in solid state, an interesting stacking between the nucleobase and the aryl ring of the hippurate moiety, which probably promotes the formation of ternary complexes. Moreover, the two different ligands interact between them by means of ancillary hydrogen bonds with water molecules coordinated to the metal ion. It must be mentioned that these two recognition factors, hydrogen bonds plus stacking, could explain the reason for the isostructurality of these ternary derivatives with so different three metal ions, with diverses trends in coordination numbers and geometries. In solid state, there are two enantiomeric molecules that are related by an inversion center as the crystal-building unit (as a translational motif) for the ternary complexes.

  2. Effect of different doses of acyclovir on renal function and its mechanism in mice%不同剂量阿昔洛韦对小鼠肾功能的影响及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁堂娟; 许家栋; 谷丽丽; 梁培; 陆红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of different dosage of acyclovir( ACV)on renal function and its mechanism in mice. Methods Thirty ICR mice were divided into the control,ACV 150 μg/ g and 600 μg/ g groups by complete randomization method. Each group comprised 10 mice. The mice in the ACV 150 and 600 μg/ g groups were injected with different dosage of ACV,the control group were injected with same volume of 0. 9% sodium chloride via caudal vein once daily for 7 days. The mice'body weight before the first medication and after the last medication was weighed. The levels of serum creatinine(Scr)and urea nitrogen(BUN)after medication were detected. The mice were sacrificed after collecting the blood samples. The mice kidneys were weighed and the renal coefficient was calculated. One kidney was used for pathologic examinations,and the other was for detection of expression of kidney injury factor-1(KIM-1),interleukin-6(IL-6),tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)and transforming growth factor-β1( TGF-β1)by immunohistochemical Envision two-step method. The expression score was calculated according to the staining intensity and the percentage of positive cells. Results On day 7 of medication, the body weight of mice in the ACV 150,600 μg/ g groups were lower than that in the control group [(29. 0 ± 0. 59)g,(23. 6 ± 3. 0)g vs.(31. 9 ± 2. 4)g,P < 0. 05,P < 0. 01],the renal coefficient and the levels of BUN and Scr in ACV 600 μg/ g group were higher than those in the control group[(8. 52 ± 0. 77)% vs.(6. 04 ± 0. 71)% ,P < 0. 01;(204 74)μmol/ L vs.(133 ± 30)μmol/ L,P < 0. 01;(13. 8 ± 2. 8)mmol/ L vs. (6. 9 ± 1. 2) mmol/ L,P < 0. 05]. There were renal tubular dilatation and few inflammatory response cell in renal interstitium in the ACV 150 μg/ g group and infiltration of flammatory cells in renal interstitium. There were infiltration of flammatory cells and fibroplasia in renal interstitium and some renal tubular deformation and necrosis in ACV 600 μg/ g group. The

  3. Study on the Optimal Concentration of Honey to Enhance the Effect of Acyclovir on Herpes Simplex Virus Keratitis Model Rabbits%蜂蜜增强阿昔洛韦对单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎模型兔药效的最佳浓度实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何群; 王适; 张湘晖; 伍参荣; 姜宇; 赵碧清

    2011-01-01

    目的:探索蜂蜜增强阿昔洛韦(ACV)对单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎(HSK)模型兔药效的最佳浓度,为2药联用提供依据.方法:对兔角膜采用上皮划痕法接种单纯疱疹病毒Ⅰ型病毒株建立HSK模型,将模型兔随机分为7组,每组4只(8只眼),分别为:Ⅰ~Ⅳ组(蜂蜜与3%ACV混合凝胶,其中蜂蜜含量分别为0、3%、5%、7%)、V组(只建模)、Ⅵ组(3%ACV眼膏)、Ⅶ组(空白基质),每日涂相应眼药3次,每次给药0.1g,间隔4h,连续给药12d.用裂隙灯观察各组给药第3、6、9、12天(次日给药前观察)情况并进行药效评分,再对药效评分进行等级一致性检验,找出药效最优组别.结果:每组各时间段药效评分结果不同,但从综合药效评分排序可知:Ⅲ组>Ⅳ组>Ⅱ组>Ⅵ组>Ⅰ组≈Ⅶ组≈V组,等级有一致性的倾向,以含5%蜂蜜与3%ACV混合凝胶药效最强,优于其他组.结论:蜂蜜增强3%ACV对HSK药效的最佳浓度为5%.%OBJECTIVE: To explore the optimal concentration of honey to enhance the effect of acyclovir (ACV) on the rabbits with herpes simplex virus keratitis (HSK) , and to provide reference for drug combination. METHODS: Rabbit cornea were vaccinated against type I herpes simplex strain by epithelium scratch method to establish HSK model. Model rabbits were randomly divided into 7 groups with 4 rabbits (8 eyes) in each group: I.e. Groups I ~IV (gel of honey mixed with 3% ACV, containing 0, 3% , 5% , 7% honey); group V (model established only); group VI (3% acyclovir eye ointment); groups W (blank matrix). They were given relevant medicine 3 times a day, 0.1 g each time every 4 hour for 12 days. Slitlampmicroscope was used to observe therapeutic efficacy on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th day (before administration the next day). Level consistency test of therapeutic efficacy was conducted to find out optimal therapeutic efficacy. RESULTS: The pesticide effects of each group were different at different time in

  4. In vitro Study on the Transdermal Penetration Enhancement of N-trimethyl Chitosan in Acyclovir Gel%N-三甲基壳聚糖对阿昔洛韦凝胶透皮吸收促进作用的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾莉群

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨N-三甲基壳聚糖(TMC60)对阿昔洛韦(ACV)凝胶的透皮吸收促进作用.方法:配制三种ACV凝胶,即不含促渗刺的阴性组,含3%薄荷醇的阳性组,舍3%TMC60的TMC60组.用Franz扩散池,对三种凝胶的体外透皮程度及速度进行考察.结果:三种ACV凝胶体外透皮吸收的累积透过量Q与时间t呈现线性关系,且TMC60组和阳性组的稳态透皮速率J均大于阴性组(P0.05).结论:与同浓度薄荷醇相比,TMC60 有相似的透皮吸收促进效果,值得进一步研究.%Objective: To study the penetration enhancement of N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC60) in acyclovir (ACV) gel in vitro.Method: Three kinds of ACV gels were prepared, those were negative group without any enhancer, positive group with 3% menthol as the enhancer and TMC60 group with 3% TMC60 as the enhancer. The Franz diffusion cells were employed to study the penetration amount and rate of the ACV gels in vitro. Result: Accumulation penetration amount (Q) had linear relationship with time in ACV gels.Compared with that of negative group, stable-state penetration rates (J) of TMC60 group and positive group were both significantly increased ( P < 0. 05 ) while there was no notable difference between the latter two groups ( P > 0. 05 ). Conclusion: TMC60 has the similar enhancement compared with menthol and is valuable to be studied further.

  5. A Case of Hailey-Hailey Disease That Responds Dramatically to Acyclovir Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    İjlal Erturan; Ali Murat Ceyhan; Gonca Meriç; Vahide Baysal Akkaya

    2012-01-01

    Hailey-Hailey disease is an autosomal dominantly inherited chronic bullous dermatosis that tends to remain localized to flexural areas. The typical onset of the disease is through papulovesicles or flaccid bullae on an erythematous background. Lesions are often painful and itchy and sometimes cause a burning sensation. Although there is no effective treatment for the disease, topical and systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics are often used in the treatment. Hailey-Hailey disease creates a ...

  6. Effect of acyclovir and steroid in a young immunocompetent male with herpes zoster myelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Safadi, Louay; Arngrim, Nanna; Amin, Faisal Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    of viral meningitis and rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis. Lumbar puncture showed increased levels of monocytes and varicella zoster virus DNA. Despite a negative MRI, based on a few previous case reports and because of lack of progress on antiviral treatment, treatment with steroids was established...

  7. Study of Antiherpetic Efficiency of Phosphite of Acycloguanosine Ableto Over come the Barrier of Resistance to Acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronova, V L; Jasko, M V; Kukhanova, M K; Galegov, G A; Skoblov, Yr S; Kochetkov, S N

    2016-01-01

    As has been shown previously, phosphite of acycloguanosine (Hp-ACG) exhibits equal efficacy against ACV-sensitive and ACV-resistant HSV-1 strains in cell culture. Intraperitoneal administration of Hp-ACG to model mice with herpetic encephalitis caused by HSV-1 infection was shown to be effective in protecting against death. In the present work, we continue the study of the antiviral efficiency of Hp-ACG against HSV administered non-invasively; namely in vivo, orally and in the form of ointment formulations. It has been first shown that oral administration of Hp-ACG twice daily for five days prevents systemic infection in mice caused by HSV-1. Mortality in the control group of animals was 57%. Administration of Hp-ACG at doses of 600, 800 and 1,000 mg/kg per day significantly increased the survival and median day of death of the animals compared to the placebo-treated control group. A comparative evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy parameters of polyethylene glycol-based ACV ointment and Hp-ACG ointment was carried out after a 5-day course in the model of an experimental cutaneous infection of HSV-1 in guinea pigs. It was found that Hp-ACG has a significant therapeutic effect resulting in a statistically significant reduction in the lesion's surface area and the amount of vesicular structures. The exhibited therapeutic effect of 10% Hp-ACG in ointment form compares well with that of 5% ACG ointment. PMID:27099786

  8. Study of Antiherpetic Efficiency of Phosphite of Acycloguanosine Ableto Over come the Barrier of Resistance to Acyclovir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronova, V. L.; Jasko, M.V.; Kukhanova, M.K.; Galegov, G.A.; Skoblov, Yr.S.; Kochetkov, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    As has been shown previously, phosphite of acycloguanosine (Hp-ACG) exhibits equal efficacy against ACV-sensitive and ACV-resistant HSV-1 strains in cell culture. Intraperitoneal administration of Hp-ACG to model mice with herpetic encephalitis caused by HSV-1 infection was shown to be effective in protecting against death. In the present work, we continue the study of the antiviral efficiency of Hp-ACG against HSV administered non-invasively; namely in vivo, orally and in the form of ointment formulations. It has been first shown that oral administration of Hp-ACG twice daily for five days prevents systemic infection in mice caused by HSV-1. Mortality in the control group of animals was 57%. Administration of Hp-ACG at doses of 600, 800 and 1,000 mg/kg per day significantly increased the survival and median day of death of the animals compared to the placebo-treated control group. A comparative evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy parameters of polyethylene glycol-based ACV ointment and Hp-ACG ointment was carried out after a 5-day course in the model of an experimental cutaneous infection of HSV-1 in guinea pigs. It was found that Hp-ACG has a significant therapeutic effect resulting in a statistically significant reduction in the lesion’s surface area and the amount of vesicular structures. The exhibited therapeutic effect of 10% Hp-ACG in ointment form compares well with that of 5% ACG ointment. PMID:27099786

  9. Effects of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/acyclovir system on growth of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cell line in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiang-liang; HE Dong-hua; GUO Xian-jian; QIAN Gui-sheng; HUANG Gui-jun; CHEN Wei-zhong; LI Shu-ping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of anciclovir (ACV) treatment on tumors induced by inoculation of TK gene-transfected human pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells in nude mice. Methods: A recombinant plasmid containing TK gene was constructed and transfected into A549 cells by electroporation. The sensitivity of the transgenic cells (A549-TK) to ACV was examined by MTT assay in vitro and for in vivo observation, inoculation of A549-TK and A-549 cells into nude mice was separately performed to induce tumor growth, the response of which to ACV treatment was observed, and the tumor tissues were pathologically examined. Results: A recombinant plasmid containing TK gene was successfully constructed and transfected into A549 cells. The sensitivity of A549-TK cells to ACV was 43 times higher than that of A549 cells. The tumors induced by A549-TK cells showed no significant increase in size after ACV treatment (P>0. 05), and light microscopy revealed local tissue necrosis, karyoklasis, and nuclei disappearance. Conclusion: A549-TK cells acquires sensitivity to ACV both in vitro and in vivo, and ACV can inhibit the growth of tumors induced by A549-TK cell inoculation in nude mice.

  10. 复方樟柳碱联合无环鸟苷治疗急性视网膜坏死%Clinical effects of combination application of compound anisodin and acyclovir(ACV)on acute retinal necrosis(ARN)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涌; 邱颖杰

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨急性视网膜坏死(ARN)的有效治疗方法.方法 将20例22眼随机分为治疗组和常规组两组,治疗组12眼采用复方樟柳碱联合无环鸟苷(ACV)治疗,与常规组10眼进行对比现察.结果 经3~15个月的观察随访,治疗组12眼中有10眼视力不同程度提高,提高率为83%.结论 复方樟柳碱联合无环鸟苷是治疗ARN的一种有效方法.

  11. 无环鸟苷、丹参联合治疗急性视网膜坏死的研究%Study of combination of acyclovir and salvia miltiorrhiza on acute retinal necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王圣祥; 丁波

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨急性视网膜坏死(ARN)的治疗方法.方法对8例(10眼)ARN患者采用无环鸟苷、丹参联合治疗.结果随访12~18个月,9眼视力有不同程度提高,视力提高率达90%.结论无环鸟苷、丹参联合治疗ARN是一种有效的方法.

  12. An Observation of Clinical Efficacy of Acyclovir in 24 Cases of Child Chickenpox%阿昔洛韦治疗小儿水痘24例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江月萍; 顾仁月

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨阿昔洛韦对小儿水痘的临床疗效及安全性.方法:46例水痘患儿随机分为两组,治疗组24例用阿昔洛韦5 mg/(kg·次),每日4次口服,对照组22例用利巴韦林注射液10 mg/(kg·d),每日静脉滴注一次,疗程均为5 d,其他治疗方法相同.结果:治疗组热退及结痂时间较对照组缩短(P0.05).结论:阿昔洛韦对小儿水痘有显著疗效,而且安全可靠.

  13. Clinical study on the treating of Thymosin and acyclovir treatment of children with chickenpox%胸腺肽联合阿昔洛韦治疗小儿水痘临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段树鹏

    2009-01-01

    目的:胸腺肽、阿昔洛韦治疗小儿水痘98例疗效观察.方法:采用随机对照治疗,将水痘患儿分为胸腺肽联合阿昔洛韦治疗组50例,胸腺肽10~20mg/d,静脉滴注,阿昔洛韦10~15mg/kg,分2次静脉注射,连用7d;对照组48例,阿昔洛韦10~15mg/kg,分2次静脉注射,连用7d.结果:治疗组总有效率为94.0%;对照组总有效率为72.9%.结论:胸腺肽联合阿昔洛韦治疗小儿水痘有很好疗效.

  14. 盐酸伐昔洛韦与阿昔洛韦治疗儿童水痘疗效的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Valaciclovir Hydrochioride and Acyclovir in the Treatment of Children with Chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菁; 朱炜春; 谭丽丽; 胡丹

    2015-01-01

    目的 对比分析盐酸伐昔洛韦和阿昔洛韦治疗儿童水痘的临床疗效.方法 选取我院2013年9月至2014年11月期间因水痘需住院治疗惠儿90例,随机分为2组,每组45例,分别予以盐酸伐昔洛韦(观察组)和阿昔洛韦(对照组)进行治疗,比较两组治疗后临床疗效、疗效指数和不良反应情况.结果 观察组治愈率80.0%高于对照组53.3%,总有效率97.8%高于对照组84.4%,疗效指数(0.86±0.31)高于对照组(0.53±0.29),差异均具有统计学意义(均P<0.05);观察组瘙痒消失时间(0.7±0.2)d、全部结痂时间(2.3±0.5)d、痂落自愈时间(5.4±1.0)d均短于对照组,差异均具有统计学意义(均P <0.05);观察组总不良反应率与对照组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 盐酸伐昔洛韦治疗儿童水痘临床效果较好,疗效指数更高,症状体征消失快,且不良反应无异常增高,适合临床应用推广.

  15. Effective observation of 50 children with chicken pox treatedby by orally acyclovir%口服联合外用阿昔洛韦治疗小儿水痘50例临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范慧海; 陈萌新; 何梅玲

    2007-01-01

    目的 观察口服阿昔洛韦基础上加用3%阿昔洛韦软膏外用治疗小儿水痘的疗效.方法 将100例水痘患儿随机分为2组,治疗组50例用阿昔洛韦口服加3%阿昔洛韦软膏外用和对照组50例口服阿昔洛韦,分析其疗效.结果 治疗组与对照组比较,前者在有效率(P<0.01)、治愈率、退热时间和疱疹结痂时间(P<0.05)等均优于后者.结论 口服阿昔洛韦加3%阿昔洛韦软膏外用疗效优于口服阿昔洛韦,值得临床推广.

  16. Comparison of Efficacies of Acyclovir with Glycyrrhizin Against Herpes Simple Virus Type 1 in Vitro%阿昔洛韦与甘草酸苷体外抗HSV-1活性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳丽; 王微; 王松

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究阿昔洛韦片剂(ACV)与复方甘草酸苷注射液(GLI)对HSV-1体外抗病毒活性.方法:通过观察病毒感染细胞病变效应(CPE),按照Reed-Muench法进行病毒的半数感染浓度TCID50的测定;采用噻唑蓝(MTT)比色法,分别测定ACV及GH对叙利亚仓鼠肾细胞(BHK-21)毒性,且考察不同浓度的阿昔洛韦片剂和复方甘草酸苷注射液对HSV-1不同作用阶段的抑制效果.结果:阿昔洛韦片剂和复方甘草酸苷注射液分别在11.72μM及0.375mM浓度以下,对BHK-21细胞无毒性作用.两种药物均对HSV-1四种作用模式的病毒抑制率成浓度及时间依赖性.ACV与GLI抗病毒机制不同.

  17. 五种阿昔洛韦软膏释放与透皮性质比较%The comparison of five ointment formulations of acyclovir on release rate and percutaneous rate in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓微; 何飞燕; 梁文权

    1999-01-01

    目的:探讨不同的软膏基质对阿昔洛韦(ACV)透皮性能的影响.方法:设计四种不同基质的处方,测定ACV从处方中的释放与经皮渗透性质,并与商品ACV软膏进行比较.结果:四种软膏基质中ACV的释放速率与透皮速率均大于商品ACV软膏,乳膏基质、Ⅰ号凝胶基质、PEG基质、Ⅱ号凝胶基质中药物的透皮速率分别是商品软膏的2.47,4.98,12.79与17.85倍.结论:由卡巴浦、月桂氮酮、丙二醇、薄荷油及辅助促透剂组成的ACV软膏为较好的处方.

  18. 用硼酸作为显色剂光度法测定阿昔洛韦%Spectrophotometric determination of acyclovir with boric acid as a chromogenic agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 汪瑾; 魏献军; 李全民

    2010-01-01

    在pH 12.00的缓冲溶液中,阿昔洛韦(ACV)与H_3BO_3形成组成比为1∶1的反应产物,其最大吸收波长λ_max=289 nm,ACV的质量浓度在0.48~57.6 mg/L范围内与吸光度成良好关系,线性回归方程A=-0.01796+0.01624ρ,相关系数r=0.9990,表观摩尔吸光系数ε=3.7×10~3 L·mol~(-1)·cm~(-1),回收率为99.9%~101.6%. 据此建立了测定ACV的新方法,能够直接用于药物样品中ACV的测定.

  19. 阿昔洛韦与羟丙基-β-环糊精在水溶液中的包合作用%The Complexation of Acyclovir with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin in Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖若蕾; 罗兵华

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究阿昔洛韦(ACV)与羟丙基-β-环糊精(HP-β-CD)在水溶液中的包合作用.方法 采用相溶解度法测定ACV与HP-β-CD在水溶液中的包合作用、包合比及包合过程中的热力学参数变化.结果 ACV与HP-β-CD可形成1:1摩尔比可溶性包合物,相溶解度图呈AL-型;ACV与HP-β-CD在水溶液中的包合过程可自发进行(△G<0).结论 ACV与HP-β-CD在水溶液中可自发形成1:1摩尔比可溶性包合物.

  20. 喷昔洛韦与阿昔洛韦治疗豚鼠单纯疱疹的疗效比较%The Comparison of Efficacies of Penciclovir and Acyclovir Treating the Herpes Simplex in Guinea-Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向群; 毛琳; 文莉; 侯伟; 肖红; 杨占秋

    2000-01-01

    为比较喷昔洛韦(PCV)与阿昔洛韦(ACV)对单纯疱疹的疗效,建立了豚鼠皮肤单纯疱疹的模型,比较不同时间的疗效积分和皮损处1型单纯疱疹病毒(HSV-1)发现:0.2%PCV组对疱疹疗效及对HSV-1抑制作用要比1%ACV组好,表明PCV治疗单纯疱疹的疗效要比ACV好,其抗HSV-1活性也比ACV高.

  1. Pentacyclic triterpenes in birch bark extract inhibit early step of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary Navid, M; Laszczyk-Lauer, M N; Reichling, J; Schnitzler, P

    2014-09-25

    Antiviral agents frequently applied for treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and its derivatives. The antiviral effect of a triterpene extract of birch bark and its major pentacyclic triterpenes, i.e. betulin, lupeol and betulinic acid against acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSV type 1 strains was examined. The cytotoxic effect of a phytochemically defined birch bark triterpene extract (TE) as well as different pentacyclic triterpenes was analyzed in cell culture, and revealed a moderate cytotoxicity on RC-37 cells. TE, betulin, lupeol and betulinic acid exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against HSV-1 in viral suspension tests with IC50 values ranging between 0.2 and 0.5 μg/ml. Infectivity of acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains was significantly reduced by all tested compounds and a direct concentration- and time-dependent antiherpetic activity could be demonstrated. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action, TE and the compounds were added at different times during the viral infection cycle. Addition of these drugs to uninfected cells prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells during intracellular replication had low effect on virus multiplication. Minor virucidal activity of triterpenes was observed, however both TE and tested compounds exhibited high anti-herpetic activity when viruses were pretreated with these drugs prior to infection. Pentacyclic triterpenes inhibit acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant clinical isolates of HSV-1 in the early phase of infection.

  2. Drug: D00222 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00222 Drug Aciclovir (JP16/INN); Acyclovir (USP); Sitavig (TN); Zovirax (TN) C8H11...Ophthalmic agents 1319 Others D00222 Aciclovir (JP16/INN); Acyclovir (USP) 6 Agents against pathologic organ...isms and parasites 62 Chemotherapeutics 625 Antivirals 6250 Antivirals D00222 Aciclo...SE D06BB Antivirals D06BB03 Aciclovir D00222 Aciclovir (JP16/INN); Acyclovir (USP...eosides and nucleotides excl. reverse transcriptase inhibitors J05AB01 Aciclovir D00222 Aciclovir (JP16/INN)

  3. Acute pancreatitis : complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pinaki; Maity, Pranab; Basu, Arindam; Dey, Somitra; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S

    2012-12-01

    Chicken pox is a benign self limited disease. But it may rarely be complicated with acute pancreatitis in otherwise healthy patient. We present a case of varicella pancreatitis and its marked recovery with acyclovir. PMID:23781673

  4. Disease: H00368 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cytomegalic endothelial cells (owl's eye nucleus) Skin biopsies (vascular injury) Ganciclo...vir [DR:D00333 D04301] Valganciclovir [DR:D02495 D03256] Foscarnet [DR:D00579 D02267] Acyclovir [DR

  5. Zidovudine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe side effects, such as liver damage, blood toxicities, and muscle disorders. If you experience any of ... prescription and nonprescription medications you are taking, especially acetaminophen, acyclovir (Zovirax), aspirin, cancer chemotherapy, cimetidine (Tagamet), fluconazole ( ...

  6. Neurotoxicity caused by valacyclovir in a patient on hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen-Schuurmans, CD; van Kan, EJM; Feith, GW; Uges, DRA

    1998-01-01

    The authors report toxicity caused by valacyclovir in a patient on hemodialysis. After initial recuperation resulting from treatment with hemodialysis, the patient experienced a relapse of neurologic symptoms, again necessitating hemodialysis. Although acyclovir and its analogues are generally safe

  7. Skin delivery of selected hydrophilic drugs used in the treatment of skin diseases associated with HIV/AIDS by using elastic liposomes / Kevin Bassey Ita

    OpenAIRE

    Ita, Kevin Bassey

    2003-01-01

    Due to the immuncompromised status of AIDS patients, secondary infections and malignancies are common. Conditions secondary to AIDS for which patients require treatment include Karposi's sarcoma (treated with methotrexate), varicella-zoster (treated with antivirals such as acyclovir) and herpes simplex (also treated with antivirals like acyclovir or idoxuridme). However the clinical efficacy of these drugs is limited by poor skin permeability. Few reports, however, have deal...

  8. COMBINED USE OF ACYCLOVIR VITAMIN C AND INTERFERON IN TREATING HERPES SIMPLE VIRAL KERATITIS%无环鸟苷 维生素C联合干扰素治疗单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹蔚云

    2007-01-01

    目的 观察干扰素联合无环鸟苷眼液、维生素C治疗单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎的疗效.方法 在Hep-2(喉癌)细胞上进行单纯疱疹病毒-I型(HSV-1)接种培养,制作兔单胞病毒性角膜炎模型,将其随机分为治疗组、对照组、无环鸟苷组、干扰素组.对照组:不用任何药物治疗.无环鸟苷组给予ACV治疗.干扰素组:给予滴宁眼液(IFN)点眼.治疗组:给予IFN和ACV交替点眼,每次间隔10 min,另外每周每只兔球结膜下注射VitC 1次,每次30 mg (每眼各15 mg),共2次.结果 CEIS分值:种毒后第6天,各组达到最高,以后又呈逐渐下降趋势.对照组种毒后各时间段CEIS分值均高于其他各组(P<0.01),其他各组之间的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).平均治愈时间:治疗组为(10.3±0.9)d,干扰素组为(13.7±0.51)d,无环鸟苷组为(13.4±0.583)d,3组比较有统计学意义(F=45.23,P<0.01).病理结果:治疗组角膜上皮及基质病变程度同期比明显轻于其他3组.结论 干扰素与无环鸟苷、维生素C联合应用治疗单胞病毒性角膜炎能增强药物的抗病毒作用、抑制HSV复制、提高机体的免疫力,与单独使用干扰素、无环鸟苷相比,提高了疗效,缩短了病程,取得了较满意的效果.

  9. 泛昔洛韦和阿昔洛韦体内外抗疱疹病毒活性的比较研究%Comparison of efficacies of famciclovir with acyclovir against herpes simple virus type 1 and 2 in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建农; 滕立; 陈鸿珊; 蒋宁; 蒋建东

    2003-01-01

    目的观察泛昔洛韦和阿昔洛韦在体内外实验模型中的抗疱疹病毒药效.方法用CPE,MTT染色法和空斑法观察两药在Vero细胞培养内对疱疹病毒1型(HSV-1)和2型(HSV-2)病毒的抑制作用;在疱疹病毒1型小鼠急性脑炎和豚鼠皮肤感染模型以及疱疹病毒2型小鼠阴道炎模型上观察两药体内对HSV-1和HSV-2感染的治疗效果.结果在细胞培养内,泛昔洛韦对HSV-1和HSV-2无明显抑制活性(IC50>1 000 μg*mL-1),阿昔洛韦对HSV有显著的抑制作用. 动物口服泛昔洛韦和阿昔洛韦能显著降低HSV-1腹腔感染小鼠引起的死亡和延长小鼠生命,泛昔洛韦和阿昔洛韦保护小鼠死亡的ED50分别为29.9 mg*kg-1和>100 mg*kg-1,延长小鼠生命的ED50分别为43.6 mg*kg-1和>100 mg*kg-1;对HSV-1感染豚鼠皮肤疱疹的抑制率,口服泛昔洛韦为75.0%~77.8%,阿昔洛韦为45.0%~41.7%,泛昔洛韦优于阿昔洛韦;对HSV-2阴道感染小鼠死亡率和延长小鼠生命,口服泛昔洛韦和阿昔洛韦的ED50分别是53.4,53.4和44.6,39.5mg*kg-1.结论①在细胞培养内,泛昔洛韦无抗疱疹病毒作用,阿昔洛韦有很强的抗疱疹病毒活性.②对于HSV-1引起的脑炎和皮肤感染,口服泛昔洛韦优于阿昔洛韦;对于HSV-2引起的阴道炎,口服两药作用相似.

  10. Optimization of the technological process to prepare acyclovir poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles%阿昔洛韦-乙交酯-丙交酯共聚物毫微粒制备工艺的优化选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颖; 周世文

    2000-01-01

    目的:筛选制备阿昔洛韦-乙交酯-丙交酯共聚物毫微粒(ACV-PLGA-NP)的优化工艺.方法:单因素试验初选制备ACV-PLGA-NP的pH值范围、聚乙烯醇(Polyvinyl alcohol,PVA)浓度范围、PLGA分子量、药物及丙酮浓度范围.按均匀设计表设计实验,进行结果预测及验证.结果:优化工艺与367%分子量及丙酮浓度无关,Ph值为1.5,PVA浓度为50mg/ml,ACV浓度为0.8mg/ml.按优化条件制备的ACV-PLGA-NP平均包封率为61.00%,载药量为6.79%.结论:按照均匀设计法优选的条件制备ACV-PLGA-NP,其目标量在预测值范围内.

  11. Quantification of acyclovir in human plasma——the metabolite of valaciclovir hydrochloride by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱荧光法测定人血浆中盐酸伐昔洛韦的代谢产物阿昔洛韦

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李扬; 宋丽洁; 李可欣; 刘蕾

    2006-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱荧光分析方法测定人血浆中盐酸伐昔洛韦的代谢产物阿昔洛韦(ACV).方法:20例受试者单次、交叉口服盐酸伐昔洛韦片300 mg后,以喷昔洛韦为内标,用沉淀法去除蛋白,用HPLC-荧光法测定.结果:ACV在0.02~5 μg·mL-1的浓度范围内有良好的线性关系(r=0.999 95),最低检测浓度为0.02 μg·mL-1(S/N>3),ACV的相对回收率为96.08%~97.28%,绝对回收率为69.62%~72.02%(n=5),目内精密度RSD为3.33%~6.12%,目间精密度为2.37%~6.81%.结论:本方法简便、灵敏、特异性强,可用于血浆中ACV的测定及人体药动学研究.

  12. The Prevalence and Molecular Characteristics of Acyclovir-Resistant HSV-1 Isolates from Patients with Herpetic Lips%唇疱疹分离无环鸟苷耐受HSV1株的发生率和分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍; 张修发; 江凡; 祝爱霞; 邹建话

    2010-01-01

    目的:检测120名门诊口腔科唇疱疹患者分离的无环鸟苷(ACV)耐受HSV-1毒株的发生率和分子鉴定.方法:采用病毒培养,实时定量PCR和基因测序分析这些临床分离株.结果:分离到无环鸟苷耐受毒株为6株(6/120=5%)在6份ACV耐受毒株中,TK基因发生突变,这可能与ACV耐受相关.结论:本研究表明唇疱疹患者中存在ACV耐受毒株,对于难于治疗的患者有必要检测毒株对ACV的敏感性.

  13. OBSERVATION ON THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF PLUM-BLOSSOM NEEDLE TAPPING PLUS MEDICATION FOR HERPES ZOSTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-kang; YIN Li-li

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of plum-blossom needle tapping combined with intravenous drip of Acyclovir for herpes zoster. Methods: A total of 40 herpes zoster patients were randomized into acupuncture plus medication group (n=21) and medication group (n=19) which were treated respectively with topical plum-blossom needle tapping in the focus region combined with intravenous drip of Acyclovir (250 mg+250 mL normal saline, twice daily) and simple intravenous drip of Acyclovir. Results: After treatment, of the 21 and 19 cases in acupuncture plus medication and medication groups, 18 (85.7%) and 10 (52.6%) were cured, 3 (14.3%) and 7 (36.8%) had marked improvement, 0 (0) and 2 (10.5%) failed, with the effective rates being 100.0% and 89.5% respectively. The cure duration of acupuncture plus medication and medication groups were (2.5±1.0) days and (4.0±2.3) days separately. The therapeutic effect of the former group was significantly superior to that of the later group (P<0.05) and the duration of cure of acupuncture plus medication group was evidently shorter than that of medication group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of plum-blossom needle tapping plus Acyclovir is significantly superior to that of simple Acyclovir in relieving pain, promoting scabbing, and shortening the therapeutic duration.

  14. Corticosteroid therapy of zoster-associated pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Dejan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lack of exact clinical studies on effects of corticosteroids in therapy and prevention of herpes zoster-related pain, elicited many controversies in the past. The aim of our study was to estimate effects of prednisone on frequency, intensity and duration of postherpetic neuralgia. Material and methods 68 immunocompetent herpes zoster patients, 8-90 years of age (37 females and 31 males, mean age 55,7 years were enrolled for study; 30 patients were treated with acyclovir (5x800 mg daily for a 7-day period and prednisone (initial daily dose 60 mg, tapering over 14 days, and the control group of 38 patients with acyclovir only. Patients were clinically followed up for 3 months after complete resolution of skin lesions. Chi-square test was used in statistical data analysis. Results The difference regarding incidence of postherpetic neuralgia in acyclovir/prednisone group and acyclovir group (although slightly less in the former one was not significant. Duration of postherpetic neuralgia over 3 months was similar in both groups. Mild postherpetic pain was more common in the acyclovir/prednisone group (44.4% than in the acyclovir group (28.6%; however, statistical validation requires more patients to be studied. Discussion Results of our study didn’t confirm efficiency of prednisone regarding occurrence and characteristics of postherpetic neuralgia. Failure of prednisone therapy may be partly contributed to advanced age of patients and delayed onset of therapy. Conclusion Use of corticosteroids in zoster patients gives neither reliable protection from appearance of postherpetic neuralgia, nor shortens its duration. Further investigations are necessary to estimate their effects on postherpetic pain.

  15. A unique presentation of acute liver failure from herpes simplex virus hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, C; Kebriaei, P; Turner, K A; Yemelyanova, A; Ariza-Heredia, E J; Foo, W C

    2016-08-01

    We present the case of a patient, with history of myelodysplastic syndrome and recent bone marrow transplant, who developed fulminant liver failure secondary to herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis. His presentation was unique, as findings of liver microabscesses on computed tomography scan have not been described previously in this patient population. Despite initial treatment with acyclovir, he continued to deteriorate, and later sensitivities found the HSV strain to be resistant to acyclovir. HSV hepatitis with secondary liver failure is rare and, without appropriate treatment, its mortality is >80%. Early suspicion and immediate therapy are the keys to improve patient survival. PMID:27222930

  16. Drug: D02764 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OTHERAPEUTICS FOR DERMATOLOGICAL USE D06B CHEMOTHERAPEUTICS FOR TOPICAL USE D06BB Antivirals D06BB03 Aciclov...NTIINFECTIVES S01AD Antivirals S01AD03 Aciclovir D02764 Acyclovir sodium (USAN) USP drug classification [BR:...Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] Antivirals Anti-HSV agent DNA polymerase inhibitor Purine analogue Aciclovir [AT...ECT ACTING ANTIVIRALS J05AB Nucleosides and nucleotides excl. reverse transcripta...se inhibitors J05AB01 Aciclovir D02764 Acyclovir sodium (USAN) S SENSORY ORGANS S01 OPHTHALMOLOGICALS S01A A

  17. Coin-shaped epithelial lesions following an acute attack of erythema multiforme minor with confocal microscopy findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Kalpana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an interesting ocular finding of bilateral multiple coin-shaped epithelial lesions along with the confocal microscopy findings in a patient following an acute attack of erythema multiforme (EM minor. A 30-year-old male presented with a history of watering and irritation in both eyes of three days duration. He was diagnosed to have EM minor and was on oral acyclovir. Slit-lamp examination revealed multiple coin-shaped epithelial lesions. Confocal microscopy showed a corresponding conglomerate of hyper-reflective epithelial lesions. The corneal lesions resolved over six weeks with oral steroids and acyclovir. An immunological mechanism is suspected.

  18. Toxic effects of bis(thiosemicarbazone) compounds and its palladium(II) complexes on herpes simplex virus growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we present data on the activity of benzyl bis(thiosemicarbazone); 3,5-diacyl-1,2,4-triazole bis(4-methylthiosemicarbazone) and their Pd(II) complexes against the replication of wild type and of acyclovir (ACV)-resistant, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) and type 2 (HSV 2) strains. The data were compared to those under the action of acyclovir. The testing of cytotoxic activity suggests that these compounds may be endowed with important antiviral properties. It is interesting to note that the Pd(II)-benzyl bis(thiosemicarbazone) complex, 2, exhibits a significant activity against acyclovir-resistant viruses R-100 (HSV 1) and PU (HSV 2) with an in vitro selectivity index (SI) of 8.0 vs. 0.01 for acyclovir. This complex also negatively influenced the expression of key structural HSV 1 proteins (VP23, gH and gG/gD), thus suppressing simultaneously virus entry, transactivation of virus genome, capsid assembly, and cell-to-cell spread of infectious HSV progeny

  19. Eldercare at Home: Skin Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can ease the symptoms. Doctors often prescribe an anti-viral drug, such as acyclovir (ZoviraxTM), valacyclovir (ValtrexTM), ... dealing with common caregiving problems. © 2016 Health in Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • ...

  20. Varicella-zoster virus transverse myelitis in an immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Jemshad Alungal; Mansoor C. Abdulla; Jassim Mohamad Koya; Krishnan R

    2014-01-01

    Transverse myelitis is one of the rare neurological complications of Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) infection in immuno-competent. We report a 26-year-old immuno-competent gentleman who developed virologically confirmed myelopathy caused by VZV which improved with steroids and acyclovir leaving no residual neurological deficits. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000): 1154-1156

  1. Toxic effects of bis(thiosemicarbazone) compounds and its palladium(II) complexes on herpes simplex virus growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Petia; Varadinova, Tatiana; Matesanz, Ana I; Marinova, Desislava; Souza, Pilar

    2004-06-01

    Here, we present data on the activity of benzyl bis(thiosemicarbazone); 3,5-diacyl-1,2,4-triazole bis(4-methylthiosemicarbazone) and their Pd(II) complexes against the replication of wild type and of acyclovir (ACV)-resistant, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) and type 2 (HSV 2) strains. The data were compared to those under the action of acyclovir. The testing of cytotoxic activity suggests that these compounds may be endowed with important antiviral properties. It is interesting to note that the Pd(II)-benzyl bis(thiosemicarbazone) complex, 2, exhibits a significant activity against acyclovir-resistant viruses R-100 (HSV 1) and PU (HSV 2) with an in vitro selectivity index (SI) of 8.0 vs. 0.01 for acyclovir. This complex also negatively influenced the expression of key structural HSV 1 proteins (VP23, gH and gG/gD), thus suppressing simultaneously virus entry, transactivation of virus genome, capsid assembly, and cell-to-cell spread of infectious HSV progeny. PMID:15163546

  2. Ionic liquid-assisted transdermal delivery of sparingly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Tahara, Yoshiro; Tamura, Miki; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2010-03-01

    We report the first successful application of a novel IL-assisted non-aqueous microemulsion stabilized by a blend of two nontoxic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80), and sorbitan laurate (Span-20) for transdermal delivery of acyclovir, which is insoluble or sparingly soluble in water and most common organic liquids. PMID:20162145

  3. Disease: H00366 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ] Valacyclovir hydrochloride [DR:D00398] Acyclovir [DR:D00222] Penciclovir [DR:D05407] Famciclo...vir [DR:D00317] Ganciclovir [DR:D00333] Cidofovir [DR:D00273] Foscarnet [DR:D00579 D02267] Fre

  4. Episodic therapy for genital herpes in sub-saharan Africa: a pooled analysis from three randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen A Weiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A randomized controlled trial in South Africa found a beneficial effect of acyclovir on genital ulcer healing, but no effect was seen in trials in Ghana, Central African Republic and Malawi. The aim of this paper is to assess whether the variation in impact of acyclovir on ulcer healing in these trials can be explained by differences in the characteristics of the study populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pooled data were analysed to estimate the impact of acyclovir on the proportion of ulcers healed seven days after randomisation by HIV/CD4 status, ulcer aetiology, size and duration before presentation; and impact on lesional HIV-1. Risk ratios (RR were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Of 1478 patients with genital ulcer, most (63% had herpetic ulcers (16% first episode HSV-2 ulcers, and a further 3% chancroid, 2% syphilis, 0.7% lymphogranuloma venereum and 31% undetermined aetiology. Over half (58% of patients were HIV-1 seropositive. The median duration of symptoms before presentation was 6 days. Patients on acyclovir were more likely to have a healed ulcer on day 7 (63% vs 57%, RR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.98-1.18, shorter time to healing (p = 0.04 and less lesional HIV-1 RNA (p = 0.03. Small ulcers (<50 mm(2, HSV-2 ulcers, first episode HSV-2 ulcers, and ulcers in HIV-1 seropositive individuals responded best but the better effectiveness in South Africa was not explained by differences in these factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There may be slight benefit in adding acyclovir to syndromic management in settings where most ulcers are genital herpes. The stronger effect among HIV-1 infected individuals suggests that acyclovir may be beneficial for GUD/HIV-1 co-infected patients. The high prevalence in this population highlights that genital ulceration in patients with unknown HIV status provides a potential entry point for provider-initiated HIV testing.

  5. Kyrieleis plaques associated with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 acute retinal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Goel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with features typical of acute retinal necrosis (ARN. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous tap was positive for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV – 1. Following therapy with intravenous Acyclovir, followed by oral Acyclovir and steroids, there was marked improvement in the visual acuity and clinical picture. At one week after initiation of treatment, Kyrieleis plaques were observed in the retinal arteries. They became more prominent despite resolution of the vitritis, retinal necrosis and vasculitis and persisted till six weeks of follow-up, when fluorescein angiography was performed. The appearance of this segmental retinal periarteritis also known as Kyrieleis plaques has not been described in ARN due to HSV-1 earlier.

  6. Management of Varicella Gangrenosa: A Life-Threatening Condition from Chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P. M. Schots

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicella gangrenosa, in which gangrenous ulceration of the skin and/or deeper tissues is seen, is a rare but alarming complication of Varicella infection. An early surgical intervention is generally advised, especially in case of sepsis and/or the presence of large necrotic lesions. We describe a case of a previously healthy 12-month-old boy presenting with sepsis due to Varicella gangrenosa. He presented with moderate lesions of moist gangrene. We treated our patient initially with antibiotics (ceftriaxone and metronidazole and later on flucloxacillin and antiviral therapy (acyclovir whereupon his condition rapidly improved and all skin lesions healed entirely. This report highlights the possibility of conservative treatment and emphasizes the significance of acyclovir in the management of chickenpox complicated by moist gangrene due to bacterial superinfection.

  7. Caulerpin as a potential antiviral drug against herpes simplex virus type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Regina Porto Vieira Macedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available About 80% of the human adult population is infected with HSV-1. Although there are many anti-HSV-1 drugs available (acyclovir, ganciclovir, valaciclovir, foscarnet, their continuous use promotes the selection of resistant strains, mainly in ACV patients. In addition to resistance, the drugs also have toxicity, particularly when administration is prolonged. The study of new molecules isolated from green algae with potential antiviral activity represents a good opportunity for the development of antiviral drugs. Caulerpin, the major product from the marine algae Caulerpa Lamouroux (Caulerpales, is known for its biological activities such as antioxidant, antifungal, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChE and antibacterial activity. In this work, we show that caulerpin could be an alternative to acyclovir as an anti-HSV-1 drug that inhibits the alpha and beta phases of the replication cycle.

  8. Polyneuritis cranialis following herpes zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna H

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster is a common clinical condition involving cranial nerves. We encountered 3 cases in which multiple cranial nerves were involved besides the commoner ones. All the three cases were treated with acyclovir and oral steroids. Recovery of motor function was only partial in all three cases when reviewed 2 months after discharge. The clinical details and a brief review of literature are presented.

  9. Downregulation of Cellular c-Jun N-Terminal Protein Kinase and NF-κB Activation by Berberine May Result in Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Siwei; Qiu, Min; Chu, Ying; Chen, Deyan; Wang, Xiaohui; Su, Airong; Wu, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids. Some reports show that berberine exhibits anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antiviral properties by modulating multiple cellular signaling pathways, including p53, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral effect of berberine against herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Current antiherpes medicines such as acyclovir can le...

  10. Hydrolyzable Tannins (Chebulagic Acid and Punicalagin) Target Viral Glycoprotein-Glycosaminoglycan Interactions To Inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry and Cell-to-Cell Spread▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Chen, Ting-Ying; Chung, Chueh-Yao; Noyce, Ryan S.; Grindley, T. Bruce; McCormick, Craig; Lin, Ta-Chen; Wang, Guey-Horng; Lin, Chun-Ching; Richardson, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common human pathogen that causes lifelong latent infection of sensory neurons. Non-nucleoside inhibitors that can limit HSV-1 recurrence are particularly useful in treating immunocompromised individuals or cases of emerging acyclovir-resistant strains of herpesvirus. We report that chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG), two hydrolyzable tannins isolated from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), inhibit HSV-1 entry at noncytot...

  11. TDP1 repairs nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage induced by chain-terminating anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shar-yin N.; Murai, Junko; Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Dexheimer, Thomas S.; Naumova, Alena; Gmeiner, William H.; Pommier, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Chain-terminating nucleoside analogs (CTNAs) that cause stalling or premature termination of DNA replication forks are widely used as anticancer and antiviral drugs. However, it is not well understood how cells repair the DNA damage induced by these drugs. Here, we reveal the importance of tyrosyl–DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) in the repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage induced by CTNAs. On investigating the effects of four CTNAs—acyclovir (ACV), cytarabine (Ara-C), zidovudine (AZT...

  12. Supra-recommendation Treatment of Super-refractory Status Epilepticus

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Devashish Dhiren; Dash, Gopal Krishna

    2016-01-01

    A 28-year old female was admitted with recurrent seizures following 2 days of febrile illness, after which she developed status epilepticus. Midazolam and later thiopentone infusions were started after failure of regular intravenous antiepileptics. Burst suppression was achieved at doses of 3 mg/kg/hr for midazolam and 6 mg/kg/hr of thiopentone. Adjunctive medications included methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin and acyclovir. Imaging and biochemical parameters were normal. She req...

  13. Assessment of Pharmaceutical Equivalence: Difference Test or Equivalence Test?

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Felipe R.; Pinto, Terezinha J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical equivalence is an important step towards the confirmation of similarity and interchangeability among pharmaceutical products, particularly regarding those that will not be tested for bioequivalence. The aim of this paper is to compare traditional difference testing to two one-side equivalence tests in the assessment of pharmaceutical equivalence, by means of equivalence studies between similar, generic and reference products of acyclovir cream, atropine sulfate injection, merop...

  14. Herpes simplex encephalitis: how good are we in diagnosing this condition?

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, W.; Kwan, MWM; Chan, KH; Cheung, RTF; Ho, SL

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the commonest sporadic infective encephalitis in Hong Kong. Early recognition of HSE, which relies on a high index of suspicion, is important as effective treatment is available. Empirical acyclovir is advocated for all cases of clinically suspected viral encephalitis. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a routine investigation in suspected HSE. METHODS: The EEG database of Neurodiagnostic Unit, Queen Mary Hospital, was reviewed retrospectively. ...

  15. Antiviral Activity of Liquorice Powder Extract against Varicella Zoster Virus Isolated from Egyptian Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Aly F. Mohamed; Essam H. Ibrahim; Amal S. Mostafa; Saad M. Bin Dajem; Magdy A. Amin; Amal Emad-Eldin; Rania I. Shebl

    2012-01-01

    Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the etiologic agent of two diseases, varicella (chicken pox) and zoster (shingles). Varicella is a self- limited infection, while zoster is mainly a disease of adults. The present study was conducted to isolate VZV from clinically diagnosed children using cell cultures and compare the activity of liquorice powder extract, an alternative herbal antiviral agent, with acyclovir and interferon alpha 2a (IFN-α2a) against the isolated virus.Methods: Forty...

  16. Varicella-zoster virus transverse myelitis in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemshad Alungal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transverse myelitis is one of the rare neurological complications of Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV infection in immuno-competent. We report a 26-year-old immuno-competent gentleman who developed virologically confirmed myelopathy caused by VZV which improved with steroids and acyclovir leaving no residual neurological deficits. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1154-1156

  17. Herpes simplex virus type 2-associated recurrent aseptic (Mollaret's meningitis in genitourinary medicine clinic: a case report

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    Abou-Foul AK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad K Abou-Foul, Thajunisha M Buhary, Sedki L Gayed Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Royal Blackburn Hospital, East Lancashire Hospitals NHS Trust, Blackburn, UK Introduction: Cases of idiopathic recurrent benign aseptic meningitis were first described by Mollaret. Today, herpes simplex virus (HSV is considered the cause of most cases of Mollaret's meningitis. Case report: A 40-year-old male was referred to our genitourinary medicine clinic with recurrent genital herpetic lesions. He had HSV-2-positive genital ulcers 8 years earlier. One year after the first infection, he developed severe recurrent attacks of headache associated with meningitis symptoms. The results of all radiological and biochemical tests were normal, but the patient reported a correlation between his attacks and genital herpes flare-ups. We diagnosed the patient with Mollaret's meningitis and started him on continuous suppressive acyclovir therapy, which resulted in marked clinical improvement. Discussion: Mollaret's meningitis is a rare form of idiopathic recurrent aseptic meningitis that has a sudden onset, short duration, and spontaneous remission with unpredictable recurrence. We believe that the presence of concurrent or recurrent mucocutaneous herpetic lesions can aid its diagnosis, prior to which, affected patients usually have many unnecessary investigations and treatments. Therefore, detailed sexual history should be sought in all patients with aseptic meningitis, and clinicians should also ask about history of recurrent headaches in all patients with recurrent herpetic anogenital lesions. Continuous suppressive acyclovir therapy may reduce the frequency and severity of attacks and can dramatically improve lifestyle. Keywords: HSV-2 virus, acyclovir, Mollaret's meningitis, recurrent aseptic meningitis, HSV-2 virus, viral meningitis, acyclovir

  18. Association of progressive outer retinal necrosis and varicella zoster encephalitis in a patient with AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    van den Horn, G. J; Meenken, C; D. Troost

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A patient with AIDS who developed the clinical picture of bilateral progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) in combination with varicella zoster encephalitis is described. The picture developed more than 2 years after an episode of ophthalmic zoster infection, and following intermittent exposure to oral acyclovir because of recurrent episodes of cutaneous herpes simplex infection. METHODS: Aqueous humour, obtained by paracentesis of the anterior chamber, was analysed using immun...

  19. Reactivation of herpes zoster along the trigeminal nerve with intractable pain after facial trauma: a case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, K-C; Wang, Che-Chuan; Wang, Kai-Yuan; Liao, Yi-Chen; Kuo, Jinn-Rung

    2009-01-01

    We report the rare occurrence of herpes zoster reactivation after facial trauma. Herpes zoster appeared in painful groups of distended vesicles containing clear fluid on an erythematous base within the secondary division of the trigeminal nerve. The patient was treated with acyclovir (intravenous, 250 mg, every 8 hours) combined with topical steroids and anti-neuropathic pain medication. The zoster-associated neuralgia subsided gradually 1.5 months after diagnosis. We illustrate this unique c...

  20. Periorbital varicella gangrenosa: A rare complication of chicken pox

    OpenAIRE

    Jagriti Jain; Shreya Thatte; Prakhar Singhai

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy six year old male child presented in pediatrics ICU in state of shock with history of fever and rashes and later was diagnosed as chicken pox. He developed right sided periorbital varicella gangrenosa which is a form of necrotizing fasciitis secondary to skin infection. Patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir, antibiotics, amphotericin B, extensive debridement and later reconstruction of upper eyelid with skin grafting. Aggressive treatment helped preventing the ey...

  1. Herpes simplex reactivation or postinfectious inflammatory response after epilepsy surgery: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lo Presti

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: HSVE must be suspected in patients with previous history of HSVE and postoperative fever associated with an altered state of consciousness and/or seizures. Considering the high mortality and morbidity rates associated with HSVE, an adequate prophylactic administration of acyclovir should be considered for patients with previous history of HSVE undergoing neurosurgical procedures, especially when surgery involves the site of a previous herpetic lesion.

  2. RAMSAY HUNT SYNDROME A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a rather rare disorder i.e. Ramsay Hunt syndrome. This is caused by Varicella zoster infections involving geniculate ganglion of facial nerve. This syndrome is manifested by the presence of blebs in the external auditory canal, ear ache, and lower motor neurone type of facial paralysis. This patient had excellent recovery following administration of oral steroids and acyclovir.

  3. Varicella zoster virus infection causing urinary retention in a child with HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    G S Wessels; C. F. Heyns

    2012-01-01

    An 11-year-old boy receiving antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection and antibacterial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis presented with urinary retention due to varicella zoster virus infection involving the sacral nerves, confirmed on serological testing. The perineum over dermatomes S2 - S4 on the left was involved with a vesicular and superficially erosive rash. A transurethral catheter was inserted and the patient was treated with acyclovir (300 mg 6-hourly for 5 days). At follow-up 4 w...

  4. Peripheral Facial Paralysis and Apoptosis Induced by Herpes Simplex Type I Virus: A Rat Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kabakuş, Nimet; ALPAY, H. Cengiz; GÖDEKMERDAN, Ahmet; GÖK, Üzeyir; Akpolat, Nusret

    2005-01-01

    Different results have been reported concerning the impact of agents used in the treatment of idiopathic facial nerve paralysis (FNP) generated by HSV type I (HSV-I) on the apoptotic process. We aimed at investigating the effects of different agents (steroids, acyclovir and interferon) used in the treatment of idiopathic FNP on the apoptotic process in animals in whom experimental FNP has been produced by HSV-I. After cleaning the auricles of 113 animals, linear injuries were produced, and th...

  5. 3,19-isopropylideneandrographolide suppresses early gene expression of drug-resistant and wild type herpes simplex viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Priengprom, Thongkoon; Pientong, Chamsai; Aromdee, Chantana; Suebsasana, Supawadee; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya

    2016-08-01

    A diterpenoid lactone, 3,19-isopropylideneandrographolide (IPAD) compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees, has been reported to inhibit herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection at the post-entry step. To identify the molecular target of IPAD, this study characterized the inhibitory effect of IPAD on infection of Vero cells by HSV-1, HSV-2 and a drug-resistant (DR) HSV-1 strain ACGr4 (acyclovir-resistant and thymidine kinase (TK)-deficient). Viral production, gene and protein expression were determined using plaque assays, quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that IPAD inhibited HSV-1, HSV-2 and DR-HSV-1 infections at 6-12 h post-infection, a time that corresponded with E gene expression. IPAD completely suppressed ICP8 transcription and translation as well as DNA replication and gD expression in the three strains tested, while acyclovir suppressed transcription and translation of UL30 and gD of HSV-2, HSV-1, but had no effect on DR-HSV-1. These results showed that IPAD has a different molecular target from acyclovir and might therefore be an alternative drug for HSV-1 and HSV-2 wild types and DR-HSV-1 strains. PMID:27424493

  6. Validação de método de doseamento para aciclovir e aplicação em estudo de equivalência farmacêutica de creme contendo aciclovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE REBELLO LOURENçO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivos validar método para o doseamento de aciclovir em creme por espectrofotometria de absorção no ultravioleta e aplicá-lo em estudo de equivalência farmacêutica entre medicamento de referência, genérico e similar. O método proposto para doseamento de aciclovir em creme por espectrofotometria de absorção no ultravioleta foi validado, mostrando especificidade/ seletividade, linearidade e faixa linear, limite de detecção /quantificação, exatidão e precisão adequados para o uso pretendido. Os medicamentos foram avaliados quanto aos testes de peso médio, limite de guanina por cromatografia em camada delgada, identificação por espectrofotometria de absorção no ultravioleta, contagem microbiana de bactérias e fungos, pesquisa de microrganismos patógenos e doseamento por espectrofotometria de absorção no ultravioleta. Os três medicamentos atenderam as especificações para os testes avaliados e, portanto, podem ser considerados equivalentes farmacêuticos. Palavras-chave: Aciclovir. Validação de método. Equivalência farmacêutica. ABSTRACT Validation of acyclovir assay method and its use to verify pharmaceutical equivalence of creams containing acyclovir The aim of this study was to validate a UV absorption spectrophotometric method to assay acyclovir in cream and to use it to verify the pharmaceutical equivalence of the original brand-name, generic and similar (brand medicines. The method proposed for acyclovir cream was validated, showing adequate specificity/selectivity, linearity and linear range, detection and quantitation limits, accuracy and precision. The medicines were tested for average weight, guanine contents within limits (by thin-layer chromatography, drug identity (by UV spectrophotometry, bacterial and fungal counts and presence of pathogens, and were assayed by UV spectrophotometry. All medicines met the requirements in all these tests and can

  7. Varicella-zoster virus infections in immunocompromised patients - a single centre 6-years analysis

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    Liese Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV contemporaneously with malignant disease or immunosuppression represents a particular challenge and requires individualized decisions and treatment. Although the increasing use of varicella-vaccines in the general population and rapid initiation of VZV-immunoglobulins and acyclovir in case of exposure has been beneficial for some patients, immunocompromised individuals are still at risk for unfavourable courses. Methods In this single center, 6-year analysis we review incidence, hospitalization and complication rates of VZV-infections in our center and compare them to published data. Furthermore, we report three instructive cases. Results Hospitalization rate of referred children with VZV-infections was 45%, among these 17% with malignancies and 9% under immunosuppressive therapy. Rate of complications was not elevated in these two high-risk cohorts, but one ALL-patient died due to VZV-related complications. We report one 4-year old boy with initial diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who showed a rapidly fatal outcome of his simultaneous varicella-infection, one 1.8-year old boy with an identical situation but a mild course of his disease, and an 8.5-year old boy with a steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. This boy developed severe hepatic involvement during his varicella-infection but responded to immediate withdrawl of steroids and administration of acyclovir plus single-dose cidofovir after nonresponse to acyclovir after 48 h. Conclusion Our data show that patients with malignant diseases or immunosuppressive therapy should be hospitalized and treated immediately with antiviral agents. Despite these measures the course of VZV-infections can be highly variable in these patients. We discuss aids to individual decision-making for these difficult situations.

  8. Varicella-zoster virus encephalitis in an AIDS patient

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    P.V. Toledo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old man with a three-year history of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome was admitted with impaired consciousness, seizures and fever. He was on highly active antiretroviral therapy and on neurotoxoplasmosis secondary prophylaxis. Laboratory exams from two months before showed a CD4 cell count of 37/µL and a viral load of 230,000 copies/mL. Three months before admission he developed herpetic skin rash in the right trunk and acyclovir was added to his treatment regimen. On physical exam he was drowsy and had motor and sensory aphasia. The patient had elevated protein levels and normal pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Contrast enhanced computed tomography scan of the brain showed a hypodense lesion in the left parietal lobe, with poorly defined margins and no contrast enhancement. The magnetic resonance scan (MRI showed multiple hyperintensities in T2-weighted image in white and grey matters and hypointense products of hemorrhage in both hemispheres and in the cerebellum. He was empirically treated with intravenous acyclovir and prednisone. Viral DNA of Varicella-zoster virus (VZV was detected in the CSF by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. Acyclovir was continued for 10 days and the patient became well, with improvement of aphasia.We present a case of VZV encephalitis, confirmed by nested PCR, in a patient with suggestive MRI findings, who succeeded with treatment. VZV encephalitis is a rare opportunistic infection, occurring in 0.1 to 4% of AIDS patients with neurological disease; it is related to severe immunodeficiency and has a high mortality.

  9. Acute Retinal Necrosis in Childhood

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    Yoav Y. Pikkel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute retinal necrosis (ARN is a viral syndrome consisting of uveitis/vitritis, occlusive vasculitis and peripheral necrosis. Few incidents are reported in children. The etiology is reactivated herpes simplex virus (HSV or varicella-zoster virus (VZV. Treatment with acyclovir is often used. The administration of oral glucocorticosteroids is of unproven benefit. Prognosis is variable but poor. Methods: Three weeks after contracting mild chickenpox, a healthy 4-year-old girl developed blurred vision in her right eye. Severely reduced visual acuity was noted, together with anterior uveitis, ‘mutton-fat' precipitates and vitral flare. Retinal vasculitis with necrosis was present. Serology for toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus and HIV was negative, while HSV and VZV IgG antibodies were positive. She was treated with 30 mg/kg of intravenous methylprednisolone (3 days, 30 mg of oral prednisone (3 days, and tapering for 8 weeks. Intravenous acyclovir was given for 10 days, followed by oral acyclovir for 4 months. Aspirin (100 mg/day was given for 4 months. Results: At 12 months, the girl felt good. Her right eye acuity was 6/9, with an intraocular pressure of 17 mm Hg. The peripheral retina showed scarring but no detachment. Conclusions: This is the first report of a once-daily high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy in one of the youngest known ARN cases. Pulsed steroid therapy was based on its known effectiveness in vasculitis, which is the main pathophysiology in ARN. There was no evidence of steroid-related viral over-replication. Our case achieved an excellent clinical and ophthalmic recovery in spite of the poor prognosis. The positive result of this case report provides a basis for further evaluation of high-dose steroid pulse therapy in ARN.

  10. Impact of Herpes simplex virus load and red blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid upon herpes simplex meningo-encephalitis outcome

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    Poissy Julien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE often leads to severe disability or death. Factors usually associated with outcome include Simplified Acute Physiology Score, age and delay of initiation of acyclovir treatment. Our aim was to determine the impact of Herpes simplex virus (HSV load in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF upon HSE outcome. Methods We retrospectively determined HSV load in the CSF of 43 patients with confirmed HSE, hospitalized in northern France from 1998 to 2005, using CSF samples collected the day of hospital admission and stored at −20°C. We analyzed the association between HSV load and mortality/morbidity by the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Fisher’s exact test and Wilcoxon’s test were used for statistical analysis. Results The M/F sex ratio was 1.7 and median patient age was 61 years. Median HSV load in CSF was 2.0 log copies/μL (IQR 25-75=1.2-2.6. The mortality rate was 32.6% six months after HSE diagnosis. Higher age was associated with mortality (p=0.03. Longer delay in acyclovir initiation tended to be associated with higher mortality but did not reach statistical significance (p=0.08. Severe disability and death due to HSV were associated with a higher Knaus score (p=0.004, later acyclovir initiation (p=0.006, older age (p=0.04 and presence of red blood cells in CSF (p=0.05. HSV load in CSF was neither associated with mortality (p=1.00 nor with morbidity (p=0.90. Conclusion In this study, HSV load in CSF was not found to be associated with poor outcome in patients with HSE. These data do not support measurement of HSV load at admission in patients with HSE.

  11. Cocrystals of 5-fluorocytosine. I. Coformers with fixed hydrogen-bonding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutughamiarso, Maya; Wagner, Guido; Egert, Ernst

    2012-08-01

    The antifungal drug 5-fluorocytosine (4-amino-5-fluoro-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one) was cocrystallized with five complementary compounds in order to better understand its drug-receptor interaction. The first two compounds, 2-aminopyrimidine (2-amino-1,3-diazine) and N-acetylcreatinine (N-acetyl-2-amino-1-methyl-5H-imidazol-4-one), exhibit donor-acceptor sites for R(2)(2)(8) heterodimer formation with 5-fluorocytosine. Such a heterodimer is observed in the cocrystal with 2-aminopyrimidine (I); in contrast, 5-fluorocytosine and N-acetylcreatinine [which forms homodimers in its crystal structure (II)] are connected only by a single hydrogen bond in (III). The other three compounds 6-aminouracil (6-amino-2,4-pyrimidinediol), 6-aminoisocytosine (2,6-diamino-3H-pyrimidin-4-one) and acyclovir [acycloguanosine or 2-amino-9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-1,9-dihydro-6H-purin-6-one] possess donor-donor-acceptor sites; therefore, they can interact with 5-fluorocytosine to form a heterodimer linked by three hydrogen bonds. In the cocrystals with 6-aminoisocytosine (Va)-(Vd), as well as in the cocrystal with the antiviral drug acyclovir (VII), the desired heterodimers are observed. However, they are not formed in the cocrystal with 6-aminouracil (IV), where the components are connected by two hydrogen bonds. In addition, a solvent-free structure of acyclovir (VI) was obtained. A comparison of the calculated energies released during dimer formation helped to rationalize the preference for hydrogen-bonding interactions in the various cocrystal structures. PMID:22810913

  12. Corticosteroid and antiviral therapy for Bell's palsy: A network meta-analysis

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    Attia John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous meta-analyses of treatments for Bell's palsy are still inconclusive due to different comparators, insufficient data, and lack of power. We therefore conducted a network meta-analysis combining direct and indirect comparisons for assessing efficacy of steroids and antiviral treatment (AVT at 3 and 6 months. Methods We searched Medline and EMBASE until September 2010 using PubMed and Elsviere search engines. A network meta-analysis was performed to assess disease recovery using a mixed effects hierarchical model. Goodness of fit of the model was assessed, and the pooled odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were estimated. Results Six studies (total n = 1805were eligible and contributed to the network meta-analysis. The pooled ORs for resolution at 3 months were 1.24 (95% CI: 0.79 - 1.94 for Acyclovir plus Prednisolone and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.73 - 1.42 for Valacyclovir plus Prednisolone, versus Prednisolone alone. Either Acyclovir or Valacyclovir singly had significantly lower efficacy than Prednisolone alone, i.e., ORs were 0·44 (95% CI: 0·28 - 0·68 and 0·60 (95% CI: 0·42 - 0·87, respectively. Neither of the antiviral agents was significantly different compared with placebo, with a pooled OR of 1·25 (95% CI: 0·78 - 1·98 for Acyclovir and 0·91 (95% CI: 0·63 - 1·31 for Valacyclovir. Overall, Prednisolone-based treatment increased the chance of recovery 2-fold (95% CI: 1·55 - 2·42 compared to non-Prednisolone-based treatment. To gain 1 extra recovery, 6 and 26 patients need to be treated with Acyclovir and prednisolone compared to placebo and prednisolone alone, respectively. Conclusions Our evidence suggests that the current practice of treating Bell's palsy with AVT plus corticosteroid may lead to slightly higher recovery rates compared to treating with prednisone alone but this does not quite reach statistical significance; prednisone remains the best evidence-based treatment.

  13. Susac's syndrome as HIV-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Francesca; Gerevini, Simonetta; Colombo, Bruno; Testa, Manuela; Guffanti, Monica; Franciotta, Diego; Bernardi, Gaetano; Lazzarin, Adriano; Cinque, Paola

    2013-09-03

    Susac's Syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune endotheliopathy of cerebral, retinal and cochlear arterioles. We report of an HIV-infected woman who developed a first SS episode following a spontaneous reduction of plasma viral load and several relapses six years later, following initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins alone did not control the disease, which improved after combined treatment with acyclovir and ganciclovir. SS onset in HIV infection and relapses during cART-induced immune reconstitution are consistent with the dysimmune nature of the disease. The response to anti-herpes drugs suggests a viral contribute in this case of SS.

  14. An unusual case of acute transverse myelitis caused by HSV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Danisha; Isache, Carmen; Sands, Michael; Guzman, Nilmarie

    2016-01-01

    Transverse myelitis is a neurological disorder of the spinal cord that can have a variety of etiologies. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has been described as one of the causes, most commonly HSV type 2. We report here a case of an 18 year old male who presented with weakness that started in his upper extremities and rapidly evolved to quadriplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging of spine was consistent with transverse myelitis. HSV type 1 PCR testing on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive. He was started on acyclovir and steroids, but despite therapy, patient did not recover motor function. PMID:27419072

  15. Herpes Zoster Infection Involving Mandibular Division of Trigeminal Nerve and Ramsay Hunt Syndrome with Meningitis in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Rare Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Vijayan; Bandyopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Kar, Suvrendu Sankar; Choudhury, Cankatika; Choudhary, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Herpes zoster is a unilateral painful vesicular cutaneous eruption caused by the reactivation of the Varicella zoster virus. It commonly affects the older people and immunocompromised individuals. The dermatomes from T3 to L3 are most frequently involved. Its three stages include prodromal stage, active stage and chronic stage. The common complications of the infection include post-herpetic neuralgia, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, Guillain-Barre syndrome, transverse myelitis and encephalomyelitis. This case report summarizes a very rare association of herpes zoster meningitis with the involvement of mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve. The patient improved with intravenous acyclovir and prednisolone treatment. PMID:27504334

  16. Acute liver failure due to Varicella zoster virus infection after lung transplantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleden, G M; Vos, R; Van Raemdonck, D E; Laleman, W; Vanaudenaerde, B M

    2012-06-01

    Most adults are Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-positive at the age of 20 years. Some, however, remain antibody-negative and may develop primary chicken pox during adulthood. We report a patient with Williams-Campbell syndrome who underwent double-lung transplantation while being VZV-negative. One year after the successful procedure, he was admitted with fulminant hepatic failure and some cutaneous vesicles in his face. Despite a rapid diagnosis of VZV infection and treatment with acyclovir, his situation deteriorated within 24 hours and while awaiting an urgent liver transplantation, he developed multiple organ failure and died. PMID:22664036

  17. Rapid quantification of the metabolite of valacyclovir hydrochloride in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish a rapid,sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of acyclovir (the metabolite of valacyclovir hydrochloride) in human plasma. Methods After addition of ganciclovir as internal standard (IS),plasma samples were prepared by one-step protein precipitation using acetonitrile as precipitant,followed by an isocratic elution with 0.1% formic acid solution-methanol (95∶5,v/v) on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 (150mm×2.1mm i.d.,3....

  18. Characterization of anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 activity of an alkaloid FK 3000 from Stephania cepharantha

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Masao; Ohsaki, Motoki; Kurokawa, Masahiko; NAWAWI, As'ari; Nakamura, Norio; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2002-01-01

    A morphinane alkaloid FK 3000 (6,7-di-O-acetylsinococuline) from the root tubers of Stephania cepharantha showed antiviral activity against acyclovir (ACV)- and phosphonoacetic acid (PAA)-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), influenza virus, measles virus, and poliovirus. The anti-HSV action of FK 3000 was assessed in comparison with that of PAA that inhibits the activity of HSV DNA polymerase and HSV DNA synthesis. FK 3000 inhibited the growth of thymidine kinase-deficient and ACV ...

  19. An Unusual Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis

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    Ray Boyapati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 65-year-old man with an acute alteration in mental state that was initially diagnosed as a functional psychiatric condition. After extensive workup, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 was detected in the patient’s cerebrospinal fluid (CSF by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and he responded rapidly to treatment with acyclovir. The case illustrates the importance of actively excluding organic causes in such patients, the need to have a low threshold of suspicion for HSV encephalitis, and the central role of CSF PCR testing for the diagnosis of HSV encephalitis, even in the absence of CSF biochemical abnormalities.

  20. Varicella zoster virus infection causing urinary retention in a child with HIV infection

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    G S Wessels

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old boy receiving antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection and antibacterial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis presented with urinary retention due to varicella zoster virus infection involving the sacral nerves, confirmed on serological testing. The perineum over dermatomes S2 - S4 on the left was involved with a vesicular and superficially erosive rash. A transurethral catheter was inserted and the patient was treated with acyclovir (300 mg 6-hourly for 5 days. At follow-up 4 weeks later, the perineal skin lesions had healed, the catheter was removed and the patient was able to pass urine.

  1. Fatal varicella hepatitis in an asthmatic adult after short-term corticosteroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvernat, Hervé; Roger, Pierre-Marie; Pereira, Cécile; Saint-Paul, Marie Christine; Vandenbos, Frédéric; Bernardin, Gilles

    2005-09-01

    A 28-year-old male patient, treated with prednisone for bronchitis with sibilant rales, developed fever with abdominal pain and generalized vesicular rash after coming in contact with varicella-infected children. He was hospitalized after having a seizure. Laboratory values revealed hepatitis and rapidly fulminant hepatic insufficiency with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Despite acyclovir treatment, the patient died 4 days after admission. Clinical presentation could evoke a Reye's syndrome, but liver biopsy showed massive coagulative necrosis. This report demonstrates the increased risk of complicated varicella associated with the use of corticosteroids, even for a short period of time. PMID:16137553

  2. Cutaneous neonatal herpes simplex virus infection type 2: a case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; Freitas, Lívia Karlla Marinho; Drago, Marion Guimarães; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; do Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdo

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal herpes is a serious condition. Newborns can be contaminated in utero via transplacental hematogenic transmission, upon delivery (the most frequent route), or during the postnatal period (indirect transmission). Optimal management requires prompt and accurate recognition, particularly in newborns, in order to prevent complications. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice, but its implementation is often delayed while awaiting test results, such as PCR and serology. Cytology for diagnostic purposes is rarely used in dermatology, despite the quick and reliable results. We report a case of neonatal herpes caused by type 2 herpes simplex virus diagnosed by cytology. PMID:27192523

  3. Intercalation of Amido Cationic Drug with Montmorillonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Junping; WANG Hongyan; ZHUANG Hong; XI Lifei; YAO Kangde

    2007-01-01

    The intercalation of drug molecules with montmorillonit (MMT) using Acyclovir (ACV) as the model drug was focused on. The optimum conditions were studied based on orthogonal design, such as intercalation time and temperature. The intercalation composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The experimental results reveal that ACV is successfully intercalated into the interlayers of MMT. The in vitro release experiments reveal that ACV is released from MMT steadily and pH dependent

  4. 更昔洛韦治疗水痘98例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红梅; 向稚丹

    2003-01-01

    @@ 更昔洛韦(ganciclovir,GCV)又名丙氧鸟苷,属新型开环类核苷药物,具有较广谱的强效抗病毒作用,对单纯疱疹病毒、水痘-带状疱疹病毒的作用优于阿昔洛韦(acyclovir,ACV).我科采用GCV治疗水痘患者,观察其疗效、不良反应并与ACV比较.现将结果报道如下.

  5. An unusual presentation of herpes simplex encephalitis with negative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerger, Kelly J; Zerr, Kayleigh; Salazar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with acute right-sided hemiparesis and epilepsia partialis continua in association with fever and confusion. Initial workup revealed possible cerebritis in the left medial frontal lobe without involvement of the temporal lobes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed minimal lymphocytic pleocytosis but negative real-time herpes simplex virus (HSV) PCR. Acyclovir was discontinued on day 5 due to a negative infectious workup and clinical improvement. On day 9 his condition deteriorated and he was transferred to a higher level of acuity for advanced supportive care. Worsening encephalopathy and refractory status epilepticus ensued despite medical care. Repeat CSF analysis showed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis with negative real-time HSV PCR. Brain MRI revealed progression of cortical enhancement. Immunosuppressive therapy and plasma exchange were attempted without clinical response. On day 24, another lumbar puncture showed only mild lymphocytic pleocytosis. Brain MRI showed involvement of the right medial temporal lobe. Subsequently, acyclovir was resumed. The HSV-1 PCR result was positive on day 30. Unfortunately, the patient expired. PMID:26243746

  6. Bilateral Ramsay Hunt syndrome in a diabetic patient

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    Goyal Amit

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes zoster oticus accounts for about 10% cases of facial palsy, which is usually unilateral and complete and full recovery occurs in only about 20% of untreated patients. Bilateral herpes zoster oticus can sometime occur in immunocompromised patients, though incidence is very rare. Case presentation Diabetic male, 57 year old presented to us with bilateral facial palsy due to herpes zoster oticus. Patient was having bilateral mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Patient was treated with appropriate metabolic control, anti-inflammatory drugs and intravenous acyclovir. Due to uncontrolled diabetes, glucocorticoids were not used in this patient. Significant improvement in hearing status and facial nerve functions were seen in this patient. Conclusions Herpes zoster causes severe infections in diabetic patients and can be a cause of bilateral facial palsy and bilateral Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Herpes zoster in diabetic patients should be treated with appropriate metabolic control, NSAIDS and intravenous acyclovir, which we feel should be started at the earliest. Glucocorticoids should be avoided in diabetic patients.

  7. A Spotty Liver of Pregnancy

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    Meagan Gray MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV hepatitis by definition constitutes disseminated herpes simplex infection; it is rare, with only approximately 130 cases reported in the literature. Although HSV hepatitis typically occurs in immunocompromised hosts, pregnancy—especially the third trimester, has been identified as a risk factor for its development. This is likely because of the fact that humoral and cell-mediated immunity decrease throughout pregnancy and nadir in the third trimester with decreased T-cell counts and altered B/T lymphocyte ratios. Here, we report on a patient with HSV 2 hepatitis in a previously healthy 27-year-old woman in her 23rd week of pregnancy. She initially presented with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and was found to have acute hepatocellular liver injury and a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Broad-spectrum antibiotics and acyclovir were promptly initiated. Liver biopsy, serum DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR as well as a labial ulcer culture and PCR were all positive for HSV 2. The patient recovered completely; however, her fetus did not survive. Review of the literature emphasizes that presentation with disseminated HSV infection typically occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy. This report emphasizes that abdominal pain combined with fever and hepatic dysfunction in pregnancy should prompt immediate consideration of the diagnosis of HSV hepatitis. Furthermore, given the high mortality rate and effective treatment, empiric treatment with acyclovir should be considered early in all potential cases.

  8. Herpes zoster oticus: A rare clinical entity

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    Shailesh Gondivkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster oticus also known as Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a rare complication of herpes zoster in which reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection in the geniculate ganglion causes otalgia, auricular vesicles, and peripheral facial paralysis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome is rare in children and affects both sexes equally. Incidence and clinical severity increases when host immunity is compromised. Because these symptoms do not always present at the onset, this syndrome can be misdiagnosed. Although secondary to Bell′s palsy in terms of the cause of acute atraumatic peripheral facial paralysis, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, with incidence ranged from 0.3 to 18%, has a worse prognosis. Herpes zoster oticus accounts for about 12% cases of facial palsy, which is usually unilateral and complete and full recovery occurs in only about 20% of untreated patients. The most advisable method to treat Ramsay Hunt syndrome is the combination therapy with acyclovir and prednisone but still not promising, and several prerequisites are required for better results. We present a case of 32-year-old man suffering from Ramsay Hunt syndrome with grade V facial palsy treated effectively with rehabilitation program, after the termination of the combination therapy of acyclovir and prednisone.

  9. Disseminated primary HSV-2 infection of the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Elie; Moutran, Roy; Maatouk, Ismael

    2012-06-01

    We report the case of a 44-year-old, heterosexual, man, who presented for lesions of the face that appeared 3 days earlier; the eruption was associated with a burning sensation. He had sexual intercourse 12 days prior to presentation with a new partner. On clinical examination, there were confluent vesicules and a few pustules localized on the cheeks, forehead, nose, mouth, and ears. A swab for immunofluorescence (IF) came back as positive for HSV-2. The patient was treated with oral acyclovir. The lesions were healed when he was seen for follow-up 1 week later. The virus responsible for herpes is a double-stranded DNA virus named Herpes simplex virus (HSV). The virus generally enters damaged epithelium or mucosal surfaces, secondary to abrasions or trauma. Most primary orolabial infections occur during childhood as herpetic gingivostomatitis. However, there are forms that could be more atypical. The spread of the virus was probably promoted by shaving the beard. In immunocompromised patients or those with skin barrier disorders, HSV infection tends to disseminate and is accompanied by visceral involvement. Hence, the need to detect a state of immunodepression (including AIDS) in any patient with diffuse herpes infection. Three oral antiviral agents are commonly used: acyclovir, famciclovir, and valaciclovir. PMID:22747939

  10. Herpes zoster as a cause of viral meningitis in immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangath, Raghesh Varot; Lindeman, Tracey Einem; Brust, Karen

    2013-01-09

    A 30-year-old Caucasian woman, without significant medical history or immunosuppression, presented with a 7-day history of severe headache and neck pain. The patient was presumed to have tension headache versus migraine, but was admitted because her symptoms did not resolve. A lumbar puncture was performed showing lymphocytic pleocytosis suggestive of aseptic meningitis and the patient was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics and acyclovir. After admission, a rash was discovered on her left lumbar region with vesicles on top of an erythematous base. Varicella PCR was conducted on the patient's cerebrospinal fluid which was positive. Upon further history, patient was found to have previous varicella infection as a child, but no prior episodes of dermatomal zoster. Therefore, this patient was found to have aseptic meningitis and cutaneous manifestation of disseminated varicella-zoster despite immunocompetence. Antibacterial treatment was discontinued and she was continued on acyclovir for 7 days with transition to valacyclovir for 2 additional weeks with good treatment response and symptom resolution.

  11. Viral lesions of the mouth in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, P H; Lautenschlager, S

    1997-01-01

    Viral lesions of the mouth in patients with HIV infection are common and these diseases any be a marker for HIV and disease progression. We review the spectrum of oral viral manifestations and discuss treatment modalities. The most common Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced disorder in HIV-infected patients is oral hairy leukoplakia. EBV-related oral B-cell and T-cell lymphoma in AIDS patients has been described repeatedly. Herpes virus type 1 and rarely type 2 may lead to painful and resistant oral ulcers, and systemic treatment with acyclovir, valaciclovir or famciclovir is indicated. In acyclovir-resistant cases foscarnet is the treatment of choice. In recent years it has been documented that Kaposi's sarcoma, which often affects oral mucosa, is probably induced by herpesvirus type 8. Cytomegalovirus was found in 53% of cases with herpesviridae-induced mucosal ulcers as the only ulcerogenic viral agent in AIDS patients. In severe cytomegalovirus infection treatment with ganciclovir is helpful. Viral warts induced by different HPV may occur in the mouth. Several physical treatment modalities are possible in the oral mucosa. In AIDS patients mollusca contagiosa may occur as large and atypical lesions in the face and lips and rarely in the oral cavity. Cryotherapy is a bloodless treatment in such patients. PMID:9031782

  12. Successful rescue of disseminated varicella infection with multiple organ failure in a pediatric living donor liver transplant recipient: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Naoya; Sanada, Yukihiro; Okada, Noriki; Wakiya, Taiichi; Ihara, Yoshiyuki; Urahashi, Taizen; Mizuta, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    A 12-year-old female patient with biliary atresia underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Twelve months after the LDLT, she developed acute hepatitis (alanine aminotransferase 584 IU/L) and was diagnosed with disseminated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection with high level of serum VZV-DNA (1.5 × 10(5) copies/mL) and generalized vesicular rash. She had received the VZV vaccination when she was 5-years-old and had not been exposed to chicken pox before the LDLT, and her serum was positive for VZV immunoglobulin G at the time of the LDLT. Although she underwent treatment with intravenous acyclovir, intravenous immunoglobulin, and withdrawal of immunosuppressants, her symptoms worsened and were accompanied by disseminated intravascular coagulation, pneumonia, and encephalitis. These complications required treatment in the intensive care unit for 16 days. Five weeks later, her clinical findings improved, although her VZV-DNA levels remained high (8.5 × 10(3)copies/mL). Oral acyclovir was added for 2 weeks, and she was eventually discharged from our hospital on day 86 after admission; she has not experienced a recurrence. In conclusion, although disseminated VZV infection with multiple organ failure after pediatric LDLT is a life-threatening disease, it can be cured via an early diagnosis and intensive treatment. PMID:26081644

  13. Development of a paediatric population pharmacokinetic model for valacyclovir from literature non-compartmental values originating from sparse studies and Bayesian priors: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kechagia, Irene-Ariadne; Dokoumetzidis, Aristides

    2015-06-01

    A preliminary population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model of valacyclovir in children was developed from non-compartmental analysis (NCA) parameter values from literature, including several age groups, combined with Bayesian priors from a PopPK model of acyclovir, the active metabolite of valacyclovir, from literature too. Also a simulation study was carried out to evaluate the performance of various modelling choices related to the estimation of model parameters from NCA parameters originating from sparse PK studies. Assuming a one-compartment model with first order absorption, a mixed effects, meta-analysis approach was utilized which allows accounting the random intergroup variability, the detection of covariates and the application of informative Bayesian priors on the parameters. The conclusions from the simulation study calculating bias and precision for various cases, were that a model which takes explicitly into account the sampling schedule, performs better than a model using the theoretical expressions of calculating the NCA parameters. Also by using the geometric rather than the arithmetic means of NCA parameters, less biased results are obtained. These findings guided the choices for the valacyclovir model, for which informative priors from a PopPK model of acyclovir were applied for some of the parameters, in order to include a richer covariate model for clearance, not supported by the NCA dataset and a value for bioavailability. This preliminary valacyclovir model can be used in simulations to provide dosage recommendations for children of various ages and to help design more efficiently prospective clinical trials. PMID:25821006

  14. Outcome of patients presenting with idiopathic facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy) in a tertiary centre--a five year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, I P; Lee, S C; Shashinder, S; Raman, R

    2009-06-01

    This is a retrospective study. The objective of this study is to review the factors influencing the outcome of treatment for the patients presented with idiopathic facial nerve paralysis. The demographic data, clinical presentation and management of 84 patients with idiopathic facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy) were collected from the medical record office, reviewed and analyzed from 2000 to 2005. Thirty-four (72.3%) out of 47 patients who were treated with oral prednisolone alone, fully recovered from Bell's palsy meanwhile 36 (97%) out of 37 patients who were treated with combination of oral prednisolone and acyclovir fully recovered. The difference was statistically significant. 42 (93.3%) out of 45 patients who presented within three days to our clinic, fully recovered while 28 (71.8%) out of 39 patients presented later then three days had full recovery from Bell's palsy. The difference was statistically significant. The outcome of full recovery is better with the patients treated with combined acyclovir and prednisolone compared with prednisolone alone. The patients who were treated after three days of clinical presentation, who were more than 50 years of age, who had concurrent chronic medical illness and facial nerve paralysis HB Grade IV to VI during initial presentation have reduced chance of full recovery of facial nerve paralysis.

  15. Co-occurrence of Photochemical and Microbiological Transformation Processes in Open-Water Unit Process Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, Carsten; Wenk, Jannis; Jasper, Justin T; Ternes, Thomas A; Sedlak, David L

    2015-12-15

    The fate of anthropogenic trace organic contaminants in surface waters can be complex due to the occurrence of multiple parallel and consecutive transformation processes. In this study, the removal of five antiviral drugs (abacavir, acyclovir, emtricitabine, lamivudine and zidovudine) via both bio- and phototransformation processes, was investigated in laboratory microcosm experiments simulating an open-water unit process wetland receiving municipal wastewater effluent. Phototransformation was the main removal mechanism for abacavir, zidovudine, and emtricitabine, with half-lives (t1/2,photo) in wetland water of 1.6, 7.6, and 25 h, respectively. In contrast, removal of acyclovir and lamivudine was mainly attributable to slower microbial processes (t1/2,bio = 74 and 120 h, respectively). Identification of transformation products revealed that bio- and phototransformation reactions took place at different moieties. For abacavir and zidovudine, rapid transformation was attributable to high reactivity of the cyclopropylamine and azido moieties, respectively. Despite substantial differences in kinetics of different antiviral drugs, biotransformation reactions mainly involved oxidation of hydroxyl groups to the corresponding carboxylic acids. Phototransformation rates of parent antiviral drugs and their biotransformation products were similar, indicating that prior exposure to microorganisms (e.g., in a wastewater treatment plant or a vegetated wetland) would not affect the rate of transformation of the part of the molecule susceptible to phototransformation. However, phototransformation strongly affected the rates of biotransformation of the hydroxyl groups, which in some cases resulted in greater persistence of phototransformation products.

  16. Facial herpes zoster infection precipitated by surgical manipulation of the trigeminal nerve during exploration of the posterior fossa: a case report

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    Mansour Nassir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of herpes zoster infection (shingles precipitated by surgical manipulation of the trigeminal nerve root during an attempted microvascular decompression procedure. The pathogenesis of this phenomenon, as well as the importance and role of prophylactic acyclovir in its management, are discussed. Case presentation A 54-year-old Caucasian man with a classical long-standing left-sided V2 and V3 division primary trigeminal neuralgia refractory to medical management, underwent posterior fossa exploration for microvascular decompression via a standard retromastoid craniectomy. The patient had immediate and complete relief from pain. Three days after the operation, he developed severely painful vesicles with V2 and V3 dermatomal distribution. Rather than the classical paroxysmal, lancinating type of trigeminal neuralgia, the pain experienced by the patient was of a constant burning nature. A clinical diagnosis of herpes zoster (shingles was made after smear confirmation from microbiological testing. The patient was commenced on antiviral treatment with acyclovir. His vesicular rash and pain gradually subsided over the next two weeks. He remains asymptomatic one year later. Conclusions Postoperative shingles precipitated by trigeminal nerve manipulation during surgery for trigeminal neuralgia can be a distressing and demoralizing experience for the patient. A careful preoperative history, early recognition, and prompt antiviral therapy is necessary.

  17. A rare complication of Ramsey Hunt Syndrome: Sınus vein thrombosis

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    Ramiz Ahmedov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ramsay-Hunt Syndrome (RHS is a rare affection characterized by peripheral facial paralysis (PFP, skin eruption in the auricular canal and cochleovestibular symptoms. It is produced by varicella-zoster virus(VZV reactivation at the geniculate ganglia. In elderly and immunocompromised individuals, the virus may reactivate to produce shingles (zoster. After zoster resolves, many elderly patients experience postherpetic neuralgia. Uncommonly, VZV can spread to large cerebral arteries to cause a spectrum of large-vessel vascular damage, ranging from vasculopathy to vasculitis, with stroke. In immunocompromised individuals, especially those with cancer or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, deeper tissue penetration of the virus may occur (as compared with immunocompetent individuals, with resultant myelitis, small-vessel vasculopathy, ventriculitis, and meningoencephalitis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis of cerebrospinal fluid remains the mainstay for diagnosing the neurologic complications of VZV during life. We report a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome complicated with cerebral venous thrombosis. Patient received treatment with acyclovir and anticoagulation. Early treatment with acyclovir therapy and anticoagulation could improve the recovery rate of facial nerve palsy and sinus vein thrombosis.

  18. Co-occurrence of Photochemical and Microbiological Transformation Processes in Open-Water Unit Process Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, Carsten; Wenk, Jannis; Jasper, Justin T; Ternes, Thomas A; Sedlak, David L

    2015-12-15

    The fate of anthropogenic trace organic contaminants in surface waters can be complex due to the occurrence of multiple parallel and consecutive transformation processes. In this study, the removal of five antiviral drugs (abacavir, acyclovir, emtricitabine, lamivudine and zidovudine) via both bio- and phototransformation processes, was investigated in laboratory microcosm experiments simulating an open-water unit process wetland receiving municipal wastewater effluent. Phototransformation was the main removal mechanism for abacavir, zidovudine, and emtricitabine, with half-lives (t1/2,photo) in wetland water of 1.6, 7.6, and 25 h, respectively. In contrast, removal of acyclovir and lamivudine was mainly attributable to slower microbial processes (t1/2,bio = 74 and 120 h, respectively). Identification of transformation products revealed that bio- and phototransformation reactions took place at different moieties. For abacavir and zidovudine, rapid transformation was attributable to high reactivity of the cyclopropylamine and azido moieties, respectively. Despite substantial differences in kinetics of different antiviral drugs, biotransformation reactions mainly involved oxidation of hydroxyl groups to the corresponding carboxylic acids. Phototransformation rates of parent antiviral drugs and their biotransformation products were similar, indicating that prior exposure to microorganisms (e.g., in a wastewater treatment plant or a vegetated wetland) would not affect the rate of transformation of the part of the molecule susceptible to phototransformation. However, phototransformation strongly affected the rates of biotransformation of the hydroxyl groups, which in some cases resulted in greater persistence of phototransformation products. PMID:26562588

  19. Fulminant bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with viral encephalitis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunkui; Zhu, Lijun; Fang, Shaokuan

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common cause of acute viral encephalitis. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rapidly progressing and potentially blinding eye disease that may be induced by HSV. The present case study reports the very rare case of a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) combined with acute retinal necrosis (ARN). A 47-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with persistent high fever and somnolence for 5 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signals in the right medial temporal lobes, and HSV-1 was identified in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Five days later, despite treatment with intravenous acyclovir and partial improvement in consciousness, the patient suddenly developed blurred vision and bilateral visual pain. Fundus fluorescence angiography revealed bilateral vessel obstruction and flaky reduced fluorescence. ARN was diagnosed clinically. Dexamethasone was administered as an anti-inflammatory adjunct to intravenous acyclovir therapy. The visual acuity of the patient was reduced to mere light perception a further 4 days later. The present case indicates that HSE may be complicated with ARN, causing a reduction in visual acuity to mere light perception within a very short time. PMID:27698716

  20. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

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    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  1. Management of ramsay hunt syndrome in an acute palliative care setting

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    Shrenik Ostwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Ramsay Hunt syndrome is characterized by combination of herpes infection and lower motor neuron type of facial nerve palsy. The disease is caused by a reactivation of Varicella Zoster virus and can be unrepresentative since the herpetic lesions may not be always be present (zoster sine herpete and might mimic other severe neurological illnesses. Case Report: A 63-year-old man known case of carcinoma of gall bladder with liver metastases, post surgery and chemotherapy with no scope for further disease modifying treatment, was referred to palliative care unit for best supportive care. He was on regular analgesics and other supportive treatment. He presented to Palliative Medicine outpatient with 3 days history of ipsilateral facial pain of neuropathic character, otalgia, diffuse vesciculo-papular rash over ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of left trigeminal nerve distribution of face and ear, and was associated with secondary bacterial infection and unilateral facial edema. He was clinically diagnosed to have Herpes Zoster with superadded bacterial infection. He was treated with tablet Valacyclovir 500 mg four times a day, Acyclovir cream for local application, Acyclovir eye ointment for prophylactic treatment of Herpetic Keratitis, low dose of Prednisolone, oral Amoxicillin and Clindamycin for 7 days, and Pregabalin 150 mg per day. After 7 days of treatment, the rash and vesicles had completely resolved and good improvement of pain and other symptoms were noted. Conclusion: Management of acute infections and its associated complications in an acute palliative care setting improves both quality and length of life.

  2. Fulminant bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with viral encephalitis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunkui; Zhu, Lijun; Fang, Shaokuan

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common cause of acute viral encephalitis. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rapidly progressing and potentially blinding eye disease that may be induced by HSV. The present case study reports the very rare case of a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) combined with acute retinal necrosis (ARN). A 47-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with persistent high fever and somnolence for 5 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signals in the right medial temporal lobes, and HSV-1 was identified in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Five days later, despite treatment with intravenous acyclovir and partial improvement in consciousness, the patient suddenly developed blurred vision and bilateral visual pain. Fundus fluorescence angiography revealed bilateral vessel obstruction and flaky reduced fluorescence. ARN was diagnosed clinically. Dexamethasone was administered as an anti-inflammatory adjunct to intravenous acyclovir therapy. The visual acuity of the patient was reduced to mere light perception a further 4 days later. The present case indicates that HSE may be complicated with ARN, causing a reduction in visual acuity to mere light perception within a very short time.

  3. Antiviral activity of the Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano essential oil and its main compound carvacrol against human and animal viruses

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    Marciele Ribas Pilau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens is a plant found in Mexico and Central America that is traditionally used as a medicinal herb. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of the essential oil of Mexican oregano and its major component, carvacrol, against different human and animal viruses. The MTT test (3-4,5-dimethythiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide was conducted to determine the selectivity index (SI of the essential oil, which was equal to 13.1, 7.4, 10.8, 9.7, and 7.2 for acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVR-HHV-1, acyclovir-sensitive HHV-1, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BoHV-2, and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, respectively. The human rotavirus (RV and BoHV-1 and 5 were not inhibited by the essential oil. Carvacrol alone exhibited high antiviral activity against RV with a SI of 33, but it was less efficient than the oil for the other viruses. Thus, Mexican oregano oil and its main component, carvacrol, are able to inhibit different human and animal viruses in vitro. Specifically, the antiviral effects of Mexican oregano oil on ACVR-HHV-1 and HRSV and of carvacrol on RV justify more detailed studies.

  4. Houttuynia cordata targets the beginning stage of herpes simplex virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Hung

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV, a common latent virus in humans, causes certain severe diseases. Extensive use of acyclovir (ACV results in the development of drug-resistant HSV strains, hence, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs to treat HSV infection. Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata, a natural herbal medicine, has been reported to exhibit anti-HSV effects which is partly NF-κB-dependent. However, the molecular mechanisms by which H. cordata inhibits HSV infection are not elucidated thoroughly. Here, we report that H. cordata water extracts (HCWEs inhibit the infection of HSV-1, HSV-2, and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 mainly via blocking viral binding and penetration in the beginning of infection. HCWEs also suppress HSV replication. Furthermore, HCWEs attenuate the first-wave of NF-κB activation, which is essential for viral gene expressions. Further analysis of six compounds in HCWEs revealed that quercetin and isoquercitrin inhibit NF-κB activation and additionally, quercetin also has an inhibitory effect on viral entry. These results indicate that HCWEs can inhibit HSV infection through multiple mechanisms and could be a potential lead for development of new drugs for treating HSV.

  5. Ellagitannins as synergists of ACV on the replication of ACV-resistant strains of HSV 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelmova-Ilieva, N; Jacquet, R; Quideau, S; Galabov, A S

    2014-10-01

    The plant-derived polyphenolic compounds castalagin, vescalagin and grandinin (C-glucosidic ellagitannins containing nonahydroxyterphenoyl) manifested a strong inhibitory effect on the replication of acyclovir-resistant strains of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) type 1 and 2 in MDBK cells in focus forming units (i.e., microscopically registered microplaques) reduction assay and in two variants of cytopathic effect inhibition test. The effect on the acyclovir (ACV)-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain was markedly higher compared to that on the ACV-resistant herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The three compounds showed comparable levels of antiviral activity against ACV-resistant HSV strains, in contrast with previous results where castalagin exerted the highest degree of activity against wild type HSV strains (Vilhelmova et al., 2011). Combinations of ellagitannins and ACV were tested on the ACV-resistant strains of both HSV-1 and 2 and produced synergistic effects that were revealed by applying the three-dimensional approach of Prichard and Shipman (1990). The ellagitannin(s)-ACV combination applied against ACV-resistant HSV-1 produced a much stronger synergistic effect compared to the effect observed against ACV-resistant HSV-2. The study of the effects of the combination ellagitannin(s)-ACF on intact cell monolayers did not show any toxicity resulting from interaction between the two substances. Altogether, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the highly promising potential of these plant polyphenols as antiherpetic agents.

  6. Kinetics of drug release from ointments: Role of transient-boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Rahman, Ziyaur; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-10-15

    In the current work, an in vitro release testing method suitable for ointment formulations was developed using acyclovir as a model drug. Release studies were carried out using enhancer cells on acyclovir ointments prepared with oleaginous, absorption, and water-soluble bases. Kinetics and mechanism of drug release was found to be highly dependent on the type of ointment bases. In oleaginous bases, drug release followed a unique logarithmic-time dependent profile; in both absorption and water-soluble bases, drug release exhibited linearity with respect to square root of time (Higuchi model) albeit differences in the overall release profile. To help understand the underlying cause of logarithmic-time dependency of drug release, a novel transient-boundary hypothesis was proposed, verified, and compared to Higuchi theory. Furthermore, impact of drug solubility (under various pH conditions) and temperature on drug release were assessed. Additionally, conditions under which deviations from logarithmic-time drug release kinetics occur were determined using in situ UV fiber-optics. Overall, the results suggest that for oleaginous ointments containing dispersed drug particles, kinetics and mechanism of drug release is controlled by expansion of transient boundary layer, and drug release increases linearly with respect to logarithmic time.

  7. Unidentified angular recurrent ulceration responsive to antiviral therapy

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    Rahmi Amtha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent ulcer on angular area is usually called stomatitis angularis. It is caused by many factors such as vertical dimension reduce, vitamin B12, and immune system deficiency, C. albicans and staphylococcus involvement. Clinically is characterized by painful fissure with erythematous base without fever. Purpose: to describe an unidentified angular ulcer proceeded by recurrent ulcers with no response of topical therapy. Case: An 18-years old male came to Oral Medicine clinic in RSCM who complained of angular recurrent ulcers since 3 years ago which developed on skin and bleed easily on mouth opening. Patient had fever before the onset of ulcers. Large, painful, irregular ulcers covered by red crustae on angular area bilaterally. Patient has been treated with various drugs without improvement and lead to mouth opening limitation. Intra oral shows herpetiformtype of ulcer and swollen of gingival. Case management: Provisional diagnosis was established as viral infection thus acyclovir 200 mg five times daily for two weeks and topical anti inflammation gel were administered. Blood test for IgG/IgM of HSV1 and HSV2 were non reactive, however ulceration showed a remarkable improvement. The ulcers healed completely after next 2 weeks with acyclovir. Conclusion: The angular ulceration on above patient failed to fulfill the criteria of stomatitis angularis or herpes labialis lesion. However it showed a good response to antiviral. Therefore, unidentified angular ulceration was appointed, as the lesion might be triggered by other type of human herpes virus or types of virus that response to acyclovir.Latar belakang: ulser rekuren pada sudut mulut biasanya disebut stomatitis angularis. Kelainan ini disebabkan oleh banyak faktor seperti berkurangnya dimensi vertikal, defisiensi vitamin B12 dan sistem kekebalan tubuh, infeksi C. albicans serta staphylococcus. Secara klinis kelainan ini ditandai dengan fisur sakit pada sudut mulut dengan dasar

  8. 中西医治疗水痘的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祥波

    2012-01-01

      目的:观察阿昔洛韦与蓝芩口服液联合用药治疗水痘的临床疗效.方法:47例患者随机分成两组,A 组给予阿昔洛韦与蓝芩口服液,B 组给予阿昔洛韦注射液,比较其疗效和疗程,并进行统计学分析.结果:A 组患儿23例,痊愈为10例,有效为7例,有效率为73.91%;B 组患儿24例,痊愈为14例,有效为10例,有效率为100%.从疗效和疗程来看,A 的治疗方法明显优于 B 组.结论:采用中西医结合的方法治疗水痘能够取得较好的治疗效果,值得临床推广.%  Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of treating chickenpox with acyclovir plus Lanqin oral liquid. Methods: 47 cases patients were randomly divided into two groups, the group A was gaven acyclovir plus Lanqin oral liquid for treatment, and the group B was treated with acyclovir injection respectively. Compare their efficacy and the course of treatment, and were statistically analyzed. Results: The group A had 23 cases, recovery in 10 cases, effective in 7 cases, the total effective 73.91% ; and the group B had 24 cases, recovery in 14 cases, effective in 10 cases, the total effective 100%. The group A was better than the group B from the curative effect and the treatment. Conclusion: Treating chickenpox in the integrative medicine can get better treatment effect, worthy of clinical promotion.

  9. Novel Method Based on Real-Time Cell Analysis for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Herpes Simplex Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, Jocelyne; Goyette, Nathalie; Boivin, Guy

    2016-08-01

    The plaque reduction assay (PRA) is the gold standard phenotypic method to determine herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) susceptibilities to antiviral drugs. However, this assay is subjective and labor intensive. Here, we describe a novel antiviral phenotypic method based on real-time cell analysis (RTCA) that measures electronic impedance over time. The effective drug concentrations that reduced by 50% (EC50s) the cytopathic effects induced by HSV-1 and HCMV were evaluated by both methods. The EC50s of acyclovir and foscarnet against a reference wild-type (WT) HSV-1 strain in Vero cells were, respectively, 0.5 μM and 32.6 μM by PRA and 0.8 μM and 93.6 μM by RTCA. The EC50 ratios for acyclovir against several HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) mutants were 101.8×, 73.4×, 28.8×, and 35.4× (PRA) and 18.0×, 52.0×, 5.5×, and 87.8× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. The EC50 ratios for acyclovir and foscarnet against the HSV-1 TK/DNA polymerase mutant were 182.8× and 9.7× (PRA) and >125.0× and 10.8× (RTCA) compared to the WT. The EC50s of ganciclovir and foscarnet against WT HCMV strain AD169 in fibroblasts were, respectively, 1.6 μM and 27.8 μM by PRA and 5.0 μM and 111.4 μM by RTCA. The EC50 ratios of ganciclovir against the HCMV UL97 mutant were 3.8× (PRA) and 8.2× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. The EC50 ratios of ganciclovir and foscarnet against the HCMV UL97/DNA polymerase mutant were 17.1× and 12.1× (PRA) and 14.7× and 4.6× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. RTCA allows objective drug susceptibility testing of HSV and HCMV and could permit high-throughput screening of new antivirals. PMID:27252463

  10. Elimination of micropollutants and transformation products from a wastewater treatment plant effluent through pilot scale ozonation followed by various activated carbon and biological filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Gregor; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Cornel, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants are ineffective in removing a broad range of micropollutants, resulting in the release of these compounds into the aquatic environment, including natural drinking water resources. Ozonation is a suitable treatment process for micropollutant removal, although, currently, little is known about the formation, behavior, and removal of transformation products (TP) formed during ozonation. We investigated the elimination of 30 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, industrial chemicals, and TP) by biological treatment coupled with ozonation and, subsequently, in parallel with two biological filters (BF) or granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. The selected micropollutants were removed to very different extents during the conventional biological wastewater treatment process. Ozonation (specific ozone consumption: 0.87 ± 0.29 gO3 gDOC(-1), hydraulic retention time: 17 ± 3 min) eliminated a large number of the investigated micropollutants. Although 11 micropollutants could still be detected after ozonation, most of these were eliminated in subsequent GAC filtration at bed volumes (BV) of approximately 25,000 m(3) m(-3). In contrast, no additional removal of micropollutants was achieved in the BF. Ozonation of the analgesic tramadol led to the formation of tramadol-N-oxide that is effectively eliminated by GAC filters, but not by BF. For the antiviral drug acyclovir, the formation of carboxy-acyclovir was observed during activated sludge treatment, with an average concentration of 3.4 ± 1.4 μg L(-1) detected in effluent samples. Subsequent ozonation resulted in the complete elimination of carboxy-acyclovir and led to the formation of N-(4-carbamoyl-2-imino-5-oxo imidazolidin)-formamido-N-methoxyacetetic acid (COFA; average concentration: 2.6 ± 1.0 μg L(-1)). Neither the BF nor the GAC filters were able to remove COFA. These results highlight the importance of considering TP in the

  11. Elimination of micropollutants and transformation products from a wastewater treatment plant effluent through pilot scale ozonation followed by various activated carbon and biological filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Gregor; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Cornel, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants are ineffective in removing a broad range of micropollutants, resulting in the release of these compounds into the aquatic environment, including natural drinking water resources. Ozonation is a suitable treatment process for micropollutant removal, although, currently, little is known about the formation, behavior, and removal of transformation products (TP) formed during ozonation. We investigated the elimination of 30 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, industrial chemicals, and TP) by biological treatment coupled with ozonation and, subsequently, in parallel with two biological filters (BF) or granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. The selected micropollutants were removed to very different extents during the conventional biological wastewater treatment process. Ozonation (specific ozone consumption: 0.87 ± 0.29 gO3 gDOC(-1), hydraulic retention time: 17 ± 3 min) eliminated a large number of the investigated micropollutants. Although 11 micropollutants could still be detected after ozonation, most of these were eliminated in subsequent GAC filtration at bed volumes (BV) of approximately 25,000 m(3) m(-3). In contrast, no additional removal of micropollutants was achieved in the BF. Ozonation of the analgesic tramadol led to the formation of tramadol-N-oxide that is effectively eliminated by GAC filters, but not by BF. For the antiviral drug acyclovir, the formation of carboxy-acyclovir was observed during activated sludge treatment, with an average concentration of 3.4 ± 1.4 μg L(-1) detected in effluent samples. Subsequent ozonation resulted in the complete elimination of carboxy-acyclovir and led to the formation of N-(4-carbamoyl-2-imino-5-oxo imidazolidin)-formamido-N-methoxyacetetic acid (COFA; average concentration: 2.6 ± 1.0 μg L(-1)). Neither the BF nor the GAC filters were able to remove COFA. These results highlight the importance of considering TP in the

  12. Primoinfección por virus del herpes simp le tipo 1. Manejo farmacológico y caracteristicas clínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Francisco Sariego Santana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente artículo reporta un caso clínico de gingivoestomatitis herpética primaria y una breve revisión de los medicamentos usados para tratar la infección por virus del herpes simple (HSV. Se presenta un paciente con múltiples ulceraciones confluentes tanto en la cara ventral como en la dorsal de la lengua y en los labios, compatible con gingivoestomatitis herpética primaria. Esta forma de presentarse las ulceraciones y la edad del paciente son frecuentes en pacientes VIH positivo (Virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, esto no pudo ser comprobado en el caso ya que el paciente dejo de asistir a consulta luego de recibido el tratamiento. El tratamiento instaurado fue aciclovir tabletas 200 mg cada 6 horas vía oral por 10 días. Cabe mencionar que los tratamientos para el virus del herpes simple con aciclovir no están aprobados por la Administración de Alimentos y Drogas de los Estados Unidos (FDA siglas en inglés pero si son aceptados por el Centro de Control de Enfermedades (CDC siglas en ingles, también se utilizó gel de polivinilpirrolidona, hialuronato de sodio para facilitar la deglución del paciente. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 199 - 205AbstractThis article reports a case of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis and a brief review of drugs used to treat infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV. We present a patient with multiple confluent ulcers in both the ventral and the dorsal tongue and lips, compatible with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. This way of presenting ulceration and patient age are common in HIV positive patients (human immunodeficiency virus, this could not be found in the case because the patient stopped coming to see after the treatment. Acyclovir treatment was introduced 200 mg tablets orally every 6 hours for 10 days. It is noteworthy that the treatments for herpes simplex virus with acyclovir are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA but if accepted by the Center for Disease Control

  13. Neonatal herpes simplex virus type-1 central nervous system disease with acute retinal necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Choong Yi; Aye, Aye Mya Min; Peyman, Mohammadreza; Nor, Norazlin Kamal; Visvaraja, Subrayan; Tajunisah, Iqbal; Ong, Lai Choo

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 central nervous system disease with bilateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN). An infant was presented at 17 days of age with focal seizures. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction was positive for HSV-1 and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebritis. While receiving intravenous acyclovir therapy, the infant developed ARN with vitreous fluid polymerase chain reaction positive for HSV-1 necessitating intravitreal foscarnet therapy. This is the first reported neonatal ARN secondary to HSV-1 and the first ARN case presenting without external ocular or cutaneous signs. Our report highlights that infants with neonatal HSV central nervous system disease should undergo a thorough ophthalmological evaluation to facilitate prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment of this rapidly progressive sight-threatening disease. PMID:24378951

  14. A case of atypical progressive outer retinal necrosis after highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Se Joon; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Chung, Hum

    2004-06-01

    This is a report of an atypical case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) and the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the clinical course of viral retinitis in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. A 22-year-old male patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) presented with unilaterally reduced visual acuity and a dense cataract. After cataract extraction, retinal lesions involving the peripheral and macular areas were found with perivascular sparing and the mud-cracked, characteristic appearance of PORN. He was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and was given combined antiviral treatment. With concurrent HAART, the retinal lesions regressed, with the regression being accelerated by further treatment with intravenous acyclovir and ganciclovir. This case suggests that HAART may change the clinical course of PORN in AIDS patients by improving host immunity. PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute unilateral cataract in AIDS patients.

  15. Floating microspheres of valacyclovir HCl: Formulation, optimization, characterization, in vitro and in vivo floatability studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilamgiri Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floating microspheres are multiple unit Gastroretentive drug delivery systems. Valacyclovir hydrochloride (VCH is L-valyl ester prodrug of acyclovir. VCH degrades in intestinal fluid. The objective was to develop floating microspheres of VCH to localise the drug at upper part of GIT, for improved absorption. Floating microspheres were prepared by W/O emulsification solvent evaporation method using Ethylcellulose (EC as polymer. Particle size and % EE were 550.021±0.241 μm, 79.88±2.236% respectively. in vitro and in vivo floatability studies confirmed floating behaviour of microspheres. VCH loaded floating microspheres can be a suitable alternative to the conventional formulation, by localizing the drug at upper GIT.

  16. Oesophagobronchial fistula caused by varicella zoster virus in a patient with AIDS: a unique case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, F; Uberti-Foppa, C; Quiros-Roldan, E; Fanti, L; Lillo, F; Lazzarin, A

    2002-01-01

    Human herpesvirus oesophagitis in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients is caused by cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus; no cases of oesophagitis and oesophagobrochial fistula as a result of varicella zoster virus (VZV) have been reported to date. This report describes the case of a patient with a 2–3 mm deep oesophageal ulcer whose viral culture was positive for VZV. The patient was treated with acyclovir with resolution of the symptomatology. After the end of the induction treatment, because of the onset of fever and fits of coughing during eating, the patient underwent oesophagography, which showed an ulcer with an oesophagobronchial fistula in the middle and lower third of the oesophagus. This case report stresses the role of VZV infection as a possible cause of oesophagobronchial fistula, a rare but benign condition in patients with AIDS. PMID:11986352

  17. Acute retinal necrosis after Boston type I keratoprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Al-Amri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of a 68-year-old male who developed acute retinal necrosis (ARN after Boston type I keratoprosthesis is presented. The procedure was performed for multiple graft failure secondary to herpetic keratitis. Clinical data including visual acuity, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, laboratory tests findings, and management are presented. After exclusion of other causes by laboratory workup, the patient was diagnosed with ARN most likely secondary to herpetic infection. Intravenous acyclovir and oral prednisolone were administered to the patient resulting in marked improvement in visual acuity and regression in the size of the retinitis. The patient eventually developed a soft eye and choroidal detachment with light perception vision. In patients with a history of herpetic keratitis or keratouveitis, it is highly advisable to maintain prophylactic systemic antiviral treatment before and after any ocular procedure such as the Boston keratoprosthesis.

  18. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis in an Immunocompetent Child: A Case Report and Management of Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsen Akkoc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV usually causes mild, asymptomatic, and self-limited infections in children and adults; however, it may occasionally lead to severe conditions such as neurological diseases, malignant diseases, hepatic failure, and myocarditis. Epstein-Barr virus-related neurological disorders include meningitis, encephalitis, and cranial or peripheral neuritis, which are mostly seen in immunocompromised patients. The therapeutic modalities for EBV-related severe organ damage including central nervous system manifestations are still uncertain. Herein, we describe a seven-year-old boy with EBV encephalitis who presented with prolonged fever, exudative pharyngitis, reduced consciousness, and neck stiffness. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed contrast enhancement in the bilateral insular cortex and the right hypothalamus. The diagnosis was made by EBV-DNA amplification in both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. He was discharged with acyclovir therapy without any sequelae.

  19. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis in an Immunocompetent Child: A Case Report and Management of Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoc, Gulsen; Kadayifci, Eda Kepenekli; Karaaslan, Ayse; Atici, Serkan; Yakut, Nurhayat; Ocal Demir, Sevliya; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) usually causes mild, asymptomatic, and self-limited infections in children and adults; however, it may occasionally lead to severe conditions such as neurological diseases, malignant diseases, hepatic failure, and myocarditis. Epstein-Barr virus-related neurological disorders include meningitis, encephalitis, and cranial or peripheral neuritis, which are mostly seen in immunocompromised patients. The therapeutic modalities for EBV-related severe organ damage including central nervous system manifestations are still uncertain. Herein, we describe a seven-year-old boy with EBV encephalitis who presented with prolonged fever, exudative pharyngitis, reduced consciousness, and neck stiffness. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed contrast enhancement in the bilateral insular cortex and the right hypothalamus. The diagnosis was made by EBV-DNA amplification in both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. He was discharged with acyclovir therapy without any sequelae. PMID:27213062

  20. [Complicated febrile convulsion vs herpes-encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, M

    1993-01-01

    Since Acyclovir is available a sufficient treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis exists. Febrile convulsions may occur as the initial manifestation of an encephalitis, particularly of an HSV encephalitis. Within 25 months out of 151 children with febrile convulsions five children with complicated febrile convulsions were admitted at the pediatric department of Graz. In all children HSV antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were negative and the diagnosis of an HSV encephalitis was made by positive CSF HSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, in any suspected case, i.e. in any case of a complicated febrile convulsion, CSF should be investigated including a HSV PCR to rapidly confirm or exclude HSV encephalitis. PMID:8386831

  1. Perinatal Chicken Pox (Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

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    Ali Annagur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is due to infection with the varicella zoster virus (VZV, a human alphaherpervirus found worldwide. Classically, the cinical disease is a febrile illness with a pruritic vesicular rash. Maternal chickenpox between 5 days before delivery to 2 days after delivery (perinatal varicella can cause severe and even fatal illness in the newborn. A 7-day old girl baby presented on day 4 of postnatal with the complaints of widespread vesicular rash and non-suckling. Mother of the baby also had a similar eruption four day prior to delivery, which was clinically characteristic of varicella. Considering history and clinical presentation, a diagnosis of perinatal chickenpox was considered and the baby was treated with acyclovir which she responded and recovered. Herein, the clinical feasures and treatment of chickenpox infection in the perinatal period have been emphasized with this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 311-314

  2. Supra-recommendation Treatment of Super-refractory Status Epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Devashish Dhiren; Dash, Gopal Krishna

    2016-01-01

    A 28-year old female was admitted with recurrent seizures following 2 days of febrile illness, after which she developed status epilepticus. Midazolam and later thiopentone infusions were started after failure of regular intravenous antiepileptics. Burst suppression was achieved at doses of 3 mg/kg/hr for midazolam and 6 mg/kg/hr of thiopentone. Adjunctive medications included methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin and acyclovir. Imaging and biochemical parameters were normal. She required 3 cycles of midazolam and 2 cycles of thiopentone for complete cessation of seizures. She recovered with mild attentional and recent memory deficits on follow up. Treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus requires individualized regimens and may need doses beyond conventional limits. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such reported case from India. PMID:27390680

  3. Chemical and pharmacological significance of natural guanidines from marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebada, S S; Proksch, P

    2011-03-01

    Natural Guanidines from marine invertebrates represent a group of bioactive secondary metabolites that revealed prominent pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiproliferative, analgesic, and anti-coagulant properties. Acyclovir (Zovirax(®)), the first guanidine-derived pharmaceutical for the treatment of herpes infections since late 1970s, was synthesized based on a marine arabinosyl nucleoside, spongosine. Recently, ziconotide (Prialt(®)), a synthetic form of the marine-derived peptide (ω-conotoxin MVIIA) comprising a guanidine moiety, has been approved for the treatment of chronic pain. This review surveys over 130 compounds of guanidine-containing secondary metabolites from marine invertebrates with emphasis on their pharmacological significance and structure-activity relationships. PMID:21534931

  4. Recurrent herpes zoster in a child with SLE

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    Jain C

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old girl had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and type IV lupus nephritis since three-and-a-half years. She was treated with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. She had first attack of herpes zoster (HZ involving eighth and ninth thoracic segments on right side at the age of nine years. Second attack occurred on the same segments on same side at the age of twelve years. The second attack of herpes zoster was treated with oral acyclovir 400 mg five times a day for seven days plus analgesics and multi-vitamins. Most probably this is the first case of recurrent herpes zoster (RHZ in a child in Indian literature.

  5. Varicella Gangrenosa of Abdominal Wall: Rare but Fatal Complication of Varicella Even in Immunocompetent Healthy Children

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    Saini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Varicella gangrenosa is an uncommon but serious complication of chicken pox in young children. It should be suspected in any child with a history of varicella infection and increasing complaints of pain and swelling in an extremity or other body area, along with increasing fever, erythema, lethargy, and irritability. Early surgical intervention with intensive antibiotic therapy is essential to prevent fatal consequences. Case Presentation We describe a case of a previously healthy child who presented with sepsis due to varicella gangrenosa. While she initially responded well to a conservative antibiotic and acyclovir treatment, her subsequent rapid deterioration required urgent and repeated debridement. Conclusions This report highlights the significance of prompt diagnosis and early surgical intervention for management of varicella gangrenosa.

  6. A case report of herpetic and candidal esophagitis in an immunocompetent adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishwanath Sathyanarayanan; Abdul Razak; M Mukhyprana Prabhu; Kavitha Saravu; Ganesh Pai C; Anuradha K Rao

    2011-01-01

    Reports of combined candidal and herpetic esophagitis in immunocompetent states are rare and sporadic. A 44-year-old previously healthy lady presented with a one week history of progressive dysphagia, odynophagia and fever. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) showed extensive desquamation of the entire esophagus except for distal 4 cm. Histopathological examination revealed ulcerated and inflamed squamous epithelium with the margin of ulcer showing a few overhanging squamous cells with dense eosinophilic cytoplasm, multinucleated and faceted nuclei with glassy chromatin, and an occasional Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies. Few candidal spores were seen in the underlying stroma. Intravenous acyclovir, fluconazole and pantoprazole were initiated. Oral analgesics were given for pain relief. She was treated for a total of 14 days. She showed significant improvement and was tolerating oral intake after discharge. The patient was asymptomatic with no evidence of recurrence at a 2-month follow-up.

  7. Varicella Pneumonia in a 39-year-old Female in Third Trimester Twin Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljic, Rusmir; Hadzovic, Meliha; Mehanic, Snjezana; Lukovac, Enra; Koluder-Cimic, Nada; Baljic, Izet; Imsirovic, Bilal

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY CONFLICT OF INTEREST: none declared. Introduction Chickenpox is disease caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), with possibly devastated consequences during pregnancy, for mother and neonate. Pneumonia is most common complication in pregnancy with very high mortality. Case report A 39-year-old female in third trimester twin pregnancy, referred to Clinic for infectious diseases in Sarajevo, with five days history of illness. Before the admission her condition get worse, with fatigue, exhaustion, and shortness of breath. In a first three days patient was febrile, tachydispnoic and ortopnoic. We started therapy with acyclovir and antibiotic. After four days we had detoriation in patient’s condition. Chest X-ray revealed infiltrative shadows in basal parts of lung. Antimicrobial therapy was changed and corticosteroids were associated. Significant improvement was noticed after five days of therapy. Conclusion Varicella pneumonia during third trimester may have serious consequences for mother and child, with possible fatal outcome. PMID:24493990

  8. Superior orbital fissure syndrome in herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kirwan, R P

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To report a case of superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) in a patient with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case report. RESULTS: A 71-year-old male with HZO presented acutely to accident and emergency complaining of right vision loss, double vision and drowsiness. The right visual acuity was counting fingers. There was no relative afferent pupillary defect. He had interstitial keratitis, ptosis, proptosis and total ophthalmoplaegia. The signs indicated HZO complicated by SOFS. Brain imaging and lumbar puncture confirmed the diagnosis of varicella zoster encephalitis. Systemic acyclovir and prednisolone led to recovery of visual acuity and ocular motility in addition to resolution of his proptosis and ptosis. CONCLUSION: SOFS is a rare complication of herpes zoster infection. With the appropriate treatment and follow-up, patients may be reassured that recovery of their visual acuity and ocular motility will occur.

  9. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities of the lipophylic extracts of Pistacia vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, Berrin; Aslan, Mustafa; Orhan, Ilkay; Karaoglu, Taner

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties of 15 lipohylic extracts obtained from different parts (leaf, branch, stem, kernel, shell skins, seeds) of Pistacia vera were screened against both standard and the isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis by microdilution method. Both Herpes simplex (DNA) and Parainfluenza viruses (RNA) were used for the determination of antiviral activity of the P. vera extracts by using Vero cell line. Ampicilline, ofloxocine, ketoconazole, fluconazole, acyclovir and oseltamivir were used as the control agents. The extracts showed little antibacterial activity between the range of 128-256 microg/ml concentrations whereas they had noticeable antifungal activity at the same concentrations. Kernel and seed extracts showed significant antiviral activity compared to the rest of the extracts as well as the controls. PMID:15881833

  10. Herpes simplex virus infection in burned patients: epidemiology of 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdarias, B; Perro, G; Cutillas, M; Castede, J C; Lafon, M E; Sanchez, R

    1996-06-01

    Burned patients suffer significant immunosuppression during the first 3 or 4 weeks after hospitalization. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are commonly seen in immunosuppressed patients and may account for considerable morbidity and some mortality. We studied retrospectively 11 patients with severe burn injury who became infected with HSV. We determined the prevalence of viral infection in this group of patients. Serological testing and viral culture was used to diagnose HSV infection. No general complications appeared in these 11 patients in association with HSV but two patients died of multiorgan failure. Locally, areas of active epidermal regeneration were most commonly affected. Acyclovir therapy was not used and the duration of hospitalization was normal in these 11 patients. PMID:8781721

  11. A rare case of ulcerative colitis exacerbated by VZV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Yoshino, Takuya; Fujikawa, Yoshiki; Watanabe, Masaki; Yazumi, Shujiro

    2015-12-01

    A 16-years old man with severe ulcerative colitis (UC) was admitted to our hospital. After initiating treatment with corticosteroid for UC, chicken pox appeared. At the same time of appearance of chicken pox, the disease activity of UC was exacerbated. After initiating the treatment with acyclovir, both chicken pox and UC improved. Because colonoscopic findings revealed the remaining of moderately active UC, initiating the treatment with infliximab could induce clinical remission of UC without relapse of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. This is a very rare case of UC with concomitant VZV infection. According to our report, the vaccination for VZV prior to immunosuppressive treatments would be necessary for VZV naïve patients with UC. PMID:26552918

  12. Periorbital varicella gangrenosa: A rare complication of chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagriti Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy six year old male child presented in pediatrics ICU in state of shock with history of fever and rashes and later was diagnosed as chicken pox. He developed right sided periorbital varicella gangrenosa which is a form of necrotizing fasciitis secondary to skin infection. Patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir, antibiotics, amphotericin B, extensive debridement and later reconstruction of upper eyelid with skin grafting. Aggressive treatment helped preventing the eyeball and orbital involvement which would have necessitated orbital exenteration. However delayed presentation resulted in necrosis of orbicularis oculi and underlying tissue which resulted in graft retraction and lid dysfunction. Clinicians should be aware of this rare but fulminating condition to minimise the sight and life threatening complications associated with it.

  13. Periorbital varicella gangrenosa: A rare complication of chicken pox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Jagriti; Thatte, Shreya; Singhai, Prakhar

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy six year old male child presented in pediatrics ICU in state of shock with history of fever and rashes and later was diagnosed as chicken pox. He developed right sided periorbital varicella gangrenosa which is a form of necrotizing fasciitis secondary to skin infection. Patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir, antibiotics, amphotericin B, extensive debridement and later reconstruction of upper eyelid with skin grafting. Aggressive treatment helped preventing the eyeball and orbital involvement which would have necessitated orbital exenteration. However delayed presentation resulted in necrosis of orbicularis oculi and underlying tissue which resulted in graft retraction and lid dysfunction. Clinicians should be aware of this rare but fulminating condition to minimise the sight and life threatening complications associated with it. PMID:25709281

  14. Unilateral facial paralysis caused by Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Flávia P; Guskuma, Marcos H; Luvizuto, Eloá R; Faco, Eduardo F S; Magro-Filho, Osvaldo; Hochuli-Vieira, Eduardo

    2011-09-01

    The Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a rare disease caused by an infection of the geniculate ganglion by the varicella-zoster virus. The main clinical features of the syndrome are as follows: Bell palsy unilateral or bilateral, vesicular eruptions on the ears, ear pain, dizziness, preauricular swelling, tingling, tearing, loss of taste sensation, and nystagmus. We describe a 23-year-old white woman, who presented with facial paralysis on the left side of the face, pain, fever, ear pain, and swelling in the neck and auricular region on the left side. She received appropriate treatment with acyclovir, vitamin B complex, and CMP nucleus. After 30 days after presentation, the patient did not show any signs or symptoms of the syndrome. At follow-up at 1 year, she showed no relapse of the syndrome.

  15. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Chen Jiang; Hui Feng; Yu-Chun Lin; Xiu-Rong Guo

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV.

  16. Pediatric Ramsay Hunt Syndrome: Analysis of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İmran Aydoğdu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS is a disorder characterized by herpetic eruptions on the auricle, facial paralysis, and vestibulocochlear dysfunction and is attributed to varicella zoster virus (VZV infection in the geniculate ganglion. Although it is a common cause of acute peripheral facial paralysis, children are not usually affected. The diagnosis is based on history and physical findings. Treatment of RHS uses a combination of high-dose corticosteroids and acyclovir. This paper presents three cases diagnosed as RHS in the pediatric age group in association with the literature review. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of careful examination and early initiation of therapy in suspected cases of RHS.

  17. Evolução branda de recidiva de infecção por varicela zoster após tratamento com fingolimode em paciente com esclerose múltipla: relato de casoBenign evolution of shingles with fingolimod in a patient with multiple sclerosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arlindo Morais

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Relatar o caso de um paciente com recidiva de herpes-zoster (HZ e evolução benigna mesmo diante de imunomodulação para esclerose múltipla (EM. Descrição de caso: Mulher de 48 anos com história de EM durante seis anos, previamente tratada com interferon1b, iniciou tratamento com fingolimode, desenvolvendo HZ após 10 meses de tratamento. Mesmo sem tratamento com acyclovir, a paciente desenvolveu um curso brando, sem posterior desenvolvimento de neuralgia pós-herpética. Conclusões: As novas terapias para EM podem estar associadas a novos tipos de eventos adversos. Apesar da potencial gravidade, nem todos os pacientes com HZ em uso das novas terapias para EM têm curso desfavorável, sendo necessários estudos para identificar fatores de risco para as formas graves.

  18. Acute meningoencephalomyelitis due to varicella-zoster virus in an AIDS patient: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus (VZV meningoencephalomyelitis is a rare but severe neurological complication of VZV reactivation in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of an HIV-infected individual who developed an acute and severe meningoencephalomyelitis accompanied by a disseminated cutaneous eruption due to VZV. The presence of VZV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. The patient started undergoing an intravenous acyclovir therapy with a mild recovery of neurological manifestations. Varicella-zoster virus should be included as a cause of acute meningoencephalomyelitis in patients with AIDS. Early diagnosis followed by specific therapy should modify the rapid and fulminant course for this kind of patients.

  19. MANAGEMENT OF IDIOPATHIC SUDDEN SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS: OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSHL is dreaded condition affecting many individuals around the world due to its sudden appearance and inconspicuous nature of disease. More than 50% recover spontaneously, but timely identification of cause and treatment can help the patient immensely. METHODS In our study, we prospectively analyzed twenty patients presenting with idiopathic sudden hearing loss of 30 db or more between 2010 and 2015. RESULTS Two out of 20 patients (60% showed complete improvement and 10 patients out of 13 (77% who presented with 7 days showed complete recovery. Hence, time of presentation and drugs used directly affect the outcome of the patient. CONCLUSION It can be safely concluded that early diagnosis and management is key in treatment of SSHL. Intratympanic dexamethasone with intravenous dexamethasone or oral deflazacort is used in all patients with supportive measures has helped most of our patients. Oral acyclovir was used in only one patient.

  20. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis in an Immunocompetent Child: A Case Report and Management of Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoc, Gulsen; Kadayifci, Eda Kepenekli; Karaaslan, Ayse; Atici, Serkan; Yakut, Nurhayat; Ocal Demir, Sevliya; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) usually causes mild, asymptomatic, and self-limited infections in children and adults; however, it may occasionally lead to severe conditions such as neurological diseases, malignant diseases, hepatic failure, and myocarditis. Epstein-Barr virus-related neurological disorders include meningitis, encephalitis, and cranial or peripheral neuritis, which are mostly seen in immunocompromised patients. The therapeutic modalities for EBV-related severe organ damage including central nervous system manifestations are still uncertain. Herein, we describe a seven-year-old boy with EBV encephalitis who presented with prolonged fever, exudative pharyngitis, reduced consciousness, and neck stiffness. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed contrast enhancement in the bilateral insular cortex and the right hypothalamus. The diagnosis was made by EBV-DNA amplification in both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. He was discharged with acyclovir therapy without any sequelae. PMID:27213062

  1. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  2. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Esophagitis in a Young Immunocompetent Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K. Kadayakkara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE is commonly identified in immunosuppressed patients. It is rare among immunocompetent patients and almost all of the reported cases are due to HSV-1 infection. HSV-2 esophagitis is extremely rare. We report the case of a young immunocompetent male who presented with dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Endoscopy showed multitudes of white nummular lesions in the distal esophagus initially suspected to be candida esophagitis. However, classic histopathological findings of multinucleated giant cells with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions and positive HSV-2 IgM confirmed the diagnosis of HSV-2 esophagitis. The patient rapidly responded to acyclovir treatment. Although HSV-2 is predominantly associated with genital herpes, it can cause infections in other parts of the body previously attributed to only HSV-1 infection.

  3. Milestones in the discovery of antiviral agents: nucleosides and nucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik de Clercq

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, a number of milestones in the antiviral research field on nucleosides and nucleotides are reviewed in which the author played a significant part, especially in the initial stages of their development. Highlighted are the amino acyl esters of acyclovir, particularly valacyclovir (VACV, brivudin (BVDU and the valine ester of Cf1743 (FV-100, the 2′,3′-dideoxynucleosides (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, NRTIs, the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (S-HPMPA, (S-HPMPC (cidofovir and alkoxyalkyl esters thereof (HDP-, ODE-CDV, adefovir and adefovir dipivoxil, tenofovir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, combinations containing TDF and emtricitabine, i.e., Truvada®, Atripla®, Complera®/Eviplera® and the Quad pill, and the phosphonoamidate derivatives GS-7340, GS-9131, GS-9191 and GS-9219.

  4. Structure and function of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) and their relevance to drug therapy and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Anne T; Damme, Katja; Kruck, Stephan; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE; SLC47A) proteins are membrane transporters mediating the excretion of organic cations and zwitterions into bile and urine and thereby contributing to the hepatic and renal elimination of many xenobiotics. Transported substrates include creatinine as endogenous substrate, the vitamin thiamine and a number of drug agents with in part chemically different structures such as the antidiabetic metformin, the antiviral agents acyclovir and ganciclovir as well as the antibiotics cephalexin and cephradine. This review summarizes current knowledge on the structural and molecular features of human MATE transporters including data on expression and localization in different tissues, important aspects on regulation and their functional role in drug transport. The role of genetic variation of MATE proteins for drug pharmacokinetics and drug response will be discussed with consequences for personalized medicine. PMID:27165417

  5. Ultrasound for critical care physicians: neutropenic patient with fever snd shortness of breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraai E

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. A 63 year old female with a history of acute myelogenous leukemia presents with shortness of breath, fever and hypotension to the ICU. She is in septic shock on norepinephrine, and has been treated on the oncology unit with vancomycin, cefepime, acyclovir and voriconazole. She has been neutropenic for 1 month. The patient develops a progressive right lower chest opacity. This opacity has progressed in spite of antibiotics and antifungals. The portable AP chest radiograph is presented below (Figure 1. An ultrasound of the right chest was performed for further evaluation of the opacity (figure 2. Question: What pathology does the ultrasound reveal in the right hemithorax? 1. Air filled cavity; 2. Chest wall abscess; 3. Fractured ribs; 4. Pleural effusion and suspected empyema; 5. Simple consolidation ...

  6. [Separation of bases, phenols and pharmaceuticals on ionic liquid-modified silica stationary phase with pure water as mobile phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xusheng; Qiu, Hongdeng; Liu, Xia; Jiang, Shengxiang

    2011-03-01

    N-methylimidazolium ionic liquid (IL) -modified silica was prepared with the reaction of 3-chloropropyl modified silica and N-methylimidazole using toluene as solvent. Based on the multiple interactions between N-methylimidazolium IL-modified silica and analytes such as hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic attraction, repulsion interaction, hydrogen-bonding, etc., the bases (cytosine, thymine, 2-aminopyrimidine and 6-chloroguanine), phenols (m-aminophenol, resorcinol and m-nitrophenol) and three pharmaceuticals (moroxydine hydrochloride, acyclovir and cephalexin hydrate) were separated successfully with only pure water as the mobile phase. These chromatographic separations are environmental friendly, economical and convenient, without any organic solvent or buffer additive. The retention mechanism of these samples on the stationary phase was also investigated. PMID:21657060

  7. Skin infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllegger, Robert R; Häring, Nina S; Glatz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of infectious diseases can occur in pregnancy. Their acquisition, clinical presentation, and course during gestation may be altered due to an impairment of the maternal cellular immunity. Some infectious diseases can lead to serious consequences for the mother or the offspring, including congenital malformations. This review describes in detail the clinical presentation, course, management, and associated maternal and fetal risks of selected viral (varicella-zoster virus infections, condylomata acuminata), fungal (candida vulvovaginitis), bacterial (Lyme borreliosis), and parasitic (scabies) infections. The treatment options are critically reviewed. First-line therapies include acyclovir and varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin for varicella-zoster virus infections, surgical modalities for genital warts, topical clotrimazole and oral fluconazole for Candida vulvovaginitis, amoxicillin and cefuroxime for Lyme borreliosis, and permethrin for scabies. A synopsis of maternal and fetal risks of other important infections is also included. PMID:27265075

  8. The clinical analysis of radical total gastrectomy and jejunal interposition on behalf of the stomach surgery in the treatment of 37 patients with gastric cancer%根治性全胃切除空肠间置代胃术治疗37例胃癌患者临床作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮戈; 谈凯

    2012-01-01

    目的 探索运用根治性全胃切除空肠间置代胃术治疗胃癌的临床疗效.方法 研究选取37例于某院进行诊治胃癌患者,全部予以根治性全胃切除空肠间置代胃术进行消化道的治疗和重建,并于手术后1年内进行术后并发症、营养状况及复查结果等方面的持续随访.结果 全部患者术后生存期均超过1年以上,有3例患者术后出现进食后伴有轻度胸骨后疼痛感,其余患者均未出现吞咽困难、胸骨后烧灼感及食物反流等表现;全部患者术后体重均较前增加,胃镜检查显示均未出现吻合口炎症或胆汁反流征,血生化检查中的血红蛋白、白蛋白及总蛋白量均恢复至正常范围内.结论 在全胃切除后实施连续空肠间置术对消化道进行重建,可在最大限度清除癌变病灶的同对,尽可能的保留胃肠道的生理功能,从而尽量减少术后食管反流等并发症的发生并提高患者的术后营养状况.而且该手术方法污染较少,肠管自愈能力较强,吻合口瘘发生率较低.另外,该手术操作吻合口较少,加之吻合传的临床应用,使得吻合操作的步骤较为简便可靠,手术时间也大大减少,十分适宜临床的广泛应用及普及.%OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of oral acyclovir in treatment of chickenpox. METHODS Updated evidences were identified by searching Cochrane library, MEDUNE and EMBASE. Only systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi- RCTs were included. The efficacy of oral acyclovir in treatment of chickenpox in healthy children was analyzed through evidence-based methods. RESULTS Oral acyclovir was associated with the reductions in the number of days with fever and in the number of rash. There were less supportive evidences in shortening the number of days to get new rash and relieving pruritus. CONCLUSION The clinical importance of oral acyclovir treatment in healthy children remains uncertain.

  9. Herpetic Esophagitis in Immunocompetent Medical Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Vidica Marinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophagitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV is often documented during periods of immunosuppression in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; it is rare in immunocompetent diagnosed patients. Case reports of herpetic esophagitis in students of health sciences are extremely rare. The disease presents with a clinical picture characterized by acute odynophagia and retrosternal pain without obvious causes and ulcers, evidenced endoscopically in the middistal esophagus. Diagnosis depends on endoscopy, biopsies for pathology studies, and immunohistochemistry techniques. The disease course is often benign; however, treatment with acyclovir speeds the disappearance of symptoms and limits the severity of infection. In this report, we present a case of herpetic esophagitis in an immunocompetent medical student, with reference to its clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. The disease may have manifested as a result of emotional stress experienced by the patient.

  10. 027.无环鸟苷新型脂质载体制剂治疗复发性疱疹性唇炎的临床评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@  [英]/Horwitz E…∥Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Patho1.-1999,87(6).-700~ 705   环鸟苷(acyclovir,ACV)是一种有效的治疗复发性疱疹性唇炎(recurrent herpes labialis,RHL)的药物,与口服药相比,有许多优点.常用剂型有5%、10%ACV软膏和5%ACV霜剂,但临床报道其渗透效果均不理想,影响疗效发挥.本研究目的是评价一种无环鸟苷新型脂质载体ethosome治疗RHL的临床效果.    出版日期:2001年3月20日 请看PDF全文

  11. 盐酸万乃洛韦、阿昔洛韦治疗带状泡疹临床疗效观察%Clinical Observation of Effectiveness of Valacicloir and Aciclovir Hydrochloride in the treatment of Herpes Zoster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捷

    2002-01-01

    目的:观察盐酸万乃洛韦(Valaciclovir Hydrochloride)与阿昔洛韦(Acyclovir,ACV)治疗带状疱疹临床疗效.方法:应用万乃洛韦口服治疗带状疱疹42例,并与ACV口服治疗带状疱疹40例相比较.结果:万乃洛韦组总有效率90.48%,ACV组总有效率67.5%,两组间疗效相比差异有显著性.结论:Valaciclovir Hydrodoride治疗带状疱疹疗效优于ACV.

  12. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  13. Fabrication and application of porous silicon multilayered microparticles in sustained drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniya, Nalin H.; Patel, Sanjaykumar R.; Murthy, Z. V. P.

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the ability of porous silicon (PSi) based distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) microparticles for sustained and observable delivery of the antiviral agent acyclovir (ACV) is demonstrated. DBR was fabricated by electrochemical etching of single crystal silicon wafers and ultrasonic fractured to prepare microparticles. The hydrogen-terminated native surface of DBR microparticles was modified by thermal oxidation and thermal hydrosilylation. Particles were loaded with ACV and drug release experiments were conducted in phosphate buffered saline. Drug loading and surface chemistry of particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Drug release profiles from PSi DBR particles show sustained release behavior from all three studied surface chemistries. Drug release from particles was also monitored from change in color of particles.

  14. A case of atypical progressive outer retinal necrosis after highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Se Joon; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Chung, Hum

    2004-06-01

    This is a report of an atypical case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) and the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the clinical course of viral retinitis in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. A 22-year-old male patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) presented with unilaterally reduced visual acuity and a dense cataract. After cataract extraction, retinal lesions involving the peripheral and macular areas were found with perivascular sparing and the mud-cracked, characteristic appearance of PORN. He was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and was given combined antiviral treatment. With concurrent HAART, the retinal lesions regressed, with the regression being accelerated by further treatment with intravenous acyclovir and ganciclovir. This case suggests that HAART may change the clinical course of PORN in AIDS patients by improving host immunity. PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute unilateral cataract in AIDS patients. PMID:15255240

  15. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Associated with Central Nervous System Involvement in an Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tommy L H; Cartagena, Ana M; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M

    2016-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with varicella zoster virus reactivation affecting the central nervous system is rare. We describe a 55-year-old diabetic female who presented with gait ataxia, right peripheral facial palsy, and painful vesicular lesions involving her right ear. Later, she developed dysmetria, fluctuating diplopia, and dysarthria. Varicella zoster virus was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. She was diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with spread to the central nervous system. Her facial palsy completely resolved within 48 hours of treatment with intravenous acyclovir 10 mg/kg every 8 hours. However, cerebellar symptoms did not improve until a tapering course of steroid therapy was initiated. PMID:27366189

  16. Studies on the Antiviral Activities in vitro of Polysaccharide from Eucheuma striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CEN,Ying-Zhou; KHOO,Gaik-Ming; YE,Shao-Ming; RUI,Wen

    2004-01-01

    @@ To assay the antiviral activities on HSV-1 and CVB3 in vitro of the polysaccharide from Eucheuma striatum, its antiviral mechanism was explored. Vero cells were infected by HSV-1 and CVB3, and they were cultured with serial dilutions of polysaccharide. The cells cytotoxicity of Polysaccharide was evaluated by the MTT method. The inhibitory effects were evaluated by the cytopathic effect (CPE). Its antiviral mechanism was researched by the method of giving samples in different time. The polysaccharide could inhibit the CPE of cells infected by HSV-1 and CVB3. It showed low cytotoxicity on vero cells. Its antiviral activities were better than those of acyclovir and ribavirin which were run in parallel as the positive control samples. The polysaccharide from Eucheuma striatum has potent antiviral activities. Its antiviral mechanism is that it can prevent the virus from absorbing to the cell surface.

  17. Development history of herpes simplex encephalitis

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    Jia-wei WANG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE is an acute central nervous system infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV. Early clinical manifestations mainly include fever, headache and unconsciousness; when progressing, psychiatric symptoms can occur. Death or serious neurological sequelae will happen if not treated. With the development of laboratory tests and imaging techniques, the early diagnosis of HSE is possible. Even though imaging with temporal lobe abnormal signal has the implication to HSE, the application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in detecting HSV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid is currently the "gold standard" to diagnose HSE. Once diagnosed, acyclovir must be given as soon as possible, as delayed treatment will result in a poor outcome. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.08.003

  18. Evaluation of Viral Meningoencephalitis Cases

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    Handan Ilhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate retrospectively adult cases of viral encephalitis. METHOD: Fifteen patients described viral encephalitis hospitalized between the years 2006-2011 follow-up and treatment at the infectious diseases clinic were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Most of the patients (%60 had applied in the spring. Fever (87%, confusion (73%, neck stiffness (73%, headache (73%, nausea-vomiting (33%, loss of consciousness (33%, amnesia (33%, agitation (20%, convulsion (%20, focal neurological signs (13%, Brudzinski-sign (13% were most frequently encountered findings. Electroencephalography test was applied to 13 of 14 patients, and pathological findings compatible with encephalitis have been found. Radiological imaging methods such as CT and MRI were performed in 9 of the 14 patients, and findings consistent with encephalitis were reported. All of initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were abnormal. The domination of the first examples was lymphocytes in 14 patients; only one patient had an increase in neutrophilic cells have been found. CSF protein level was high in nine patients, and low glucose level was detected in two patients. Herpes simplex virus polymerized chain reaction (PCR analyze was performed to fourteen patients CSF. Only two of them (14% were found positive. One of the patients sample selectively examined was found to be Parvovirus B19 (+, the other patient urine sample Jacobs-creutzfeld virus PCR was found to be positively. Empiric acyclovir therapy was given to all patients. Neuropsychiatric squeal developed at the one patient. CONCLUSION: The cases in the forefront of change in mental status viral meningoencephalitis should be considered and empirical treatment with acyclovir should be started. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 447-452

  19. Neonatal varicella pneumonia, surfactant replacement therapy

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    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is a very contagious viral disease that caused by varicella-zoster virus, which appears in the first week of life secondary to transplacental transmission of infection from the affected mother. When mother catches the disease five days before and up to two days after the delivery, the chance of varicella in neonate in first week of life is 17%. A generalized papulovesicular lesion is the most common clinical feature. Respiratory involvement may lead to giant cell pneumonia and respiratory failure. The mortality rate is up to 30% in the case of no treatment, often due to pneumonia. Treatment includes hospitalization, isolation and administration of intravenous acyclovir. The aim of this case report is to introduce the exogenous surfactant replacement therapy after intubation and mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in neonatal chickenpox pneumonia and respiratory distress. Case Presentation: A seven-day-old neonate boy was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Amirkola Children’s Hospital, Babol, north of Iran, with generalized papulovesicular lesions and respiratory distress. His mother has had a history of Varicella 4 days before delivery. He was isolated and given supportive care, intravenous acyclovir and antibiotics. On the second day, he was intubated and connected to mechanical ventilator due to severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Because of sever pulmonary involvement evidenced by Chest X-Ray and high ventilators set-up requirement, intratracheal surfactant was administered in two doses separated by 12 hours. He was discharged after 14 days without any complication with good general condition. Conclusion: Exogenous surfactant replacement therapy can be useful as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of respiratory failure due to neonatal chickenpox.

  20. Parameterization of small intestinal water volume using PBPK modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Anil; Fotaki, Nikoletta; Edginton, Andrea

    2015-01-25

    To facilitate accurate predictions of oral drug disposition, mechanistic absorption models require optimal parameterization. Furthermore, parameters should maintain a biological basis to establish confidence in model predictions. This study will serve to calculate an optimal parameter value for small intestinal water volume (SIWV) using a model-based approach. To evaluate physiologic fidelity, derived volume estimates will be compared to experimentally-based SIWV determinations. A compartmental absorption and transit (CAT) model, created in Matlab-Simulink®, was integrated with a whole-body PBPK model, developed in PK-SIM 5.2®, to provide predictions of systemic drug disposition. SIWV within the CAT model was varied between 52.5mL and 420mL. Simulations incorporating specific SIWV values were compared to pharmacokinetic data from compounds exhibiting solubility induced non-proportional changes in absorption using absolute average fold-error. Correspondingly, data pertaining to oral administration of acyclovir and chlorothiazide were utilized to derive estimates of SIWV. At 400mg, a SIWV of 116mL provided the best estimates of acyclovir plasma concentrations. A similar SIWV was found to best depict the urinary excretion pattern of chlorothiazide at a dose of 100mg. In comparison, experimentally-based estimates of SIWV within adults denote a central tendency between 86 and 167mL. The derived SIWV (116mL) represents the optimal parameter value within the context of the developed CAT model. This result demonstrates the biological basis of the widely utilized CAT model as in vivo SIWV determinations correspond with model-based estimates.

  1. The antiviral drug valacyclovir successfully suppresses salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV in laboratory colonies of Glossina pallidipes.

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    Adly M M Abd-Alla

    Full Text Available Many species of tsetse flies are infected with a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH symptoms associated with a reduced fecundity and fertility. A high prevalence of SGH has been correlated with the collapse of two laboratory colonies of Glossina pallidipes and colony maintenance problems in a mass rearing facility in Ethiopia. Mass-production of G. pallidipes is crucial for programs of tsetse control including the sterile insect technique (SIT, and therefore requires a management strategy for this virus. Based on the homology of DNA polymerase between salivary gland hypertrophy virus and herpes viruses at the amino acid level, two antiviral drugs, valacyclovir and acyclovir, classically used against herpes viruses were selected and tested for their toxicity on tsetse flies and their impact on virus replication. While long term per os administration of acyclovir resulted in a significant reduction of productivity of the colonies, no negative effect was observed in colonies fed with valacyclovir-treated blood. Furthermore, treatment of a tsetse colony with valacyclovir for 83 weeks resulted in a significant reduction of viral loads and consequently suppression of SGH symptoms. The combination of initial selection of SGHV-negative flies by non-destructive PCR, a clean feeding system, and valacyclovir treatment resulted in a colony that was free of SGH syndromes in 33 weeks. This is the first report of the use of a drug to control a viral infection in an insect and of the demonstration that valacyclovir can be used to suppress SGH in colonies of G. pallidipes.

  2. Efficacy of an aqueous Pelargonium sidoides extract against herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, P; Schneider, S; Stintzing, F C; Carle, R; Reichling, J

    2008-12-01

    The compounds of an aqueous root extract of the African medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides were analysed by LC-MS spectroscopy and the antiviral effect of this extract against herpes simplex virus was examined in cell culture. Besides predominant coumarins, simple phenolic structures as well as flavonoid and catechin derivatives were identified as major constituents in the Pelargonium extract. The inhibitory activity of this extract against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay and exhibited high antiviral activity against both herpesviruses in viral suspension tests. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the aqueous Pelargonium sidoides extract for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 0.00006% and 0.000005% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the extract, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 99.9% for HSV-1 and HSV-2 and a clear concentration-dependent antiviral activity against HSV could be demonstrated for this extract. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action, the extract was added at different times to the cells or viruses during the infection cycle. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited when pretreated with the plant extract or when the extract was added during the adsorption phase, whereas acyclovir demonstrated antiviral activity only intracellularly during replication of HSV. These results indicate that P. sidoides extract affected the virus before penetration into the host cell and reveals a different mode of action when compared to the classical drug acyclovir. Hence this extract is capable of exerting an antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus and might be suitable for topical therapeutic use as antiviral drug both in labial and genital herpes infection.

  3. Treatment of sarcoids in equids: 230 cases (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspeslagh, Maarten; Vlaminck, Lieven E M; Martens, Ann M

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes following treatment of sarcoids in equids and to identify risk factors for treatment failure in these patients. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 230 equids with 614 sarcoids. PROCEDURES Records were searched to identify equids treated for ≥ 1 sarcoid between 2008 and 2013. A standardized protocol was used to determine treatment choice (electrosurgery, electrosurgery with intralesional placement of cisplatin-containing beads, topical administration of imiquimod or acyclovir, cryosurgery, bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine injection, or intralesional injection of platinum-containing drugs). Data regarding animal, tumor, treatment, and outcome variables were collected. Complete tumor regression without recurrence for ≥ 6 months was considered a successful outcome. Success rates were calculated; binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for treatment failure and to compare effects of the 2 topical treatments. A χ(2) test was used to compare effects of the number of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine or cisplatin-containing drug injections on outcome. RESULTS The overall success rate was 460 of 614 (74.9%). Electrosurgical excision resulted in the highest treatment success rate (277/319 [86.8%]); odds of treatment failure were significantly greater for intralesional injection of platinum-containing drugs, cryosurgery, and topical acyclovir treatment. Odds of treatment failure were also significantly greater for sarcoids on equids with multiple tumors than for solitary lesions, and significantly lower for sarcoids on equids that received concurrent immunostimulating treatment for another sarcoid than for those on patients that did not receive such treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Selection bias for treatments was inherent to the study design; however, results may assist clinicians in selecting treatments and in determining prognosis for equids with sarcoids treated according to the

  4. A method for evaluating antiviral drug susceptibility of Epstein-Barr virus

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    Charlotte A Romain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Charlotte A Romain1, Henry H Balfour Jr1,2, Heather E Vezina1,3, Carol J Holman11Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: We developed an in vitro Epstein-Barr virus (EBV drug susceptibility assay using P3HR1 cells or lymphoblastoid cells from subjects with infectious mononucleosis, which were grown in the presence of various concentrations of acyclovir (ACV, ganciclovir (GCV or R-9-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethylbutyl]guanine (H2G and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA. On day 7, total cellular DNA was extracted and EBV DNA was detected using an in-house quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. All three drugs had in vitro activity against EBV in both the laboratory standard producer cell line P3HR1 and in subject-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines. The median 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s in P3HR1 cells were: ACV, 3.4 μM; GCV, 2.6 μM; and H2G, 2.7 μM and in 3 subject-derived cells were: ACV, 2.5 μM; GCV, 1.7 μM; and H2G, 1.9 μM. Our assay can be used to screen candidate anti-EBV drugs. Because we can measure the IC50 of patients’ strains of EBV, this assay may also be useful for monitoring viral resistance especially in immunocompomised hosts receiving antiviral drugs for prevention or treatment of EBV diseases.Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus, ganciclovir, acyclovir, valomaciclovir, H2G, antivirals

  5. Preparation and targeted delivery of hepatotropic antiviral drug Lac-P LL-ACV%肝靶向抗病毒药Lac-PLL-ACV的制备及其趋肝性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项贵明; 周世文; 汤建林; 徐颖; 黄永平

    2002-01-01

    目的减少抗病毒药阿昔洛韦(Acyclovir, ACV)在治疗乙型肝炎中的肝外毒副作用,获得肝靶向ACV偶联物.方法多聚赖氨酸(Poly-L-lysine, PLL)在氰硼酸钠的催化作用下与乳糖反应生成乳糖化多聚赖氨酸 ,乳糖化多聚赖氨酸与咪唑化阿昔洛韦在37 ℃ pH9.5的条件下反应合成偶联物乳糖化多聚赖氨酸-阿昔洛韦(Lactosaminated poly-L-lysine-acyclovir,Lac-PLL-ACV).偶联物经尾静脉注射进入小鼠体内后,收集小鼠血浆及肝脏样品,用高效液相色谱法测定药物浓度,研究偶联物的体内分布和药代动力学.结果 HPLC检测证实Lac-PLL-ACV在血浆中十分稳定,不易解离出ACV.偶联物的肝最大摄取率约为60%,是ACV组的1 0倍以上,偶联物肝中的T1/2,AUC, CL 分别为ACV的4.2倍,56.6倍和1/57,具有明显的肝靶向性.结论乳糖化多聚赖氨酸作为肝去唾液酸糖蛋白受体(Asialogl ycoprotein receptor,ASGPR)介导的一种药物载体,能使抗病毒药ACV获得较满意的肝靶向性.

  6. Predictors of outcome in HSV encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tarun D; Fugate, Jennifer E; Hocker, Sara; Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Aksamit, Allen J; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to explore the clinical features, radiological findings, management and the factors influencing prognosis in PCR-confirmed herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE). This is a retrospective review of consecutive patients diagnosed with HSE at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, between January 1995 and December 2013. Only HSE cases confirmed by PCR were included. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with good (modified Rankin Scale of 0-2) or poor outcome (mRS of 3-6) at hospital discharge and 1-year follow-up. We identified 45 patients with HSE. Median age was 66 (IQR 53.5-78) years. HSE was caused by HSV-1 in 33 cases and by HSV-2 in 9. Nearly half had seizures upon admission or during hospitalization. The most common regions involved on MRI were the temporal lobe in 35 (87.5%), insula in 28 (70.0%), frontal lobe in 27 (67.5%) and thalamus in 11 (27.5%) patients. MRI pattern was quite homogeneous with HSV-1 infection, but much more heterogeneous with HSV-2. Good outcome at discharge and at 6-12 months was seen in 16 (35.6%) and 27 (65.9%) patients, respectively. On multivariate analyses, older age (p = 0.001), coma (p = 0.008), restricted diffusion on MRI (p = 0.005) and acyclovir started after the first day of admission (p = 0.050) were associated with poor outcome at discharge. Older age, development of coma, presence of restricted diffusion on brain MRI and delay in the administration of acyclovir portend poor outcome in HSE. Conversely, presence of seizures, focal neurological deficits, EEG abnormalities and location or extension of FLAIR/T2 abnormalities did not influence functional outcome. PMID:26568560

  7. In vitro comparison of antiviral drugs against feline herpesvirus 1

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    Garré B

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1 is a common cause of respiratory and ocular disease in cats. Especially in young kittens that have not yet reached the age of vaccination, but already lost maternal immunity, severe disease may occur. Therefore, there is a need for an effective antiviral treatment. In the present study, the efficacy of six antiviral drugs, i.e. acyclovir, ganciclovir, cidofovir, foscarnet, adefovir and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl-2, 6-diaminopurine (PMEDAP, against FHV-1 was compared in Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK cells using reduction in plaque number and plaque size as parameters. Results The capacity to reduce the number of plaques was most pronounced for ganciclovir, PMEDAP and cidofovir. IC50 (NUMBER values were 3.2 μg/ml (12.5 μM, 4.8 μg/ml (14.3 μM and 6 μg/ml (21.5 μM, respectively. Adefovir and foscarnet were intermediately efficient with an IC50 (NUMBER of 20 μg/ml (73.2 μM and 27 μg/ml (140.6 μM, respectively. Acyclovir was least efficient (IC50 (NUMBER of 56 μg/ml or 248.7 μM. All antiviral drugs were able to significantly reduce plaque size when compared with the untreated control. As observed for the reduction in plaque number, ganciclovir, PMEDAP and cidofovir were most potent in reducing plaque size. IC50 (SIZE values were 0.4 μg/ml (1.7 μM, 0.9 μg/ml (2.7 μM and 0.2 μg/ml (0.7 μM, respectively. Adefovir and foscarnet were intermediately potent, with an IC50 (SIZE of 4 μg/ml (14.6 μM and 7 μg/ml (36.4 μM, respectively. Acyclovir was least potent (IC50 (SIZE of 15 μg/ml or 66.6 μM. The results demonstrate that the IC50 (SIZE values were notably lower than the IC50 (NUMBER values. The most remarkable effect was observed for cidofovir and ganciclovir. None of the products were toxic for CRFK cells at antiviral concentrations. Conclusion In conclusion, measuring reduction in plaque number and plaque size are two valuable and complementary means of assessing the efficacy of

  8. Herpes zoster em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico juvenil Herpes zoster in patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Paula da Silva Neves

    2007-04-01

    VZV. In these patients, the mean age was 16 years and 5 months and the mean duration of the JSLE until the first infection was 4 years. All of these VZV infections were associated with disease activity. All patients presented vesicles and blister lesions along a nerve. The thorax and limbs regions were the most frequently affected. All of the patients received prednisone and 4 cyclophosphamide IV. All patients received acyclovir IV from 7 to 10 days. None of the patients had post-herpetic neuralgia, secondary bacterial infection or died. One patient that was receiving acyclovir had acute blindness by bilateral retinal necrosis vasculitis associated to the VZV, needed two applications of intra-vitreous gancyclovir and immunoglobulin (2 g/kg/dose IV and her vision partially improved. VZV infection in patients with JSLE was rarely observed and was usually associated with disease activity and steroid use. Infection was controlled with acyclovir without serious adverse complications.

  9. Comparison of two different drug therapies for acute retinal necrosis syndrome%对比两种给药方案治疗急性视网膜坏死综合征患者的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁菁; 胡维琨

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate clinical efficacy of two drug therapies ( acyclovir with prednisone acetate tablets, ganciclovir with prednisone acetate tablets and aspirin) for acute retinal necrosis syndrome. METHODS: Thirty patients (40 eyes) with acute retinal necrosis syndrome in our hospital were randomly divided into group A and B. Group A was treated with acyclovir with prednisone acetate tablets, and group B was given ganciclovir with prednisone acetate tablets and aspirin. Clinical effects in the two groups were observed and compared. RESULTS: After treatment, the overall response rate in group B (90%) was obviously higher than that in group A (70%), both of two regimens were effective, without significant difference (P>0. 05). There was no significant difference on the pre - treatment visual acuity between the two groups (P>0. 05). After different treatments, the visual acuity in group B was ≥0. 5 in 12 eyes, 0. 1≤and CONCLUSION: Two drug therapies ( acyclovir with prednisone acetate tablets, ganciclovir with prednisone acetate tablets and aspirin ) both have positive therapeutic effect, but the latter can better restore visual acuity and decrease the complications.%目的:探讨阿昔洛韦+醋酸泼尼松片、丙氧鸟苷+醋酸泼尼松片+阿司匹林两种给药方案治疗急性视网膜坏死综合征的临床疗效。  方法:采用随机数字表法将我院急性视网膜坏死综合征患者30例40眼分为 A、B 两组,其中 A 组采用阿昔洛韦+醋酸泼尼松片的给药方案,B 组采用丙氧鸟苷+醋酸泼尼松片+阿司匹林的给药方案,观察并比较两组患者治疗后的临床效果。  结果:经过治疗后,B 组总有效率(90%)明显高于 A 组(70%),两种给药方案均有效,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);两组患者在治疗前视力情况差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);经不同给药方案治疗后,A 组视力≥0.5者9眼,视力0.1~  结论:阿昔洛韦+醋酸泼尼松片、丙氧鸟苷+

  10. In vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant and antiviral effects of Pterocaulon alopecuroides and Bidens segetum extracts Efeitos citotóxico, antioxidante e antiviral in vitro de extratos de Pterocaulon alopecuroides e Bidens segetum

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    Cristiane Silva Silveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lamark De Candolle and Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla are two species belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts from those two species were evaluated to their cytotoxic, antioxidant and antiviral activities. All the extracts assayed have shown a very high cytotoxity against RBL-2H3 cell line. The antioxidant assay pointed out a really high activity of the ethyl acetate extracts for B. segetum and P. alopecuroides. This can be partially explained due to the high content of coumarins, at least for P. alopecuroides. None of the total ethanol extracts from B. segetum showed significant activity against the two strains of Herpes simplex virus (Types 1 and 2 resistant to acyclovir. P. alopecuroides ethanol extract was also inactive against the Herpes simplex virus type 1 resistant to acyclovir. However, this extract presented inhibitory activity against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 resistant to acyclovir. From the ethanol crude extract of P. alopecuroides, it was possible to isolate 7-(2',3'-dihidroxy-3'-methylbutyloxy-6-methoxycoumarin, which was tested in the same conditions, showing a viral inhibitory rate almost twice bigger than the P. alopecuroides sample for HSV-2-ACVr. The coumarin was also active against HSV-1-ACVr. Those results provide further evidence of the importance of Pterocaulon alopecuroides and Bidens segetum as medicinal plants.Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lamark De Candolle e Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla são duas espécies pertencentes à família Asteraceae. Os extratos dessas duas espécies foram avaliados quanto às suas atividades citotóxica, antioxidante e antiviral. Todos os extratos analisados apresentaram citotoxidade muito alta contra linhagens de células RBL-2H3. O ensaio de atividade antioxidante demonstrou uma alta atividade das frações em acetato de etila de B. segetum e P. alopecuroides. Isso pode ser parcialmente explicado pelo alto conteúdo de cumarinas, ao menos para P

  11. Targeted lipid based drug conjugates: a novel strategy for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Kwatra, Deep; Earla, Ravinder; Samanta, Swapan K; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-09-15

    A majority of studies involving prodrugs are directed to overcome low bioavailability of the parent drug. The aim of this study is to increase the bioavailability of acyclovir (ACV) by designing a novel prodrug delivery system which is more lipophilic, and at the same time site specific. In this study, a lipid raft has been conjugated to the parent drug molecule to impart lipophilicity. Simultaneously a targeting moiety that can be recognized by a specific transporter/receptor in the cell membrane has also been tethered to the other terminal of lipid raft. Targeted lipid prodrugs i.e., biotin-ricinoleicacid-acyclovir (B-R-ACV) and biotin-12hydroxystearicacid-acyclovir (B-12HS-ACV) were synthesized with ricinoleicacid and 12hydroxystearicacid as the lipophilic rafts and biotin as the targeting moiety. Biotin-ACV (B-ACV), ricinoleicacid-ACV (R-ACV) and 12hydroxystearicacid-ACV (12HS-ACV) were also synthesized to delineate the individual effects of the targeting and the lipid moieties. Cellular accumulation studies were performed in confluent MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells. The targeted lipid prodrugs B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV exhibited much higher cellular accumulation than B-ACV, R-ACV and 12HS-ACV in both cell lines. This result indicates that both the targeting and the lipid moiety act synergistically toward cellular uptake. The biotin conjugated prodrugs caused a decrease in the uptake of [(3)H] biotin suggesting the role of sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) in uptake. The affinity of these targeted lipid prodrugs toward SMVT was studied in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Both the targeted lipid prodrugs B-R-ACV (20.25 ± 1.74 μM) and B-12HS-ACV (23.99 ± 3.20 μM) demonstrated higher affinity towards SMVT than B-ACV (30.90 ± 4.19 μM). Further, dose dependent studies revealed a concentration dependent inhibitory effect on [(3)H] biotin uptake in the presence of biotinylated prodrugs. Transepithelial transport studies showed lowering of [(3)H] biotin permeability in

  12. Children with chickenpox:a care of 42 cases%42例小儿水痘护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉婷

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the methods of care chickenpox in children. Methods Isolation of children, and to give calamine lotion and topical acyclovir ointment, pruritus obvious oral antihistamines. Care items including general care, barrier nursing, nursing fever, skin and blister care, diet care, psychological care, and close observation the changes to prevent complications. Results Of the 42 patients were cured after treatment 7d 23 cases, the cure rate was 54.76%, the total effective 33 cases, the total effective rate was 78.75%, 14d after treatment cured 37 cases, the cure rate was 88.1%, the total effective 42 cases, the total efficiency was 100.00%. Rash face healed without scar formation. Conclusion Variety attentive care measures and calamine lotion and ointment acyclovir topical, has good efficacy, fewer side effects, is one of the better way to treat children with chickenpox.%目的:探讨小儿水痘的护理方法。方法隔离患儿,并给予炉甘石洗剂及阿昔洛韦软膏外用,皮肤瘙痒明显者可口服抗组胺药。包括:一般护理、隔离护理、发热护理、皮肤与水疱护理、饮食护理、心理护理,并密切观察病情变化,以防并发症的发生。结果42例患儿治疗7d后痊愈23例,痊愈率为54.76%,总有效33例,总有效率78.75%,治疗14d后痊愈37例,痊愈率为88.1%,总有效率42例,总有效率为100.00%。皮疹面愈合良好,无瘢痕形成。结论多种细心护理措施和炉甘石洗剂及阿昔洛韦软膏外用,疗效好,副作用较少,是治疗小儿水痘的较好方法之一。

  13. Infrared Spectrum Analysis of the Unknown Floss of in Inosine Glucose Injection%2例肌苷葡萄糖注射液配药后不明絮状物的红外光谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李湘晖; 田甜; 许世伟; 杜智敏

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析临床配药过程中出现的2例与肌苷葡萄糖注射液有关的絮状物的成分.方法:将临床配药过程中肌苷葡萄糖注射液与阿昔洛韦注射液混合及肌苷葡萄糖注射液与还原型谷胱甘肽混合时出现的不明絮状物分离出,低温干燥后进行红外光谱扫描,扫描结果通过与SDBS(Spectral Data Base System)谱图数据库中各组分红外图谱峰位、峰形及相对强度进行对比,确定是否为单一物质,分析原因.结果:该絮状物既不是肌苷,也不是阿昔洛韦或还原型谷胱甘肽,为茵类污染的可能性极大.结论:对于肌苷葡萄糖注射液类生物药品,临床使用时应先仔细观察外观后再行配药.%OBJECTIVE: To analyze the unknown floss of Inosine glucose injection in 2 cases during drug dispensing. METHODS: The unknown floss was isolated from mixture of lnosine glucose injection with Acyclovir injection and mixture of Inosine glucose injection with reduced glutathione. Isolated unknown floss was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (IR) after cold drying. Results of IR were compared with SDBS (Spectral Data Base System) in terms of IR peak, peak shape and relative peak density to confirm whether the unknown floss was homogenous material or not and analyze its reason. RESULTS: The floss was not inosine or reduced glutathione or acyclovir. It was most likely a kind of bacteria. CONCLUSION: For such biological drugs of Inosine glucose injection, appearance should be observed carefully before clinical utilization.

  14. HSV Latency In Vitro : In Situ Hybridization Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, C L; Smith, R L

    1998-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro model of herpes simplex virus (HSV) latency in primary neurons that mimics many aspects of HSV latency in animal models and the human disease (1-3). Using this model, we demonstrated that HSV-1 and HSV-2 establish latent infections in vitro in the same neuronal cell types that are shown to harbor latent HSV in humans (3). Latent HSV infections can be produced in neuronal cultures from ganglia of rodents and primates with similar results (3). In all cases examined, the neurotrophin, nerve growth factor (NGF), is required to maintain the latent infections. Depletion of NGF results in the reactivation of latent virus (1-3). Depending upon the conditions and the use of a high multiplicity of infection, latent HSV-1 infections are established in the majority of primary sensory or sympathetic neurons in tissue culture (2,4). To achieve high efficiency of establishment of latency with little or no evidence of lytic infection, an antiviral agent (e.g., acyclovir) is added to the neuronal cultures during the first week after inoculation with virus. However, latency can be established in the absence of antiviral treatment provided that the multiplicity of infection (MOI) is very low (1,2). At least one of the actions of the antiviral treatment is to prevent amplification of the input virus in the nonneuronal cells that are present in the culture at the outset of the infection. These nonneuronal cells are destroyed in the presence of acyclovir and virus (4). Latency is maintained in neurons in culture for as long as 10 wk in the presence of NGF. Viral transcripts and antigens associated with the productive infection are not detected during the latent infection (2,3,5). Viral transcription is restricted to the latency-associated transcripts (LAT) during the latent infection and is present in the nuclei of 80-90% of the neurons by 3 wk postinfection (4,5) Upon removal of NGF from the culture medium, for as brief as 1 h, reactivation of latent virus

  15. Synergistic activity of amenamevir (ASP2151) with nucleoside analogs against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Koji; Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2013-02-01

    ASP2151 (amenamevir) is a helicase-primase complex inhibitor with antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus HSV-1, HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). To assess combination therapy of ASP2151 with existing antiherpes agents against HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV, we conducted in vitro and in vivo studies of two-drug combinations. The combination activity effect of ASP2151 with nucleoside analogs acyclovir (ACV), penciclovir (PCV), or vidarabine (VDB) was tested via plaque-reduction assay and MTS assay, and the data were analyzed using isobolograms and response surface modeling. In vivo combination therapy of ASP2151 with valaciclovir (VACV) was studied in an HSV-1-infected zosteriform spread mouse model. The antiviral activity of ASP2151 combined with ACV and PCV against ACV-susceptible HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV showed a statistically significant synergistic effect (P<0.05). ASP2151 with VDB was observed to have additive effects against ACV-susceptible HSV-2 and synergistic effects against VZV. In the mouse model of zosteriform spread, the inhibition of disease progression via combination therapy was more potent than that of either drugs as monotherapy (P<0.05). These results indicate that the combination therapies of ASP2151 with ACV and PCV have synergistic antiherpes effects against HSV and VZV infections and may be feasible in case of severe disease, such as herpes encephalitis or in patients with immunosuppression.

  16. Efficacy of ASP2151, a helicase-primase inhibitor, against thymidine kinase-deficient herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himaki, Takehiro; Masui, Yumi; Chono, Koji; Daikoku, Tohru; Takemoto, Masaya; Haixia, Bo; Okuda, Tomoko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2012-02-01

    ASP2151 was developed as a novel inhibitor of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus helicase-primase. The anti-HSV activity of ASP2151 toward a clinical HSV isolate with acyclovir (ACV)-resistant/thymidine kinase (TK)-deficiency was characterized in vitro and in vivo using a plaque reduction assay and the ear pinna infection in mice. The IC(50) ranged from 0.018 to 0.024 μg/ml, indicating the susceptibility of TK-deficient HSV-2 was similar to that of wild-type HSV-2 strains. Anti-HSV activity of ASP2151 in vivo was evaluated in mice infected with wild-type HSV-2 and TK-deficient HSV-2. ASP2151 significantly reduced the copy numbers of wild-type HSV-2 and TK-deficient HSV-2 at the inoculation ear pinna, while valacyclovir significantly reduced the copy number of wild type HSV-2 but not that of TK-deficient HSV-2 in the inoculated ear pinna. Thus, ASP 2151 showed therapeutic efficacy in mice infected with both wild-type and TK-deficient HSV-2. In conclusion, ASP2151 is a promising novel herpes helicase-primase inhibitor that indicates the feasibility of ASP2151 for clinical application for the treatment of HSV infections, including ACV-resistant/TK-deficient HSV infection.

  17. Susceptibility of herpes simplex virus isolated from genital herpes lesions to ASP2151, a novel helicase-primase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Weinberg, Adriana; Chono, Koji; Takakura, Shoji; Kontani, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    ASP2151 (amenamevir) is a helicase-primase inhibitor against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus. To evaluate the anti-HSV activity of ASP2151, susceptibility testing was performed on viruses isolated from patients participating in a placebo- and valacyclovir-controlled proof-of-concept phase II study for recurrent genital herpes. A total of 156 HSV strains were isolated prior to the dosing of patients, and no preexisting variants with less susceptibility to ASP2151 or acyclovir (ACV) were detected. ASP2151 inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication with mean 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) of 0.043 and 0.069 μM, whereas ACV exhibited mean EC(50)s of 2.1 and 3.2 μM, respectively. Notably, the susceptibilities of HSV isolates to ASP2151 and ACV were not altered after dosing with the antiviral agents. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ASP2151 inhibits the replication of HSV clinical isolates more potently than ACV, and HSV resistant to this novel helicase-primase inhibitor as well as ACV may not easily emerge in short-term treatment for recurrent genital herpes patients.

  18. Seronegative Herpes simplex Associated Esophagogastric Ulcer after Liver Transplantation

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    Edouard Matevossian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex infection is characterized by acute or subacute infection, often followed by a chronic carrier state. Consecutive recurrences may flare up if immunocompromise occurs. Herpes simplex associated esophagitis or duodenal ulcer have been reported in immunocompromised patients due to neoplasm, HIV/AIDS or therapeutically induced immune deficiency. Here we report the case of an HSV-DNA seronegative patient who developed grade III dysphagia 13 days after allogeneic liver transplantation. Endoscopy revealed an esophageal-gastric ulcer, and biopsy histopathology showed a distinct fibroplastic and capillary ulcer pattern highly suspicious for viral infection. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed a distinct nuclear positive anti-HSV reaction. Antiviral therapy with acyclovir and high-dose PPI led to a complete revision of clinical symptoms within 48 h. Repeat control endoscopy after 7 days showed complete healing of the former ulcer site at the gastroesophageal junction. Although the incidence of post-transplantation Herpes simplex induced gastroesophageal disease is low, the viral HSV ulcer may be included into a differential diagnosis if dysphagia occurs after transplantation even if HSV-DNA PCR is negative.

  19. Detection of serum IgA to HSV1 and its diagnostic role in sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Guido; Palermo, Concetta Ilenia; Maiolino, Luigi; Costanzo, Carmela Maria; Zappal, Domenica; Grillo, Caterina; Martines, Anna Maria; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Russo, Raffaela; Serra, Agostino

    2013-01-01

    A viral etiology of sudden hearing loss has been hypothesized by many authors. HSV1 neurotropism and its involvement in sudden hearing loss has implicated HSV1 as one of the most accredited etiological agents. A non-invasive method such as the titration of HSV1-specific IgA was evaluated to determine the role of HSV1 as a possible cause sudden hearing loss. A prospective study was carried out by titration of serum IgA to HSV1 in 93 patients and in a control group of 50 healthy subjects and 35 subjects suffering from recent herpes labialis reactivation. Statistical analysis of the results disclosed that IgA titers to HSV1 higher than 1:80 are suggestive for the association of HSV1 infection and sudden hearing loss. Moreover, acyclovir therapy was effective in 81% of patients who showed high specific IgA titers. Overall, the titration of specific serum IgA to HSV1 can be a useful tool to determine the viral etiology of certain cases of sudden hearing loss. This method is simple to perform and minimally invasive. It can lead to a rapid presumptive diagnosis and to prompt specific therapy, reducing the need for corticosteroids.

  20. Sudden onset unilateral sensorineural hearing loss after rabies vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhovat, Saleh; Fox, Richard; Magill, Jennifer; Narula, Antony

    2015-12-15

    A 33-year-old man developed profound sudden onset right-sided hearing loss with tinnitus and vertigo, within 24 h of pretravel rabies vaccination. There was no history of upper respiratory tract infection, systemic illness, ototoxic medication or trauma, and normal otoscopic examination. Pure tone audiograms (PTA) demonstrated right-sided sensorineural hearing loss (thresholds 90-100 dB) and normal left-sided hearing. MRI internal acoustic meatus, viral serology (hepatitis B, C, HIV and cytomegalovirus) and syphilis screen were normal. Positive Epstein-Barr virus IgG, viral capsid IgG and anticochlear antibodies (anti-HSP-70) were noted. Initial treatment involved a course of high-dose oral prednisolone and acyclovir. Repeat PTAs after 12 days of treatment showed a small improvement in hearing thresholds. Salvage intratympanic steroid injections were attempted but failed to improve hearing further. Sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is an uncommon but frightening experience for patients. This is the first report of SSNHL following rabies immunisation in an adult.

  1. A novel corneal explant model system to evaluate antiviral drugs against feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Matthew R; Fort, Michael W; Ledbetter, Eric C; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R

    2016-06-01

    Feline herpesvirus type-1 (FHV-1) is the most common viral cause of ocular surface disease in cats. Many antiviral drugs are used to treat FHV-1, but require frequent topical application and most lack well-controlled in vivo studies to justify their clinical use. Therefore, better validation of current and novel treatment options are urgently needed. Here, we report on the development of a feline whole corneal explant model that supports FHV-1 replication and thus can be used as a novel model system to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral drugs. The anti-herpes nucleoside analogues cidofovir and acyclovir, which are used clinically to treat ocular herpesvirus infection in cats and have previously been evaluated in traditional two-dimensional feline cell cultures in vitro, were evaluated in this explant model. Both drugs suppressed FHV-1 replication when given every 12 h, with cidofovir showing greater efficacy. In addition, the potential efficacy of the retroviral integrase inhibitor raltegravir against FHV-1 was evaluated in cell culture as well as in the explant model. Raltegravir was not toxic to feline cells or corneas, and most significantly, inhibited FHV-1 replication at 500 µM in both systems. Importantly, this drug was effective when given only once every 24 h. Taken together, our data indicate that the feline whole corneal explant model is a useful tool for the evaluation of antiviral drugs and, furthermore, that raltegravir appears a promising novel antiviral drug to treat ocular herpesvirus infection in cats. PMID:26959283

  2. Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) in AIDS patients: a different appearance of varicella-zoster retinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesio, C E; Mitchell, S M; Barton, K; Schwartz, S D; Towler, H M; Lightman, S

    1995-01-01

    Retinal infections caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) have been reported in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Two cases of a VZV-related retinitis are described with the characteristic features of the recently described progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome. Both patients suffered from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with greatly reduced peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, and presented with macular retinitis without vitritis. The disease was bilateral in one case and unilateral in the other. The clinical course was rapidly progressive with widespread retinal involvement and the development of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with complete loss of vision in the affected eyes despite intensive intravenous antiviral therapy. VZV DNA was identified in vitreous biopsies, by molecular techniques based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in both patients. At present, the use of very high-dose intravenous acyclovir may be the best therapeutic option in these patients for whom the visual prognosis is poor. Intravitreal antiviral drugs could also contribute to the management of these cases.

  3. Atypical manifestation of progressive outer retinal necrosis in AIDS patient with CD4+ T-cell counts more than 100 cells/microL on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichitvejpaisal, Pornpattana; Reeponmahar, Somporn; Tantisiriwat, Woraphot

    2009-06-01

    Typical progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is an acute ocular infectious disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with extremely low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is a form of the Varicella- zoster virus (VZV) infection. This destructive infection has an extremely rapid course that may lead to blindness in affected eyes within days or weeks. Attempts at its treatment have had limited success. We describe the case of a bilateral PORN in an AIDS patient with an initial CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/microL that developed after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A 29-year-old Thai female initially diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1998, presented with bilaterally decreased visual acuity after initiating HAART two months earlier. Multiple yellowish spots appeared in the deep retina without evidence of intraocular inflammation or retinal vasculitis. Her CD4+ T-cell count was 127 cells/microL. She was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and positive VZV in the aqueous humor and vitreous by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite combined treatment with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreous ganciclovir, the patient's visual acuity worsened with no light-perception in either eye. This case suggests that PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of reduced visual acuity in AIDS patients initiating HAART with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. PORN may be a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome.

  4. Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome in Renal Transplant Recipients: Report of 2 Cases from a Single Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Nanmoku

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS is a potentially fatal complication of immunosuppression for transplantation. However, it presents with heterogeneous clinical symptoms (fever, disturbed consciousness, and hepatosplenomegaly and laboratory findings (pancytopenia, elevated hepatic enzyme levels, abnormal coagulation, and hyperferritinemia, impeding diagnosis. Case 1: A 39-year-old female developed fever 4 years after ABO-incompatible living-related renal transplantation. Laboratory findings revealed thrombocytopenia, elevated hepatic enzymes, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV DNA seropositivity, and hyperferritinemia. EBV-associated HPS was confirmed by bone marrow aspiration. Steroid pulse therapy and etoposide were ineffective. Disseminated intravascular coagulation resulted in multiple organ failure, and the patient died 32 days after disease onset. Case 2: A 67-year-old male was admitted with rotavirus enteritis a month after living-unrelated renal transplantation. He developed sudden-onset high fever, disturbance of consciousness, and tachypnea 8 days after admission. Laboratory findings revealed elevated hepatic enzyme levels, hyperkalemia, and hyperferritinemia. Emergency continuous hemodiafiltration ameliorated the fever, and steroid pulse therapy improved abnormal laboratory values. Varicella-zoster virus meningitis was confirmed by spinal tap. Acyclovir improved consciousness, and he was discharged 87 days after admission. Fatal virus-associated HPS may develop in organ transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Pathognomonic hyperferritinemia is useful for differential diagnosis.

  5. Platinum(II and Palladium(II Complexes of Pyridine-2-Carbaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone as Alternative Antiherpes Simplex Virus Agents

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    D. Kovala-Demertzi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxicity and the antivirus activity of Pd(II and Pt(II complexes with pyridine-2-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (HFoTsc against HSV replication were evaluated on four HSV strains—two wt strains Victoria (HSV-1 and BJA (HSV-2 and two ACVR mutants with different tk gene mutations R-100 (TKA, HSV-1 and PU (TKN, HSV-2. The experiments were performed on continuous MDBK cells and four HSV 1 and HSV 2 strains were used, two sensitive to acyclovir and two resistant mutants. The five complexes of HFoTsc, [Pt(FoTscCl], [Pt(FoTsc(H2FoTsc]Cl2, [Pt(FoTsc2], [Pd(FoTsc(H2FoTsc]Cl2, and [Pd(FoTsc2], were found to be effective inhibitors of HSV replication. The most promising, active, and selective anti-HSV agent was found to be complex [Pt(FoTsc(H2FoTsc]Cl2. This complex could be useful in the treatment of HSV infections, since it is resistant to ACV mutants. PCR study of immediate early 300 bp ReIV Us1 region reveals that the complex [Pt(FoTsc(H2FoTsc]Cl2 specifically suppressed wt HSV-1 genome 2 hours after the infection, not inducing apoptosis/necrosis on the 8 hours after virus infection. The target was found to be most probably the viral, instead of the host cell DNA.

  6. Herpes simplex ulcerative esophagitis in healthy children

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    Abdulrahman A Al-Hussaini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus is a common cause of ulcerative esophagitis in the immunocompromised or debilitated host. Despite a high prevalence of primary and recurrent Herpes simplex virus infection in the general population, Herpes simplex virus esophagitis (HSVE appears to be rare in the immunocompetent host. We report three cases of endoscopically-diagnosed HSVE in apparently immunocompetent children; the presentation was characterized by acute onset of fever, odynophagia, and dysphagia. In two cases, the diagnosis was confirmed histologically by identification of herpes viral inclusions and culture of the virus in the presence of inflammation. The third case was considered to have probable HSVE based on the presence of typical cold sore on his lip, typical endoscopic finding, histopathological evidence of inflammation in esophageal biopsies and positive serologic evidence of acute Herpes simplex virus infection. Two cases received an intravenous course of acyclovir and one had self-limited recovery. All three cases had normal immunological workup and excellent health on long-term follow-up.

  7. 抗水痘-带状疱疹病毒药物的研究进展%Research progress on anti-varicella-zoster virus agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晔; 陈建华

    2012-01-01

    水痘-带状疱疹病毒(Varicella-Zoster Virus,VZV)是一种α疱疹病毒.VZV的初次感染会引发水痘,之后潜伏于神经节中.VZV的再激活会导致带状疱疹和其他多种神经性疾病.目前阿昔洛韦是首选的抗水痘-带状疱疹病毒药物,近年来其它一些处于研究中的抗水痘-带状疱疹病毒药物都表现出较好的抗病毒活性.%Varicella-zoster virus ( VZV ) is one of alpha-herpes viruses. Primary infection causes varicella ( chickenpox ), after which virus becomes latent. VZV reactivates and causes herpes zoster ( shingles ) and other neurological diseases. Acyclovir is the preferred current anti-VZV agent. In recent years, new molecules in development show improved activity against VZV.

  8. Chickenpox pneumonia. Case presentation. Dora Ngiza hospital, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

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    Gilberto Serrano Ocaña

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is an exanthematic highly infectious disease produced by the Varicella zoster virus (VZV, commonly occurs in childhood, 90% of cases occurred in children under 12 years of age, 10% of the population over 15 years is susceptible to suffer it. It is an airborne illness, the inhale virus cause an infection in the initial respiratory epithelium, the virus spreads to distant cells of the reticuloendothelial system, finally, there is a state of viremia with skin lesions, although the spread can also be extended to the viscera. The deterioration of the cell-mediated immunity caused by coexisting diseases, HIV infection, cancer, hemato-oncology illnesses, steroid use, as well as advanced age, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hemorrhagic nature of the Skin lesions, are risk factors for developing Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. In this article we describe a case of chickenpox in a young HIV positive patient complicated with Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. Despite of the treatment with acyclovir, prednisone and supportive measures had a fatal outcome.

  9. Chickenpox Chorioretinitis with Retinal Exudates and Periphlebitis

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    Hirokuni Kitamei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is rarely associated with posterior segment inflammation. We report on a case of unilateral chickenpox chorioretinitis with retinal exudates and periphlebitis. Case Presentation: A 21-year-old healthy man, who suffered from chickenpox 2 weeks prior to symptom development, exhibited mild anterior chamber cells, vitreous opacity, sheathing of retinal veins, and yellow-white exudates in his right eye. Varicella zoster virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the aqueous humor. He was treated with intravenous acyclovir followed by oral prednisolone and valaciclovir. Aqueous cells quickly disappeared and retinal exudates diminished within 1 month, leaving faint retinal scarring. Retinal arteritis had never been observed in this patient. Conclusions: Although the ocular findings in this case were similar to acute retinal necrosis (ARN, the clinical features differed from ARN in the following points: (1 mild anterior chamber inflammation, (2 absence of retinal arteritis, and (3 prompt resolution of inflammatory findings. The distinctive clinical features indicated that chorioretinitis associated with chickenpox may not have the same pathological conditions as ARN.

  10. Varicella pneumonia in adults: 13 years′ experience with review of literature

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    Alanezi Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is a serious complication of varicella infection in adults. This study investigates the clinical characteristics in 19 patients admitted to our hospital with diagnosis of Varicella pneumonia . Materials and Methods : A retrospective chart review study was performed in adult patients admitted with diagnosis of Varicella pneumonia over 13 years (1992-2005. The study documented the clinical characteristics, laboratory investigations, hospital course, complications, treatment received and the outcomes. Results : Nineteen patients were identified with a mean age of 41 (±15.4. All were males except two. Eleven patients (58% were smokers. Eleven patients (58% had direct contact with persons with chickenpox infection. One patient had underlying chronic pulmonary disease (sarcoidosis. Sixteen patients (84% were admitted to the intensive care unit due to respiratory failure; eight of them required mechanical ventilation. The mean duration of ICU stay was 4.4 days. All patients were treated with acyclovir and IV antibiotics. Three patients received IV steroid. There was one death. Conclusion : Patients with Varicella pneumonia are at high risk for respiratory failure and the need for mechanical ventilation. However, early implementation of supportive therapy seems to positively influence the recovery rate and outcome.

  11. Diagnosis and management of herpes zoster by the family and community physician

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    Pedro Alexandre Barreto Coelho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The herpes virus that causes varicella (chickenpox persists in a latent form in the nervous system and can reactivate and propagate through nerve roots, manifesting years later through painful skin lesions, a condition called herpes zoster. The diagnosis is primarily clinical, but it is important to make a differential diagnosis with impetigo, contact dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis and also herpes simplex itself. After the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment should be initiated within the first 72 hours after onset of the rash and it is based upon antiviral therapy. Valacyclovir and famciclovir are more effective when compared to acyclovir. The most common complication of herpes zoster is post-herpetic neuralgia, usually managed with tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants, topical lidocaine or capsaicin. Recently, a live attenuated vaccine against herpes zoster was introduced in Brazil, with the same components as the vaccine against varicella, but in a greater concentration. However, it still has a high cost and is not available in the public health system.

  12. Varicella vaccine for immunocompromised children: results of collaborative studies in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRussa, P; Steinberg, S; Gershon, A A

    1996-11-01

    Varicella vaccine in immunocompromised children was clinically evaluated in 575 US and Canadian children with leukemia in remission by the Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study. Most children had chemotherapy stopped 1 week before and 1 week after immunization. Steroids were stopped for 3 weeks (1 week before to 2 weeks after vaccination). Varicella vaccine was safe, immunogenic, and effective in leukemic children at risk for serious disease or death from chickenpox. The major side effect was mild rash in 50% approximately 1 month after immunization. About 40% of children who developed rash were treated with acyclovir. Vaccine efficacy was judged by the degree of protection after a household exposure to varicella; of 123 exposed children, 17 (14%) developed a mild form of varicella. The vaccine protected completely against severe varicella. Leukemic vaccines were less likely to develop zoster than were comparable children with leukemia who had wild type varicella. Thus, varicella vaccine, administered carefully with close follow-up, is extremely beneficial for leukemic children.

  13. Stomatitis Aftosa Rekuren dengan Kecurigaan Klinik Infeksi Virus Herpes Simpleks (Laporan Kasus

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    Afi Savitri Sarsito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available   Stomatitis Aftosa Rekuren (SAR merupakan penyakit mulut yang paling banyak dijumpai di masyarakat.Pada umumnya penyakit ini memberikan gejala-gejala klinik yang khas yaitu adanya ulserasi yang bersifat ulang kambuh pada mukosa mulut, tanpa disertai dengan tanda-tanda lain dari penyakit. Pada makalah ini dibahas 3 kasus SAR yang tidak biasa yaitu selain gejala SAR, terdapat pula tanda-tanda adanya infeksi virus Herpes SImpleks (VHS.Dari pemeriksaan sitologi pada ketiga kasus ini, dijumpai adanya badan inklusi VHS, tetapi dari pemberian terapi dengan Acyclovir ternyata 2 kasus memberikan manfaat, dan pada 1 kasus tidak ada manfaatnya. Hal ini berarti pada 2 kasus yang pertama terdapat peran dari VHS pada proses penyakit dan pada 1 kasus tidak ada. Keadaan semacam ini perlu diamati dan diwaspadai mengingat kedua penyakit mempunyai prinsip terapi yang berbeda.Pada SAR seringkali diperlukan pemberian terapi dengan bahan-bahan golongan kortikosteroid, sedangkan pada infeksi VHS pemberian bahan ini merupakan kontra indikasi. Selanjutnya pada makalah ini juga diberikan saran-saran untuk pengelolaan penyakit yang dapat digunakan oleh para dokter gigi apabila mendapatkan masalah yang sama.

  14. Varicella-Zoster Virus Keratitis with Asymptomatic Conjunctival Viral Shedding in the Contralateral Eye

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    Akio Miyakoshi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of varicella-zoster virus (VZV keratitis with detection of VZV DNA in the tear fluid of not only the symptomatic eye but also the contralateral asymptomatic eye by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods: This is a case report. A 63-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with circular corneal ulcer and stromal opacity with infiltration accompanied by mild conjunctival and ciliary injections in the left eye. Bacterial cultures of the corneal scrapings and virus PCR analyses of tear fluid from both eyes were performed. Results: No pathogen was found by bacterial cultures. PCR was negative for Acanthamoeba, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus, but positive for VZV. VZV DNA was also detected in the unaffected eye. Based on the diagnosis of VZV keratitis, oral valacyclovir and acyclovir eye ointment were administered to the corneal infected eye. The infected eye was healed and VZV DNA turned negative in the tear fluid of the treated eye after 6 months of treatment; however, VZV DNA was still positive in the tear fluid of the contralateral eye. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first case report of the detection of VZV DNA in the tear fluid of both affected and unaffected eyes in a patient with VZV keratitis. Asymptomatic conjunctival shedding of VZV may continue in the healthy unaffected eye in VZV keratitis patients.

  15. Dancing with chemical formulae of antivirals: A panoramic view (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2013-11-15

    In this second part of "Dancing with antivirals as chemical formulae" I will focus on a number of chemical compounds that in the last few years have elicited more than common attraction from a commercial viewpoint: (i) favipiravir (T-705), as it is active against influenza, but also several other RNA viruses; (ii) neuraminidase inhibitors such as zanamivir and oseltamivir; (iii) peramivir and laninamivir octanoate, which might be effective against influenza virus following a single (intravenous or inhalation) administration; (iv) sofosbuvir, the (anticipated) cornerstone for the interferon-free therapy of HCV infections; (v) combinations of DAAs (direct antiviral agents) to achieve, in no time, a sustained virus response (SVR) against HCV infection; (vi) HIV protease inhibitors, the latest and most promising being darunavir; (vii) the integrase inhibitors (INIs) (raltegravir, elvitegravir, dolutegravir), representing a new dimension in the anti-HIV armamentarium; (viii), a new class of helicase primase inhibitors (HPIs) that may exceed acyclovir and the other anti-herpes compounds in both potency and safety; (ix) CMX-001, as the latest of Dr. Antonín Holý's legacy for its activity against poxviruses and CMV infections, and (x) noroviruses for which the ideal antiviral compounds are still awaited for. PMID:24070654

  16. Test systems to identify reproductive toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, K; Stahlmann, R

    2000-09-01

    Experience with drugs and other xenobiotics indicates that both animal testing and epidemiological studies are necessary to provide adequate data for an estimation of risks that might be associated with exposure to a chemical substance. In this review, the pros and cons of test systems for reproductive toxicity are discussed. Usually, several studies are performed to cover the different phases of the reproductive cycle. In the preclinical development of drugs, the three so-called 'segment testing protocols' have been used for several decades now. More recently, new testing concepts have been accepted internationally which include more flexibility in implementation. Several examples of compounds with the potential for reproductive toxicity are presented in more detail in a discussion of some pitfalls of the tests for fertility (phthalates and fluoroquinolones), teratogenicity (acyclovir and protease inhibitors) and postnatal developmental toxicity (fluoroquinolones). In addition, important aspects of kinetics and metabolism as a prerequisite for a rational interpretation of results from toxicological studies are briefly discussed. In vitro assays are useful for supplementing the routinely used in vivo approaches or for studying an expected or defined effect, but they are not suitable for revealing an unknown effect of a chemical on the complex reproductive process. PMID:11021511

  17. Green Preconcentration of Trace Amounts of Copper from Water and Food Samples onto Novel Organo-Nanoclay Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyki, Mostafa Hossein; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Khani, Rouhollah

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the nanoclay was intercalated with acyclovir (9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy) methyl] guanine), the toxicity of which to mammalian cells is very low. We used no organic solvents for preparation of modified clay and desorption of Cu ions from the sorbent. Batch and column methods were used, and sorption of Cu was quantitative (>98%) in the pH range of 7.5 to 10.0. Quantitative desorption occurred with 5.0 mL of 3.0 M HCl, and the amount of Cu(II) was measured by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In the initial solution the linear dynamic range and the LOD were 3.0-1000.0 and 0.58 μg/L, respectively. With 500.0 mL of sample, an enrichment factor of 100 was obtained. The RSD was 2.0% (n = 8, concentration = 0.5 mg/L), and the maximum capacity of the sorbent was 45.0 mg/g. The influence of experimental parameters including sample pH, ionic strength, type and volume of the eluent, and interference of some ions on the recoveries of Cu was investigated. The proposed method using a new and easier prepared solid sorbent was applied to the determination of Cu in different real samples with satisfactory results. PMID:25902995

  18. Antiviral activity of monoterpenes beta-pinene and limonene against herpes simplex virus in vitro.

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    Akram Astani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are complex mixtures containing compounds of several different functional- group classes. Depending on the structure, we can distinguish monoterpenes, phenylpropanes, and other components. Here in this study two monoterpene compounds of essential oils, i.e. β-pinene and limonene were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in vitro.All antiviral assays were performed using RC-37 cells. Cytotoxicity was determined in a neutral red assay, antiviral assays were performed with HSV-1 strain KOS. The mode of antiviral action was evaluated at different periods during the viral replication cycle. Acyclovir was used as positive antiviral control.Beta-pinenene and limonenen reduced viral infectivity by 100 %. The mode of antiviral action has been determined, only moderate antiviral effects were revealed by monoterpenes when these drugs were added to host cells prior infection or after entry of HSV into cells. However, both monoterpenes exhibited high anti-HSV-1 activity by direct interaction with free virus particles. Both tested drugs interacted with HSV-1 in a dose-dependent manner thereby inactivating viral infection.These results suggest that monoterpenes in essential oils exhibit antiherpetic activity in the early phase of viral multiplication and might be used as potential antiviral agents.

  19. Coincidence of Varicella-Zoster Virus Anterior Uveitis in a Patient with Chandler's Syndrome

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    Takeshi Joko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a patient who, based on the clinical manifestations, was originally diagnosed as having Chandler's syndrome and later developed varicella-zoster virus (VZV DNA-positive anterior uveitis. Methods: The patient with Chandler's syndrome who manifested anterior uveitis underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to amplify the viral DNA in the aqueous humor to determine the cause of the intraocular inflammation. Results: Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed focal iris atrophy and peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS; specular microscopy of the corneal endothelium disclosed the hammered-silver appearance. Based on these clinical findings, we diagnosed this patient as having Chandler's syndrome. During the follow-up period, however, the inflammatory cells suddenly appeared in the anterior chamber with formation of keratic precipitates and an increased intraocular pressure (IOP. VZV DNA was displayed in the aqueous humor by PCR. Based upon the diagnosis of VZV anterior uveitis, corticosteroids and acyclovir were given topically and systemically. The inflammation subsided with these medications; however, trabeculectomy was finally needed to control the IOP due to PAS progression. Conclusion: The coincidence of VZV anterior uveitis with Chandler's syndrome may constitute an implication for the possible viral etiology of iridocorneal endothelial syndrome.

  20. Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. Part I: HSV, HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Majewska, Anna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir

    2013-11-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world and important cause of morbidity and mortality. Especially STDs of viral etiology are difficult to cure. In many cases the antiviral therapy can relieve the symptoms but not eliminate the virus. During the past decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of antiviral drugs. One of the oldest antiviral medications is acyclovir (ACV). It is approved to treat initial and recurrent genital herpes and as a suppressive therapy in severe recurrent genital infections as well. Drug resistance to ACV and related drugs is seen among immunocompromised hosts, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV-infected patients. Resistant infections can be managed by second-line drugs - foscarnet or cidofovir- but they are more toxic than ACV. In case of HPV there is not known specific target for the medication and that is why the substances used in human papilloma virus HPV infection therapy are either antimitotics or immunomodulators. The Part I review focuses on mechanisms of actions and mechanisms of resistance to antiviral agents used in a treatment of the genital herpes and genital HPV infection. In Part II we will show the therapeutic options in other sexually transmitted infections: hepatitis B, C and HIV. PMID:24032509

  1. Case of herpes simplex encephalitis(HSE) with a thalamic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, K.; Koike, R.; Yuasa, T.; Miyatake, T.; Ito, J.

    1987-02-01

    A case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) with thalamic involvement was reported. The patient, a 27-year-old man, was admitted because of abnormal behavior and fever. He exhibited a disturbance of consciousness, meningial signs, and hyperreflexia. A CT scan of the head revealed diffuse brain edema. Acute encephalitis, especially HSE, was suspected, and so the intravenous administration of acyclovir and steroid therapy were started. The titer of herpes simplex Type 1 virus, as measured by CF and ELISA, was found to have increased amounts of serum and cerebrospinal fluid. 5 days after the onset, his consciousness worsened. He could not tell his name and scarely opened his eyes upon pain stimulation. A CT scan at this time showed low-density lesions in the left thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and the posterior portion of the putamen. About 5 days later, his consciousness level was increased, but he was mute. This symptom was thought to be thalamic aphasia, which might be correlative with the low-density lesions shown in the left thalamus by the CT scan. About 30 days after the onset of the disease, his speech became normal, and a CT scan at 51 hospital days showed no abnormality. The etiology of low-density lesions of the left thalamus in the CT scan is speculated to be as follows: firstly, vascular damage of circulation disturbance, and secondly a special affinity of herpes simplex Type 1 virus to the thalamus.

  2. Nucleic acid related compounds. 65. New syntheses of 1-(beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5(E)-(2-iodovinyl)uracil (IVAraU) from vinylsilane precursors. Radioiodine uptake as a marker for thymidine kinase positive herpes viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robins, M.J.; Manfredini, S.; Wood, S.G.; Wanklin, R.J.; Rennie, B.A.; Sacks, S.L. (Department of Chemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA))

    1991-07-01

    (Trimethylsilyl)acetylene was coupled with 1-(2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D- arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil to give 1- (2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-(2-(trimethylsilyl)eth yny l) uracil. Lindlar hydrogenation of 4 gave 1-(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5(Z)-(2- (trimethylsilyl)vinyl)uracil. Treatment of 5 with iodine monochloride (or sodium iodide/phenyliodine(III) dichloride) in benzene gave 1-(2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5(E)-(2-iodovinyl)uracil (7), whereas polar solvents favored the (Z)-iodovinyl isomer 8. Deacetylation of 7 gave 1-(beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5(E)-(2-iodovinyl)uracil (IVAraU, 9). A microscale in situ synthesis with Na{asterisk}I gave ({asterisk}I)IVAraU. Treatment of HSV-infected cells with (125I)IVAraU resulted in virus-dependent uptake associated with nucleoside phosphorylation by wild type or acyclovir-resistant DNA polymerase mutants (but not with TK-HSV-1 mutants). Uptake was virus-inoculum dependent and was detectable within 4 h postinfection. The process was not completely reversible. Virus-specified uptake of (125I)IVAraU may allow automated in vitro detection of HSV isolates.

  3. Varicella-Zoster-Mediated Radiculitis Reactivation following Cervical Spine Surgery: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doniel Drazin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are neurotropic viruses that can be reactivated after a surgical or stressful intervention. Although such cases are uncommon, consequences can be debilitating, and variable treatment responses merit consideration. We describe a 41-year-old male with a history of varicella-mediated skin eruptions, who presented with continuing right arm pain, burning, and numbness in a C6 dermatomal distribution following a C5-6 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion and epidural steroid injections. The operative course was uncomplicated and he was discharged home on postoperative day 1. Approximately ten days after surgery, the patient presented to the emergency department complaining of severe pain in his right upper extremity and a vesicular rash from his elbow to his second digit. He was started on Acyclovir and discharged home. On outpatient follow-up, his rash had resolved though his pain continued. The patient was started on a neuromodulating agent for chronic pain. This case adds to the limited literature regarding this rare complication, brings attention to the symptoms for proper diagnosis and treatment, and emphasizes the importance of prompt antiviral therapy. We suggest adding a neuromodulating agent to prevent long-term sequelae and resolve acute symptoms.

  4. Diagnosis and management of genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roett, Michelle A; Mayor, Mejebi T; Uduhiri, Kelechi A

    2012-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection and syphilis are the most common causes of genital ulcers in the United States. Other infectious causes include chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), secondary bacterial infections, and fungi. Noninfectious etiologies, including sexual trauma, psoriasis, Behçet syndrome, and fixed drug eruptions, can also lead to genital ulcers. Although initial treatment of genital ulcers is generally based on clinical presentation, the following tests should be considered in all patients: serologic tests for syphilis and darkfield microscopy or direct fluorescent antibody testing for Treponema pallidum, culture or polymerase chain reaction test for herpes simplex virus, and culture for Haemophilus ducreyi in settings with a high prevalence of chancroid. No pathogen is identified in up to 25 percent of patients with genital ulcers. The first episode of herpes simplex virus infection is usually treated with seven to 10 days of oral acyclovir (five days for recurrent episodes). Famciclovir and valacyclovir are alternative therapies. One dose of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine is recommended to treat genital ulcers caused by primary syphilis. Treatment options for chancroid include a single dose of intramuscular ceftriaxone or oral azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, or erythromycin. Lymphogranuloma venereum and donovanosis are treated with 21 days of oral doxycycline. Treatment of noninfectious causes of genital ulcers varies by etiology, and ranges from topical wound care for ulcers caused by sexual trauma to consideration of subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a for ulcers caused by Behçet syndrome.

  5. A Young Woman with Ischemic Stroke: Should We Pay More Attention to Varicella Zoster Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbinha, Cláudia; Marto, João Pedro; Calado, Sofia; Viana-Baptista, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are recognized complications of Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections, although uncommon and poorly documented. The authors report the case of a 31-year-old woman admitted with acute ischemic stroke of the right posterior cerebral artery and a history of a thoracic rash 1 month before. Aspirin and simvastatin were prescribed, but the patient suffered a stepwise deterioration the following days, with new areas of infarction on brain imaging. Despite no evidence of cardiac or large vessel embolic sources, anticoagulation was started empirically 6 days after stroke onset. One week later, symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation occurred. The diagnosis of VZV vasculopathy was then considered, and treatment with acyclovir and prednisolone was started with no further vascular events. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and digital subtraction angiography findings corroborated the diagnosis. The patient was discharged to the rehabilitation center with a modified Rankin scale (mRS) score of 4. On the 6-month follow-up, she presented only a slight disability (mRS score 2). In conclusion, VZV vasculopathy needs to be considered in young adults with stroke. A high index of suspicion and early treatment seem to be important to minimize morbidity and mortality. Anticoagulation should probably be avoided in stroke associated with VZV vasculopathy. PMID:27504091

  6. Adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome as a manifestation of brazilian lyme disease-like syndrome: a case report and review of literature

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    Angelina Maria Martins Lino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Described in 1962, the opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome (OMAS is a rare, neurologically debilitating disorder with distinct characteristics that may begin in childhood or adult life. Although many cases remain without etiological diagnosis, others are related to neoplasms and infectious diseases. We report a 41-year-old previously healthy male with an 8-day history of headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and nystagmus. After a normal brain computed tomography and lymphocytic pleocytosis in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF, intravenous acyclovir therapy was initiated in the emergency room. On the third day of hospitalization, the diagnosis of OMAS was made based on the presence of chaotic and irregular eye movements, dysarthric speech, gait instability, generalized tremor, and myoclonic jerks. In the face of his neurological worsening, ampicillin followed by nonspecific immunotherapy (methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin was prescribed, with mild clinical improvement. After a thorough laboratory workup, the definite diagnosis of neuroborreliosis was established and ceftriaxone (4 g/daily/3wks and doxycycline (200 mg/day/2 mo was administered. Toward the end of the ceftriaxone regimen, the neurologic signs substantially improved. We believe this to be the first case description of OMAS as clinical presentation of Brazilian Lyme disease-like syndrome (Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome.

  7. Cytotoxic, Virucidal, and Antiviral Activity of South American Plant and Algae Extracts

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    Paula Faral-Tello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection has a prevalence of 70% in the human population. Treatment is based on acyclovir, valacyclovir, and foscarnet, three drugs that share the same mechanism of action and of which resistant strains have been isolated from patients. In this aspect, innovative drug therapies are required. Natural products offer unlimited opportunities for the discovery of antiviral compounds. In this study, 28 extracts corresponding to 24 plant species and 4 alga species were assayed in vitro to detect antiviral activity against HSV-1. Six of the methanolic extracts inactivated viral particles by direct interaction and 14 presented antiviral activity when incubated with cells already infected. Most interesting antiviral activity values obtained are those of Limonium brasiliense, Psidium guajava, and Phyllanthus niruri, which inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro with 50% effective concentration (EC50 values of 185, 118, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. For these extracts toxicity values were calculated and therefore selectivity indexes (SI obtained. Further characterization of the bioactive components of antiviral plants will pave the way for the discovery of new compounds against HSV-1.

  8. Acute isolated appendicitis due to Aspergillus carneus in a neutropenic child with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decembrino, Nunzia; Zecca, Marco; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Mangione, Francesca; Lallitto, Fabiola; Introzzi, Francesca; Bergami, Elena; Marone, Piero; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Cavanna, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of isolated acute appendicitis due to Aspergillus carneus in a neutropenic child with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated according to the AIEOP AML 2002/01 protocol. Despite prophylaxis with acyclovir, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole administered during the neutropenic phase, 16 days after the end of chemotherapy the child developed fever without identified infective foci, which prompted a therapy shift to meropenem and liposomial amphotericin B. After five days of persisting fever he developed ingravescent abdominal lower right quadrant pain. Abdominal ultrasound was consistent with acute appendicitis and he underwent appendectomy with prompt defervescence. PAS+ fungal elements were found at histopathology examination of the resected vermiform appendix, and galactomannan was low positive. A. carneus, a rare species of Aspergillus formerly placed in section Flavipedes and recently considered a member of section Terrei, was identified in the specimen. Treatment with voriconazole was promptly started with success. No other site of Aspergillus localization was detected. Appendicitis is rarely caused by fungal organisms and isolated intestinal aspergillosis without pulmonary infection is unusual. To our knowledge, this is the first report of infection due to A. carneus in a child and in a primary gastrointestinal infection.

  9. Fulminant hepatitis following primary herpes simplex virus infection in renal transplant recipients

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    A Al Midani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF is a rare but well-recognized complication of pri-mary herpes simplex virus (HSV infection in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report two cases of acute hepatitis and FHF secondary to primary HSV type 1 infection following renal transplantation in the absence of any mucocutaneous manifestation. High levels of HSV type-1 DNA were detected in the blood. Both patients were seronegative for HSV 1 and HSV 2 immuno-globulin G (IgG before transplantation, whereas the donor of patient 1 was HSV 1 IgG-positive but had no viremia and the donor of patient 2 was HSV-seronegative. Patient 1 recovered with acyclovir and immunoglobulin whereas patient 2 did not respond and succumbed to death. HSV-seronegative patients are potentially at risk of developing severe primary HSV disease following transplantation, particularly in the absence of routine anti-viral prophylaxis. HSV infection should always be excluded in transplant patients with hepatic dysfunction.

  10. A Case of 72 Diabetic Woman with Zoster Paresis

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    E. Sajadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: VZV is an exclusively human pathogen. The primary infection typically occurs during childhood and causes varicella. As with other members of the herpes viruses’ family, VZV is noninfectious in its latent form but can reactivate at a later time to form intact virions in the involved sensory neurons. These virions then migrate to the skin through axons, spread from cell to cell, and penetrate the epidermis.Case Report: In this case a 72 years old woman with history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension is reported hospitalized because of urinary retention, weakness and parestesia in the right leg, complicated with vesiculoulcerative lesions in sacral area with distribution to the right buttock and vagina. L.P was done to confirm inflammatory radicopathy that showed aseptic meningitis and therapy started with acyclovir and prednisolone. Patient got well and discharged from the hospital.Conclusion: Motor weakness in noncranial nerve is one of the zoster complications known as zoster paresis. Weakness begins suddenly 2-3 weeks after rash and progresses to extremities. In this case 3 weeks after rash, nerve complications were observed. We recommend to do paresthesia examination of skin for eruption in all patients presented with paresis.

  11. Prophylactic Antiviral Treatment in Recurrent Herpes Zoster: A Case Report

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    Hatice Gamze Bayram

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster (HZ occurs in older ages with activation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV which persists in a dormant phase within the dorsal root ganglia. The incidence of HZ in immunosuppressed patients is 20-100 times higher and the clinical progress is more severe than in immunocompetent individuals. A 48-year-old man who had been diagnosed with acute myelocytic leukemia type M3 and had been treated with immunosuppressive agents was admitted to our clinic. The patient was clinically diagnosed as having HZ. He was treated with acyclovir 800 mg five times daily for 7 days. In the consecutive three months, he attended our clinic again with similar complaints. The left cervical (C5, C6 dermatomes were involved at the fourth attack of HZ. Multinucleated giant cells were determined on the Tzanck smear. VZV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Treatment with valacyclovir 1 g three times daily for 14 days was prescribed and then, prophylactic treatment with valacyclovir 500 mg two times a day was administered. Although immunosuppressive treatment was continued, no new attacks of herpes zoster occurred. We think that prophylactic antiviral therapy should be initiated in immunosuppressive individuals who have recurrent herpes zoster attacks.

  12. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in an infant with hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Hou, Shu; Du, Peng-Fei; Li, Jia-Bin; Ye, Ying

    2012-05-01

    An 11-month-old male infant was admitted to our hospital with fever, fussiness, poor feeding, vomiting, and tachypnea for two days prior. Physical examination revealed sporadic papules and vesicles occurring on his hands, feet, face, and perianal mucosa. Enterovirus 71 was identified from both throat swab and vesicle fluid using virus isolation techniques. The patient's heart rate fluctuated in a very narrow range from 180~210/beats/min regardless of his physiologic state. An electrocardiogram showed P-waves buried within or occurring just after regular, narrow, QRS complexes. The patient was diagnosed as having hand, foot, and mouth disease in combination with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). The child recovered well with symptomatic treatment, including intravenous administration of acyclovir, glucocorticoids, immunoglobulin, adenosine, and sotalol. PSVT was terminated within 36 hours of hospitalization. The skin lesions became crusted on the third day, and then proceeded to heal spontaneously. Here we report on this unusual case and review the associated literature. PMID:22577272

  13. Evaluation of critical formulation parameters in design and differentiation of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) for oral delivery of aciclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Jovana; Djekic, Ljiljana; Dobričić, Vladimir; Primorac, Marija

    2016-01-30

    The study investigated the influence of formulation parameters for design of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) comprising oil (medium chain triglycerides) (10%), surfactant (Labrasol(®), polysorbate 20, or Kolliphor(®) RH40), cosurfactant (Plurol(®) Oleique CC 497) (q.s. ad 100%), and cosolvent (glycerol or macrogol 400) (20% or 30%), and evaluate their potential as carriers for oral delivery of a poorly permeable antivirotic aciclovir (acyclovir). The drug loading capacity of the prepared formulations ranged from 0.18-31.66 mg/ml. Among a total of 60 formulations, three formulations meet the limits for average droplet size (Z-ave) and polydispersity index (PdI) that have been set for SMEDDSs (Z-ave≤100nm, PdIdrug release rates of 0.325 mg cm(-2)min(-1) and 0.323 mg cm(-2)min(-1), respectively, and significantly enhanced drug permeability in the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA), in comparison with the pure drug substance. The results revealed that development of SMEDDSs with enhanced drug loading capacity and oral delivery potential, required optimization of hydrophilic ingredients, in terms of size of hydrophilic moiety of the surfactant, surfactant-to-cosurfactant mass ratio (Km), and log P of the cosolvent.

  14. Drug delivery approaches of an antiviral drug: A comprehensive review

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    Ramya Devi Durai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The guanine derivative antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV is one of the oldest molecules laying successful market until date, being commercially available in various dosage forms for oral, topical and parenteral administrations. Clinical application of this drug is superior to new antiviral agents due to its potential values such as suppression of recurrence, safety profile, minimal drug interactions, and being inexpensive. ACV is slightly water-soluble, less permeable and poorly bioavailable, yet more potential antiviral molecule, the physicochemical modifications and novel dosage form approaches resulted with more than 100 research works within a decade. The survey of literature showed enormous reports on ACV formulation development, which includes modified tablets, particulate drug delivery, vesicular drug delivery, polymeric nanoparticles, bioadhesive systems, floating dosage forms, in situ gelling systems, transdermal delivery, implantable systems, emulsified dosage forms, polymeric films/patches, etc. As the drug could be administered via multiple routes for effective site targeted action at various doses, and attracted the attention of many researches, the review of the current approaches for the delivery of ACV could be more beneficial for the new scientists. This paper is a review of recent researches highlighting the development of newer techniques and novel dosage forms of ACV for better therapeutic efficacy, which were aimed at enhancing its solubility, permeability and bioavailability.

  15. A Rare Complication of Herpes Zoster: Segmental Zoster Paresis

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    Hooi Khee Teo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster is a common presentation in both the community and emergency department; however segmental zoster paresis is a rare complication that can lead to misdiagnosis. We present a case of a 74-year-old Indian gentleman with a background of well controlled diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischaemic heart disease who presented with sudden right lower limb weakness. This was preceded by a 5-day history of paraesthesia starting in the right foot and ascending up the right lower limb. On examination, there was a characteristic vesicular rash in the L2/3 region with MRC grading 3/5 in the right hip flexors. The rest of the neurological examination was unremarkable. MRI of the spine did not show any evidence of spinal disease. The patient was initiated on IV acyclovir with improvement of the lower limb weakness to MRC grading 5/5 as the vesicles improved. This is an interesting case as it highlights a rare presentation of zoster: segmental motor paresis that recovered fully with resolution of the rash. It shows the importance of recognizing motor neuropathy as a complication of shingles as it has a very good prognosis with most patients regaining full motor function of the affected limb with treatment.

  16. April 2015 critical care case of the month: half-sided light house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftsgard T

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. History of Present Illness: A 55 year old woman was transferred to the ICU from the general medicine ward for tachycardia and acute hypoxic respiratory distress. She has multiple myeloma and had received cycle one of bortezomib, dexamethasone, thalidomide, cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and etoposide (VDT-PACE and radiotherapy to T7 for a pathologic compression. She was admitted for pain control from mucositis.Past Medical History: In addition to the multiple myeloma she has a past medical history of asthma, ovarian cysts, diverticulitis, eczema, pneumonia, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, appendectomy, ectopic pregnancy in the past, and left Bell's palsy. Current Medications: Acyclovir 400 mg BID, Albuterol 90 HFA prn, Allopurinol 300 mg daily, Fluconazole 200 mg BID, Gabapentin 300 mg BID, Hydromorphone , Levofloxacin 500 daily, Morphine, Omeprazole, Bactrim 400-80 mg daily for PCP prophylaxis, Thalomid 200 mg capsule daily, Ativan 0.5 mg just prior to transfer. Physical Examination ...

  17. Simultaneous determination of 14 antiviral drugs and relevant metabolites in chicken muscle by UPLC-MS/MS after QuEChERS preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Pengqian; Xu, Nana; Chai, Tingting; Jia, Qi; Yin, Zhiqiang; Yang, Shuming; Qian, Yongzhong; Qiu, Jing

    2016-06-15

    A fast method for the simultaneous determination of 14 antiviral drugs and relevant metabolites in chicken muscle by ultra-high liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The analytes included anti-influenza drugs (amantadine, rimantadine, oseltamivir, oseltamivir carboxylate, memantine, arbidol, and moroxydine), anti-herpes drugs (acyclovir, ganciclovir, famciclovir, penciclovir, ribavirin and its main metabolite TCONH2), and an immunomodulator (imiquimod). The samples were pretreated using a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method. The determination of the target compounds was conducted in less than 11.0min, and specificity was ensured by the use of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) acquisition mode. Good linearities (R(2)>0.9928) were obtained in the range of 0.1-100μg/L, and the recovery rates were 56.2-113.4% with RSDs of 1.7-10.3% for intra-day precision and 2.4-8.8% for inter-day precision. The LODs and LOQs of all analytes were in the ranges of 0.02-1.0 and 0.05-2.5μg/kg, respectively. An analysis of real samples suggested that this method is simple, sensitive, reliable and practical for the detection of antiviral drugs in animal tissue. PMID:27174693

  18. MENINGOENCEPHALITIS DUE TO VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS IN AIDS PATIENTS. REPORT OF ELEVEN CASES AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

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    Marcelo CORTI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurological complications of varicella-zoster virus (VZV are infrequent and include various clinical pictures. The reactivation of VZV in patients with AIDS is generally associated with an acute and severe meningoencephalitis. We report the epidemiological, clinical and virological data from 11 consecutive patients with diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and central nervous system (CNS involvement due to VZV. All patients were male and seropositive for HIV. The primary risk factor for HIV infection was unprotected sexual contact. The median of CD4 T cell count was 142 cells/µL. All of them presented signs and symptoms of meningoencephalitis. Six patients (54.5% presented pleocytosis; they all showed high CSF protein concentrations with a median of 2.1 g/dL. Polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid specimen was positive for VZV in all of them and they were treated with intravenous acyclovir at doses of 30/mg/kg/day for 21 days. Overall survival was 63% (7 of 11 patients. The four dead patients had low cellular counts in CSF, below the median of this parameter. VZV should be included among the opportunistic pathogens that can involve CNS with a diffuse and severe meningoencephalitis in patients with advanced HIV/AIDS disease.

  19. [A Case of Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis During Infectious Mononucleosis Caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus in a Young Woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shiro; Kobayashi, Tadanao; Nishio, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a common disease and is mainly asymptomatic during childhood, whereas infectious mononucleosis with clinical signs such as fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly often occurs in adolescents and adults with primary infection. Acalculous cholecystitis has been reported as a rare complication. We report herein a case of acalculous cholecystitis accompanied by infectious mononucleosis by EBV, which was treated successfully by medical treatment. A 33-year-old woman who had been admitted by fever, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy developed a right upper quadrant pain, that was diagnosed as acalculous cholecystitis based on an imaging study. Antibiotic treatment did not resolve the symptoms, and surgical intervention was considered. We diagnosed her as having infectious mononucleosis based on a typical physical presentation and seropositivity for the EBV viral capsid antigen, suggesting that the acalculous cholecystatis might have been a complication of the EBV infection. After the administration of glucocorticoid and acyclovir, the patient became afebrile and the abdominal pain disappeared. Though acalculous cholecystitis rarely accompanies infectious mononucleosis caused by EBV, clinicians should be aware of this complication to avoid unnecessary cholecystectomy. PMID:27529970

  20. Dancing with chemical formulae of antivirals: A panoramic view (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2013-11-15

    In this second part of "Dancing with antivirals as chemical formulae" I will focus on a number of chemical compounds that in the last few years have elicited more than common attraction from a commercial viewpoint: (i) favipiravir (T-705), as it is active against influenza, but also several other RNA viruses; (ii) neuraminidase inhibitors such as zanamivir and oseltamivir; (iii) peramivir and laninamivir octanoate, which might be effective against influenza virus following a single (intravenous or inhalation) administration; (iv) sofosbuvir, the (anticipated) cornerstone for the interferon-free therapy of HCV infections; (v) combinations of DAAs (direct antiviral agents) to achieve, in no time, a sustained virus response (SVR) against HCV infection; (vi) HIV protease inhibitors, the latest and most promising being darunavir; (vii) the integrase inhibitors (INIs) (raltegravir, elvitegravir, dolutegravir), representing a new dimension in the anti-HIV armamentarium; (viii), a new class of helicase primase inhibitors (HPIs) that may exceed acyclovir and the other anti-herpes compounds in both potency and safety; (ix) CMX-001, as the latest of Dr. Antonín Holý's legacy for its activity against poxviruses and CMV infections, and (x) noroviruses for which the ideal antiviral compounds are still awaited for.

  1. Ethosomes: new prospects in transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Biana; Touitou, Elka

    2003-01-01

    Ethosomes are noninvasive delivery carriers that enable drugs to reach the deep skin layers and/or the systemic circulation. Although ethosomal systems are conceptually sophisticated, they are characterized by simplicity in their preparation, safety, and efficacy--a combination that can highly expand their application. Ethosomes are soft, malleable vesicles tailored for enhanced delivery of active agents. This article reviews work carried out in vitro, in vivo, in animal models, and in humans with various ethosomal systems incorporating a wide range of drugs. Because of their unique structure, ethosomes are able to encapsulate and deliver through the skin highly lipophilic molecules such as cannabinoids, testosterone, and minoxidil, as well as cationic drugs such as propranolol and trihexyphenidil. Results obtained in a double-blind two-armed randomized clinical study showed that treatment with the ethosomal acyclovir formulation significantly improved all the evaluated parameters. Preliminary studies with plasmids and insulin revealed that the ethosomal carrier may be used for enhanced delivery of these agents. In further work, the ethosomal technology was broadened to introduce agents into cultured cells and microorganisms. Enhanced delivery of bioactive molecules through the skin and cellular membranes by means of an ethosomal carrier opens numerous challenges and opportunities for the research and future development of novel improved therapies. PMID:12911264

  2. Chemical Incorporation of Chain-Terminating Nucleoside Analogs as 3'-Blocking DNA Damage and Their Removal by Human ERCC1-XPF Endonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Junpei; Takahata, Chiaki; Kuraoka, Isao; Hirota, Kouji; Iwai, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside/nucleotide analogs that lack the 3'-hydroxy group are widely utilized for HIV therapy. These chain-terminating nucleoside analogs (CTNAs) block DNA synthesis after their incorporation into growing DNA, leading to the antiviral effects. However, they are also considered to be DNA damaging agents, and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1, a DNA repair enzyme, is reportedly able to remove such CTNA-modifications of DNA. Here, we have synthesized phosphoramidite building blocks of representative CTNAs, such as acyclovir, abacavir, carbovir, and lamivudine, and oligonucleotides with the 3'-CTNAs were successfully synthesized on solid supports. Using the chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, we investigated the excision of the 3'-CTNAs in DNA by the human excision repair cross complementing protein 1-xeroderma pigmentosum group F (ERCC1-XPF) endonuclease, which is one of the main components of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. A biochemical analysis demonstrated that the ERCC1-XPF endonuclease cleaved 2-7 nt upstream from the 3'-blocking CTNAs, and that DNA synthesis by the Klenow fragment was resumed after the removal of the CTNAs, suggesting that ERCC1-XPF participates in the repair of the CTNA-induced DNA damage. PMID:27294910

  3. A REVIEW ARTICLE ON HERPES SIMPLEX ENCEPHALITIS

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    A. Karimi MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Herpes Simplex encephalitis (HSE is a life threatening outcome of Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection of the central nervous system (CNS. HSVaccounts for 2-5 percent of all cases of encephalitis. One third of cases occur in those younger than 20 years old and one half in those older than 50 years old.Clinical diagnosis is recommended in the encephalopathic, febrile patients with focal neurological signs. However, the clinical findings are not pathogonomic because numerous other diseases of CNS can mimic HSE. Diagnosis should be confirmed based on medical history, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF for protein and glucose contents, the cellular analysis and identifying the pathogens by serology and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR amplification .The diagnostic gold standard is the detection of HSV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid by PCR. But negative results need to be interpreted regarding thepatients clinical signs and symptoms and the time of CSF sampling. Spike and slow wave patterns is observed in Electroencephalogram (EEG.Neuroimaging, especially Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is essential for evaluating the patients, which shows temporal lobe edema or hemorrhage.All patients with HSE should be treated by intravenous Acyclovir (10mg/kg q8hr for 14-21 days. After completing therapy, PCR of the CSF can confirmthe elimination of replicating virus, assisting further management of the patient.Keywords:Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV, Encephalitis, Children

  4. A REVIEW ARTICLE ON HERPES SIMPLEX ENCEPHALITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karimi MD,

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Herpes Simplex encephalitis (HSE is a life threatening outcome of Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection of the central nervous system (CNS. HSVaccounts for 2-5 percent of all cases of encephalitis. One third of cases occur in those younger than 20 years old and one half in those older than 50 years old.Clinical diagnosis is recommended in the encephalopathic, febrile patients with focal neurological signs. However, the clinical findings are not pathogonomic because numerous other diseases of CNS can mimic HSE. Diagnosis should be confirmed based on medical history, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF for protein and glucose contents, the cellular analysis and identifying the pathogens by serology and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR amplification .The diagnostic gold standard is the detection of HSV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid by PCR. But negative results need to be interpreted regarding thepatients clinical signs and symptoms and the time of CSF sampling. Spike and slow wave patterns is observed in Electroencephalogram (EEG.Neuroimaging, especially Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is essential for evaluating the patients, which shows temporal lobe edema or hemorrhage.All patients with HSE should be treated by intravenous Acyclovir (10mg/kg q8hr for 14-21 days. After completing therapy, PCR of the CSF can confirmthe elimination of replicating virus, assisting further management of the patient.

  5. 1990 Sir Henry Wellcome medal and prize winner. Leukoregulin: a new biotherapeutic cytokine in the search for more effective anti-viral pharmacologic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C H; Hooks, J J; Detrick, B

    1991-04-01

    This investigation examines whether cytokines, as exemplified by leukoregulin, with their immense potential for biorecognition and target cell modulation as a result of their complex three-dimensional structure, have the potential to provide new directions for biotherapy of infectious disease. Leukoregulin is a naturally occurring immunologic cytokine, secreted by stimulated lymphocytes, which increases membrane permeability and drug uptake in tumor but not in normal cells. This study demonstrates that leukoregulin also increases the plasma membrane permeability of cells acutely infected with herpes simplex type 1 virus and that the increase in membrane permeability is accompanied by a 10- to 100-fold increase in the ability of acyclovir to inhibit the release of infectious virus when the cells are treated with leukoregulin 3 hours after infection with the virus. This is the first demonstration that a cytokine, alone or in combination with anti-viral chemotherapy, can effectively inhibit virus replication in human cells following acute virus infection, which indicates that combination immunotherapy and chemotherapy have the potential to completely inhibit the production of infectious virus by acutely infected human cells. PMID:1851546

  6. Late Disciform Endotheliitis after LASIK

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    Faik Oruçoğlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and imaging features of the patient with late herpetic keratouveitis after LASIK were investigated. A 25-year-old male patient applied with a chief complaint of blurred vision and photophobia in the left eye. He had a history of herpetic keratitits and elsewhere underwent LASIK procedure in 2005. Oral and topical acyclovir treatments were started a week ago when his complaints started. His corrected distance visual acuity was 0.2 and intraocular pressure was 14 mmHg on the left eye. Slit-lamp revealed deep central disciform edema, keratic precipitates, and 2 positive cells in the anterior chamber. Although the patient had myopic LASIK ablation, the central corneal thickness was 652 microns. Scheimpflug imaging was drawing attention to the thickening of the posterior cornea and the keratic precipitates. Sagital and anterior elevation maps were not affected, however, posterior elevation map showed marked central flattening. Asphericity value Q was within normal limits anteriorly (Q=-0.14 and it was in oblate appearance posteriorly (Q=+5.24. In addition to the antiviral medications, a topical dexamethasone treatment was started. The vision improved to 0.6, and the edema was markedly reduced after 4 days of treatment. Scheimpflug imaging parameters were significantly improved. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 282-5

  7. Detection of Vero Cells Infected with Herpes Simplex Types 1 and 2 and Varicella Zoster Viruses Using Raman Spectroscopy and Advanced Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huleihel, Mahmoud; Shufan, Elad; Zeiri, Leila; Salman, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Of the eight members of the herpes family of viruses, HSV1, HSV2, and varicella zoster are the most common and are mainly involved in cutaneous disorders. These viruses usually are not life-threatening, but in some cases they might cause serious infections to the eyes and the brain that can lead to blindness and possibly death. An effective drug (acyclovir and its derivatives) is available against these viruses. Therefore, early detection and identification of these viral infections is highly important for an effective treatment. Raman spectroscopy, which has been widely used in the past years in medicine and biology, was used as a powerful spectroscopic tool for the detection and identification of these viral infections in cell culture, due to its sensitivity, rapidity and reliability. Our results showed that it was possible to differentiate, with a 97% identification success rate, the uninfected Vero cells that served as a control, from the Vero cells that were infected with HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV. For that, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was performed on the Raman spectra after principal component analysis (PCA) with a leave one out (LOO) approach. Raman spectroscopy in tandem with PCA and LDA enable to differentiate among the different herpes viral infections of Vero cells in time span of few minutes with high accuracy rate. Understanding cell molecular changes due to herpes viral infections using Raman spectroscopy may help in early detection and effective treatment. PMID:27078266

  8. Marine natural seaweed products as potential antiviral drugs against Bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Viana Pinto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is an etiologic agent that causes important economic losses in the world. It is endemic in cattle herds in most parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effect and antiviral properties of several marine natural products obtained from seaweeds: the indole alkaloid caulerpin (CAV, 1 and three diterpenes: 6-hydroxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (DA, 2, 10,18-diacetoxy-8-hydroxy-2,6-dolabelladiene (DB1, 3 and 8,10,18-trihydroxy-2,6-dolabelladiene (DB3, 4. The screening to evaluate the cytotoxicity of compounds did not show toxic effects to MDBK cells. The antiviral activity of the compounds was measured by the inhibition of the cytopathic effect on infected cells by plaque assay (PA and EC50 values were calculated for CAV (EC=2,0± 5.8, DA (EC 2,8± 7.7, DB1 (EC 2,0±9.7, and DB3 (EC 2,3±7.4. Acyclovir (EC50 322± 5.9 was used in all experiments as the control standard. Although the results of the antiviral activity suggest that all compounds are promising as antiviral agents against BVDV, the Selectivity Index suggests that DB1 is the safest of the compounds tested.

  9. Varicella zoster meningitis complicating combined anti-tumor necrosis factor and corticosteroid therapy in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Christopher; Walters, Brennan; Fedorak, Richard N

    2013-06-01

    Opportunistic viral infections are a well-recognized complication of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Cases of severe or atypical varicella zoster virus infection, both primary and latent reactivation, have been described in association with immunosuppression of Crohn's disease (CD) patients. However, central nervous system varicella zoster virus infections have been rarely described, and there are no previous reports of varicella zoster virus meningitis associated with anti-TNF therapy among the CD population. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old male with severe ileocecal-CD who developed a reactivation of dermatomal herpes zoster after treatment with prednisone and adalimumab. The reactivation presented as debilitating varicella zoster virus meningitis, which was not completely resolved despite aggressive antiviral therapy with prolonged intravenous acyclovir and subsequent oral valacyclovir. This is the first reported case of opportunistic central nervous system varicella zoster infection complicating anti-TNF therapy in the CD population. This paper also reviews the literature on varicella zoster virus infections of immunosuppressed IBD patients and the importance of vaccination prior to initiation of anti-TNF therapy.

  10. Ethosomes: new prospects in transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Biana; Touitou, Elka

    2003-01-01

    Ethosomes are noninvasive delivery carriers that enable drugs to reach the deep skin layers and/or the systemic circulation. Although ethosomal systems are conceptually sophisticated, they are characterized by simplicity in their preparation, safety, and efficacy--a combination that can highly expand their application. Ethosomes are soft, malleable vesicles tailored for enhanced delivery of active agents. This article reviews work carried out in vitro, in vivo, in animal models, and in humans with various ethosomal systems incorporating a wide range of drugs. Because of their unique structure, ethosomes are able to encapsulate and deliver through the skin highly lipophilic molecules such as cannabinoids, testosterone, and minoxidil, as well as cationic drugs such as propranolol and trihexyphenidil. Results obtained in a double-blind two-armed randomized clinical study showed that treatment with the ethosomal acyclovir formulation significantly improved all the evaluated parameters. Preliminary studies with plasmids and insulin revealed that the ethosomal carrier may be used for enhanced delivery of these agents. In further work, the ethosomal technology was broadened to introduce agents into cultured cells and microorganisms. Enhanced delivery of bioactive molecules through the skin and cellular membranes by means of an ethosomal carrier opens numerous challenges and opportunities for the research and future development of novel improved therapies.

  11. Ethosomes for the delivery of anti-HSV-1 molecules: preparation, characterization and in vitro activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, R; Ravani, L; Zaid, A N; Menegatti, E; Romagnoli, R; Drechsler, M; Esposito, E

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the production, characterization and in vitro activity of ethosomes containing two molecules with antiviral activity, such as acyclovir (ACY) and N1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-pyrazole [3,4d]pyridazin-7(6p-chlorine-phenyl)-one nucleoside (N1CP). Ethosomes were prepared and morphologically characterized by Cryo-TEM. The encapsulation efficiency was 92.3 +/- 2.5% for ACY and 94.2 +/- 2.8% for N1CP. The release of the drug from vesicles, determined by a Franz cell method, indicated that both drugs were released in a controlled manner. In order to possibly guarantee the stability during long-term storage ethosome suspensions was freeze-dried. It was found that the freeze-dried ethosomes' cakes were compact, glassy characterized by low density and quick re-hydration. However, the storage time slightly influences the percentage of drug encapsulation within ethosomes showing a drug leakage after re-hydration around 10%. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both drugs was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that ethosomes allowed a reduction of the ED50 of N1CP evidencing an increase of its antiviral activity. However, ACY remains more active than N1CP. No differences are appreciable between drug-containing ethosomes before and after freeze-drying. Taken together these results, ethosomal formulation could be possibly proposed as mean for topical administration of anti-herpetic molecules.

  12. A novel biological role for nsLTP2 from Oriza sativa: Potential incorporation with anticancer agents, nucleosides and their analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousheh, Mojtaba; Darvishi, Fatemeh Zahra; Miroliaei, Mehran

    2015-10-01

    Development of a protein-based drug delivery system has major impact on the efficacy and bioavailability of unstable and water insoluble drugs. In the present study, the binding modes of a nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP2) from Oryza sativa with various nucleosides and analogous molecules were identified. The 3-D structure of the protein was designed and validated using modeler 9.13, Molegro virtual docker and procheck tool, respectively. The binding affinity and strength of interactions, key contributing residues and specificity toward the substrates were accomplished by computational docking and model prediction. The protein presented high affinity to acyclovir and vidarabine as purine-analogous drugs. Binding affinity is influenced by the core template and functional groups of the ligands which are structurally different cause the variation of interaction energies with nsLTP2. Nonetheless, all the evaluated analogous drugs occupy the proximity space at the nsLTP active site with high similarity in their binding modes. Our findings hold great promise for the future applications of nsLTPs in various aspects of pharmaceutical science and molecular biology. PMID:26001286

  13. Rapid recovery from catastrophic paraneoplastic anti-NMDAR encephalitis secondary to an ovarian teratoma following ovarian cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantipalakorn, Charuwan; Soontornpun, Atiwat; Pongsuvareeyakul, Tip; Tongsong, Theera

    2016-01-01

    This report is aimed to describe a life-threatening case of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis secondary to ovarian teratoma with rapid recovery in 1 day after the removal of the tumour. A 23-year-old woman presented with sudden headache, personality changes and seizure. After neurological assessment, limbic or herpes encephalitis was provisionally diagnosed and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, acyclovir and steroids. The patient had progressive severe neurological symptoms, requiring prolonged intubation and mechanical ventilation. An anti-NMDAR antibody test revealed positive in serum and cerebrospinal fluid at 3 weeks of admission. Pelvic ultrasound examination and CT scan revealed bilateral small ovarian teratomas. Bilateral ovarian cystectomy was performed by open surgery. The patient showed rapid improvement and no longer needed intubation 2 days after the operation. In conclusion, we described a catastrophic case of ovarian teratoma-associated encephalitis with delayed diagnosis but rapid recovery after ovarian cystectomy. This information can probably be helpful to neurologists and gynaecologists. PMID:27511754

  14. Infectious complications in 126 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, R; Solá, C; Maroto, P; Tabernero, J M; Brunet, J; Verger, G; Valentí, V; Cancelas, J A; Ojeda, B; Mendoza, L; Rodríguez, M; Montesinos, J; López-López, J J

    1999-01-01

    The effect of an extensive prophylactic antimicrobial regimen was prospectively assessed in 126 patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous PBSC. They received ciprofloxacin (500 mg/12 h), acyclovir (200 mg/6 h), and itraconazole (200 mg/12 h) orally until neutrophil recovery. Febrile patients received i.v. imipenem (500 mg/6 h) to which vancomycin and amikacin were added if fever persisted for 2-3 and 5 days, respectively. Amphotericin B lipid complex was further given on day 7 or 8 of fever. Median times for a neutrophil count of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l were 9 and 11 days. Severe neutropenia (<0.1 x 10(9)/l) lasted for a median of 5 days in which 72% of febrile episodes and 50% of cases of bacteremia occurred. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 30 of 40 episodes of bacteremia, 25 of which were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Clinical foci were the intravascular catheter in 35 cases, respiratory infection in 11, cellulitis in two, anal abscess in one, and neutropenic enterocolitis in one. The high incidence of febrile episodes (94%) and bacteremias (31%) may be due to the lack of efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the persistence of a 5-day period of severe neutropenia.

  15. Antitumor and Antiviral Activity of Colombian Medicinal Plant Extracts

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    LA Betancur-Galvis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of nine species of plants traditionally used in Colombia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential antitumor (cytotoxicity and antiherpetic activity. MTT (Tetrazolium blue and Neutral Red colorimetric assays were used to evaluate the reduction of viability of cell cultures in presence and absence of the extracts. MTT was also used to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 and the 50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect (EC50 for each extract were calculated by linear regression analysis. Extracts from Annona muricata, A. cherimolia and Rollinia membranacea, known for their cytotoxicity were used as positive controls. Likewise, acyclovir and heparin were used as positive controls of antiherpetic activity. Methanolic extract from Annona sp. on HEp-2 cells presented a CC50 value at 72 hr of 49.6x103mg/ml. Neither of the other extracts examined showed a significant cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract from Beta vulgaris, the ethanol extract from Callisia grasilis and the methanol extract Annona sp. showed some antiherpetic activity with acceptable therapeutic indexes (the ratio of CC50 to EC50. These species are good candidates for further activity-monitored fractionation to identify active principles.

  16. Genital Herpes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Mary Jo

    2016-06-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the genitalia, perineum, buttocks, upper thighs, or perianal areas that ulcerate before resolving. Symptoms of primary infection may include malaise, fever, or localized adenopathy. Subsequent outbreaks, caused by reactivation of latent virus, are usually milder. Asymptomatic shedding of transmissible virus is common. Although HSV-1 and HSV-2 are indistinguishable visually, they exhibit differences in behavior that may affect management. Patients with HSV-2 have a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction assay is the preferred method of confirming HSV infection in patients with active lesions. Treatment of primary and subsequent outbreaks with nucleoside analogues is well tolerated and reduces duration, severity, and frequency of recurrences. In patients with HSV who are HIV-negative, treatment reduces transmission of HSV to uninfected partners. During pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in women with a history of genital herpes. Elective cesarean delivery should be performed in laboring patients with active lesions to reduce the risk of neonatal herpes. PMID:27281837

  17. Iontophoretic delivery of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs from lipid nanoparticles across human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenputtakun, Ponwanit; Li, S Kevin; Ngawhirunpat, Tanansait

    2015-11-10

    The combined effects of iontophoresis and lipid nanoparticles on drug delivery across human epidermal membrane (HEM) were investigated. The delivery of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), salicylate (SA), and acyclovir (ACV), across HEM from lipid nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), was compared in passive and iontophoresis experiments in vitro. Iontophoresis experiments were also performed with synthetic Nuclepore membrane for comparison. Drug distribution in the skin after iontophoretic delivery with the lipid nanoparticles was examined using a model probe rhodamine B base (RhoB). The drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles had average sizes of ∼ 118-169 nm and a negative zeta potential. Iontophoresis did not enhance the delivery of ATRA across HEM from SLN and NLC. However, HEM distribution study of RhoB suggested that lipophilic drugs could be delivered into the deeper layer of the skin following iontophoretic delivery of the drugs from the lipid nanoparticles. Iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of hydrophilic drug SA with the lipid nanoparticles. Similarly, iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of ACV when it was loaded in SLN. These results suggest that lipid nanoparticles are a promising drug delivery method that can be combined with iontophoresis to improve skin delivery of hydrophilic drugs.

  18. Ethosomes for the delivery of anti-HSV-1 molecules: preparation, characterization and in vitro activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, R; Ravani, L; Zaid, A N; Menegatti, E; Romagnoli, R; Drechsler, M; Esposito, E

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the production, characterization and in vitro activity of ethosomes containing two molecules with antiviral activity, such as acyclovir (ACY) and N1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-pyrazole [3,4d]pyridazin-7(6p-chlorine-phenyl)-one nucleoside (N1CP). Ethosomes were prepared and morphologically characterized by Cryo-TEM. The encapsulation efficiency was 92.3 +/- 2.5% for ACY and 94.2 +/- 2.8% for N1CP. The release of the drug from vesicles, determined by a Franz cell method, indicated that both drugs were released in a controlled manner. In order to possibly guarantee the stability during long-term storage ethosome suspensions was freeze-dried. It was found that the freeze-dried ethosomes' cakes were compact, glassy characterized by low density and quick re-hydration. However, the storage time slightly influences the percentage of drug encapsulation within ethosomes showing a drug leakage after re-hydration around 10%. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both drugs was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that ethosomes allowed a reduction of the ED50 of N1CP evidencing an increase of its antiviral activity. However, ACY remains more active than N1CP. No differences are appreciable between drug-containing ethosomes before and after freeze-drying. Taken together these results, ethosomal formulation could be possibly proposed as mean for topical administration of anti-herpetic molecules. PMID:21105576

  19. Atypical Presentation of Disseminated Zoster in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA have 2-fold increased risk of herpes zoster. In literature, limited information exists about disseminated cutaneous zoster in RA patients. An 83-year-old African-American female with RA presented with generalized and widespread vesicular rash covering her entire body. Comorbidities include hypertension, type II diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Patient was on methotrexate 12.5 mg and was not receiving any corticosteroids, anti-TNF therapy, or other biological agents. The patient was afebrile (98 F with no SIRS criteria. Multiple vesicular lesions were present covering patient’s entire body including face. Lesions were in different stages, some umbilicated with diameter of 2–7 cm. Many lesions have a rim of erythema with no discharge. On admission, patient was also pancytopenic with leukocyte count of 1.70 k/mm3. Biopsies of lesions were performed, which were positive for Varicella antigen. Subsequently, patient was started on Acyclovir. The patient’s clinical status improved and rash resolved. Our patient presented with “atypical” clinical picture of disseminated cutaneous zoster with no obvious dermatome involvement. Disseminated zoster is a potentially serious infection that can have an atypical presentation in patients with immunocompromised status. High index of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis promptly and to initiate therapy to decrease mortality and morbidity.

  20. Charles Bonnet syndrome after herpes simplex encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ömer Faruk; Ince, Hülya; Taşdemir, Haydar Ali; Özyürek, Hamit

    2012-04-01

    Visual impairment associated with Charles Bonnet syndrome is rarely reported in childhood. We describe a child who presented with visual hallucinations and postinfectious bilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis. The patient had undergone acyclovir therapy for 3 weeks because of herpes encephalitis. Four days after therapy was completed, he experienced visual impairment in both eyes. He manifested a bilateral decrease in visual acuity, with normal funduscopic findings. The patient experienced visual hallucinations for about 1 week, and then experienced total loss of vision. During his hallucinations, the patient did not exhibit behavioral changes or cognitive impairment. The visual hallucinations included unfamiliar children hiding under his bed, and he spoke to someone whom he did not know. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated bilateral optic nerve hyperintensity on T(2)-weighted and contrast-enhanced images. The patient received corticosteroid therapy for his retrobulbar optic neuritis, and his vision returned to normal after 1 month. Although rare, visual impairment can be associated with complex visual hallucinations indicative of Charles Bonnet syndrome.

  1. Second National Conference on Human Retroviruses. Good news, bad news, and no news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, C

    1995-04-01

    The second annual National Conference on Human Retroviruses and Related Infections was held in Washington, D.C., January 29-February 2, 1995. Lectures addressed such topics as viral dynamics, United States AIDS epidemiology, immunopathogenesis, antiretroviral therapy, and HIV vaccines. Symposia were held on the interactivity of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and AIDS, the causes leading to long-term nonprogressors, and factors causing individuals to be exposed but uninfected. Oral presentations reviewed the following: 1) a study on the efficacy of oral ganciclovir for prevention of CMV disease in CMV-seropositive, HIV-infected individuals with CD4 counts of 50 or less; 2) data supporting rifabutin prophylaxis against MAC infection once the CD4 count is below 100; 3) the safety of the screened blood supply in the United States; 4) ACTG 063, a study examining the use of AZT with and without acyclovir; 5) perinatal transmission; and 6) four independent studies examining the efficacy of 3TC (lamivudine) as part of a combination of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected patients who were both AZT-naive and AZT-experienced.

  2. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of phosphorodiamidate prodrugs of antiviral and anticancer nucleosides

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Christopher; Bourdin, Claire; Derudas, Marco; Hamon, Nadège; Hinsinger, Karen; Kandil, Sahar; Madela, Karolina; Meneghesso, Silvia; Pertusati, Fabrizio; Serpi, Michaela; Slusarczyk, Magdalena; Chamberlain, Stanley; Kolykhalov, Alexander; Vernachio, John; Vanpouille, Christophe; Introini, Andrea; Margolis, Leonid; Balzarini, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We herein report the application of the phosphorodiamidate phosphate prodrug approach to a series of thirteen nucleoside analogs with antiviral or anticancer activity. Twenty-five symmetrical phosphorodiamidates were synthesized, bearing esterified l-Alanine (and in one case d-alanine) in the prodrug moiety, each as single stereoisomer. The presence of an achiral phosphorus represents a potential advantage over the phosphoramidate ProTide approach, where diastereoisomeric mixtures are routinely obtained, and different biological profiles may be expected from the diastereoisomers. Optimization of the synthetic pathway allowed us to identify two general methods depending on the particular nucleoside analogs. All the compounds were biologically evaluated in antiviral and anticancer assays and several showed improvement of activity compared to their parent nucleosides, as in the case of ddA, d4T, abacavir and acyclovir against HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. The biological results were supported by metabolism studies with carboxypeptidase Y monitored by 31P NMR to investigate their bioactivation. This work further validates the phosphorodiamidate approach as a monophosphate prodrug motif with broad application in the antiviral and anticancer fields. PMID:24177359

  3. A case of hemifacial paresis in a patient with Lyme neuroborreliosis treated with antibiotics in whom Borrelia meningitis developed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hisao; Haratani, Koji; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Kakehi, Yoshiaki; Nagami, Shuhei; Katanami, Yuichi; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-28

    A 38-year-old man visited our hospital because of hemifacial paresis that developed 2 months after being bit by a tick. We diagnosed idiopathic peripheral facial palsy and gave the patient oral prednisolone and valacyclovir. Although the symptoms completely resolved in about 2 weeks, there was a risk of Lyme neuroborreliosis. The patient therefore received doxycycline (100 mg twice daily) and amoxicillin (1,000 mg 3 times daily) for 14 days. Two months later, he had symptoms of meningitis such as headache and fever accompanied by lymphocytic cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Viral meningitis was diagnosed and treated with parenteral acyclovir. The symptoms of meningitis improved. Tests for serum IgG antibodies against borrelia were positive. We gave the patient a diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. The patient received intravenous ceftriaxone and had no relapse. It is a rare for meningitis to develop in a patient with cranial neuropathy who received doxycycline. Lyme neuroborreliosis is a rare disease in Japan. Care should therefore be exercised in the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis and evaluation of the response to treatment. PMID:27356734

  4. Monitoring apoptosis of TK-GFP-expressing ACC-M cells induced by ACV using FRET technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tao; Zhang, Zhihong; Lin, Juqiang; Yang, Jie; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2006-09-01

    Apoptosis is an evolutionary conserved cellular process that plays an important role during development, but it is also involved in tissue homeostasis and in many diseases. To study the characteristics of suicide gene system of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene in tumor cells and explore the apoptosis phenomena in this system and its effect on the human adenoid cystic carcinoma line ACC-M cell, we detected apoptosis of CD3- (ECFP-CRS-DsRed) and TK-GFP-expressing ACC-M (ACC-M-TK-GFP-CD3) cells induced by acyclovir (ACV) using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. CD3 is a FRET-based indicator for activity of caspase-3, which is composed of an enhanced cyan fluorescent protein, a caspase-3 sensitive linker, and a red fluorescent protein from Discosoma with efficient maturation property. FRET from ECFP to DsRed could be detected in normal ACC-M-TK-GFP-CD3 cells, and the FRET efficient was remarkably decreased and then disappeared during the cells apoptosis induced by ACV. It was due to the activated caspase-3 cleaved the CD3 fusion protein. In this study, the results suggested that the AVC-induced apoptosis of ACC-M-TK-GFP-CD3 cells was through caspase-3 pathway.

  5. Neonatal testicular cell transplantation restores murine spermatogenesis damaged in the course of herpes simplex virus-induced orchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malolina, Ekaterina A; Kulibin, Andrey Yu; Kushch, Alla A

    2016-04-01

    Genital tract infection and inflammation may affect male fertility, causing germ and Sertoli cell loss. We determined if testicular cell transplantation is effective at repairing testicular injury induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) orchitis. ROSA26 mice were used as donors and the recipients were C57BL/6 mice after HSV testicular inoculation; some of the recipients were treated with the antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV). ACV reduced the amount of HSV antigen in testes on Day 3 after transplantation and enhanced the efficacy of transplantation at Day 30. In recipient testes, donor Sertoli cells formed new seminiferous tubules; significantly more new tubules were observed in the testes of ACV-treated mice compared with mice not treated with ACV (17.8% vs 3.6%). Over half (50.4%) of new tubules in ACV-treated testes contained germ cells and round spermatids were detected in 14.2% of new tubules compared with 15.9% and 5.3% in testes not treated with ACV, respectively. At Day 150 the seminiferous epithelium was completely recovered in some donor tubules and elongated spermatids were observed inside it. Thus, our findings reveal the effectiveness of the combination of antiviral therapy with neonatal testis-cell transplantation for the restoration of spermatogenesis damaged by viral infection.

  6. Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Ribeiro Soares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV. Activity tests in crude extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1% than for HSV-2 (55.5%. The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9% against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5% and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (--elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%. Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

  7. Long-term observation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in a child with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and a possible reactivation mechanism for thymidine kinase-negative HSV-1 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Tomoyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections in a child with congenital immunodeficiency syndrome were observed over a 10-year period. The child suffered from recurrent and severe HSV-1 mucocutaneous infections. He frequently suffered from acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(r)) HSV-1 infection in the later phase of his life, especially after the episode of ACV(r) HSV-1 infection. Virological analyses on the HSV-1 isolates recovered from this patient revealed that all the ACV(r) HSV-1 isolates were thymidine kinase (TK)-negative (TK(-)) due to a single cytosine (C) deletion within the 4-C residues (positions 1061 to 1064) in the TK gene, indicating that the recurrent TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 infections throughout the patient's life were due to the identical ACV(r) HSV-1 strain. Furthermore, it was found that the ACV-sensitive (ACV(s)) isolate recovered from the skin lesions that appeared between the episodes of ACV(r) infection at the ages of 8 and 9 contained ACV(r) HSV-1 with the same mutation in the TK gene. These results indicate that, although TK activity is required for reactivation of TK(+)/ACV(s) HSV-1 from latency and TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 is unable to reactivate from latency, the TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 strain isolated herein reactivated in this patient, possibly by using the TK activity induced by the latently co-infected TK(+)/ACV(s) HSV-1.

  8. Development of mannosylated liposomes for bioadhesive oral drug delivery via M cells of Peyer's patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukanud, Pongthep; Peungvicha, Penchom; Sarisuta, Narong

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop mannosylated liposomes as bioadhesive carriers for oral drug delivery. Two kinds of acyclovir (ACV)-entrapped mannosylated liposomes, i.e. ManN-ACV-lip and PAM-ACV-lip, were prepared by the use of mannosamine HCl (ManN) and p-aminophenyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (PAM), respectively. The mean sizes, drug entrapment efficiency, and loading capacity values of all liposomal formulations were in the ranges of 233-371 nm, 82-95%, and 42-47%, respectively. The mean size of PAM-ACV-lip was significantly smaller than those of conventional ACV liposomes and ManN-ACV-lip due to the more conical packing parameter of mannose-conjugated phospholipid. The mannosylating group grafted into bilayer membrane resulted in a decrease in drug entrapment, owing to competitive binding. The in vitro drug absorptions through everted sacs of mice ileum of both mannosylated ACV liposomes were significantly higher than those of conventional ACV liposomes or suspension.

  9. The management of herpes simplex virus infections in HIV infected patients: current issues and the role of cidofovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakakawa E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethel Nakakawa1, Steven J Reynolds21Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Kampala, Uganda; 2Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1 and 2 are among the most common transmitted viral infections causing a spectrum of mucocutaneous and other syndromes. Treatment of these infections has primarily been with acyclovir (ACV and prodrugs valacyclovir and famcyclovir. Immunocompromised hosts either due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or other factors have given rise to an increase in ACV resistant viruses most commonly due to a mutation in the cellular thymidine kinase enzyme. This review focuses on the spectrum of disease caused by HSV 1 and 2, the emergence of ACV resistant disease, and the role of alternative agents including cidofovir in the treatment of ACV resistant disease.Keywords: herpes simplex virus, HIV, resistance, cidofovir

  10. In vitro and in vivo antiherpetic effects of (1R,2R)-1-(5'-methylful-3'-yl)propane-1,2,3-triol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kohei; Hayashi, Kyoko; Matsuya, Yuji; Sugimoto, Kenji; Lee, Jung-Bum; Kurosaki, Fumiya; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo antiherpetic activities of a stable furan derivative, (1R,2R)-1-(5'-methylful-3'-yl)propane-1,2,3-triol (MFPT), which had originally been isolated from Streptomyces sp. strain FV60. In the present study, we synthesized MFPT from (5-methylfuran-3-yl)methanol in 6 steps for use in the experiments. MFPT showed potent in vitro antiviral activities against two acyclovir (ACV)-sensitive (KOS and HF) strains and an ACV-resistant (A4-3) strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and an ACV-sensitive HSV type 2 (HSV-2) UW 268 strain, their selectivity indices ranging from 310 to 530. By intravaginal application of MFPT to mice, the virus yields decreased dose-dependently against the three strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2. When MFPT was applied at a dose of 1.0 mg/day, the lesion scores, as clinical signs manifested by viral infection, were extensively suppressed in HSV-1-infected mice, whereas the lesion scores in HSV-2-infected mice were not markedly decreased. Interestingly, MFPT exerted an inhibitory effect against ACV-resistant HSV-1 in mice to a similar degree as in ACV-sensitive HSV-1-infected mice. Therefore, the compound might have potential for developing a topical antiviral agent that could be also applied to the infections caused by ACV-resistant viruses.

  11. [Preparation of hepatic targeting antivirus agent NGA-ACV and its targeting property].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J Z; Li, T L; Pang, Q J; Guan, C T; He, Y; Su, K Y

    1996-01-01

    Neoglycoalbumin (NGA), a special ligend of asialoglycoprotein receptor on the hepatocyte, was linked via a butanediacyl bridge to acyclovir to form a conjugate NGA-ACV. By using DTA (Differential thermoanalysis) and HPLC analysis, ACV was shown to be connected with NGA by covalent bonds and stable in blood. The radio-biodistribution of 131I-NGA-ACV with high drug density in vivo was carried out in mice. The maximum absorption of 131I-NGA-ACV in liver was 81.7 +/- 10.4% at 5 min. The radioimage of 131I-NGA-ACV with high or low drug density in rabbit showed no significant difference in liver targeting property. The competitive connection tests indicated that 131I-NGA-ACV was concentrated in liver through receptor mediated mechanism. A tentative test of antihepatitis B of NGA-ACV and ACV in vitro showed that the effective dose of the former was significantly lower than that of the latter.

  12. ACV对Ⅰ型病毒感染豚鼠皮肤阳性细胞计数的分析%To Analyze the Effect of ACV on Positive Cell Counts of Skin of Guinea Pig Infested with I Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨虹; 邓成国; 张端莲; 王志洁; 黄铁牛

    2004-01-01

    为了进一步了解和研究Ⅰ型人类单纯疱疹病毒引起的疱疹性皮肤病变的动态病理过程,将HSV-1HS-1株感染的豚鼠皮肤动物模型分为HSV-1感染组(抹PBS)和HSV-1治疗组(抹ACV),采用组织学方法,观察了病变发生过程中的皮肤组织学改变.结果显示,感染组豚鼠皮肤发生形态学改变,上皮细胞水肿,胞核和胞浆内形成空泡;治疗组豚鼠皮肤经用阿昔洛韦(acyclovir,ACV)后,豚鼠皮肤形态结构恢复正常,结构清晰.

  13. Acute toxicity evaluation of aminomethylnaphthoquinone (AMNQ 1 in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Garrido

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first preclinical tests showing that aminomethylnaphthoquinone - 3-[N-(n-butyl amino-2,4-diclorobenzyl]-2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (AMNQ 1 has low cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity in vitro in Vero cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of AMNQ 1 in BALB/c mice. We used BALB/c female mice to evaluate the median lethal dose (LD50 of AMNQ 1 with 2000 mg/kg body weight and other three concentrations using 550, 175 and 55 mg/kg. We compared this to acyclovir (ACV-50 mg/kg and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (10% DMSO over a 14-day period. The BALB/c mice received a single oral dose by gavage. There were no deaths in either group and no change in the murine clinical signs. The hematological and biochemical analyses showed some changes that returned to reference levels without impairment of hemostasis. The AMNQ 1 treatment did not induce untoward changes in organs as shown by histological studies. The in vivo results showed that AMNQ 1 has low toxicity. In conclusion, AMNQ 1 is safe and can be potentially used as an anti-HSV-1 agent in future studies.

  14. Atypical manifestation of progressive outer retinal necrosis in AIDS patient with CD4+ T-cell counts more than 100 cells/microL on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichitvejpaisal, Pornpattana; Reeponmahar, Somporn; Tantisiriwat, Woraphot

    2009-06-01

    Typical progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is an acute ocular infectious disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with extremely low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is a form of the Varicella- zoster virus (VZV) infection. This destructive infection has an extremely rapid course that may lead to blindness in affected eyes within days or weeks. Attempts at its treatment have had limited success. We describe the case of a bilateral PORN in an AIDS patient with an initial CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/microL that developed after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A 29-year-old Thai female initially diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1998, presented with bilaterally decreased visual acuity after initiating HAART two months earlier. Multiple yellowish spots appeared in the deep retina without evidence of intraocular inflammation or retinal vasculitis. Her CD4+ T-cell count was 127 cells/microL. She was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and positive VZV in the aqueous humor and vitreous by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite combined treatment with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreous ganciclovir, the patient's visual acuity worsened with no light-perception in either eye. This case suggests that PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of reduced visual acuity in AIDS patients initiating HAART with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. PORN may be a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome. PMID:19702067

  15. Antiviral activity of the Indian medicinal plant extract, Swertia chirata against herpes simplex viruses: A study by in-vitro and molecular approach

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    Verma H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The antiviral activity of Indian Medicinal plant extract Swertia chirata was tested against Herpes simplex virus (HSV type-1, using multiple approaches both at cellular and molecular level. Methods: Cytotoxicity, plaque reduction, virus infectivity, antigen expression and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays were conducted to test the antiviral activity of the plant extract. Results: Swertia plant crude extract (1gm/mL at 1:64 dilution inhibited HSV-1, plaque formation at more than 70% level. HSV antigen expression and time kinetics experiments conducted by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA test, revealed a characteristic pattern of small foci of single fluorescent cells in Swertia extract treated HSV-1 infected cells at 4 hours post infection dose, suggested drug inhibited viral dissemination. Infected cell cultures treated with Swertia extract at various time intervals, tested by PCR, failed to show amplification at 12, 24-72 hours. HSV-1 infected cells treated with Acyclovir (antiviral drug did not show any amplification by PCR. Conclusions: In this preliminary study, the Indian medicinal plant extract, Swertia chirata showed antiviral properties against Herpes simplex virus type-1.

  16. Fulminant Staphylococcus lugdunensis septicaemia following a pelvic varicella-zoster virus infection in an immune-deficient patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woznowski M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The deadly threat of systemic infections with coagulase negative Staphylococcus lugdunensis despite an appropriate antibiotic therapy has only recently been recognized. The predominant infectious focus observed so far is left-sided native heart valve endocarditis, but bone and soft tissue infections, septicaemia and vascular catheter-related bloodstream infections have also been reported. We present a patient with a fatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis septicaemia following zoster bacterial superinfection of the pelvic region. Case presentation A 71-year old male diagnosed with IgG kappa plasmocytoma presented with a conspicuous weight loss, a hypercalcaemic crisis and acute renal failure. After initiation of haemodialysis treatment his condition improved rapidly. However, he developed a varicella-zoster virus infection of the twelfth thoracic dermatome requiring intravenous acyclovir treatment. Four days later the patient presented with a fulminant septicaemia. Despite an early intravenous antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/combactam and vancomycin the patient died within 48 hours, shortly before the infective isolate was identified as Staphylococcus lugdunensis by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion Despite S. lugdunensis belonging to the family of coagulase-negative staphylococci with an usually low virulence, infections with S. lugdunensis may be associated with an aggressive course and high mortality. This is the first report on a Staphylococcus lugdunensis septicaemia following a zoster bacterial superinfection of the pelvic region.

  17. Histiocitosis sinusal con linfadenopatía masica (enfermedad de Rosai Dorfman Sinusal histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy: report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vélez Hoyos

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se presenta el caso de una Joven de 14 años con adenomegalias cervicales bilaterales masivas, con diagnóstico clínico de linfoma y cuyo estudio anatomopatológico demostró los hallazgos morfológicos de la histiocitosis sinusal con linfadenopatía masiva. Esta entidad debe tenerse en cuenta en todo diagnóstico diferencial de adenomegalias masivas en niños o pacientes Jóvenes, pues el curso clínico y el pronóstico en general son benignos.

    The case of a 14 year-old girl with massive, bilateral, cervical adenopathies is reported. The Initial diagnosis was a Iymphoma but histological study revealed typical changes of sinusal histiocytosis with massive Iymphadenopathy. The patient was treated with acyclovir and two months later left adenopathies had considerably decreased while the right ones remained unchanged. This disease should be taken Into account in the differential diagnosis of massive adenopathies in children or young people. Its clinical course and prognosis are usually benign.

  18. A case of relapsing-remitting facial palsy and ipsilateral brachial plexopathy caused by HSV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstadhaug, Karl B; Kvarenes, Hanne W; Prytz, Jan; Vedeler, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The etiologies of Bell's palsy and brachial neuritis remain uncertain, and the conditions rarely co-occur or reoccur. Here we present a woman in her twenties who had several relapsing-remitting episodes with left-sided facial palsy and brachial neuropathy. The episodes always started with painful left-sided oral blisters. Repeat PCRs HSV-1 DNA from oral vesicular lesions were positive. Extensive screening did not reveal any other underlying cause. Findings on MRI T2-weighted brachial plexus STIR images, using a 3.0-Tesla scanner during an episode, were compatible with brachial plexus neuritis. Except a mannose-binding lectin deficiency, a congenital complement deficiency that is frequently found in the general Caucasian population, no other immunodeficiency was demonstrated in our patient. In vitro resistance to acyclovir was tested negative, but despite prophylactic treatment with the drug in high doses, relapses recurred. To our knowledge, this is the first ever reported documentation of relapsing-remitting facial and brachial plexus neuritis caused by HSV-1. PMID:26991053

  19. Bilateral herpes simplex keratitis in a patient with chronic graft-versus-host disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Hayashi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Takahiko Hayashi1, Misaki Ishioka2, Norihiko Ito1, Yoko Kato1, Hisashi Nakagawa3, Hiroshi Hatano4, Nobuhisa Mizuki11Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Ryogoku Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 3Tokushima Eye Clinic, Higashimurayama-shi, Tokyo, Japan; 4Lumine Hatano Eye Clinic, Fujisawa, Fujisawa-shi, Kanagawa, JapanPurpose: To describe a case of bilateral herpes simplex keratitis accompanying chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD.Design: Observational case report.Case report: An 11-year-old boy with myelocytic leukemia underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. He developed symptoms of the skin, eyes, and mouth, and lip biopsy indicated chronic GVHD. Persistent keratitis with corneal filaments and neovascularization was noted in both eyes. Sodium hyaluronate, autoserum, and 0.1% fluorometholone eyedrops were instilled for approximately 2 years to treat this keratitis, and there were no other ocular changes. Bilateral herpes simplex keratitis developed with geographic ulcers after topical betamethasone therapy, but responded to acyclovir ointment.Conclusions: Herpes keratitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral keratitis in patients with reduced immunocompetence. During the course of chronic GVHD, corneal herpes may occur, so ocular treatment with topical corticosteroids should be managed by an ophthalmologist to monitor sight-threatening conditions such as corneal herpes.Keywords: chronic graft-versus-host disease, bone marrow transplant, corneal herpes, bilateral herpes simplex keratitis, dry eyes

  20. Clinical analysis of herpes zoster myelitis%带状疱疹性脊髓炎临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小民; 朱梅佳; 李爱银; 王爱华; 关新华; 唐北沙

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features of herpes zoster myelitis. Methods Retrospective analysis were made to show the clinical data of 4 patients developing herpes zoster myelitis. Results 4 patients all showed vesicular rash and symptoms of scgmcntal spinal lesion. The vesicular lesions were found prior to neurological symptoms in 3 cases and posterior to neurological symptoms in 1 case. The clinical manifestations of 3 patients showed symmetrical or asymmetrical paraparcsis and sensory dysfunction. Anaesthesia and twitch of one side limbs existed in 1 patient, but there was no limbs paralysis. Impaired sphincter function were found in 3 cases. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) and ccrcbrospinal fluid (CSF ) analysis were conducted in all cases. After administration of acyclovir and mcthylprcdnisolonc, the symptoms were significantly improvement. After more than 1 year follow-up, 3 spaticnts were Complete recovery. But 1 patient was left with permanent paraparcsis. Conclusions Myelitis is an uncommon complication of VZV infection which was often located in thoracic spinal cord, but sometimes in cervical spinal cord. The clinical manifestations were characterized by asymmetrical, incomplete but transverse impairments in spinal cord. Early diagnosis, early acyclovir and steroids treatment might be the most important prognostic factor.%目的 探讨带状疱疹性脊髓炎的临床特点、诊断及治疗.方法 对4例带状疱疹性脊髓炎患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 4例患者均有特征性皮疹及脊髓损害症状.3例以皮疹为首发,1例以脊髓节段性损害症状首发,3例表现为对称性或非对称性双下肢无力和感觉障碍,1例表现为一侧肢体麻木、抽搐,无肢体瘫痪,3例有括约肌障碍.均经脊髓 MR 证实,均行脑脊液检查,抗病毒及甲强龙治疗效果好,随访1年以上3例痊愈,1例留有双下肢轻瘫.结论 脊髓炎是带状疱疹的少见并发症,多累及胸髓,少

  1. 造血干细胞移植后带状疱疹发生率的分析%The incidence of herpes zoster after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋祖军; 肖浩文; 庞妍; 肖扬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and its effect on 1-year survival. Methods The medical records of 96 patients undergoing HSCT in Department of He-matology of Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command during January 2003 and December 2010 were reviewed. Results HZ was identified in 7 of the 96 patients within 1 year after transplantation with a cumulative incidence of 7. 3%. The median time to onset after HSCT was 70 (range 50-290) days and the median duration of HZ was 10 (range 7-180) days. The severity of graft versus host disease (GVHD), intensified treatment of GVHD and regular prevention with acyclovir were associated with the incidence of HZ. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that HZ had no effect on the 1-year survival of patients (P = 0. 87). Conclusions Post-HSCT HZ is a common complication. Severe GVHD, intensified treatment of GVHD and no regular prevention with acyclovir are associated with higher incidence of HZ, but 1-year survival of the patients is not affected by HZ.%目的 分析造血干细胞移植(HSCT)后带状疱疹(HZ)发生率及其对生存的影响.方法 对2003年1月-2010年12月在广州军区广州总医院血液科接受HSCT的96例患者发生HZ的情况进行回顾性分析.结果 7例患者发生了HZ,移植后1年的累计发生率为7.3%,中位发病时间为术后70(50~290)d,中位持续时间为15(7~180)d.不同的移植物抗宿主疾病(GVHD)严重程度、不同的GVHD治疗强度、是否进行规律的阿昔洛韦预防,HZ发生率存在差异.Kaplan-Meier生存分析显示HZ发生对移植后1年的生存率无影响(P=0.87).结论 HZ是HSCT后常见的并发症,严重的GVHD、多种免疫抑制剂联合使用及不进行有效地阿昔洛韦预防影响HZ的发生,移植后HZ的发生对患者移植后1年的生存率无影响.

  2. Therapeutic Observation of Acupuncture plus Ozone Injection for Neuralgia Due to Acute Herpes Zoster%针刺配合臭氧穴位注射治疗急性带状疱疹神经痛疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐荣; 张中会

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察针刺配合臭氧穴位注射治疗急性带状疱疹神经痛的临床疗效。方法将60例急性带状疱疹神经痛患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组30例。对照组采用静脉点滴阿昔洛韦注射液、肌肉注射甲钴胺注射液及外用阿昔洛韦软膏治疗。治疗组在对照组治疗基础上采用针刺配合臭氧穴位注射治疗。观察两组患者止疱时间、结痂时间、脱痂时间及治疗前后VAS评分变化情况,并比较两组临床疗效。结果两组止疱时间、结痂时间、脱痂时间比较,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.01,P<0.05)。两组治疗后VAS评分与同组治疗前比较,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。治疗组治疗后VAS评分与对照组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。治疗组总有效率为96.7%,对照组为83.3%,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论针刺配合臭氧穴位注射是一种治疗急性带状疱疹神经痛的有效方法。%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of acupuncture plus ozone injection in treating neuralgia due to acute herpes zoster.Method Sixty patients with neuralgia due to acute herpes zoster were randomized into a treatment group and a control group, 30 cases in each group. The control group was intervened by intravenous injection of Acyclovir, muscular injection of Mecobalamin, and external application of Acyclovir cream. The treatment group was intervened by acupuncture plus zone injection in addition to the treatment given to the control group. The time taken for the blisters to cease, crust, and decrust was observed, as well as the change of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and the clinical efficacies were compared between the two groups. Result There were significant inter-group differences in comparing the time for the blisters to cease, crust and decrust (P<0.01, P<0.05). The VAS scores were significantly changed after treatment in both groups (P<0.01). After treatment, the

  3. 不同治疗方案对病毒性角膜炎泪液EGF、Ig和补体C3的影响研究%EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TREATMENTS ON TEAR EGF, IG AND COMPLEMENT C3 OF VIRAL KERATITIS PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙克立

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the effect of different treatments on tear EGF, Ig and complement C3 of viral ker-atitis patients. [Methods] 44 cases of viral keratitis in our hospital from May 2008- February 2010 were enrolled, and randomly divided into control group (acyclovir group) 22 cases and the observation group (A Famciclovir combined with interferon group) 22 cases, the treatment effect, the incidences of side effects, tear EGF, Ig and complement C3 levels before and after and treatment in two groups were compared. [Results] The study found that the total effective rate, IgA and lgG, complement C3 levels in observation group was higher than the control group, the incidence of side effects and EGF in observation group was lower than the control group (P< 0.05). [Conclusion] The treatment for viral keratitis with acyclovir combined interferon treatment is effective, safe, the effect of reducing tear EGF, Ig and complement C3 level is obvious, which should be widely applied.%[目的]探讨不同治疗方案对病毒性角膜炎泪液EGF、Ig和补体C3的影响.[方法]选取2008年5月~2010年2月于某院进行治疗的44例病毒性角膜炎患者为研究对象,将其随机分为对照组(阿昔洛韦组)22例和观察组(阿昔洛韦联合干扰素组)22例,后将两组患者的治疗效果、副作用发生率及治疗前后的泪液EGF、Ig和补体C3水平进行研究及比较.[结果]经研究比较发现,观察组的治疗总有效率高于对照组,副作用发生率低于对照组,观察组的IgA及IgG、补体C3水平高于对照组,而泪液EGF则低于对照组,P<0.05,差异均有统计学意义.[结论]在病毒性角膜炎的治疗中采用阿昔洛韦联合干扰素的治疗方案进行治疗效果佳,安全性高,对于降低泪液EGF、Ig和补体C3水平效果明显,值得推广应用.

  4. Infección por herpes virus 1-2 como manifestación del síndrome de reconstitución inmune: Actualización y reporte de un caso de difícil diagnóstico Herpes virus 1-2 infection as a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome: Actualization and case report of difficult diagnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Casariego Zulema

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Frecuentemente en pacientes Sida las lesiones bucales son de difícil diagnóstico. Nuestro objetivo es actualizar la etiofisiopatogenia de lesiones producidas por herpes virus como una manifestación del síndrome de reconstitución inmune, en mucosa bucal y presentar un paciente inmunosuprimido con lesiones difícilmente diagnosticables de herpes virus simple 1/2. Caso clínico. Paciente masculino, 39 años, homosexual, antecedentes de HZV, TBC y ETS. CMV, hepatitis B y Toxoplasmosis negativas y hepatoesplenomegalia, fibrosis granulomatosa peritoneal y adenopatías mesentéricas activas; 12 CD4 y 5,54 log. de carga viral. Se instaló TARV con buena respuesta. Al mes presentó dificultad para hablar, hipersalia, dolor, y lesiones exofíticas en lengua, aspecto rizado, irregular, con surcos, erosiones, úlceras, y pápulas, cubiertas por pseudomembrana amarillenta. Los cultivos resultaron negativos para hongos, bacterias o parásitos. Sucesivas biopsias analizadas por cinco patólogos descartaron malignidad o autoinmunidad. Diagnósticos similares refirieron "reacción inflamatoria crónica". Un sexto experto por detalles histológicos e inmunomarcación con antisuero HSV-I/HSV-II reveló positividad nuclear y citoplasmática Epifluorescencia y microscopía electrónica certificaron el diagnóstico. El Acyclovir 4g/diarios, 4 semanas fue eficaz. Conclusión. la infección por Herpes virus en pacientes con inmunosupresión severa complica el diagnóstico clínico, por lo cual conviene agotar la búsqueda.Frequently on Aids patients, oral lesions are difficult to diagnose. Our objective is to actualize the etiopathogenie of Herpes virus infection, especially on oral mucosa and to present an immunosupressed patient with atypical oral tonge´s lesions of Herpes virus. A case report. Male 39 years old, homosexual, with HZV, TBC and ETS history. CMV, B hepatitis and toxoplasmosis negative. Activated hepatospleenmegalia, peritoneum granulomatous

  5. Effect of ASP2151, a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor, in a guinea pig model of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Chono, Koji; Sudo, Kenji; Shimizu, Yasuaki; Kontani, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2011-08-25

    ASP2151 is a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor with antiviral activity against varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Here, we examined the potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV in vitro and in vivo. We found that ASP2151 was more potent in inhibiting the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in Vero cells in the plaque reduction assay and had greater anti-HSV activity in a guinea pig model of genital herpes than did acyclovir and valacyclovir (VACV), respectively. Oral ASP2151 given from the day of infection reduced peak and overall disease scores in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in complete prevention of symptoms at the dose of 30 mg/kg. The 50% effective dose (ED(50)) values for ASP2151 and VACV were 0.37 and 68 mg/kg, respectively, indicating that ASP2151 was 184-fold more potent than VACV. When ASP2151 was administered after the onset of symptoms, the disease course of genital herpes was suppressed more effectively than by VACV, with a significant reduction in disease score observed one day after starting ASP2151 at 30 mg/kg, whereas the therapeutic effect of VACV was only evident three days after treatment at the highest dose tested (300 mg/kg). This indicated that ASP2151 possesses a faster onset of action and wider therapeutic time window than VACV. Further, virus shedding from the genital mucosa was significantly reduced with ASP2151 at 10 and 30 mg/kg but not with VACV, even at 300 mg/kg. Taken together, our present findings demonstrated the superior potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV.

  6. Effect of ASP2151, a Herpesvirus Helicase-Primase Inhibitor, in a Guinea Pig Model of Genital Herpes

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    Toru Kontani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ASP2151 is a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor with antiviral activity against varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1 and 2 (HSV-2. Here, we examined the potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV in vitro and in vivo. We found that ASP2151 was more potent in inhibiting the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in Vero cells in the plaque reduction assay and had greater anti-HSV activity in a guinea pig model of genital herpes than did acyclovir and valacyclovir (VACV, respectively. Oral ASP2151 given from the day of infection reduced peak and overall disease scores in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in complete prevention of symptoms at the dose of 30 mg/kg. The 50% effective dose (ED50 values for ASP2151 and VACV were 0.37 and 68 mg/kg, respectively, indicating that ASP2151 was 184-fold more potent than VACV. When ASP2151 was administered after the onset of symptoms, the disease course of genital herpes was suppressed more effectively than by VACV, with a significant reduction in disease score observed one day after starting ASP2151 at 30 mg/kg, whereas the therapeutic effect of VACV was only evident three days after treatment at the highest dose tested (300 mg/kg. This indicated that ASP2151 possesses a faster onset of action and wider therapeutic time window than VACV. Further, virus shedding from the genital mucosa was significantly reduced with ASP2151 at 10 and 30 mg/kg but not with VACV, even at 300 mg/kg. Taken together, our present findings demonstrated the superior potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV.

  7. Combined Intratympanic and Systemic Steroid Therapy for Poor-Prognosis Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

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    Shima Arastou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined intratympanic and systemic steroid therapy compared with systemic steroid therapy alone in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL patients with poor prognostic factors.     Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL who had at least one poor prognostic factor (age greater than 40 years, hearing loss more than 70 db, or greater than a 2-week delay between the onset of hearing loss and initiation of therapy were included in this study. Patients were randomized to the intervention group (combined intratympanic and systemic steroid therapy or the control group (systemic steroid therapy alone. All patients received oral treatment with systemic prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day for 10 days, acyclovir (2 g/day for 10 days, divided into four doses, triamterene H (daily, and omeprazole (daily, during steroid treatment, and were advised to follow a low salt diet. The intervention group also received intratympanic dexamethasone injections (0.4 ml of 4 mg/ml dexamethasone two times a week for two consecutive weeks (four injections in total. A significant hearing improvement was defined as at least a 15-db decrease in pure tone average (PTA.  Results: Among all participants, 44 patients (57.14% showed significant improvement in hearing evaluation. More patients showed hearing improvement in the intervention group than in the control group (27 patients (75% versus 17 patients (41.4%, respectively; P = 0.001.  Conclusion:  The combination of intratympanic dexamethasone and systemic prednisolone is more effective than systemic prednisolone alone in the treatment of poor-prognosis SSNHL.

  8. "Audiometric studies in 53 cases with sudden sensorineural hearing loss:can we suggest an algorithm for treatment? "

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    Nemati Sh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sudden sensorinueural hearing loss (SSNHL is a baffling condition for patients, and its etiology, audiologic characteristics, prognostic factors, and treatment are still controversial. Methods: In this prospective study, we performed pure tone audiometry (PTA, impedance acoustics (IA, auditory brainstem responses (ABR, otoacoustic emissions (OAE, and transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE before beginning treatment for 53 patients with SSNHL. We then entered each patient, randomly and alternately, in one of two treatment groups: oral steroids + acyclovir vs. intravenous urographin. Results: In 22 (41.5% of the 53 patients (22 female, 31 male, we found negative or no signal to noise ratio and overall correlation in TEOAE. Furthermore, 26 cases (49% had positive overall correlations less than 50%, and five cases (4.4% had overall correlations >50%. Although 15 cases (28.3% responded well, 20 cases (37.7% showed only a partial response, and 18 cases (33.9% had poor or no response to our treatment. The mean value for overall correlation in the three subgroups of patients (no response, partial response, and complete response was -3.5% (±1/16%, + 11% (±1.99%, and +36.6% (±3.07% respectively (P = 0.01. From 52 cases, 20 had no reproducible wave in ABR (38.5%, three cases had abnormal ABR with normal OAE, all of which responded completely to treatments. Thirteen cases had abnormal ABR and OAE, none of which responded to treatment, and six cases had normal ABR with abnormal OAE, which often responded to treatment. Conclusions: ABR and OAE may be useful in the diagnosis of SSNHL and determining the site of such lesions as ischemia or neuropathy. The overall correlation (and S/N ratio in TEOAE is a valuable prognostic factor in SSNHL.

  9. Is the drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS due to human herpesvirus 6 infection or to allergy-mediated viral reactivation? Report of a case and literature review

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    Borgia Guglielmo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome (DIHS is a severe and rare systemic reaction triggered by a drug (usually an antiepileptic drug. We present a case of DISH and we review studies on the clinical features and treatment of DIHS, and on its pathogenesis in which two elements (Herpesvirus infection and the drug interact with the immune system to trigger such a syndrome that can lead to death in about 20% of cases. Case presentation We report the case of a 26-year old woman with fever, systemic maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatitis and eosinophilic leukocytosis. She had been treated with antibiotics that gave no benefit. She was taking escitalopram and lamotrigine for a bipolar disease 30 days before fever onset. Because the patient's general condition deteriorated, betamethasone and acyclovir were started. This treatment resulted in a mild improvement of symptoms. Steroids were rapidly tapered and this was followed with a relapse of fever and a worsening of laboratory parameters. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 DNA was positive as shown by PCR. Drug-Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome (DIHS was diagnosed. Symptoms regressed on prednisone (at a dose of 50 mg/die that was tapered very slowly. The patient recovered completely. Conclusions The search for rare causes of fever led to complete resolution of a very difficult case. As DIHS is a rare disease the most relevant issue is to suspect and include it in differential diagnosis of fevers of unknown origin. Once diagnosed, the therapy is easy (steroidal administration and often successful. However our case strongly confirms that attention should be paid on the steroidal tapering that should be very slow to avoid a relapse.

  10. SP-303, an antiviral oligomeric proanthocyanidin from the latex of Croton lechleri (Sangre de Drago).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubillas, R; Jolad, S D; Bruening, R C; Kernan, M R; King, S R; Sesin, D F; Barrett, M; Stoddart, C A; Flaster, T; Kuo, J; Ayala, F; Meza, E; Castañel, M; McMeekin, D; Rozhon, E; Tempesta, M S; Barnard, D; Huffman, J; Smee, D; Sidwell, R; Soike, K; Brazier, A; Safrin, S; Orlando, R; Kenny, P T; Berova, N; Nakanishi, K

    1994-09-01

    SP-303, a large proanthocyanidin oligomer isolated from the latex of the plant species Croton lechleri (Eupborbiaceae) has demonstrated broad activity against a variety of DNA and RNA viruses. In cell culture, SP-303 exhibits potent activity against isolates and laboratory strains of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A virus (FLU-A) and parainfluenza virus (PIV). Parallel assays of SP-303 and ribavirin showed comparable activity against these viruses. SP-303 also exhibits significant inhibitory activity against herpesvirus (HSV) types 1 and 2, including herpesviruses resistant to acyclovir and foscarnet. Inhibition was also observed against hepatitis A and B viruses. The antiviral mechanism of SP-303 seems to derive from its direct binding to components of the viral envelope, resulting in inhibition of viral attachment and penetration of the plasma membrane. Antiviral effects of SP-303 were measured by three distinct methods: CPE, MTT and precursor uptake/incorporation. Cytotoxicity endpoints were markedly greater than the respective antiviral endpoints. SP-303 exhibited activity in RSV-infected cotton rats and African green monkeys, PIV-3-infected cotton rats, HSV-2 infected mice and guinea pigs and FLU-A-infected mice. The most successful routes of SP-303 administration for producing efficacy were: topical application to HSV-2- genital lesions in mice and guinea pigs, aerosol inhalation to FLU-A-infected mice and PIV-3-infected cotton rats, and oral dosage to RSV-infected cotton rats. A variety of toxicological evaluations demonstrated the safety of SP-303, particularly orally, which was predictable, since condensed tannins are a common dietary component. It is notable that the larger proanthocyanidins as a class have high antiviral activity, whereas most of the monomers are inactive. Clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate SP-303 as a therapeutic antiviral agent.

  11. The Prevalence and Trends of Antiviral Medication Use during Pregnancy in the U.S. A population-based study of 664,297 deliveries in 2001-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Lyndsay A.; Chen, Hong; Yang, Chunmei; Andrade, Susan E.; Cooper, William O.; Cheetham, Craig T.; Davis, Robert L.; Dublin, Sascha; Hammad, Tarek A.; Kaplan, Sigal; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Scott, Pamela E.; Smith, David H.; Toh, Sengwee; Li, De-Kun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence, trends, timing and duration of exposure to antiviral medications during pregnancy within a US cohort of pregnant women and to evaluate the proportion of deliveries with a viral infection diagnosis among women given antiviral medication during pregnancy. Methods Live-born deliveries between 2001 and 2007, to women aged 15 to 45 years, were included from the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program (MEPREP), a collaborative research program between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and eleven health plans. They were evaluated for prevalence, timing, duration, and temporal trends of exposure to antiviral medications during pregnancy. We also calculated the proportion of deliveries with a viral infection diagnosis among those exposed to antiviral medications. Results Among 664,297 live births, the overall prevalence of antiviral exposure during pregnancy was 4% (n=25,155). Between 2001 and 2007, antiviral medication exposure during pregnancy doubled from 2.5% to 5%. The most commonly used antiviral medication was acyclovir, with 3% of the deliveries being exposed and most of the exposure occurring after the 1st trimester. Most deliveries exposed to antiviral medications were exposed for less than 30 days (2% of all live births). Forty percent of the women delivering an infant exposed to antiviral medications had a herpes diagnosis. Conclusions Our findings highlight the increased prevalence of women delivering an infant exposed to antiviral medications over time. These findings support the need for large, well-designed studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of these medications during pregnancy. PMID:23420306

  12. HIV-1 transmission linkage in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Campbell, Mary S [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Mullins, James I [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Hughes, James P [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Wong, Kim G [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Raugi, Dana N [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Scrensen, Stefanie [UNIV OF WASHINGTON

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 sequencing has been used extensively in epidemiologic and forensic studies to investigate patterns of HIV-1 transmission. However, the criteria for establishing genetic linkage between HIV-1 strains in HIV-1 prevention trials have not been formalized. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicaITrials.gov NCT00194519) enrolled 3408 HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual African couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression with acyclovir in reducing HIV-1 transmission. The trial analysis required laboratory confirmation of HIV-1 linkage between enrolled partners in couples in which seroconversion occurred. Here we describe the process and results from HIV-1 sequencing studies used to perform transmission linkage determination in this clinical trial. Consensus Sanger sequencing of env (C2-V3-C3) and gag (p17-p24) genes was performed on plasma HIV-1 RNA from both partners within 3 months of seroconversion; env single molecule or pyrosequencing was also performed in some cases. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between HIV-1 sequences in the transmitting and seroconverting partners, and developed a Bayesian algorithm using genetic distances to evaluate the posterior probability of linkage of participants sequences. Adjudicators classified transmissions as linked, unlinked, or indeterminate. Among 151 seroconversion events, we found 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) to have indeterminate transmissions. Nine (8.3%) were linked by consensus gag sequencing only and 8 (7.4%) required deep sequencing of env. In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage

  13. Tsetse salivary gland hypertrophy virus: hope or hindrance for tsetse control?

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    Adly M M Abd-Alla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available MANY SPECIES OF TSETSE FLIES (DIPTERA: Glossinidae are infected with a virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH, and flies with SGH symptoms have a reduced fecundity and fertility. The prevalence of SGH in wild tsetse populations is usually very low (0.2%-5%, but higher prevalence rates (15.2% have been observed occasionally. The successful eradication of a Glossina austeni population from Unguja Island (Zanzibar using an area-wide integrated pest management approach with a sterile insect technique (SIT component (1994-1997 encouraged several African countries, including Ethiopia, to incorporate the SIT in their national tsetse control programs. A large facility to produce tsetse flies for SIT application in Ethiopia was inaugurated in 2007. To support this project, a Glossina pallidipes colony originating from Ethiopia was successfully established in 1996, but later up to 85% of adult flies displayed symptoms of SGH. As a result, the colony declined and became extinct by 2002. The difficulties experienced with the rearing of G. pallidipes, epitomized by the collapse of the G. pallidipes colony originating from Ethiopia, prompted the urgent need to develop management strategies for the salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV for this species. As a first step to identify suitable management strategies, the virus isolated from G. pallidipes (GpSGHV was recently sequenced and research was initiated on virus transmission and pathology. Different approaches to prevent virus replication and its horizontal transmission during blood feeding have been proposed. These include the use of antiviral drugs such as acyclovir and valacyclovir added to the blood for feeding or the use of antibodies against SGHV virion proteins. In addition, preliminary attempts to silence the expression of an essential viral protein using RNA interference will be discussed.

  14. Varicella Zoster Virus Myelitis in Two Elderly Patients: Diagnostic Value of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay and Antibody Index for Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens

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    Teruyuki Takahashi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myelitis is one of the rarest neurological complications of the varicella zoster virus (VZV infection. Focal muscle weakness with or without sensory disturbance occurs in approximately 5% of the cases after acute VZV infection, with complete recovery in 50-70%. Case Presentation: This report describes two rare cases of elderly patients with VZV myelitis secondary to dermatomal zoster rash. Patient 1 was a 79-year-old woman who developed paraplegia, numbness and decreased sensation in the left arm and below thoracic (Th-10 after sacral zoster. Spinal cord MRI showed a high-signal-intensity lesion at the cervical spinal nerve 2 on a T2-weighted image. Patient 2 was a 73-year-old man who developed right flaccid leg weakness and urinary retention after right dorsal Th 5-8 zoster. Spinal cord MRI showed a high-signal-intensity lesion at Th 3-4 on a T2-weighted image. In both cases, although the conventional single polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays all showed negative results, the original nested PCR assay detected VZV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF specimen collected on admission. In addition, the anti-VZV IgG antibody by enzyme immunoassay and antibody index were elevated in the CSF specimens during the clinical courses of both patients. On the basis of these findings, both patients were diagnosed with VZV myelitis and were treated with high-dose acyclovir and corticosteroid. This combined treatment was appropriate and effective for the improvement of their functional outcomes. Conclusion: The detection of VZV DNA in CSF by nested PCR assay and the evaluation of the antibody index to VZV had significant diagnostic value.

  15. Microbial infection or trauma at cardiovascular representation area of medulla oblongata as some of the possible causes of hypertension or hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Y

    1988-01-01

    The author found that the onset of hypertension or hypotension is relatively often associated with infections or development of so-called "sneezing due to allergy to pollen or dust," with or without headache, or due to trauma to the occipital area of the head. Using the "Bi-Digital O-ring Test," it was possible to demonstrate that, among bacterial and viral infections, the most common cause of infection associated with the appearance of hypertension is chlamydia, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, or Epstein-Barr virus. Particularly chlamydia and/or herpes simplex virus, with or without coexistence of other microbes, is usually present at the heart representation area of the medulla oblongata, especially at the left ventricular representation area, often accompanied by upper respiratory infection, cephalic, cervical or facial pain, with or without coexisting genito-urinary infection. The left ventricular representation area of the medulla oblongata is usually located at the right side. In most hypertensive patients, the left ventricular representation area of the medulla oblongata is enlarged up to 3 or 4 times normal size. Sufficient antibiotic treatment of chlamydia with erythromycin sometimes eliminated severe hypertension which appeared after chlamydia infection. In the presence of viral infections, such as herpes simplex, which is also causing severe pain in the head or neck, oral administration of acyclovir, erythromycin, or EPA (Eicosa Pentaenoic acid)-DHA (docosa hexaenoic acid) Omega 3 fish oil often reduced associated intractable pain and hypertension toward the normal level. Thus, the author is proposing new possible mechanisms as among the causes of so-called essential hypertension as a result of microbial infection or trauma of the cardiovascular representation area, particularly that of the left ventricular representation area at the right side of the medulla oblongata. PMID:2904210

  16. In vitro inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication by Mentha suaveolens essential oil and its main component piperitenone oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitelli, Livia; Panella, Simona; Marcocci, Maria Elena; De Petris, Alberto; Garzoli, Stefania; Pepi, Federico; Vavala, Elisabetta; Ragno, Rino; Nencioni, Lucia; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Angiolella, Letizia

    2014-05-15

    Several essential oils exert in vitro activity against bacteria and viruses and, among these latter, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is known to develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Thus, the effects of the essential oil derived from Mentha suaveolens (EOMS) and its active principle piperitenone oxide (PEO) were tested in in vitro experimental model of infection with HSV-1. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined at 5.1μg/ml and 1.4μg/ml for EOMS and PEO, respectively. Australian tea tree oil (TTO) was used as control, revealing an IC50 of 13.2μg/ml. Moreover, a synergistic action against HSV-1 was observed when each oil was added in combination with acyclovir. In order to find out the mechanism of action, EOMS, PEO and TTO were added to the cells at different times during the virus life-cycle. Results obtained by yield reduction assay indicated that the antiviral activity of both compounds was principally due to an effect after viral adsorption. Indeed, no reduction of virus yield was observed when cells were treated during viral adsorption or pre-treated before viral infection. In particular, PEO exerted a strong inhibitory effect by interfering with a late step of HSV-1 life-cycle. HSV-1 infection is known to induce a pro-oxidative state with depletion of the main intracellular antioxidant glutathione and this redox change in the cell is important for viral replication. Interestingly, the treatment with PEO corrected this deficit, thus suggesting that the compound could interfere with some redox-sensitive cellular pathways exploited for viral replication. Overall our data suggest that both EOMS and PEO could be considered good candidates for novel anti-HSV-1 strategies, and need further exploration to better characterize the targets underlying their inhibition.

  17. Prevention of vaginal and rectal herpes simplex virus type 2 transmission in mice: mechanism of antiviral action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceña-Diez, Rafael; Vacas-Córdoba, Enrique; García-Broncano, Pilar; de la Mata, FJ; Gómez, Rafael; Maly, Marek; Muñoz-Fernández, Mª Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Topical microbicides to stop sexually transmitted diseases, such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), are urgently needed. The emerging field of nanotechnology offers novel suitable tools for addressing this challenge. Our objective was to study, in vitro and in vivo, antiherpetic effect and antiviral mechanisms of several polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers with anti-HIV-1 activity to establish new potential microbicide candidates against sexually transmitted diseases. Plaque reduction assay on Vero cells proved that G2-S16, G1-S4, and G3-S16 are the dendrimers with the highest inhibitory response against HSV-2 infection. We also demonstrated that our dendrimers inhibit viral infection at the first steps of HSV-2 lifecycle: binding/entry-mediated events. G1-S4 and G3-S16 bind directly on the HSV-2, inactivating it, whereas G2-S16 adheres to host cell-surface proteins. Molecular modeling showed that G1-S4 binds better at binding sites on gB surface than G2-S16. Significantly better binding properties of G1-S4 than G2-S16 were found in an important position for affecting transition of gB trimer from G1-S4 prefusion to final postfusion state and in several positions where G1-S4 could interfere with gB/gH–gL interaction. We demonstrated that these polyanionic carbosilan dendrimers have a synergistic activity with acyclovir and tenofovir against HSV-2, in vitro. Topical vaginal or rectal administration of G1-S4 or G2-S16 prevents HSV-2 transmission in BALB/c mice in values close to 100%. This research represents the first demonstration that transmission of HSV-2 can be blocked by vaginal/rectal application of G1-S4 or G2-S16, providing a step forward to prevent HSV-2 transmission in humans. PMID:27274240

  18. Use of Immunostimulatory Sequence-Containing Oligonucleotides as Topical Therapy for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Richard B.; Higgins, Debbie; Chalk, Claudia; Zalar, Anthony; Eiden, Joseph; Brown, Carrie; Van Nest, Gary; Stanberry, Lawrence R.

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs in specific sequence contexts have been shown to induce potent immune responses. We have evaluated mucosal administration of two immunostimulatory sequence (ISS)-containing phosphorothioate-stabilized oligonucleotides for antiherpetic efficacy in animal models. The ISS oligonucleotides, suspended in phosphate-buffered saline, were tested in mouse and guinea pig vaginal models of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection. For comparison, groups of untreated, non-ISS oligonucleotide-treated, and acyclovir-treated animals also were monitored. The results indicated that vaginal epithelial application of ISS (up to 6 h after viral inoculation) with mice lethally challenged with HSV-2 delayed disease onset and reduced the number of animals that developed signs of disease (P = 0.003). ISS application significantly increased survival rates over those of controls (P = 0.0014). The ISS also impacted an established infection in the guinea pig model of HSV-2 disease. A single administration of ISS (21 days after viral inoculation) significantly reduced the frequency and severity of HSV-2 lesions compared to results with non-ISS oligonucleotide-treated and untreated guinea pigs (P < 0.01). HSV-2 is shed from the vaginal cavity of the guinea pig in the absence of lesions, similar to the case with humans. As an additional indication of ISS efficacy, the magnitude of viral shedding also was significantly reduced in ISS-treated animals (P < 0.001). These effects appeared to be immunologically mediated, since ISS had no direct effect on HSV-2 replication in vitro using standard plaque assays. These data suggest that ISS may be useful in the treatment and control of genital herpes in humans. PMID:12388699

  19. Ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsion as a potential carrier of sparingly soluble drug: characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Tamura, Miki; Tahara, Yoshiro; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2010-11-15

    Pharmaceutical industries have posed challenges in the topical and transdermal administration of drugs which are poorly soluble or insoluble in water and most of organic solvents. In an approach to overcome this limitation, ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/o) microemulsions (MEs) were employed to increase the solubility of a sparingly soluble drug to enhance its topical and transdermal delivery. The formulation of MEs was composed of a blend of nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80) and sorbitan laurate (Span-20), isopropyl myristate (IPM) as an oil phase, and IL [C(1)mim] [(CH(3)O)(2)PO(2)] (dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate) as a pseudophase. Among various weight ratios of Tween-80 to Span-20 investigated in the ME systems, the ratio 3:2 showed excellent solubility and skin permeation enhancing effect for acyclovir (ACV) used as a model sparingly soluble drug. The size and size distribution of the ME droplets with and without drug were determined by dynamic light scattering. The permeability study of ACV incorporated in IL droplets as well as other formulations was performed into and across the Yucatan micropig (YMP) porcine skin, and the use of IL/o MEs has been shown to dramatically increase ACV administration. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the new carrier was evaluated in vitro using the reconstructed human epidermal model LabCyte™ EPI-MODEL12. It was found that the cell viability of IL/o MEs containing 4wt% IL was over 80% compared to Dulbecco's Phosphate-Buffered Salines, indicating low cytotoxicity of the carrier. Taken together these results, it can be assumed that IL-assisted nonaqueous ME could serve as a versatile and efficient nanodelivery system for insoluble or sparingly soluble drug molecules that require solubilizing agents for delivery. PMID:20813174

  20. Ionic liquid based microemulsion with pharmaceutically accepted components: Formulation and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we report a novel ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/o) microemulsion which is able to dissolve pharmaceuticals that are insoluble or sparingly soluble in water and most of pharmaceutical grade organic liquids. Towards this approach, the nanometer-sized ionic liquid droplets in isopropyl myristate (IPM) were formed with a blend of nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80), and sorbitan laurate (Span-20). A set of ionic liquids (ILs) was tested as a dispersed phase, and it was observed that ILs possessing coordinating anions which are strong hydrogen bond acceptor were most effective in forming microemulsion droplets. The possible formation mechanism was also studied. Ternary phase behavior study clearly indicated the formation of optically transparent and thermodynamically stable microemulsions with a wide range of IL content. The shape, size and size distribution of the aggregates in microemulsions were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), which demonstrated the formation of spherical micelles in the range of 8-34nm. In order to explore the use of newly developed microemulsion as a potential drug carrier, we have investigated the solubility of some drug molecules (e.g., acyclovir, methotrexate and 1-[(5-(p-nitrophenyl) furfurylidene) amino] hydantoin sodium) that are insoluble or sparingly soluble in most of the conventional solvents. Very significantly, the solubility studies indicated a high degree of solubilization of such drugs in IL microemulsions. We believe that this microemulsion formed with ILs having the unique physical, chemical and biological properties may offer novel opportunities to develop a potential drug delivery carrier for poorly soluble drugs molecules. PMID:20825949

  1. Electroretinogram Changes in the Sound Eye of Subjects with Unilateral Necrotizing Herpetic Retinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Azarmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate electroretinogram (ERG changes in the contralateral normal appearing eye of patients with unilateral acute necrotizing herpetic retinitis (NHR. Methods: This interventional case series includes subjects with acute unilateral NHR. All patients were treated with intravenous followed by oral acyclovir and systemic steroids. Main outcome measures were changes in a- and b-wave amplitudes of scotopic and photopic full-field ERG in the sound eye, 1 and 3 months after therapy as compared to baseline. Twenty normal subjects served as controls. Results: Forty eyes of 20 patients including 12 male and 8 female subjects with mean age of 44.1±11.5 (range 22 to 66 years were studied. Twenty unaffected eyes were the subject of the current study. The retina in all of these eyes remained intact during the course of the study. In the sound eyes, mean b-wave amplitude of the maximal combined response ERG before initiation of treatment was 229.5±38.8 microvolts which increased to 356.1±34.0 (P<0.001 and 365.8±32.7 (P<0.001 microvolts 1 and 3 months after treatment, respectively. Corresponding figures for b-wave amplitudes of the cone response ERG were 24.9±6.0, 47.0±12.9 (P<0.001 and 52.8±12.7 (P<0.001 microvolts, respectively. Visual acuity of all sound eyes remained unchanged throughout the study. Conclusion: Despite normal retinal appearance and intact visual acuity in the sound eyes of patients with NHR, electrophysiological changes were observed. Prompt diagnosis and management of NHR and continuation of medication for 3 months may reverse subclinical ERG changes and reduce the risk of progression to overt clinical disease.

  2. Clinical Study on Longdan Xiegan Decoction Application%龙胆泻肝汤的临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秋艳

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究龙胆泻肝汤在带状疱疹临床治疗中的应用效果。方法搜集2013年10月~2014年10月我院带状疱疹40例,根据治疗方法不同进行分组。研究组共22例,治疗时应用龙胆泻肝汤;对照组共18例,治疗时应用阿昔洛韦。观察两组疗效,并对比分析。结果与对照组相比,研究组治疗有效率较高,有较大差异,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论龙胆泻肝汤在带状疱疹临床治疗中的应用效果确切,有效率高。%Objective Clinical efficacy of longdan xiegan decoction in treatment of shingles is to be analyzed. Methods We chose 40 shingles patients who were treated in hospital from October 2013 to October 2014 and separated them into two groups according to different treatment approaches,22 patients in study group were given longdan xiegan decoction treatment,while 18 patients in control group were given acyclovir treatment. And then observed and compared treatment efficacy between two groups. Results Treatment efficacy in study group was higher than that in control group,there was a treatment differential between two groups,and such a differential had statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Longdan xiegan decoction is of efficiency in treatment of shingles patients.

  3. 刺络拔罐治疗带状疱疹40例临床疗效观察%Effective observation on treating 40 cases of shingles by prick cupping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玉乐; 朱红梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore clinical effects of prick cupping on treating shingles. Methods: 80 cases of shingles were randomly divided into two groups, the treatment group given prick cupping, the control given acyclovir plus acupuncture. Results: In treatment group, total efficacy was 97.5%, the control group was 75.0%, there was significant difference (P<0.05);VAS scores comparison before and after the treatment were extremely significant difference (P<0.01), the comparison had significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion:Prick cupping for shingles achieved good effect, and can significantly shorten the treatment courses and improve curing rate.%目的:探讨刺血拔罐治疗带状疱疹的临床疗效。方法:将80例带状疱疹患者按就诊顺序随机分成两组,治疗组40例采用疱疹刺血拔罐法治疗;对照组40例采用口服阿昔洛韦加沿疱疹边缘围刺法治疗。结果:治疗组总有效率为97.5%,对照组为75.0%,差异显著(P<0.05);两组治疗前后VAS评分比较均有极显著性差异(P<0.01),两组治疗后VAS评分比较有显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论:疱疹局部刺血拔罐治疗带状疱疹疗效显著,可显著缩短疗程,治愈率高。

  4. Evaluation of critical formulation parameters in design and differentiation of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) for oral delivery of aciclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Jovana; Djekic, Ljiljana; Dobričić, Vladimir; Primorac, Marija

    2016-01-30

    The study investigated the influence of formulation parameters for design of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) comprising oil (medium chain triglycerides) (10%), surfactant (Labrasol(®), polysorbate 20, or Kolliphor(®) RH40), cosurfactant (Plurol(®) Oleique CC 497) (q.s. ad 100%), and cosolvent (glycerol or macrogol 400) (20% or 30%), and evaluate their potential as carriers for oral delivery of a poorly permeable antivirotic aciclovir (acyclovir). The drug loading capacity of the prepared formulations ranged from 0.18-31.66 mg/ml. Among a total of 60 formulations, three formulations meet the limits for average droplet size (Z-ave) and polydispersity index (PdI) that have been set for SMEDDSs (Z-ave≤100nm, PdI<0.250) upon spontaneous dispersion in 0.1M HCl and phosphate buffer pH 7.2. SMEDDSs with the highest aciclovir loading capacity (24.06 mg/ml and 21.12 mg/ml) provided the in vitro drug release rates of 0.325 mg cm(-2)min(-1) and 0.323 mg cm(-2)min(-1), respectively, and significantly enhanced drug permeability in the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA), in comparison with the pure drug substance. The results revealed that development of SMEDDSs with enhanced drug loading capacity and oral delivery potential, required optimization of hydrophilic ingredients, in terms of size of hydrophilic moiety of the surfactant, surfactant-to-cosurfactant mass ratio (Km), and log P of the cosolvent. PMID:26611669

  5. Tracing the limits of organic micropollutant removal in biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falås, Per; Wick, Arne; Castronovo, Sandro; Habermacher, Jonathan; Ternes, Thomas A; Joss, Adriano

    2016-05-15

    Removal of organic micropollutants was investigated in 15 diverse biological reactors through short and long-term experiments. Short-term batch experiments were performed with activated sludge from three parallel sequencing batch reactors (25, 40, and 80 d solid retention time, SRT) fed with synthetic wastewater without micropollutants for one year. Despite the minimal micropollutant exposure, the synthetic wastewater sludges were able to degrade several micropollutants present in municipal wastewater. The degradation occurred immediately after spiking (1-5 μg/L), showed no strong or systematic correlation to the sludge age, and proceeded at rates comparable to those of municipal wastewater sludges. Thus, the results from the batch experiments indicate that degradation of organic micropollutants in biological wastewater treatment is quite insensitive to SRT increases from 25 to 80 days, and not necessarily induced by exposure to micropollutants. Long-term experiments with municipal wastewater were performed to assess the potential for extended biological micropollutant removal under different redox conditions and substrate concentrations (carbon and nitrogen). A total of 31 organic micropollutants were monitored through influent-effluent sampling of twelve municipal wastewater reactors. In accordance with the results from the sludges grown on synthetic wastewater, several compounds such as bezafibrate, atenolol and acyclovir were significantly removed in the activated sludge processes fed with municipal wastewater. Complementary removal of two compounds, diuron and diclofenac, was achieved in an oxic biofilm treatment. A few aerobically persistent micropollutants such as venlafaxine, diatrizoate and tramadol were removed under anaerobic conditions, but a large number of micropollutants persisted in all biological treatments. Collectively, these results indicate that certain improvements in biological micropollutant removal can be achieved by combining different

  6. Polyethylenimine combined with liposomes and with decreased numbers of primary amine residues strongly enhanced therapeutic antiviral efficiency against herpes simplex virus type 2 in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitani, Yoshie; Ishigaki, Kenji; Nakazawa, Yuta; Aragane, Daisuke; Akimoto, Tomoya; Iwamizu, Masatoshi; Kai, Takashi; Hayashi, Kyoko

    2013-03-10

    The development of antiviral agents that have novel mechanisms of action is urgently required in the topical therapy of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections. We reported previously that topical application of branched 3610-Da polyethylenimine (PEI) exhibited preventative antiviral activity. In this study, to develop therapeutic anti-HSV-2 agents, the most potent PEI combined with ~200 nm-sized liposomes with or without oleic acid (liposomes/PEI) was selected in vitro and further evaluated using in vivo studies. The mechanism of action in vivo was elucidated using PEIs with decreased numbers of primary amine residues, resulting from ethylene carbonate treatment, and polyallylamine, a linear polyamine consisting of primary amines. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity in vitro, and the appearance of acute herpetic disease and virus yields in mice intravaginally administered with liposomes/PEI were evaluated in cell culture assays and a mouse genital herpes model, respectively. In addition, the cellular association of liposome/PEI was examined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. PEI showed higher antiviral activity postinfection than preinfection in vivo. Liposome/PEI and PEI with decreased numbers of primary amine residues at a dose of 0.2 mg PEI/mouse exhibited more potent therapeutic antiviral activity than acyclovir and PEI alone without acute lesion appearance or toxicity pre- or postinfection, but polyallylamine was moderately effective only preinfection. Liposome concentrations were important for the effectiveness of liposome/PEI. This finding suggests that PEI combined with liposomes and with slightly decreased numbers of primary amines may be an effective vaginally administrated antiviral drug, and secondary and tertiary amine residues of PEI may contribute to the inhibitory efficiency against viral infection. PMID:23298614

  7. Identification of transformation products of antiviral drugs formed during biological wastewater treatment and their occurrence in the urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Jan; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    The fate of five antiviral drugs (abacavir, emtricitabine, ganciclovir, lamivudine and zidovudine) was investigated in biological wastewater treatment. Investigations of degradation kinetics were accompanied by the elucidation of formed transformation products (TPs) using activated sludge lab experiments and subsequent LC-HRMS analysis. Degradation rate constants ranged between 0.46 L d(-1) gSS(-1) (zidovudine) and 55.8 L d(-1) gSS(-1) (abacavir). Despite these differences of the degradation kinetics, the same main biotransformation reaction was observed for all five compounds: oxidation of the terminal hydroxyl-moiety to the corresponding carboxylic acid (formation of carboxy-TPs). In addition, the oxidation of thioether moieties to sulfoxides was observed for emtricitabine and lamivudine. Antiviral drugs were detected in influents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with concentrations up to 980 ng L(-1) (emtricitabine), while in WWTP effluents mainly the TPs were found with concentration levels up to 1320 ng L(-1) (carboxy-abacavir). Except of zidovudine none of the original antiviral drugs were detected in German rivers and streams, whereas the concentrations of the TPs ranged from 16 ng L(-1) for carboxy-lamivudine up to 750 ng L(-1) for carboxy-acyclovir. These concentrations indicate an appreciable portion from WWTP effluents present in rivers and streams, as well as the high environmental persistence of the carboxy-TPs. As a result three of the carboxylic TPs were detected in finished drinking water. PMID:27082694

  8. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and the immunocompromised: a clinical and autopsy study of HSE in the settings of cancer and human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, D; Rosenblum, M K

    1998-03-01

    Although herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is not regarded as an opportunistic infection, the occurrence of HSE in immunocompromised patients has been documented and the suggestion made that unusual clinical and neuropathologic features characterize the disorder in this population. To further characterize HSE as it affects the immunodeficient, the authors reviewed the clinical and pathological findings in three immunocompromised patients with autopsy-proven HSE. Two patients had cancer (one with lymphoma and another with glioblastoma multiforme), one was known to be human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive and a second was suspected of harboring underlying HIV-1 infection. Two were receiving dexamethasone at onset of HSE. All had fever, mental status changes and new, focal neurological deficits or worsening of established deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis was absent or minimal and head computerized tomographic (CT) scans, performed in all cases, were unrevealing. No patient was clinically suspected of having HSE, only one received acyclovir (for concurrent mucocutaneous herpes) and HSE played a major role in all deaths. Autopsy revealed an unusual form of HSE characterized by a noninflammatory, pseudoischemic histological presentation and the unexpected persistence of viral antigens in abundance despite survival beyond the clinical stage during which inflammatory responses usually peak and productive brain infection wanes. The incidence of HSE in the immunocompromised may be underestimated. Preexistent neurological disease, a noninflammatory CSF profile and negative CT scan may confound the diagnosis in this population, a typical clinical presentation notwithstanding. Increased clinical suspicion, the use of magnetic resonance imaging and polymerase chain reaction analysis of CSF for herpes simplex virus nucleic acid sequences may permit more rapid diagnosis and treatment. The absence of inflammatory infiltrates in some fatal cases of

  9. Pregnancy and sexually transmitted viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections in pregnancy are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for both mother and fetus. Viral STIs occur as surface infection and then gradually infect immunologically protected sites. Therefore, these are asymptomatic, hidden and hence underdiagnosed, persistent and difficult to treat. HSV, HPV, HBV, HIV and CMV (cytomegalovirus are the common ones. Most of these are transmitted during intrapartum period. Proper screening, identification and treatment offered during prenatal period may help in preventing their complications. Twenty five percent of women with a history of genital herpes have an outbreak at some point during the last month of pregnancy. Acyclovir is the accepted efficacious and safe therapy for HSV in pregnancy. Globally, HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Neonatal transmission can occur in the absence of clinically evident lesions. HPV 6 or 11 may lead to Juvenile Onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (JORRP. TCA, liquid nitrogen, laser ablation or electrocautery can be used to treat external genital HPV lesions at any time during pregnancy. Cesarean section is recommended only if the lesions are obstructing the birth canal. Mother to child transmission (MTCT in HIV accounts for 15-30% during pregnancy and delivery, and a further 5-20% of transmission occurs through breastfeeding. HBV infection during pregnancy does not alter the natural course of the disease. In women who are seropositive for both HBsAg and HBeAg, vertical transmission is approximately 90%. Pregnancy is not a contraindication for HBV vaccination. Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most common intrauterine infection. Cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID is the most severe form of congenital CMV infection. Treatment is supportive.

  10. Optimizing antimicrobial therapy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sarah S

    2016-07-01

    Management of common infections and optimal use of antimicrobial agents are presented, highlighting new evidence from the medical literature that enlightens practice. Primary therapy of staphylococcal skin abscesses is drainage. Patients who have a large abscess (>5 cm), cellulitis or mixed abscess-cellulitis likely would benefit from additional antibiotic therapy. When choosing an antibiotic for outpatient management, the patient, pathogen and in vitro drug susceptibility as well as tolerability, bioavailability and safety characteristics of antibiotics should be considered. Management of recurrent staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections is vexing. Focus is best placed on reducing density of the organism on the patient's skin and in the environment, and optimizing a healthy skin barrier. With attention to adherence and optimal dosing, acute uncomplicated osteomyelitis can be managed with early transition from parenteral to oral therapy and with a 3-4 week total course of therapy. Doxycycline should be prescribed when indicated for a child of any age. Its use is not associated with dental staining. Azithromycin should be prescribed for infants when indicated, whilst being alert to an associated ≥2-fold excess risk of pyloric stenosis with use under 6 weeks of age. Beyond the neonatal period, acyclovir is more safely dosed by body surface area (not to exceed 500 mg/m(2)/dose) than by weight. In addition to the concern of antimicrobial resistance, unnecessary use of antibiotics should be avoided because of potential later metabolic effects, thought to be due to perturbation of the host's microbiome. PMID:27263076

  11. [A case of Ramsey Hunt syndrome with multiple cranial nerve paralysis and acute respiratory failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Nakamura, S; Koseki, T; Yamauchi, F; Baba, M; Mikami, M; Kobayashi, R; Fujikawa, T; Nagaoka, S

    1991-08-01

    The authors report a 56-year-old woman with Ramsey Hunt syndrome with multiple cranial nerve paralysis and acute respiratory failure. Five days before admission, she experienced right otalgia and right facial pain and consulted an otolaryngologist of our hospital, who diagnosed the illness as acute parotitis and laryngopharyngitis. One day before admission, she experienced mild dyspnea and general fatigue and came to our hospital emergency room. A chest X-ray film revealed no abnormalities but some blisters were observed around her right ear. The next day, her dyspnea became more severe and she was admitted. A chest X-ray film on admission revealed right lower lobe consolidation, and neurological examination disclosed multiple cranial nerve paralysis, i.e., paralysis of the right fifth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth and left tenth cranial nerve. The serum titer of anti-herpes zoster antibody was elevated to 1,024, and the patient was diagnosed as having Ramsey Hunt syndrome with multiple cranial nerve paralysis. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed hypoxemia with hypercapnea, which was considered to be due to aspiration pneumonia and central airway obstruction caused by vocal cord paralysis. Mechanical ventilation was soon instituted and several antibiotics and acyclovir were administered intravenously, with marked effects. Three months after admission, the patient was discharged with no sequelae except mild hoarseness. Patients with herpes zoster oticus, facial nerve paralysis and auditory symptoms are diagnosed as having Ramsey Hunt syndrome. This case was complicated by lower cranial nerve paralysis and acute respiratory failure, which is very rare.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Docking and Antiherpetic Activity of 2-Aminobenzo[de]-isoquinoline-1,3-diones

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    Rashad Al-Salahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of our search for new compounds having antiviral effects, the prepared 2-aminonaphthalimide series was examined for its activity against the herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2. This represents the first study of the antiviral effects of this class of compounds. The new series of 2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones was examined against HSV-1 and HSV-2 using a cytopathic effect inhibition assay. In terms of effective concentration (EC50, furaldehyde, thiophene aldehyde and allyl isothiocyanide derivatives 14‒16 showed potent activity against HSV-1 (EC50 = 19.6, 16.2 and 17.8 μg/mL, compared to acyclovir as a reference drug (EC50 = 1.8 μg/mL. Moreover, 14 and 15 were found to exhibit valuable activity against HSV-2. Many of the tested compounds demonstrated weak to moderate EC50 values relative to their inactive parent compound (2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione, while compounds 7, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 21 and 22 were the most active set of antiviral compounds throughout this study. The cytotoxicity (CC50, EC50, and the selectivity index (SI values were determined. In a molecular docking study, the ligand-receptor interactions of compounds 1–24 and their parent with the HSV-1 thymidine kinase active site were investigated using the Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD software. Based on the potent anti-HSV properties of the previous naphthalimide condensate products, further exploration of this series of 2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones is warranted.

  13. Inhibition of the host translation shutoff response by herpes simplex virus 1 triggers nuclear envelope-derived autophagy.

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    Radtke, Kerstin; English, Luc; Rondeau, Christiane; Leib, David; Lippé, Roger; Desjardins, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Macroautophagy is a cellular pathway that degrades intracellular pathogens and contributes to antigen presentation. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection triggers both macroautophagy and an additional form of autophagy that uses the nuclear envelope as a source of membrane. The present study constitutes the first in-depth analysis of nuclear envelope-derived autophagy (NEDA). We established LC3a as a marker that allowed us to distinguish between NEDA and macroautophagy in both immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. NEDA was observed in many different cell types, indicating that it is a general response to HSV-1 infection. This autophagic pathway is known to depend on the viral protein γ34.5, which can inhibit macroautophagy via binding to beclin-1. Using mutant viruses, we were able to show that binding of beclin-1 by γ34.5 had no effect on NEDA, demonstrating that NEDA is regulated differently than macroautophagy. Instead, NEDA was triggered in response to γ34.5 binding to protein phosphatase 1α, an interaction used by the virus to prevent host cells from shutting off protein translation. NEDA was not triggered when late viral protein production was inhibited with acyclovir or hippuristanol, indicating that the accumulation of these proteins might stress infected cells. Interestingly, expression of the late viral protein gH was sufficient to rescue NEDA in the context of infection with a virus that otherwise does not support strong late viral protein expression. We argue that NEDA is a cellular stress response triggered late during HSV-1 infection and might compensate for the viral alteration of the macroautophagic response.

  14. Docking and antiherpetic activity of 2-aminobenzo[de]-isoquinoline-1,3-diones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salahi, Rashad; Alswaidan, Ibrahim; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Ezzeldin, Essam; Elaasser, Mahmoud; Marzouk, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    As part of our search for new compounds having antiviral effects, the prepared 2-aminonaphthalimide series was examined for its activity against the herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2. This represents the first study of the antiviral effects of this class of compounds. The new series of 2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones was examined against HSV-1 and HSV-2 using a cytopathic effect inhibition assay. In terms of effective concentration (EC50), furaldehyde, thiophene aldehyde and allyl isothiocyanide derivatives 14‒16 showed potent activity against HSV-1 (EC50 = 19.6, 16.2 and 17.8 μg/mL), compared to acyclovir as a reference drug (EC50 = 1.8 μg/mL). Moreover, 14 and 15 were found to exhibit valuable activity against HSV-2. Many of the tested compounds demonstrated weak to moderate EC50 values relative to their inactive parent compound (2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione), while compounds 7, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 21 and 22 were the most active set of antiviral compounds throughout this study. The cytotoxicity (CC50), EC50, and the selectivity index (SI) values were determined. In a molecular docking study, the ligand-receptor interactions of compounds 1-24 and their parent with the HSV-1 thymidine kinase active site were investigated using the Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD) software. Based on the potent anti-HSV properties of the previous naphthalimide condensate products, further exploration of this series of 2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones is warranted. PMID:25808153

  15. Can herpes simplex virus type 2 suppression slow HIV disease progression: a study protocol for the VALacyclovir In Delaying Antiretroviral Treatment Entry (VALIDATE trial

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    Cahn Pedro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has dramatically decreased HIV-related morbidity and mortality, the associated costs, toxicities, and resistance risks make the potential delay of HAART initiation an attractive goal. Suppression of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 may be a novel strategy for achieving this goal because HSV-2 is associated with clinically significant increases in HIV viral load, the primary driver of HIV disease progression. Methods/Design The VALacyclovir In Delaying Antiretroviral Treatment Entry (VALIDATE trial is a multicentre, randomized, fully blinded, clinical trial of twice daily valacyclovir 500 mg versus placebo for delaying the need for initiating HAART among HIV-1, HSV-2 co-infected HAART-naïve adults. 480 participants from Canada, Brazil and Argentina will undergo quarterly clinical follow-up until reaching the composite primary endpoint of having a CD4+ T-cell count ≤ 350 cells/mm3 or initiation of HAART for any reason, whichever occurs first. The primary analysis will use a proportional hazards model, stratified by site, to estimate the relative risk of progression to this endpoint associated with valacyclovir. Secondary analyses will compare the rates of change in CD4 count, median log10 HIV viral load, drug-related adverse events, frequency of HSV reactivations, rate of acyclovir-resistant HSV, and quality of life between study arms. Discussion Although HIV treatment guidelines continue to evolve, with some authorities recommending earlier HAART among asymptomatic individuals, the potential delay of HAART remains a clinically relevant goal for many. If shown to be of benefit, implementation of the VALIDATE intervention will require careful consideration of both individual patient-level and public health implications. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN66756285 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00860977

  16. Exposure-response relationships and drug interactions of sirolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, James J

    2004-10-15

    Sirolimus (rapamycin, RAPAMUNE, RAPA) is an immunosuppressive agent used for the prophylaxis of renal allograft rejection and exhibits an immunosuppressive mechanism that is distinct from that for cyclosporine and tacrolimus. The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the exposure-response relationships and drug interactions of sirolimus. The various factors affecting sirolimus whole blood exposure included first-pass extraction, formulation, food, demographics, liver disease, assay method, and interacting drugs. Clinically significant effects caused by food, pediatric age, hepatic impairment, and interacting drugs require recommendations for the safe and efficacious use of sirolimus in renal allograft patients. An exposure-response model based on multivariate logistic regression was developed using the interstudy data from 1832 renal allograft patients. The analysis revealed an increased probability of acute rejection for sirolimus troughs or =4, and females. The outcomes suggested that individualization of sirolimus doses immediately after transplantation, based on HLA mismatch and sex, would likely decrease the probability of acute rejections in renal allograft recipients who receive concomitant sirolimus, cyclosporine (full-dose), and corticosteroid therapy. Sirolimus is a substrate for both Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and undergoes extensive first-pass extraction. Drugs that are known to inhibit or induce these proteins may potentially affect sirolimus whole blood exposure. In healthy volunteers, cyclosporine, diltiazem, erythromycin, ketoconazole, and verapamil significantly increased sirolimus whole blood exposure, and rifampin significantly decreased sirolimus exposure. However, sirolimus whole blood exposure was not affected by acyclovir, atorvastatin, digoxin, ethinyl estradiol/norgestrel, glyburide, nifedipine, or tacrolimus. Among the 15 drugs studied, sirolimus significantly increased the exposures of only erythromycin and S-(-)verapamil.

  17. 一株溶藻弧菌噬菌体的生理特性研究%A Study of the Biochemical Characteristics of the Vibrio alginolyticus Bacteriophage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾林; 邱德全; 谢警鸿; 于鸽

    2012-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of a Vibrio alginolyticus Bacteriophage was studied and the Bacteriophage was isolated from market of aquatic products in Zhanjiang. The results showed that the diameter of Bacteriophage plaque was l-1.5mm (12h). Lytic activity of Bacteriophage lost within 30 min when Bacteriophage exposed to UV light (20W, 30cm). Bacteriophage were UV-sensitive. They had strong lytic activity at pH 8 -11, and the optimum pH value was 11. The lytic cycle of them was 65 min. They were sensitive as the ambient temperature was more than 65℃. They were tolerated with ether and chloroform. They were sensitive to antiviral drugs acyclovir. Routine test dilution(RTD) was 106. Optimal multiplicity of infection was 10.%对从湛江市水产品批发市场分离得到一株溶藻弧菌噬菌体的生理特性进行测定,结果表明:该株噬菌体噬菌斑12h直径为1~1.5mm,对紫外线敏感,暴露在紫外灯(20W,30 cm)下30 min可丧失全部裂解活性;在pH8-11范围内裂解活性较强,最适pH值为11,裂解周期为65 min,对65℃以上的高温敏感,对乙醚和氯仿有较好的耐受性,对抗病毒药物阿昔洛韦敏感,最大常规稀释度为106 CFU/mL,最佳感染复数为10.

  18. The choice of regimens based on bortezomib for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

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    Jingsong He

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bortezomib has significantly improved multiple myeloma (MM response rates, but strategies for choosing bortezomib-based regimens for initial MM therapy are not standardized. Here, we describe four bortezomib-based therapies in Chinese MM patients to determine the optimal chemotherapeutic approach. METHODS: Newly diagnosed symptomatic MM patients at three hematological centers between February 1, 2006 and May 31, 2013 were treated with therapies including bortezomib plus dexamethasone (PD or combinations of PD with either adriamycin (PAD, cyclophosphamide (PCD or thalidomide (PTD for every 28 days. RESULTS: The overall response rate of all the 215 eligible patients was 90.2%. The ORR for PCD, PAD, PTD and PD were 97.4%, 93.2%, 85.3% and 77.8% while the effects with VGPR or better were 63.7%, 62.7%, 44.2% and 37.8%, respectively. The effect of ORR, VGPR and CR/nCR for the PCD regimen was better than the PD protocol. Median PFS for all patients was 29.0 months with significant differences observed among treatment groups. Median OS of all the patients was not reached, but three-drug combinations were superior to PD alone. Frequently observed toxicities were neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, fatigue, infection, herpes zoster, and peripheral neuropathy. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy (PN in PTD group was significantly higher than other three groups, especially grade 2-3 PN. Treatment with anti-viral agent acyclovir significantly reduced the incidence of herpes zoster. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience indicated that bortezomib-based regimens were effective and well-tolerated in the Chinese population studied; three-drug combinations PCD, PAD were superior to PD, especially with respect to PCD.

  19. Antivirals reduce the formation of key Alzheimer's disease molecules in cell cultures acutely infected with herpes simplex virus type 1.

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    Matthew A Wozniak

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD afflicts around 20 million people worldwide and so there is an urgent need for effective treatment. Our research showing that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1 is a risk factor for AD for the brains of people who possess a specific genetic factor and that the virus causes accumulation of key AD proteins (β-amyloid (Aβ and abnormally phosphorylated tau (P-tau, suggests that anti-HSV1 antiviral agents might slow AD progression. However, currently available antiviral agents target HSV1 DNA replication and so might be successful in AD only if Aβ and P-tau accumulation depend on viral DNA replication. Therefore, we investigated firstly the stage(s of the virus replication cycle required for Aβ and P-tau accumulation, and secondly whether antiviral agents prevent these changes using recombinant strains of HSV1 that progress only partly through the replication cycle and antiviral agents that inhibit HSV1 DNA replication. By quantitative immunocytochemistry we demonstrated that entry, fusion and uncoating of HSV1, are insufficient to induce Aβ and P-tau production. We showed also that none of the "immediate early" viral proteins is directly responsible, and that Aβ and P-tau are produced at a subsequent stage of the HSV1 replication cycle. Importantly, the anti-HSV1 antiviral agents acyclovir, penciclovir and foscarnet reduced Aβ and P-tau accumulation, as well as HSV1, with foscarnet being less effective in each case. P-tau accumulation was found to depend on HSV1 DNA replication, whereas Aβ accumulation was not. The antiviral-induced decrease in Aβ is attributable to the reduced number of new viruses, and hence the reduction in viral spread. Since antiviral agents reduce greatly Aβ and P-tau accumulation in HSV1-infected cells, they would be suitable for treating AD with great advantage unlike current AD therapies, only the virus, not the host cell, would be targeted.

  20. 重组白细胞介素-2治疗带状疱疹53例疗效观察%The efficacy of recombinant intrleukin-2 treatment of herpes zoster with 53 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王烜; 谭静

    2012-01-01

    Explore the efficacy and safety of recombinant interleukin 2 treatment of herpes zoster. Methods Patients were randomly divided into two groups, Subcutaneous injection of recombinant interleukin-2 treatment groups 100,000 U/ d, Control group oral acyclovir 1600mg sustained-release tablets, 3 times daily. Two sets of courses of up to 10 days. Results Recombinant interleukin-2 in only blisters, pain, the scab time were significantly lower than the control group (P <0.05). Conclusion Herpes zoster treated with recombinant interleukin-2 has small side-effects, work faster, can effectively shorten the course, reduce the incidence of PHN.%目的 探讨重组白细胞介素-2治疗带状疱疹的疗效和安全性.方法 患者随机分为两组,治疗组皮下注射重组白细胞介素-210万U/d,对照组口服阿昔洛韦缓释片1600mg,3次/d.两组疗程均为10d.结果 重组白细胞介素-2在止疱、止痛、结痂时间上均明显低于对照组,P<0.05.结论 重组白细胞介素-2治疗带状疱疹不良反应小,起效较快,能有效缩短病程,降低后遗神经痛的发生率.

  1. The short- and long-term risk of stroke after herpes zoster - a nationwide population-based cohort study.

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    Nandini Sreenivasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Varicella zoster virus (VZV is known to cause VZV vasculopathy, which may be associated with stroke. A recent study found an increased risk of stroke within one year of herpes zoster. We aimed to investigate the short and long-term effects of herpes zoster on the risk of stroke. METHODS: Using Danish national registers, we constructed a cohort consisting of all Danish adults ≥18 years old between 1995 and 2008 (n = 4.6 million; person-years of follow-up = 52.9 million. Individual-level information on prescriptions for herpes zoster antiviral treatment and diagnoses of stroke was obtained from national registers. We compared the risk of stroke in persons who had received the specific dosage of acyclovir for herpes zoster with persons who had never received antiviral treatment by Poisson regression. RESULTS: During follow-up, 2.5% received treatment for herpes zoster and 5.0% were diagnosed with stroke. Individuals who had received medication had a 127% (95% CI 83-182% increased risk the first two weeks, 17% (CI 9-24% between two weeks and one year, and 5% (2-9% after the first year. The increased risk was greatest in the youngest age group (<40. To control for healthcare-seeking behaviour, we conducted parallel analyses investigating the risk of selected fractures after herpes zoster and found no similar increased risks. CONCLUSIONS: This large nationwide cohort study found an increased risk of stroke after treatment for herpes zoster. Although the short-term risk was particularly high, we cannot rule out the possibility of a small but important long-term risk.

  2. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer's disease: increasing evidence for a major role of the virus

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    Ruth Frances Itzhaki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHSV1, when present in brain of carriers of the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE, has been implicated as a major factor in AD. It is proposed that virus is normally latent in many elderly brains but reactivates periodically (as in the peripheral nervous system under certain conditions, for example stress, immunosuppression, and peripheral infection, causing cumulative damage and eventually development of AD. Diverse approaches have provided data that explicitly support, directly or indirectly, these concepts. Several have confirmed HSV1 DNA presence in human brains, and the HSV1-APOE-ε4 association in AD. Further, studies on HSV1-infected APOE-transgenic mice have shown that APOE-e4 animals display a greater potential for viral damage. Reactivated HSV1 can cause direct and inflammatory damage, probably involving increased formation of beta amyloid (Aβ and of AD-like tau (P-tau - changes found to occur in HSV1-infected cell cultures. Implicating HSV1 further in AD is the discovery that HSV1 DNA is specifically localised in amyloid plaques in AD. Other relevant, harmful effects of infection include the following: dynamic interactions between HSV1 and amyloid precursor protein (APP, which would affect both viral and APP transport; induction of toll-like receptors in HSV1-infected astrocyte cultures, which has been linked to the likely effects of reactivation of the virus in brain. Several epidemiological studies have shown, using serological data, an association between systemic infections and cognitive decline, with HSV1 particularly implicated. Genetic studies too have linked various pathways in AD with those occurring on HSV1 infection. In relation to the potential usage of antivirals to treat AD patients, acyclovir (ACV is effective in reducing HSV1-induced AD-like changes in cell cultures, and valacyclovir, the bioactive form of ACV, might be most effective if combined with an antiviral that acts by a different

  3. Effect of combinations of antiviral drugs on herpes simplex encephalitis

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    Bryan M Gebhardt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Bryan M Gebhardt1, Federico Focher2, Richard Eberle3, Andrzej Manikowski4, George E Wright41LSU Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Istituto di Genetica Molecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia, Italy; 3Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA; 4GLSynthesis Inc., Worcester, MA, USAAbstract: 2-Phenylamino-6-oxo-9-(4-hydroxybutylpurine (HBPG is a thymidine kinase inhibitor that prevents encephalitic death in mice caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV types 1 and 2, although its potency is somewhat less than that of acyclovir (ACV. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of combinations of HBPG and either ACV, phosphonoformate (PFA, or cidofovir (CDF against HSV encephalitis. BALB/c mice were given ocular infections with HSV-1 or HSV-2, and treated twice daily intraperitoneally for five days with HBPG, alone or in combination with ACV, PFA, or CDF. Animals were observed daily for up to 30 days, and the day of death of each was recorded. All of the combinations showed additivity, and the combination of HBPG + ACV appeared to be synergistic, ie, protected more mice against HSV-1 encephalitis compared with each drug given alone. Delay of treatment with HBPG for up to two days was still effective in preventing HSV-2 encephalitis. The combination of the thymidine kinase inhibitor HBPG and the antiherpes drug ACV may have synergistic activity against HSV encephalitis. The development of a potent and safe combination therapy for the prevention and/or treatment of HSV infection of the central nervous system can improve the outcome of this infection in humans.Keywords: antivirals, herpetic encephalitis

  4. Expression of herpes simplex virus type 1 recombinant thymidine kinase and its application to a rapid antiviral sensitivity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Tomoyuki; Lixin, Wang; Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Iizuka, Itoe; Ogata, Momoko; Tsuji, Masanori; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Morikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Saijo, Masayuki

    2011-08-01

    Antiviral-resistant herpesvirus infection has become a great concern for immunocompromised patients. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections are treated with viral thymidine kinase (vTK)-associated drugs such as acyclovir (ACV), and most ACV-resistance (ACV(r)) is due to mutations in the vTK. The standard drug sensitivity test is usually carried out by the plaque reduction assay-based method, which requires over 10 days. To shorten the time required, a novel system was developed by the concept, in which 293T cells transiently expressing recombinant vTK derived from the test sample by transfection of the cells with an expression vector were infected with vTK-deficient and ACV(r) HSV-1 (TAR), and then cultured in a maintenance medium with or without designated concentrations of ACV, ganciclovir (GCV) and brivudine (BVdU). The replication of TAR was strongly inhibited by ACV, GCV and BVdU in 293T cells expressing recombinant vTK of the ACV-sensitive HSV-1, whereas replication was not or slightly inhibited in cells expressing the recombinant vTK of highly resistant or intermediately resistant HSV-1, respectively. An inverse correlation was demonstrated in the 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) and inhibitory effects of these compounds on the replication of TAR among ACV(s) and ACV(r) HSV-1 clones. These results indicate that the EC(50)s of the vTK-associated drugs including ACV can be assumed by measuring the inhibitory effect of drugs in 293T cells expressing recombinant vTK of the target virus. The newly developed antiviral sensitivity assay system for HSV-1 makes it possible to estimate EC(50) for vTK-associated drugs, when whole vTK gene is available for use by gene amplification directly from lesion's samples or from virus isolates.

  5. Wild Type p53 gene sensitizes rat C6 glioma cells to HSV-TK/ACV treatment in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Xia, Zhibo; You, Yongping; Pu, Peiyu

    2010-12-01

    Suicide gene therapy using herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-TK)/ganciclovir (GCV), has been extensively tested for the treatment of glioma. Our previous study showed that exogenous wild type p53 (wt-p53) enhanced the anti-tumor effect of HSV-TK/GCV therapy. However, the use of GCV is hindered by its low penetration to the brain and its toxicity when used at higher dose. In the present study, we used another pro-drug, acyclovir (ACV), and examined the therapeutic efficacy of HSV-TK/ACV combining with wt-p53 in C6 glioma cells. We observed that wt-p53 combined with HSV-TK/ACV resulted in the super-additive anti-tumor effect in vitro. Exogenous wt-p53 significantly enhanced the sensitivity of TK positive C6 cells to ACV in vitro. Our in vivo experiment demonstrated that the effect of wt-p53 and HSV-TK/ACV combination therapy was better than that of HSV-TK/ACV alone. The survival time of tumor-bearing rats treated with wt-p53 in combination with HSV-TK/ACV was also significantly prolonged than those treated with HSV-TK/ACV alone. These results suggest that wt-p53 can enhance the therapeutic efficacy of HSV-TK/ACV both in vitro and in vivo. These findings are considerably valuable with the respect of using less toxic ACV as prodrug. This novel strategy could provide benefit to HSV-TK/prodrug gene therapy.

  6. Prevention of herpes simplex virus induced stromal keratitis by a glycoprotein B-specific monoclonal antibody.

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    Adalbert Krawczyk

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of acyclovir (ACV and multidrug-resistant strains in patients with corneal HSV-1 infections leading to Herpetic Stromal Keratitis (HSK is a major health problem in industrialized countries and often results in blindness. To overcome this obstacle, we have previously developed an HSV-gB-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 2c that proved to be highly protective in immunodeficient NOD/SCID-mice towards genital infections. In the present study, we examined the effectivity of mAb 2c in preventing the immunopathological disease HSK in the HSK BALB/c mouse model. Therefore, mice were inoculated with HSV-1 strain KOS on the scarified cornea to induce HSK and subsequently either systemically or topically treated with mAb 2c. Systemic treatment was performed by intravenous administration of mAb 2c 24 h prior to infection (pre-exposure prophylaxis or 24, 40, and 56 hours after infection (post-exposure immunotherapy. Topical treatment was performed by periodical inoculations (5 times per day of antibody-containing eye drops as control, starting at 24 h post infection. Systemic antibody treatment markedly reduced viral loads at the site of infection and completely protected mice from developing HSK. The administration of the antiviral antibody prior or post infection was equally effective. Topical treatment had no improving effect on the severity of HSK. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that mAb 2c proved to be an excellent drug for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections and for prevention of HSK and blindness. Moreover, the humanized counterpart (mAb hu2c was equally effective in protecting mice from HSV-induced HSK when compared to the parental mouse antibody. These results warrant the future development of this antibody as a novel approach for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections in humans.

  7. Nano and microparticulate chitosan-based systems for antiviral topical delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, L; Harris, R; Cordoba-Diaz, M; Elorza, M; Elorza, B; Lenoir, J; Adriaens, E; Remon, J P; Heras, A; Cordoba-Diaz, D

    2013-01-23

    Acyclovir (ACV) is one of the drugs of choice for the treatment of epidermal, ocular or systemic herpetic infections. Nevertheless, its trans-mucosal limited absorption and the scarce contact time of the formulation with the mucosal surface - especially in the ocular mucosa - constitute a big limitation of the antiviral efficiency. The most effective way to solve these problems is to increase the quantity and the residence time of the drug over the ocular surface. In order to cope with all these requirements, micro-particles (MPs) and nano-particles (NPs) containing ACV have been developed using cross-linked chitosan with tripolyphosphate (TPP) due to the biocompatibility, bio-adhesion ability and the potential power as penetration enhancer of this polymer. Particles were characterized by Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, SEM, Zeta potential and particle size. Encapsulation efficiency and release profiles in flow through diffusion cells were also determined. Besides the Slug Mucosal Irritation (SMI) assay has been applied as an alternative to the Draize test to predict the mucosal irritation of the selected formulation. FTIR and X-ray results suggested an electrostatic interaction ACV-Chitosan that made ACV be molecularly dispersed within the polymer matrix. Encapsulation efficiency was 75% for MP and 16% for NP. Release profiles in flow through diffusion cells were also determined. From the diffusion profiles, it was found that the amounts of ACV effectively diffused in 24h were 30, 430 and 80 μg for the ACV solution, MP and NP respectively. SMI results showed that chitosan-based particles induced moderate irritation and mild tissue damage, what supposes that ACV-MP constitute a promising alternative for further development of an antiviral formulation.

  8. Visualizing Compound Distribution during Zebrafish Embryo Development: The Effects of Lipophilicity and DMSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Coco; Beekhuijzen, Manon; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; de Vries-Buitenweg, Selinda; Schoutsen, Dick; Leeijen, Nico; van de Waart, Beppy; Emmen, Harry

    2015-12-01

    The predictability of the zebrafish embryo model is highly influenced by internal exposure of the embryo/larva. As compound uptake is likely to be influenced by factors such as lipophilicity, solvent use, and chorion presence, this article focuses on investigating their effects on compound distribution within the zebrafish embryo. To visualize compound uptake and distribution, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 96 hr, starting at 4 hr postfertilization, to water-soluble dyes: Schiff's reagent (logP -4.63), Giemsa stain (logP -0.77), Van Gierson stain (logP 1.64), Cresyl fast violet (logP 3.5), Eosine Y (logP 4.8), Sudan III (logP 7.5), and Oil red O (logP 9.81), with and without 1% dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO). Three additional compounds were used to analytically determine the uptake and distribution: Acyclovir (logP -1.56), Zidovudine (logP 0.05), and Metoprolol Tartrate Salt (logP 1.8). Examinations were performed every 24 hr. Both methods (visualization and specific analysis) showed that exposure to higher logP values results in higher compound uptake. Specific analysis showed that for lipophilic compounds >90% of compound is taken up by the embryo. For hydrophilic compounds, >90% of compound within the complete egg could not be associated to embryo or chorion and is probably distributed into the perivitelline space. Overall, internal exposure analyses on at least two occasions (i.e., before and after hatching) is crucial for interpretation of zebrafish embryotoxicity data, especially for compounds with extreme logP values. DMSO did not affect exposure when examined with the visualization method, however, this method might be not sensitive enough to draw hard conclusions.

  9. Cryptococcal meningitis post autologous stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaban, S; Wheat, L J; Assi, M

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated Cryptococcus disease occurs in patients with defective T-cell immunity. Cryptococcal meningitis following autologous stem cell transplant (SCT) has been described previously in only 1 patient, 4 months post SCT and while off antifungal prophylaxis. We present a unique case of Cryptococcus meningitis pre-engraftment after autologous SCT, while the patient was receiving fluconazole prophylaxis. A 41-year-old man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma underwent autologous SCT. Post-transplant prophylaxis consisted of fluconazole 400 mg daily, levofloxacin 500 mg daily, and acyclovir 800 mg twice daily. On day 9 post transplant, he developed fever and headache. Peripheral white blood cell count (WBC) was 700/μL. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed lesions consistent with meningoencephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed a WBC of 39 with 77% lymphocytes, protein 63, glucose 38, CSF pressure 20.5 cmH2 O, and a positive cryptococcal antigen. CSF culture confirmed Cryptococcus neoformans. The patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B 5 mg/kg intravenously daily, and flucytosine 37.5 mg/kg orally every 6 h. He was switched to fluconazole 400 mg daily after 3 weeks of amphotericin therapy, with sterilization of the CSF with negative CSFCryptococcus antigen and negative CSF culture. Review of the literature revealed 9 cases of cryptococcal disease in recipients of SCT. Median time of onset was 64 days post transplant. Only 3 meningitis cases were described; 2 of them after allogeneic SCT. Fungal prophylaxis with fluconazole post autologous SCT is recommended at least through engraftment, and for up to 100 days in high-risk patients. A high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose and treat opportunistic infections, especially in the face of immunosuppression and despite adequate prophylaxis. Infection is usually fatal without treatment, thus prompt diagnosis and therapy might be life saving. PMID:24750320

  10. Posterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy following Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus

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    Mohammad Pakravan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report a case of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION following herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old woman with history of recent HZO in her right eye presented with acute painless loss of vision in the same eye to no light perception. Examination revealed a positive relative afferent pupillary defect and a normal appearing optic disc. Inflammatory and infiltrative lesions of the optic nerve were ruled out by laboratory and imaging studies. The patient received systemic acyclovir and prednisolone. Three months later, visual acuity improved to counting fingers, but the optic disc became pale and atrophic leading to a presumptive diagnosis of PION. Considering the positive PCR test for varicella zoster virus and the short time interval between the two presentations, HZO was considered as the most probable cause of the optic neuropathy. CONCLUSION: Herpes zoster ophthalmicus can be associated with PION.

  11. 常用抗生素在体外环境中对血清肿瘤标志物检测的影响%Effects of commonly used antibiotics in vitro environment on detection of serum tumor markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔梅; 邢长永; 甄君

    2011-01-01

    Objeetive To discuss the effects of 11 commonly used antibiotics in vitro environment on the detection of serum tumor markers. Methods To select 50 samples of serum tumor markers and 20 normal serum samples respectively,and to join in the serum of eleven commonly used antibiotics, and to detect AFP, CEA, CA125, CA153 and CA199 five types of tumor markers before and after the content changes by chemiluminescence immunoassay and to analyse the result by using the t-test. Results Joined the penicillin lactic acid sodium, acyclovir, ciprofloxacin and sodium chloride, ceftazidime, cefuroxime sodium, ornidazole tablets, ceph radine, the value of AFP was different after detection (P<0.05). Accession of chloride, ceftazidime, cefuroxime sodium, cephradine, azithromycin dihydrogen phosphate after CEA value differences (P<0. 05). Joined acyclovir, cefuroxime sodium, cephradine, imide cilasatin sodium CA125 after testing was different (P<0.05). In joining the penicillin sodium, cefuroxime sodium, piperacillin sodium and sulbactam sodium(2 : 1),ornidazole tablets,acyclovir CA199 detection value when there was a difference(P<0.05). In joining the penicillin sodium, cefuroxime sodium, piperacillin sodium and sulbactam sodium (2 : 1),ornidazole films, polyimide cilasatin sodium, ceftazidime CA153 detection value after differences ( P< 0. 05 ). Conclusion In most of the 11 commonly used antibiotics on tumor markers except gentamicin sulfate, they have clinical significance to improve the accuracy of tumor markers by exclude drug interference factors.%目的 探讨十一种常用抗生素在体外环境中对血清肿瘤标志物含量的影响.方法 50份肿瘤患者血清和20份正常血清中分别加入11种常用抗生素,采用免疫化学发光法检测AFP、CEA、CA125、CA153和CA199五种肿瘤标志物前后含量的变化,采用 T检验进行统计学分析.结果 加入青霉素钠、阿昔洛韦、乳酸环丙沙星氯化钠、头孢他啶、头孢呋辛

  12. 聚合酶链反应在器官移植受者人类疱疹病毒6型感染检测中的应用%Application of polymerase chain reaction in the detection of HHV-6 infection in organ transplant recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗敏华; 施凯; 肖扬名; 齐范; 毛学政; 刘水平; 孙颖; 李闻文; 张向阳

    1999-01-01

    目的 探讨器官移植受者人类疱疹病毒6型(HHV-6)感染的诊断方法.方法 应用聚合酶链反应(PCR)技术,检测31例器官移植受者术前1周、术后16天及10例移植术后发热时的外周血单个核细胞(PBMCs)中的HHV-6 DNA.结果 术前7例和术后19例的PBMCs中检测出HHV-6 DNA,10例发热患者中8例HHV-6 DNA阳性.对10例发热患者用阿昔洛韦治疗,8例症状得到控制,2例死亡.结论 应用PCR技术检测HHV-6感染具有简便、快速、准确、特异性高等优点,可作为器官移植受者HHV-6感染的诊断手段.%Objective To explore the diagnosis of human herpesvirus 6(HHV-6)infection in organ transplant recipients.Methods HHV-6 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs)in 31 organ transplant recipients was detected 1 week before transplantation and 16 days after transplantation by using polymerase chain reaction(PCR).Results HHV-6 DNA in PBMCs was detectable in 19 cases after operation and 7 before operation among the 31 cases respectively,and 8 out of 10 recipients with fever after operation were positive for HHV-6 DNA.The 10 recipients with fever were treated by anti-virus chemotherapy(acyclovir),8 out of 10 were effective.Conclusion PCR amplification is a suitable method to diagnose and monitor HH-6 infection.The method is simple,rapid,sensitive(sensitivity 97%),and specific(specificity 98%).

  13. [Meningoencephalitis caused by West Nile virus in a renal transplant recipient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertilav, Muhittin; Ozkul, Aykut; Zeytinoğlu, Ayşın; Sen, Sait; Sipahi, Savaş; Töz, Hüseyin; Kitiş, Omer; Eraslan, Cenk

    2014-10-01

    -RNA positivity in CSF. This time cyclosporin was stopped, MMF was given in low dose (1 g/day), and high dose parenteral acyclovir and intravenous immunoglobulin (400 mg/kg/day, 7 days) were initiated. The patient recovered completely after 10 days without any neurological abnormalities. In conclusion, especially in endemic areas, WNV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CNS infections develop in solid organ transplant cases and patients with other immunodeficiencies who present with fever, generalized myalgia, gastrointestinal symptoms and/or neurological disorders. PMID:25492663

  14. Clinical Observation of FMD Regimen:Fludarabine,Mitoxantrone, Dexamethasone, in Treatment of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqing Lii; Jianmin Wang; Xianmin Song; Li Chen; Weiping Zhang; Jun Hou; Xiaoqian Xu; Chongmei Huang; Jianmin Yang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical effectivity and toxicity of the regimen FMD (fludarabine, mitoxantrone, dexamethasone)in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. METHODS Thirty-two patients, twenty-four of whom had indolent B-cell lymphoma,6 peripheral T-cell lymphoma, two diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, received FMD. Treatment comprised: fludarabine 25-30 mg/m2 days 1-3, mitoxantrone 8-10 mg/m2day 1, and dexamethasone 20-30 mg/m2 days 1-5.At the same time, patients received prophylaxis against conditional infection with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluconazole, acyclovir and immunoglobulin. RESULTS of the thirty-two patients treated, the complete Response(CR)rate, partial response(PR)rate and overall response (OR)rate were 56.3%,21.9%and 78.2%respectively.The CR and OR rate of 24 patients with indolent B-cell lymphoma were 66.7%and 88.3%respectively.Two of six patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma were of complete response type and one was of partial response type. One of two patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was partial response. The dominating toxicity was myelotoxicity and immunotoxicity. There was no treatment associated death in all patients treated with FMD. Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 43.8%patients,12.5%patients had infections and 9.3%developed grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia. At a median follow-up of 24(5~54)months, the 2-year overall-survival rate and progression-free survival rate were(87.5±1.4)%and(83.3 ±1.6)%respectively. The 2-year OS and PFS rates of the indolent group were (93.75±6.25)%and(87.5±8.54)%. CONCLUSION FMD regimen was highly effective with low toxicity in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, especially in indolent B-cell lymphoma. It also helps to improve the prognosm even in some aggressive lymphoma, such as peripheral T cell lymphoma.

  15. Chickenpox pneumonia. Case presentation. Dora Ngiza hospital, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Neumonia varicelosa. Presentacion de caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilen Ochoa Tamayo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is an exanthematic highly infectious disease produced by the Varicella zoster virus (VZV, commonly occurs in childhood, 90% of cases occurred in children under 12 years of age, 10% of the population over 15 years is susceptible to suffer it. It is an airborne illness, the inhale virus cause an infection in the initial respiratory epithelium, the virus spreads to distant cells of the reticuloendothelial system, finally, there is a state of viremia with skin lesions, although the spread can also be extended to the viscera. The deterioration of the cell-mediated immunity caused by coexisting diseases, HIV infection, cancer, hemato-oncology illnesses, steroid use, as well as advanced age, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hemorrhagic nature of the Skin lesions, are risk factors for developing Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. In this article we describe a case of chickenpox in a young HIV positive patient complicated with Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. Despite of the treatment with acyclovir, prednisone and supportive measures had a fatal outcome.La varicela es una infección exantemática producida por el virus Varicela zoster (VZV que comúnmente ocurre en la infancia. Se reporta el 90 % de los casos en niños menores de 12 años, el 10 % de la población mayor de 15 años es susceptible a padecerla. La enfermedad se adquiere por inhalación de partículas que contienen el virus y que son expulsadas por la nasofaringe de individuos infectados. Esto causa una infección inicial en el epitelio respiratorio. El virus se disemina a células distantes del sistema retículo endotelial y, finalmente, se produce un estado de viremia con manifestaciones en la piel, aunque la diseminación también se puede extender a las vísceras. El deterioro de la inmunidad celular ocasionado por enfermedades coexistentes, infección por VIH, cáncer, enfermedad hemato-oncológica, uso de esteroides, así como, la edad avanzada, el hábito de fumar

  16. Neurological complications of chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the neurological complications of chickenpox with prognosis. Background: The neurological complications occur in 0.03% of persons who get chickenpox. There is no universal vaccination against chicken pox in India. Most patients prefer alternate modalities of treatment. Hence these complications of chickenpox are likely to continue to occur. Study Design: A prospective study was conducted for 2 years (from March 2002 on the admitted cases with neurological complications after chickenpox (with rash or scar. Patients were investigated with CT/MRI, CSF study, EEG and nerve conduction studies and hematological workup. They were followed-up for 1 year and outcome assessed using modified Rankin scale. Results: The latency for the neurological complications was 4-32 days (mean: 16.32 days. There were 18 cases: 10 adults (64% and 8 children (36%. Cerebellar ataxia (normal CT/MRI was observed in 7 cases (32% (mean age: 6.85 years. One patient (6 years had acute right hemiparesis in the fifth week due to left capsular infarct. All these cases spontaneously recovered by 4 weeks. The age range of the adult patients was 13-47 years (mean: 27 years. The manifestations included cerebellar and pyramidal signs (n-4 with features of demyelination in MRI who recovered spontaneously or with methylprednisolone by 8 weeks. Patient with encephalitis recovered in 2 weeks with acyclovir. Guillain Barre syndrome of the demyelinating type (n-2 was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and they had a slow recovery by a modified Rankin scale (mRs score of 3 and 2 at 6 months and 1 year, respectively. One case died after hemorrhage into the occipital infarct. There were two cases of asymmetrical neuropathy, one each of the seventh cranial and brachial neuritis. Conclusion: Spontaneous recovery occurs in post-chickenpox cerebellar ataxia. Rarely, serious complications can occur in adults. The demyelinating disorders, either of the central or peripheral

  17. Latent Virus Reactivation: From Space to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of latent viruses is a recognized consequence of decreased immunity. More recently viral reactivation has been identified as an important in vivo indicator of clinically relevant immune changes. Viral reactivation can be determined quickly and easily by the presence of virus in saliva and other body fluids. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive and specific molecular method to detect the presence of specific viral DNA. Studies in astronauts demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate at rates above normal during and after spaceflight in response to moderately decreased T-cell immunity. This technology was expanded to patients on Earth beginning with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) immuno-compromised patients. The HIV patients shed EBV in saliva at rates 9-fold higher than observed in astronauts demonstrating that the level of EBV shedding reflects the severity of impaired immunity. Whereas EBV reactivation is not expected to produce serious effects in astronauts on missions of 6 months or less, VZV reactivation in astronauts could produce shingles. Reactivation of live, infectious VZV in astronauts with no symptoms was demonstrated in astronauts during and after spaceflight. We applied our technology to study VZV-induced shingles in patients. In a study of 54 shingles patients, we showed salivary VZV was present in every patient on the day antiviral (acyclovir) treatment was initiated. Pain and skin lesions decreased with antiviral treatment. Corresponding decreases in levels of VZV were also observed and accompanied recovery. Although the level of VZV in shingles patients before the treatment was generally higher than those found in astronauts, lower range of VZV numbers in shingles patients overlapped with astronaut s levels. This suggests a potential risk of shingles to astronauts resulting from reactivation of VZV. In

  18. HIV positive patient with HSV-2 encephalitis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliano, Pasquale; Ascione, Tiziana; Carleo, Maria Aurora; Boccia, Giovanni; De Caro, Francesco; Tortora, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Incidence of brain infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients is reduced after the availability of current high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is an infrequent cause of encephalitis in HIV patients despite it is frequently involved in sexual transmitted infections. Here, we report a case of HSV-2 encephalitis occurring in a patient without full suppression of HIV replication within the brain. A 38 year-old HIV infected man was admitted to our department because of recurrent generalized seizure and fever during the previous 24 hours. Eight months before our observation the patient was switched from a protease inhibitor based regimen to a rilpivirine-based regimen without any evidence of HIV-RNA replication in the plasma. When the patient was admitted in our hospital, he was febrile and moderately confused, no deficit of cranial nerves was reported, motility was conserved, but he was unable to walk. Laboratory examinations performed at admission demonstrated an increase of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and cells with lymphocyte prevalence, and normal CSF glucose. HSV-2-DNA and HIV-RNA were present within CSF at admission. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance imaging of the brain revealed lesions of the medial part of both temporal lobes including hippocampus without any sign of bleeding. A 21-day course of acyclovir therapy was administered with consistent improvement of clinical findings and disappearance of HSV-2-DNA within CSF. After the episode, HAART was switched to a regimen with high CSF penetrability containing abacavir, lamivudine, darunavir and ritonavir. Twelve months after HSV-2 encephalitis neurologic evaluation was normal, but symptoms of depression were reported, HIV-RNA remained undetectable both in the plasma and CSF, and CD4+ lymphocytes were above 500/μL. No opportunistic infection was reported. Patients switched to regimen well tolerated such those containing rilpivirine, that have

  19. A primary neuron culture system for the study of herpes simplex virus latency and reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Mariko; Kim, Ju-Youn; Camarena, Vladimir; Roehm, Pamela C; Chao, Moses V; Wilson, Angus C; Mohr, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) establishes a life-long latent infection in peripheral neurons. This latent reservoir is the source of recurrent reactivation events that ensure transmission and contribute to clinical disease. Current antivirals do not impact the latent reservoir and there are no vaccines. While the molecular details of lytic replication are well-characterized, mechanisms controlling latency in neurons remain elusive. Our present understanding of latency is derived from in vivo studies using small animal models, which have been indispensable for defining viral gene requirements and the role of immune responses. However, it is impossible to distinguish specific effects on the virus-neuron relationship from more general consequences of infection mediated by immune or non-neuronal support cells in live animals. In addition, animal experimentation is costly, time-consuming, and limited in terms of available options for manipulating host processes. To overcome these limitations, a neuron-only system is desperately needed that reproduces the in vivo characteristics of latency and reactivation but offers the benefits of tissue culture in terms of homogeneity and accessibility. Here we present an in vitro model utilizing cultured primary sympathetic neurons from rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) (Figure 1) to study HSV-1 latency and reactivation that fits most if not all of the desired criteria. After eliminating non-neuronal cells, near-homogeneous TrkA(+) neuron cultures are infected with HSV-1 in the presence of acyclovir (ACV) to suppress lytic replication. Following ACV removal, non-productive HSV-1 infections that faithfully exhibit accepted hallmarks of latency are efficiently established. Notably, lytic mRNAs, proteins, and infectious virus become undetectable, even in the absence of selection, but latency-associated transcript (LAT) expression persists in neuronal nuclei. Viral genomes are maintained at an average copy number of 25 per neuron

  20. Diagnostic and prognostic value of procalcitonin levels in patients with Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicaslan, Saffet; Uluyol, Sinan; Gur, Mehmet Hafit; Arslan, Ilker Burak; Yagiz, Ozlem

    2016-06-01

    Inflammation is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Bell's palsy (BP). Procalcitonin (PCT) is currently among the most frequently used proinflammatory biomarkers in clinical practice. In this study, we assessed the serum PCT levels for predicting the severity and prognosis of BP. In total, 32 patients with House-Brackmann (HB) grade II and III BP (low-grade group), 22 patients with HB grade IV and V (high-grade group) and 35 healthy individuals (control group) were included in this prospective study. PCT levels were compared among these three groups at the time of diagnosis. All patients received standard prednisolone and acyclovir treatment. The correlation between PCT levels and recovery was analyzed 3 months after treatment. The PCT levels for control, low-grade and high-grade BP groups were 0.01 ± 0.001, 0.35 ± 0.05, and 0.98 ± 0.41 ng/mL, respectively. The PCT level in low-grade group was significantly higher than that in control group (p < 0.001), and the PCT level in high-grade BP group was significantly higher than that in low-grade group (p = 0.01, p < 0.05). The complete recovery rate was 93.7 % in low-grade and 54.5 % in high-grade BP group (p = 0.015, p < 0.05). There was a strong negative correlation between PCT levels and recovery rates (r = -0.896, p < 0.001). PCT levels were significantly associated with the severity of BP and higher PCT levels were related with poor clinical outcome in terms of recovery. These results support the diagnostic and prognostic significance of PCT in patients with early BP. PMID:26894418

  1. Involvement of p63 in the herpes simplex virus-1-induced demise of corneal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mándi Yvette

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor p63 plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of epithelial tissues, including the ocular surface. In an effort to gain insight into the pathogenesis of keratitis caused by HSV-1, we determined the expression patterns of the p63 and Bax proteins in the Staatens Seruminstitute Rabbit Cornea cell line (SIRC. Methods SIRC cells were infected with HSV-1 at various multiplicities and maintained for different periods of time. Virus replication was measured by indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blot analysis. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The apoptotic response of the infected cells was quantified by ELISA detecting the enrichment of nucleosomes in the cytoplasm. Western blot analysis was used to determine the levels of p63 and Bax proteins. Results Indirect immunofluorescence assays and Western blot analyses demonstrated the presence of HSV-1 glycoprotein D (gD in the infected SIRC cell line, and the pattern of gD expression was consistent with efficient viral replication. The results of MTT and ELISA assays showed that HSV-1 elicited a strong cytopathic effect, and apoptosis played an important role in the demise of the infected cells. Mock-infected SIRC cells displayed the constitutive expression of ΔNp63α. The expressions of the Bax-β and TAp63γ isoforms were considerably increased, whereas the level of ΔNp63α was decreased in the HSV-1-infected SIRC cells. Experiments involving the use of acyclovir showed that viral DNA replication was necessary for the accumulation of TAp63γ. Conclusion These data suggest that a direct, virus-mediated cytopathic effect may play an important role in the pathogenic mechanism of herpetic keratitis. By disturbing the delicate balance between the pro-survival ΔN and the pro-apoptotic TA isoforms, HSV-1 may cause profound alterations in the viability of the ocular cells and in the tissue homeostasis of the ocular surface.

  2. Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with haematological malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To report the initial data on allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for haematogical malignancies in Pakistan. Patients and Methods: Patients with haematological malignancies were included who had received allogeneic PBSC transplantation of Filgrastim (rhG-CSF) mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from HLA-identical siblings (except one 5/6 antigen sibling) with Busulphan and Cyclophosphamide standard conditioning therapy in all patients. No patient received antibiotics for gut decontamination. Empirical antibiotics included Ceftriaxone and Amikacin for febrile neutropenia, oral Itraconazole for antifungal prophylaxis while oral acyclovir was used for antiviral prophylaxis. All donors and recipients were CMV IgG positive Cyclosporin A / Methotrexate were given for graft versus host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis. Stem cells were harvested using Haemonetics MCS+ cell separator. All patients received G-CSF starting from day +4 until their neutrophil count rose to normal. Results: There were 21 patients with age range of 8-38 years and male to female ratio of 2:1. Engraftment was achieved in all patients; median time to absolute neutrophil count of > 0.5 x 10/sup 9/I was 10 days (range 8 -12 days) and platelet count of > 20 x 10/sup 9/1 was 14 days (12-17 days). Acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) was seen in 7 patients; one patient had grade IV skin and hepatic GvHD; another patient had grade III gut GvHD, grade II GvHD was seen in 3 patients while grade I skin aGvHD was seen in 2 patients. Median hospital stay was 34 days. Treatment related mortality was seen in 3 patients (18%). Chronic GvHD was seen in 5 patients. Four more patients died during the follow-up period. Malaria was seen in 2 while tuberculosis developed in one case. Relapse was seen in 2 patients. The estimated probability of survival at one hundred day, at one year and five years was 82, 47 and 40 percent respectively. Conclusion: Haematopoietic stem cell transplant

  3. 重症病毒性肺炎的抗病毒治疗%Antiviral therapy for severe viral pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪惠洁; 张育才

    2015-01-01

    儿童重症病毒性肺炎病因主要包括腺病毒、呼吸道合胞病毒、流感病毒A和B型、巨细胞病毒等.新型病毒如甲型H1N1流感病毒、禽流感病毒(H5N1、H7N9)等也可能引起流行.利巴韦林是治疗呼吸道合胞病毒、腺病毒肺炎等的有效药物.阿昔洛韦或更昔洛韦常用于EB病毒或免疫缺陷和免疫抑制患者的巨细胞病毒肺炎.目前认为流感和季节性流感尽早使用神经氨酸酶抑制剂(neuraminidase inhibitor,NAI)奥司他韦,可减轻流感样症状、缩短发热时间,减少流感合并症.耐药或口服困难时使用扎那米韦和帕拉米韦.某些中药制剂如麻杏石甘汤-银翘散等治疗流感病毒感染可以获得类似于奥司他韦的效果.%Adenovirus,respiratory syncytial virus,influenza virus type A and B,cytomegalovirus and EB virus are the mainly etiology of severe pneumonia in children.New type of virus,such as influenza-H1N1 virus,avian influenza virus(H5N1 or H7N9) can also be epidemic in pediatric population.Ribavirin is effective drugs in the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus pneumonia.Acyclovir or ganciclovir is used for EB virus or immune deficiency and irnmunosuppressive patients with CMV pneumonia.Current opinin strongly recommend treatment with oral oseltamivir as soon as possible in influenza and seasonal influenza.Oseltamivir reduces the severity,duration of the symptoms of influenza,and reduces the frequency of secondary illnesses and exacerbation of underlying conditions.Zanamivir and peramivir may be effective in patients infected with influenza virus,including oseltamivir-resistant virus.Some Chinese medicine such as maxingshigan-yinqiaosan can obtain similar effect of oseltamivir in treatment of influenza virus infection.

  4. Otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Do otoacoustic emissions have prognostic value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Amiridavan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is a perplexing condition for patients and there are many controversies about its etiology, audiologic characteristics, prognostic factors, and treatment. METHODS: In this prospective study, we performed some audiologic tests, including PTA, IA, ABR, and OAE (TEOAE before beginning treatment of 53 patients with SSNHL. We assigned the patients randomly to two treatment groups: oral steroids + acyclovir vs. intravenous urographin. Twenty-eight patients underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the Brain. RESULTS: Of 53 patients (22 female and 31 male, 22 (41.5% had negative or no signal to noise ratio and overall correlation in TEOAE. Twenty-six patients (49% had positive overall correlations less than 50%, and 5 patients (4.4% had overall correlations >50%. Fifteen patients (28. 3% responded completely or well, 20 (37.7% responded partially, and 18 (33.9% had poor or no response to the treatment. The mean values for overall correlation in 3 subgroups of patients (no response, partial response, and complete response were – 3. 5% (+ 1/16%, +11% (+ 1/99%, and +36.6% (+3/07%, respectively (P = 0.01. Twenty out of 52 patients had no reproducible wave in ABR (38.5%, and waves I, III, and V were absent in 40 (77%, 31 (59.6% and 21 (40% patients, respectively. There were some limitations (false positive and false negative results in ABR use in our cases, but it may be useful in detecting site of lesion in SSNHL. Overall, according to the results of OAE, ABR, and brain MRI of these patients, 3 were affected by acoustic neurinomas, at least 1 had auditory neuropathy, and the site of lesion was cochlear in 6, and cochlear + retrocochlear in 13 patients. CONCLUSIONS: ABR has limitations for use in SSNHL and seems not to obviate the need for brain MRI, but may help in determining the site of lesions such as ischemia or neuropathy. Overall correlation (and S/N ratio in TEOAE is a valuable

  5. The lantibiotic peptide labyrinthopeptin A1 demonstrates broad anti-HIV and anti-HSV activity with potential for microbicidal applications.

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    Geoffrey Férir

    Full Text Available Lantibiotics are peptides, produced by bacteria, that contain the noncanonical amino acid lanthionine and many of them exhibit antibacterial activities. The labyrinthopeptin A1 (LabyA1 is a prototype peptide of a novel class of carbacyclic lantibiotics. Here, we extensively evaluated its broad-spectrum activity against HIV and HSV in vitro, studied its mechanism of action and evaluated potential microbicidal applications. LabyA1 exhibited a consistent and broad anti-HIV activity (EC50s: 0.70-3.3 µM and anti-HSV activity (EC50s: 0.29-2.8 µM in cell cultures. LabyA1 also inhibited viral cell-cell transmission between persistently HIV-infected T cells and uninfected CD4(+ T cells (EC50∶2.5 µM and inhibited the transmission of HIV captured by DC-SIGN(+-cells to uninfected CD4(+ T cells (EC50∶4.1 µM. Time-of-drug addition studies revealed that LabyA1 acts as an entry inhibitor against HIV and HSV. Cellular and virus binding studies combined with SPR/FLIPR technology showed that LabyA1 interacted with the HIV envelope protein gp120, but not with the HIV cellular receptors. LabyA1 also demonstrated additive to synergistic effects in its anti-HIV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity with anti(retroviral drugs in dual combinations such as tenofovir, acyclovir, saquinavir, raltegravir and enfuvirtide. LabyA1 can be considered as a novel lead peptide as it had profound antiviral activity against HIV and HSV. Pre-treatment of PBMCs with LabyA1 neither increased the expression of the activation markers CD69 and CD25, nor enhanced HIV replication, nor significantly induced various inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. LabyA1 also did not affect the growth of vaginal Lactobacilli populations. Based on the lack of toxicity on the vaginal Lactobacillus strains and its synergistic/additive profile in combination with clinically approved anti(retrovirals, it deserves further attention as a potential microbicide candidate in the prevention of sexual transmitted diseases.

  6. HIV positive patient with HSV-2 encephalitis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliano, Pasquale; Ascione, Tiziana; Carleo, Maria Aurora; Boccia, Giovanni; De Caro, Francesco; Tortora, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Incidence of brain infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients is reduced after the availability of current high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is an infrequent cause of encephalitis in HIV patients despite it is frequently involved in sexual transmitted infections. Here, we report a case of HSV-2 encephalitis occurring in a patient without full suppression of HIV replication within the brain. A 38 year-old HIV infected man was admitted to our department because of recurrent generalized seizure and fever during the previous 24 hours. Eight months before our observation the patient was switched from a protease inhibitor based regimen to a rilpivirine-based regimen without any evidence of HIV-RNA replication in the plasma. When the patient was admitted in our hospital, he was febrile and moderately confused, no deficit of cranial nerves was reported, motility was conserved, but he was unable to walk. Laboratory examinations performed at admission demonstrated an increase of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and cells with lymphocyte prevalence, and normal CSF glucose. HSV-2-DNA and HIV-RNA were present within CSF at admission. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance imaging of the brain revealed lesions of the medial part of both temporal lobes including hippocampus without any sign of bleeding. A 21-day course of acyclovir therapy was administered with consistent improvement of clinical findings and disappearance of HSV-2-DNA within CSF. After the episode, HAART was switched to a regimen with high CSF penetrability containing abacavir, lamivudine, darunavir and ritonavir. Twelve months after HSV-2 encephalitis neurologic evaluation was normal, but symptoms of depression were reported, HIV-RNA remained undetectable both in the plasma and CSF, and CD4+ lymphocytes were above 500/μL. No opportunistic infection was reported. Patients switched to regimen well tolerated such those containing rilpivirine, that have

  7. Separation of bases,phenols and pharmaceuticals on ionic liquid-modified silica stationary phase with pure water as mobile phase%咪唑离子液体键合硅胶固定相纯水洗脱分离碱基、酚类和药物化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭生; 邱洪灯; 刘霞; 蒋生祥

    2011-01-01

    采用N-甲基咪唑和氯丙基咪唑反应的方法制备得到了离子液体键合硅胶固定相,并利用该固定相中的咪唑环阳离子和被分析物之间存在的多重作用机理如疏水作用、静电吸引和排斥及氧键作用等,以纯水作为流动相,成功地分离了碱基(胞嘧啶、胸腺嘧啶、2-氨基嘧啶和6-氯鸟嘌呤)、酚类化合物(间氨基酚、间苯二酚和间硝基酚)以及3种药物化合物(盐酸吗啉呱、阿昔洛韦和头孢氨苄).采用没有添加任何有机溶剂和缓冲液的纯水作流动相,既绿色环保,又节约经济,简单方便.对该固定相分离这些化合物的保留机理做了探讨.%N-methylimidazolium ionic liquid(IL)-modified silica was prepared with the reaction of 3-chloropropyl modified silica and N-methylimidazole using toluene as solvent. Based on the multiple interactions between N-methylimidazolium IL-modified silica and analytes such as hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic attraction, repulsion interaction, hydrogen-bonding,etc., the bases (cytosine, thymine, 2-aminopyrimidine and 6-chloroguanine ), phenols (m-aminophenol, resorcinol and m-nitrophenol) and three pharmaceuticals (moroxydine hydrochloride, acyclovir and cephalexin hydrate) were separated successfully with only pure water as the mobile phase. These chromatographic separations are environmental friendly, economical and convenient, without any organic solvent or buffer additive. The retention mechanism of these samples on the stationary phase was also investigated.

  8. Recent developments in anti-herpesvirus drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hugh J; Vere Hodge, R Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpesviruses notably establish lifelong infections, with latency and reactivation. Many of the known human herpesviruses infect large proportions of the population worldwide. Treatment or prevention of herpes infections and recurrent disease still pose a challenge in the 21st century. Sources of data Original papers and review articles, meeting abstracts, a book (Clinical Virology; DD Richman, RJ Whitley & FG Hayden eds) and company web sites. Areas of agreement For herpes simplex types 1 and 2 and for varicella zoster, acyclovir (ACV; now increasingly replaced by its prodrug valacyclovir, VACV) and famciclovir (FCV) have greatly reduced the burden of disease and have established a remarkable safety record. Drug-resistance, in the otherwise healthy population, has remained below 0.5% after more that 20 years of antiviral use. In immunocompromised patients, drug resistance is more common and alternative drugs with good safety profiles are desirable. For human cytomegalovirus disease, which occurs in immunocompromised patients, ganciclovir and increasingly its prodrug valganciclovir are the drugs of choice. However, alternative drugs, with better safety, are much needed. Areas of controversy Various questions are highlighted. Should the new 1-day therapies for recurrent herpes labialis and genital herpes replace the current standard multi-day therapies? The marked differences between VACV and FCV (e.g. triphosphate stability, effect on latency) may not yet be fully exploited? Do current antivirals reduce post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN)? For immunocompromised patients with varicella zoster virus (VZV) disease, should the first-line treatment be FCV, not ACV or VACV? Should there be more support to explore new avenues for current antivirals, for example in possibly reducing herpes latency or Alzheimer's disease (AD)? Should primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) disease in adolescents be treated with antivirals? How can new compounds be progressed when the

  9. EVALUATION OF GLYCOLIPIDS OF SOME EGYPTIAN MARINE ALGAE AS A SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES

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    El Baroty Gamal S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipids in five species of marine algae: two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea; and one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria collected from Red and Mediterranean sea, respectively were extracted, purified on silica gel column chromatography and identified by liquid chromatography MS/MS. Total glycolipid contents (GL (as % of total lipid were found to be in ranges 10.9 to 28.7%. T. atomaria had the highest level (28.7% followed by L. popillose (22.5 %. GL groups were analyzed for their sugars and fatty acids composition, and the result showed that the highest carbohydrate content of GLs were found in U. fasciata (6.05% and L. popillose (5.8%, and characterized by high content of monosaccharide: mannouronic acid, galactose and rhamnose. Amongst of the glycolipids of algal species, the most predominate fatty acid identified by GC were palmatic (C16:0 19.20 - 65.89% of total fatty acid, ecosatrienoic (C20:3 7.52 - 54.41%. GL analyzed by LC/MS/MS, revealed the peak at m/z 956 corresponding to the molecular formula of C51H104O17 was the most abundant molecular ion among all GLs of algal species and its fragments peaks at m/z 617(C37H58O4 and m/z 337 (C21H58O3, were tentatively identified as digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG. The in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of algal glycolipids were evaluated. GL of all algae species showed a remarkable antiviral activity in dose dependent manner. GL from D. fasciola has shown the most potent effect against HSV1 (IC50 of 10 µg/ml, comparable to that of the current antiviral drug acyclovir (IC50 55 µg/ml. On the other hand, GL of all algal species possessed a moderate antimicrobial activity. GL of T. atomaria exhibited a high inhibition effects against all test microorganisms, with MIC value ranged from 60 to 80 µg/ml. Moreover, all algal GL exhibited remarkable anticancer activities

  10. Preparation and ocular retention of aciclovir chitosan eye-drops%阿昔洛韦壳聚糖滴眼液的制备及眼部滞留性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田鹏程; 王军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study acyclovir (ACV) eye-drops by using chitosan (CS) as the adhesive to prolong the ocular retention.Methods The formula and preparation process of the eye-drops were made,and the quality including appearance,viscosity,pH,concentration and stability was studied.Rabbits as the testing animals,the eye irritation and retention were also observed.Results Compared with that of common ACV eye-drops,the viscosity of ACV-CS eye-drops increased significantly (1.8 × 10-2 Pa · s),and the ocular retention was prolonged (above 60 min)without any irritation (irritation score of 0.25).Conclusion ACV-CS eye-drops are promising with the properties of easy preparation,safe application and prolonged ocular retention.%目的 研制阿昔洛韦(ACV)-壳聚糖(CS)滴眼液,以延长阿昔洛韦的眼部滞留性.方法 以CS为增黏剂制备ACV-CS滴眼液,并对其性状、黏度、pH值、含量、稳定性等进行检测;以家兔为实验动物,分别考察ACV-CS滴眼液的眼部滞留性和眼部刺激性.结果 ACV-CS滴眼液的性状、黏度、pH值、含量、稳定性等均符合要求;与普通ACV滴眼液相比,ACV-CS滴眼液的黏性(1.8×10-2 Pa·s)显著增加,对兔眼部无明显刺激性,刺激反应评分为0.25,并显著延长眼部滞留时间(60 min以上).结论 本品制备简单,使用安全,具有较好的眼部滞留作用,值得进一步研究.

  11. Cytotoxicity and potential antiviral evaluation of violacein produced by Chromobacterium violaceum

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    CR Andrighetti-Fröhner

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are an inexhaustible source of compounds with promising pharmacological activities including antiviral action. Violacein, the major pigment produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, has been shown to have antibiotic, antitumoral and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activities. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of violacein and also its potential antiviral properties.The cytotoxicity of violacein was investigated by three methods: cell morphology evaluation by inverted light microscopy and cell viability tests using the Trypan blue dye exclusion method and the MTT assay. The cytotoxic concentration values which cause destruction in 50% of the monolayer cells (CC50 were different depending on the sensitivity of the method. CC50 values were > 2.07 ± 0.08 µM for FRhK-4 cells: > 2.23 ± 0.11 µM for Vero cells; > 2.54 ± 0.18 µM for MA104 cells; and > 2.70 ± 0.20 µM for HEp-2 cells. Violacein showed no cytopathic inhibition of the following viruses: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 strain 29-R/acyclovir resistant, hepatitis A virus (strains HM175 and HAF-203 and adenovirus type 5 nor did it show any antiviral activity in the MTT assay. However violacein did show a weak inhibition of viral replication: 1.42 ± 0.68%, 14.48 ± 5.06% and 21.47 ± 3.74% for HSV-1 (strain KOS; 5.96 ± 2.51%, 8.75 ± 3.08% and 17.75 ± 5.19% for HSV-1 (strain ATCC/VR-733; 5.13 ± 2.38 %, 8.18 ± 1.11% and 8.51 ± 1.94% for poliovirus type 2; 8.30 ± 4.24%; 13.33 ± 4.66% and 24.27 ± 2.18% for simian rotavirus SA11, at 0.312, 0.625 and 1.250 mM, respectively, when measured by the MTT assay.

  12. Effects of Various Prophylactic Solutions on Postoperative Cytomegalovirus Infection in Liver Transplant Recipients%不同预防方案对肝移植受者术后巨细胞病毒感染率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王葆青; 张洁; 张含之; 周俭; 何礼贤

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the status of postoperative cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among the liver transplant recipients and to evaluate the effects of prophylactic solutions on CMV infection after liver transplantation in China.Methods:All the clinical and follow-up data was retrospectively investigated in 309 liver transplantation patients from January 2004 to March 2007 in Liver Transplantation Center,Zhongshan Hospital,Fudan university.Results:In the preoperative CMV-seropositive recipients,the CMV infection rates in the three prophylactic groups (PG group) who have been treated with intravenous ganciclovir (GCV),acyclovir (ACV),GCV + ACV were 10.5 %,15.9% and 7.9 %,respectively.The incidences of the CMV disease were 10.5%,8.3% and 3.2%,which showed significant differences compared to those in the non-prophylactic group (NPG group,42.3% and 15.4%,P<0.01).One-year overall survival rates of the three PG groups were 86.8%,78.0% and 88.9%,respectively.There was statistical difference in one-year survival rate between GCV+ ACV group and the NPG group (P<0.05).Conclusions:In the preoperative CMV-seropositive recipients,all the three different prophylactic methods [GCV 2.5 mg/(kg · d) ; ACV (0.2 g); and GCV 2.5 mg/(kg · d) + ACV 0.2 mg/(kg · d),3 times perday] can lower the incidence of CMV infection and CMV disease.Moreover,GCV + ACV prophylactic treatment can significantly increase one-year survival rate of liver transplantation patients.%目的:了解肝移植受者术后巨细胞病毒(cytomegalovirus,CMV)感染情况,探讨预防方案对肝移植受者术后CMV感染的预防作用.方法:回顾分析复旦大学附属中山医院肝移植中心2004年1月-2007年3月309例肝移植患者术后1年内的临床资料.结果:术前受体CMV-IgG阳性的肝移植患者中,3个预防组(PG组)分别采用更昔洛韦(ganciclovir,GCV)、阿昔洛韦(acyclovir,ACV)和GCV+ ACV预防后,CMV隐性感染发生率分别为10.5%、15.9

  13. Herpes zoster treated with meridian-collateral electric information therapy combined with pricking and cupping%经络电信息诊疗法结合刺络拔罐治疗带状疱疹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴杰; 阴爱华; 周膺; 阴丽君

    2011-01-01

    目的:寻找治疗带状疱疹的最佳穴位.方法:将200例患者随机分为观察组和对照组,每组100例.观察组用经络电信息诊疗仪探测经络找出与疾病有关的"痛经口"进行电刺激和刺络放血拔罐,对照组予口服阿昔洛韦.结果:观察组探查的"病经口"多位于阿是穴、章门、带脉、期门、大包等.观察组的总有效率为100.0%(100/100),优于对照组的60.0%(60/100)(P<0.000 1),且观察组的止痛、止疱、结痂时间均明显短于对照组(均P<0.000 1).观察组没有一例发生后遗神经痛,对照组后遗神经痛的发生率为26.0%(26/100).结论:经络诊疗仪探测出"痛经口"进行电刺激和刺络放血拔罐治疗带状疱疹可及时有效缓解疼痛,并防止后遗神经痛的发生.%Objective To explore the best acupoints for the treatment of herpes zoster. Methods Two hundred cases were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 100 cases in each one. In observation group,meridian-collateral electric information diagnosis and treatment instrument was used to detect meridian and collateral so as to find out the relevant “sick meridian open” for electric stimulation, bloodletting and cupping. In control group, Acyclovir was administered orally. Results In observation group, it had been detected that “sick meridian open” were mostly localized in Ashi point (Extra), Zhangmen ( LR 13), Daimai (GB 26), Qimen (LR 14 ), Dabao (SP 15), etc. The totally effective rate in observation group was 100.0% (100/100) that was superior to 60.0%(60/100) in control group (P<0. 000 1). Additionally, the time for pain relief, blister relief and scarring in observation group was shorter obviously than that in control group (P<0. 000 1). There was no case of post-herpetic neuralgia in observation group, but the incidence of it in control group was 26.0% (26/100). Conclusion Meridian-collateral diagnosis and treatment instrument detects “sick meridian open

  14. 妊娠期水痘感染对母婴的影响(附13例临床分析)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳欣; 成骢; 韩国荣; 明亚玲; 阚乃颖; 徐征洪

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠合并水痘对母婴结局的影响和治疗方法。方法对2012年1月至2014年6月南京市第二医院妊娠合并水痘患者资料进行回顾性分析。结果13例妊娠合并水痘发病孕周分别为14周1例,20~28周2例,32周1例,37~40周9例。其中孕妇发热11例,继发性皮肤感染3例,未出现水痘肺炎、脑炎。所有孕妇均足月分娩,胎儿宫内窘迫1例,剖宫产7例,产后出血4例,无先天性水痘综合征患儿,新生儿水痘2例。结论孕妇感染水痘应经妇产科、感染科医生共同诊断治疗,围生期特别是水痘完全结痂期前分娩的新生儿可能患水痘,静脉给予丙种球蛋白可预防新生儿水痘的发生。%Objective To study the effects of pregnancy complicated with varicella to maternal and neo‐natal outcomes and treatment methods .Method 13 cases of pregnancy complicated with varicella in the department of the Second Affiliated Hospital between January 2012 and June 2014 were selected in the study .Results Varicella infection time:14 weeks of pregnancy 1 cases ,2 cases with 20~28 weeks ,1 ca‐ses with 32 weeks ,37~40 weeks in 9 cases;11 cases of pregnant women with fever in 13 cases ,3 cases of secondary infection of the skin ,do not appear varicella pneumonia ,encephalitis ;pregnancy outcome:all full‐term delivery ,fetal distress in 1 cases ,cesarean section in 7 cases ,4 cases of postpartum hemorrhage in children with congenital varicella syndrome ,no congenital varicella syndrome ,2 cases of neonatal vari‐cella .Conclusions Infection of pregnant women with varicella patients should be diagnosed and treated by department of gynecology and obstetrics ,department of infection during pregnancy ,reasonable application of acyclovir antiviral treatment ,strengthen the maternal fetal monitoring during the pregnancy ,perinatal especially varicella completely crusted period before delivery of the neonate may be suffering from

  15. Insuficiência renal aguda nefrotóxica: prevalência, evolução clínica e desfecho Nephrotoxic acute renal failure: prevalence, clinical course and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia S. Pinto

    2009-09-01

    nephrotoxic ARF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Historical cohort carried out in a tertiary school hospital from February to November, 1997. Patients over 12 years of age, diagnosed with ARF, and followed up by a team of nephrologists were included. The exclusion criteria were as follows: renal transplantation, chronic renal failure, dialysis due to exogenous poisoning, and those transferred to hospital during treatment. RESULTS: Of the 234 patients followed up, 12% had nephrotoxic ARF and 24% multifactorial ARF associated with the use of nephrotoxic drugs. The most prevalent comorbidities were as follows: hypertension, hepatopathy, neoplasias, congestive heart failure, and diabetes mellitus. Fifteen percent of the patients required dialysis, and the most commonly used type was continuous venovenous hemodialysis; 42% of the patients were oliguric; 44.7% died; and 33% recovered renal function. The most prevalent nephrotoxic drugs were antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and radiographical contrast media. In order of frequency, the nephrotoxic drugs were as follows: vancomycin, aminoglycosides, acyclovir, chemotherapy agents, and radiographical contrast media. In multivariate analysis, hepatopathy was the only statistically significant variable (p = 0.03, CI = 1.08 to 6.49. The comparison of non-nephrotoxic and nephrotoxic ARF showed an increase in mortality proportional to the length of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Nephrotoxic ARF is common, serious, and must be continuously monitored both in hospital and on an outpatient basis.

  16. 可逆性胼胝体压部病变综合征5例%Reversible splenial lesion syndrome in 5 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    矫黎东; 王宪玲; 杨延辉; 王向波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features and MR features of the reversible corpus callosum lesion syndrome. Methods From January 2013 to December 2014, retrospective analysis the clinical and imaging data of 5 cases of the reversibility of the corpus callosum splenium lesion syndrome from Capital Medical University Xuanwu Hospital, Depart-ment of Neurology. Results In the 5 patients, male of 3 cases, female of 2 cases. Fever occurred in 4 cases, diarrhea in 2 cases, abnormal mental behavior in 4 cases, and epilepsy in 2 cases. All 5 cases underwent lumbar puncture expect 1 patient, CSF WBC 1 340 × 106/L, the remaining 4 cases were normal routine and biochemical CSF. 5 patients were underwent head MR 3-11 days after the onset, all were displayed as the corpus callosum pressure abnormal signal, T1WI showed low or slightly low signal, T2WI showed high or slightly high signal. DWI was high signal, and the enhanced scan revealed no en-hancement. 3 patients were treated with acyclovir treatment, 1 cases were treated with Ceftriaxone and mannitol, 1 cases trea-ted with methylprednisolone. The symptoms disappeared from 11 to 26 d after the onset of the disease, and the clinical symp-toms were completely relieved after 20 to 33 days. Conclusion Reversible corpus callosum body pressure lesion syndrome can be found in a variety of diseases, with mild clinical symptoms, radiographic changes reversible, the prognosis is good.%目的:探讨可逆性胼胝体压部病变综合征的临床特点和MR表现。方法回顾性分析2013年1月—2014年12月首都医科大学宣武医院神经内科收治的可逆性胼胝体压部病变综合征5例患者的临床及影像学资料。结果5例患者中男3例,女2例。发热4例,腹泻2例,精神行为异常4例,癫痫2例。5例均行腰穿检查,除1例患者CSF白细胞1340×106/L,其余4例CSF常规和生化均正常。5例患者分别于发病后3~11 d行头颅MR检察,均显示为胼胝体压部异常信号,T1WI

  17. Cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses infections in heart and bone marrow transplant recipients Infecções causadas por citomegalovírus e outros vírus do grupo herpes em transplantados cardíacos e de medula óssea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Weinberg

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available From January 1988 to January 1989 all the heart transplant and bone marrow recipients at the Instituto do Coração of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School were studied for the incidence and morbidity associated with herpesviruses infections after transplantation. Five bone marrow and 5 heart transplant recipients were followed for a mean of 4.2 months post-transplantation. All the patients were seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV before admission and 80% experienced one or more recurrences during the observation period. Of the 12 episodes of CMV infection, that were identified in this study, 83% were accompanied by clinical or laboratory abnormalities. However, there was only one case of severe disease. The overall incidence of infection for herpes simplex (HSV was 50%. Although most of HSV reactivations were oral or genital, one case of HSV hepatitis occurred. One of the 6 episodes of HSV infections that were treated with acyclovir showed an unsatisfactory response and was successfully managed with ganciclovir. All the individuals had anti-varicella zoster virus antibodies, but none of them developed infection. The study emphasizes the importance of active diagnostic surveillance of herpesvirus infections in transplant patients. Both CMV and HSV reactivations showed high incidence and important morbidity and thus, deserve prophylactic therapy.De janeiro de 1988 a janeiro de 1989 todos os pacientes submetidos a transplante de coração ou de medula óssea no Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo foram estudados quanto à incidência e morbidade das infecções pós-transplante causadas por vírus do grupo herpes. Cinco recipientes de medula óssea e 5 transplantados cardíacos foram observados por um período médio de 4.2 meses após o transplante. Todos os pacientes tinham sorologia positiva para citomegalovírus (CMV antes do transplante

  18. Prevention of vaginal and rectal herpes simplex virus type 2 transmission in mice: mechanism of antiviral action

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    Ceña-Diez R

    2016-05-01

    important position for affecting transition of gB trimer from G1-S4 prefusion to final postfusion state and in several positions where G1-S4 could interfere with gB/gH–gL interaction. We demonstrated that these polyanionic carbosilan dendrimers have a synergistic activity with acyclovir and tenofovir against HSV-2, in vitro. Topical vaginal or rectal administration of G1-S4 or G2-S16 prevents HSV-2 transmission in BALB/c mice in values close to 100%. This research represents the first demonstration that transmission of HSV-2 can be blocked by vaginal/rectal application of G1-S4 or G2-S16, providing a step forward to prevent HSV-2 transmission in humans.Keywords: nanotechnology, dendrimers, G1-S4, G2-S16, HSV-2, microbicide

  19. HPLC法测定人尿液中奥拉西坦的浓度%Determination of Oxiracetam in Human Urine by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀菊; 张志清; 孙倩; 亢泽坤

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the method for the determination of oxiracetam in human urine, and to provide reference for the study of metabolic pathways of oxiracetam. METHODS: After precipitated with methanol, HPLC method was adopted for the content determination. With acyclovir as an internal standard, a Symmetry shied? RP18 column was used with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water (5:95) at the flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. The column temperature was 40 ℃ and the detection wavelength was set at 210 nm. The injection volume was 20 μl. RESULTS: The linear ranges of oxiracetam were 20-2 400 mg/L. Absolute recoveries of urine at low, middle and high concentrations were (90.38 ± 4.93)% , (93.71 ± 3.54)% and (95.04 ± 2.31)% , and the method recoveries were (98.32 ± 1.96)% , (104.99 ± 1.74)% and (103.4 ± 2.43)%. The intra-day RSDs of urine at three concentrations were 3.40% , 4.76% and 1.04% , and inter-day RSDs were 2.82% , 3.64% and 1.90% , respectively. Trial data showed that 32.89% original drug discharged in 24 h after oral administration of Oxiracetam capsules (1600 mg). CONCLUSION: The method is simple, accurate, sensitive, and can be used for the pharmacokinetic study of oxiracetam in urine.%目的:建立测定人尿液中奥拉西坦浓度的方法,为奥拉西坦代谢途径的研究提供参考.方法:尿液以甲醇沉淀蛋白后,以高效液相色谱法进样测定,其中色谱柱为Symmetry shiedTMRP18柱,流动相为乙腈-水(5∶95),流速为0.5 ml/min,检测波长为210nm,柱温为40℃,进样量为20μl,内标为阿昔洛韦.结果:奥拉西坦尿药浓度在20~2400mg/L范围内线性关系良好;低、中、高3种浓度尿液样品的绝对回收率分别为(90.38±4.93)%、(93.71±3.54)%、(95.04±2.31)%,方法回收率分别为(98.32±1.96)%、(104.99±1.74)%、(103.4±2.43)%;日内RSD分别为3.40%、4.76%、1.04%,日间RSD分别为2.82%、3.64%、1.90%;试验数据显示人口服奥拉西坦胶囊(1600mg

  20. 频谱治疗仪治疗病毒性肝炎并发带状疱疹的护理%Nursing for Viral Hepatitis and Shingles by Spectrum Instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect and nursing of patients with viral hepatitis and shingles hy spectrum instrument. Methods From January 2009 to June 2011, 44 patients with viral hepatitis B and shingles divide 44 patients with hepatitis h virus sex hepatitis in the hospital were randomly into observational group(n =22) and control group(n =22). All the patients were treated with acyclovir antivirus, in-surahle and vitamin B1 needle etc nutrition nerve. The observational group received additional radiation therapy of the WS-301 spectrum upon the shingles site. The skin blisters healed and pain were observed of the two groups. Results Comparison of skin blisters healed and the effect of pain between the two groups showed that the total effective rate was 95. 45% in the observation group and total effectiveness of the control group was 72.73%,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion spectrum therapeutic radiation therapy is more quick and effective for viral hepatitis and shingles. During the treatment, insecurity factors should be prevented and psychological counseling should be conducted for the patients.%目的 探讨应用频谱治疗仪治疗病毒性肝炎并发带状疱疹的效果及其护理.方法 方便性抽样选择嘉兴市第一医院2009年1月至2011年6月收治的44例乙型病毒性肝炎并发带状疱疹患者,按随机数字表法将其分观察组和对照组各22例.两组患者均予阿昔洛韦抗病毒、甲钴胺和维生素B1营养神经治疗,观察组在此基础上采用WS-301频谱治疗仪照射治疗带状疱疹部位.观察两组患者皮肤水疱愈合及疼痛情况.结果 两组患者皮肤水疱愈合及疼痛情况的疗效比较,观察组总有效率为95.45%,对照组总有效率为72.73%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 常规治疗基础上采用频谱治疗仪照射治疗病毒性肝炎并发带状疱疹可促进水疱愈合,减轻患者疼痛.治疗过程中,要避免不安全因素

  1. 诺卡式菌性角膜炎表现为盘状角膜炎1例%Nocardia keratitis presenting as viral disciform keratitis, a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nor-Sharina Y; Lee KF; Siti Hawa H; Zunaina E

    2011-01-01

    目的:报告诺卡式菌属感染引起的盘状角膜炎病例1例.方法:病例报告.结果:患者,男,13岁,无角膜接触镜使用史,在小溪里游泳后,右眼疼痛伴视力下降2wk.最佳矫正视力:右眼6/30(0.2).检查发现角膜基质存在形态规则的旁中心盘状浸润伴炎症反应.角膜敏感度下降.最初角膜刮片镜检行革兰氏染色阴性,棘阿米巴角膜刮片和培养阴性.诊断为病毒性盘状角膜炎,给予口服阿昔洛韦和局部使用激素眼药水.2wk后患者视力恶化伴角膜损伤加重,再次角膜取材刮片行革兰氏染色提示诺卡式菌属感染,按经验局部给予3g/L加替沙星眼药水后,临床效果明显.治疗6mo后,视力达到6/6仅在角膜中心留有少量角膜混浊.结论:诺卡式菌属感染延误诊断可以导致病情恶化.如果采用正确的治疗,诺卡式菌属感染引起的角膜炎可以恢复良好,仅留少量瘢痕,获得较好的视力.%keratitisreduced vision of the right eye after following history of swimming in the stream for two weeks duration.Best-corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 6/30.There was a well-defined para-central disciform stromal infiltration with inflammatory reactions.A corneal sensation was diminished.Initial corneal scrapping for gram stain,Acanthamoeba smear and culture and sensitivity was found to be negative.He was diagnosed as presumed viral disciform keratitis and treated with oral acyclovir and topical steroid.Two weeks later,his vision became deteriorated associated with worsening of the corneal lesion.Re-scrapping corneal specimen for gram stain showed features of Nocardia sp.Topical Gatifloxacin 3g/L was commenced empirically and it showed rapid clinical response.His visual acuity was improved to 6/6 six months after treatment with minimal corneal opacity sparing the visual axis.the condition.If proper treatment is initiated,Nocardia keratitis resolves with minimal scarring and good visual recovery.

  2. Clinical Efficacy of Oral Ganciclovir for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Recurrent Herpes Simplex Keratitis

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    Xin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1, which has high recurrent rate and incidence of severe vision loss, is the leading cause of infectious blindness in the world. The aim was to explore the clinical efficacy of oral ganciclovir (GCV in the prevention of recurrent HSK. Methods: A multicenter, prospective, randomized, single-blind, and controlled clinical trial was conducted from April 2010 to June 2013. One hundred seventy-three patients (173 eyes involved who were diagnosed as recurrent HSK definitely, including stromal keratitis and corneal endotheliitis, were divided into three groups randomly: negative control (placebo group was topically administered with 0.15% GCV ophthalmic gel, 4 times per day and 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops, 3 times per day until resolution of HSK; positive control acyclovir (ACV group was topically adopted the same ophthalmic gel and eye drops and additionally received oral ACV 400 mg 5 times a day for 10 weeks and followed by 400 mg 2 times per day for 6 months; test GCV group was topically adopted the same treatment as negative control group and additionally received oral GCV 1000 mg 3 times per day for 8 weeks. The symptoms and signs were evaluated before and after the therapy 1 st week, 2 nd week and then followed up every 2 weeks until recovery. Furthermore, we followed up recurrence of HSK for every 3 months after recovery and then assessed the cure time, recurrent rate and adverse reactions. Results: One hundred and seventy-three patients were followed up 7-48 months (mean 32.1 ± 12.3 months, but 34 patients were failed to follow-up. The cure time was 12.1 ± 4.3, 11.9 ± 4.0 weeks in negative control (placebo group and positive control ACV group respectively (P = 0.991, which was longer than that in test GCV group (8.6 ± 2.8 weeks and there was a significant difference between test GCV group and negative control (placebo group or positive control ACV group (P

  3. Effect of Flos Lonicerae Extracts on Herpes Simplex Keratitis%金银花提取物对单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹; 王国丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 考察金银花提取物对单纯性疱疹病毒性角膜炎的疗效.方法 建立单纯性疱疹病毒Ⅰ型(herpes simplex virus-Ⅰ,HSV-Ⅰ)感染Vero细胞的体外模型,以细胞病变效应、治疗指数为观察指标,了解不同浓度金银花提取物体外抗病毒效果;采用HSV-Ⅰ感染家兔角膜建立体内病毒感染模型,分别用金银花提取物、阿昔洛韦、0.9%氯化钠溶液治疗15 d,每天经荧光素钠染色角膜后在裂隙灯下观察药物对病毒性角膜炎模型的治疗作用.结果 体外实验表明,金银花提取物对感染HSV-Ⅰ病毒的Vero细胞具有明显的抗病毒作用,最大无毒浓度为384 mg·L-1,治疗指数为26.56;体内实验结果显示,与模型组相比,金银花提取物和阿昔洛韦均能有效治疗单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎,减轻角膜病变程度,缩短平均治愈时间,金银花提取物疗效与阿昔洛韦相似.结论 金银花提取物对单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎有显著的疗效.%Objective To study therapeutic efficacy of Flos Lonicerae extracts on herpes simplex keratitis. Methods A model of Vero cells infected with herpes simplex virus-I( HSV-I) was established. The in vitro anti-virus effect of different doses of Flos Lonicerae extracts was evaluated by using cytopathic effect ( CPE ) and therapeutic index ( TI ) .In vivo model of rabbit corner keratitis induced with herpes simplex ( HSK ) were established. Rabbits were treated with Flos Lonicerae extracts, Acyclovir ( ACV ) and normal saline for 15 days, respectively. The rabbit cornea was checked after dyeing with flourescein-natrium under slitlamp. Results It was showed that the Flos Lonicerae extracts possessed distinct anti-HSV-I effect on Vero cells,TC0 of which was 384 mg ? L-1and TI was 26. 56. Compared with the model group in vivo,both Flos Lonicerae extracts and ACV significantly reduced severity of HSV-I dendritic keratitis, shortened healing time of HSK. There was no statistical significance

  4. 异基因造血干细胞移植治疗母细胞性浆细胞样树突细胞肿瘤%Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红升; 许娜; 孙竞; 邓永键; 江千里; 余国攀; 刘启发

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with intensified conditioning regimen followed by rapidly tapering immunosuppressants and sequential minimal residual disease (MRD)-guided donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) post-transplantation on outcome of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN).Methods Two cases of BPDCN from January 2009 to May 2011 in Nanfang hospital were diagnosed according to 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.Case 1 initially presented with typical cutaneous involvement and was promptly diagnosed with CD+4CD+56LCA+TdT+CD+43 BPDCN by skin biopsy.Case 2 was recognized as acute lymphocyte leukemia and acute non-lymphocytic leukemia,which was diagnosed to BPDCN at recurrence through flow cytometry analysis.Total-body-irradiation plus cyclophosphamide based intensified conditioning regimen were followed by allo-HSCT from sibling donor.Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine and methotrexate.Anti-thymocyteglobulin was included additionally for haploid donor allo-HSCT.Multi-color labeling flow cytometry was performed to monitor MRD.Rapidly tapering of prophylactic immunosuppressants and sequential MRD-guided donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) were performed to control relapse of primary malignancy.Results Two cases of BPDCN received allo-HSCT from sibling donor after intensified conditioning regimen.Both patients achieved complete remission and complete donor engraftment.Case 1 survived refractory acyclovir-resistant Epstein-Barr virus viremia benefiting from preemptive treatment with rituximab and DLI-induced grade Ⅳ acute GVHD,but died of thrombotic microangiopathy mixed with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and sepsis on +243 days.Case 2 relapsed just 2 months after allo-HSCT despite DLI and rapidly tapering of CsA,died of sepsis followed by diffuse intravascular coagulation on +101 days.Conclusion BPDCN is

  5. 单纯疱疹病毒性脑炎60例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 60 cases with herpes simplex virus encephalitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学义; 邹卿; 蒲涛

    2012-01-01

    , accompanied by lips or genital skin or mucosal herpes. The patients firstly appears headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, some with psychiatric symptoms (auditory hallucinations, visual hallucinations, speech disorders, personality changes, dysphoria or lack of facial expression) , repeated partial seizures and epilepsy stale, central facial paralysis, paralysis of limbs, disturbance of consciousness ( delirium, lethargy, drowsiness, shallow, middle, deep coma). The state of illness reached a peak from a few hours to several days. The detection of virus-specific antibody of cerebrospinal fluid: HSV-specific IgM was positive with 54 cases in a week, remained six cases were positive in 2 weeks. There were 20 cases whose HSV specific antibody IgG and IgE of paired cerebrospinal fluid in convalescence was more than 4 times. Other check of cerebrospinal fluid; most of cerebrospinal fluid was abnormal,such as increased pressure ( >200mmH2O) , leukocytosis. Some showed increase in red blood cells and light-moderate increase in protein, sugar and chloride were normal, without bacterial growth by smearing and culturing, and without cancer cells and malignant cells by pathological examination. Head CT and MRI: 60 patients with head CT scan in the onset of two weeks, most of the CT examination revealed abnormal. The most of patients with normal head CT had anomalistic head MRI. EEG: Most of them is abnormal. Diffuse abnormalities was in the majority, including severe abnormal in 18 cases, moderately abnormal in 20 cases, mildly abnormal in 20 cases. Prognosis: most of them is good, except six cases with death. Conclusion Herpes simplex virus encephalitis by clinical diagnostic criteria easily is diagnosed, the state of an illness is usually critical by anti-virus with using acyclovir and symptomatic treatment, the prognosis is good in the majority of the HSE patients, donot left over after-effects, but some have very poor prognosis, with different degrees of sequela and even death.

  6. Atividade de três drogas antivirais sobre os herpesvírus bovino tipos 1, 2 e 5 em cultivo celular Activity of three antiviral drugs against bovine herpesviruses 1, 2 and 5 in cell culture

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    Renata Dezengrini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de três fármacos antivirais (Aciclovir [ACV], Ganciclovir [GCV] e Foscarnet [PFA] foi testada in vitro frente aos herpesvírus bovino tipos 1 (BoHV-1, 2 (BoHV-2 e 5 (BoHV-5. Para isso, utilizou-se o teste de reducao de placas virais em cultivo celular, testando-se diferentes concentracoes dos farmacos frente a 100 doses infectantes para 50% dos cultivos celulares (DICC50 dos respectivos virus. Pelo teste de MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol- 2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, verificou-se que concentracoes inferiores a 200ƒÊg/mL dos tres antivirais resultaram em indices de viabilidade de celulas MDBK e Hep2 superiores a 80%. Com base na concentracao citotoxica para 50% das celulas (CC50 e na concentracao dos farmacos efetiva para inibir em 50% o numero de placas virais (EC50, calculou-se o indice de seletividade (IS dos antivirais para os tres herpesvirus. Assim, o ACV demonstrou ser moderadamente ativo frente ao BoHV-1 (EC50: 112,9ƒÊg/mL e IS: 4,5, ao BoHV-2 (EC50: 114,2 ƒÊg/mL e IS: 4,5 e BoHV-5 (EC50: 96,9ƒÊg/mL e IS: 5,3. O GCV apresentou atividade moderada frente ao BoHV-2 (EC50: 33,5ƒÊg/mL e IS: 16,6 e, em menor grau, contra o BoHV-5 (EC50: 123,2ƒÊg/mL e IS: 4,5, sendo ineficaz frente ao BoHV-1 (EC50: 335,8ƒÊg/mL e IS: 1,7. O PFA apresentou atividade antiviral mais pronunciada, sendo o unico farmaco que, na concentracao de 100ƒÊg/mL, inibiu completamente a producao de placas pelos tres virus testados. O PFA foi o mais efetivo in vitro frente ao BoHV-1 (EC50: 29,5ƒÊg/mL e IS: 42,2, ao BoHV-2 (EC50: 45,2ƒÊg/mL e IS: 27,6 e ao BoHV-5 (EC50: 7,8ƒÊg/mL e IS: 160,6. Portanto, os resultados obtidos indicam que o PFA pode se constituir em um candidato para terapia experimental de infeccoes pelos herpesvirus de bovinos in vivo.The activity of three anti-herpetic drugs (Acyclovir [ACV], Gancyclovir [GCV] and Foscarnet [PFA] was tested against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1, 2 (BoHV-2 and 5 (BoHV-5 in vitro using the