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Sample records for acyclic pyrimidine nucleosides

  1. Acyclic nucleoside bisphosphonates: Synthesis and properties of chiral 2-amino-4,6-bis[(phosphonomethoxy)alkoxy]pyrimidines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doláková, Petra; Dračínský, Martin; Masojídková, Milena; Šolínová, Veronika; Kašička, Václav; Holý, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2009), s. 2408-2424 ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Grant - others:NIH(US) 1UC1AIO62540-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * pyrimidine * bisphosphonates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.269, year: 2009

  2. New prodrugs of two pyrimidine acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: Synthesis and antiviral activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krečmerová, Marcela; Dračínský, Martin; Snoeck, R.; Balzarini, J.; Pomeisl, Karel; Andrei, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 17 (2017), s. 4637-4648 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00522S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * open-ring * PMEO-DAPy * 5-azacytosine * PME-azaC * HPMP-5-azaC Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.930, year: 2016

  3. Antiretrovirus activity of a novel class of acyclic pyrimidine nucleoside phosphonates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balzarini, J.; Pannecouque, C.; De Clercq, E.; Aquaro, S.; Perno, C. F.; Egberink, H.; Holý, Antonín

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 7 (2002), s. 2185-2193 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV203/96/K001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : nucleoside phosphonates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.215, year: 2002

  4. The efficient synthesis of 2-arylpyrimidine acyclic nucleoside phosphonates using Liebeskind-Srogl cross-coupling reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Břehová, Petra; Česnek, Michal; Dračínský, Martin; Holý, Antonín; Janeba, Zlatko

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 38 (2011), s. 7379-7385 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Liebeskind-Srogl cross - coupling * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * pyrimidines * arylboronic acids * microwave Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.025, year: 2011

  5. Antiviral acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: New structures and prodrugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krečmerová, Marcela; Tichý, Tomáš; Pomeisl, Karel; Andrei, G.; Balzarini, J.; Snoeck, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2016), s. 37 [PharmaMed-2016. International Conference on Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry . 05.12.2016-07.12.2016, Dubai] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00522S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * prodrugs * antivirals * 5-azacytosine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  6. An Efficient and Facile Methodology for Bromination of Pyrimidine and Purine Nucleosides with Sodium Monobromoisocyanurate (SMBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Stromberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and facile strategy has been developed for bromination of nucleosides using sodium monobromoisocyanurate (SMBI. Our methodology demonstrates bromination at the C-5 position of pyrimidine nucleosides and the C-8 position of purine nucleosides. Unprotected and also several protected nucleosides were brominated in moderate to high yields following this procedure.

  7. N-Branched acyclic nucleoside phosphonates as monomers for the synthesis of modified oligonucleotides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hocková, Dana; Rosenbergová, Šárka; Ménová, Petra; Páv, Ondřej; Pohl, Radek; Novák, Pavel; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 15 (2015), s. 4449-4458 ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0108; GA ČR GA13-26526S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * oligonucleotides * solid phase synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.559, year: 2015

  8. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonate antivirals activate gene expression of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and 3.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potměšil, Petr; Holý, Antonín; Kmoníčková, Eva; Křížková, Jana; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 59-66 ISSN 1021-7770 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Acyclic nucleoside phosponate * HIV * Monocyte chemotactic protein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.024, year: 2007

  9. Inhibition of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase by acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: A new class of antimalarial therapeutics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keough, D. T.; Hocková, Dana; Holý, Antonín; Naesens, L.; Skinner-Adams, T. S.; de Jersey, J.; Guddat, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 14 (2009), s. 4391-4399 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA AV ČR 1QS400550501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * phosphoribosyltransferase * enzyme inhibitors * Plasmodium falciparum Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.802, year: 2009

  10. Design and Synthesis of Fluorescent Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates as Potent Inhibitors of Bacterial Adenylate Cyclases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Břehová, Petra; Šmídková, Markéta; Skácel, Jan; Dračínský, Martin; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Velasquez, M. P. S.; Watts, V. J.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 22 (2016), s. 2534-2546 ISSN 1860-7179 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * anthranilic acid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.225, year: 2016

  11. Secretion of antiretroviral chemokines by human cells cultured with acyclic nucleoside phosphonates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Zdeněk; Kmoníčková, Eva; Holý, Antonín

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 574, - (2007), s. 77-84 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Acyclic nucleoside phosphonate * Chemokine * Cytokine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.376, year: 2007

  12. Enhanced Topical and Transdermal Delivery of Antineoplastic and Antiviral Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonate cPr-PMEDAP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávrová, K.; Kovaříková, P.; Školová, B.; Líbalová, M.; Roh, J.; Čáp, R.; Holý, Antonín; Hrabálek, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 12 (2011), s. 3105-3115 ISSN 0724-8741 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0365 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * antivirals * antineoplastics * permeation enhancer * topical skin application * transdermal delivery Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.093, year: 2011

  13. Synthesis of alpha-Branched Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates as Potential Inhibitors of Bacterial Adenylate Cyclases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frydrych, Jan; Skácel, Jan; Šmídková, Markéta; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Dračínský, Martin; Gnanasekaran, Ramachandran; Lepšík, Martin; Soto-Velasquez, M.; Watts, V. J.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2018), s. 199-206 ISSN 1860-7179 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046; GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * adenylate cyclase toxin * bisamidates * Bordetella pertussis * prodrugs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 3.225, year: 2016

  14. Efficient synthesis and biological properties of the 2‘-trifluoromethyl analogues of acyclic nucleosides and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Kolman, Viktor; Kostinová, Alexandra; Dračínský, Martin; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Janeba, Zlatko

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 10 (2011), s. 1187-1198 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : nucleosides * nucleotides * phosphorus * fluorine * biological activity * antibiotics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  15. Oxidation of pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleotides by osmium tetroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K

    1967-08-01

    1. Pyrimidine nucleosides such as thymidine, uridine or cytidine are oxidized readily at 0 degrees by osmium tetroxide in ammonium chloride buffer. There is virtually no oxidation in bicarbonate buffer of similar pH. Oxidation of 1-methyluracil yields 5,6-dihydro-4,5,6-trihydroxy-1-methyl-2-pyrimidone. 2. Osmium tetroxide and ammonia react reversibly in aqueous solution to form a yellow 1:1 complex, probably OsO(3)NH. A second molecule of ammonia must be involved in the oxidation of UMP since the rate of this reaction is approximately proportional to the square of the concentration of unprotonated ammonia. 3. 4-Thiouridine reacts with osmium tetroxide much more rapidly than does uridine. The changes of absorption spectra are different in sodium bicarbonate buffer and in ammonium chloride buffer. They occur faster in the latter buffer and, under suitable conditions, cytidine is a major product. 4. Polyuridylic acid is oxidized readily by ammoniacal osmium tetroxide, but its oxidation is inhibited by polyadenylic acid. Pyrimidines of yeast amino acid-transfer RNA are oxidized more slowly than the corresponding mononucleosides, especially the thymine residues. Appreciable oxidation can occur without change of sedimentation coefficient.

  16. Retained sensitivity to cytotoxic pyrimidine nucleoside analogs in thymidine kinase 2 deficient human fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerke, Mia; Solaroli, Nicola; Lesko, Nicole; Balzarini, Jan; Johansson, Magnus; Karlsson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is a mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside kinase that phosphorylates several nucleoside analogs used in anti-viral and anti-cancer therapy. A fibroblast cell line with decreased TK2 activity was investigated in order to obtain insights in the effects of TK2 deficiency on nucleotide metabolism. The role of TK2 for the sensitivity against cytotoxic nucleoside analogs was also investigated. The TK2 deficient cells retained their sensitivity against all pyrimidine nucleoside...

  17. Retained sensitivity to cytotoxic pyrimidine nucleoside analogs in thymidine kinase 2 deficient human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Mia; Solaroli, Nicola; Lesko, Nicole; Balzarini, Jan; Johansson, Magnus; Karlsson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is a mitochondrial deoxyribonucleoside kinase that phosphorylates several nucleoside analogs used in anti-viral and anti-cancer therapy. A fibroblast cell line with decreased TK2 activity was investigated in order to obtain insights in the effects of TK2 deficiency on nucleotide metabolism. The role of TK2 for the sensitivity against cytotoxic nucleoside analogs was also investigated. The TK2 deficient cells retained their sensitivity against all pyrimidine nucleoside analogs tested. This study suggests that nucleoside analog phosphorylation mediated by TK2 may be less important, compared to other deoxyribonucleoside kinases, for the cytotoxic effects of these compounds.

  18. Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates as Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum and Human 6-Oxopurine Phosphoribosyltransferases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaiser, Martin Maxmilian; Hocková, Dana; Wang, T. H.; Dračínský, Martin; Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Procházková, Eliška; Edstein, M. D.; Chavchich, M.; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 10 (2015), s. 1707-1723 ISSN 1860-7179 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046; GA ČR GAP207/11/0108 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 6-oxopurine * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * phosphoribosyltransferases * malaria * phosphoramidates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2015

  19. Structure-Activity Relationships of Acyclic Selenopurine Nucleosides as Antiviral Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod K. Sahu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of acyclic selenopurine nucleosides 3a–f and 4a–g were synthesized based on the bioisosteric rationale between oxygen and selenium, and then evaluated for antiviral activity. Among the compounds tested, seleno-acyclovir (4a exhibited the most potent anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 (EC50 = 1.47 µM and HSV-2 (EC50 = 6.34 µM activities without cytotoxicity up to 100 µM, while 2,6-diaminopurine derivatives 4e–g exhibited significant anti-human cytomegalovirus (HCMV activity, which is slightly more potent than the guanine derivative 4d, indicating that they might act as prodrugs of seleno-ganciclovir (4d.

  20. Influence of Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonate Antivirals on Gene Expression of Chemokine Receptors CCR5 and CXCR4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potměšil, P.; Holý, Antonín; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-7 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/03/1470; GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonate * HIV * CCR5 * CXCR4 * cytokine * RT-PCR Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry (UEM-P) Impact factor: 0.833, year: 2015

  1. Enantiopurity analysis of new types of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates by capillary electrophoresis with cyclodextrins as chiral selectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolínová, Veronika; Kaiser, Martin Maxmilian; Lukáč, Miloš; Janeba, Zlatko; Kašička, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2014), s. 295-303 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0453; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S; GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * CE * chiral analysis * cyclodextrins * nucleotide analogs Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.737, year: 2014

  2. Estimation of apparent binding constant of complexes of selected acyclic nucleoside phosphonates with beta-cyclodextrin by affinity capillary electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolínová, Veronika; Mikysková, Hana; Kaiser, Martin Maxmilian; Janeba, Zlatko; Holý, Antonín; Kašička, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2016), s. 239-247 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * affinity capillary electrophoresis * binding constant * nucleotide analogs * beta-cyclodextrin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  3. Pyrimidine nucleoside analogues, potential chemotherapeutic agents, and substrates/inhibitors in various enzyme systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikowski, T.; Bretner, M.; Felczak, K.; Drabikowska, A.; Shugar, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text. Pyrimidine nucleoside analogues are an important class of compounds with antimetabolic (antitumor, antiparasitic and antiviral) properties. The synthesis of thiated nucleoside and nucleotide analogues, determination of structures, conformation and dissociation constans, their potential chemotherapeutic activities, and their substrate/inhibitor properties in various enzyme systems, with emphasis on enzymes related to chemotherapeutic activities, were investigated. In the series of thionated inhibitors of thymidylate synthase (TS), potential antitumor agents, regioselective syntheses were elaborated for 2- and 4-thio, and 2,4-dithio derivatives of 2'-deoxyuridine (dUrd), 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd), and several other 5-fluoro-, 5-bromo- and 5-trifluoromethyl congeners, and the 2-thio derivatives of FdUrd and its α-anomer, which proved to be selective agents with high cytotoxicities correlated with the inhibitory activities vs TS of their corresponding 5'-monophosphates. Regioslective syntheses were also elaborated for 2'-deoxycytidin e and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycitidine derivatives. Solution conformation of these nucleosides were deduced from high-resolution (500 MHz) 1 H NMR spectra. Substrate/inhibitor properties of 2-thio-2'-deoxycitidine (S 2 dCyd) and 5-fluoro-2-thio-2'-deoxycitidine ( S 2 FdCyd) with respect to human leukemic spleen deoxycytidine kinase have been examined. Both are substrates, and also good inhibitors, of phosphorylation of 2'-deoxycitidine and 2'-deoxyadenosine. Particular attention was directed to the specificity of t he NTP phosphate donor for several nucleoside kinases, and procedures have been developed for distinguishing between ATP and other NTP donors, a problem of importance in chemotherapy with nucleoside analogues. Biological properties of the newly synthetize d thiated pyrimidine 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluoronucleosides, S 2 ,3'-FddUrd and S 2 ,3'-FddThd, were also investigated. Thiated 3'-fluoronucleosides were moderate

  4. Pyrimidine and nucleoside gamma-esters of L-Glu-Sar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, André H; Elm, Peter L; Begtrup, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    -tetrahydrofuran-3-yl ester)-Sar (I), l-Glu(thymine-1-yl-methyl ester)-Sar (II) and l-Glu(acyclothymidine)-Sar (III) were synthesised and in vitro stability was studied in various aqueous and biological media. Affinity to and translocation via hPEPT1 was investigated in mature Caco-2 cell monolayers, grown......The aim of the present study was to improve the synthetic pathway of bioreversible dipeptide derivatives as well as evaluate the potential of using l-Glu-Sar as a pro-moiety for delivering three newly synthesised nucleoside and pyrimidine l-Glu-Sar derivatives. l-Glu(trans-2-thymine-1-yl...

  5. Interaction of phosphates of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates with nucleoside diphosphate kinase from yeast and bovine liver

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horská, Květoslava; Votruba, Ivan; Holý, Antonín

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 1 (2006), s. 35-43 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : enzymatic phosphorylation * acyclic nucleotide analogs * NTP analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2006

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of acyclic nucleotide analogues with a furo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(3H)-one base

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeba, Zlatko; Holý, Antonín; Pohl, Radek; Snoeck, R.; Andrei, G.; De Clercq, E.; Balzarini, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 7 (2010), s. 628-638 ISSN 0008-4042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * Sonogashira reaction * intramolecular cyclization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.374, year: 2010

  7. Antiviral activities of 2,6-diaminopurine-based acyclic nucleoside phosphonates against herpesviruses: In vitro study results with pseudorabies virus (PrV, SuHV-1)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zouharová, D.; Lipenská, I.; Fojtiková, M.; Kulich, P.; Neca, J.; Slaný, M.; Kovařčík, K.; Turanek-Knotigová, P.; Hubatka, F.; Celechovská, H.; Mašek, J.; Koudelka, Š.; Procházka, L.; Eyer, L.; Plocková, J.; Bartheldyová, E.; Miller, A. D.; Růžek, Daniel; Raška, M.; Janeba, Zlatko; Turánek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 184, FEB 29 (2016), s. 84-93 ISSN 0378-1135 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Pseudorabies * Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * DNA viruses * Cidofovir * Antiviral drugs * DNA polymerase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2016

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study on pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase TTHA1771 from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Katsumi; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    The pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase TTHA1771 from T. thermophilus HB8 has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffract X-rays to 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase (PYNP) catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of pyrimidines in the nucleotide-synthesis salvage pathway. In order to study the structure–thermostability relationship of this enzyme, PYNP from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TTHA1771) has been cloned, overexpressed and purified. The TTHA1771 protein was crystallized at 291 K using the oil-microbatch method with PEG 4000 as a precipitant. A native data set was collected to 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 58.83, b = 76.23, c = 103.86 Å, β = 91.3°

  9. The preparation of 3-H-labeled Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates and Study of their Stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elbert, Tomáš; Břehová, Petra; Holý, Antonín

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 7 (2010), s. 757-766 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA AV ČR IAA400550801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : tritium * 3-H NMR * acyclic nucleotide analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010

  10. Functional and genetic evidence that nucleoside transport is highly conserved in Leishmania species: Implications for pyrimidine-based chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid J.H. Alzahrani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania pyrimidine salvage is replete with opportunities for therapeutic intervention with enzyme inhibitors or antimetabolites. Their uptake into cells depends upon specific transporters; therefore it is essential to establish whether various Leishmania species possess similar pyrimidine transporters capable of drug uptake. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of pyrimidine transport in L. major and L. mexicana. In both species, two transporters for uridine/adenosine were detected, one of which also transported uracil and the antimetabolites 5-fluoruracil (5-FU and 5F,2′deoxyuridine (5F,2′dUrd, and was designated uridine-uracil transporter 1 (UUT1; the other transporter mediated uptake of adenosine, uridine, 5F,2′dUrd and thymidine and was designated Nucleoside Transporter 1 (NT1. To verify the reported L. donovani model of two NT1-like genes encoding uridine/adenosine transporters, and an NT2 gene encoding an inosine transporter, we cloned the corresponding L. major and L. mexicana genes, expressing each in T. brucei. Consistent with the L. donovani reports, the NT1-like genes of either species mediated the adenosine-sensitive uptake of [3H]-uridine but not of [3H]-inosine. Conversely, the NT2-like genes mediated uptake of [3H]-inosine but not [3H]-uridine. Among pyrimidine antimetabolites tested, 5-FU and 5F,2′dUrd were the most effective antileishmanials; resistance to both analogs was induced in L. major and L. mexicana. In each case it was found that the resistant cells had lost the transport capacity for the inducing drug. Metabolomics analysis found that the mechanism of action of 5-FU and 5F-2′dUrd was similar in both Leishmania species, with major changes in deoxynucleotide metabolism. We conclude that the pyrimidine salvage system is highly conserved in Leishmania species - essential information for the development of pyrimidine-based chemotherapy. Keywords: Leishmania, Pyrimidine metabolism, Uracil

  11. Evaluation of Novel Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates against Human and Animal Gammaherpesviruses Revealed an Altered Metabolism of Cyclic Prodrugs upon Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation in P3HR-1 Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coen, N.; Duraffour, S.; Naesens, L.; Krečmerová, Marcela; Van Den Oord, J.; Snoeck, R.; Andrei, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 22 (2013), s. 12422-12432 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI4/625 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonate * gammaherpesvirus * Epstein-Barr virus * Kaposi's sarcoma * HPMP-5-azaC * cidofovir Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.648, year: 2013

  12. Functional and genetic evidence that nucleoside transport is highly conserved in Leishmania species: Implications for pyrimidine-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Khalid J H; Ali, Juma A M; Eze, Anthonius A; Looi, Wan Limm; Tagoe, Daniel N A; Creek, Darren J; Barrett, Michael P; de Koning, Harry P

    2017-08-01

    Leishmania pyrimidine salvage is replete with opportunities for therapeutic intervention with enzyme inhibitors or antimetabolites. Their uptake into cells depends upon specific transporters; therefore it is essential to establish whether various Leishmania species possess similar pyrimidine transporters capable of drug uptake. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of pyrimidine transport in L. major and L. mexicana. In both species, two transporters for uridine/adenosine were detected, one of which also transported uracil and the antimetabolites 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) and 5F,2'deoxyuridine (5F,2'dUrd), and was designated uridine-uracil transporter 1 (UUT1); the other transporter mediated uptake of adenosine, uridine, 5F,2'dUrd and thymidine and was designated Nucleoside Transporter 1 (NT1). To verify the reported L. donovani model of two NT1-like genes encoding uridine/adenosine transporters, and an NT2 gene encoding an inosine transporter, we cloned the corresponding L. major and L. mexicana genes, expressing each in T. brucei. Consistent with the L. donovani reports, the NT1-like genes of either species mediated the adenosine-sensitive uptake of [ 3 H]-uridine but not of [ 3 H]-inosine. Conversely, the NT2-like genes mediated uptake of [ 3 H]-inosine but not [ 3 H]-uridine. Among pyrimidine antimetabolites tested, 5-FU and 5F,2'dUrd were the most effective antileishmanials; resistance to both analogs was induced in L. major and L. mexicana. In each case it was found that the resistant cells had lost the transport capacity for the inducing drug. Metabolomics analysis found that the mechanism of action of 5-FU and 5F-2'dUrd was similar in both Leishmania species, with major changes in deoxynucleotide metabolism. We conclude that the pyrimidine salvage system is highly conserved in Leishmania species - essential information for the development of pyrimidine-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  13. Modification of Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleosides by Direct C-H Bond Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal-catalyzed modifications of the activated heterocyclic bases of nucleosides as well as DNA or RNA fragments employing traditional cross-coupling methods have been well-established in nucleic acid chemistry. This review covers advances in the area of cross-coupling reactions in which nucleosides are functionalized via direct activation of the C8-H bond in purine and the C5-H or C6-H bond in uracil bases. The review focuses on Pd/Cu-catalyzed couplings between unactivated nucleoside bases with aryl halides. It also discusses cross-dehydrogenative arylations and alkenylations as well as other reactions used for modification of nucleoside bases that avoid the use of organometallic precursors and involve direct C-H bond activation in at least one substrate. The scope and efficiency of these coupling reactions along with some mechanistic considerations are discussed.

  14. Synthesis of silylated pyrimidines nucleosides. Catalytic condensations with organo-zinc, organo-zirconium, and organo-borane compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, Patrice

    1982-01-01

    This research thesis addressed the synthesis of new desoxy-2' uridines substituted in C-5. The starting compound was the iodo-5 0-3',5' bis(trimethylsilyl) dUrd. It has been coupled with acetylenic organo-zinc in presence of organo-palladium and nickel compounds to obtain alkynyl-5 dUrd, with ethylenic organo-zirconium compounds in presence of organo-palladium complexes to obtain (E)-alkenyl-5 dUrd, with ethylenic organo-boranes in presence of organo-palladium complexes to obtain (E) and (Z) alkenyl-5 uRd, and with cyclic or heterocyclic organo-zinc compounds in presence of organo-palladium complexes. Thirty new pyrimidine nucleosides have thus been obtained, and some of them have been used for biological tests [fr

  15. Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates Containing 9-Deazahypoxanthine and a Five-Membered Heterocycle as Selective Inhibitors of Plasmodial 6-Oxopurine Phosphoribosyltransferases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaiser, Martin Maxmilian; Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Hocková, Dana; Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Dračínský, Martin; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 14 (2017), s. 1133-1141 ISSN 1860-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06049S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : inhibitors * nucleosides * malaria * phosphonates * purine salvage Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 3.225, year: 2016

  16. Functional characterization of a recombinant sodium-dependent nucleoside transporter with selectivity for pyrimidine nucleosides (cNT1rat) by transient expression in cultured mammalian cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, X; Parkinson, F E; Mowles, D A; Young, J D; Cass, C E

    1996-01-01

    We have demonstrated that monkey kidney (COS-1) cells have a single type of nucleoside transport process, which, because it was equilibrative, sodium-independent and could be inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), was identified as the 'equilibrative sensitive' or 'es' transporter. Using NBMPR or dilazep to inhibit the endogenous nucleoside transport activity, we have transiently expressed a cDNA that encodes an inhibitor-insensitive, concentrative nucleoside transporter protein (cNT1ra...

  17. Purine Restriction Induces Pronounced Translational Upregulation of the NT1 Adenosine/Pyrimidine Nucleoside Transporter in Leishmania major

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Diana; Valdés, Raquel; Sanchez, Marco A.; Hayenga, Johanna; Elya, Carolyn; Detke, Siegfried; Landfear, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Leishmania and other parasitic protozoa are unable to synthesize purines de novo and are reliant upon purine nucleoside and nucleobase transporters to import preformed purines from their hosts. To study the roles of the four purine permeases NT1-NT4 in Leishmania major, null mutants in each transporter gene were prepared and the effect of each gene deletion on purine uptake was monitored. Deletion of the NT3 purine nucleobase transporter gene or both NT3 and the NT2 nucleoside transporter gen...

  18. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of pyrimidine nucleosides for imaging herpes simplex type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK) expression in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, Kevin W.; Duan Weili; Xu Lihua; Zhou Aihua; Moharram, Sameh; Knaus, Edward E.; McEwan, Alexander J.B.; Wiebe, Leonard I. E-mail: leonard.wiebe@ualberta.ca

    2004-07-01

    In vivo transfer of the herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK) gene, with subsequent administration of antiviral drugs such as ganciclovir, has emerged as a promising gene therapy protocol for treating proliferative disorders. The in vitro cytotoxicities (IC{sub 50}) for two series of 5-iodo- and (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-substituted 2'-deoxy- and 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-pyrimidine nucleosides ranged from millimolar to low nanomolar concentrations in mammalian tumor cell lines (KBALB; R-970-5; 143B; EMT-6) and their counterparts engineered to express HSV-1 TK (KBALB-STK; 143B-LTK). Their HSV-1 TK selectivity indices ranged from one (nonselective) to one million (highly selective) based on cytotoxicity, with FIRU being the least toxic to all cell lines, and FIAU being most toxic. HSV-1 TK selectivity, based on uptake, ranged from 10 to 140, with IVDU being most selective for HSV-1 TK expressing cells, followed by IVFRU, FIRU, FIAU, IVFAU and finally IUDR. Phosphorylation of [{sup 125}I]FIAU led to incorporation of the radiolabel into nucleic acids, whereas IVFRU and FIRU radioactivity was trapped primarily in the nucleotide pool. These data indicate that cytotoxicity does not depend on initial metabolic trapping (e.g., phosphorylation), but on elaboration of the mononucleotides to more cytotoxic anabolites. Lipophilicities and nucleoside transport rates of the six nucleosides tested were within narrow ranges. This supports the premise that cellular biochemistry, and not cellular bioavailability, is responsible for the observed broad range of cytotoxicity and trapping. In vivo biodistribution studies with 5-[{sup 125}I]iodo-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyribouridine (FIRU), 5-[{sup 125}I]iodo-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyarabinouridine (FIAU) and (E)-5-(2-[{sup 125}I]iodovinyl)-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (IVFRU) demonstrate selective accumulation of all three radiotracers in HSV-1 TK-expressing KBABK-STK tumors, compared to their very low

  19. Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (7-deazapurine) as a privileged scaffold in design of antitumor and antiviral nucleosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perlíková, Pavla; Hocek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 6 (2017), s. 1429-1460 ISSN 0198-6325 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-00178S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1501 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antivirals * cytostatics * deazapurines * nucleosides * nucleotides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 8.763, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/med.21465/full

  20. Purine restriction induces pronounced translational upregulation of the NT1 adenosine/pyrimidine nucleoside transporter in Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Diana; Valdés, Raquel; Sanchez, Marco A; Hayenga, Johanna; Elya, Carolyn; Detke, Siegfried; Landfear, Scott M

    2010-10-01

    Leishmania and other parasitic protozoa are unable to synthesize purines de novo and are reliant upon purine nucleoside and nucleobase transporters to import preformed purines from their hosts. To study the roles of the four purine permeases NT1-NT4 in Leishmania major, null mutants in each transporter gene were prepared and the effect of each gene deletion on purine uptake was monitored. Deletion of the NT3 purine nucleobase transporter gene or both NT3 and the NT2 nucleoside transporter gene resulted in pronounced upregulation of adenosine and uridine uptake mediated by the NT1 permease and also induced up to a 200-fold enhancement in the level of the NT1 protein but not mRNA. A similar level of upregulation of NT1 was achieved in wild-type promastigotes that were transferred to medium deficient in purines. Pulse labelling and treatment of cells with the translation inhibitor cycloheximide revealed that control of NT1 expression occurs primarily at the level of translation and not protein turnover. These observations imply the existence of a translational control mechanism that enhances the ability of Leishmania parasites to import essential purines when they are present at limiting concentrations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a New Acyclic Pyrimidine Derivative as a Probe for Imaging Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Thymidine Kinase Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M. Ametamey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the idea of finding a more selective radiotracer for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk gene expression by means of positron emission tomography (PET, a novel [18F]fluorine radiolabeled pyrimidine with 4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethylbutyl side chain at N-1 (HHB-5-[18F]FEP was prepared and evaluated as a potential PET probe. Unlabeled reference compound, HHB-5-FEP, was synthesized via a five-step reaction sequence starting from 5-(2-acetoxyethyl-4-methoxypyrimidin-2-one. The radiosynthesis of HHB-[18F]-FEP was accomplished by nucleophilic radiofluorination of a tosylate precursor using [18F]fluoride-cryptate complex in 45% ± 4 (n = 4 radiochemical yields and high purity (>99%. The biological evaluation indicated the feasibility of using HHB-5-[18F]FEP as a PET radiotracer for monitoring HSV1-tk expression in vivo.

  2. New carbocyclic N(6)-substituted adenine and pyrimidine nucleoside analogues with a bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane fragment as sugar moiety; synthesis, antiviral, anticancer activity and X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tănase, Constantin I; Drăghici, Constantin; Cojocaru, Ana; Galochkina, Anastasia V; Orshanskaya, Jana R; Zarubaev, Vladimir V; Shova, Sergiu; Enache, Cristian; Maganu, Maria

    2015-10-01

    New nucleoside analogues with an optically active bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane skeleton as sugar moiety and 6-substituted adenine were synthesized by alkylation of 6-chloropurine intermediate. Thymine and uracil analogs were synthesized by building the pyrimidine ring on amine 1. X-ray crystallography confirmed an exo-coupling of the thymine to the ring and an L configuration of the nucleoside analogue. The library of compounds was tested for their inhibitory activity against influenza virus A∖California/07/09 (H1N1)pdm09 and coxsackievirus B4 in cell culture. Compounds 13a and 13d are the most promising for their antiviral activity against influenza, and compound 3c against coxsackievirus B4. Compounds 3b and 3g were tested for anticancer activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acyclic models

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Acyclic models is a method heavily used to analyze and compare various homology and cohomology theories appearing in topology and algebra. This book is the first attempt to put together in a concise form this important technique and to include all the necessary background. It presents a brief introduction to category theory and homological algebra. The author then gives the background of the theory of differential modules and chain complexes over an abelian category to state the main acyclic models theorem, generalizing and systemizing the earlier material. This is then applied to various cohomology theories in algebra and topology. The volume could be used as a text for a course that combines homological algebra and algebraic topology. Required background includes a standard course in abstract algebra and some knowledge of topology. The volume contains many exercises. It is also suitable as a reference work for researchers.

  4. Synthesis of Conformationally North-Locked Pyrimidine Nucleosides Built on an Oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane Scaffold | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning with a known 3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]-hexane scaffold, the relocation of the fused cyclopropane ring bond and the shifting of the oxygen atom to an alternative location engendered a new 2-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane template that mimics more closely the tetrahydrofuran ring of conventional nucleosides. The synthesis of this new class of locked nucleosides involved a novel

  5. Outstanding effects on antithrombin activity of modified TBA diastereomers containing an optically pure acyclic nucleotide analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuotto, M; Persico, M; Bucci, M; Vellecco, V; Borbone, N; Morelli, E; Oliviero, G; Novellino, E; Piccialli, G; Cirino, G; Varra, M; Fattorusso, C; Mayol, L

    2014-07-28

    Herein, we report optically pure modified acyclic nucleosides as ideal probes for aptamer modification. These new monomers offer unique advantages in exploring the role played in thrombin inhibition by a single residue modification at key positions of the TBA structure.

  6. Novel (2,6-difluorophenyl)(2-(phenylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl) methanones with restricted conformation as potent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors against HIV-1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Petr; Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Šaman, David; Stepan, G.; Hu, E.; Lansdon, E. B.; Jansa, P.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, Oct 21 (2016), s. 185-195 ISSN 0223-5234 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : diarylpyrimidine (DAPY) * etravirine * human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) * non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors * NNRTIs * rilpivirine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.519, year: 2016

  7. Simultaneous quantification of purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleosides and their degradation products in bovine blood plasma by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Stentoft; Vestergaard, Mogens; Løvendahl, Peter

    2014-01-01

    describes the development and validation of a sensitive and specific method for simultaneous determination of 20 purines (adenine, guanine, guanosine, inosine, 2′-deoxyguanosine, 2′-deoxyinosine, xanthine, hypoxanthine), pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine, uracil, cytidine, uridine, thymidine, 2′-deoxyuridine...... investigated. It was confirmed that using a log-calibration model rather than a linear calibration model resulted in lower CV% and a lack of fit test demonstrated a satisfying linear regression. The method covers concentration ranges for each metabolite according to that in actual samples, e.g. guanine: 0...... veins and, with a few exceptions, also for other species such as chicken, pig, mink, human and rat....

  8. Enzymatic primer-extension with glycerol-nucleoside triphosphates on DNA templates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse J Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glycerol nucleic acid (GNA has an acyclic phosphoglycerol backbone repeat-unit, but forms stable duplexes based on Watson-Crick base-pairing. Because of its structural simplicity, GNA is of particular interest with respect to the possibility of evolving functional polymers by in vitro selection. Template-dependent GNA synthesis is essential to any GNA-based selection system. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the ability of various DNA polymerases to use glycerol-nucleoside triphosphates (gNTPs as substrates for GNA synthesis on DNA templates. Therminator DNA polymerase catalyzes quantitative primer-extension by the incorporation of two glyceronucleotides, with much less efficient extension up to five glyceronucleotides. Steady-state kinetic experiments suggested that GNA synthesis by Therminator was affected by both decreased catalytic rates and weakened substrate binding, especially for pyrimidines. In an attempt to improve pyrimidine incorporation by providing additional stacking interactions, we synthesized two new gNTP analogs with 5-propynyl substituted pyrimidine nucleobases. This led to more efficient incorporation of gC, but not gT. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that directed evolution of Therminator might lead to mutants with improved substrate binding and catalytic efficiency.

  9. Two nucleoside transporters in Lactococcus lactis with different substrate specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Sørensen, Claus; Jendresen, Christian Bille

    2010-01-01

    , and the utilization of nucleotides is dependent on exogenous phosphatases. The composition of transporters with specificity for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleobases is subject to variation. The ability of Lactococcus lactis to transport different nucleosides across the cell membrane was characterized...

  10. Pentose phosphates in nucleoside interconversion and catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Maria G; Camici, Marcella; Mascia, Laura; Sgarrella, Francesco; Ipata, Piero L

    2006-03-01

    Ribose phosphates are either synthesized through the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, or are supplied by nucleoside phosphorylases. The two main pentose phosphates, ribose-5-phosphate and ribose-1-phosphate, are readily interconverted by the action of phosphopentomutase. Ribose-5-phosphate is the direct precursor of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, for both de novo and 'salvage' synthesis of nucleotides. Phosphorolysis of deoxyribonucleosides is the main source of deoxyribose phosphates, which are interconvertible, through the action of phosphopentomutase. The pentose moiety of all nucleosides can serve as a carbon and energy source. During the past decade, extensive advances have been made in elucidating the pathways by which the pentose phosphates, arising from nucleoside phosphorolysis, are either recycled, without opening of their furanosidic ring, or catabolized as a carbon and energy source. We review herein the experimental knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which (a) ribose-1-phosphate, produced by purine nucleoside phosphorylase acting catabolically, is either anabolized for pyrimidine salvage and 5-fluorouracil activation, with uridine phosphorylase acting anabolically, or recycled for nucleoside and base interconversion; (b) the nucleosides can be regarded, both in bacteria and in eukaryotic cells, as carriers of sugars, that are made available though the action of nucleoside phosphorylases. In bacteria, catabolism of nucleosides, when suitable carbon and energy sources are not available, is accomplished by a battery of nucleoside transporters and of inducible catabolic enzymes for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and for pentose phosphates. In eukaryotic cells, the modulation of pentose phosphate production by nucleoside catabolism seems to be affected by developmental and physiological factors on enzyme levels.

  11. An enzymatic glycosylation of nucleoside analogues using beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažek, Jiří; Jansa, Petr; Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Kaiser, Martin Maxmilian; Otmar, Miroslav; Krečmerová, Marcela; Dračínský, Martin; Holý, Antonín; Králová, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 9 (2012), s. 3111-3118 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : glycosylation * galactosylation * beta-galactosidase * enzymatic synthesis * nucleoside * acyclic nucleoside analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.903, year: 2012

  12. Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs of Nucleoside and Nucleotide Antivirals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krečmerová, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 10 (2017), s. 818-833 ISSN 1389-5575 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200551201 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside analogues * antiherpetics * antiretrovirals * cidofovir * peptidomimetics * prodrugs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.661, year: 2016

  13. Synthesis of acyclic nucleoside 5-o-carboranyl uracil derivative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carboranyl uracil 7 as potentially antiviral agent and a suitable candidate for BNCT is described starting from 5,5- dihydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxane 1, an intermediate 2,2,2-triacetoxymethyl ethoxymethyl acetyl 2 was synthesized and coupled with ...

  14. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: A key class of antiviral drugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Clercq, E.; Holý, Antonín

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 13 (2005), 928-940 ISSN 1474-1776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : tenofovir * adefovir * cidofovir Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 18.775, year: 2005

  15. Origin, Utilization, and Recycling of Nucleosides in the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipata, Piero Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The brain relies on the salvage of preformed purine and pyrimidine rings, mainly in the form of nucleosides, to maintain its nucleotide pool in the proper qualitative and quantitative balance. The transport of nucleosides from blood into neurons and glia is considered to be an essential prerequisite to enter their metabolic utilization in the…

  16. Two convergent approaches toward novel carbocyclic C-nucleosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nencka, Radim; Šála, Michal; Dejmek, Milan; Dračínský, Martin; Holý, Antonín; Hřebabecký, Hubert

    -, č. 23 (2010), s. 4119-4130 ISSN 0039-7881 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : carbocyclic C-nucleosides * convergent approach * uracil * pyrimidines Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.260, year: 2010

  17. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type...

  18. On Acyclicity of Games with Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Daniel; Gurvich, Vladimir; Hansen, Thomas Dueholm

    2009-01-01

    We study restricted improvement cycles (ri-cycles) in finite positional n-person games with perfect information modeled by directed graphs (digraphs) that may contain cycles. We obtain criteria of restricted improvement acyclicity (ri-acyclicity) in two cases: for n = 2 and for acyclic digraphs. We...

  19. Synthesis, structural studies and biological properties of new TBA analogues containing an acyclic nucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Teresa; Varra, Michela; Oliviero, Giorgia; Galeone, Aldo; D'Isa, Giuliana; Mayol, Luciano; Morelli, Elena; Bucci, Maria-Rosaria; Vellecco, Valentina; Cirino, Giuseppe; Borbone, Nicola

    2008-09-01

    A new modified acyclic nucleoside, namely N(1)-(3-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpropyl)-thymidine, was synthesized and transformed into a building block useful for oligonucleotide (ON) automated synthesis. A series of modified thrombin binding aptamers (TBAs) in which the new acyclic nucleoside replaces, one at the time, the thymidine residues were then synthesized and characterized by UV, CD, MS, and (1)H NMR. The biological activity of the resulting TBAs was tested by Prothrombin Time assay (PT assay) and by purified fibrinogen clotting assay. From a structural point of view, nearly all the new TBA analogues show a similar behavior as the unmodified counterpart, being able to fold into a bimolecular or monomolecular quadruplex structure depending on the nature of monovalent cations (sodium or potassium) coordinated in the quadruplex core. From the comparison of structural and biological data, some important structure-activity relationships emerged, particularly when the modification involved the TT loops. In agreement with previous studies we found that the folding ability of TBA analogues is more affected by modifications involving positions 4 and 13, rather than positions 3 and 12. On the other hand, the highest anti-thrombin activities were detected for aptamers containing the modification at T13 or T12 positions, thus indicating that the effects produced by the introduction of the acyclic nucleoside on the biological activity are not tightly connected with structure stabilities. It is noteworthy that the modification at T7 produces an ON being more stable and active than the natural TBA.

  20. Synthesis of New Acadesine (AICA-riboside Analogues Having Acyclic d-Ribityl or 4-Hydroxybutyl Chains in Place of the Ribose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Piccialli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The antiviral activity of certain acyclic nucleosides drew our attention to the fact that the replacement of the furanose ring by an alkyl group bearing hydroxyl(s could be a useful structural modification to modulate the biological properties of those nucleosides. Herein, we report on the synthesis of some novel acadesine analogues, where the ribose moiety is mimicked by a d-ribityl or by a hydroxybutyl chain.

  1. An unusual correlation between ppGpp pool size and rate of ribosome synthesis during partial pyrimidine starvation of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla; Pedersen, Steen; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli was exposed to partial pyrimidine starvation by feeding a pyrBI strain orotate as the only pyrimidine source. Subsequently, differential rates of synthesis of rRNA and of a few ribosome-associated proteins as well as the pool sizes of nucleoside triphosphates and ppGpp were measu...

  2. A General Regioselective Approach to 2,4-Disubstituted Pyrimidin-5-yl C-2-Deoxyribonucleosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubelka, Tomáš; Slavětínská, Lenka; Hocek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2012), s. 953-965 ISSN 0039-7881 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : nucleosides * pyrimidines * cross - coupling * Heck reaction Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2012

  3. Electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenares, Rafael; Fuss, Martina C; García, Gustavo; Oller, Juan C; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; Almeida, Diogo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Electron scattering from pyrimidine (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following different experimental and theoretical approaches, total, elastic and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  4. Aqueous microwaves assisted cross-coupling reactions applied to unprotected nucleosides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHE eLEN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside analogues have attracted much attention due to their potential biological activities. Amongst all synthetic nucleosides, C5-modified pyrimidines and C7- or C8-modified purines have mostly been prepared using palladium cross-coupling reactions and then studied as antitumoral and antiviral agents. Our objective is to focus this review on the Suzuki-Miyaura and on the Heck cross-couplings of nucleosides using microwave irradiations which are an alternative technology compatible with green chemistry and sustainable development.

  5. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases activate nucleoside antibiotics in severely pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Shannon, O.; Clausen, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Common bacterial pathogens are becoming progressively more resistant to traditional antibiotics, representing a major public-health crisis. Therefore, there is a need for a variety of antibiotics with alternative modes of action. In our study, several nucleoside analogs were tested against pathog...... alternative for combating pathogenic bacteria.......Common bacterial pathogens are becoming progressively more resistant to traditional antibiotics, representing a major public-health crisis. Therefore, there is a need for a variety of antibiotics with alternative modes of action. In our study, several nucleoside analogs were tested against...... pathogenic staphylococci and streptococci. We show that pyrimidine-based nucleoside analogs, like 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 2',2'-difluoro-2'deoxycytidine (gemcitabine), are specifically activated by the endogenous bacterial deoxyribonucleoside kinases, leading to cell death. Deoxyribonucleoside...

  6. Enhancement of Nucleoside Production in Hirsutella sinensis Based on Biosynthetic Pathway Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Shan; Baker, Peter James; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Xue, Ya-Ping; Wu, Hui; Xu, Feng; Yuan, Shui-Jin; Teng, Yi; Wu, Ling-Fang

    2017-01-01

    To enhance nucleoside production in Hirsutella sinensis, the biosynthetic pathways of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides were constructed and verified. The differential expression analysis showed that purine nucleoside phosphorylase, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, and guanosine monophosphate synthase genes involved in purine nucleotide biosynthesis were significantly upregulated 16.56-fold, 8-fold, and 5.43-fold, respectively. Moreover, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, uridine nucleosidase, uridine/cytidine monophosphate kinase, and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase genes participating in pyrimidine nucleoside biosynthesis were upregulated 4.53-fold, 10.63-fold, 4.26-fold, and 5.98-fold, respectively. To enhance the nucleoside production, precursors for synthesis of nucleosides were added based on the analysis of biosynthetic pathways. Uridine and cytidine contents, respectively, reached 5.04 mg/g and 3.54 mg/g when adding 2 mg/mL of ribose, resulting in an increase of 28.6% and 296% compared with the control, respectively. Meanwhile, uridine and cytidine contents, respectively, reached 10.83 mg/g 2.12 mg/g when adding 0.3 mg/mL of uracil, leading to an increase of 176.3% and 137.1%, respectively. This report indicated that fermentation regulation was an effective way to enhance the nucleoside production in H. sinensis based on biosynthetic pathway analysis. PMID:29333435

  7. Synthesis of 2'-deoxyuridine and 2'-deoxycytidine nucleosides bearing bipyridine and terpyridine ligands in position 5

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalachová, Lubica; Pohl, Radek; Hocek, Michal

    -, č. 1 (2009), s. 105-112 ISSN 0039-7881 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : nucleosides * pyrimidines * cross-coupling * bipyridine s Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.572, year: 2009

  8. Pyrimidine-pyridine ring interconversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, van der H.C.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses the pyrimidine-to-pyridine ring transformation and pyridine-to-pyrimidine ring transformation. In nucleophile-induced pyrimidine-to-pyridine rearrangements, two types of reactions can be distinguished depending on the structure of the nucleophile: (1) reactions in which the

  9. Point mutations in a nucleoside transporter gene from Leishmania donovani confer drug resistance and alter substrate selectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Vasudevan, Gayatri; Ullman, Buddy; Landfear, Scott M.

    2001-01-01

    Leishmania parasites lack a purine biosynthetic pathway and depend on surface nucleoside and nucleobase transporters to provide them with host purines. Leishmania donovani possess two closely related genes that encode high affinity adenosine-pyrimidine nucleoside transporters LdNT1.1 and LdNT1.2 and that transport the toxic adenosine analog tubercidin in addition to the natural substrates. In this study, we have characterized a drug-resistant clonal mutant of L. do...

  10. complexes of pyrimidine derived

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The ligands are prepared by the condensation of 4,6-dimethyl 2-hydrazino pyrimidine with salicylaldehyde ... 6. With the knowledge of approximate coordination sphere of Mo in the metal- loenzymes at hand, several attempts have been made to model the active sites of these enzymes and study ..... [I > 2 sigma(I)]R indices.

  11. Gene set analysis of purine and pyrimidine antimetabolites cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridley, Brooke L; Batzler, Anthony; Li, Liang; Li, Fang; Matimba, Alice; Jenkins, Gregory D; Ji, Yuan; Wang, Liewei; Weinshilboum, Richard M

    2011-11-01

    Responses to therapies, either with regard to toxicities or efficacy, are expected to involve complex relationships of gene products within the same molecular pathway or functional gene set. Therefore, pathways or gene sets, as opposed to single genes, may better reflect the true underlying biology and may be more appropriate units for analysis of pharmacogenomic studies. Application of such methods to pharmacogenomic studies may enable the detection of more subtle effects of multiple genes in the same pathway that may be missed by assessing each gene individually. A gene set analysis of 3821 gene sets is presented assessing the association between basal messenger RNA expression and drug cytotoxicity using ethnically defined human lymphoblastoid cell lines for two classes of drugs: pyrimidines [gemcitabine (dFdC) and arabinoside] and purines [6-thioguanine and 6-mercaptopurine]. The gene set nucleoside-diphosphatase activity was found to be significantly associated with both dFdC and arabinoside, whereas gene set γ-aminobutyric acid catabolic process was associated with dFdC and 6-thioguanine. These gene sets were significantly associated with the phenotype even after adjusting for multiple testing. In addition, five associated gene sets were found in common between the pyrimidines and two gene sets for the purines (3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activity and γ-aminobutyric acid catabolic process) with a P value of less than 0.0001. Functional validation was attempted with four genes each in gene sets for thiopurine and pyrimidine antimetabolites. All four genes selected from the pyrimidine gene sets (PSME3, CANT1, ENTPD6, ADRM1) were validated, but only one (PDE4D) was validated for the thiopurine gene sets. In summary, results from the gene set analysis of pyrimidine and purine therapies, used often in the treatment of various cancers, provide novel insight into the relationship between genomic variation and drug response.

  12. 3000 Horsepower super conductive field acyclic motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.

    1983-01-01

    A 3000 hp acyclic motor was assembled and tested utilizing superconducting field coils. The magnet assembly is designed as a quadrupole magnet, utilizing a multifilamentary niobium titanium superconductor. Each magnet coil is 18 inches in diameter and 10 inches long, and operates at rated current of 200 amperes, providing 5.8 tesla in the bore of the coils in the motor configuration. The average winding current density is 10,600 A/cm 2 . The acyclic motor is of a drum-type design with liquid metal current collectors, and is designed to model full-scale machinery for ship propulsion applications. Laboratory test data verified the electrical and electromagnetic design to be within three percent of the calculated values

  13. Determination of redox potentials for the Watson-Crick base pairs, DNA nucleosides, and relevant nucleoside analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Hernandez, Carlos E; Close, David M; Gorb, Leonid; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2007-05-17

    Redox potentials for the DNA nucleobases and nucleosides, various relevant nucleoside analogues, Watson-Crick base pairs, and seven organic dyes are presented based on DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) and B3YLP/6-311+G(2df,p)//B3LYP/6-31+G* levels of calculations. The values are determined from an experimentally calibrated set of equations that correlate the vertical ionization (electron affinity) energy of 20 organic molecules with their experimental reversible oxidation (reduction) potential. Our results are in good agreement with those estimated experimentally for the DNA nucleosides in acetonitrile solutions (Seidel et al. J. Phys. Chem. 1996, 100, 5541). We have found that nucleosides with anti conformation exhibit lower oxidation potentials than the corresponding syn conformers. The lowering in the oxidation potential is due to the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction between the 5'-OH group of the sugar and the N3 of the purine bases or C2=O of the pyrimidine bases in the syn conformation. Pairing of adenine or guanine with its complementary pyrimidine base decreases its oxidation potential by 0.15 or 0.28 V, respectively. The calculated energy difference between the oxidation potential for the G.C base pair and that of the guanine base is in good agreement with the experimental value estimated recently (0.34 V: Caruso, T.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 15040). The complete and consistent set of reversible redox values determined in this work for the DNA constituents is expected to be of considerable value to those studying charge and electronic energy transfer in DNA.

  14. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type i......+1, i=1,2,3,4. The first three types are equivalent to the absence of PC cycles, PC closed trails, and PC closed walks, respectively. While graphs of types 1, 2 and 3 can be recognized in polynomial time, the problem of recognizing graphs of type 4 is, somewhat surprisingly, NP-hard even for 2-edge-colored...... graphs (i.e., when only two colors are used). The same problem with respect to type 5 is polynomial-time solvable for all edge-colored graphs. Using the five types, we investigate the border between intractability and tractability for the problems of finding the maximum number of internally vertex...

  15. Nucleotides, Nucleosides, and Nucleobases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Dandanell, Gert; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2008-01-01

    We review literature on the metabolism of ribo- and deoxyribonucleotides, nucleosides, and nucleobases in Escherichia coli and Salmonella,including biosynthesis, degradation, interconversion, and transport. Emphasis is placed on enzymology and regulation of the pathways, at both the level of gene...

  16. Formation of Mixed-Ligand Complexes of Pd2+ with Nucleoside 5'-Monophosphates and Some Metal-Ion-Binding Nucleoside Surrogates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Golubev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of mixed-ligand Pd2+ complexes between canonical nucleoside 5'-monophosphates and five metal-ion-binding nucleoside analogs has been studied by 1H-NMR spectroscopy to test the ability of these nucleoside surrogates to discriminate between unmodified nucleobases by Pd2+-mediated base pairing. The nucleoside analogs studied included 2,6-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl-, 2,6-bis(1-methylhydrazinyl- and 6-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl-substituted 9-(β-d-ribofuranosylpurines 1–3, and 2,4-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl- and 2,4-bis(1-methylhydrazinyl-substituted 5-(β-d-ribofuranosyl-pyrimidines 4–5. Among these, the purine derivatives 1-3 bound Pd2+ much more tightly than the pyrimidine derivatives 4, 5 despite apparently similar structures of the potential coordination sites. Compounds 1 and 2 formed markedly stable mixed-ligand Pd2+ complexes with UMP and GMP, UMP binding favored by 1 and GMP by 2. With 3, formation of mixed-ligand complexes was retarded by binding of two molecules of 3 to Pd2+.

  17. Distinct modulation of telomere length in two T-lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines by cytotoxic nucleoside phosphonates PMEG and PMEDAP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Miroslav; Cvilink, Viktor; Votruba, Ivan; Holý, Antonín; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 643, č. 1 (2010), s. 6-12 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA AV ČR 1QS400550501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * PMEG * PMEDAP * telomere length * telomerase inhibition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.737, year: 2010

  18. Impossibility of an acyclic relativistic electric motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spavieri, G [Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Cavalleri, G [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Spinelli, G [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica Applicata

    1981-02-11

    The relativistic torque acting on a circuit carrying a current and having a uniform translatory motion in a constant and uniform electric field would seem to suggest the possibility of an acyclic relativistic electric motor. However, the net effect on the side parallel to the rotation axis is exactly balanced by the variation of the angular momentum (in the case of an insulating circuit transporting electric charges) or by the external moment due to the magnetic field (in the case of a conducting circuit) acting on the two sides perpendicular to the rotation axis.

  19. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: a study on cytochrome P450 gene expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, J.; Contreras, J. A.; Juvan, P.; Tacer, K. F.; Anzenbacher, P.; Zídek, Zdeněk; Zapletalová, M.; Rozman, D.; Anzenbacherová, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 8 (2014), s. 708-715 ISSN 0049-8254 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0019; GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.003 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : induction * drug metabolism * antiviral Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2014

  20. Chiral analysis of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates-based anti-aids drugs by capillary electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašička, Václav; Šolínová, Veronika; Sázelová, Petra; Mikysková, Hana; Jansa, Petr; Krečmerová, Marcela; Holý, Antonín

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, - (2012), s604-s604 ISSN 0009-2770. [EuCheMS Chemistry Congress /4./. 26.08.2012-30.08.2012, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : analytical methods * electrophoresis * enentioselectivity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  1. Crystal Structures of Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates in Complex with Escherichia coli Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eng, W. S.; Hocková, Dana; Špaček, Petr; Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Janeba, Zlatko; Naesens, L.; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 19 (2016), s. 6267-6276 ISSN 2365-6549 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06049S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : enzyme inhibitors * nucleotide analogues * HPRT Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  2. Novel acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues with potent anti-hepatitis B virus activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ying, C.; Holý, Antonín; Hocková, Dana; Havlas, Zdeněk; De Clercq, E.; Neyts, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2005), 1177-1180 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS4055109 Grant - others:FWO(BE) G.0267.04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : antivirals * hepatitis B * ANP Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.379, year: 2005

  3. Macrophage activation by antiviral acyclic nucleoside phosphonates in dependence on priming immune stimuli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Zdeněk; Franková, Daniela; Holý, Antonín

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 12 (2000), s. 1121-1129 ISSN 0192-0561 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/0048; GA ČR GV203/96/K001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2000

  4. Phytotoxicity of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates in Brassica pekinensis and Solanum lycopersicum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špak, Josef; Janeba, Zlatko; Jansa, Petr; Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Pavingerová, Daniela; Špaková, Vlastimila

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 125, č. 2 (2016), s. 375-379 ISSN 0167-6857 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Chemotherapy * Virus eradication * Phytotoxicity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2016

  5. Antimalarial activity of prodrugs of N-branched acyclic nucleoside phosphonate inhibitors of 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hocková, Dana; Janeba, Zlatko; Naesens, L.; Edstein, M. D.; Chavchich, M.; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 17 (2015), s. 5502-5510 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0108 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : nucleotide analogues * enzyme inhibitors * malaria * HG(X)PRT * ANP Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.923, year: 2015

  6. Sugar-modified derivatives of cytostatic 6-(het)aryl-7-deazapurine nucleosides: 2'-C-methylribonucleosides, arabinonucleosides and 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroarabinonucleosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nauš, Petr; Perlíková, Pavla; Pohl, Radek; Hocek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 8 (2011), s. 957-988 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : nucleosides * cross - coupling * antitumor agents * purines * 7-deazapurines * 7H-Pyrrolo[2,3d]pyrimidine * cytostatic agents Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  7. Method of preparing highly active and thermostable preparations of liver uridin-kinase usable for enzymic synthesis of radioactive nucleoside-5'-phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cihak, A.; Vesely, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of preparing a high-activity uridine kinase for the enzymic synthesis of radioactive nucleoside-5m-phosphates of the pyrimidine series. The preparation is separated from male rat liver after intraperitoneal application of 5'-azacytidine. Examples are given showing detailed procedures for the conversion of uridine and 6-azauridine to the corresponding 5'-phosphates. (L.K.)

  8. Pronounced in vitro and in vivo antiretroviral activity of 5-substituted 2,4-diamino-6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethoxy] pyrimidines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balzarini, J.; Schols, D.; Van Laethem, K.; De Clercq, E.; Hocková, Dana; Masojídková, Milena; Holý, Antonín

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2007), s. 80-86 ISSN 0305-7453 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA AV ČR IBS4055109; GA AV ČR 1QS400550501 Grant - others:ISEP/FORTIS(XE) GOA/2005/19 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * antiretroviral drugs * HIV * MSV * PMEO-DAPy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.038, year: 2007

  9. On Event Detection and Localization in Acyclic Flow Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Suresh, Mahima Agumbe; Stoleru, Radu; Zechman, Emily M.; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    Acyclic flow networks, present in many infrastructures of national importance (e.g., oil and gas and water distribution systems), have been attracting immense research interest. Existing solutions for detecting and locating attacks against

  10. Pyrimidines in antimalarial drug design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moleele, SS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available of the routes attempted are shown in Scheme 1. Pyrimidines In Antimalarial Drug Design S S Moleele1, D Gravestock1, A L Rousseau1, R L Van Zyl2 1Discovery Chemistry, CSIR, Biosciences, Private Bag X2, Modderfontein, 1645, South Africa; SMoleele@csir.co.za 2...

  11. Isotopically labelled pyrimidines and purines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaban, A.T.; Bally, I.

    1987-01-01

    Among the three diazines, pyrimidine is by far the most important one because its derivatives uracil, thymine and cytosine are constituents of the ubiquitous deoxynucleic acids (DNA) and ribonucleic acids (RNA). Other derivatives of pyrimidine without condensed rings include barbiturates, alloxan, orotic acid and thiamine or vitamin B 1 . From the polycyclic derivatives of pyrimidine such as pteridine, alloxazine, and purine, the latter, through its derivatives adenine and guanine complete the list of bases which occur in DNA and RNA: in addition, other purine derivatives such as hypoxanthine, xanthine, theobromine, theophylline, caffeine and uric acid are important natural products with biological activity. The paper presents methods for preparing isotopically labeled pyrimidines as well as purine derivatives. For convenience, the authors describe separately carbon-labeled with radioisotopes 11 C (T 1/2 = 20.3 min) and 14 C (T 1/2 = 5736 years) or the stable isotope 13 C (natural abundance 1.1%) and then hydrogen-labeled systems with the radioisotope 3 H ≡ T (T 1/2 = 12.346 years) or with the stable isotope 2 H ≡ D (natural abundance 0.015%). We do not separate stable from radioactive isotopes because the synthetic methods are identical for the same element; however, the introduction of hydrogen isotopes into organic molecules is often performed by reactions such as isotope exchange which cannot take place in the case of carbon isotopes

  12. PET imaging of HSV1-tk mutants with acquired specificity toward pyrimidine- and acycloguanosine-based radiotracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likar, Yury; Dobrenkov, Konstantin; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Shenker, Larissa; Hricak, Hedvig; Ponomarev, Vladimir [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Cai, Shangde [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Radiochemistry/Cyclotron Core Facility, New York, NY (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to create an alternative mutant of the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) reporter gene with reduced phosphorylation capacity for acycloguanosine derivatives, but not pyrimidine-based compounds that will allow for successful PET imaging. A new mutant of HSV1-tk reporter gene, suitable for PET imaging using pyrimidine-based radiotracers, was developed. The HSV1-tk mutant contains an arginine-to-glutamine substitution at position 176 (HSV1-R176Qtk) of the nucleoside binding region of the enzyme. The mutant-gene product showed favorable enzymatic characteristics toward pyrimidine-based nucleosides, while exhibiting reduced activity with acycloguanosine derivatives. In order to enhance HSV1-R176Qtk reporter activity with pyrimidine-based radiotracers, we introduced the R176Q substitution into the more active HSV1-sr39tk mutant. U87 human glioma cells transduced with the HSV1-R176Qsr39tk double mutant reporter gene showed high {sup 3}H-FEAU pyrimidine nucleoside and low {sup 3}H-penciclovir acycloguanosine analog uptake in vitro. PET imaging also demonstrated high {sup 18}F-FEAU and low {sup 18}F-FHBG accumulation in HSV1-R176Qsr39tk+ xenografts. The feasibility of imaging two independent nucleoside-specific HSV1-tk mutants in the same animal with PET was demonstrated. Two opposite xenografts expressing the HSV1-R176Qsr39tk reporter gene and the previously described acycloguanosine-specific mutant of HSV1-tk, HSV1-A167Ysr39tk reporter gene, were imaged using a short-lived pyrimidine-based {sup 18}F-FEAU and an acycloguanosine-based {sup 18}F-FHBG radiotracer, respectively, administered on 2 consecutive days. We conclude that in combination with acycloguanosine-specific HSV1-A167Ysr39tk reporter gene, a HSV1-tk mutant containing the R176Q substitution could be used for PET imaging of two different cell populations or concurrent molecular biological processes in the same living subject. (orig.)

  13. Temperature dependence of desoxyribosylation of pyrimidine derivatives labelled with carbon-14 and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritasil, L.; Filip, J.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the temperature and concentration of the enzyme preparation from Escherichia coli B on the reaction of pyrimidine bases with 2-desoxy-α-D-riboso-l-phosphate or α-D-riboso-l-phosphate was studied. It was found that at +2 deg C and low enzyme concentration higher yields of nucleosides are obtained than at the commonly used temperature of 37 deg C. The reaction time, however, must be protracted. The prepared [2- 14 C] uridine, 2'-deoxy[2- 14 C] uridine and [2- 14 C] thymidine had a high specific activity and radiochemical purity

  14. Three-dimensional structure of E. Coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase at 0.99 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, V. I., E-mail: tostars@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Abramchik, Yu. A., E-mail: ugama@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin–Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Zhukhlistova, N. E., E-mail: inna@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin–Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kuranova, I. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs) catalyze the reversible phosphorolysis of nucleosides and are key enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism. They are essential for normal cell function and can catalyze the transglycosylation. Crystals of E. coli PNP were grown in microgravity by the capillary counterdiffusion method through a gel layer. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined by the molecular-replacement method at 0.99 Å resolution. The structural features are considered, and the structure of E. coli PNP is compared with the structures of the free enzyme and its complexes with purine base derivatives established earlier. A comparison of the environment of the purine base in the complex of PNP with formycin A and of the pyrimidine base in the complex of uridine phosphorylase with thymidine revealed the main structural features of the base-binding sites. Coordinates of the atomic model determined with high accuracy were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB-ID: 4RJ2).

  15. Synthesis of substituted mono- and diindole C-nucleoside analogues from sugar terminal alkynes by sequential sonogashira/heteroannulation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuyi; Mu, Delong; Wang, Liming; Du, Pengfei; Han, Fen; Zhao, Yufen

    2014-10-17

    The synthesis of substituted mono- and diindole C-nucleoside analogues has been achieved in good to excellent yields by sequential Sonogashira coupling/NaAuCl4-catalyzed heteroannulation reactions of substituted 2-iodoanilines with various sugar terminal alkynes in one pot. The method is general, mild, and efficient and suitable for a wide range of sugar substrates, and 42 examples are given. The amino group of the substituted 2-iodoanilines is unprotected. The sugar terminal alkynes include furanosides, pyranosides, and acyclic glycosides with free hydroxyl groups, sensitive functional subtituents, and various protecting groups having different steric hindrance.

  16. High yield expression and purification of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 7 (ENT7) from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girke, Christopher; Arutyunova, Elena; Syed, Maria; Traub, Michaela; Möhlmann, Torsten; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2015-09-01

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) facilitate the import of nucleosides and their analogs into cells in a bidirectional, non-concentrative manner. However, in contrast to their name, most characterized plant ENTs act in a concentrative manner. A direct characterization of any ENT protein has been hindered due to difficulties in overexpression and obtaining pure recombinant protein. The equilibrative nucleoside transporter 7 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtENT7) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes to assess mechanism of substrate uptake. Recombinant protein fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was expressed in Pichia pastoris to characterize its oligomeric state by gel filtration and substrate binding by microscale thermophoresis (MST). AtENT7 expressed in X. laevis oocytes works as a classic equilibrative transporter. The expression of AtENT7-eGFP in the P. pastoris system yielded milligram amounts of pure protein that exists as stable homodimers. The concentration dependent binding of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides to the purified recombinant protein, assessed by MST, confirmed that AtENT7-eGFP is properly folded. For the first time the binding of nucleobases was observed for AtENT7. The availability of pure recombinant AtENT7 will permit detailed kinetic and structural studies of this unique member of the ENT family and, given the functional similarity to mammalian ENTs, will serve as a good model for understanding the structural basis of translocation mechanism for the family. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Zika Virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eyer, L.; Nencka, Radim; Huvarová, I.; Palus, Martin; Alves, M. J.; Gould, E. A.; De Clercq, E.; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 5 (2016), s. 707-711 ISSN 0022-1899 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Zika virus * flavivirus * nucleoside analogue * antiviral * therapy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 6.273, year: 2016

  18. Polyurethane Foams with Pyrimidine Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kania Ewelina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligoetherols based on pyrimidine ring were obtained upon reaction of barbituric acid with glycidol and alkylene carbonates. These oligoetherols were then used to obtain polyurethane foams in the reaction of oligoetherols with isocyanates and water. The protocol of foam synthesis was optimized by the choice of proper kind of oligoetherol and synthetic composition. The thermal resistance was studied by dynamic and static methods with concomitant monitoring of compressive strength. The polyurethane foams have similar physical properties as the classic ones except their enhanced thermal resistance. They stand long-time heating even at 200°C. Moreover thermal exposition of foams results generally in increase of their compressive strength.

  19. Polynomial kernels for deletion to classes of acyclic digraphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mnich, Matthias; van Leeuwen, E.J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the problem to find a set X of vertices (or arcs) with |X| ≤ k in a given digraph G such that D = G − X is an acyclic digraph. In its generality, this is Directed Feedback Vertex Set (or Directed Feedback Arc Set); the existence of a polynomial kernel for these problems is a notorious

  20. Analysis of pyrimidine dimer content of isolated DNA by nuclease digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farland, W.H.; Sutherland, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    Isolated DNA is highly susceptible to degradation by exogenous nucleases. Complete digestion is possible with a number of well-characterized enzymes from a variety of sources. Treatment of DNA with a battery of enzymes including both phosphodiesterase and phosphatase activities yields a mixture of nucleosides and inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) as a final product. Unlike native DNA, ultraviolet-irradiated DNA is resistant to complete digestion. Setlow et al. demonstrated that the structural changes in the DNA responsible for the nuclease resistance were the formation of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers, the major photoproduct in UV-irradiated DNA. Using venom phosphodiesterase, they demonstrated that UV irradiation of DNA affected both the rate and extent of enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, it was demonstrated that the major nuclease-resistant product of this hydrolysis was an oligonucleotide containing dimerized pyrimidines. Treatment of the DNA to split the dimers, either photochemically or photoenzymatically, rendered the polymer more susceptible to hydrolysis by the phosphodiesterase. The specificity of photoreactivating enzyme for pyrimidine dimers lends support to the role of these structures in conferring nuclease resistance to UV-irradiated DNA. The nuclease resistance of DNA containing dimers has been the basis of several assays for the measurement of these photoproducts. Sutherland and Chamberlin reported the development of a rapid and sensitive assay for dimers in 32 P-labeled DNA

  1. Preparation of nucleoside-pyridine hybrids and pyridine attached acylureas from an unexpected uracil ring-opening and pyridine ring-forming sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Sen Fan; Xia Wang; Xin Ying Zhang; Dong Feng; Ying Ying Qu

    2009-01-01

    Novel pyrimidine nucleoside-3,5-dicyanopyridine hybrids (4) or pyridine attached acylureas (5) were selectively and efficiently prepared from the reaction of 2'-deoxyuridin-5-yl-methylene malonortitrile (1), malononitrile (2) and thiophenol (3) or from an unexpected uracil ring-opening and pyridine ring-forming sequence via the reaction of 1 and 3. It is the first time such a sequence has ever been reported.

  2. Nucleoside analog toxicity and nucleoside kinase deficiency : Effects on mitochondrial DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerke, Mia

    2008-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs are modified nucleosides used in treatment of cancer and viral infections. They are dependent on intracellular phosphorylation to be pharmacologically active. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases catalyze the rate-limiting step in the phosphorylation of many clinically used nucleoside analogs. Human cells contain four distinct deoxyribonucleoside kinases that have partially overlapping substrate specificities for both naturally occurring deoxyribonucleosides as wel...

  3. Marine Nucleosides: Structure, Bioactivity, Synthesis and Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri-Ming Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds.

  4. Inhibitory effect of extracellular purine nucleotide and nucleoside concentrations on T cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiler, Monica [Department of Medicine III and Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany); Schmetzer, Helga [Helmholtz Center Munich (Germany); German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich (Germany); Braeu, Marion; Buhmann, Raymund [Helmholtz Center Munich (Germany); German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich (Germany); Department of Medicine III and Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The release of nucleic acids and derivatives after tissue-injury may affect cellular immune-response. We studied the impact of extracellular ribo-, desoxyribonucleotides and nucleosides on T-cell immunity. Peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells (PBMCs) or isolated CD3{sup +}T-cells obtained from 6 healthy donors were stimulated via CD3/CD28 Dynabeads or dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence or absence of pyrimidine-, purine-nucleotides and -nucleosides (range 2–200 µM). Addition of deoxy-, guanosine-triphosphate (dGTP, GTP) and guanosine resulted concentration dependent in a complete, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) in a partial inhibition of the induced T-cell-proliferation. Deoxyadenosine-triphosphate (dATP), adenosine and the pyrimidine-ribo- and -deoxyribonucleotides displayed no inhibitory capacity. Inhibitory effects of dGTP and GTP, but not of guanosine and ATP were culture-media-dependent and could be almost abrogated by use of the serum-free lymphocyte-culture-media X-Vivo15 instead of RPMI1640 with standard-supplementation. In contrast to RPMI1640, X-Vivo15 resulted in a significant down-regulation of the cell-surface-located ectonucleotidases CD39 (Ecto-Apyrase) and CD73 (Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase), critical for the extracellular nucleotides-hydrolysis to nucleosides, explaining the loss of inhibition mediated by dGTP and GTP, but not Guanosine. In line with previous findings ATP was found to exert immunosuppressive effects on T-cell-proliferation. Purine-nucleotides, dGTP and GTP displayed a higher inhibitory capacity, but seem to be strictly dependent on the microenvironmental conditions modulating the responsiveness of the respective T-lymphocytes. Further evaluation of experimental and respective clinical settings should anticipate these findings.

  5. Inhibitory effect of extracellular purine nucleotide and nucleoside concentrations on T cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, Monica; Schmetzer, Helga; Braeu, Marion; Buhmann, Raymund

    2016-01-01

    The release of nucleic acids and derivatives after tissue-injury may affect cellular immune-response. We studied the impact of extracellular ribo-, desoxyribonucleotides and nucleosides on T-cell immunity. Peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells (PBMCs) or isolated CD3 + T-cells obtained from 6 healthy donors were stimulated via CD3/CD28 Dynabeads or dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence or absence of pyrimidine-, purine-nucleotides and -nucleosides (range 2–200 µM). Addition of deoxy-, guanosine-triphosphate (dGTP, GTP) and guanosine resulted concentration dependent in a complete, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) in a partial inhibition of the induced T-cell-proliferation. Deoxyadenosine-triphosphate (dATP), adenosine and the pyrimidine-ribo- and -deoxyribonucleotides displayed no inhibitory capacity. Inhibitory effects of dGTP and GTP, but not of guanosine and ATP were culture-media-dependent and could be almost abrogated by use of the serum-free lymphocyte-culture-media X-Vivo15 instead of RPMI1640 with standard-supplementation. In contrast to RPMI1640, X-Vivo15 resulted in a significant down-regulation of the cell-surface-located ectonucleotidases CD39 (Ecto-Apyrase) and CD73 (Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase), critical for the extracellular nucleotides-hydrolysis to nucleosides, explaining the loss of inhibition mediated by dGTP and GTP, but not Guanosine. In line with previous findings ATP was found to exert immunosuppressive effects on T-cell-proliferation. Purine-nucleotides, dGTP and GTP displayed a higher inhibitory capacity, but seem to be strictly dependent on the microenvironmental conditions modulating the responsiveness of the respective T-lymphocytes. Further evaluation of experimental and respective clinical settings should anticipate these findings.

  6. The Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Uridine Phosphorylase Reveals a Distinct Subfamily of Nucleoside Phosphorylases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Timothy H.; Christoffersen, S.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Piskur, Jure; Serra, I.; Terreni, M.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (Pavia); (Lund); (Southern Research)

    2011-09-20

    Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2'-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an ?/? monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild-type SpUP showed that its substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is {approx}7-fold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies of SpUP mutants showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that the negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4.

  7. Synthesis of modified oligonucleotides that contain purine and pyrimidine radio-induced base lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Different factors as oxidizing or carcinogenesis agents, UV and ionizing radiations,.... can generate a wide, spectrum of DNA base damages. In order to study the biochemical and structural features of these DNA damages, it is important to prepare short DNA fragments (20 to 50 bases long) bearing a single or several modifications at specific sites in their sequences. The chemical synthesis is a powerful tool to prepare such modified DNA fragments. This work focusses on the chemical incorporation of several modified nucleosides formed in DNA by ionizing radiations or by photo-sensitization. The first part of this study describes the preparation of a phosphoramidite synthon of 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxyuridine and its subsequent incorporation into synthetic oligonucleotides ranging from 14 to 33 bases long. In a second part (chapters Ill and IV), the synthesis and incorporation of original radiation-induced tandem lesions: the carbon-bridged cyclo-nucleosides are presented. Both (5'R)- and (5'S) diastereomers of 5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine and 5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxyguanosine have been individually inserted into various different oligonucleotides (3 to 22 bases long) by using the standard phosphoramidite chemistry. The chemical incorporation of a pyrimidine analogue: (5'S, 6S)-5',6-cyclo-5,6-dihydro-thymidine has been also achieved. The loss of aromaticity of this modified nucleoside and its poor reactivity required the development of a synthetic strategy entirely different from that used for the preparation and subsequent incorporation of the phosphoramidite synthons of 5',8-cyclo-purine-2'-deoxyribo-nucleosides. The third part of this study deals with the synthesis of a phosphoramidite synthon of 4-hydroxy-8-oxo-4,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine. The two (4R)- and (4S)- diastereomers of this oxidized purine have been separated and individually inserted in several synthetic DNA fragments. No epimerization of C-4 position was observed during the solid-phase synthesis and during the

  8. Synthesis and Evaluation of Asymmetric Acyclic Nucleoside Bisphosphonates as Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum and Human Hypoxanthine-Guanine-(Xanthine) Phosphoribosyltransferase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špaček, Petr; Keough, D. T.; Chavchich, M.; Dračínský, Martin; Janeba, Zlatko; Naesens, L.; Edstein, M. D.; Guddat, L. W.; Hocková, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 17 (2017), s. 7539-7554 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06049S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase * 2nd phosphonate group * 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 6.259, year: 2016

  9. Synthesis and Properties of a Novel Type of Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates: 2-(Purin-9-yl)ethoxyphenylphosphonic Acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hocková, Dana; Dračínský, Martin; Holý, Antonín

    -, č. 15 (2010), s. 2885-2892 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : nucleotides * phosphonates * cross-coupling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.206, year: 2010

  10. Synthesis of analogues of acyclic nucleoside diphosphates containing a (phosphonomethyl)phosphanyl moiety and studies of their phosphorylation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doláková, Petra; Dračínský, Martin; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Holý, Antonín

    -, č. 7 (2009), s. 1082-1092 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS400550501 Grant - others:NIH(US) 1UC1AI062540-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antiviral agents * nucleotides * phosphorylation * dUTPase Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.096, year: 2009

  11. Antiviral activity of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates PMEA, (S)-HPMPC, PMEDAP and ribavirin against Cauliflower mosaic virus in Brassica pekinensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špak, Josef; Votruba, Ivan; Pavingerová, Daniela; Holý, Antonín; Špaková, Vlastimila; Petrzik, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2012), s. 63-68 ISSN 0167-6857 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/0707 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Caulimovirus * Chemotherapy * Pararetrovirus * dsDNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.633, year: 2012

  12. Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates Containing a Second Phosphonate Group Are Potent Inhibitors of 6-Oxopurine Phosphoribosyltransferases and Have Antimalarial Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keough, D. T.; Špaček, Petr; Hocková, Dana; Tichý, Tomáš; Vrbková, S.; Slavětínská, Lenka; Janeba, Zlatko; Naesens, L.; Edstein, M. D.; Chavchich, M.; Wang, T. H.; de Jersey, J.; Guddat, L. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2013), s. 2513-2526 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0108 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : enzyme inhibitors * ANPs * malaria * bisphosphonates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.480, year: 2013

  13. 31P-NMR study of human pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficient erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higaki, Tsuyoshi; Kagimoto, Tadashi; Nagata, Koichi; Tanase, Sumio; Morino, Yoshimasa; Takatsuki, Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    Metabolic disorder of nucleotides in human pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) deficient erythrocytes was studied by 31 P-NMR with high resolution. Identification by combination of high-speed liquid chromatography revealed two-fold increases from the normal in the spectra in the α-, β- and γ-zones of nucleoside triphosphates of P5N deficient erythrocytes, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate shifted to the 0.3 ppm low magnetic field and signals of NAD and UDP-sugars(s) in the diphosphodiester zone. These results were obtained from the 31 P-NMR spectrum about one hour after blood sampling, indicating the high utility of this NMR for the diagnosis of P5N deficiency. (Chiba, N.)

  14. Nucleoside antibiotics: biosynthesis, regulation, and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2015-02-01

    The alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens has coincided with a decline in the supply of new antibiotics. It is therefore of great importance to find and create new antibiotics. Nucleoside antibiotics are a large family of natural products with diverse biological functions. Their biosynthesis is a complex process through multistep enzymatic reactions and is subject to hierarchical regulation. Genetic and biochemical studies of the biosynthetic machinery have provided the basis for pathway engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis to create new or hybrid nucleoside antibiotics. Dissection of regulatory mechanisms is leading to strategies to increase the titer of bioactive nucleoside antibiotics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Pan-pathway based interaction profiling of FDA-approved nucleoside and nucleobase analogs with enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeblad, Louise; Welin, Martin; Flodin, Susanne; Gräslund, Susanne; Wang, Liya; Balzarini, Jan; Eriksson, Staffan; Nordlund, Pär

    2012-01-01

    To identify interactions a nucleoside analog library (NAL) consisting of 45 FDA-approved nucleoside analogs was screened against 23 enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism using a thermal shift assay. The method was validated with deoxycytidine kinase; eight interactions known from the literature were detected and five additional interactions were revealed after the addition of ATP, the second substrate. The NAL screening gave relatively few significant hits, supporting a low rate of "off target effects." However, unexpected ligands were identified for two catabolic enzymes guanine deaminase (GDA) and uridine phosphorylase 1 (UPP1). An acyclic guanosine prodrug analog, valaciclovir, was shown to stabilize GDA to the same degree as the natural substrate, guanine, with a ΔT(agg) around 7°C. Aciclovir, penciclovir, ganciclovir, thioguanine and mercaptopurine were also identified as ligands for GDA. The crystal structure of GDA with valaciclovir bound in the active site was determined, revealing the binding of the long unbranched chain of valaciclovir in the active site of the enzyme. Several ligands were identified for UPP1: vidarabine, an antiviral nucleoside analog, as well as trifluridine, idoxuridine, floxuridine, zidovudine, telbivudine, fluorouracil and thioguanine caused concentration-dependent stabilization of UPP1. A kinetic study of UPP1 with vidarabine revealed that vidarabine was a mixed-type competitive inhibitor with the natural substrate uridine. The unexpected ligands identified for UPP1 and GDA imply further metabolic consequences for these nucleoside analogs, which could also serve as a starting point for future drug design.

  16. On Event Detection and Localization in Acyclic Flow Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Suresh, Mahima Agumbe

    2013-05-01

    Acyclic flow networks, present in many infrastructures of national importance (e.g., oil and gas and water distribution systems), have been attracting immense research interest. Existing solutions for detecting and locating attacks against these infrastructures have been proven costly and imprecise, particularly when dealing with large-scale distribution systems. In this article, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we investigate how mobile sensor networks can be used for optimal event detection and localization in acyclic flow networks. We propose the idea of using sensors that move along the edges of the network and detect events (i.e., attacks). To localize the events, sensors detect proximity to beacons, which are devices with known placement in the network. We formulate the problem of minimizing the cost of monitoring infrastructure (i.e., minimizing the number of sensors and beacons deployed) in a predetermined zone of interest, while ensuring a degree of coverage by sensors and a required accuracy in locating events using beacons. We propose algorithms for solving the aforementioned problem and demonstrate their effectiveness with results obtained from a realistic flow network simulator.

  17. Towards Optimal Event Detection and Localization in Acyclic Flow Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Agumbe Suresh, Mahima

    2012-01-03

    Acyclic flow networks, present in many infrastructures of national importance (e.g., oil & gas and water distribution systems), have been attracting immense research interest. Existing solutions for detecting and locating attacks against these infrastructures, have been proven costly and imprecise, especially when dealing with large scale distribution systems. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, we investigate how mobile sensor networks can be used for optimal event detection and localization in acyclic flow networks. Sensor nodes move along the edges of the network and detect events (i.e., attacks) and proximity to beacon nodes with known placement in the network. We formulate the problem of minimizing the cost of monitoring infrastructure (i.e., minimizing the number of sensor and beacon nodes deployed), while ensuring a degree of sensing coverage in a zone of interest and a required accuracy in locating events. We propose algorithms for solving these problems and demonstrate their effectiveness with results obtained from a high fidelity simulator.

  18. Insights into phosphate cooperativity and influence of substrate modifications on binding and catalysis of hexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila O de Giuseppe

    Full Text Available The hexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Bacillus subtilis (BsPNP233 displays great potential to produce nucleoside analogues in industry and can be exploited in the development of new anti-tumor gene therapies. In order to provide structural basis for enzyme and substrates rational optimization, aiming at those applications, the present work shows a thorough and detailed structural description of the binding mode of substrates and nucleoside analogues to the active site of the hexameric BsPNP233. Here we report the crystal structure of BsPNP233 in the apo form and in complex with 11 ligands, including clinically relevant compounds. The crystal structure of six ligands (adenine, 2'deoxyguanosine, aciclovir, ganciclovir, 8-bromoguanosine, 6-chloroguanosine in complex with a hexameric PNP are presented for the first time. Our data showed that free bases adopt alternative conformations in the BsPNP233 active site and indicated that binding of the co-substrate (2'deoxyribose 1-phosphate might contribute for stabilizing the bases in a favorable orientation for catalysis. The BsPNP233-adenosine complex revealed that a hydrogen bond between the 5' hydroxyl group of adenosine and Arg(43* side chain contributes for the ribosyl radical to adopt an unusual C3'-endo conformation. The structures with 6-chloroguanosine and 8-bromoguanosine pointed out that the Cl(6 and Br(8 substrate modifications seem to be detrimental for catalysis and can be explored in the design of inhibitors for hexameric PNPs from pathogens. Our data also corroborated the competitive inhibition mechanism of hexameric PNPs by tubercidin and suggested that the acyclic nucleoside ganciclovir is a better inhibitor for hexameric PNPs than aciclovir. Furthermore, comparative structural analyses indicated that the replacement of Ser(90 by a threonine in the B. cereus hexameric adenosine phosphorylase (Thr(91 is responsible for the lack of negative cooperativity of phosphate binding

  19. Detecting Elusive Intermediates in Carbohydrate Conversion: A Dynamic Ensemble of Acyclic Glucose-Catalyst Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sebastian; Karlsson, Magnus; Jensen, Pernille Rose

    2017-01-01

    within few seconds prior to reaching a steady state. Exchange between the acyclic intermediates increases at conditions that favor epimerization. Species accounting for less than 0.05% of total glucose can be monitored with sub-second time resolution to allow kinetic analysis of intermediate formation...... and catalytic conversion. Epimerization occurs 2-3 orders of magnitude-fold faster than the binding of acyclic glucose to the catalyst at near-optimum reaction conditions. The current study brings insight in to the nature of acyclic intermediate-catalyst complexes of very low population and into experimental...... strategies for characterizing very minor intermediates in carbohydrate conversion to value-added compounds....

  20. An Algorithm for Determining Minimal Reduced—Coverings of Acyclic Database Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铁英; 叶新铭

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports an algoritm(DTV)for deermining the minimal reducedcovering of an acyclic database scheme over a specified subset of attributes.The output of this algotithm contains not only minimum number of attributes but also minimum number of partial relation schemes.The algorithm has complexity O(|N|·|E|2),where|N| is the number of attributes and |E|the number of relation schemes.It is also proved that for Berge,γ or β acyclic database schemes,the output of algorithm DTV maintains the acyclicity correspondence.

  1. Chemical evolution. XXIX - Pyrimidines from hydrogen cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, J. P.; Joshi, P. C.; Lawless, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Compounds obtained by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers formed by allowing pH 9.2, 0.1 M cyanide to stand at room temperature for 4 to 12 months were analyzed. Hydrolysis of HCN oligomers yielded 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine and 5-hydroxyuracil; orotic acid was detected after hydrolysis at pH 8.5. A unified pathway from diaminofumaronitrile to the pyrimidines observed is suggested. As purines, pyrimidines and amino acids are released by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers in either acidic or mildly basic aqueous solutions, they could have been formed on the primitive earth in spite of fluctuations in pH. 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidines appear to be likely candidates for incorporation into primitive nucleic acids, as they should undergo Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with adenine.

  2. Highly selective Ba2+ separations with acyclic, lipophilic di-[N-(X)sulfonyl carbamoyl] polyethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshani, Sadik; Chun, Sangki; Amiri-Eliasi, Bijan; Bartsch, Richard A

    2005-01-14

    New lipophilic acyclic polyethers with two N-(X)sulfonyl carbamoyl groups of "tunable" acidity exhibit remarkable selectivity for Ba2+ over other alkaline earth metal ions in competitive solvent extraction and transport across polymer inclusion membranes.

  3. Comparison of construction algorithms for minimal, acyclic, deterministic, finite-state automata from sets of strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daciuk, J; Champarnaud, JM; Maurel, D

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares various methods for constructing minimal, deterministic, acyclic, finite-state automata (recognizers) from sets of words. Incremental, semi-incremental, and non-incremental methods have been implemented and evaluated.

  4. Design and Synthesis of Novel Antimicrobial Acyclic and Heterocyclic Dyes and Their Precursors for Dyeing and/or Textile Finishing Based on 2-N-Acylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo[b]thiophene Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Milad Mohareb

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel polyfunctionalized acyclic and heterocyclic dye precursors and their respective azo (hydrazone counterpart dyes and dye precursors based on conjugate enaminones and/or enaminonitrile moieties were synthesized. The dyes and their precursors are based on 2-cyano-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-acetamide, 2-ethoxycarbonyl-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-acetamide or 2-phenylcarbamoyl-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-acetamide systems as precursors. The latter compounds were used to synthesize polyfunctional thiophene-, thiazole-, pyrazole, pyridine-, pyrimidine-, oxazine-, as well as acyclic moieties. The dyes and dye precursors were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral methods. All dyes and their precursors were screened in vitro and evaluated for both their antibacterial and antifungal activities. MIC data of the novel dye systems and their respective precursors showed significant antimicrobial activity against most tested organisms. Some compounds exhibited comparable or even higher efficiency than selected standards. Dyes were applied at 5% depth for disperse dyeing of nylon, acetate and polyester fabrics. Their spectral characteristics and fastness properties were measured and evaluated.

  5. Learning directed acyclic graphs from large-scale genomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolay, Fabio; Pesavento, Marius; Kritikos, George; Typas, Nassos

    2017-09-20

    In this paper, we consider the problem of learning the genetic interaction map, i.e., the topology of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) of genetic interactions from noisy double-knockout (DK) data. Based on a set of well-established biological interaction models, we detect and classify the interactions between genes. We propose a novel linear integer optimization program called the Genetic-Interactions-Detector (GENIE) to identify the complex biological dependencies among genes and to compute the DAG topology that matches the DK measurements best. Furthermore, we extend the GENIE program by incorporating genetic interaction profile (GI-profile) data to further enhance the detection performance. In addition, we propose a sequential scalability technique for large sets of genes under study, in order to provide statistically significant results for real measurement data. Finally, we show via numeric simulations that the GENIE program and the GI-profile data extended GENIE (GI-GENIE) program clearly outperform the conventional techniques and present real data results for our proposed sequential scalability technique.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency is one of several disorders that damage the immune system and cause severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). People with SCID lack virtually all immune protection from foreign invaders such as bacteria, viruses, and ...

  7. Electrochemical behavior of some new pyrimidine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA LUTFU BERKEM

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical reduction of two recently synthesized pyrimidine compounds, 1-amino-5-benzoyil-4-phenyl-1H-pyrimidine-2-one (I, and 1-amino-5-benzoil-4-phenyl-1H-pyrimidine-2-thione (II were investigated by cyclic volatmmetry at a hanging mercury drop electrode in aqueous methanol (36 % v/v and in non-aqueous methanol. A series of cathodic peaks without the corresponding anodic peaks were observed for I. As the pH of the solution was increased, some of the cathodic peaks overlapped resulting in the loss of the previously observed peaks. For II, three cathodic peaks and one anodic peak were observed in addition to those observed for I. The peak potentials shifted in the negative direction with increasing pH. This shift was measured over a large pH range (1.80 – 12.30 to determine the pKa values of the compounds. The acidity constants related to the amino groups were 4.80 and 9.80 for I and 5.50 and 9.80 for II. A thiol-thione tautomerization was observed for II, which was more pronounced in the non-aqueous methanol medium. The pK values for both protonation and deprotonation of the thiocarbonyl group were also determined. The pK values were 5.80 and 9.80 for protonation and deprotonation in aqueous methanol and 6.80 and 10.80 in non-aqueous methanol.

  8. Proficient synthesis of bioactive annulated pyrimidine derivatives: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal R. Bhat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Syntheses of bioactive annulated pyrimidine derivatives are the most significant tasks in N-heterocyclic chemistry because these compounds have proved to be very attractive and useful for the design of new molecular frameworks of potential drugs with varying pharmacological activities. This review paper summarizes the one-pot multicomponent synthesis of annulated nitrogen- and oxygen-containing heterocycles, such as pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidines, pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines and pyrido[2,3-d;5-6-d]dipyrimidines. The synthetic procedure is based on the chemistry of the domino Knoevenagel-Michael addition mechanism. Keywords: Pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidines, Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines, Pyrido[2,3-d;5-6-d]dipyrimidines, Barbituric acid/Thio-barbituric acid, Aromatic aldehydes, 6-aminouracil

  9. Tetrofuranose nucleoside phosphonic acids: Synthesis and properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláková, Ivana; Buděšínský, Miloš; Točík, Zdeněk; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 5 (2011), s. 503-536 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520801; GA ČR GA203/09/0820; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06061; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : tetrofuranosyl phosphonate * nucleotide analogues * phosphonomethoxy nucleosides * sugar hydroxyphosphonates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  10. Specific acyclic isoprenoids as biological markers of methanogenic bacteria in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassell, S C; Wardroper, A M; Thomson, I D; Maxwell, J R; Eglinton, G

    1981-04-23

    The widespread occurrence of extended hopanoids in sediments and petroleums illustrates the importance of bacterial lipid contributions to geological materials. In archaebacteria, however, hopanoids are absent; their role as structural components of biomembranes is fulfilled by acyclic isoprenoids. Recent studies of the lipid constituents of archaebacteria have greatly extended the range of acyclic isoprenoid skeletons known in organisms (Fig. 1). In particularly, isoprenoids with head-to-head linkages have been identified, and such compounds (for example, 3,7,11,15,18,22,26,30-octamethyldotriacontane, I) have been recognized in petroleum and as degradation products of Messel shale kerogen. Here we report the first recognition of 2,6,10,15,19-pentamethyleicosane (II), a known component of methanogens, in marine sediments of Recent to Cretaceous age (Table 1) and suggest that it and certain other acyclic isoprenoids may be used as biological markers for methanogens.

  11. Intramolecular cascade rearrangements of enynamine derived ketenimines: access to acyclic and cyclic amidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Dinesh Pratapsinh; Varma, Sreejith J; Gudem, Mahesh; Panigrahi, Nihar; Singh, Khushboo; Hazra, Anirban; Talukdar, Pinaki

    2017-06-07

    Copper-catalyzed reaction of enynamines with sulfonylazides provides acyclic and cyclic amidines. Nucleophilic addition of the tethered amino group on the in situ generated ketenimine forms a six-membered cyclic zwitterionic intermediate which facilitates migration of the tethered amino group to the C 5 -center giving the acyclic amidine. On the other hand, migration of a substituent on the amino group to C 2 - and C 4 -centers results in the formation of cyclic amidines. Computational studies were carried out to validate the mechanism which indicates that the product distribution of the process depends on the substitutions on the enynamine backbone.

  12. A conformationally locked tricyclic nucleoside. Synthesis, crystal structure and incorporation into oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Jacob; Thorup, Niels; Nielsen, Poul

    2001-01-01

    A tricyclic nucleoside is synthesised from a bicyclic nucleoside precursor by applying a stereoselective dihydroxylation, a regioselective tosylation and an intramolecular ether formation. This tricyclic nucleoside is constructed as a conformationally locked thymidine analogue and has been analys...

  13. Pyrimidine and halogenated pyrimidines near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra at C and N K-edges: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, P.; O'Keeffe, P.; Ovcharenko, Y.; Coreno, M.; Avaldi, L.; Feyer, V.; Plekan, O.; Prince, K. C.; Zhang, W.; Carravetta, V.

    2010-01-01

    The inner shell excitation of pyrimidine and some halogenated pyrimidines near the C and N K-edges has been investigated experimentally by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and theoretically by density functional theory calculations. The selected targets, 5-Br-pyrimidine, 2-Br-pyrimidine, 2-Cl-pyrimidine, and 5-Br-2-Cl-pyrimidine, allow the effects of the functionalization of the pyrimidine ring to be studied either as a function of different halogen atoms bound to the same molecular site or as a function of the same halogen atom bound to different molecular sites. The results show that the individual characteristics of the different spectra of the substituted pyrimidines can be rationalized in terms of variations in electronic and geometrical structures of the molecule depending on the localization and the electronegativity of the substituent.

  14. Studies on Synthesis of Pyrimidine Derivatives and their Pharmacological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Naik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles were associated with broad spectrum of biological activities including antituberculosis, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, antifungal, analgesic and antitumor properties. Morpholine derivatives find their wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity and exhibit anthelmintic, bactericidal and insecticidal activity. Pyrimidine derivatives are also reported to possess antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer and anticonvulsant activities. Encouraged by this observations we decided to synthesised novel pyrimidine derivatives.

  15. Desulfurization of 2-thiouracil nucleosides: conformational studies of 4-pyrimidinone nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraszewska, Karina; Kaczyńska, Iwona; Jankowski, Stefan; Karolak-Wojciechowska, Janina; Sochacka, Elzbieta

    2011-04-01

    4-Pyrimidinone ribofuranoside (H(2)o(4)U) and 4-pyrimidinone 2'-deoxyribofuranoside (dH(2)o(4)U) were synthesized by the oxidative desulfurization of parent 2-thiouracil nucleosides with m-chloroperbenzoic acid. The crystal structures of H(2)o(4)U and dH(2)o(4)U and their conformations in solution were determined and compared with corresponding 2-thiouracil and uracil nucleosides. The absence of a large 2-thiocarbonyl/2-carbonyl group in the nucleobase moiety results in C2'-endo puckering of the ribofuranose ring (S conformer) in the crystal structure of H(2)o(4)U, which is not typical of RNA nucleosides. Interestingly, the hydrogen bonding network in the crystals of dH(2)o(4)U stabilizes the sugar moiety conformation in the C3'-endo form (N conformer), rarely found in DNA nucleosides. In aqueous solution, dH(2)o(4)U reveals a similar population of the C2'-endo conformation (65%) to that of 2'-deoxy-2-thiouridine (62%), while the 62% population of the S conformer for H(2)o(4)U is significantly different from that of the parent 2-thiouridine, for which the N conformer is dominant (71%). Such a difference may be of biological importance, as the desulfurization process of natural tRNA 2-thiouridines may occur under conditions of oxidative stress in the cell and may influence the decoding process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Existence principles for inclusions of Hammerstein type involving noncompact acyclic multivalued maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Couchouron

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply Monch type fixed point theorems for acyclic multivalued maps to the solvability of inclusions of Hammerstein type in Banach spaces. Our approach makes possible to unify and improve the existence theories for nonlinear evolution problems and abstract integral inclusions of Volterra and Fredholm type.

  17. A new recursive incremental algorithm for building minimal acyclic deterministic finite automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, B.W.; Martin-Vide, C.; Mitrana, V.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a new algorithm for incrementally building minimal acyclic deterministic finite automata. Such minimal automata are a compact representation of a finite set of words (e.g. in a spell checker). The incremental aspect of such algorithms (where the intermediate automaton is

  18. Metabolism of acyclic and cyclic N-nitroamines by cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Harris, Curtis C.; Trump, Benjamin F.

    1978-01-01

    Cultured human colon mucosa was found to metabolize both acyclic and cyclic N-nitrosamines as measured by 14C-CO2 formation and reaction of the activated moieties with cellular macromolecules. Dimethylnitrosamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine were metabolized by explants from all patients studied. A p...

  19. Inhibition of human thymidine phosphorylase by conformationally constrained pyrimidine nucleoside phosphonic acids and their "open-structure" isosteres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kóšiová, Ivana; Šimák, Ondřej; Panova, Natalya; Buděšínský, Miloš; Petrová, Magdalena; Rejman, Dominik; Liboska, Radek; Páv, Ondřej; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 74, Mar 3 (2014), s. 145-168 ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0820; GA ČR GA202/09/0193; GA ČR GA13-24880S; GA ČR GA13-26526S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : phosphonate * conformationally constrained nucleotide analog * human thymidine phosphorylase * PBMC * bi-substrate-like inhibitor * Michael addition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.447, year: 2014

  20. Structure and Function of Nucleoside Hydrolases from Physcomitrella patens and Maize Catalyzing the Hydrolysis of Purine, Pyrimidine, and Cytokinin Ribosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopečná, M.; Blaschke, H.; Kopečný, D.; Vigouroux, A.; Končitíková, R.; Novák, Ondřej; Kotland, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Moréra, S.; von Schwartzenberg, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 4 (2013), s. 1568-1583 ISSN 0032-0889 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : LUPIN LUPINUS-LUTEUS * ADENOSINE NUCLEOSIDASE * CRITHIDIA-FASCICULATA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.394, year: 2013

  1. Synthesis of pyrimidinic nucleotides and nucleosides labelled with carbon 14, through tri-methylsilylated and lithiated derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbillon, Jacques

    1972-01-01

    After a presentation of the trimethysilylation, lithiation, and methylation processes, this research thesis reports the synthesis of methyl carbon 14 - 5 - uridine, of ethyl carbon 14 - 5 - desoxy - 2' - uridine, and of thymidine monophosphate - 5' (methyl carbon 14) by using silylated and lithiated derivatives. The author also reports preliminary studies of biological studies of the trimethylsilyl-5-uridine and of the iodine-6-thymine

  2. A monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes m6A nucleoside

    OpenAIRE

    Espuny, Ruth; Castro, Ana; Codony, Carles; Eritja Casadellà, Ramón; Bach-Elias, Montse

    1998-01-01

    A hybridoma against the nucleoside m6A has been obtained from mouse spleen. This hybridoma was named H65 and it secretes monoclonal antibodies anti-m6A. The competition assays showed that the monoclonal antibody was highly specific for m6A nucleoside.

  3. Immunotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis with the nucleoside hydrolase-DNA vaccine of Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-León, R; Paraguai de Souza, E; Borja-Cabrera, G P; Santos, F N; Myashiro, L M; Pinheiro, R O; Dumonteil, E; Palatnik-de-Sousa, C B

    2006-05-29

    The nucleoside hydrolase (NH36) of Leishmania (L.) donovani is a vital enzyme which releases purines or pyrimidines of foreign DNA to be used in the synthesis of parasite DNA. As a bivalent DNA vaccine, the VR1012-NH36 was immunoprotective against visceral and cutaneous murine leishmaniasis. In this work we tested the immunotherapy against Leishmania (L.) chagasi infection, using two doses of 100 or 20 microg VR1012-NH36 vaccine (i.m. route), and, as a possible immunomodulator, aqueous garlic extract (8 mg/kg/day by the i.p. route), which was effective in immunotherapy of cutaneous murine leishmaniasis. Liver parasitic load was significantly reduced following treatment with 100 microg (91%) and 20 microg (77%) of the DNA vaccine, and by 20 microg DNA vaccine and garlic extract (76%) (p=0.023). Survival was 33% for saline controls, 100% for the 100 microg vaccine, and 83 and 67% for the 20 microg vaccine with and without garlic extract addition, respectively. Garlic treatment alone did not reduce parasite load (p>0.05), but increased survival (100%). The NH36-DNA vaccine was highly effective as a new tool for the therapy and control of visceral leishmaniasis, while the mild protective effect of garlic might be related to an unspecific enhancement of IFN-gamma secretion.

  4. Dual door entry to exciplex emission in a chimeric DNA duplex containing non-nucleoside-nucleoside pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Talukdar, Sangita; Kundu, Rajen; Saito, Isao; Jana, Subhashis

    2014-01-25

    Dual door entry to exciplex formation was established in a chimeric DNA duplex wherein a fluorescent non-nucleosidic base surrogate () is paired against a fluorescent nucleosidic base surrogate (). Packing of the nucleobases via intercalative stacking interactions led to an exciplex emission either via FRET from the donor or direct excitation of the FRET acceptor .

  5. Susceptibility of recombinant porcine endogenous retrovirus reverse transcriptase to nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, M; Fishman, J A; Pontikis, R; Aubertin, A M; Wilhelm, F X

    2002-12-01

    Transplantation of organs, tissues or cells from pigs to humans could be a potential solution to the shortage of human organs for transplantation. Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) remain a major safety concern for porcine xenotransplantation. Thus, finding drugs that could be used as virological prophylaxis (or therapy) against PERV replication would be desirable. One of the most effective ways to block retroviral multiplication is to inhibit the enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT) which catalyzes the reverse transcription of viral RNA to proviral double-stranded DNA. We report here the cloning and expression of PERV RT and its susceptibility to several inhibitors. Our data demonstrate PERV susceptibility in vitro to the triphosphorylated nucleoside analog of zidovudine (AZT) and to ddGTP and to a lesser extent to ddTTP but almost no susceptibility to the non-nucleoside RT inhibitors tested.

  6. Vitamin E Phosphate Nucleoside Prodrugs: A Platform for Intracellular Delivery of Monophosphorylated Nucleosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Daifuku

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E phosphate (VEP nucleoside prodrugs are designed to bypass two mechanisms of tumor resistance to therapeutic nucleosides: nucleoside transport and kinase downregulation. Certain isoforms of vitamin E (VE have shown activity against solid and hematologic tumors and result in chemosensitization. Because gemcitabine is one of the most common chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer, it was used to demonstrate the constructs utility. Four different VE isoforms were conjugated with gemcitabine at the 5′ position. Two of these were δ-tocopherol-monophosphate (MP gemcitabine (NUC050 and δ-tocotrienol-MP gemcitabine (NUC052. NUC050 was shown to be able to deliver gemcitabine-MP intracellularly by a nucleoside transport independent mechanism. Its half-life administered IV in mice was 3.9 h. In a mouse xenograft model of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC NCI-H460, NUC050 at a dose of 40 mg/kg IV qwk × 4 resulted in significant inhibition to tumor growth on days 11–31 (p < 0.05 compared to saline control (SC. Median survival was 33 days (NUC050 vs. 25.5 days (SC ((hazard ratio HR = 0.24, p = 0.017. Further, NUC050 significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to historic data with gemcitabine at 135 mg/kg IV q5d × 3 on days 14–41 (p < 0.05. NUC052 was administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg IV qwk × 2 followed by 50 mg/kg qwk × 2. NUC052 resulted in inhibition to tumor growth on days 14–27 (p < 0.05 and median survival was 34 days (HR = 0.27, p = 0.033. NUC050 and NUC052 have been shown to be safe and effective in a mouse xenograft of NSCLC.

  7. Of the Nine Cytidine Deaminase-Like Genes in Arabidopsis, Eight Are Pseudogenes and Only One Is Required to Maintain Pyrimidine Homeostasis in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingjia; Herde, Marco; Witte, Claus-Peter

    2016-06-01

    CYTIDINE DEAMINASE (CDA) catalyzes the deamination of cytidine to uridine and ammonia in the catabolic route of C nucleotides. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CDA gene family comprises nine members, one of which (AtCDA) was shown previously in vitro to encode an active CDA. A possible role in C-to-U RNA editing or in antiviral defense has been discussed for other members. A comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of plant CDA sequences, combined with biochemical functionality tests, strongly suggests that all Arabidopsis CDA family members except AtCDA are pseudogenes and that most plants only require a single CDA gene. Soybean (Glycine max) possesses three CDA genes, but only two encode functional enzymes and just one has very high catalytic efficiency. AtCDA and soybean CDAs are located in the cytosol. The functionality of AtCDA in vivo was demonstrated with loss-of-function mutants accumulating high amounts of cytidine but also CMP, cytosine, and some uridine in seeds. Cytidine hydrolysis in cda mutants is likely caused by NUCLEOSIDE HYDROLASE1 (NSH1) because cytosine accumulation is strongly reduced in a cda nsh1 double mutant. Altered responses of the cda mutants to fluorocytidine and fluorouridine indicate that a dual specific nucleoside kinase is involved in cytidine as well as uridine salvage. CDA mutants display a reduction in rosette size and have fewer leaves compared with the wild type, which is probably not caused by defective pyrimidine catabolism but by the accumulation of pyrimidine catabolism intermediates reaching toxic concentrations. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. The Human SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 Genes of Solute Carrier Family 25 Encode Two Mitochondrial Pyrimidine Nucleotide Transporters*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Todisco, Simona; Cirigliano, Angela; Rinaldi, Teresa; Agrimi, Gennaro; Iacobazzi, Vito; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport inorganic anions, amino acids, carboxylates, nucleotides, and coenzymes across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. Here two members of this family, SLC25A33 and SLC25A36, have been thoroughly characterized biochemically. These proteins were overexpressed in bacteria and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Their transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A33 transports uracil, thymine, and cytosine (deoxy)nucleoside di- and triphosphates by an antiport mechanism and SLC25A36 cytosine and uracil (deoxy)nucleoside mono-, di-, and triphosphates by uniport and antiport. Both carriers also transported guanine but not adenine (deoxy)nucleotides. Transport catalyzed by both carriers was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. In confirmation of their identity (i) SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 were found to be targeted to mitochondria and (ii) the phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking RIM2, the gene encoding the well characterized yeast mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide carrier, were overcome by expressing SLC25A33 or SLC25A36 in these cells. The main physiological role of SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 is to import/export pyrimidine nucleotides into and from mitochondria, i.e. to accomplish transport steps essential for mitochondrial DNA and RNA synthesis and breakdown. PMID:25320081

  9. The human SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 genes of solute carrier family 25 encode two mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Todisco, Simona; Cirigliano, Angela; Rinaldi, Teresa; Agrimi, Gennaro; Iacobazzi, Vito; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-11-28

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport inorganic anions, amino acids, carboxylates, nucleotides, and coenzymes across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. Here two members of this family, SLC25A33 and SLC25A36, have been thoroughly characterized biochemically. These proteins were overexpressed in bacteria and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Their transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A33 transports uracil, thymine, and cytosine (deoxy)nucleoside di- and triphosphates by an antiport mechanism and SLC25A36 cytosine and uracil (deoxy)nucleoside mono-, di-, and triphosphates by uniport and antiport. Both carriers also transported guanine but not adenine (deoxy)nucleotides. Transport catalyzed by both carriers was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. In confirmation of their identity (i) SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 were found to be targeted to mitochondria and (ii) the phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking RIM2, the gene encoding the well characterized yeast mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide carrier, were overcome by expressing SLC25A33 or SLC25A36 in these cells. The main physiological role of SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 is to import/export pyrimidine nucleotides into and from mitochondria, i.e. to accomplish transport steps essential for mitochondrial DNA and RNA synthesis and breakdown. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Ultrasound-assisted catalytic synthesis of acyclic imides in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid under solvent free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-Esfahani Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and convenient preparation of acyclic imides by the reaction of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles with acyclic carboxylic anhydride in the presence of catalytic amounts of p-toluenesulfonic acid under thermal or ultrasonic conditions is reported. The advantages of this procedure are moderate reaction times, good to excellent yields, use of inexpensive and ecofriendly catalyst. The reaction of nitriles with aliphatic anhydrides proceeds in thermal conditions, while by the use of ultrasound irradiations these reactions get accelerated.

  11. Electron and positron interaction with pyrimidine: A theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Nidhi; Antony, Bobby

    2018-03-01

    Pyrimidine (C4H4N2) is considered as the building block of nucleobases, viz., cytosine, thymine and uracil. They provide a blueprint for probing the scattering of radiation by DNA and RNA bases. In this article, we report the elastic and total scattering cross-sections for electron and positron scattering from the pyrimidine molecule, employing a spherical complex optical potential (SCOP) formalism for an extensive energy range of 10 eV to 5 keV. In the case of positron scattering, the original SCOP formalism is modified to adequately solve the positron-target dynamics. Moreover, a reasonable agreement is observed between the present results and other available datasets, for both electron and positron scattering. The cross-sections for electron and positron impact scattering by pyrimidine are necessary input data for codes that seek to simulate radiation damage, and hence are useful to model biomolecular systems.

  12. Significance and Biological Importance of Pyrimidine in the Microbial World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are unique creatures that adapt to varying lifestyles and environment resistance in extreme or adverse conditions. The genetic architecture of microbe may bear a significant signature not only in the sequences position, but also in the lifestyle to which it is adapted. It becomes a challenge for the society to find new chemical entities which can treat microbial infections. The present review aims to focus on account of important chemical moiety, that is, pyrimidine and its various derivatives as antimicrobial agents. In the current studies we represent more than 200 pyrimidines as antimicrobial agents with different mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted classes along with in vitro antimicrobial activities of pyrimidines derivatives which can facilitate the development of more potent and effective antimicrobial agents.

  13. Synthesis of 8-amino and 8-substituted amino derivatives of acyclic purine nucleoside and nucleotide analogs. Alkylation of 8-substituted purine bases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeba, Zlatko; Holý, Antonín

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 20, 4-7 (2001), s. 1103-1106 ISSN 1525-7770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV203/96/K001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : nucleotide analogs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.508, year: 2001

  14. New 2-alkynyl derivatives of the acyclic nucleoside 9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine and their 6-guanidinopurine counterparts as potential effectors of adenosine receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Česnek, Michal; Holý, Antonín; Masojídková, Milena

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 11 (2003), s. 2201-2218 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4055109; GA MŠk OC D13.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : adenosine receptors * alkynes * purines Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003

  15. First Crystal Structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 6-Oxopurine Phosphoribosyltransferase: Complexes with GMP and Pyrophosphate and with Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates Whose Prodrugs Have Antituberculosis Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eng, W. S.; Hocková, Dana; Špaček, Petr; Janeba, Zlatko; West, N. P.; Woods, K.; Naesens, L. M. J.; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 11 (2015), s. 4822-4838 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0108; GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : enzyme inhibitors * nucleotide analogues * tuberculosis * crystal structures Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.589, year: 2015

  16. Interactions with selected drug renal transporters and transporter-mediated cytotoxicity in antiviral agents from the group of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandíková, J.; Volková, M.; Pávek, P.; Česnek, Michal; Janeba, Zlatko; Kubíček, V.; Trejtnar, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 311, č. 3 (2013), s. 135-146 ISSN 0300-483X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hOAT1 * hCNTs * MDR1 * BCRP * nephrotoxicity * transmembrane transport Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.745, year: 2013

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of symmetric acyclic nucleoside bisphosphonates as inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and human 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases and the antimalarial activity of their prodrugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špaček, Petr; Keough, D. T.; Chavchich, M.; Dračínský, Martin; Janeba, Zlatko; Naesens, L.; Edstein, M. D.; Guddat, L. W.; Hocková, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 15 (2017), s. 4008-4030 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06049S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : enzyme inhibitors * nucleotide analogues * malaria Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.930, year: 2016

  18. Aza-acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates Containing a Second Phosphonate Group As Inhibitors of the Human, Plasmodium falciparum and vivax 6-Oxopurine Phosphoribosyltransferases and Their Prodrugs As Antimalarial Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keough, D. T.; Hocková, Dana; Janeba, Zlatko; Wang, T. H.; Naesens, L.; Edstein, M. D.; Chavchich, M.; Guddat, L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2015), s. 827-846 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0108 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : enzyme inhibitors * ANPs * Plasmodium * malaria Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.589, year: 2015

  19. Synthesis of Novel N-Branched Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates As Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax 6-Oxopurine Phosphoribosyltransferases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hocková, Dana; Keough, D. T.; Janeba, Zlatko; Wang, T.; de Jersey, J.; Guddat, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 13 (2012), s. 6209-6223 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0108; GA MŠk 1M0508 Grant - others:NHMRC(AU) 569703; NHMRC(AU) 1030353 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : enzyme inhibitors * aza-ANPs * malaria Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.614, year: 2012

  20. Acyclic Ketones in the Defensive Secretion of a “Daddy Longlegs” (Leiobunum vittatum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinwald, J.; Kluge, A. F.; Carrel, J. E.; Eisner, T.

    1971-01-01

    The defensive secretion of the “daddy longlegs” Leiobunum vittatum was analyzed and found to contain the acyclic ketones 4-methylheptan-3-one and E-4,6-dimethyl-6-octen-3-one as its major organic components. Although 4-methylheptan-3-one has been found previously as an alarm substance in certain ant genera, the second component, whose structure is confirmed by synthesis, is new. PMID:5283937

  1. Acyclic ketones in the defensive secretion of a "daddy longlegs" (Leiobunum vittatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinwald, J; Kluge, A F; Carrel, J E; Eisner, T

    1971-07-01

    The defensive secretion of the "daddy longlegs" Leiobunum vittatum was analyzed and found to contain the acyclic ketones 4-methylheptan-3-one and E-4,6-dimethyl-6-octen-3-one as its major organic components. Although 4-methylheptan-3-one has been found previously as an alarm substance in certain ant genera, the second component, whose structure is confirmed by synthesis, is new.

  2. Characterization of E and Z isomers in macrocyclic lactones and acyclic pheromones by NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, J.R.; Resck, I.S.; Braz Filho, R.; Carvalho, M.G. de

    1995-01-01

    A large proportion of pheromones, isolated from a variety of insects, constitutes a big list of diversely functionalized acyclic compounds, which have been synthesized by several routes. Catalytic or chemical methods were examined for the Z to E isomerization and their efficiency checked by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra. Nuclear magnetic resonance has been used to identify and characterize molecular structure of the compounds, besides chemical shifts was analysed

  3. Meteorite-catalyzed synthesis of nucleosides and other prebiotic compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferus, Martin; Knížek, Antonín; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 23 (2015), s. 7109-7110 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : meteorite-catalzzed synthesis * nucleosides * prebiotic compounds Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  4. The pyrimidine nucleotide carrier PNC1 and mitochondrial trafficking of thymidine phosphates in cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzolin, Elisa; Miazzi, Cristina; Frangini, Miriam; Palumbo, Elisa; Rampazzo, Chiara [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58B, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bianchi, Vera, E-mail: vbianchi@bio.unipd.it [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58B, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    In cycling cells cytosolic de novo synthesis of deoxynucleotides is the main source of precursors for mitochondrial (mt) DNA synthesis. The transfer of deoxynucleotides across the inner mt membrane requires protein carriers. PNC1, a SLC25 family member, exchanges pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates in liposomes and its downregulation decreases mtUTP concentration in cultured cells. By an isotope-flow protocol we confirmed transport of uridine nucleotides by PNC1 in intact cultured cells and investigated PNC1 involvement in the mt trafficking of thymidine phosphates. Key features of our approach were the manipulation of PNC1 expression by RNA interference or inducible overexpression, the employment of cells proficient or deficient for cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) to distinguish the direction of flow of thymidine nucleotides across the mt membrane during short pulses with [{sup 3}H]-thymidine, the determination of mtdTTP specific radioactivity to quantitate the rate of mtdTTP export to the cytoplasm. Downregulation of PNC1 in TK1{sup -} cells increased labeled dTTP in mitochondria due to a reduced rate of export. Overexpression of PNC1 in TK1{sup +} cells increased mtdTTP pool size and radioactivity, suggesting an involvement in the import of thymidine phosphates. Thus PNC1 is a component of the network regulating the mtdTTP pool in human cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thymidine phosphates exchange between mitochondria and cytosol in mammalian cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer siRNA-downregulation of PNC1 delays mitochondrial dTTP export in TK1{sup -} cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PNC1 overexpression accumulates dTTP in mitochondria of TK1{sup +} cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PNC1 exchanges thymidine nucleotides across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PNC1 participates in the regulation of the mtdTTP pool supporting mtDNA synthesis.

  5. The pyrimidine nucleotide carrier PNC1 and mitochondrial trafficking of thymidine phosphates in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzolin, Elisa; Miazzi, Cristina; Frangini, Miriam; Palumbo, Elisa; Rampazzo, Chiara; Bianchi, Vera

    2012-01-01

    In cycling cells cytosolic de novo synthesis of deoxynucleotides is the main source of precursors for mitochondrial (mt) DNA synthesis. The transfer of deoxynucleotides across the inner mt membrane requires protein carriers. PNC1, a SLC25 family member, exchanges pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates in liposomes and its downregulation decreases mtUTP concentration in cultured cells. By an isotope-flow protocol we confirmed transport of uridine nucleotides by PNC1 in intact cultured cells and investigated PNC1 involvement in the mt trafficking of thymidine phosphates. Key features of our approach were the manipulation of PNC1 expression by RNA interference or inducible overexpression, the employment of cells proficient or deficient for cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) to distinguish the direction of flow of thymidine nucleotides across the mt membrane during short pulses with [ 3 H]-thymidine, the determination of mtdTTP specific radioactivity to quantitate the rate of mtdTTP export to the cytoplasm. Downregulation of PNC1 in TK1 − cells increased labeled dTTP in mitochondria due to a reduced rate of export. Overexpression of PNC1 in TK1 + cells increased mtdTTP pool size and radioactivity, suggesting an involvement in the import of thymidine phosphates. Thus PNC1 is a component of the network regulating the mtdTTP pool in human cells. -- Highlights: ► Thymidine phosphates exchange between mitochondria and cytosol in mammalian cells. ► siRNA-downregulation of PNC1 delays mitochondrial dTTP export in TK1 − cells. ► PNC1 overexpression accumulates dTTP in mitochondria of TK1 + cells. ► PNC1 exchanges thymidine nucleotides across the mitochondrial inner membrane. ► PNC1 participates in the regulation of the mtdTTP pool supporting mtDNA synthesis.

  6. Synthesis of coumarin or ferrocene labeled nucleosides via Staudinger ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kois Pavol

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reaction of azides with triaryl phosphines under mild conditions gives iminophosphoranes which can react with almost any kind of electrophilic reagent, e.g. aldehydes/ketones to form imines or esters to form amides. This so-called Staudinger ligation has been employed in a wide range of applications as a general tool for bioconjugation including specific labeling of nucleic acids. Results A new approach for the preparation of labeled nucleosides via intermolecular Staudinger ligation is described. Reaction of azidonucleosides with triphenylphosphine lead to iminophosphorane intermediates, which react subsequently with derivatives of coumarin or ferrocene to form coumarin or ferrocene labeled nucleosides. Fluorescent properties of coumarin labeled nucleosides are determined. Conclusion New coumarin and ferrocene labeled nucleosides were prepared via intermolecular Staudinger ligation. This reaction joins the fluorescent coumarin and biospecific nucleoside to the new molecule with promising fluorescent and electrochemical properties. The isolated yields of products depend on the structure of azidonucleoside and carboxylic acids. A detailed study of the kinetics of the Staudinger ligation with nucleoside substrates is in progress.

  7. Effect of substituent structure on pyrimidine electrophilic substitution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Westhuyzen, CW

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In an investigation into the electrophilic nitrosation reactions of a series of 4,6-disubstituted pyrimidine derivatives, a subtle interplay between the electronic nature of the C-4 and C-6 substituents and reactivity was found where these were...

  8. Synthesis of 7-arylethyl-5-arylpyrazolo pyrimidines through an aza ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZHENG LI

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... During the past decade, the synthesis of pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine derivatives ... importance due to pharmaceutical reasons.1,2 For exam- ple, the hypnotic ... In this paper, we report an efficient method for the syn- thesis of ...

  9. Intramolecular inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reactions of pyrimidines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis deals with the intramolecular inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction of pyrimidines. The main objective of the study was to investigate the synthetic applicability of this reaction and to get more insight in the electronic and steric effects which determine the reactivity

  10. Synthesis of pyrimidine carboxamide derivatives catalyzed by uranyl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-02

    (Received September 2, 2014; revised January 1, 2016). ABSTRACT. An efficient and simple method was developed for the synthesis pyrimidine-5-carboxamides using. UO2(NO3)2.6H2O catalyst under conventional and microwave irradiation. The synthesis of dihydropyrimidine using uranyl nitrate had shown many ...

  11. Nucleotide metabolism in Lactococcus lactis: Salvage pathways of exogenous pyrimidines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Hammer, Karin

    1994-01-01

    By measuring enzyme activities in crude extracts and studying the effect of toxic analogs (5-fluoropyrimidines) on cell growth, the metabolism of pyrimidines in Lactococcus lactis was analyzed. Pathways by which uracil, uridine, deoxyuridine, cytidine, and deoxycytidine are metabolized in L. lact...

  12. New insights on pyrimidine signalling within the arterial vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Spray, Stine; Syberg, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular pyrimidines activate P2Y receptors on both smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, leading to vasoconstriction and relaxation respectively. The aim of this study was to utilize P2Y knock-out (KO) mice to determine which P2Y receptor subtype are responsible for the contraction and...

  13. Synthesis and comparing the antibacterial activities of pyrimidine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    heterocyclic ring substituted in pyrimidine derivatives have moderate inhibition against ... moved by boiling in presence of catalyst and hydrazine .... by Biginelli reaction. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H and 13C NMR,. GC-MS and CHN analysis. Formation of 2a was con- firmed by the ...

  14. Isotope exchange reactions of the hydrogen H-5 of selected pyrimidine derivatives and the preparation of tritium-labeled pyrimidines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Jansa, Petr; Elbert, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 12 (2011), s. 1567-1577 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400550903; GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : isotopic labeling * NMR spectroscopy * nucleobases * pyrimidines Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  15. Long term expression of Drosophila melanogaster nucleoside kinase in thymidine kinase 2-deficient mice with no lethal effects caused by nucleotide pool imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shuba; Paredes, João A; Zhou, Xiaoshan; Kuiper, Raoul V; Hultenby, Kjell; Curbo, Sophie; Karlsson, Anna

    2014-11-21

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion caused by thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency can be compensated by a nucleoside kinase from Drosophila melanogaster (Dm-dNK) in mice. We show that transgene expression of Dm-dNK in Tk2 knock-out (Tk2(-/-)) mice extended the life span of Tk2(-/-) mice from 3 weeks to at least 20 months. The Dm-dNK(+/-)Tk2(-/-) mice maintained normal mitochondrial DNA levels throughout the observation time. A significant difference in total body weight due to the reduction of subcutaneous and visceral fat in the Dm-dNK(+/-)Tk2(-/-) mice was the only visible difference compared with control mice. This indicates an effect on fat metabolism mediated through residual Tk2 deficiency because Dm-dNK expression was low in both liver and fat tissues. Dm-dNK expression led to increased dNTP pools and an increase in the catabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides but these alterations did not apparently affect the mice during the 20 months of observation. In conclusion, Dm-dNK expression in the cell nucleus expanded the total dNTP pools to levels required for efficient mitochondrial DNA synthesis, thereby compensated the Tk2 deficiency, during a normal life span of the mice. The Dm-dNK(+/-) mouse serves as a model for nucleoside gene or enzyme substitutions, nucleotide imbalances, and dNTP alterations in different tissues. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. NMR studies of abasic sites in DNA duplexes: Deoxyadenosine stacks into the helix opposite acyclic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnik, M.W.; Chang, Chienneng; Johnson, F.; Grollman, A.P.; Patel, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proton and phosphorus NMR studies are reported for two complementary nonanucleotide duplexes containing acyclic abasic sites. The first duplex, d(C-A-T-G-A-G-T-A-C)·d(G-T-A-C-P-C-A-T-G), contains an acyclic propanyl moiety, P, located opposite a deoxyadenosine at the center of the helix (designated AP P 9-mer duplex). The second duplex, d(C-A-T-G-A-G-T-A-C-)·d(G-T-A-C-E-C-A-T-G), contains a similarly located acyclic ethanyl moiety, E (designated AP E 9-mer duplex). The ethanyl moiety is one carbon shorter than the natural carbon-phosphodiester backbone of a single nucleotide unit of DNA. The majority of the exchangeable and nonexchangeable base and sugar protons in both the AP P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes, including those at the abasic site, have been assigned by recording and analyzing two-dimensional phase-sensitive NOESY data sets in H 2 O and D 2 O solution between -5 and 5 degree C. These spectroscopic observations establish that A5 inserts into the helix opposite the abasic site (P14 and El14) and stacks between the flanking G4·C15 and G6·C13 Watson-Crick base pairs in both the AP P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes. Proton NMR parameters for the Ap P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes are similar to those reported previously. These proton NMR experiments demonstrate that the structures at abasic sites are very similar whether the five-membered ring is open or closed or whether the phosphodiester backbone is shortened by one carbon atom. Phosphorus spectra of the AP P 9-mer and AP E 9-mer duplexes (5 degree C) indicate that the backbone conformation is similarly perturbed at three phosphodiester backbone torsion angles

  17. Diurnal rhythms in gonadotropins and progesterone in lactating and photoperiod induced acyclic hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, R.S.; Goldman, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    Levels of LH, FSH, and progesterone in serum were measured in lactating hamsters and in hamsters in which acyclicity was induced with altered photoperiod. Lactating hamsters were found to have low titers of LH, FSH, and progesterone in serum at 0900 (lights on 0500--1900) on Days 4, 9, 14, and 19 of lactation and increased levels of these hormones at 1600. Levels of LH and FSH in serum at both 0900 and 1600 remained relatively constant throughout lactation. In contrast, levels of progesterone in serum obtained at both 0900 and 1600 sampling times increased as lactation progressed. Ovariectomy on Day 9 of lactation reduced serum levels of progesterone at both 0900 and 1600 and eliminated the afternoon surge in progesterone in animals bled 5 days after surgery. The levels and pattern of LH in serum remained unchanged after ovariectomy in lactating hamsters. However, serum FSH levels in the ovariectomized, lactating animals were elevated at both 0900 and 1600 when compared to levels present in intact, lactating hamsters bled at the same times. Females which were acyclic due to altered photoperiod displayed similar patterns of LH, FSH, and progesterone in serum. Levels of LH, FSH, and progesterone in serum were low at 1000 (lights on 0500--1500) and were increased 2 to 10 fold at 1500. Ovariectomy was followed by lower progesterone levels in serum at 1000 and 1500 and eliminated the afternoon rise of this hormone. Serum levels of LH were unaffected by ovariectomy. As in lactating hamsters, levels of FSH in serum were elevated 3--4 days following ovariectomy at both bleeding times, but the levels were higher at 1500. These results indicate that acyclicity induced by lactation or exposure to a short photoperiod is characterized by similar diurnal patterns of circulating hormones in the hamster

  18. New insights into the synergism of nucleoside analogs with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Michael W; Parker, William B; Xu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs have been frequently used in combination with radiotherapy in the clinical setting, as it has long been understood that inhibition of DNA repair pathways is an important means by which many nucleoside analogs synergize. Recent advances in our understanding of the structure and function of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), a critical enzyme required for the anti-tumor activity for many nucleoside analogs, have clarified the mechanistic role this kinase plays in chemo- and radio-sensitization. A heretofore unrecognized role of dCK in the DNA damage response and cell cycle machinery has helped explain the synergistic effect of these agents with radiotherapy. Since most currently employed nucleoside analogs are primarily activated by dCK, these findings lend fresh impetus to efforts focused on profiling and modulating dCK expression and activity in tumors. In this review we will briefly review the pharmacology and biochemistry of the major nucleoside analogs in clinical use that are activated by dCK. This will be followed by discussions of recent advances in our understanding of dCK activation via post-translational modifications in response to radiation and current strategies aimed at enhancing this activity in cancer cells

  19. Reaction of acyclic enaminones with methoxymethylene meldrum's acid: synthetic and structural implications

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha,Silvio; Silva,Viviane C. da; Napolitano,Hamilton B.; Lariucci,Carlito; Vencato,Ivo

    2003-01-01

    The reaction of acyclic enaminones with methoxymethylene Meldrum's acid afforded N-adduct and/or C-adduct of enaminones in moderate to good yields. The regiochemistry of this reaction depends on the N-amino substituent of the enaminone. The C-adduct is a precursor to 2-pyridones. X-ray analysis of two N-adducts were investigated and the Z-s-Z configuration assigned. A reação de enaminonas com o derivado metoximetilênico do ácido de Meldrum forneceu N-adutos e/ou C-adutos das enaminonas, em...

  20. Competitive solvent extraction of alkaline-earth cations into chloroform by lipophilic acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.I.; Czech, A.; Czech, B.P.; Stewart, L.E.; Bartsch, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Competitive solvent extraction of alkaline-earth cations from aqueous solutions into chloroform by a series of lipophilic acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids is reported. The influence of polyether chain length and of terminal carboxylic acid group variation upon extraction selectivity and efficiency is assessed. In the competitive extraction of concentrated magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium chloride solutions, one complexing agent exhibits pronounced selectivity for barium with Ba 2+ /S 2+ = 50, Ba 2+ /Ca 2+ = 250, and no detectable Mg 2+ extraction. 20 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  1. Synthesis and Antiviral Activity of 3-Aminoindole Nucleosides of 2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelrahman, Adel A. H.; Elessawy, Farag A.; Barakat, Yousif A. [Menoufia Univ., Shebin El-Koam (Egypt); Ellatif, Mona M. Abd [The British Univ. in Egypt, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-15

    A new method for the construction of 3-aminoindole nucleosides of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose based is presented. Nitration and acetylation of the indole nucleosides by acetic anhydride-nitric acid mixture followed by reduction using silver catalyst (SNSM) impregnated on silica gel, afforded the corresponding amino indole nucleosides. The nucleosides were tested for antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) to show different degrees of antiviral activities or inhibitory actions.

  2. Advanced Prodrug Strategies in Nucleoside and Non-Nucleoside Antiviral Agents: A Review of the Recent Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanadi Sinokrot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor pharmacokinetic profiles and resistance are the main two drawbacks from which currently used antiviral agents suffer, thus make them excellent targets for research, especially in the presence of viral pandemics such as HIV and hepatitis C. Methods: The strategies employed in the studies covered in this review were sorted by the type of drug synthesized into ester prodrugs, targeted delivery prodrugs, macromolecular prodrugs, other nucleoside conjugates, and non-nucleoside drugs. Results: Utilizing the ester prodrug approach a novel isopropyl ester prodrug was found to be potent HIV integrase inhibitor. Further, employing the targeted delivery prodrug zanamivir and valine ester prodrug was made and shown a sole delivery of zanamivir. Additionally, VivaGel, a dendrimer macromolecular prodrug, was found to be very efficient and is now undergoing clinical trials. Conclusions: Of all the strategies employed (ester, targeted delivery, macromolecular, protides and nucleoside analogues, and non-nucleoside analogues prodrugs, the most promising are nucleoside analogues and macromolecular prodrugs. The macromolecular prodrug VivaGel works by two mechanisms: envelope mediated and receptor mediated disruption. Nucleotide analogues have witnessed productive era in the recent past few years. The era of non-interferon based treatment of hepatitis (through direct inhibitors of NS5A has dawned.

  3. Synthesis of O-Amino Sugars and Nucleosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids and carbohydrates are essential biomolecules involved in numerous biological and pathological processes. Development of multifunctional building blocks based on nucleosides and sugars is in high demand for the generation of novel oligonucleotide mimics and glycoconjugates for biomedical applications. Recently, aminooxyl-functionalized compounds have attracted increasing research interest because of their easy derivatization through oxime ligation or N-oxyamide formation reactions. Various biological applications have been reported for O-amino carbohydrate- and nucleoside-derived compounds. Here, we report our efforts in the design and synthesis of glyco-, glycosyl, nucleoside- and nucleo-aminooxy acid derivatives from readily available sugars and amino acids, and their use for the generation of N-oxyamide-linked oligosaccharides, glycopeptides, glycolipids, oligonucleosides and nucleopeptides as novel glycoconjugates or oligonucleotide mimics. Delicate and key points in the synthesis will be emphasized.

  4. Total cross sections for positron and electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecca, A; Chiari, L; Trainotti, E; GarcIa, G; Blanco, F; Brunger, M J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report original measurements of total cross sections for positron scattering from the important biomolecule pyrimidine. The energy range of these measurements was 0.3-45 eV, while the energy resolution was ∼260 meV. In addition, we report theoretical results, calculated within the independent atom-screened additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) formalism, for the corresponding electron impact total cross sections. In that case the energy range is 1-10 000 eV. Total cross sections are very important input data for codes that seek to simulate charged-particle tracks in matter, as they define the mean-free path between collisions. As the present data and computations are to the best of our knowledge the first total cross sections to be reported for either positron or electron scattering from pyrimidine, they fill an important void in our available knowledge in the literature.

  5. Pyrimidine nucleobase radical reactivity in DNA and RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc M.

    2016-11-01

    Nucleobase radicals are major products of the reactions between nucleic acids and hydroxyl radical, which is produced via the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. The nucleobase radicals also result from hydration of cation radicals that are produced via the direct effect of ionizing radiation. The role that nucleobase radicals play in strand scission has been investigated indirectly using ionizing radiation to generate them. More recently, the reactivity of nucleobase radicals resulting from formal hydrogen atom or hydroxyl radical addition to pyrimidines has been studied by independently generating the reactive intermediates via UV-photolysis of synthetic precursors. This approach has provided control over where the reactive intermediates are produced within biopolymers and facilitated studying their reactivity. The contributions to our understanding of pyrimidine nucleobase radical reactivity by this approach are summarized.

  6. Tetraoxane-pyrimidine nitrile hybrids as dual stage antimalarials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rudi; Guedes, Rita C; Meireles, Patrícia; Albuquerque, Inês S; Gonçalves, Lídia M; Pires, Elisabete; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J; Prudêncio, Miguel; Moreira, Rui; O'Neill, Paul M; Lopes, Francisca

    2014-06-12

    The use of artemisinin or other endoperoxides in combination with other drugs is a strategy to prevent development of resistant strains of Plasmodium parasites. Our previous work demonstrated that hybrid compounds, comprising endoperoxides and vinyl sulfones, were capable of high activity profiles comparable to artemisinin and chloroquine while acting through two distinct mechanisms of action: oxidative stress and falcipain inhibition. In this study, we adapted this approach to a novel class of falcipain inhibitors: peptidomimetic pyrimidine nitriles. Pyrimidine tetraoxane hybrids displayed potent nanomolar activity against three strains of Plasmodium falciparum and falcipain-2, combined with low cytotoxicity. In vivo, a decrease in parasitemia and an increase in survival of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei was observed when compared to control. All tested compounds combined good blood stage activity with significant effects on liver stage parasitemia, a most welcome feature for any new class of antimalarial drug.

  7. Nucleoside analogues are activated by bacterial deoxyribonucleoside kinases in a species-specific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, Anders; On, Stephen L. W.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the bactericidal activity of antiviral and anticancer nucleoside analogues against a variety of pathogenic bacteria and characterize the activating enzymes, deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs). Several FDA-approved nucleoside analogue drugs were screened for their potential bacteric......-specific manner. Therefore, nucleoside analogues have a potential to be employed as antibiotics in the fight against emerging multiresistant bacteria....

  8. Area, age and gender dependence of the nucleoside system in the brain: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Zsolt; Juhász, Gábor; Palkovits, Miklós; Dobolyi, Arpád; Kékesi, Katalin A

    2011-01-01

    Nucleosides, such as uridine, inosine, guanosine and adenosine, may participate in the regulation of sleep, cognition, memory and nociception, the suppression of seizures, and have also been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of some neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Under pathological conditions, levels of nucleosides change extremely in the brain, indicating their participation in the pathophysiology of disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. These findings have resulted in an increasing attention to the roles of nucleosides in the central nervous system. The specific effects of nucleosides depend on the expression of their receptors and transporters in neuronal and glial cells, as well as their extracellular concentrations in the brain. A complex interlinked metabolic network and transporters of nucleosides may balance nucleoside levels in the brain tissue under normal conditions and enable the fine modulation of neuronal and glial processes via nucleoside receptor signaling mechanisms. Brain levels of nucleosides were found to vary when measured in a variety of different brain regions. In addition, nucleoside levels also depend on age and gender. Furthermore, distributions of nucleoside transporters and receptors as well as nucleoside metabolic enzyme activities demonstrate the area, age and gender dependence of the nucleoside system, suggesting different roles of nucleosides in functionally different brain areas. The aim of this review article is to summarize our present knowledge of the area-, age- and gender-dependent distribution of nucleoside levels, nucleoside metabolic enzyme activity, nucleoside receptors and nucleoside transporters in the brain.

  9. Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction in the synthesis of 5-aryl-1-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]uracils as potential multisubstrate inhibitors of thymidine phosphorylase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pomeisl, Karel; Holý, Antonín; Pohl, Radek

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 17 (2007), s. 3065-3067 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Grant - others:Descartes Prize(XE) HPAW-CT-2002-9001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * thymidine phosphorylase * Suzuki coupling * pyrimidine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.615, year: 2007

  10. Synthesis of (Purin-6-yl)methylphosphonate Bases and Nucleosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasník, Zbyněk; Pohl, Radek; Hocek, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 18 (2010), s. 2464-2466 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : purines * nucleosides * phosphonates * cross-coupling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.618, year: 2010

  11. Consensus pursuit of heterogeneous multi-agent systems under a directed acyclic graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Guan, Xin-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Yuan

    2011-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the cooperative target pursuit problem by multiple agents based on directed acyclic graph. The target appears at a random location and moves only when sensed by the agents, and agents will pursue the target once they detect its existence. Since the ability of each agent may be different, we consider the heterogeneous multi-agent systems. According to the topology of the multi-agent systems, a novel consensus-based control law is proposed, where the target and agents are modeled as a leader and followers, respectively. Based on Mason's rule and signal flow graph analysis, the convergence conditions are provided to show that the agents can catch the target in a finite time. Finally, simulation studies are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. A Directed Acyclic Graph-Large Margin Distribution Machine Model for Music Symbol Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihong Wen

    Full Text Available Optical Music Recognition (OMR has received increasing attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a classifier based on a new method named Directed Acyclic Graph-Large margin Distribution Machine (DAG-LDM. The DAG-LDM is an improvement of the Large margin Distribution Machine (LDM, which is a binary classifier that optimizes the margin distribution by maximizing the margin mean and minimizing the margin variance simultaneously. We modify the LDM to the DAG-LDM to solve the multi-class music symbol classification problem. Tests are conducted on more than 10000 music symbol images, obtained from handwritten and printed images of music scores. The proposed method provides superior classification capability and achieves much higher classification accuracy than the state-of-the-art algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs and Neural Networks (NNs.

  13. A Directed Acyclic Graph-Large Margin Distribution Machine Model for Music Symbol Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Cuihong; Zhang, Jing; Rebelo, Ana; Cheng, Fanyong

    2016-01-01

    Optical Music Recognition (OMR) has received increasing attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a classifier based on a new method named Directed Acyclic Graph-Large margin Distribution Machine (DAG-LDM). The DAG-LDM is an improvement of the Large margin Distribution Machine (LDM), which is a binary classifier that optimizes the margin distribution by maximizing the margin mean and minimizing the margin variance simultaneously. We modify the LDM to the DAG-LDM to solve the multi-class music symbol classification problem. Tests are conducted on more than 10000 music symbol images, obtained from handwritten and printed images of music scores. The proposed method provides superior classification capability and achieves much higher classification accuracy than the state-of-the-art algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Neural Networks (NNs).

  14. Polystyrene-Supported Acyclic Diaminocarbene Palladium Complexes in Sonogashira Cross-Coupling: Stability vs. Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Mikhaylov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Two types of immobilized on the amino-functionalized polystyrene-supported acyclic diaminocarbene palladium complexes (ADC-PdII are investigated under Sonogashira cross-coupling conditions. Depending on substituents in the diaminocarbene fragment immobilized ADC-PdII, systems are found to have different catalytic activity and stability regarding Pd-leaching. PdII-diaminocarbenes possessing protons at both nitrogen atoms smoothly decompose into Pd0-containing species providing a catalytic “cocktail system” with high activity and ability to reuse within nine runs. Polymer-supported palladium (II complex bearing NBn–Ccarbene–NH-moiety exhibits greater stability while noticeably lower activity under Sonogashira cross-coupling. Four molecular ADC-PdII complexes are also synthesized and investigated with the aim of confirming proposed base-promoted pathway of ADC-PdII conversion through carbodiimide into an active Pd0 forms.

  15. Acid-Labile Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril Molecular Containers for Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dake; Liang, Yajun; Liu, Yamin; Zhou, Xianhao; Ma, Jiaqi; Jiang, Biao; Liu, Jia; Ma, Da

    2017-10-02

    Stimuli-responsive molecular containers are of great importance for controlled drug delivery and other biomedical applications. A new type of acid labile acyclic cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) molecular containers is presented that can degrade and release the encapsulated cargo at accelerated rates under mildly acidic conditions (pH 5.5-6.5). These containers retain the excellent recognition properties of CB[n]-type hosts. A cell culture study demonstrated that the cellular uptake of cargos could be fine-tuned by complexation with different containers. The release and cell uptake of cargo dye was promoted by acidic pH. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Acyclic N-halamine-immobilized polyurethane: Preparation and antimicrobial and biofilm-controlling functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Porteous, Nuala; Lin, Jiajin; Sun, Yuyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyl groups were introduced onto polyurethane surfaces through 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate activation, followed by diethanolamine hydroxylation. Polymethacrylamide was covalently attached to the hydroxylated polyurethane through surface grafting polymerization of methacrylamide using cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate as an initiator. After bleach treatment, the amide groups of the covalently bound polymethacrylamide chains were transformed into N-halamines. The new N-halamine-immobilized polyurethane provided a total sacrifice of 107–108 colony forming units per milliliter of Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria), and Candida albicans (fungi) within 10 min and successfully prevented bacterial and fungal biofilm formation. The antimicrobial and biofilm-controlling effects were both durable and rechargeable, pointing to great potentials of the new acyclic N-halamine-immobilized polyurethane for a broad range of related applications. PMID:26089593

  17. Molecular structure and conformation of two acyclic polythioethers: Implications for the design of heavy metal chelators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desper, J.M.; Powell, D.R.; Gellman, S.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1990-05-23

    The crystal structures of the 1,9-bis(p-tolyl)-2,5,8-trithianonane (1) and 1,12-bis(p-tolyl)-2,5,8,11-tetrathiadodecane (2) are reported. Previous studies of macrocyclic polythioethers have revealed a pronounced tendency for backbone CS-CC bonds to adopt gauche torsion angles. The same tendency is observed in the homologous acyclic polythioethers 1 and 2, demonstrating that the gauche preference is not simply the result of a macrocyclic constraint. Because of this gauche preference of CS-CC torsion units and the well-established anti preference of SC-CS torsion units, polythioethers constructed from ethylene sulfide subunits are generally far from preorganized for metal ion chelation.

  18. Theoretic derivation of directed acyclic subgraph algorithm and comparisons with message passing algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jeongmok; Jeong, Hong

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the directed acyclic subgraph (DAS) algorithm, which is used to solve discrete labeling problems much more rapidly than other Markov-random-field-based inference methods but at a competitive accuracy. However, the mechanism by which the DAS algorithm simultaneously achieves competitive accuracy and fast execution speed, has not been elucidated by a theoretical derivation. We analyze the DAS algorithm by comparing it with a message passing algorithm. Graphical models, inference methods, and energy-minimization frameworks are compared between DAS and message passing algorithms. Moreover, the performances of DAS and other message passing methods [sum-product belief propagation (BP), max-product BP, and tree-reweighted message passing] are experimentally compared.

  19. Pd-Catalyzed N-Arylation of Secondary Acyclic Amides: Catalyst Development, Scope, and Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jacqueline D.; Hyde, Alan M.; Cuezva, Alberto Martinez; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    We report the efficient N-arylation of acyclic secondary amides and related nucleophiles with aryl nonaflates, triflates, and chlorides. This method allows for easy variation of the aromatic component in tertiary aryl amides. A new biaryl phosphine with P-bound 3,5-(bis)trifluoromethylphenyl groups was found to be uniquely effective for this amidation. The critical aspects of the ligand were explored through synthetic, mechanistic, and computational studies. Systematic variation of the ligand revealed the importance of (1) a methoxy group on the aromatic carbon of the “top ring” ortho to the phosphorus and (2) two highly electron-withdrawing P-bound 3,5-(bis)trifluoromethylphenyl groups. Computational studies suggest the electron-deficient nature of the ligand is important in facilitating amide binding to the LPd(II)(Ph)(X) intermediate. PMID:19886610

  20. The effect of maturation on the configurations of acyclic isoprenoid acids in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, A. S.; Patience, R. L.; Yon, D. A.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1982-05-01

    Within a variety of sedimentary rocks of differing maturity, the configurations of a suite of acyclic isoprenoid acids have been examined by gas Chromatographic (in a few cases also by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis of their diastereoisomeric methyl and (-)-menthyl esters. The samples include the Eocene Messel (Germany) and Green River (U.S.) shales, the Permian Irati shale (Brazil) and a number of Lower Toarcian shales from the Paris Basin. The isomer distributions show that isomerisation occurs at the chiral centres with increasing maturation (to increase the number of isomers) and that the rate of isomerisation increases for centres (C-2,C-3) closest to the carboxyl group. These results suggest that adsorption of the carboxyl group to a catalyst surface may control the isomerisation rates by way of access to the catalyst.

  1. Influence of Two Acyclic Homoterpenes (Tetranorterpenes) on the Foraging Behavior of Anthonomus grandis Boh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, D M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Woodcock, C M; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A; Blassioli-Moraes, Maria Carolina

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is attracted to constitutive and conspecific herbivore-induced cotton volatiles, preferring the blend emitted by cotton at the reproductive over the vegetative stage. Moreover, this preference was paralleled by the release of the acyclic homoterpenes (tetranorterpenes) (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene (TMTT) in Delta Opal cotton being higher at the vegetative than at the reproductive stage. Here, we evaluated whether this difference in release of acyclic homoterpenes also occurred in other cotton varieties, and if boll weevils could recognize these compounds as indicators of a specific cotton phenological stage. Results showed that cotton genotypes CNPA TB-90, BRS-293 and Delta Opal all produced higher levels of DMNT and TMTT at the vegetative stage than at the reproductive stage and that these homoterpenes allowed for principal component analysis separation of volatiles produced by the two phenological stages. Electroantennograms confirmed boll weevil antennal responses to DMNT and TMTT. Behavioral assays, using Y-tube olfactometers, showed that adding synthetic homoterpenes to reproductive cotton volatiles (mimicking cotton at the vegetative stage in terms of homoterpene levels) resulted in reduced attraction to boll weevils compared to that to unmodified reproductive cotton. Weevils showed no preference when given a choice between plants at the vegetative stage and the vegetative stage-mimicked plant. Altogether, the results show that DMNT and TMTT are used by boll weevils to distinguish between cotton phenological stages.

  2. New acyclic secondary metabolites from the biologically active fraction of Albizia lebbeck flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Massarani, Shaza M; El Gamal, Ali A; Abd El Halim, Mohamed F; Al-Said, Mansour S; Abdel-Kader, Maged S; Basudan, Omer A; Alqasoumi, Saleh I

    2017-01-01

    The total extract of Albizia lebbeck flowers was examined in vivo for its possible hepatoprotective activity in comparison with the standard drug silymarin at two doses. The higher dose expressed promising activity especially in reducing the levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin. Fractionation via liquid-liquid partition and reexamination of the fractions revealed that the n -butanol fraction was the best in improving liver biochemical parameters followed by the n -hexane fraction. However, serum lipid parameters were best improved with CHCl 3 fraction. The promising biological activity results initiated an intensive chromatographic purification of A. lebbeck flowers fractions. Two compounds were identified from natural source for the first time, the acyclic farnesyl sesquiterpene glycoside1-O-[6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside]-(2 E ,6 E -)-farnesol ( 6 ) and the squalene derivative 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene ( 9 ), in addition to eight compounds reported here for the first time from the genus Albizia ; two benzyl glycosides, benzyl 1-O- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 1 ) and benzyl 6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl β -d-glucopyranoside ( 2 ); three acyclic monoterpene glycosides, linalyl β -d-glucopyranoside ( 3 ) and linalyl 6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 4 ); (2 E )-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O- α -l arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 5 ), two oligoglycosides, n -hexyl- α -l arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)- β -d-glucopyranoside (creoside) ( 7 ) and n -octyl α -l-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)- β -d-glucopyranoside (rhodiooctanoside) ( 8 ); and ethyl fructofuranoside ( 10 ). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on extensive examination of their spectroscopic 1D and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR data. It is worth mentioning that, some of the isolated linalol glycoside derivatives were reported as aroma precursors.

  3. New acyclic secondary metabolites from the biologically active fraction of Albizia lebbeck flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaza M. Al-Massarani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The total extract of Albizia lebbeck flowers was examined in vivo for its possible hepatoprotective activity in comparison with the standard drug silymarin at two doses. The higher dose expressed promising activity especially in reducing the levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin. Fractionation via liquid–liquid partition and reexamination of the fractions revealed that the n-butanol fraction was the best in improving liver biochemical parameters followed by the n-hexane fraction. However, serum lipid parameters were best improved with CHCl3 fraction. The promising biological activity results initiated an intensive chromatographic purification of A. lebbeck flowers fractions. Two compounds were identified from natural source for the first time, the acyclic farnesyl sesquiterpene glycoside1-O-[6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside]-(2E,6E--farnesol (6 and the squalene derivative 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene (9, in addition to eight compounds reported here for the first time from the genus Albizia; two benzyl glycosides, benzyl 1-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1 and benzyl 6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl β-d-glucopyranoside (2; three acyclic monoterpene glycosides, linalyl β-d-glucopyranoside (3 and linalyl 6-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (4; (2E-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O-α-l arabinopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (5, two oligoglycosides, n-hexyl-α-l arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6-β-d-glucopyranoside (creoside (7 and n-octyl α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6-β-d-glucopyranoside (rhodiooctanoside (8; and ethyl fructofuranoside (10. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on extensive examination of their spectroscopic 1D and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR data. It is worth mentioning that, some of the isolated linalol glycoside derivatives were reported as aroma precursors.

  4. Catabolism of pyrimidines in yeast: A tool to understand degradation of anticancer drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gorm; Merico, A.; Bjornberg, O.

    2006-01-01

    The pyrimidine catabolic pathway is of crucial importance in cancer patients because it is involved in degradation of several chemotherapeutic drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil; it also is important in plants, unicellular eukaryotes, and bacteria for the degradation of pyrimidine-based biocides/antib...

  5. Interaction of benzoate pyrimidine analogues with class 1A dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, Abigail E; Thymark, Majbritt; Gattis, Samuel G

    2007-01-01

    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODs) catalyze the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate in the only redox reaction in pyrimidine biosynthesis. The pyrimidine binding sites are very similar in all structurally characterized DHODs, suggesting that the prospects for identifying a class-specific in......-system of the flavin, resulting in a green color....

  6. Pyrimidine dimer excision in human cells and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, J.D.; Carrier, W.L.; Smith, D.P.; Waters, R.

    1977-01-01

    We have compared three different methods for estimating the induction and removal of uv induced pyrimidine dimers from the DNA of human fibroblasts. Results indicate that after uv doses of 5-20 J/m 2 50% of the dimers are removed by 24 hours after irradiation. Almost complete excision can be observed if the cells are incubated for periods not less than 72 hours after 5 J/m 2 . After higher doses it probably takes even longer fr such complete removal to be seen

  7. Pyrimidine dimer formation and repair in human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, B.M.; Harber, L.C.; Kochevar, I.E.

    1980-01-01

    Cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers have been detected in the DNA of human skin following in vivo irradiation with suberythermal doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from FS-20 sun lamp fluorescent tubes. Dimers were assayed by treatment of extracted DNA with Micrococus luteus UV-specific endonuclease, alkaline agarose electrophoresis, and ethidum bromide staining. This technique, in contrast to conventional dimer assays, can be used with nonradioactive DNA and is optimal at low UV light doses. These data suggest that some dimer disappearance by excision repair occurs within 20 min of UV irradiation and that photoreactivation of dimers can make a contribution to the total repair process

  8. Method development and validation of potent pyrimidine derivative by UV-VIS spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anshu; Singh, Anoop; Verma, Prabhakar Kumar

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopic method was developed for the estimation of pyrimidine derivative 6-Bromo-3-(6-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-2-(morpolinomethylamino) pyrimidine4-yl) -2H-chromen-2-one (BT10M) in bulk form. Pyrimidine derivative was monitored at 275 nm with UV detection, and there is no interference of diluents at 275 nm. The method was found to be linear in the range of 50 to 150 μg/ml. The accuracy and precision were determined and validated statistically. The method was validated as a guideline. The results showed that the proposed method is suitable for the accurate, precise, and rapid determination of pyrimidine derivative. Graphical Abstract Method development and validation of potent pyrimidine derivative by UV spectroscopy.

  9. Strains of Lactococcus lactis with a partial pyrimidine requirement show sensitivity toward aspartic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Martinussen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The growth rate of the widely used laboratory strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 was reduced if aspartic acid were present in the growth medium. The strain LM0230 is a plasmid- and phage-cured derivative of L. lactis subsp. cremoris C2, the ancestor of the original dairy isolate L...... with the wild-type strain, and this varied with the concentration of aspartic acid. The observed effect of aspartate could be explained by the accumulation of the toxic pyrimidine de novo pathway intermediate, carbamoyl aspartate. Assays of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes of L. lactis LM0230 showed...... that the partial pyrimidine requirement can be explained by a low specific activity of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes. In conclusion, L. lactis LM0230 during the process of plasmid- and prophage-curing has acquired a partial pyrimidine requirement resulting in sensitivity toward aspartic acid....

  10. Pyrimidine dimers block simian virus 40 replication forks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.A.; Edenberg, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    UV light produces lesions, predominantly pyrimidine dimers, which inhibit DNA replication in mammalian cells. The mechanism of inhibition is controversial: is synthesis of a daughter strand halted at a lesion while the replication fork moves on and reinitiates downstream, or is fork progression itself blocked for some time at the site of a lesion? We directly addressed this question by using electron microscopy to examine the distances of replication forks from the origin in unirradiated and UV-irradiated simian virus 40 chromosomes. If UV lesions block replication fork progression, the forks should be asymmetrically located in a large fraction of the irradiated molecules; if replication forks move rapidly past lesions, the forks should be symmetrically located. A large fraction of the simian virus 40 replication forks in irradiated molecules were asymmetrically located, demonstrating that UV lesions present at the frequency of pyrimidine dimers block replication forks. As a mechanism for this fork blockage, we propose that polymerization of the leading strand makes a significant contribution to the energetics of fork movement, so any lesion in the template for the leading strand which blocks polymerization should also block fork movement

  11. Synthesis of tritium labelled nucleoside triphosphates by enzymatic phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Decun; Ji Linzhen; Liao Sha

    1986-01-01

    [5- 3 H]UMP, [5- 3 H]CMP, [8- 3 H]AMP and [8- 3 H]GMP were prepared from 5BrUMP 5BrCMP 8BrAMP and 8BrGMP by catalytic halogentritium replacement at the same time. [5- 3 H]UTP, [5- 3 H]CTP, [8- 3 H]ATP and [8- 3 H]GTP were subsequently synthesized from [5- 3 H]UMP, [5- 3 H]CMP, [8- 3 H]AMP and [8- 3 H]GMP by enzymatic phosphorylation with the crude enzyme prepared from brewer's yeasts and purified by paper chromatography simultaneously. In addition, four kinds of tritium labelled nucleoside monophosphates and four kinds of tritium labelled nucleoside diphosphates were obtained as the by-products. The specific activity of these products is between 14-19 Ci/mmol and the radiochemical purity is more than 98%

  12. C-Nucleosides: Synthetic Strategies and Biological Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štambaský, J.; Hocek, Michal; Kočovský, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 12 (2009), s. 6729-6764 ISSN 0009-2665 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550902 Grant - others:NIH(US) 1R03TW007372-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : nucleosides * nucleobases * biological activity * extension of genetic alphabet Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 35.957, year: 2009

  13. Nucleoside-Lipid-Based Nanocarriers for Sorafenib Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benizri, Sebastien; Ferey, Ludivine; Alies, Bruno; Mebarek, Naila; Vacher, Gaelle; Appavoo, Ananda; Staedel, Cathy; Gaudin, Karen; Barthélémy, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Although the application of sorafenib, a small inhibitor of tyrosine protein kinases, to cancer treatments remains a worldwide option in chemotherapy, novel strategies are needed to address the low water solubility (drug. In this context, the use of nanocarriers is currently investigated in order to overcome these drawbacks. In this contribution, we report a new type of sorafenib-based nanoparticles stabilized by hybrid nucleoside-lipids. The solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) showed negative or positive zeta potential values depending on the nucleoside-lipid charge. Transmission electron microscopy of sorafenib-loaded SLNs revealed parallelepiped nanoparticles of about 200 nm. Biological studies achieved on four different cell lines, including liver and breast cancers, revealed enhanced anticancer activities of Sorafenib-based SLNs compared to the free drug. Importantly, contrast phase microscopy images recorded after incubation of cancer cells in the presence of SLNs at high concentration in sorafenib (> 80 μM) revealed a total cancer cell death in all cases. These results highlight the potential of nucleoside-lipid-based SLNs as drug delivery systems.

  14. Synthesis and antiproliferative evaluation of novel azido nucleosides and their phosphoramidate derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Xavier, N.M.; Goncalves-Pereira, R.; Jorda, Radek; Řezníčková, Eva; Kryštof, Vladimír; Oliveira, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 9 (2017), s. 1267-1281 ISSN 0033-4545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : anticancer activity * azido nucleosides * bioactive molecules * ics-28 * N-glycosylation * nucleoside phosphoramidates * nucleoside/nucleotide analogs * Staudinger-phosphite reaction Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.626, year: 2016

  15. Investigating temporary acyclicity in a captive group of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): Relationship between management, adrenal activity and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie L; Trotter, Jessica; Jones, Martin; Brown, Janine L; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Walker, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Routine faecal steroid monitoring has been used to aid the management of five captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) females at Chester Zoo, UK, since 2007. Progestagen analysis initially revealed synchronised oestrous cycles among all females. However, a 14- to 20-week period of temporary acyclicity subsequently occurred in three females, following several management changes (increased training, foot-care and intermittent matriarch removal for health reasons) and the initiation of pregnancy in another female. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate whether these management changes were related to increased adrenal activity and disruption of ovarian activity, or whether social factors may have been involved in the temporary cessation of cyclicity. Faecal samples collected every other day were analysed to investigate whether glucocorticoid metabolites were related to reproductive status (pregnant, cycling, acyclic) or management (training, foot-care, matriarch presence). Routine training and foot-care were not associated with adrenal activity; however, intensive foot-care to treat an abscess in one female was associated with increased glucocorticoid concentration. Matriarch presence influenced adrenal activity in three females, being lower when the matriarch was separated from the group at night compared to being always present. However, in the females that exhibited temporary acyclicity, there was no consistent relationship between glucocorticoids and cyclicity state. Although the results of this study do not fully explain this occurrence, the highly synchronised nature of oestrous cycles within this group, and the concurrent acyclicity in three females, raises the question of whether social factors could have been involved in the temporary disruption of ovarian activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long Term Expression of Drosophila melanogaster Nucleoside Kinase in Thymidine Kinase 2-deficient Mice with No Lethal Effects Caused by Nucleotide Pool Imbalances*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shuba; Paredes, João A.; Zhou, Xiaoshan; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Hultenby, Kjell; Curbo, Sophie; Karlsson, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion caused by thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency can be compensated by a nucleoside kinase from Drosophila melanogaster (Dm-dNK) in mice. We show that transgene expression of Dm-dNK in Tk2 knock-out (Tk2−/−) mice extended the life span of Tk2−/− mice from 3 weeks to at least 20 months. The Dm-dNK+/−Tk2−/− mice maintained normal mitochondrial DNA levels throughout the observation time. A significant difference in total body weight due to the reduction of subcutaneous and visceral fat in the Dm-dNK+/−Tk2−/− mice was the only visible difference compared with control mice. This indicates an effect on fat metabolism mediated through residual Tk2 deficiency because Dm-dNK expression was low in both liver and fat tissues. Dm-dNK expression led to increased dNTP pools and an increase in the catabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides but these alterations did not apparently affect the mice during the 20 months of observation. In conclusion, Dm-dNK expression in the cell nucleus expanded the total dNTP pools to levels required for efficient mitochondrial DNA synthesis, thereby compensated the Tk2 deficiency, during a normal life span of the mice. The Dm-dNK+/− mouse serves as a model for nucleoside gene or enzyme substitutions, nucleotide imbalances, and dNTP alterations in different tissues. PMID:25296759

  17. Enzymatic study on AtCCD4 and AtCCD7 and their potential to form acyclic regulatory metabolites

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark

    2016-09-29

    The Arabidopsis carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (AtCCD4) is a negative regulator of the carotenoid content of seeds and has recently been suggested as a candidate for the generation of retrograde signals that are thought to derive from the cleavage of poly-cis-configured carotene desaturation intermediates. In this work, we investigated the activity of AtCCD4 in vitro and used dynamic modeling to determine its substrate preference. Our results document strict regional specificity for cleavage at the C9–C10 double bond in carotenoids and apocarotenoids, with preference for carotenoid substrates and an obstructing effect on hydroxyl functions, and demonstrate the specificity for all-trans-configured carotenes and xanthophylls. AtCCD4 cleaved substrates with at least one ionone ring and did not convert acyclic carotene desaturation intermediates, independent of their isomeric states. These results do not support a direct involvement of AtCCD4 in generating the supposed regulatory metabolites. In contrast, the strigolactone biosynthetic enzyme AtCCD7 converted 9-cis-configured acyclic carotenes, such as 9-cis-ζ-carotene, 9\\'-cis-neurosporene, and 9-cis-lycopene, yielding 9-cis-configured products and indicating that AtCCD7, rather than AtCCD4, is the candidate for forming acyclic retrograde signals.

  18. Enzymatic study on AtCCD4 and AtCCD7 and their potential to form acyclic regulatory metabolites

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark; Koschmieder, Julian; Wuest, Florian; Schaub, Patrick; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Timmer, Jens; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (AtCCD4) is a negative regulator of the carotenoid content of seeds and has recently been suggested as a candidate for the generation of retrograde signals that are thought to derive from the cleavage of poly-cis-configured carotene desaturation intermediates. In this work, we investigated the activity of AtCCD4 in vitro and used dynamic modeling to determine its substrate preference. Our results document strict regional specificity for cleavage at the C9–C10 double bond in carotenoids and apocarotenoids, with preference for carotenoid substrates and an obstructing effect on hydroxyl functions, and demonstrate the specificity for all-trans-configured carotenes and xanthophylls. AtCCD4 cleaved substrates with at least one ionone ring and did not convert acyclic carotene desaturation intermediates, independent of their isomeric states. These results do not support a direct involvement of AtCCD4 in generating the supposed regulatory metabolites. In contrast, the strigolactone biosynthetic enzyme AtCCD7 converted 9-cis-configured acyclic carotenes, such as 9-cis-ζ-carotene, 9'-cis-neurosporene, and 9-cis-lycopene, yielding 9-cis-configured products and indicating that AtCCD7, rather than AtCCD4, is the candidate for forming acyclic retrograde signals.

  19. Enzymatic study on AtCCD4 and AtCCD7 and their potential to form acyclic regulatory metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mark; Koschmieder, Julian; Wuest, Florian; Schaub, Patrick; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Timmer, Jens; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (AtCCD4) is a negative regulator of the carotenoid content of seeds and has recently been suggested as a candidate for the generation of retrograde signals that are thought to derive from the cleavage of poly-cis-configured carotene desaturation intermediates. In this work, we investigated the activity of AtCCD4 in vitro and used dynamic modeling to determine its substrate preference. Our results document strict regional specificity for cleavage at the C9–C10 double bond in carotenoids and apocarotenoids, with preference for carotenoid substrates and an obstructing effect on hydroxyl functions, and demonstrate the specificity for all-trans-configured carotenes and xanthophylls. AtCCD4 cleaved substrates with at least one ionone ring and did not convert acyclic carotene desaturation intermediates, independent of their isomeric states. These results do not support a direct involvement of AtCCD4 in generating the supposed regulatory metabolites. In contrast, the strigolactone biosynthetic enzyme AtCCD7 converted 9-cis-configured acyclic carotenes, such as 9-cis-ζ-carotene, 9'-cis-neurosporene, and 9-cis-lycopene, yielding 9-cis-configured products and indicating that AtCCD7, rather than AtCCD4, is the candidate for forming acyclic retrograde signals. PMID:27811075

  20. Growth and sporulation of a pyrimidine spore color mutant of Sordaria fimicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Ani, A S

    1967-04-07

    A nonautonomous spore color mutant of Sordaria fimicola is a pyrimidine auxotroph that produces hyaline nonviable ascospores. Uracil, uridine, and cytidine are more effective growth factors than cytosine and thymine and, in high concentrations, render the mutant self-fertile by inducing the ascospores to resume development and maturation. Crosses with the unlinked arginine non-autonomus spore color mutant st-59 yielded the double mutant st-59 pyr that requires both arginine and a pyrimidine for growth, which indicates a lack of suppression of the pyrimidine requirement by the arginine locus.

  1. Interaction of quinones with three pyrimidine bases: A laser flash photolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Adity [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Basu, Samita, E-mail: samita.basu@saha.ac.i [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2009-11-15

    The interaction between three different pyrimidine bases, uracil (U), cytosine (C) and thymine (T) and two quinones, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone or menadione (MQ) and 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) have been studied using laser flash photolysis technique in organic homogeneous medium. The three pyrimidines have revealed a difference in their extent of reactivity towards the quinones, which has been attributed to their structural difference. Our works have revealed that the difference in structural dimension of the quinones is also responsible for affecting the reactivity of these pyrimidines in homogeneous medium.

  2. Interaction of quinones with three pyrimidine bases: A laser flash photolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Adity; Basu, Samita

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between three different pyrimidine bases, uracil (U), cytosine (C) and thymine (T) and two quinones, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone or menadione (MQ) and 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) have been studied using laser flash photolysis technique in organic homogeneous medium. The three pyrimidines have revealed a difference in their extent of reactivity towards the quinones, which has been attributed to their structural difference. Our works have revealed that the difference in structural dimension of the quinones is also responsible for affecting the reactivity of these pyrimidines in homogeneous medium.

  3. Methylation of ribonucleic acid by the carcinogens dimethyl sulphate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Comparisons of chemical analyses at the nucleoside and base levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, P. D.; Shah, S. A.

    1972-01-01

    1. The following methods for hydrolysis of methyl-14C-labelled RNA, and for chromatographic isolation and determination of the products, were investigated: enzymic digestion to nucleosides at pH6 or 8; alkaline hydrolysis and conversion into nucleosides; hydrolysis by acid to pyrimidine nucleotides and purine bases, or completely to bases; chromatography on Dowex 50 (NH4+ form) at pH6 or 8.9, or on Dowex 50 (H+ form), or on Sephadex G-10. 2. The suitability of the various methods for determination of methylation products was assessed. The principal product, 7-methylguanosine, was unstable under the conditions used for determinations of nucleosides. 3- and 7-Methyladenine and 3- and 7-methylguanine are best determined as bases; 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine can be isolated as either nucleosides or bases; O6-methylguanine is unstable under the acid hydrolysis conditions used and can be determined as the nucleoside; 3-methyluracil was detected, but may be derived from methylation of the ionized form of uracil. 3. Differences between the patterns of methylation of RNA and homopolyribonucleotides by the N-methyl-N-nitroso compounds and dimethyl sulphate were found: the nitroso compounds were able to methylate O-6 of guanine, were relatively more reactive at N-7 of adenine and probably at N-3 of guanine, but less reactive at N-1 of adenine, N-3 of cytosine and probably at N-3 of uridine. They probably reacted more with the ribose–phosphate chain, but no products from this were identified. 4. The possible influences of these differences on biological action of the methylating agents is discussed. Nitroso compounds may differ principally in their ability to induce miscoding in the Watson–Crick sense by reaction at O-6 of guanine. Both types of agent may induce miscoding to a lesser extent through methylation at N-3 of guanine; both can methylate N atoms, presumably preventing Watson–Crick hydrogen-bonding. N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea can degrade RNA, possibly

  4. VUV Study of Electron-Pyrimidine Dissociative Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jeff; Al-Khazraji, Hajar; Tiessen, Collin; Lukic, Dragan; Trocchi, Joshuah; McConkey, William

    2013-05-01

    A crossed electron-gas beam system coupled to a VUV spectrometer has been used to investigate the dissociation of pyrimidine (C4H4N2) into excited atomic fragments in the electron-impact energy range from threshold to 375 eV. Data have been made absolute using Lyman- α from H2 as a secondary standard. The main features in the spectrum are the H Lyman series lines. The emission cross section of Lyman- α is measured to be (2.44 +/- 0.25) 10-18 cm2 at 100 eV impact energy. The probability of extracting C or N atoms from the ring is shown to be very small. Possible dissociation channels and excitation mechanisms in the parent molecule will be discussed. The authors thank NSERC (Canada) for financial support.

  5. Pyrimidine dimers in Drosophila chromatin become increasingly accessible after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, P.V.; Boyd, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    A prokaryotic DNA-repair enzyme has been utilized as a probe for changes in the accessibility of pyrimidine dimers in Drosophila chromatin following UV irradiation. The results demonstrate a rapid cellular response to physiologically relevant doses of radiation which results in at least a 40% increase in accessible dimers. This increase occurs in two incision-deficient mutants which indicates that the excision-repair process, at or beyond the incision step, is not required or responsible for the increase. In the absence of excision the increase in accessibility persists for a least 2 days following irradiation. The observed increase in accessibility is inhibited by both novobiocin and coumermycin. These inhibitors do not inhibit the initial rate of incision, but do reduce dimer excision measured over more extended periods. A pre-incision process is proposed which actively exposes DNA lesions to excision repair. A fraction of the genome is postulated to be accessible without the intervention of that process. (Auth.)

  6. Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs): an aid to assess confounding in dental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Anwar T; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2002-12-01

    Confounding, a special type of bias, occurs when an extraneous factor is associated with the exposure and independently affects the outcome. In order to get an unbiased estimate of the exposure-outcome relationship, we need to identify potential confounders, collect information on them, design appropriate studies, and adjust for confounding in data analysis. However, it is not always clear which variables to collect information on and adjust for in the analyses. Inappropriate adjustment for confounding can even introduce bias where none existed. Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) provide a method to select potential confounders and minimize bias in the design and analysis of epidemiological studies. DAGs have been used extensively in expert systems and robotics. Robins (1987) introduced the application of DAGs in epidemiology to overcome shortcomings of traditional methods to control for confounding, especially as they related to unmeasured confounding. DAGs provide a quick and visual way to assess confounding without making parametric assumptions. We introduce DAGs, starting with definitions and rules for basic manipulation, stressing more on applications than theory. We then demonstrate their application in the control of confounding through examples of observational and cross-sectional epidemiological studies.

  7. Peretinoin, an Acyclic Retinoid, Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Suppressing Sphingosine Metabolic Pathway In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Murai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC frequently develops from hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. We previously reported that peretinoin, an acyclic retinoid, inhibits HCV replication. This study aimed to examine the influence of peretinoin on the HBV lifecycle. HBV-DNA and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA were evaluated by a qPCR method in HepG2.2.15 cells. Peretinoin significantly reduced the levels of intracellular HBV-DNA, nuclear cccDNA, and HBV transcript at a concentration that did not induce cytotoxicity. Conversely, other retinoids, such as 9-cis, 13-cis retinoic acid (RA, and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, had no effect or rather increased HBV replication. Mechanistically, although peretinoin increased the expression of HBV-related transcription factors, as observed for other retinoids, peretinoin enhanced the binding of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1 to cccDNA in the nucleus and negatively regulated HBV transcription. Moreover, peretinoin significantly inhibited the expression of SPHK1, a potential inhibitor of HDAC activity, and might be involved in hepatic inflammation, fibrosis, and HCC. SPHK1 overexpression in cells cancelled the inhibition of HBV replication induced by peretinoin. This indicates that peretinoin activates HDAC1 and thereby suppresses HBV replication by inhibiting the sphingosine metabolic pathway. Therefore, peretinoin may be a novel therapeutic agent for HBV replication and chemoprevention against HCC.

  8. A novel 13 residue acyclic peptide from the marine snail, Conus monile, targets potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarslal, Sadasivannair; Singaravadivelan, Govindaswamy; Ramasamy, Palanisamy; Ananda, Kuppanna; Sarma, Siddhartha P; Sikdar, Sujit K; Krishnan, K S; Balaram, Padmanabhan

    2004-05-07

    A novel 13-residue peptide Mo1659 has been isolated from the venom of a vermivorous cone snail, Conus monile. HPLC fractions of the venom extract yielded an intense UV absorbing fraction with a mass of 1659Da. De novo sequencing using both matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization and electrospray MS/MS methods together with analysis of proteolytic fragments successfully yielded the amino acid sequence, FHGGSWYRFPWGY-NH(2). This was further confirmed by comparison with the chemically synthesized peptide and by conventional Edman sequencing. Mo1659 has an unusual sequence with a preponderance of aromatic residues and the absence of apolar, aliphatic residues like Ala, Val, Leu, and Ile. Mo1659 has no disulfide bridges distinguishing it from the conotoxins and bears no sequence similarity with any of the acyclic peptides isolated thus far from the venom of cone snails. Electrophysiological studies on the effect of Mo1659 on measured currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons suggest that the peptide targets non-inactivating voltage-dependent potassium channels.

  9. Oxytocin promotes bone formation during the alveolar healing process in old acyclic female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Vilma Clemi; Okamoto, Roberta; Spritzer, Poli Mara; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2012-09-01

    OT was reported to be a direct regulator of bone mass in young rodents, and this anabolic effect on bone is a peripheral action of OT. The goal of this study was to investigate the peripheral action of oxytocin (OT) in the alveolar healing process in old female rats. Females Wistar rats (24-month-old) in permanent diestrus phase, received two ip (12h apart) injections of saline (NaCl 0.15M - control group) or OT (45μg/rat - treated group). Seven days later, the right maxillary incisor was extracted and analyses were performed up to 28 days of the alveolar healing process (35 days after saline or OT administration). Calcium and phosphorus plasma concentrations did not differ between the groups. The plasma biochemical bone formations markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin were significantly higher in the treated group. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed bone formation as the treated group presented the highest mean value of post-extraction bone formation. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was significantly reduced in the treated group indicating an anti-resorptive effect of OT. Immunohistochemistry reactions performed in order to identify the presence of osteocalcin and TRAP in the bone cells of the dental socket confirmed these outcomes. OT was found to promote bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption in old acyclic female rats during the alveolar healing process. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Bifurcatriol, a New Antiprotozoal Acyclic Diterpene from the Brown Alga Bifurcaria bifurcata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangelis Smyrniotopoulos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Linear diterpenes that are commonly found in brown algae are of high chemotaxonomic and ecological importance. This study reports bifurcatriol (1, a new linear diterpene featuring two stereogenic centers isolated from the Irish brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata. The gross structure of this new natural product was elucidated based on its spectroscopic data (IR, 1D and 2D-NMR, HRMS. Its absolute configuration was identified by experimental and computational vibrational circular dichroism (VCD spectroscopy, combined with the calculation of 13C-NMR chemical shielding constants. Bifurcatriol (1 was tested for in vitro antiprotozoal activity towards a small panel of parasites (Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi, and Leishmania donovani and cytotoxicity against mammalian primary cells. The highest activity was exerted against the malaria parasite P. falciparum (IC50 value 0.65 μg/mL with low cytotoxicity (IC50 value 56.6 μg/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first successful application of VCD and DP4 probability analysis of the calculated 13C-NMR chemical shifts for the simultaneous assignment of the absolute configuration of multiple stereogenic centers in a long-chain acyclic natural product.

  11. Synthesis of modified cyclic and acyclic dextrins and comparison of their complexation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Tuza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared the complex forming ability of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD with their open ring analogs. In addition to the native cyclodextrins also modified cyclodextrins and the corresponding maltooligomers, functionalized with neutral 2-hydroxypropyl moieties, were synthesized. A new synthetic route was worked out via bromination, benzylation, deacetylation and debenzylation to obtain the 2-hydroxypropyl maltooligomer counterparts. The complexation properties of non-modified and modified cyclic and acyclic dextrins were studied and compared by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS and capillary electrophoresis (CE using model guest compounds. In some cases cyclodextrins and their open-ring analogs (acyclodextrins show similar complexation abilities, while with other guests considerably different behavior was observed depending on the molecular dimensions and chemical characteristics of the guests. This was explained by the enhanced flexibility of the non-closed rings. Even the signs of enantiorecognition were observed for the chloropheniramine/hydroxypropyl maltohexaose system. Further studies are planned to help the deeper understanding of the interactions.

  12. Optimal allocation of multi-state retransmitters in acyclic transmission networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an algorithm for optimal allocation of multi-state elements (MEs) in acyclic transmission networks (ATNs) is suggested. The ATNs consist of a number of positions (nodes) in which MEs capable of receiving and sending a signal are allocated. Each network has a root position where the signal source is located, a number of leaf positions that can only receive a signal, and a number of intermediate positions containing MEs capable of transmitting the received signal to some other nodes. Each ME that is located in a nonleaf node can have different states determined by a set of nodes receiving the signal directly from this ME. The probability of each state is assumed to be known for each ME. The ATN reliability is defined as the probability that a signal from the root node is transmitted to each leaf node. The optimal distribution of MEs with different characteristics among ATN positions provides the greatest possible ATN reliability. The suggested algorithm is based on using a universal generating function technique for network reliability evaluation. A genetic algorithm is used as the optimization tool. Illustrative examples are presented

  13. Maximizing survivability of acyclic transmission networks with multi-state retransmitters and vulnerable nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an algorithm for optimal allocation of multi-state elements (MEs) in acyclic transmission networks (ATNs) with vulnerable nodes is suggested. The ATNs consist of a number of positions (nodes) in which MEs capable of receiving and sending a signal are allocated. Each network has a root position where the signal source is located, a number of leaf positions that can only receive a signal, and a number of intermediate positions containing MEs capable of transmitting the received signal to some other nodes. Each ME that is located in a nonleaf node can have different states determined by a set of nodes receiving the signal directly from this ME. The probability of each state is assumed to be known for each ME. Each ATN node with all the MEs allocated at this node can be destroyed by external impact (common cause failure) with a given probability. The ATN survivability is defined as the probability that a signal from the root node is transmitted to each leaf node. The optimal distribution of MEs with different characteristics among ATN positions provides the greatest possible ATN survivability. It is shown that the node vulnerability index affects the optimal distribution. The suggested algorithm is based on using a universal generating function technique for network survivability evaluation. A genetic algorithm is used as the optimization tool. Illustrative examples are presented

  14. Executive Summary of Ares V: Lunar Capabilities Concept Review Through Phase A-Cycle 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, J. B.; Baggett, K. E.; Feldman, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) was generated as an overall Ares V summary from the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) through Phase A-Cycle 3 (PA-C3) with the intent that it may be coupled with separately published appendices for a more detailed, integrated narrative. The Ares V has evolved from the initial point of departure (POD) 51.00.48 LCCR configuration to the current candidate POD, PA-C3D, and the family of vehicles concept that contains vehicles PA-C3A through H. The logical progression from concept to POD vehicles is summarized in this TM and captures the trade space and performance of each. The family-of-vehicles concept was assessed during PA-C3 and offered flexibility in the path forward with the ability to add options deemed appropriate. A description of each trade space is given in addition to a summary of each Ares V element. The Ares V contributions to a Mars campaign are also highlighted with the goal of introducing Ares V capabilities within the trade space. The assessment of the Ares V vehicle as it pertains to Mars missions remained locked to the architecture presented in Mars Design Reference Authorization 5.0 using the PA-C3D vehicle configuration to assess Mars transfer vehicle options, in-space EDS capabilities, docking adaptor and propellant transfer assessments, and lunar and Mars synergistic potential.

  15. Two purine nucleoside phosphorylases in Bacillus subtilis. Purification and some properties of the adenosine-specific phosphorylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1978-01-01

    Two purine nucleoside phosphorylases (purine-nucleoside:orthophosphate ribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.1) were purified from vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells. One enzyme, inosine-guanosine phosphorylase, showed great similarity to the homologous enzyme of Bacillus cereus. It appeared...

  16. Increase in urinary purines and pyrimidines in patients with methylmalonic aciduria combined with homocystinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, Simona; Corda, Marcella; Lilliu, Franco; Contini, Liliana; Era, Benedetta; Traldi, Pietro; Fais, Antonella

    2010-06-03

    Methylmalonic aciduria combined with homocystinuria (MMA-HC) is the biochemical trait of a metabolic disorder resulting from impaired conversion of dietary cobalamin (cbl, or vitamin B12) to its two metabolically active forms. Effects on urinary purine and pyrimidine levels have not been described for this condition. Urine samples were collected from three patients with methylmalonic aciduria combined with homocystinuria and from 70 healthy subjects. Urinary purine and pyrimidine levels were quantitated by the use of LC/UV-Vis and LC/ESI/MS. Higher urine levels of pyrimidines were detected with both methods in patients compared to controls. Methylmalonic aciduria with homocystinuria is due to deficiency of the enzyme, cobalamin reductase. The enzyme defect leads to altered hepatic metabolism, which appears to modify circulating pyrimidine levels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Privileged substructure-based diversity-oriented synthesis pathway for diverse pyrimidine-embedded polyheterocycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Heejun; Thanh Tung, Truong; Park, Seung Bum

    2013-01-01

    A new diversity-oriented synthesis pathway for the fabrication of a pyrimidine-embedded polyheterocycles library was developed for potential interactions with diverse biopolymers. Five different pyrimidine-embedded core skeletons were synthesized from ortho-alkynylpyrimidine carbaldehydes by a si...... by a silver- or iodine-mediated tandem cyclization strategy. The resulting polyheterocycles possess diverse fused ring sizes and positions with potential functionalities for further modification....

  18. 5-[{sup 18}F]Fluoroalkyl pyrimidine nucleosides: probes for positron emission tomography imaging of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacko, Ann-Marie [Institute for Environmental Medicine, Targeted Therapeutics Program, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Blankemeyer, Eric; Lieberman, Brian P.; Qu, Wenchao [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, Hank F. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)], E-mail: kunghf@gmail.com

    2009-01-15

    Introduction: The preliminary in vivo evaluation of novel 5-[{sup 18}F]fluoroalkyl-2'-deoxyuridines ([{sup 18}F]FPrDU, [{sup 18}F]FBuDU, [{sup 18}F]FPeDU; [{sup 18}F]1a-c, respectively) and 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-[{sup 18}F]fluoroalkyl-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyl uracils ([{sup 18}F]FFPrAU, [{sup 18}F]FFBuAU, [{sup 18}F]FFPeAU; [{sup 18}F]1d-f, respectively) as probes for imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene expression is described. Methods: [{sup 18}F]1a-f were successfully synthesized by a rapid and efficient two-step one-pot nucleophilic fluorination reaction using 5-O-mesylate precursors and [{sup 18}F]F{sup -}. For in vivo studies, tumor xenografts were grown in nude mice by implanting RG2 cells stably expressing HSV1-tk (RG2TK+) and wild-type cells (RG2). Results: Biodistribution studies at 2 h pi revealed that the uptake of [{sup 18}F]1a-b and [{sup 18}F]1d-e in RG2TK+ tumors was not significantly different from control tumors. However, [{sup 18}F]1c and [{sup 18}F]1f had an average 1.6- and 1.7-fold higher uptake in RG2TK+ tumors than control RG2 tumors. Blood activity curves for [{sup 18}F]1c and [{sup 18}F]1f highlight rapid clearance of radioactivity in the blood. Dynamic small animal PET (A-PET) imaging studies of tumor-bearing mice with [{sup 18}F]1c and [{sup 18}F]1f showed higher initial uptake (3.5- and 1.4-fold, respectively) in RG2TK+ tumors than in control tumors, with continued washout of activity from both tumors over time. Conclusions: Biological evaluations suggest that [{sup 18}F]1c and [{sup 18}F]1f may have limited potential for imaging HSV1-tk gene expression due to fast washout of activity from the blood, thus significantly decreasing sensitivity and specificity of tracer accumulation in HSV1-tk-expressing tumors.

  19. Cytosine arabinoside influx and nucleoside transport sites in acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J S; Jones, S P; Sawyer, W H; Paterson, A R

    1982-02-01

    Although cytosine arabinoside (araC) can induce a remission in a majority of patients presenting with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), a minority fail to respond and moreover the drug has less effect in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The carrier-mediated influx of araC into purified blasts from patients with AML, ALL, and acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) has been compared to that of normal lymphocytes and polymorphs. Blasts showed a larger mediated influx of araC than mature cells, since mean influxes for myeloblasts and lymphoblasts were 6- and 2.3-fold greater than polymorphs and lymphocytes, respectively. Also, the mean influx for myeloblasts was fourfold greater than the mean for lymphoblasts. The number of nucleoside transport sites was estimated for each cell type by measuring the equilibrium binding of [(3)H]nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), which inhibits nucleoside fluxes by binding with high affinity to specific sites on the transport mechanism. The mean binding site numbers for myeloblasts and lymphoblasts were 5- and 2.8-fold greater, respectively, than for the mature cells of the same maturation series. The mean number of NBMPR binding sites for myeloblasts was fourfold greater than for lymphoblasts. Patients with AUL were heterogeneous since blasts from some gave values within the myeloblastic range and others within the lymphoblastic range. The araC influx correlated closely with the number of NBMPR binding sites measured in the same cells on the same day. Transport parameters were measured on blasts from 15 patients with AML or AUL who were then treated with standard induction therapy containing araC. Eight patients entered complete remission, while seven failed therapy, among whom were the three patients with the lowest araC influx (myeloblasts have both higher araC transport rates and more nucleoside transport sites than lymphoblasts and this factor may contribute to the greater sensitivity of AML to this drug. AraC transport varied >10

  20. Addressing the selectivity and toxicity of antiviral nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joy Y

    2018-01-01

    Nucleoside and nucleotide analogs have played significant roles in antiviral therapies and are valued for their impressive potency and high barrier to resistance. They have been approved for treatment of herpes simplex virus-1, HIV, HBV, HCV, and influenza, and new drugs are being developed for the treatment of RSV, Ebola, coronavirus MERS, and other emerging viruses. However, this class of compounds has also experienced a high attrition rate in clinical trials due to toxicity. In this review, we discuss the utility of different biochemical and cell-based assays and provide recommendations for assessing toxicity liability before entering animal toxicity studies.

  1. HIV-1 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanangamudi, Murugesan; Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Design of inhibitors for HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibition (HIV-1 RT) is one of the successful chemotherapies for the treatment of HIV infection. Among the inhibitors available for HIV-1 RT, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have shown to be very promising......: The conformation dependent-alignment based (CoMFA and CoMSIA) methods have been proven very successful ligand based strategy in the drug design. Here, CoMFA and CoMSIA studies reported for structurally distinct NNRTIs including thiazolobenzimidazole, dipyridodiazepinone, 1,1,3-trioxo [1,2,4]-thiadiazine...

  2. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency in two unrelated Saudi patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alangari, Abdullah; AlHarbi, Abdullah; AlGhonaium Abdulaziz; Santisteban, Ines; Hershfield, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in combined immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction and autoimmunity. PNP deficiency has never been reported from Saudi Arabia or in patients with an Arabic ethnic background. We report on two Saudi girls with PNP deficiency. Both showed severe lymphopenia and neurological involvement. Sequencing of the PNP gene of one girl revealed a novel missense mutation Pro146>Leu in exon 4 due to a change in the codon from CCT>CTT. Expression of PNP (146L) cDNA in E coli indicated that the mutation greatly reduced, but did not completely eliminate PNP activity. (author)

  3. Versatile synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 3’-fluorinated purine nucleosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A unified synthetic strategy accessing novel 3'-fluorinated purine nucleoside derivatives and their biological evaluation were achieved. Novel 3’-fluorinated analogues were constructed from a common 3’-deoxy-3’-fluororibofuranose intermediate. Employing Suzuki and Stille cross-coupling reactions, fifteen 3’-fluororibose purine nucleosides 1–15 and eight 3’-fluororibose 2-chloro/2-aminopurine nucleosides 16–23 with various substituents at position 6 of the purine ring were efficiently synthesized. Furthermore, 3’-fluorine analogs of natural products nebularine and 6-methylpurine riboside were constructed via our convergent synthetic strategy. Synthesized nucleosides were tested against HT116 (colon cancer and 143B (osteosarcoma cancer tumor cell lines. We have demonstrated 3’-fluorine purine nucleoside analogues display potent tumor cell growth inhibition activity at sub- or low micromolar concentration.

  4. Selenium-Mediated Dehalogenation of Halogenated Nucleosides and its Relevance to the DNA Repair Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Santanu; Manna, Debasish; Mugesh, Govindasamy

    2015-08-03

    Halogenated nucleosides can be incorporated into the newly synthesized DNA of replicating cells and therefore are commonly used in the detection of proliferating cells in living tissues. Dehalogenation of these modified nucleosides is one of the key pathways involved in DNA repair mediated by the uracil-DNA glycosylase. Herein, we report the first example of a selenium-mediated dehalogenation of halogenated nucleosides. We also show that the mechanism for the debromination is remarkably different from that of deiodination and that the presence of a ribose or deoxyribose moiety in the nucleosides facilitates the deiodination. The results described herein should help in understanding the metabolism of halogenated nucleosides in DNA and RNA. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Alkylsulfanylphenyl derivatives of cytosine and 7-deazaadenine nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleoside triphosphates. Synthesis, polymerase incorporation to DNA and electrochemical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macíčková-Cahová, Hana; Pohl, Radek; Horáková Brázdilová, Petra; Havran, Luděk; Špaček, Jan; Fojta, Miroslav; Hocek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 21 (2011), s. 5833-5841 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035; GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GA203/09/0317; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : DNA polymerases * electrochemistry * nucleosides * nucleotides * organosulfur compounds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.925, year: 2011

  6. Do non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors contribute to lipodystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, David

    2005-01-01

    Lipodystrophy complications, including lipoatrophy (pathological fat loss) and metabolic complications, have emerged as important long-term toxicities associated with antiretroviral therapy in the current era. The wealth of data that has accumulated over the past 6 years has now clarified the contribution of specific antiretroviral drugs to the risk of these clinical endpoints, with evidence that lipoatrophy is strongly associated with the choice of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy (specifically, stavudine and to a lesser extent zidovudine). The aetiological basis of metabolic complications of antiretroviral therapy has proven to be complex, in that the risk appears to be modulated by a number of lifestyle factors that have made the metabolic syndrome highly prevalent in the general population, with additional contributions from HIV disease status itself, as well as from individual drugs within the HIV protease inhibitor class. The currently licensed non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs, efavirenz and nevirapine, have been proven to have a favourable safety profile in terms of lipodystrophy complications. However, it must be noted that NNRTI drugs also have individual toxicity profiles that must be accounted for when considering and/or monitoring their use in the treatment of HIV infection.

  7. Nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides: versatile biomolecules for generating functional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2018-02-21

    The incorporation of biomolecules into nanomaterials generates functional nanosystems with novel and advanced properties, presenting great potential for applications in various fields. Nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides, as building blocks of nucleic acids and biological coenzymes, constitute necessary components of the foundation of life. In recent years, as versatile biomolecules for the construction or regulation of functional nanomaterials, they have stimulated interest in researchers, due to their unique properties such as structural diversity, multiplex binding sites, self-assembly ability, stability, biocompatibility, and chirality. In this review, strategies for the synthesis of nanomaterials and the regulation of their morphologies and functions using nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides as building blocks, templates or modulators are summarized alongside selected applications. The diverse applications range from sensing, bioimaging, and drug delivery to mimicking light-harvesting antenna, the construction of logic gates, and beyond. Furthermore, some perspectives and challenges in this emerging field are proposed. This review is directed toward the broader scientific community interested in biomolecule-based functional nanomaterials.

  8. Rhodium-Catalyzed Insertion Reaction of PhP Group of Pentaphenylcyclopentaphosphine with Acyclic and Cyclic Disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisawa, Mieko; Sawahata, Kyosuke; Yamada, Tomoki; Sarkar, Debayan; Yamaguchi, Masahiko

    2018-02-16

    Organophosphorus compounds with a phosphorus atom attached to a phenyl group and two organothio/organoseleno groups were synthesized using the rhodium-catalyzed insertion reaction of the PhP group of pentaphenylcyclopentaphosphine (PhP) 5 with acyclic disulfides and diselenides. The method was applied to the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds containing the S-P-S group by the reaction of (PhP) 5 and cyclic disulfides such as 1,2-dithietes, 1,2-dithiocane, 1,4,5-dithiopane, and 1,2-dithiolanes.

  9. Fenarimol, a Pyrimidine-Type Fungicide, Inhibits Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keimei Oh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant steroid hormone brassinosteroids (BRs are important signal mediators that regulate broad aspects of plant growth and development. With the discovery of brassinoazole (Brz, the first specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, several triazole-type BR biosynthesis inhibitors have been developed. In this article, we report that fenarimol (FM, a pyrimidine-type fungicide, exhibits potent inhibitory activity against BR biosynthesis. FM induces dwarfism and the open cotyledon phenotype of Arabidopsis seedlings in the dark. The IC50 value for FM to inhibit stem elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the dark was approximately 1.8 ± 0.2 μM. FM-induced dwarfism of Arabidopsis seedlings could be restored by brassinolide (BL but not by gibberellin (GA. Assessment of the target site of FM in BR biosynthesis by feeding BR biosynthesis intermediates indicated that FM interferes with the side chain hydroxylation of BR biosynthesis from campestanol to teasterone. Determination of the binding affinity of FM to purified recombinant CYP90D1 indicated that FM induced a typical type II binding spectrum with a Kd value of approximately 0.79 μM. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the expression level of the BR responsive gene in Arabidopsis seedlings indicated that FM induces the BR deficiency in Arabidopsis.

  10. Triazole nucleoside derivatives bearing aryl functionalities on the nucleobases show antiviral and anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Qu, Fanqi; Peng, Ling

    2010-08-01

    Synthetic nucleoside mimics are important candidates in the searing for antiviral and anticancer drugs. Ribavirin, the first antiviral nucleoside drug, is unique in its antiviral activity with mutilple modes of action, which are mainly due to its special triazole heterocycle as nucleobase. Additionally, introducing aromatic functionalities to the nucleobase is able to confer novel mechanisms of action for nucleoside mimics. With the aim to combine the special characteristics of unnatural triazole heterocycles with those of the appended aromatic groups on the nucleobases, novel 1,2,4-triazole nucleoside analogs bearing aromatic moieties were designed and developed. The present short review summarizes the molecular design, chemical synthesis and biological activity of these triazole nucleoside analogs. Indeed, the discovery of antiviral and anticancer activities shown by these triazole nucleosides as well as the new mechanism underlying the biological activity by one of the anticancer leads has validated the rationale for molecular design and impacted us to further explore the concept with the aim of developing structurally novel nucleoside drug candidates with new modes of action.

  11. The effect of acyclic retinoid on the metabolomic profiles of hepatocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Yang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Acyclic retinoid (ACR is a promising chemopreventive agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC that selectively inhibits the growth of HCC cells (JHH7 but not normal hepatic cells (Hc. To better understand the molecular basis of the selective anti-cancer effect of ACR, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based and capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS-based metabolome analyses in JHH7 and Hc cells after treatment with ACR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NMR-based metabolomics revealed a distinct metabolomic profile of JHH7 cells at 18 h after ACR treatment but not at 4 h after ACR treatment. CE-TOFMS analysis identified 88 principal metabolites in JHH7 and Hc cells after 24 h of treatment with ethanol (EtOH or ACR. The abundance of 71 of these metabolites was significantly different between EtOH-treated control JHH7 and Hc cells, and 49 of these metabolites were significantly down-regulated in the ACR-treated JHH7 cells compared to the EtOH-treated JHH7 cells. Of particular interest, the increase in adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP, the main cellular energy source, that was observed in the EtOH-treated control JHH7 cells was almost completely suppressed in the ACR-treated JHH7 cells; treatment with ACR restored ATP to the basal levels observed in both EtOH-control and ACR-treated Hc cells (0.72-fold compared to the EtOH control-treated JHH7 cells. Moreover, real-time PCR analyses revealed that ACR significantly increased the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases 4 (PDK4, a key regulator of ATP production, in JHH7 cells but not in Hc cells (3.06-fold and 1.20-fold compared to the EtOH control, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study suggest that ACR may suppress the enhanced energy metabolism of JHH7 cells but not Hc cells; this occurs at least in part via the cancer-selective enhancement of PDK4 expression. The cancer-selective metabolic pathways

  12. Ultraviolet Irradiation of Pyrimidine in Interstellar Ice Analogs: Formation and Photo-Stability of Nucleobases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, Michel; Milam, Stefanie N.; Sandford, Scott A.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Astrochemistry laboratory experiments recently showed that molecules of prebiotic interest can potentially form in space, as supported by the detection of amino acids in organic residues formed by the UV photolysis of ices simulating interstellar and cometary environments (H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, NH3, etc.). Although the presence of amino acids in the interstellar medium (ISM) is still under debate, experiments and the detection of amino acids in meteorites both support a scenario in which prebiotic molecules could be of extraterrestrial origin, before they are delivered to planets by comets, asteroids, and interplanetary dust particles. Nucleobases, the informational subunits of DNA and RNA, have also been detected in meteorites, although they have not yet been observed in the ISM. Thus, these molecules constitute another family of prebiotic compounds that can possibly form via abiotical processes in astrophysical environments. Nucleobases are nitrogen-bearing cyclic aromatic species with various functional groups attached, which are divided into two classes: pyrimidines (uracil, cytosine, and thymine) and purines (adenine and guanine). In this work, we study how UV irradiation affects pyrimidine mixed in interstellar ice analogs (H2O, NH3, CH3OH). In particular, we show that the UV irradiation of H2O:pyrimidine mixtures leads to the production of oxidized compounds including uracil, and show that both uracil and cytosine are formed upon irradiation of H2O:NH3:pyrimidine mixtures. We also study the photostability of pyrimidine and its photoproducts formed during these experiments.

  13. The synthesis of nucleoside bases with 14 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matloubi, H.; Mehrdad, M.

    1997-01-01

    Labelled organic compounds have been widely and diligently applied to research problems in life science and chemistry. In many laboratories they have lost their novelty and have been become conventional research tools since long time ago. these applications frequently require organic compounds substituted (or labelled) with isotopes, but the isotopes are (with certain exception) extracted in first place in simple inorganic forms. The conversion of these simple form into the more or less complex labelled compounds called for by research workers has become in effect a new branch of practical organic chemistry. The preparation of labelled compounds, carbon-14 is probably more extensively and variously used than any other isotope. It emits only beta-particles. In this project, two kinds of nucleoside bases under the name uracil-2- 14 C and thymine (methyl- 14 C) were prepared.(author). 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Comparative reactivity of different types of stable cyclic and acyclic mono- and diamino carbenes with simple organic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David; Canac, Yves; Lavallo, Vincent; Bertrand, Guy

    2014-04-02

    A series of stable carbenes, featuring a broad range of electronic properties, were reacted with simple organic substrates. The N,N-dimesityl imidazolylidene (NHC) does not react with isocyanides, whereas anti-Bredt di(amino)carbene (pyr-NHC), cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene (CAAC), acyclic di(amino)carbene (ADAC), and acyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene (AAAC) give rise to the corresponding ketenimines. NHCs are known to promote the benzoin condensation, and we found that the CAAC, pyr-NHC, and ADAC react with benzaldehyde to give the ketone tautomer of the Breslow intermediate, whereas the AAAC first gives the corresponding epoxide and ultimately the Breslow intermediate, which can be isolated. Addition of excess benzaldehyde to the latter does not lead to benzoin but to a stable 1,3-dioxolane. Depending on the electronic properties of carbenes, different products are also obtained with methyl acrylate as a substrate. The critical role of the carbene electrophilicity on the outcome of reactions is discussed.

  15. Anion-exchange analysis of isotopically labelled nucleotides, nucleosides, and bases in metabolic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissinen, E.A.O.

    1987-01-01

    This paper on the importance of cellular purines and pyrimidines is evidenced by the multitude of diseases, such as hyperuricemia, orotic aciduria, gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, immunodeficiencies with B- and T-cell dysfunctions, etc. which result from aberrant metabolism. In addition, the use of purine and pyrimidine analogs in chemotherapy is of growing interest. Purine metabolism consists of a complex network of biochemical pathway. These pathways are under complicated feedback regulation and there also exists a close relationship between purine and pyrimidine metabolism. In addition, these pathways interact with those of the carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolism. Since metabolic pathways are closely interrelated, a change in the concentration of a particular metabolite may lead to many changes in the overall metabolic profiles. For instance, in the area of nucleotide metabolism, the inhibition of IMP dehydrogenase by mycophenolic acid leads to various changes in both purine and pyrimidine nucleotide pools. Inhibition of de nova purine biosynthesis by methotrexate leads to many changes in purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides. Thus, the simultaneous measurement of all cellular purine and pyrimidine metabolites from individuals whose metabolism is altered, either by a metabolic disease or by the action of drugs, may further our understanding of cellular metabolism

  16. Photomonomerization of pyrimidine dimers by indoles and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Huang, C.W.; Hinman, L.; Gordon, M.P.; Deranleau, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Model systems for the study of photoreactivation have been developed that utilize a variety of indole derivatives. These systems can split uracil cis-syn cyclobutadipyrimidine, either free or in RNA, when irradiated at wavelengths absorbed only by the indole moiety. The ability of indole compounds to split dimers is closely related to their electronic properties. Those of high electron-donor capacity such as indole, 3-methylindole, indole-3-acetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophan and tryptophan are good photosensitizers, with efficacy in that order. Indoles with electron-withdrawing substituents such as indole-3-carboxylic acid, indole-3-aldehyde and oxindole are inactive in the monomerization reaction. These findings support the proposed mechanism that the photosensitized monomerization occurs as a result of electron transfer from the excited indole molecules to the pyrimidine bases. Proteins containing fully exposed tryptophan residues (chicken egg white lysozyme and bovine diisopropylphosphoryltrypsin) also cause the splitting of the /sup 14/C-labeled dimers under the same conditions. In the case of lysozyme the quantum yield of monomerization is similar to that of free tryptophan. Much of the monomerization ability of lysozyme was lost after the solvent-available tryptophan had been oxidized by treatment with N-bromosuccinimide. Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A, a protein devoid of tryptophan, failed to exhibit photosensitized monomerization of uracil dimers. The biological implication of these reactions involving a protein with an exposed tryptophan residue is discussed. Although indoles are able to split the dimers in RNA, they fail to photoreactivate uv-damaged TMV-RNA. Indole-3-acetic acid, 3-methylindole and 5-hydroxytryptophan rapidly inactive viral RNA when irradiated at 313 nm, possibly because of side reactions.

  17. Effect of some pyrimidinic Schiff bases on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Shaabani, B.; Seifzadeh, D.

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of benzylidene-pyrimidin-2-yl-amine (A) (4-methyl-benzylidene)-pyrimidine-2-yl-amine (B) and (4-chloro-benzylidene)-pyrimidine-2-yl-amine, as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 1 M HCl have been determined by weight loss measurements and electrochemical polarization method. The results showed that these inhibitors revealed a good corrosion inhibition even at very low concentrations. Polarization curves indicate that all compounds are mixed type inhibitors. The effect of various parameters such as temperature and inhibitor concentration on the efficiency of the inhibitors has been studied. Activation energies of corrosion reaction in the presence and absence of inhibitors have been calculated. The adsorption of used compounds on the steel surface obeys Langmuir's isotherm. It appears that an efficient inhibition is characterized by a relatively greater decrease in free energy of adsorption. Significant correlations are obtained between inhibition efficiency and quantum chemical parameters using quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method

  18. Spin crossover and high spin filtering behavior in Co-Pyridine and Co-Pyrimidine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhongqian; Zhou, Liping; Cheng, Jue-Fei; Li, Shu-Jin; You, Wen-Long; Wang, Xuefeng

    2018-03-01

    We present a theoretical study on a series of cobalt complexes, which are constructed with cobalt atoms and pyridine/pyrimidine rings, using density functional theory. We investigate the structural and electric transport properties of spin crossover (SCO) Co complex with two spin states, namely low-spin configuration [LS] and high-spin configuration [HS]. Energy analyses of the two spin states imply that the SCO Co-Pyridine2 and Co-Pyrimidine2 complexes may display a spin transition process accompanied by a geometric modification driven by external stimuli. A nearly perfect spin filtering effect is observed in the Co-Pyrimidine2 complex with [HS] state. In addition, we also discover the contact-dependent transmission properties of Co-Pyridine2. These findings indicate that SCO Co complexes are promising materials for molecular spintronic devices.

  19. A second pathway to degrade pyrimidine nucleic acid precursors in eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gorm; Bjornberg, Olof; Polakova, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Pyrimidine bases are the central precursors for RNA and DNA, and their intracellular pools are determined by de novo, salvage and catabolic pathways. In eukaryotes, degradation of uracil has been believed to proceed only via the reduction to dihydrouracil. Using a yeast model, Saccharomyces kluyv...... of the eukaryotic or prokaryotic genes involved in pyrimidine degradation described to date.......Pyrimidine bases are the central precursors for RNA and DNA, and their intracellular pools are determined by de novo, salvage and catabolic pathways. In eukaryotes, degradation of uracil has been believed to proceed only via the reduction to dihydrouracil. Using a yeast model, Saccharomyces......, respectively. The gene products of URC1 and URC4 are highly conserved proteins with so far unknown functions and they are present in a variety of prokaryotes and fungi. In bacteria and in some fungi, URC1 and URC4 are linked on the genome together with the gene for uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (URC6). Urc1...

  20. Photoreactivation of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers and erythema in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Post-UV treatment of the gray, short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica with photoreactivating light (320-400 nm) suppressed the appearance of UV-induced erythema as evidenced by an increase in the dose of UV required to elicit an erythemal response. Pre-UV exposure to photoreactivating light had no effect on the UV induction of erythema. The dose-response for the photoreversal of pyrimidine dimers in epidermal DNA of M. domestica was similar to that for the photoreactivation of erythema induction. These data not only support the notion that DNA is the primary chromophore involved in the induction of erythema but also identify pyrimidine dimers as the major DNA change responsible for its induction. These results also identify M. domestica as a useful whole-animal system with which to determine the role of pyrimidine dimers in other photobiological responses of mammalian skin

  1. Molecular moment similarity between several nucleoside analogs of thymidine and thymidine. sil@watson.ibm.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, B D; Pitman, M C; Platt, D E

    1999-06-01

    Molecular moment descriptors of the shape and charge distributions of twenty five nucleoside structures have been examined. The structures include thymidine as well as the difluorotoluene nucleoside analog which has been found to pair efficiently with adenine by polymerase catalysis. The remaining twenty three structures have been chosen to be as structurally similar to thymidine and to the difluorotoluene nucleoside analog as possible. The moment descriptors which include a description of the relationship of molecular charge to shape show the difluorotoluene nucleoside to be one of the most proximate molecules to thymidine in the space of the molecular moments. The calculations, therefore, suggest that polymerase specificity might be not only a consequence of molecular steric features alone but also of the molecular electrostatic environment and its registration with molecular shape.

  2. Efficient method of enzymatic synthesis of nucleosides labelled with 14C and 3H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejedly, Z.; Filip, J.

    1988-01-01

    The method is presented of enzymatic synthesis of nucleosides labelled with 14 C or 3 H either uniformly or specifically in the base or the deoxyribosyl or ribosyl moiety. The method is based on the ribosylation or deoxyribosylation of the nucleic acid bases (non-labelled or labelled with 14 C or 3 H) by the catalytic effect of enzymes occurring in the supernatant fractions of non-purified homogenates of Escherichia coli B. bacteria. The non-labelled and labelled nucleosides are used as donors of ribosyl or deoxyribosyl groups. The HPLC method is used for separating labelled nucleosides. The radiochemical purity of the labelled nucleosides is higher than 98%, molar activity ranges from 9.2 to 18.5 GBq.mmol -1 ( 14 C-labelled compounds) and from 0.6 to 1.9 TBq.mmol -1 (3H-labelled compounds). (author). 4 figs., 8 refs

  3. Pyrimidine homoribonucleosides: synthesis, solution conformation, and some biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassota, P; Kuśmierek, J T; Stolarski, R; Shugar, D

    1987-05-01

    Conversion of uridine and cytidine to their 5'-O-tosyl derivatives, followed by cyanation with tetraethylammonium cyanide, reduction and deamination, led to isolation of the hitherto unknown homouridine (1-(5'-deoxy-beta-D-allofuranosyl)uracil) and homocytidine (1-(5'-deoxy-beta-D-allofuranosyl)cytosine), analogues of uridine and cytidine in which the exocyclic 5'-CH2OH chain is extended by one carbon to CH2CH2OH. Homocytidine was also phosphorylated to its 6'-phosphate and 6'-pyrophosphate analogues. In addition, it was converted, via its 2,2'-anhydro derivative, to arahomocytidine, an analogue of the chemotherapeutically active araC. The structures of all the foregoing were established by various criteria, including 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, both of which were also applied to analyses of the solution conformations of the various compounds, particularly as regards the conformations of the exocyclic chains. The behaviour of the homo analogues was examined in several enzymatic systems. Homocytidine was a feeble substrate, without inhibitory properties, of E. coli cytidine deaminase. Homocytidine was an excellent substrate for wheat shoot nucleoside phosphotransferase; while homouridine was a good substrate for E. coli uridine phosphorylase. Although homoCMP was neither a substrate, nor an inhibitor, of snake venom 5'-nucleotidase, homoCDP was a potent inhibitor of this enzyme (Ki approximately 6 microM). HomoCDP was not a substrate for M. luteus polynucleotide phosphorylase. None of the compounds exhibited significant activity vs herpes simplex virus type 1, or cytotoxic activity in several mammalian cell lines.

  4. Aberrant Apoptotic Response of Colorectal Cancer Cells to Novel Nucleoside Analogues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Harmse

    Full Text Available Despite the increased understanding of colorectal cancer and the introduction of targeted drug therapy, the metastatic phase of the disease remains refractory to treatment. Since the deregulation of normal apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, novel nucleoside analogues were synthesized here and evaluated for their ability to induce apoptosis and cause cell death in two colorectal adeno-carcinoma cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29. Three novel nucleoside analogues assessed here showed cytotoxic activity, as measured by the MTT assay against both cell lines: the IC50 values ranged between 3 and 37 μM, with Caco-2 cells being more sensitive than HT-29 cells. Compared to camptothecin, the positive control, the nucleoside analogues were significantly less toxic to normal unstimulated leukocytes (p>0.05. Moreover, the nucleosides were able to induce apoptosis as measured by an increase in caspase 8 and caspase 3 activity above that of the control. This was additionally supported by data derived from Annexin V-FITC assays. Despite marginal changes to the mitochondrial membrane potential, all three nucleosides caused a significant increase in cytosolic cytochrome c (p>0.05, with a corresponding decrease in mitochondrial cytochrome c. Morphological analysis of both cell lines showed the rapid appearance of vacuoles following exposure to two of the nucleosides, while a third caused cellular detachment, delayed cytoplasmic vacuolisation and nuclear abnormalities. Preliminary investigations, using the autophagic indicator monodansylcadaverine and chloroquine as positive control, showed that two of the nucleosides induced the formation of autophagic vacuoles. In summary, the novel nucleoside analogues showed selective cytotoxicity towards both cancer cell lines and are effective initiators of an unusual apoptotic response, demonstrating their potential to serve as structural scaffolds for more potent analogues.

  5. Aberrant Apoptotic Response of Colorectal Cancer Cells to Novel Nucleoside Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmse, Leonie; Dahan-Farkas, Nurit; Panayides, Jenny-Lee; van Otterlo, Willem; Penny, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased understanding of colorectal cancer and the introduction of targeted drug therapy, the metastatic phase of the disease remains refractory to treatment. Since the deregulation of normal apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, novel nucleoside analogues were synthesized here and evaluated for their ability to induce apoptosis and cause cell death in two colorectal adeno-carcinoma cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29. Three novel nucleoside analogues assessed here showed cytotoxic activity, as measured by the MTT assay against both cell lines: the IC50 values ranged between 3 and 37 μM, with Caco-2 cells being more sensitive than HT-29 cells. Compared to camptothecin, the positive control, the nucleoside analogues were significantly less toxic to normal unstimulated leukocytes (p>0.05). Moreover, the nucleosides were able to induce apoptosis as measured by an increase in caspase 8 and caspase 3 activity above that of the control. This was additionally supported by data derived from Annexin V-FITC assays. Despite marginal changes to the mitochondrial membrane potential, all three nucleosides caused a significant increase in cytosolic cytochrome c (p>0.05), with a corresponding decrease in mitochondrial cytochrome c. Morphological analysis of both cell lines showed the rapid appearance of vacuoles following exposure to two of the nucleosides, while a third caused cellular detachment, delayed cytoplasmic vacuolisation and nuclear abnormalities. Preliminary investigations, using the autophagic indicator monodansylcadaverine and chloroquine as positive control, showed that two of the nucleosides induced the formation of autophagic vacuoles. In summary, the novel nucleoside analogues showed selective cytotoxicity towards both cancer cell lines and are effective initiators of an unusual apoptotic response, demonstrating their potential to serve as structural scaffolds for more potent analogues.

  6. Inhibition by nucleosides of glucose-transport activity in human erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, S M

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of nucleosides with the glucose carrier of human erythrocytes was examined by studying the effect of nucleosides on reversible cytochalasin B-binding activity and glucose transport. Adenosine, inosine and thymidine were more potent inhibitors of cytochalasin B binding to human erythrocyte membranes than was D-glucose [IC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) values of 10, 24, 28 and 38 mM respectively]. Moreover, low concentrations of thymidine and adenosine inhibited D-glu...

  7. Heteroaryl ethers by oxidative palladium catalysis of pyridotriazol-1-yloxy pyrimidines with arylboronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Sujata; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Wan, Zhao-Kui; Mansour, Tarek S

    2009-06-18

    The oxidative palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of pyrimidines containing pyridotriazol-1-yloxy (OPt) as either a urea or an amide functional group with arylboronic acids in the presence of Cs(2)CO(3) in DME containing 0.6-1.0% H(2)O is described for the preparation of heteroaryl ethers. The bromo substitution in the case of 3-(5-bromo-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-3H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyridine 1 could serve as a handle for further elaborations such as Suzuki coupling for attaching varied aryl groups.

  8. Lipases in green chemistry: acylation and alcoholysis on steroids and nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldessari, Alicia; Iglesias, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we describe the application of lipases in acylation and alcoholysis reactions on steroids and nucleosides. In the field of steroids, a variety of acetyl and fatty acid derivatives of androstanes, pregnanes, and cholestanes have been prepared through lipase-catalyzed acylation and alcoholysis reactions taking advantage of the high regio- and stereoselectivity of these enzymes. The substrates as well as the products show a high degree of biological activity as neurosteroids, hormones, and glucocorticoids. The regioselective preparation of diacylated nucleosides by means of an enzymatic alcoholysis allowed the synthesis of nucleosides prodrugs or modified nucleosides. The quantitative full deacylation and dealkoxycarbonylation of nucleosides and steroids is a mild synthetic method for the deprotection of these labile compounds. Some of the reported steroid and nucleoside products are novel, and it is not possible to obtain them satisfactorily by following traditional synthetic procedures. The advantages presented by this methodology, such as selectivity, mild reaction conditions, and low environmental impact, make the lipases an important tool in the application of the principles of Green Chemistry, offering a convenient way to prepare derivatives of natural compounds with a great potential in the pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Characterization of reactive intermediates in laser photolysis of nucleoside using of sodium salt anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid as photosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jianhua; Lin Weizhen; Wang Wenfeng; Han Zhenhui; Yao Side; Lin Nianyun

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of triplet state of sodium salt of anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS) with nucleosides has been investigated in CH 3 CN using KrF(248 nm) laser flash photolysis. The transient absorption spectra and kinetics obtained from the interaction of triplet AQS and nucleoside demonstrated that the primary ionic radical pair, radical cation of nucleosides and radical anion of AQS has been detected simultaneously for the first time

  10. Spectral, Electrochemical, Fluorescence, Kinetic and Anti-microbial Studies of Acyclic Schiff-base Gadolinium(III) Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraj, A.; Prabu, R.; Suresh, R.; Narayanan, V.; Sangeetha Kumari, R.; Kaviyarasan, V.

    2012-01-01

    A new series of acyclic mononuclear gadolinium(III) complexes have been prepared by Schiff-base condensation derived from 5-methylsalicylaldehyde, diethylenetriamine, tris(2-aminoethyl) amine, triethylenetetramine, N,N-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethylene diamine, N,N-bis(aminopropyl) piperazine, and gadolinium nitrate. All the complexes were characterized by elemental and spectral analyses. Electronic spectra of the complexes show azomethine (CH=N) within the range of 410-420 nm. The fluorescence efficiency of Gd(III) ion in the cavity was completely quenched by the higher chain length ligands. Electrochemical studies of the complexes show irreversible one electron reduction process around -2.15 to -1.60 V. The reduction potential of gadolinium(III) complexes shifts towards anodic directions respectively upon increasing the chain length. The catalytic activity of the gadolinium(III) complexes on the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate was determined. All gadolinium(III) complexes were screened for antibacterial activity

  11. Spectral, Electrochemical, Fluorescence, Kinetic and Anti-microbial Studies of Acyclic Schiff-base Gadolinium(III) Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraj, A.; Prabu, R.; Suresh, R.; Narayanan, V.; Sangeetha Kumari, R.; Kaviyarasan, V. [Univ. of Madras, Madras (India)

    2012-11-15

    A new series of acyclic mononuclear gadolinium(III) complexes have been prepared by Schiff-base condensation derived from 5-methylsalicylaldehyde, diethylenetriamine, tris(2-aminoethyl) amine, triethylenetetramine, N,N-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethylene diamine, N,N-bis(aminopropyl) piperazine, and gadolinium nitrate. All the complexes were characterized by elemental and spectral analyses. Electronic spectra of the complexes show azomethine (CH=N) within the range of 410-420 nm. The fluorescence efficiency of Gd(III) ion in the cavity was completely quenched by the higher chain length ligands. Electrochemical studies of the complexes show irreversible one electron reduction process around -2.15 to -1.60 V. The reduction potential of gadolinium(III) complexes shifts towards anodic directions respectively upon increasing the chain length. The catalytic activity of the gadolinium(III) complexes on the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate was determined. All gadolinium(III) complexes were screened for antibacterial activity.

  12. Acyclic Diene Metathesis (ADMET Polymerization for Precise Synthesis of Defect-Free Conjugated Polymers with Well-Defined Chain Ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmina Haque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This accounts introduces unique characteristics by adopting the acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET polymerization for synthesis of conjugated polymers, poly(arylene vinylenes, known as promising molecular electronics. The method is more suitable than the other methods in terms of atom efficiency affording defect-free, stereo-regular (exclusive trans polymers with well-defined chain ends; the resultant polymers possess better property than those prepared by the conventional methods. The chain ends (vinyl group in the resultant polymer prepared by ruthenium-carbene catalyst(s can be modified by treating with molybdenum-alkylidene complex (olefin metathesis followed by addition of various aldehyde (Wittig type cleavage, affording the end-functionalized polymers exclusively. An introduction of initiating fragment, the other conjugated segment, and one-pot synthesis of end-functionalized block copolymers, star shape polymers can be achieved by adopting this methodology.

  13. Chiral analysis of anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome drug, 9-(R)-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (tenofovir), and related antiviral acyclic nucleoside phosphonates by CE using beta-CD as chiral selector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolínová, Veronika; Kašička, Václav; Sázelová, Petra; Holý, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 12 (2009), s. 2245-2254 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1044; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428; GA AV ČR 1QS400550501; GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antiviral drugs * capillary electrophoresis * enantioseparation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.077, year: 2009

  14. Profiling of modified nucleosides from ribonucleic acid digestion by supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboureur, Laurent; Guérineau, Vincent; Auxilien, Sylvie; Yoshizawa, Satoko; Touboul, David

    2018-02-16

    A method based on supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry for the profiling of canonical and modified nucleosides was optimized, and compared to classical reverse-phase liquid chromatography in terms of separation, number of detected modified nucleosides and sensitivity. Limits of detection and quantification were measured using statistical method and quantifications of twelve nucleosides of a tRNA digest from E. coli are in good agreement with previously reported data. Results highlight the complementarity of both separation techniques to cover the largest view of nucleoside modifications for forthcoming epigenetic studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ESR study of radiation damage in pyrimidines. Progress report, August 1, 1975--April 1, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, B.W.

    1976-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to develop general mechanisms for radiation damage to biomolecules using substituted pyrimidines as a model system. Results this year include a single crystal ESR study of 5-ethyl-5-isopropylbarbituric acid, development of the k-band microwave bridge, dose response measurements on methylated barbituric acid derivatives, and synthesis of several specifically deuterated uracil derivatives

  16. Intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions of pyrimidines, a synthetic and computational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolle, W.A.W.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis deals with an investigation on the ringtransformation reactions of 2and 5-(ω-alkynyl)pyrimidine derivatives, which undergo upon heating an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction and subsequently a spontaneous retro Diels- Alder reaction. To get a better insight into the

  17. Blockage of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway affects riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rui; Aguiar, Tatiana Q; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-01-10

    The Ashbya gossypii riboflavin biosynthetic pathway and its connection with the purine pathway have been well studied. However, the outcome of genetic alterations in the pyrimidine pathway on riboflavin production by A. gossypii had not yet been assessed. Here, we report that the blockage of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in the recently generated A. gossypii Agura3 uridine/uracil auxotrophic strain led to improved riboflavin production on standard agar-solidified complex medium. When extra uridine/uracil was supplied, the production of riboflavin by this auxotroph was repressed. High concentrations of uracil hampered this (and the parent) strain growth, whereas excess uridine favored the A. gossypii Agura3 growth. Considering that the riboflavin and the pyrimidine pathways share the same precursors and that riboflavin overproduction may be triggered by nutritional stress, we suggest that overproduction of riboflavin by the A. gossypii Agura3 may occur as an outcome of a nutritional stress response and/or of an increased availability in precursors for riboflavin biosynthesis, due to their reduced consumption by the pyrimidine pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Absorption and Intermediary Metabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Stentoft; Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    About 20 % of ruminal microbial N in dairy cows derives from purines and pyrimidines; however, their intermediary metabolism and contribution to the overall N metabolism has sparsely been described. In the present study, the postprandial patterns of net portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic...

  19. Mutability of bacteriophage M13 by ultraviolet light: role of pyrimidine dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaper, R.M.; Glickman, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    The role of pyrimidine dimers in mutagenesis by ultraviolet light was examined by measuring the UV-induced reversion of six different bacteriophage M13 amber mutants for which the neighboring DNA sequences are known. The mutational response at amber (TAG) codons preceded by a guanine or adenine (where no pyrimidine dimer can be formed) were compared with those preceded by thymine or cytosine (where dimer formation is possible). Equivalent levels of UV-induced mutagenesis were observed at both kinds of sites. This observation demonstrates that there is no requirement for a pyrimidine dimer directly at the site of UV-induced mutation in this single-stranded DNA phage. UV irradiation of the phage was also performed in the presence of Ag + ions, which specifically sensitize the DNA to dimer formation. The two methods of irradiation, when compared at equal survival levels (and presumably equal dimer frequencies), produced equivalent frequencies of reversion of the amber phage. We believe these results indicate that while the presence of pyrimidine dimers may be a prerequisite for UV mutagenesis, the actual mutagenic event can occur at a site some distance removed from a dimer. (orig.)

  20. Harman inhibits the removal of pyrimidine dimers from the DNA of human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, A.; Setlow, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Normal human fibroblasts were UV-irradiated and incubated for 6 hr with harman. The losses of sites, in the extracted DNA, sensitive to a UV specific endonuclease were determined as precision measures of the excision of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers. Harman inhibited excision, rising from approx. 30% inhibition at 200 μM to 75% inhibition at 500 μM

  1. A spectroscopic study of the molecular interactions of harmane with pyrimidine and other diazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M A; Guardado, P; Galán, M; Carmona, C; Balón, M

    2000-01-17

    FTIR, UV-vis, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements show that harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido/3,4-b/indole) interacts with pyrimidine and its isomers pyrazine and pyridazine in its ground and lowest singlet states. The mechanisms of interaction are dependent on both the structure of the diazine and the nature of the solvent. Thus, in a low polar solvent such as toluene, harmane forms ground state 1:1 hydrogen-bonded complexes with all the diazines. These complexes quench the fluorescence of harmane and diminish its fluorescence lifetime. Conversely, in buffered (pH 8.7) aqueous solutions, pyrimidine behaves differently from the other diazines. Thus, whereas pyrimidine only interacts with harmane in its ground state, pyrazine and pyridazine also interact in the excited state. The harmane-pyrimidine ground state interaction is an entropic controlled process. Therefore, we propose the formation of pi-pi stacked 1:1 complexes between these substrates. Association constants for the different types of complexes and quenching parameters are reported.

  2. Tumour radiosensitization with the halogenated pyrimidines 5'-bromo-and 5'-iododeoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, A.H.; Cook, J.A.; Goffman, T.; Glatstein, E.

    1993-01-01

    The authors review studies of the use of iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) and bromodeoxyuridine as radiosensitizers and attempt to correlate the clinical outcome for patients treated with radiation and IdUrd with the extent of halogenated pyrimidine cellular uptake and incorporation. (U.K.)

  3. Tumour radiosensitization with the halogenated pyrimidines 5'-bromo-and 5'-iododeoxyuridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, A.H.; Cook, J.A.; Goffman, T. (National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)); Glatstein, E. (Texas Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Southwestern Medical Center)

    1993-02-01

    The authors review studies of the use of iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) and bromodeoxyuridine as radiosensitizers and attempt to correlate the clinical outcome for patients treated with radiation and IdUrd with the extent of halogenated pyrimidine cellular uptake and incorporation. (U.K.).

  4. Inwerking van stikstofhoudende nucleofielen op enige 15N-gemerkte pyrimidine- en chinazolinederivaten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, A.P.

    1974-01-01

    In this thesis an investigation is described on the mechanism of aminations of pyrimidine- and quinazoline derivatives with nitrogen containing bases.

    In the introduction a survey is given of investigations, reported in the literature, concerning σ-complex formation on azahetarenes and their

  5. Enhanced repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and improved UV resistance in photolyase transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Schul; J. Jans (Judith); Y.M. Rijksen (Yvonne); K.H. Klemann; J. de Wit (Jan); O. Nikaido; S. Nakajima; A. Yasui (Akira); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); A.P.M. Eker (André)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractDuring evolution, placental mammals appear to have lost cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyase, an enzyme that efficiently removes UV-induced CPDs from DNA in a light-dependent manner. As a consequence, they have to rely solely on the more complex, and for this lesion less

  6. The pyrimidine operon pyrRPB-carA from Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Schallert, J.; Andersen, Birgit

    2001-01-01

    The four genes pyrR, pyrP, pyrB, and carA were found to constitute an operon in Lactococcus lactis subsp, lactis MG1363. The functions of the different genes were established by mutational analysis. The first gene in the operon is the pyrimidine regulatory gene, pyrR, which is responsible...

  7. The photochemistry of pyrimidine in realistic astrophysical ices and the production of nucleobases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuevo, Michel; Materese, Christopher K.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleobases, together with deoxyribose/ribose and phosphoric acid, are the building blocks of DNA and RNA for all known life. The presence of nucleobase-like compounds in carbonaceous chondrites delivered to the Earth raises the question of an extraterrestrial origin for the molecules that triggered life on our planet. Whether these molecules are formed in interstellar/protostellar environments, in small parent bodies in the solar system, or both, is currently unclear. Recent experiments show that the UV irradiation of pyrimidine (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) in H 2 O-rich ice mixtures that contain NH 3 , CH 3 OH, or CH 4 leads to the formation of the pyrimidine-based nucleobases uracil, cytosine, and thymine. In this work, we discuss the low-temperature UV irradiation of pyrimidine in realistic astrophysical ice mixtures containing H 2 O, CH 3 OH, and NH 3 , with or without CH 4 , to search for the production of nucleobases and other prebiotic compounds. These experiments show the presence of uracil, urea, glycerol, hexamethylenetetramine, small amino acids, and small carboxylic acids in all samples. Cytosine was only found in one sample produced from ices irradiated with a higher UV dose, while thymine was not found in any sample, even after irradiation with a higher UV dose. Results are discussed to evaluate the role of the photochemistry of pyrimidine in the inventory of organic molecules detected in meteorites and their astrophysical/astrobiological implications.

  8. Rilpivirine: a new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Saravolatz, Louis D

    2013-02-01

    Rilpivirine is a new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that is approved for HIV-1 treatment-naive adult patients in combination with other antiretroviral agents. The recommended dose is a 25 mg tablet once daily taken orally with a meal. Due to cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme induction or gastric pH increase, rilpivirine cannot be coadministered with a number of other drugs (anticonvulsants, rifabutin, rifampicin, rifapentine, proton pump inhibitors, systemic dexamethasone and St John's wort). Rilpivirine should be used with caution when coadministered with a drug with a known risk for torsade de pointes. Rilpivirine has a better tolerability than a comparative NNRTI, efavirenz, in clinical trials, with fewer central nervous system adverse effects, rashes, lipid abnormalities and discontinuation rates. Virological failure occurs more commonly with higher baseline viral loads (>100,000 copies/mL) and lower baseline CD4 counts (<50 cells/mm(3)). Seventeen NNRTI mutations have been associated with decreased susceptibility to rilpivirine: K101E/P, E138A/G/K/Q/R, V179L, Y181C/I/V, H221Y, F227C, M230I/L, Y188L and the combination L100I + K103N. Resistance to rilpivirine largely excludes future use of the NNRTI class.

  9. Visualizing multistep elevator-like transitions of a nucleoside transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Marscha; Johnson, Zachary Lee; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2017-05-04

    Membrane transporters move substrates across the membrane by alternating access of their binding sites between the opposite sides of the membrane. An emerging model of this process is the elevator mechanism, in which a substrate-binding transport domain moves a large distance across the membrane. This mechanism has been characterized by a transition between two states, but the conformational path that leads to the transition is not yet known, largely because the available structural information has been limited to the two end states. Here we present crystal structures of the inward-facing, intermediate, and outward-facing states of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Neisseria wadsworthii. Notably, we determined the structures of multiple intermediate conformations, in which the transport domain is captured halfway through its elevator motion. Our structures present a trajectory of the conformational transition in the elevator model, revealing multiple intermediate steps and state-dependent conformational changes within the transport domain that are associated with the elevator-like motion.

  10. Photoreactivation of ultraviolet radiation-induced pyrimidine dimers in neonatal BALB/c mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthaswamy, H.N.; Fisher, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The numbers of ultraviolet light (uv)-induced pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of neonatal BALB/c mouse skin were measured by assessing the sensitivity of the DNA to Micrococcus luteus uv endonuclease. Irradiation of neonatal BALB/c mice with FS40 sunlamps caused a dose-dependent induction of endonuclease-sensitive sites (pyrimidine dimers) in DNA extracted from back skin. Exposure of these uv-irradiated neonatal mice to photoreactivating (PR) light (cool white fluorescent lamp and incandescent lamp) caused a reduction in the number of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA, as revealed by a shift in low-molecular-weight DNA to high-molecular-weight DNA. In contrast, DNA profiles of the skin of either uv-irradiated mice or uv-irradiated mice kept in the dark for the same duration as those exposed to PR light did not show a loss of uv-induced endonuclease-sensitive sites. Furthermore, reversing the order of treatment, i.e., administering PR light first and then uv, did not produce a reduction in pyrimidine dimers. These results demonstrate that PR or uv-induced pyrimidine dimers occurs in neonatal BALB/c mouse skin. The optimal wavelength range for in vivo PR appears to be in the visible region of the spectrum (greater than 400 nm). Although dimer formation could be detected in both dermis and epidermis, PR occurred only in the dermis. Furthermore, the PR phenomenon could not be detected in the skin of adult mice from the same inbred strain

  11. Photoreactivation and excision repair of UV induced pyrimidine dimers in the unicellular cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa alpicola (Synechocystis PCC 6308)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, P.A.; Houghton, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The survival curve obtained after UV irradiation of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis is typical of a DNA repair competent organism. Inhibition of DNA replication, by incubating cells in the dark, increased resistance to the lethal effects of UV at higher fluences. Exposure of irradiated cells to near ultraviolet light (350-500 nm) restored viability to pre-irradiation levels. In order to measure DNA repair activity, techniques have been developed for the chromatographic analysis of pyrimidine dimers in synechocystis. The specificity of this method was established using a haploid strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In accordance with the physiological responses of irradiated cells to photoreactivating light, pyrimidine dimers were not detected after photoreactivation treatment. Incubation of irradiated cells under non-photoreactivating growth conditions for 15h resulted in complete removal of pyrimidine dimers. It is concluded that Synechocystis contains photoreactivation and excision repair systems for the removal of pyrimidine dimers. (author)

  12. Simple approach to thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines as new scaffolds of antimicrobial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Hend N.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 6ʹ-(4-Chlorophenyl-spiro[cyclohexane-1,2ʹ-thieno[3,2-d][1,3] oxazin]-4ʹ(1ʹH-one (1 was synthesized and used as a starting material for the synthesis of a novel series of spiro compounds having biologically active sulfonamide 2a-e and 3ʹ-(4-acetylphenyl-6ʹ- (4-chlorophenyl-1ʹH-spiro[cyclohexane-1,2ʹ-thieno[3,2-d] pyrimidine-4ʹ(3ʹH-one (3. Compound 2a was used as a key intermediate for the synthesis of sulfonyl carbothioamide derivatives 4a-c. Also, compound 3 was used as an intermediate for the synthesis of 3ʹH-spiro[cyclohexane-1,2ʹ-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin]-3ʹ-yl] phenyl}-2-imino-4-(substituted phenyl and/or thienyl-1,2-dihydropyridine- 3-carbonitrile derivatives 5a-e, 3ʹH-spiro[cyclohexane- 1,2ʹ- thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin]-3ʹ-yl]phenyl}-2-oxo-4-(substituted phenyl and/or thienyl-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile derivatives 6a-e, and 4-[(2Z-3-substituted-arylprop-2-enoyl] phenyl-1ʹH-spiro[cyclohexane-1,2ʹ-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives 7a-e. Cyclocondensation of 7a-e with hydrazine hydrate produced 6ʹ-(4-chlorophenyl-3ʹ-[4-(5-substituted aryl-4,5-dihydro- 1H-pyrazol-3-ylphenyl]-1ʹH-spiro[cyclohexane-1,2ʹ-thieno- [3,2-d]pyrimidin]-4ʹ(3ʹH-ones 8a-e but with hydroxylamine hydrochloride afforded the corresponding isoxazoline derivatives 9a-e. Also, cyclocondensation by thiourea afforded 2-thioxo-1,2- dihydropyrimidin-4-yl-phenyl-spiro-{cyclohexanethieno[3,2-d] pyrimidin}-4-one derivatives 10a-e. The new compounds were investigated for antimicrobial activity. Compounds 2c, 8b,c, 9b and 10b were the most potent ones against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Compound 8c exhibited higher antifungal activity towards the examined fungi with MIC of 1-2 μmol mL-1 compared to ketoconazole (MIC 2-3 μmol mL-1 .

  13. An ATP-dependent ligase with substrate flexibility involved in assembly of the peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic polyoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyoxin (POL) is an unusual nucleoside antibiotic, in which peptidyl moiety and nucleoside skeleton are linked by an amide bond. However, their biosynthesis remains poorly understood. Here, we report the deciphering of PolG as an ATP-dependent ligase responsible for the assembly of POL. A polG muta...

  14. Highly regioselective synthesis of undecylenic acid esters of purine nucleosides catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen-Li; Li, Ning; Zong, Min-Hua

    2011-11-01

    Regioselective undecylenoylation of purine nucleosides as potential dual prodrugs was achieved by Candida antarctica lipase B using adenosine as a model reactant. The optimum organic solvent, molar ratio of vinyl ester to nucleoside, enzyme dosage, reaction temperature and molecular sieve amount were anhydrous THF, 5:1, 20 U/ml, 45°C and 75 mg/ml, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the initial reaction rate, yield and 5'-regioselectivity were 1.1 mM/h, 90% and >99%, respectively. The enzymatic acylation of various nucleosides furnished the desired 5'-ester derivatives with the yields of 60-95% and 5'-regioselectivities of >99%. In addition, the lipase displayed excellent operational stability in THF, and retained 96% of its initial activity after reused for five batches.

  15. Characterization of nucleosides and nucleobases in fruits of Ziziphus jujuba by UPLC-DAD-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Qian, Ye-Fei; Yang, Nian-Yun; Shang, Er-Xin; Qian, Da-Wei

    2010-10-13

    The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba , named dazao in Chinese, has been utilized as food as well as crude drugs in China for thousands of years. To explore the profiles of the nucleosides and nucleobases in this fruit, an ultraperformance liquid chromatograph coupled with a photodiode array detector and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometer method (UPLC-DAD-MS) has been established and validated in this paper. The validated method was successfully applied for the simultaneous characterization and quantitation of 9 nucleosides and nucleobases in 49 dazao samples, which comprised 43 cultivars from 26 cultivation regions. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to classify the samples on the basis of the contents of the nine analyzed compounds. The results showed that almost all of these dazao samples were rich in nucleosides and nucleobases, although their contents were obviously various, and the proposed method could serve as a prerequisite for quality control of jujube products.

  16. Analgesic Activity of Some 1,2,4-Triazole Heterocycles Clubbed with Pyrazole, Tetrazole, Isoxazole and Pyrimidine

    OpenAIRE

    Gajanan Khanage, Shantaram; Raju, Appala; Baban Mohite, Popat; Bhanudas Pandhare, Ramdas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study in vivo analgesic activity of some previously synthesized 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine ring have been evaluated. Methods: Acetic acid induced writhing method and Hot plate method has been described to study analgesic activity of some 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine as a pharmacological active lead. Results: Thirty six different derivatives con...

  17. Synthesis and antiviral activity of 3'-deoxy-3'-C-hydroxymethyl nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, M J; Coe, P L; Walker, R T

    1990-09-01

    A series of 3'-branched-chain sugar nucleosides, in particular 3'-deoxy-3'-C-hydroxmethyl nucleosides, have been synthesized and evaluated as antiviral agents. Reaction of 1-(2,3-epoxy-5-O-trityl-beta-D-lyxo-pentofuranosyl) derivatives 12 and 13, of uracil and thymine, respectively, with 5,6-dihydro-2-lithio-5-methyl-1,3,5-dithiazine 14 afforded the corresponding 3'-functionalized nucleosides 15 and 16, respectively. Replacement of the trityl group with tertbutyldiphenylsilyl allowed high yielding hydrolysis of the 3'-function to give the 3'-deoxy-3'-C-formyl-beta-D-arabino-pentofuranosyl nucleosides 21 and 22. Desilylation afforded the 1-(3-deoxy-3-C-formyl-beta- D-lyxo-pentofuranosyl) 3',5'-O-hemiacetal nucleosides 33 and 34, respectively. Reduction of the formyl group of 21 and 22, followed by desilylation, yielded the 3'-deoxy-3'-C-(hydroxymethyl)-beta-D-arabino- pentofuranosyl) analogues 7 and 8, respectively. The uracil base moiety of 7 was converted to 5-iodouracil and then to (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil to furnish an analogue 10 of BVaraU. The 1-(3-deoxy-3-C-(hydroxymethyl)-beta-D-lyxo-pentofuranosyl) and 1-(2,3-dideoxy-3-C-(hydroxymethyl)-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl) derivatives of uracil (31 and 6, respectively) and 5-iodouracil (32 and 9, respectively) were also obtained. All novel, fully deprotected nucleoside analogues were evaluated for antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus type-1, herpes simplex virus types-1 and -2, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus and influenza A. Of the compounds tested only (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-1-[3-deoxy- 3-C-(hydroxymethyl)-beta-D-arabino-pentofuranosyl]uracil (10) inhibited VZV (alone), but did so at concentrations well below the cytotoxicity threshold.

  18. Synthesis of Novel Homo-N-Nucleoside Analogs Composed of a Homo-1,4-Dioxane Sugar Analog and Substituted 1,3,5-Triazine Base Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enantioselective syntheses from dimethyl tartrate of 1,3,5-triazine homo-N-nucleoside analogs, containing a 1,4-dioxane moiety replacing the sugar unit in natural nucleosides, were accomplished. The triazine heterocycle in the nucleoside analogs was further substituted with combinations of NH2, OH and Cl in the 2,4-triazine positions.

  19. Versatile synthesis of amino acid functionalized nucleosides via a domino carboxamidation reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Gheerardijn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized oligonucleotides have recently gained increased attention for incorporation in modified nucleic acid structures both for the design of aptamers with enhanced binding properties as well as the construction of catalytic DNA and RNA. As a shortcut alternative to the incorporation of multiple modified residues, each bearing one extra functional group, we present here a straightforward method for direct linking of functionalized amino acids to the nucleoside base, thus equipping the nucleoside with two extra functionalities at once. As a proof of principle, we have introduced three amino acids with functional groups frequently used as key-intermediates in DNA- and RNAzymes via an efficient and straightforward domino carboxamidation reaction.

  20. Use of nucleoside (tide) analogues in patients with hepatitis B-related acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Doan Y; Seremba, Emmanuel; Ajmera, Veeral

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of nucleoside(tide) analogues (NA) in the treatment of acute liver failure due to hepatitis B virus (HBV-ALF) remains controversial. We determined retrospectively the impact of NAs in a large cohort of patients with HBV-ALF.......The efficacy of nucleoside(tide) analogues (NA) in the treatment of acute liver failure due to hepatitis B virus (HBV-ALF) remains controversial. We determined retrospectively the impact of NAs in a large cohort of patients with HBV-ALF....

  1. Mutagenicity of irradiated solutions of nuclei acid bases and nucleosides in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmer, J.; Schubert, J.

    1981-01-01

    Solutions of nucleic acid bases, nucleosides and a nucleotide, saturated with either N 2 , N 2 O or O 2 , were irradiated and tested for mutagenicity towards Salmonella typhimurium, with and without pre-incubation. Irradiated solutions of the nuclei acid bases were all non-mutagenic. Irradiated solutions of the nucleosides showed mutagenicity in S. typhimurium TA100 (pre-incubation assay). Generally, the mutagenicity followed the order: N 2 O > N 2 > O 2 . The results show that the formation of mutagenic radiolytic products is initiated by attack of mainly solutions of the nucleotide thymidine-5'-monophosphate, no mutagenicity could be detected. (orig.)

  2. Formation of pyrimidine dimers in Simian virus 40 chromosomes and DNA in vitro: effects of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenberg, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Simian virus 40 chromosomes were used to determine whether packaging of DNA into chromatin affected the yield of cylcobutane pyrimidine dimers introduced by ultraviolet light (254 nm). SV40 chromatin and purified SV40 DNA (radioactively labeled with different isotopes) were mixed and irradiated in vitro. The proteins were extracted and pyrimidine dimers detected as sites sensitive to the UV-endonuclease encoded by bacteriophage T4. When irradiation was carried out in the presence of at least 0.05 M NaCl the same number of dimers were formed in chromatin as in free DNA. Irradiation in the absence of NaCl, however, reduced the relative yield of dimers in chromatin to 89% of that in free DNA. Different methods of chromatin preparation did not influence these results. (author)

  3. cis-Aquadichlorido[pyrimidin-2(1H-one-κN3]copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guy Orpen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [CuCl2(C4H4N2O(H2O], the CuII cation is coordinated by two chloride anions, one pyrimidin-2-one N atom and one water molecule, giving a slightly distorted square-planar geometry. In the crystal structure, the pyrimidin-2-one rings stack along the b axis, with an interplanar distance of 3.306 Å, as do the copper coordination planes (interplanar spacing = 2.998 Å. The coordination around the Jahn–Teller-distorted CuII ion is completed by long Cu...O [3.014 (5 Å] and Cu...Cl [3.0194 (15 Å] interactions with adjacent molecules involved in this stacking. Several N—H...Cl, O—H...Cl and O—H...O intermolecular hydrogen bonds form a polar three-dimensional network.

  4. Anopheles gambiae Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Catalysis, Structure, and Inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor,E.; Rinaldo-Matthis, A.; Li, L.; Ghanem, M.; Hazleton, K.; Cassera, M.; Almo, S.; Schramm, V.

    2007-01-01

    The purine salvage pathway of Anopheles gambiae, a mosquito that transmits malaria, has been identified in genome searches on the basis of sequence homology with characterized enzymes. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a target for the development of therapeutic agents in humans and purine auxotrophs, including malarial parasites. The PNP from Anopheles gambiae (AgPNP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and compared to the PNPs from Homo sapiens (HsPNP) and Plasmodium falciparum (PfPNP). AgPNP has kcat values of 54 and 41 s-1 for 2'-deoxyinosine and inosine, its preferred substrates, and 1.0 s-1 for guanosine. However, the chemical step is fast for AgPNP at 226 s-1 for guanosine in pre-steady-state studies. 5'-Deaza-1'-aza-2'-deoxy-1'-(9-methylene)-Immucillin-H (DADMe-ImmH) is a transition-state mimic for a 2'-deoxyinosine ribocation with a fully dissociated N-ribosidic bond and is a slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor with a dissociation constant of 3.5 pM. This is the tightest-binding inhibitor known for any PNP, with a remarkable Km/Ki* of 5.4 x 107, and is consistent with enzymatic transition state predictions of enhanced transition-state analogue binding in enzymes with enhanced catalytic efficiency. Deoxyguanosine is a weaker substrate than deoxyinosine, and DADMe-Immucillin-G is less tightly bound than DADMe-ImmH, with a dissociation constant of 23 pM for AgPNP as compared to 7 pM for HsPNP. The crystal structure of AgPNP was determined in complex with DADMe-ImmH and phosphate to a resolution of 2.2 Angstroms to reveal the differences in substrate and inhibitor specificity. The distance from the N1' cation to the phosphate O4 anion is shorter in the AgPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}PO4 complex than in HsPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}SO4, offering one explanation for the stronger inhibitory effect of DADMe-ImmH for AgPNP.

  5. Effective lethal mutagenesis of influenza virus by three nucleoside analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Matthew D; Lauring, Adam S

    2015-04-01

    Lethal mutagenesis is a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy that exploits the high mutation rate and low mutational tolerance of many RNA viruses. This approach uses mutagenic drugs to increase viral mutation rates and burden viral populations with mutations that reduce the number of infectious progeny. We investigated the effectiveness of lethal mutagenesis as a strategy against influenza virus using three nucleoside analogs, ribavirin, 5-azacytidine, and 5-fluorouracil. All three drugs were active against a panel of seasonal H3N2 and laboratory-adapted H1N1 strains. We found that each drug increased the frequency of mutations in influenza virus populations and decreased the virus' specific infectivity, indicating a mutagenic mode of action. We were able to drive viral populations to extinction by passaging influenza virus in the presence of each drug, indicating that complete lethal mutagenesis of influenza virus populations can be achieved when a sufficient mutational burden is applied. Population-wide resistance to these mutagenic agents did not arise after serial passage of influenza virus populations in sublethal concentrations of drug. Sequencing of these drug-passaged viral populations revealed genome-wide accumulation of mutations at low frequency. The replicative capacity of drug-passaged populations was reduced at higher multiplicities of infection, suggesting the presence of defective interfering particles and a possible barrier to the evolution of resistance. Together, our data suggest that lethal mutagenesis may be a particularly effective therapeutic approach with a high genetic barrier to resistance for influenza virus. Influenza virus is an RNA virus that causes significant morbidity and mortality during annual epidemics. Novel therapies for RNA viruses are needed due to the ease with which these viruses evolve resistance to existing therapeutics. Lethal mutagenesis is a broad-spectrum strategy that exploits the high mutation rate and the low

  6. Synthesis, reactions, and antiarrhythmic activities of some novel pyrimidines and pyridines fused with thiophene moiety

    OpenAIRE

    AMR, Abdel-Galil El-Sayed; ABDEL-HAFEZ, Naglaa Abdel-Samei

    2009-01-01

    We report herein the synthesis and antiarrhythmic activities of some newly synthesized heterocyclic theino[2,3-c]pyrimidine and theino[2,3-c]pyridine derivatives fused with thiophene moiety. Initially the acute toxicity of the compounds was assayed via the determination of their LD50. The antiarrhythmic activities for the compounds were determined and all the tested compounds were found more potent than Procaine amide\\textregistered and Lidocaine\\textregistered as positive antiarrhyth...

  7. Synthesis, reactions, and antiarrhythmic activities of some novel pyrimidines and pyridines fused with thiophene moiety

    OpenAIRE

    AMR, Abdel-Galil El-Sayed; ABDEL-HAFEZ, Naglaa Abdel-Samei; MOHAMED, Salwa Fahem; ABDALLA, Mohamed Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    We report herein the synthesis and antiarrhythmic activities of some newly synthesized heterocyclic theino[2,3-c]pyrimidine and theino[2,3-c]pyridine derivatives fused with thiophene moiety. Initially the acute toxicity of the compounds was assayed via the determination of their LD50. The antiarrhythmic activities for the compounds were determined and all the tested compounds were found more potent than Procaine amide\\textregistered and Lidocaine\\textregistered as positive antiarrhyth...

  8. Pyrimidine dimer sites associated with the daughter DNA strands in uv-irradiated human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, A R; Kirk-Bell, S [Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK)

    1978-03-01

    Pyrimidine dimer sites associated with the newly-synthesized DNA were detected during post-replication repair of DNA in uv-irradiated human fibroblasts. These pyrimidine dimer sites were inferred from a decrease in the molecular weight of pulse-labelled DNA after treatment with an extract of Micrococcus luteus containing uv-specific endonuclease activity. In DNA synthesized immediately after irradiation, the frequency of these daughter strand dimer sites was 7 to 20% of that in the parental DNA. Such sites were found in fibroblasts from normal donors and from xeroderma pigmentosum patients (with defects in excision-repair or post-replication repair). They were excised from the DNA of normal cells. As the time between uv irradiation and pulse-labelling was increased, the frequency of dimer sites associated with the labelled DNA decreased. If the pulse-label was delivered 6 h after irradiation of normal cells or excision-defective xeroderma pigmentosum cells, no dimer sites were detected in the labelled DNA. It has usually been assumed that daughter-strand dimer sites were the result of recombinational exchanges. The assay procedure used in these experiments and in similar experiments of others did not distinguish between labelled DNA containing pyrimidine dimers within the labelled section, and labelled DNA which did not contain pyrimidine dimers but was attached to unlabelled DNA which did contain dimers. The latter structures would arise during normal replication immediately following uv irradiation of mammalian cells. Calculations are presented which suggest that a significant proportion and conceivably all of the dimer sites associated with the daughter strands may have arisen in this way, rather than from recombinational exchanges as has been generally assumed.

  9. Radiation-induced DNA damage in halogenated pyrimidine incorporated cells and its correlation with radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, R.; Nikjoo, H.

    2003-01-01

    Cells with DNA containing 5-halogenated pyrimidines in place of thymidine show significant reductions of slope (Do) and shoulder (Dq) of their radiation survival curves. Similar radiosensitization has also been observed in the yield of DNA strand breaks. The purpose of this study is to obtain an insight into the mechanism of cell lethality by examining the relationship between the spectrum of DNA damage and the cell survival. In this study we estimated the enhancement of strand breaks due to incorporation of halogenated pyrimidine, the complexity of DNA damage and the probability of the initial DNA damage leading to cell inactivation. Monte Carlo track structure methods were used to model and simulate the induction of strand breakage by X-rays. The increase of DNA strand break was estimated by assuming the excess strand break was caused by the highly reactive uracil radicals at the halouracil substituted sites. The assumption of the enhancement mechanism of strand breaks was examined and verified by comparison with experimental data for induction of SSB and DSB. The calculated DNA damage spectrum shows the increase in complexity of strand breaks is due to incorporation of halogenated pyrimidines. The increase in the yield of DSB and cell lethality show similar trend at various degrees of halogenated pyrimidine substitution. We asked the question whether this agreement supports the hypothesis that DSB is responsible for cell lethality? The estimated number of lethal damage from the cell survival using a linear-quadratic model is much less than the initial yield of DSB. This work examines the correlation of cell lethality as a function of frequencies of complex form of double strand breaks

  10. Pyrimidine dimer sites associated with the daughter DNA strands in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, A.R.; Kirk-Bell, S.

    1978-01-01

    Pyrimidine dimer sites associated with the newly-synthesized DNA were detected during post-replication repair of DNA in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts. These pyrimidine dimer sites were inferred from a decrease in the molecular weight of pulse-labelled DNA after treatment with an extract of Micrococcus luteus containing UV-specific endonuclease activity. In DNA synthesized immediately after irradiation the frequency of these daughter strand dimer sites was 7-20% of that in the parental DNA. Such sites were found in fibroblasts from normal donors and from xeroderma pigmentosum patients (with defects in excision-repair or post-replication repair). They were excised from the DNA of normal cells. As the time between UV-irradiation and pulse-labelling was increased, the frequency of dimer sites associated with the labelled DNA decreased. If the pulse-label was delivered 6 h after irradiation of normal cells or excision-defective xeroderma pigmentosum cells, no dimer sites were detected in the labelled DNA. It has usually been assumed that daughter-strand dimer sites were the result of recombinational exchanges. The assay procedure used in these experiments and in similar experiments of others did not distinguish between labelled DNA containing pyrimidine dimers within the labelled section, and labelled DNA which did not contain pyrimidine dimers but was attached to unlabelled DNA which did contain dimers. The latter structures would arise during normal replication immediately following UV-irradiation of mammalian cells. Calculations are presented which suggest that a significant proportion and conceivably all of the dimer sites associated with the daughter strands may have arisen in this way, rather than from recombinational exchanges as has been generally assumed. (author)

  11. UV light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are mutagenic in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protic-Sabljic, M.; Tuteja, N.; Munson, P.J.; Hauser, J.; Kraemer, K.H.; Dixon, K.

    1986-01-01

    We used a simian virus 40-based shuttle vector plasmid, pZ189, to determine the role of pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers in UV light-induced mutagenesis in monkey cells. The vector DNA was UV irradiated and then introduced into monkey cells by transfection. After replication, vector DNA was recovered from the cells and tested for mutations in its supF suppressor tRNA marker gene by transformation of Escherichia coli carrying a nonsense mutation in the beta-galactosidase gene. When the irradiated vector was treated with E. coli photolyase prior to transfection, pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers were removed selectively. Removal of approximately 90% of the pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers increased the biological activity of the vector by 75% and reduced its mutation frequency by 80%. Sequence analysis of 72 mutants recovered indicated that there were significantly fewer tandem double-base changes and G X C----A X T transitions (particularly at CC sites) after photoreactivation of the DNA. UV-induced photoproducts remained (although at greatly reduced levels) at all pyr-pyr sites after photoreactivation, but there was a relative increase in photoproducts at CC and TC sites and a relative decrease at TT and CT sites, presumably due to a persistence of (6-4) photoproducts at some CC and TC sites. These observations are consistent with the fact that mutations were found after photoreactivation at many sites at which only cyclobutane dimers would be expected to occur. From these results we conclude that UV-induced pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers are mutagenic in DNA replicated in monkey cells

  12. How study patients who receive fluo pyrimidines to prevent ischemic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldombide, L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Ischemic heart disease is the main cause of death in Uruguay and cancer is the second. The pillar of the systemic treatment of colorectal cancer are fluo pyrimidines and cause acute ischemic events in 3-8% of t rated patients. The 5 fluorouracil is the third anticancer drug most used Objective: Due to the high incidence of the two diseases and the risk of death caused by the ischemic treatment complications, the literature is analyzed to define how to study patients who receive fluo pyrimidines as a medium of preventing the same. Development: fluo pyrimidines cardio-toxicity can occur by myocardial toxicity, vasospasm, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency, autoimmune phenomena, platelet hyper aggregability, etc. The clinic is varied and underestimated: angina, abnormal ST silent and reversible, arrhythmias, heart failure, hypertension and heart failure. It is the most common complication with continuous infusion of 5 Fu and its equivalent capecitabine with bolus f lou pyrimidines. It is common that ischemic heart disease prioritises the risk increase of complications, but their absence does not exist. Without ischemic heart disease it is difficult to prevent ischemic events, however proposes that the older higher risk. Results: No uniform guidelines is advised: detailed history, determine if risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia and They are present electrocardiogram and cardiac evaluation. Warn the patient about angina l pain as early symptom and monitor symptoms during chemotherapy including cardio-vascular hypotension. Discontinue the medication and perform classic anti-angina l symptoms and / or signs of ischemia. Not reintroduce unless it is the only therapeutic option, since mortality may exceed

  13. Intermediate energy cross sections for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of pyrimidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Ellis-Gibbings, L.; García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Nixon, K. L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); School of Biology, Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY (United Kingdom); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-07

    We report differential cross sections (DCSs) and integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of pyrimidine, at incident electron energies in the range 15–50 eV. The scattered electron angular range for the DCS measurements was 15°–90°. The measurements at the DCS-level are the first to be reported for vibrational-excitation in pyrimidine via electron impact, while for the ICS we extend the results from the only previous condensed-phase study [P. L. Levesque, M. Michaud, and L. Sanche, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 094701 (2005)], for electron energies ⩽12 eV, to higher energies. Interestingly, the trend in the magnitude of the lower energy condensed-phase ICSs is much smaller when compared to the corresponding gas phase results. As there is no evidence for the existence of any shape-resonances, in the available pyrimidine total cross sections [Baek et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 032702 (2013); Fuss et al., ibid. 88, 042702 (2013)], between 10 and 20 eV, this mismatch in absolute magnitude between the condensed-phase and gas-phase ICSs might be indicative for collective-behaviour effects in the condensed-phase results.

  14. Advancing viral RNA structure prediction: measuring the thermodynamics of pyrimidine-rich internal loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Andy; Mailey, Katherine; Saeki, Jessica; Gu, Xiaobo; Schroeder, Susan J

    2017-05-01

    Accurate thermodynamic parameters improve RNA structure predictions and thus accelerate understanding of RNA function and the identification of RNA drug binding sites. Many viral RNA structures, such as internal ribosome entry sites, have internal loops and bulges that are potential drug target sites. Current models used to predict internal loops are biased toward small, symmetric purine loops, and thus poorly predict asymmetric, pyrimidine-rich loops with >6 nucleotides (nt) that occur frequently in viral RNA. This article presents new thermodynamic data for 40 pyrimidine loops, many of which can form UU or protonated CC base pairs. Uracil and protonated cytosine base pairs stabilize asymmetric internal loops. Accurate prediction rules are presented that account for all thermodynamic measurements of RNA asymmetric internal loops. New loop initiation terms for loops with >6 nt are presented that do not follow previous assumptions that increasing asymmetry destabilizes loops. Since the last 2004 update, 126 new loops with asymmetry or sizes greater than 2 × 2 have been measured. These new measurements significantly deepen and diversify the thermodynamic database for RNA. These results will help better predict internal loops that are larger, pyrimidine-rich, and occur within viral structures such as internal ribosome entry sites. © 2017 Phan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  15. Fluorescent property of 3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velázquez-Olvera Stephania

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and pyrimidines are important organic fluorophores which have been investigated as biomarkers and photochemical sensors. The effect on the luminescent property by substituents in the heterocycle and phenyl rings, have been studied as well. In this investigation, series of 3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and pyrimidines were synthesized and evaluated in relation to fluorescence emission, based upon the hypothesis that the hydroxymethyl group may act as an enhancer of fluorescence intensity. Results Compounds of both series emitted light in organic solvents dilutions as well as in acidic and alkaline media. Quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy determined that both fused heterocycles fluoresced more intensely than the parent unsubstituted imidazo[1,2-a]azine fluorophore. In particular, 3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines fluoresced more intensely than 3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines, the latter emitting blue light at longer wavelengths, whereas the former emitted purple light. Conclusion It was concluded that in most cases the hydroxymethyl moiety did act as an enhancer of the fluorescence intensity, however, a comparison made with the fluorescence emitted by 2-aryl imidazo[1,2-a]azines revealed that in some cases the hydroxymethyl substituent decreased the fluorescence intensity.

  16. Synthesis and fluorescence of new 3-biphenylpyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian-Laurentiu Tatu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available New pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines derivates having a biphenyl moiety at position 3 have been synthesized by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of their corresponding N-ylides with activated alkynes. FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis have been used to characterize the structures of the new nine pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidine derivates. Absorption and fluorescence spectra have been recorded. The appropriate solvent for the photoluminescence properties of the studied compounds has been found to be chloroform:acetonitrile mixture (1:1. The main spectral features such as molar extinction coefficients (ε, Stokes shifts, quantum yields using quinine sulphate as standard, fluorescence quenching in the presence of benzoquinone and Stern-Volmer constants have been calculated. The substituent effects on intensity of absorption, maximum absorbance wavelengths and fluorescence parameters have been discussed. The highest quantum yield value was found for ethyl 3-(4-biphenylyl-7-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoylpyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidine-5-carboxylate (0.55. The obtained results suggest that the studied compounds are promising candidates for future study in order to evaluate their use in practical applications in fluorescent chemical sensors.

  17. Synthesis of some pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives via Michael-Addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baih, Fatma E.M.; Al-Rasheed, Hessa H.; Al-Hazimi, Hassan M.

    2006-01-01

    Synthesis of pyridine and pyrimidine analogues 4 and 6-9 were achieved by Michael-addition of compounds containing either active methylene groups like, malononitrile , ethyl cyanoacetate and 1-tetralone or compounds containing active hydrogen atoms like, guanidine in the presence of an oxidizing agent and thiourea to 2-arylmethylidine-1-tetralone and 2-arylmethylidine-6-methoxy-1-tetralone (2) (enones). Addition of malononitrile in piperidine at room temperature to 2-amino-3-cyno-naphtho [1, 2-malonoitrile in sodium alkoxide or sodium hydroxide to 2 gave 4. Cyclization of 3a with acetic anhydride in the presence of conc. H2sO4 gave the naphtha-pyrano[2, 3-d]pyrimidin-8-one (5). Condensation of the pyrimidine thione derivatives 9 with chloroacetic acid gave the 3-oxobenzo[h]thiazoladino[2, 3-b]quinazoline derivatives (10), which were reacted through their active methylene groups with aromatic aldehydes to give the arylidine derivatives 11. These compounds were also prepared in one step by reacting 9 with chloroacetic acid and aromatic aldehydes. Condensation of 9 with 3-bromopropanoic acid gave 4-oxo-benzo[h]1, 3-thiazino[2, 3-b]quinazoline derivatives (12). The structures of the prepared compounds were mainly confirmed on the basis of spectroscopic methods. (author)

  18. Differences in pyrimidine dimer removal between rat skin cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullaart, E.; Lohman, P.H.; Vijg, J.

    1988-01-01

    Pyrimidine dimers, the most abundant type of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet light (UV), are rapidly repaired in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. In the same cell type from rats, however, there is hardly any removal of such dimers. To investigate whether this low capacity of rat skin cells to repair lesions in their DNA is an inherent characteristic of this species or an artifact due to cell culturing, we measured the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from rat epidermal keratinocytes both in vitro and in vivo. Epidermal keratinocytes in vitro were unable to remove any dimers over the first 3 h after UV-irradiation, while only about 20% was removed during a repair period of 24 h. In this respect, these cells were not different from cultured rat fibroblasts. In contrast to the results obtained with keratinocytes in vitro, we observed a rapid repair of pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated keratinocytes in vivo over the first 3 h; this rapid repair phase was followed by a much slower repair phase between 3 and 24 h. These results are discussed in terms of the possibility that mammalian cells are able to switch from one DNA repair pathway to another

  19. Acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular containers: influence of glycoluril oligomer length on their function as solubilizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Laura; Zhang, Ben; Zavalij, Peter Y; Sindelar, Vladimir; Isaacs, Lyle

    2015-04-07

    We present the synthesis of a series of six new glycoluril derived molecular clips and acyclic CB[n]-type molecular containers (1–3) that all feature SO3(−) solubilizing groups but differ in the number of glycoluril rings between the two terminal dialkoxyaromatic sidewalls. We report the X-ray crystal structure of 3b which shows that its dialkoxynaphthalene sidewalls actively define a hydrophobic cavity with high potential to engage in π–π interactions with insoluble aromatic guests. Compounds 1–3 possess very good solubility characteristics (≥38 mM) and undergo only very weak self-association (Ks containers 3a and 3b which feature three glycoluril rings between the terminal dialkoxy-o-xylylene and dialkoxynaphthalene sidewalls are less efficient solubilizing agents than 4a and 4b because of their smaller hydrophobic cavities. Containers 1 and 2 behave as molecular clip type receptors and therefore possess the ability to bind to and thereby solubilize aromatic drugs like camptothecin, ziprasidone, and PBS-1086.

  20. Wavelet entropy and directed acyclic graph support vector machine for detection of patients with unilateral hearing loss in MRI scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available (Aim Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL is correlated to many neurodegenerative disease. Now more and more computer vision based methods are using to detect it in an automatic way. (Materials We have in total 49 subjects, scanned by 3.0T MRI (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany. The subjects contain 14 patients with right-sided hearing loss (RHL, 15 patients with left-sided hearing loss (LHL, and 20 healthy controls (HC. (Method We treat this as a three-class classification problem: RHL, LHL, and HC. Wavelet entropy (WE was selected from the magnetic resonance images of each subjects, and then submitted to a directed acyclic graph support vector machine (DAG-SVM. (Results The 10 repetition results of 10-fold cross validation shows 3-level decomposition will yield an overall accuracy of 95.10% for this three-class classification problem, higher than feedforward neural network, decision tree, and naive Bayesian classifier. (Conclusions This computer-aided diagnosis system is promising. We hope this study can attract more computer vision method for detecting hearing loss.

  1. Reversible Twisting of Primary Amides via Ground State N-C(O) Destabilization: Highly Twisted Rotationally Inverted Acyclic Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guangrong; Shi, Shicheng; Lalancette, Roger; Szostak, Roman; Szostak, Michal

    2018-01-17

    Since the seminal studies by Pauling in 1930s, planarity has become the defining characteristic of the amide bond. Planarity of amides has central implications for the reactivity and chemical properties of amides of relevance to a range of chemical disciplines. While the vast majority of amides are planar, nonplanarity has a profound effect on the properties of the amide bond, with the most common method to restrict the amide bond relying on the incorporation of the amide function into a rigid cyclic ring system. In a major departure from this concept, here, we report the first class of acyclic twisted amides that can be prepared, reversibly, from common primary amides in a single, operationally trivial step. Di-tert-butoxycarbonylation of the amide nitrogen atom yields twisted amides in which the amide bond exhibits nearly perpendicular twist. Full structural characterization of a range of electronically diverse compounds from this new class of twisted amides is reported. Through reactivity studies we demonstrate unusual properties of the amide bond, wherein selective cleavage of the amide bond can be achieved by a judicious choice of the reaction conditions. Through computational studies we evaluate structural and energetic details pertaining to the amide bond deformation. The ability to selectively twist common primary amides, in a reversible manner, has important implications for the design and application of the amide bond nonplanarity in structural chemistry, biochemistry and organic synthesis.

  2. Acyclic retinoid in chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma: Targeting phosphorylated retinoid X receptor-α for prevention of liver carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Shimizu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the high rate of intrahepatic recurrence that correlates with poor prognosis. Therefore, in order to improve the clinical outcome for patients with HCC, development of a chemopreventive agent that can decrease or delay the incidence of recurrence is a critical issue for urgent investigation. Acyclic retinoid (ACR, a synthetic retinoid, successfully improves HCC patient survival by preventing recurrence and the formation of secondary tumors. A malfunction of the retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα due to phosphorylation by the Ras-MAPK signaling pathway plays a critical role in liver carcinogenesis, and ACR exerts chemopreventive effects on HCC development by inhibiting RXRα phosphorylation. Here, we review the relationship between retinoid signaling abnormalities and liver disease, the mechanisms of how RXRα phosphorylation contributes to liver carcinogenesis, and the detailed effects of ACR on preventing HCC development, especially based on the results of our basic and clinical research. We also outline the concept of "clonal deletion and inhibition" therapy, which is defined as the removal and inhibition of latent malignant clones from the liver before they expand into clinically detectable HCC, because ACR prevents the development of HCC by implementing this concept. Looking toward the future, we discuss "combination chemoprevention" using ACR as a key drug since it can generate a synergistic effect, and may thus be an effective new strategy for the prevention of HCC.

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopic and biological activities studies of acyclic and macrocyclic mono and binuclear metal complexes containing a hard-soft Schiff base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hussein, Azza A A; Linert, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    Mono- and bi-nuclear acyclic and macrocyclic complexes with hard-soft Schiff base, H(2)L, ligand derived from the reaction of 4,6-diacetylresorcinol and thiocabohydrazide, in the molar ratio 1:2 have been prepared. The H(2)L ligand reacts with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Mn(II) and UO(2)(VI) nitrates, VO(IV) sulfate and Ru(III) chloride to get acyclic binuclear complexes except for VO(IV) and Ru(III) which gave acyclic mono-nuclear complexes. Reaction of the acyclic mono-nuclear VO(IV) and Ru(III) complexes with 4,6-diacetylresorcinol afforded the corresponding macrocyclic mono-nuclear VO(IV) and Ru(IIII) complexes. Template reactions of the 4,6-diacetylresorcinol and thiocarbohydrazide with either VO(IV) or Ru(III) salts afforded the macrocyclic binuclear VO(IV) and Ru(III) complexes. The Schiff base, H(2)L, ligand acts as dibasic with two NSO-tridentate sites and can coordinate with two metal ions to form binuclear complexes after the deprotonation of the hydrogen atoms of the phenolic groups in all the complexes, except in the case of the acyclic mononuclear Ru(III) and VO(IV) complexes, where the Schiff base behaves as neutral tetradentate chelate with N(2)S(2) donor atoms. The ligands and the metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis (1)H-NMR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and ESR, as well as the measurements of conductivity and magnetic moments at room temperature. Electronic spectra and magnetic moments of the complexes indicate the geometries of the metal centers are either tetrahedral, square planar or octahedral. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated using Coats-Redfern equation, for the different thermal decomposition steps of the complexes. The ligands and the metal complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus as Gram-positive bacteria, and Pseudomonas fluorescens as Gram-negative bacteria in addition to Fusarium oxysporum fungus. Most of the complexes exhibit

  4. Nucleoside analogue 2’-C-methylcytidine inhibits hepatitis E virus replication but antagonizes ribavirin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, C. (Changbo); L. Xu (Lei); Y. Yin (Yuebang); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); Q. Pan (Qiuwei); W. Wang (Wenshi)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has emerged as a global health issue, but no approved medication is available. The nucleoside analogue 2’-C-methylcytidine (2CMC), a viral polymerase inhibitor, has been shown to inhibit infection with a variety of viruses, including hepatitis C virus

  5. Phosphorylation of nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase by casein kinase 2 in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, M; Issinger, O G; Lascu, I

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated phosphorylation of human nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and of homologous NDPK from different species by human casein kinase 2 (CK-2). The human NDPK isotypes A and B were phosphorylated by CK-2 in vitro both when the purified proteins and total lysate of HL-60 leukemia...

  6. Inhibition of the Escherichia coli 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases by nucleoside phosphonates: potential for new antibacterial agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keough, D. T.; Hocková, Dana; Rejman, Dominik; Špaček, Petr; Vrbková, Silvie; Krečmerová, Marcela; Eng, W. S.; Jans, H.; West, N. P.; Naesens, L. M. J.; de Jersey, J.; Guddat, L. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 17 (2013), s. 6967-6984 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0108 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : nucleoside phosphonates * antibacterial agents * hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase * state analog inhibitor * antimalarial chemotherapy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.480, year: 2013

  7. Norbornane-based nucleoside and nucleotide analogues locked in North conformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dejmek, Milan; Šála, Michal; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Dračínský, Martin; Procházková, Eliška; Chalupská, Dominika; Klíma, Martin; Plačková, Pavla; Hájek, Miroslav; Andrei, G.; Naesens, L.; Leyssen, P.; Neyts, J.; Balzarini, J.; Bouřa, Evžen; Nencka, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2015), s. 184-191 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP207/12/P625; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : carbocyclic nucleosides * purines * norbornane * antiviral * PI4KIIalpha Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.923, year: 2015

  8. Interactions of trimeric purine nucleoside phosphorylases with ground state analogues - calorimetric and fluorimetric studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wielgus-Kutrowska, B.; Frank, J.; Holý, Antonín; Koellner, G.; Bzowska, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, 5/8 (2003), s. 1695-1698 ISSN 1525-7770 Grant - others:PCSR(PL) 6 P04A04416; PCSR(PL) 3 P04A03524 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : purine nucleoside phosphorylase * fluorescence Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.813, year: 2003

  9. ACTIVATION OF G-PROTEINS BY RECEPTOR-STIMULATED NUCLEOSIDE DIPHOSPHATE KINASE IN DICTYOSTELIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bominaar, Anthony A.; Molijn, Anco C.; Pestel, Martine; Veron, Michel; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    Recently, interest in the enzyme nucleoside diphosphate kinase (EC 2.7.4.6) has increased as a result of its possible involvement in cell proliferation and development. Since NDP kinase is one of the major sources of GTP in cells, it has been suggested that the effects of an altered NDP kinase

  10. Aspartic acid based nucleoside phosphoramidate prodrugs as potent inhibitors of hepatitis C virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Munmun; Maiti, Mohitosh; Rozenski, Jef; De Jonghe, Steven; Herdewijn, Piet

    2015-05-14

    In view of a persistent threat to mankind, the development of nucleotide-based prodrugs against hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered as a constant effort in many medicinal chemistry groups. In an attempt to identify novel nucleoside phosphoramidate analogues for improving the anti-HCV activity, we have explored, for the first time, aspartic acid (Asp) and iminodiacetic acid (IDA) esters as amidate counterparts by considering three 2'-C-methyl containing nucleosides, 2'-C-Me-cytidine, 2'-C-Me-uridine and 2'-C-Me-2'-fluoro-uridine. Synthesis of these analogues required protection for the vicinal diol functionality of the sugar moiety and the amino group of the cytidine nucleoside to regioselectively perform phosphorylation reaction at the 5'-hydroxyl group. Anti-HCV data demonstrate that the Asp-based phosphoramidates are ∼550 fold more potent than the parent nucleosides. The inhibitory activity of the Asp-ProTides was higher than the Ala-ProTides, suggesting that Asp would be a potential amino acid candidate to be considered for developing novel antiviral prodrugs.

  11. Pd0-Catalyzed Methyl Transfer on Nucleosides and Oligonucleotides, Envisaged as a PET Tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Fouquet

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The methyl transfer reaction from activated monomethyltin, via a modified Stille coupling reaction, was studied under “ligandless” conditions on fully deprotected 5'-modified nucleosides and one dinucleotide. The reaction was optimized to proceed in a few minutes and quantitative yield, even under dilute conditions, thus affording a rapid and efficient new method for oligonucleotide labelling with carbon-11.

  12. beta-1,2,3-Triazolyl-Nucleosides as Nicotinamide Riboside Mimics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amigues, E.J.; Armstrong, E.; Dvořáková, Marcela; Migaud, M.E.; Huang, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2009), s. 238-259 ISSN 1525-7770 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Nucleoside * nucleotide * sirtuin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.768, year: 2009

  13. Synthesis and NMR spectral studies if some nucleosides and their analoges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, F.L.; Awan, H.S.; Kazmi, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    Massive efforts have been extended towards the analysis of nucleosides due mainly to their applications in the field of medicine. Present work describes two methods for the synthesis of nucleosides and their analogues. The first method involves the use of phase transfer catalysis for the glycosidation of benzimidazoles. The reaction of 2,3,5-tri-o-benzoyl-beta -d-arabinofuranosyl chloride with benzimidazole and 2 (alpha-hydroxyethyl) benzimidazole in the presence of tetrabutylammoniumhydroensulfide led to the synthesis of nucleosides respectively. Likewise the coupling of 1,2:4, 6-di-O-isopropylidene-3-chloro-alpha-D-fructofurano side with benzimidazole led to the desired product. The second method involves a triflate mediated coupling of benzyl-2,3-anhydro-4-O-triflyl-beta-L-ribopyranoside with benzimidazole which led to the facile displacement of the triflyl group with benzimidazole resulting in the synthesis of nucleoside. However, an attempt towards the coupling of 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-3-O-triflyl-alpha-D-glucofuranoside with benzimidazole does not led to the desired coupling, instead an unusual conversion of the triflate ester to mesitylate ester of the sugar appears to have been taken place. (author)

  14. Structural studies of nucleoside analog and feedback inhibitor binding to Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Niels Egil; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Eklund, Hans

    2008-01-01

    -drug that eventually may kill the cell. To be able to optimize the function of dNK, it is vital to have structural information of dNK complexes. Here we present crystal structures of dNK complexed with four different nucleoside analogs floxuridine (5FdU), brivudine (BVDU), zidovudine (AZT) and zalcitabine (ddC...

  15. Detergent inhibited, heat labile nucleoside triphosphatase in cores of avian myeloblastosis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1978-01-01

    Endogenous DNA synthesis was studied in isolated core particles of avian myeloblastosis virus. It was found that cores contained an enzymatic activity which rapidly converted the added nucleoside triphosphates to diphosphates (but not further) at 0 degrees C, thus inhibiting DNA synthesis...

  16. Changes by short-term hypoxia in the membrane properties of pyramidal cells and the levels of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides in slices of rat neocortex; effects of agonists and antagonists of ATP-dependent potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissarek, M; Garcia de Arriba, S; Schäfer, M; Sieler, D; Nieber, K; Illes, P

    1998-10-01

    - to diphosphate ratios progressively declined for ATP/ADP and GTP/GDP, but not for UTP/UDP when the duration of hypoxia was increased from 5 to 30 min. Hence, the rapid fall in the ratios of nucleoside tri- to diphosphates without the induction of a potassium current failed to indicate an allosteric regulation of a plasmalemmal K(ATP) channel by purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Diazoxide had no effect on neocortical pyramidal neurons and was effective only in combination with a hypoxic stimulus; it is suggested that both plasmalemmal and mitochondrial K(ATP) channels are involved under these conditions. The hypoxic depolarization may be due to blockade of K+,Na+-ATPase by limitation of energy supplying substrate.

  17. Structural and thermodynamic analysis of modified nucleosides in self-assembled DNA cross-tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakker, Lauren; Marchi, Alexandria N; Harris, Kimberly A; LaBean, Thomas H; Agris, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    DNA Holliday junctions are important natural strand-exchange structures that form during homologous recombination. Immobile four-arm junctions, analogs to Holliday junctions, have been designed to self-assemble into cross-tile structures by maximizing Watson-Crick base pairing and fixed crossover points. The cross-tiles, self-assembled from base pair recognition between designed single-stranded DNAs, form higher order lattice structures through cohesion of self-associating sticky ends. These cross-tiles have 16 unpaired nucleosides in the central loop at the junction of the four duplex stems. The importance of the centralized unpaired nucleosides to the structure's thermodynamic stability and self-assembly is unknown. Cross-tile DNA nanostructures were designed and constructed from nine single-stranded DNAs with four shell strands, four arms, and a central loop containing 16 unpaired bases. The 16 unpaired bases were either 2'-deoxyribothymidines, 2'-O-methylribouridines, or abasic 1',2'-dideoxyribonucleosides. Thermodynamic profiles and structural base-stacking contributions were assessed using UV absorption spectroscopy during thermal denaturation and circular dichroism spectroscopy, respectively, and the resulting structures were observed by atomic force microscopy. There were surprisingly significant changes in the thermodynamic and structural properties of lattice formation as a result of altering only the 16 unpaired, centralized nucleosides. The 16 unpaired 2'-O-methyluridines were stabilizing and produced uniform tubular structures. In contrast, the abasic nucleosides were destabilizing producing a mixture of structures. These results strongly indicate the importance of a small number of centrally located unpaired nucleosides within the structures. Since minor modifications lead to palpable changes in lattice formation, DNA cross-tiles present an easily manipulated structure convenient for applications in biomedical and biosensing devices.

  18. Assessment of nucleosides as putative tumor biomarkers in prostate cancer screening by CE-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatto, Adriana Zardini; de Oliveira Silva, Mariana; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Simionato, Ana Valéria Colnaghi

    2017-05-01

    Cancer is responsible for millions of deaths worldwide, but most base diseases may be cured if detected early. Screening tests may be used to identify early-stage malignant neoplasms. However, the major screening tool for prostate cancer, the prostate-specific antigen test, has unsuitable sensitivity. Since cancer cells may affect the pattern of consumption and excretion of nucleosides, such biomolecules are putative biomarkers that can be used for diagnosis and treatment evaluation. Using a previously validated method for the analysis of nucleosides in blood serum by capillary electrophoresis with UV-vis spectroscopy detection, we investigated 60 samples from healthy individuals and 42 samples from prostate cancer patients. The concentrations of nucleosides in both groups were compared and a multivariate partial least squares-discriminant analysis classification model was optimized for prediction of prostate cancer. The validation of the model with an independent sample set resulted in the correct classification of 82.4% of the samples, with sensitivity of 90.5% and specificity of 76.7%. A significant downregulation of 5-methyluridine and inosine was observed, which can be indicative of the carcinogenic process. Therefore, such analytes are potential candidates for prostate cancer screening. Graphical Abstract Separation of the studied nucleosides and the internal standard 8-Bromoguanosine by CE-UV (a); classification of the external validation samples (30 from healthy volunteers and 21 from prostate cancer patients) by the developed Partial Least Square - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) model with accuracy of 82.4% (b); Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve (c); and Variable Importance in the Projection (VIP) values for the studied nucleosides (d). A significant down-regulation of 5- methyluridine (5mU) and inosine (I) was observed, which can be indicative of the presence of prostate tumors.

  19. Na+-dependent nucleoside transport in liver: two different isoforms from the same gene family are expressed in liver cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe, A; Valdes, R; Santo, B; Lloberas, J; Casado, J; Pastor-Anglada, M

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocytes show a Na+-dependent nucleoside transport activity that is kinetically heterogeneous and consistent with the expression of at least two independent concentrative Na+-coupled nucleoside transport systems (Mercader et al. Biochem. J. 317, 835-842, 1996). So far, only a single nucleoside carrier-related cDNA (SPNT) has been isolated from liver cells (Che et al. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 13596-13599, 1995). This cDNA presumably encodes a plasma membrane protein responsible for Na+-dependent...

  20. A study of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of new 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yejella, Rajendra Prasad; Atla, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    Chalcone derivatives (3a-m) were prepared by condensing 4-aminoacetophenone with various substituted aromatic and hetero aromatic aldehydes according to Claisen-Schmidt condensation. These chalcones, on reaction with guanidine hydrochloride under basic alcoholic conditions gave 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidines (5a-m) in quantitative yields. All the newly synthesized pyrimidines were characterized by means of IR, ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR, Electron Ionization (EI)-mass and elemental analyses and screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities by in vivo. 2-amino-4-(4-aminophenyl)-6-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)pyrimidine (5b) and 2-amino-4-(4-aminophenyl)-6-(3-bromophenyl) pyrimidine (5d) were found to be the most potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity compared with ibuprofen, reference standard. And also it was found that compound 5b identified as lead structure among all in both the activities. Pyrimidines which showed good anti-inflammatory activity also displayed better analgesic activity.

  1. DENV gene of bacteriophage T4 codes for both pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase and apyrimidinic endonuclease activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, S.; Edenberg, H.J.; Radany, E.H.; Friedberg, R.C.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that purified preparations of phage T4 UV DNA-incising activity (T4 UV endonuclease or endonuclease V of phase T4) contain a pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity that catalyzes hydrolysis of the 5' glycosyl bond of dimerized pyrimidines in UV-irradiated DNA. Such enzyme preparations have also been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds in UV-irradiated DNA at a neutral pH, presumably reflecting the action of an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease at the apyrimidinic sites created by the pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase. In this study we found that preparations of T4 UV DNA-incising activity contained apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity that nicked depurinated form I simian virus 40 DNA. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity was also found in extracts of Escherichia coli infected with T4 denV + phage. Extracts of cells infected with T4 denV mutants contained significantly lower levels of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity; these levels were no greater than the levels present in extracts of uninfected cells. Furthermore, the addition of DNA containing UV-irradiated DNA and T4 enzyme resulted in competition for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity against the UV-irradiated DNA. On the basis of these results, we concluded that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity is encoded by the denV gene of phage T4, the same gene that codes for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some novel pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-ones as antimalarial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Uttam R; Mohanakrishnan, D; Sahal, Dinkar; Murumkar, Prashant R; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2014-05-22

    Novel pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-ones have been synthesized and evaluated for their antimalarial activity by SYBR Green I assay against erythrocytic stages of chloroquine (CQ) sensitive Pf 3D7 strain. The antimalarial screening of 42 different compounds revealed that 3-Fluorobenzyl(4-oxo-4H-pyrido [1,2-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)carbamate (21, IC50 value 33 μM) and 4-Oxo-N-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine-3-carboxamide (37, IC50 value 37 μM) showed moderate antimalarial activity. Cytotoxicity study was performed against mammalian cell line (Huh-7) by using the MTT assay for the moderately active compounds. Structural activity relationship (SAR) studies displayed that B-ring unsubstituted pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine scaffold is responsible for the antimalarial activities of the evaluated derivatives. This SAR based antimalarial screening supported that pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one can be considered as a lead heterocyclic structure for further development of more potent derivatives for antimalarial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Critical importance of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway for Trypanosoma cruzi growth in the mammalian host cell cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Muneaki; Morales, Jorge; Fukai, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Shigeo; Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Tsubouchi, Akiko; Inoue, Syou; Inoue, Masayuki; Kita, Kiyoshi; Harada, Shigeharu; Tanaka, Akiko; Aoki, Takashi; Nara, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We established Trypanosoma cruzi lacking the gene for carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II. ► Disruption of the cpsII gene significantly reduced the growth of epimastigotes. ► In particular, the CPSII-null mutant severely retarded intracellular growth. ► The de novo pyrimidine pathway is critical for the parasite growth in the host cell. -- Abstract: The intracellular parasitic protist Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. In general, pyrimidine nucleotides are supplied by both de novo biosynthesis and salvage pathways. While epimastigotes—an insect form—possess both activities, amastigotes—an intracellular replicating form of T. cruzi—are unable to mediate the uptake of pyrimidine. However, the requirement of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis for parasite growth and survival has not yet been elucidated. Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase II (CPSII) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo biosynthetic pathway, and increased CPSII activity is associated with the rapid proliferation of tumor cells. In the present study, we showed that disruption of the T. cruzicpsII gene significantly reduced parasite growth. In particular, the growth of amastigotes lacking the cpsII gene was severely suppressed. Thus, the de novo pyrimidine pathway is important for proliferation of T. cruzi in the host cell cytoplasm and represents a promising target for chemotherapy against Chagas disease.

  4. Peretinoin, an acyclic retinoid, improves the hepatic gene signature of chronic hepatitis C following curative therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Masao; Yamashita, Taro; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Arai, Kuniaki; Sakai, Yoshio; Sakai, Akito; Nakamura, Mikiko; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    The acyclic retinoid, peretinoin, has been shown to be effective for suppressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after definitive treatment in a small-scale randomized clinical trial. However, little has been documented about the mechanism by which peretinoin exerts its inhibitory effects against recurrent HCC in humans in vivo. Twelve hepatitis C virus-positive patients whose HCC had been eradicated through curative resection or ablation underwent liver biopsy at baseline and week 8 of treatment with either a daily dose of 300 or 600 mg peretinoin. RNA isolated from biopsy samples was subjected to gene expression profile analysis. Peretinoin treatment elevated the expression levels of IGFBP6, RBP1, PRB4, CEBPA, G0S2, TGM2, GPRC5A, CYP26B1, and many other retinoid target genes. Elevated expression was also observed for interferon-, Wnt-, and tumor suppressor-related genes. By contrast, decreased expression levels were found for mTOR- and tumor progression-related genes. Interestingly, gene expression profiles for week 8 of peretinoin treatment could be classified into two groups of recurrence and non-recurrence with a prediction accuracy rate of 79.6% (P<0.05). In the liver of patients with non-recurrence, expression of PDGFC and other angiogenesis genes, cancer stem cell marker genes, and genes related to tumor progression was down-regulated, while expression of genes related to hepatocyte differentiation, tumor suppression genes, and other genes related to apoptosis induction was up-regulated. Gene expression profiling at week 8 of peretinoin treatment could successfully predict HCC recurrence within 2 years. This study is the first to show the effect of peretinoin in suppressing HCC recurrence in vivo based on gene expression profiles and provides a molecular basis for understanding the efficacy of peretinoin

  5. Studies on Synthesis of Some Novel Heterocyclic Chalcone, Pyrazoline, Pyrimidine - 2 - One, Pyrimidine - 2 - Thione, para-Acetanilide Sulphonyl and Benzoyl Derivatives and their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh N. Mistry

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available 1, 2 - Dichloro benzene on chlorosulphonation by chlorosulphonic acid gives 1, 2 - [dichloro] - benzene sulphonyl chloride which on condensation with p –amino acetophenone gives 1-[acetyl] - 1’ , 2’ - [dichloro] - dibenz sulphonamide derivative. This derivative undergo condensation with 2,4- dichloro benzaldehyde gives 1- [3” - (sub. phenyl - 2” - propene - 1” - one] - 1’ , 2’ - [dichloro] - dibenz sulphonamide derivative which on reaction with 99% hydrazine hydrate and glacial acetic acid gives 1-[acetyl]-3- [1’ , 2’ - (dichloro - dibenz sulphonamide] -5 - [2” , 4” - dichloro phenyl] - 2 - pyrazoline derivative. This derivative reacts with various substituted aldehydes to give corresponding substituted chalcone derivatives [1(a-j]. Now, these chalcone derivatives [1(a-j] on condensation with urea gives corresponding substituted pyrimidine - 2 - one derivatives [2(a-j] and on condensation with thio-urea gives corresponding substituted pyrimidine- 2 -thione derivatives [3(a-j]. Further, these chalcone derivatives [1(a-j] on reaction with 99% hydrazine hydrate gives 1 - [1’ - (H - 5’ - (sub. phenyl - 2’ - pyrazoline]- 3 - [1” , 2” - (dichloro - dibenz sulphonamide] - 5 - [2’’’ , 4’’’ - dichloro phenyl]-2- pyrazoline derivatives [4(a-j] as an intermediate compounds, which on condensation with p-acetanilide sulphonyl chloride gives corresponding substituted p - acetanilide sulphonyl derivatives [5(a-j] and on condensation with benzoyl chloride gives corresponding substituted benzoyl derivatives [6(a-j]. Structure elucidation of synthesised compounds has been made on the basis of elemental analysis, I.R. spectral studies and 1H N.M.R. spectral studies. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesised compounds has been studied against the cultures “Staphylococcus aureus”, “Escherichia coli” and “Candela albicans”.

  6. Discovery of 4-anilino-N-methylthieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines and 4-anilino-N-methylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines as potent apoptosis inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemnitzer, William; Sirisoma, Nilantha; May, Chris; Tseng, Ben; Drewe, John; Cai, Sui Xiong

    2009-07-01

    We report the discovery of N-((benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)methyl)-6-phenylthieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-amine (2a) as an apoptosis inducer using our proprietary cell- and caspase-based ASAP HTS assay, and SAR study of HTS hit 2a which led to the discovery of 4-anilino-N-methylthieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines and 4-anilino-N-methylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines as potent apoptosis inducers. Compounds 5d and 5e were the most potent with EC(50) values of 0.008 and 0.004microM in T47D human breast cancer cells, respectively. Compound 5d was found to be highly active in the MX-1 breast cancer model. Functionally, compounds 5d and 5e both induced apoptosis through inhibition of tubulin polymerization.

  7. Heteroaromatization with 4-Hydroxycoumarin Part II: Synthesis of Some New Pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidines, [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidines and Pyrimido[1,6-b]-[1,2,4]triazine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Bedair

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A variety of novel [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine-13-ones (4a-f and (5b-d could be obtained via reaction of 9-amino-7-(4’-chlorophenyl-8,9-dihydro-8-imino-6H,7H-[1]benzopyrano[3`,4`:5,6]pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-one (3 with a variety of reagents. Pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-ones 5a, 8a-c and pyrimido[1,6-b][1,2,4]-triazine-3,14-dione (6 were also prepared. The antimicrobial activity of some of the synthesized compounds was tested.

  8. Kinetic α-deuterium isotope effect as a probe of transition state structure and reaction mechanism in nucleoside hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical equilibrium α-deuterium isotope effects were calculated for systems modeling nucleoside and glycoside hydrolyses using a computer program (Burton, G.W., Sims, L.B., Wilson, J.C., and Fry, A.J., J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 99, 3374(1977)) which computes isotope effects directly from the expression of Biegeleisen and Mayer (Biegeleisen, J. and Mayer, M.G., J. Chem. Phys., 17, 675(1949)). For nucleoside hydrolysis proceeding through an oxocarbonium ion intermediate, KH/KD = 1.21 to 1.25; while for nucleoside hydrolysis proceeding through an oxocarbonium ion intermediate KH/KD = 1.15 to 1.19. The models used in the calculations were generated systematically and involved a minimum of subjectivity in the selection of molecular parameters. The isotope effects calculated formed the basis for the interpretation of experimental kinetic α-deuterium isotope effects for nucleoside and glycoside hydrolysis

  9. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are photosensitised by carprofen plus UVA in human HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, K S; Traynor, N J; Moseley, H; Ferguson, J; Woods, J A

    2010-06-01

    Every year in the UK about 75,000 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are registered, and about 9500 people are diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma (CM). The main risk factor for these cancers is exposure to sunlight. The effects of light on skin are wavelength dependent, with wavelengths in the UVB waveband (280-315 nm) being the most carcinogenic. UVB is directly absorbed by DNA, producing dimeric pyrimidine photoproducts including cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimodone photoproducts (6-4PP). However UVA (315-400 nm) can also produce CPD, induce skin tumours in mice, and has been shown to be mutagenic in cell culture. Although the precise role of UVA in human skin cancer remains to be elucidated, it comprises the major portion of solar UV radiation, transmits through window glass and can be delivered in high doses from tanning lamps. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), in particular the 2-aryl propionic acid derivatives, are a well-documented group of photosensitising chemicals producing clinical phototoxic and photoallergic reactions. We have used carprofen, a model compound from this group to see if it could amplify the effects of UVA and contribute to the formation of CPD by UVA. Preliminary work has shown that carprofen combined with low doses of UVA (lambda(max): 365 nm; 5 J/cm(2)) can produce both strand breaks (SB) and CPD in human skin or blood cells. CPD were detected indirectly by both an immunofluorescence method and as T4 endonuclease V sensitive sites in the comet assay. These findings show that compounds other than fluoroquinolones and psoralen derivatives may contribute to CPD formation in skin cells in combination with UVA. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of pyrimidine synthesis "de novo" intermediates in urine and dried urine filter- paper strips with HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, André B. P.; van Lenthe, Henk; Löffler, Monika; van Gennip, Albert H.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concentrations of the pyrimidine "de novo" metabolites and their degradation products in urine are useful indicators for the diagnosis of an inborn error of the pyrimidine de novo pathway or a urea-cycle defect. Until now, no procedure was available that allowed the analysis of all

  11. Synthesis and antitumor activity of some novel thiophene, pyrimidine, coumarin, pyrazole and pyridine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albratty Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available 2-Cyano-N-(thiazol-2-yl acetamide (2a and 2-cyano-N-(oxazol- 2-yl acetamide (2b were obtained via the reaction of ethyl cyanoacetate with either 2-aminothiazole (1a or 2-aminooxazole (1b. The formed products were directed toward the reaction with cyclopentanone and elemental sulfur in the presence of triethylamine to give cyclopenta[b]thiophene derivatives (3a,b. The latter products were reacted with either ethyl cyanoacetate or malononitrile to form compounds 4a,b and 5a,b, respectively. Compounds 4a,b were aimed at synthesizing some heterocyclic compounds; thus internal cyclization reactions were introduced to form compounds 6a,b. Also, compounds 4a,b reacted with salicylaldehyde, hydrazine derivatives and either urea or thiourea to produce coumarin derivatives (7a,b, pyrazole derivatives (8a-d and pyrimidine derivatives (9a-d, respectively. Reaction of either benzaldehyde or benzene diazonium chloride (11 with compounds 4a,b afforded compounds 10a,b and 12a,b, respectively. On the other hand, compounds 5a,b underwent internal cyclization to form pyrimidine derivatives 13a,b. Also, when compounds 5a,b reacted with either ethyl cyanoacetate or malononitrile, they gave pyridine derivatives (15a-d through the formation of intermediates (14a-d. Finally, formation of fused pyrimidine derivatives (17a,b was achieved through the reaction of compounds 5a,b and salicylaldehyde applying two different pathways. The first pathway used a catalytic amount of piperidine to form compounds 16a,b; the latter products underwent cyclization to give compounds 17a,b. The second pathway, using a catalytic amount of sodium ethoxide solution directly in one step, afforded compounds 17a,b. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectrometry and their antitumor activity was investigated. Some of these compounds showed promising inhibitory effects on three different cell lines. However, fused pyrimidine

  12. Involvement of UV-inducible repair in pyrimidine dimer excision in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masek, F.; Sedliakova, M.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of UV radiation on pyrimidine dimer excision in the cells of three excision-proficient E.coli strains was studied. For this purpose cells were irradiated with a first fluence of 300 ergs/mm 2 and at different time intervals with a second fluence of 500 ergs/mm 2 . After the second fluence dimer excision was found to be partly inhibited in E.coli B/r Hcr + and E.coli 15 555-7, but not in E.coli K12 SR20. (author)

  13. Low-energy electron scattering from pyrimidine: Similarities and differences with benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. B.; Bellm, S. M.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Brunger, M. J.

    2012-05-01

    Differential cross sections for low-energy electron-impact excitation of the unresolved combinations of 23B2 + 21A1 and 31A1 + 21B2 electronic states of pyrimidine are reported. Comparisons are made with recent differential cross section measurements for the electron-impact excitation of the 1E1u and unresolved 1B1u + 3E2g electronic states of benzene [H. Kato, M. Hoshino, H. Tanaka, P. Limão-Vieira, O. Ingolfsson, L. Campbell, M.J. Brunger, J. Chem. Phys. 134 (2011) 134308.], in order to evaluate the nature of electron impact π-π∗ transitions in aromatic species.

  14. Crystal structure of 4-allylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed El Fal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C8H8N4S, the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine ring system is essentially planar, with a maximum deviation from the mean plane of 0.025 (3 Å. The allyl group is disordered over two sites in a 0.512 (6:0.488 (6 ratio. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R22(8 graph-set motif.

  15. Involvement of UV-inducible repair in pyrimidine dimer excision in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masek, F; Sedliakova, M [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-11-15

    The influence of UV radiation on pyrimidine dimer excision in the cells of three excision-proficient E.coli strains was studied. For this purpose cells were irradiated with a first fluence of 300 ergs/mm/sup 2/ and at different time intervals with a second fluence of 500 ergs/mm/sup 2/. After the second fluence dimer excision was found to be partly inhibited in E.coli B/r Hcr/sup +/ and E.coli 15 555-7, but not in E.coli K12 SR20.

  16. Supplementation of Nucleosides During Selection can Reduce Sequence Variant Levels in CHO Cells Using GS/MSX Selection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Danming; Lam, Cynthia; Louie, Salina; Hoi, Kam Hon; Shaw, David; Yim, Mandy; Snedecor, Brad; Misaghi, Shahram

    2018-01-01

    In the process of generating stable monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing cell lines, reagents such as methotrexate (MTX) or methionine sulfoximine (MSX) are often used. However, using such selection reagent(s) increases the possibility of having higher occurrence of sequence variants in the expressed antibody molecules due to the effects of MTX or MSX on de novo nucleotide synthesis. Since MSX inhibits glutamine synthase (GS) and results in both amino acid and nucleoside starvation, it is questioned whether supplementing nucleosides into the media could lower sequence variant levels without affecting titer. The results show that the supplementation of nucleosides to the media during MSX selection decreased genomic DNA mutagenesis rates in the selected cells, probably by reducing nucleotide mis-incorporation into the DNA. Furthermore, addition of nucleosides enhance clone recovery post selection and does not affect antibody expression. It is further observed that nucleoside supplements lowered DNA mutagenesis rates only at the initial stage of the clone selection and do not have any effect on DNA mutagenesis rates after stable cell lines are established. Therefore, the data suggests that addition of nucleosides during early stages of MSX selection can lower sequence variant levels without affecting titer or clone stability in antibody expression. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Comparison of the cleavage of pyrimidine dimers by the bacteriophage T4 and Micrococcus luteus uv-specific endonucleases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, L.K.; Haseltine, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made of the activity of the uv-specific endonucleases of bacteriophage T4 (T4 endonuclease V) and of Micrococcus luteus on ultraviolet light-irradiated DNA substrates of defined sequence. The two enzyms cleave DNA at the site of pyrimidine dimers with the same frequency. The products of the cleavage reaction are the same. The pyrimidine dimer DNA-glycosylase activity of both enzymes is more active on double-stranded DNA than it is on single-stranded DNA

  18. Tandem Aldol-Michael Reactions in Aqueous Diethylamine Medium: A Greener and Efficient Approach to Bis-Pyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Majid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple protocol, involving the green synthesis for the construction of novel bis-pyrimidine derivatives, 3a–i and 4a–e are accomplished by the aqueous diethylamine media promoted tandem Aldol-Michael reaction between two molecules of barbituric acid derivatives 1a,b with various aldehydes. This efficient synthetic protocol using an economic and environmentally friendly reaction media with versatility and shorter reaction time provides bis-pyrimidine derivatives with high yields (88%–99%.

  19. Cellular distribution, purification and electrophoretic properties of malate dehydrogenase in Trichuris ovis and inhibition by benzimidazoles and pyrimidine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Moreno, M; Ortega, J E; Valero, A

    1989-12-01

    High levels of malate dehydrogenase were found in Trichuris ovis. Two molecular forms of the enzyme, of different cellular location and electrophoretic pattern, were isolated and purified. The activity of soluble malate dehydrogenase was greater than that of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase. Both forms also displayed different electrophoretic profiles in comparison with purified extracts from goat (Capra hircus) liver. Substrate concentration directly affected enzyme activity. Host and parasite malate dehydrogenase activity were both inhibited by a series of benzimidazoles and pyrimidine-derived compounds, some of which markedly reduced parasite enzyme activity, but not host enzyme activity. Percentage inhibition by some pyrimidine derivatives was greater than that produced by benzimidazoles.

  20. Can Crystal Symmetry and Packing Influence the Active Site Conformation of Homohexameric Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Luić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generaly believed that enzymes retain most of their functionality in the crystal form due to the large solvent content of protein crystals. This is facilitated by the fact that their natural environment in solution is not too far from the one found in the crystal form. Nevertheless, if the nature of the enzyme is such to require conformational changes, overcoming of the crystal packing constraints may prove to be too difficult. Such conformational change is present in one class of enzymes (purine nucleoside phosphorylases, that is the subject of our scientific interest for many years. The influence of crystal symmetry and crystal packing on the conformation of the active sites in the case of homohexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylases is presented and analysed. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  1. Mechanisms by Which Human DNA Primase Chooses To Polymerize a Nucleoside Triphosphate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, M.; Joubert, Nicolas; Purse, B. W.; Hocek, Michal; Kuchta, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2010), s. 727-735 ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550902 Grant - others:NIH(US) GM54194 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : C-nucleosides * DNA polymerase * primase * mechanism Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2010

  2. Novel modified purine bases and nucleosides: new methodologies of synthesis and biological activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hocek, Michal

    -, č. 49 (2005), s. 29-30 ISSN 0261-3166. [International Symposium on Nucleic Acids Chemistry /4./. Fukuoka, 20.09.2005-22.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/0035; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : purines * nucleosides * synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  3. Mechanism of action and selective toxicity of ascamycin, a nucleoside antibiotic.

    OpenAIRE

    Osada, H; Isono, K

    1985-01-01

    An unidentified Streptomyces sp. produces two nucleoside antibiotics, ascamycin and its dealanyl derivative. In contrast to the broad antibacterial activity of dealanylascamycin against various gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, ascamycin showed selective toxicity against Xanthomonas citri and X. oryzae. Both ascamycin and dealanylascamycin inhibited the protein synthesis of X. citri, but only dealanylascamycin inhibited that of Escherichia coli. In cell-free systems from E. coli and X...

  4. Structure-activity relationships of nucleoside analogues for inhibition of tick-borne encephalitis virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eyer, L.; Šmídková, Markéta; Nencka, Radim; Neča, J.; Kastl, T.; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, E.; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 133, Sep (2016), s. 119-129 ISSN 0166-3542 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-34238A; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20054S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : structure-activity relationship * tick-borne encephalitis * nucleoside inhibitor * antiviral activity * cytotoxicity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.271, year: 2016

  5. Flexible Acyclic Polyol-Chloride Anion Complexes and Their Characterization by Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Variable Temperature Binding Constant Determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, Alireza; Wang, Xue B.; Wang, Yangping; O' Doherty, George A.; Kass, Steven R.

    2016-03-17

    Flexible acyclic alcohols with 1–5 hydroxyl groups were bound to chloride anion and these complexes were interrogated by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy and companion density functional theory computations. The resulting vertical detachment energies are reproduced on average to 0.10 eV by M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ predictions and range from 4.45 – 5.96 eV. These values are 0.84 – 2.35 eV larger than the adiabatic detachment energy of Cl– as a result of the larger hydrogen bond networks in the bigger polyols. Adiabatic detachment energies of the alcohol–Cl– clusters are more difficult to determine both experimentally and computationally. This is due to the large geometry changes that occur upon photodetachment and the large bond dissociation energy of H–Cl which enables the resulting chlorine atom to abstract a hydrogen from any of the methylene (CH2) or methine (CH) positions. Both ionic and non-ionic hydrogen bonds (i.e., OH•••Cl– and OH•••OH•••Cl–) form in the larger polyols complexes, and are found to be energetically comparable. Subtle structural differences, consequently can lead to the formation of different types of hydrogen bonds and maximizing the ionic ones is not always preferred. Solution equilibrium binding constants between the alcohols and tetrrabuylammonium chloride (TBACl) in acetonitrile at -24.2, 22.0, and 53.6 °C were also determined. The free energies of association are nearly identical for all of the substrates (i.e., ΔG° = -2.8 ± 0.7 kcal mol–1). Compensating enthalpy and entropy values reveal, contrary to expectation and the intrinsic gas-phase preferences, that the bigger systems with more hydroxyl groups are entropically favored and enthalpically disfavored relative to the smaller species. This suggests that more solvent molecules are released upon binding TBACl to alcohols with more hydroxyl groups and is consistent with the measured negative heat capacities. These quantities increase with

  6. Preliminary crystallographic studies of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Qiao-Ming; Liu, Xiang; Brostromer, Erik; Li, Lan-Fen; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), which is a pivotal enzyme in the nucleotide-salvage pathway, has been expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) in a soluble form at a high level. After purification of the PNP enzyme, the protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique. The punA gene of the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans encodes purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), which is a pivotal enzyme in the nucleotide-salvage pathway, catalyzing the phosphorolysis of purine nucleosides to generate purine bases and α-ribose 1-phosphate. In the present work, the PNP protein was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) in a soluble form at a high level. After purification of the PNP enzyme, the protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique; the crystals diffracted to 1.6 Å resolution at best. The crystals belonged to space group H3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 113.0, c = 60.1 Å

  7. In Silico Investigation of Flavonoids as Potential Trypanosomal Nucleoside Hydrolase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hung Hung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human African Trypanosomiasis is endemic to 37 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by two related species of Trypanosoma brucei. Current therapies suffer from resistance and public accessibility of expensive medicines. Finding safer and effective therapies of natural origin is being extensively explored worldwide. Pentamidine is the only available therapy for inhibiting the P2 adenosine transporter involved in the purine salvage pathway of the trypanosomatids. The objective of the present study is to use computational studies for the investigation of the probable trypanocidal mechanism of flavonoids. Docking experiments were carried out on eight flavonoids of varying level of hydroxylation, namely, flavone, 5-hydroxyflavone, 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, apigenin, kaempferol, fisetin, and quercetin. Using AutoDock 4.2, these compounds were tested for their affinity towards inosine-adenosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase and the inosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase, the major enzymes of the purine salvage pathway. Our results showed that all of the eight tested flavonoids showed high affinities for both hydrolases (lowest free binding energy ranging from −10.23 to −7.14 kcal/mol. These compounds, especially the hydroxylated derivatives, could be further studied as potential inhibitors of the nucleoside hydrolases.

  8. [Comparative study on specific chromatograms and main nucleosides of cultivated and wild Cordyceps sinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Ke; Huang, Li-Li; Guo, Li-Nong; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Jian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia

    2017-10-01

    This study is to establish the HPLC specific chromatogram and determine four main nucleosides of wild and cultivated Cordyceps sinensis. Uridine, inosine, guanosine and adenosine were selected as reference substance. HPLC analysis was performed on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 C₁₈ (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), with a mobile phase consisting of water(A)-acetonitrile (B) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL•min⁻¹ (0-5 min,0% B;5-15 min,0%-10% B, 15-30 min,10%-20% B, 30-33 min, 20%-50% B, 33-35 min, 50%-0% B, 35-40 min, 0% B). The detection wavelength was 260 nm and the column temperature was controlled at 30 ℃, and the injection volume was 5 μL. HPLC specific chromatogram of wild and cultivated C. sinensis was established and four main nucleosides were simultaneously determined by the above method. Specific chromatograms and contents of four main nucleosides showed no significant differences between cultivated and wild C. sinensis. These results can provide scientific evidences for further development and utilization of cultivated C. sinensis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Depression of pyrimidine dimer excision from the aspects of U.V. reversibility of irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slamenova, D.; Slezarikova, V.; Masek, F.

    1977-01-01

    Depression of pyrimidine dimer excision induced in U.V. irradiated E.coli B/r T - trp - Hcr + cells by preirradiation cultivation in conditions of starving for the essential amino acid and thymine does not increase U.V.-reversibility of irradiated cells and does not influence the time of expression of trp + reversions. The expression of mutations becomes completed in control and prestarved cells prior to restoration of postradiation division. Genetic deficiency leads up to their high sensitivity to the mutagenic activity of U.V. irradiation. Expression of trp + revertants in Hcr - type cells does not become completed until after commencement of the postradiation division of irradiated cells. Prestarved E.coli B/r T - trp - Hcr + cells exhibited depression of excision even with postradiation cultivation in the absence of an essential amino acid, which is associated with greater stability of newly synthesized DNA and overall decrease of the death rate of cells. In postradiation starvation for the essential amino acid E.coli B/r T - trp - Hcr - cells irradiated with low U.V. light doses behaved similarly. Control E.coli B/r T - trp - Hcr + cells, cultivated after irradiation without amino acid, excised pyrimidine dimers; they are characterised by high degradation of newly synthesized DNA and increased death rate of cells. (author)

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Agrebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several new pyrazolopyrimidine compounds were achieved from aminocyanopyarazole 1. The starting material 1 was initially coupled with orthoester at refluxed with various primary amines, ammonia, hydrazines and hydroxylamine to furnish a series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines. The reaction of imidate 2a-b with hydrazide derivatives led to the formation of pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-c]pyrimidines. Some of the synthesized compounds 3a and 4c were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and nociceptive activities. We start by studing the toxicity of these two molecules by measuring the corresponding DL50. The DL50 of 3a and 4c are estimated to 1333.2mg / kg and 1593.5mg / kg respectively. Pharmacological evaluation showed that compounds 3a and 4c at doses (5.5-22.2 mg / Kg, i.p exhibited anti-inflammatory activities compared to Ibuprofen (150 mg / Kg, i.p, used as a refer ence drug. Further, our study showed that the injection of derived pyrazolopyrimidines on hyperthermic animal leads to a decrease in temperature after 1 hours of treatment compared to paracetamol used as reference. In addition, the injection of derived pyrazolopyrimidines at different doses contains a potent nociceptive activity. This effect is dose-dependent compared to aspirin.

  11. Facile synthesis of indole-pyrimidine hybrids and evaluation of their anticancer and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhila Gokhale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the facile synthesis of new N-cyclopropyl-1-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide derivatives bearing substituted 2-amino pyrimidine moiety at position-3 of the indole ring. All the intermediate and title compounds were characterized adeptly by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, ESI–MS and elemental analyses. These compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against HeLa, HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. Three among 22 molecules, showed more than 70% growth inhibition against all three tested cancer cells. The nature of the substituent group on the pyrimidine ring (R2 affected significantly the anti-proliferative activity of the molecules. The anti-microbial evaluation of the title molecules revealed the significance of fluoro/chloro groups (R2 in enhancing their inhibition activity. Eight molecules which contain fluoro/chloro groups showed potent anti-microbial activity. In addition, the active molecules displayed negligible toxicity to benign Vero cells.

  12. Design, Synthesis, and Herbicidal Activity of Pyrimidine-Biphenyl Hybrids as Novel Acetohydroxyacid Synthase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke-Jian; Qu, Ren-Yu; Liu, Yu-Chao; Yang, Jing-Fang; Devendar, Ponnam; Chen, Qiong; Niu, Cong-Wei; Xi, Zhen; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2018-04-18

    The issue of weed resistance to acetohydroxyacid synthase (EC 2.2.1.6, AHAS) inhibitors has become one of the largest obstacles for the application of this class of herbicides. In a continuing effort to discover novel AHAS inhibitors to overcome weed resistance, a series of pyrimidine-biphenyl hybrids (4aa-bb and 5aa-ah) were designed and synthesized via a scaffold hopping strategy. Among these derivatives, compounds 4aa ( K i = 0.09 μM) and 4bb ( K i = 0.02 μM) displayed higher inhibitory activities against Arabidopsis thaliana AHAS than those of the controls bispyribac ( K i = 0.54 μM) and flumetsulam ( K i = 0.38 μM). Remarkably, compounds 4aa, 4bb, 5ah, and 5ag exhibited excellent postemergence herbicidal activity and a broad spectrum of weed control at application rates of 37.5-150 g of active ingredient (ai)/ha. Furthermore, 4aa and 4bb showed higher herbicidal activity against AHAS inhibitor-resistant Descurainia sophia, Ammannia arenaria, and the corresponding sensitive weeds than that of bispyribac at 0.94-0.235 g ai/ha. Therefore, the pyrimidine-biphenyl motif and lead compounds 4aa and 4bb have great potential for the discovery of novel AHAS inhibitors to combat AHAS-inhibiting herbicide-resistant weeds.

  13. Uridine 5'-Monophosphate Synthase Is Transcriptionally Regulated by Pyrimidine Levels in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso; Thornburg

    1998-02-01

    To understand the regulation and expression of pyrimidine biosynthesis in plants, we have examined the effect of the metabolic inhibitor 5-fluoroorotic acid (FOA) on uridine-5'-monophosphate synthase (UMPSase) expression in cell cultures of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. UMPSase is the rate-limiting step of pyrimidine biosynthesis in plants. Addition of FOA causes an up-regulation of UMPSase enzyme activity in cell cultures after a lag phase of several days. Western-blot analysis demonstrated that the up-regulation in enzyme activity was caused by increased expression of the UMPSase protein. Northern-blot analysis demonstrated a higher level of UMPSase mRNA in the FOA-induced tissues than in control tissues. Run-on transcriptional assays showed that the UMPSase gene was transcriptionally activated after FOA treatment. The mechanism of toxicity of FOA is through thymine starvation. We found that addition of thymine abrogated the FOA-mediated up-regulation of UMPSase. In addition, methotrexate and aminopterin, which affect thymine levels by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase, also up-regulate UMPSase in N. plumbaginifolia cells.

  14. Uridine 5′-Monophosphate Synthase Is Transcriptionally Regulated by Pyrimidine Levels in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Djoko; Thornburg, Robert

    1998-01-01

    To understand the regulation and expression of pyrimidine biosynthesis in plants, we have examined the effect of the metabolic inhibitor 5-fluoroorotic acid (FOA) on uridine-5′-monophosphate synthase (UMPSase) expression in cell cultures of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. UMPSase is the rate-limiting step of pyrimidine biosynthesis in plants. Addition of FOA causes an up-regulation of UMPSase enzyme activity in cell cultures after a lag phase of several days. Western-blot analysis demonstrated that the up-regulation in enzyme activity was caused by increased expression of the UMPSase protein. Northern-blot analysis demonstrated a higher level of UMPSase mRNA in the FOA-induced tissues than in control tissues. Run-on transcriptional assays showed that the UMPSase gene was transcriptionally activated after FOA treatment. The mechanism of toxicity of FOA is through thymine starvation. We found that addition of thymine abrogated the FOA-mediated up-regulation of UMPSase. In addition, methotrexate and aminopterin, which affect thymine levels by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase, also up-regulate UMPSase in N. plumbaginifolia cells. PMID:9490773

  15. Quantitation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA from UVB-irradiated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaite, F.E.; Sutherland, B.M.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone will increase the solar ultraviolet radiation in the range from 290-320 nm (UVB) that reaches the surface of the earth, placing an increased UV burden on exposed organisms. One consequence of increased UVB may be decreased productivity of crop plants. A principal lesion caused by UV in DNA is the cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. We have adapted a method for measuring these dimers in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA for use in UV-irradiated plants. We find that biologically relevant doses of broad band UVB radiation induce easily detectable frequencies of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of irradiated alfalfa sprout leaves and that the dose response for dimer formation is linear up to doses of at least 690 J/m 2 . We also find easily measurable frequencies of dimers in the leaves of seedlings grown in glass filtered sunlight but not exposed to additional UVB, suggesting that significant number of dimers are formed in plants exposed to normal sunlight. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Depression of pyrimidine dimer excision from the aspects of uv reversibility of irradiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slamenova, D; Slezarikova, V; Masek, F [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    1977-04-01

    Depression of pyrimidine dimer excision induced in uv-irradiated E.coli B/r T/sup -/trp/sup -/Hcr/sup +/ cells by preirradiation cultivation in conditions of starving for the essential amino acid and thymine does not increase uv-reversibility of irradiated cells and does not influence the time of expression of trp/sup +/ reversions. The expression of mutations becomes completed in control and prestarved cells prior to restoration of postradiation division. Genetic deficiency leads up to their high sensitivity to the mutagenic activity of uv irradiation. Expression of trp/sup +/ revertants in Hcr/sup -/ type cells does not become completed until after commencement of the postradiation division of irradiated cells. Prestarved E.coli B/r T/sup -/trp/sup -/Hcr/sup +/ cells exhibited depression of excision even with postradiation cultivation in the absence of an essential amino acid, which is associated with greater stability of newly synthesized DNA and overall decrease of the death rate of cells. In postradiation starvation for the essential amino acid E.coli B/r T/sup -/trp/sup -/Hcr/sup -/ cells irradiated with low uv light doses behaved similarly. Control E.coli B/r T/sup -/trp/sup -/Hcr/sup +/ cells, cultivated after irradiation without amino acid, excised pyrimidine dimers; they are characterised by high degradation of newly synthesized DNA and increased death rate of cells.

  17. Acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular containers: influence of aromatic walls on their function as solubilizing excipients for insoluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ben; Isaacs, Lyle

    2014-11-26

    We studied the influence of the aromatic sidewalls on the ability of acyclic CB[n]-type molecular containers (1a-1e) to act as solubilizing agents for 19 insoluble drugs including the developmental anticancer agent PBS-1086. All five containers exhibit good water solubility and weak self-association (Ks ≤ 624 M(-1)). We constructed phase solubility diagrams to extract Krel and Ka values for the container·drug complexes. The acyclic CB[n]-type containers generally display significantly higher Ka values than HP-β-CD toward drugs. Containers 1a-1e bind the steroidal ring system and aromatic moieties of insoluble drugs. Compound 1b displays highest affinity toward most of the drugs studied. Containers 1a and 1b are broadly applicable and can be used to formulate a wider variety of insoluble drugs than was previously possible with cyclodextrin technology. For drugs that are solubilized by both HP-β-CD and 1a-1e, lower concentrations of 1a-1e are required to achieve identical [drug].

  18. Conformational analysis of an acyclic tetrapeptide: ab-initio structure determination from X-ray powder diffraction, Hirshfeld surface analysis and electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Uday; Naskar, Jishu; Mukherjee, Alok Kumar

    2015-12-01

    A terminally protected acyclic tetrapeptide has been synthesized, and the crystal structure of its hydrated form, Boc-Tyr-Aib-Tyr-Ile-OMe·2H2O (1), has been determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data. The backbone conformation of tetrapeptide (1) exhibiting two consecutive β-turns is stabilized by two 4 → 1 intramolecular N-H · · · O hydrogen bonds. In the crystalline state, the tetrapeptide molecules are assembled through water-mediated O-H · · · O hydrogen bonds to form two-dimensional molecular sheets, which are further linked by intermolecular C-H · · · O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional supramolecular framework. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface of (1) has been used to supplement the crystallographic observations. The nature of intermolecular interactions in (1) has been analyzed quantitatively through the Hirshfeld surface and two-dimensional fingerprint plot. The DFT optimized molecular geometry of (1) agrees closely with that obtained from the X-ray structure analysis. The present structure analysis of Boc-Tyr-Aib-Tyr-Ile-OMe·2H2 O (1) represents a case where ab-initio crystal structure of an acyclic tetrapeptide with considerable molecular flexibility has been accomplished from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed ortho-Alkylation of Phenoxy Substrates with Diazo Compounds via C-H Activation: A Case of Decarboxylative Pyrimidine/Pyridine Migratory Cyclization Rather than Removal of Pyrimidine/Pyridine Directing Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Manjula; Allu, Srinivasarao; Swamy, K C Kumara

    2017-03-03

    An efficient Rh(III)-catalyzed ortho-alkylation of phenoxy substrates with diazo compounds has been achieved for the first time using pyrimidine or pyridine as the directing group. Furthermore, bis-alkylation has also been achieved using para-substituted phenoxypyrimidine and 3 mol equiv of the diazo ester. The ortho-alkylated derivatives of phenoxy products possessing the ester functionality undergo decarboxylative pyrimidine/pyridine migratory cyclization (rather than deprotection of pyrimidine/pyridine group) using 20% NaOEt in EtOH affording a novel class of 3-(pyrimidin-2(1H)-ylidene)benzofuran-2(3H)-ones and 6-methyl-3-(pyridin-2(1H)-ylidene)benzofuran-2(3H)-one. The ortho-alkylated phenoxypyridine possessing ester functionality also undergoes decarboxylative pyridine migratory cyclization using MeOTf/NaOMe in toluene providing 6-methyl-3-(1-methylpyridin-2(1H)-ylidene)benzofuran-2(3H)-one.

  20. The First Synthesis and Anti-retroviral Activity of 5',5'-Difluoro-3'-Hydroxy-Apiosyl Nucleoside Cyclomonophosphonic Acid Analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyeon; Hong, Joon Hee [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The first synthesis of novel 5',5'-difluoro-30-hydroxy apiose nucleoside cyclomonophosphonic acid analogs was performed as potent anti-retroviral agents. Phosphonation was performed by direct displacement of a triflate intermediate with diethyl(lithiodifluoromethyl) phosphonate to give the corresponding(α, α-difluoroalkyl) phosphonate. Condensation successfully proceeded from a glycosyl donor with persilylated bases to yield the nucleoside phosphonate analogs. Deprotection of diethyl phosphonates provided the target nucleoside cyclomonophosphonic acid analogs. The synthesized nucleoside analogs were subjected to anti-viral screening against the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Cytosine analogs show significant anti-HIV activity.

  1. The role of pyrimidine and water as underlying molecular constituents for describing radiation damage in living tissue: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, M. C.; Ellis-Gibbings, L. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Brunger, M. J. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avenida Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Muñoz, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Limão-Vieira, P. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); García, G., E-mail: g.garcia@csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2015-06-07

    Water is often used as the medium for characterizing the effects of radiation on living tissue. However, in this study, charged-particle track simulations are employed to quantify the induced physicochemical and potential biological implications when a primary ionising particle with energy 10 keV strikes a medium made up entirely of water or pyrimidine. Note that pyrimidine was chosen as the DNA/RNA bases cytosine, thymine, and uracil can be considered pyrimidine derivatives. This study aims to assess the influence of the choice of medium on the charged-particle transport, and identify how appropriate it is to use water as the default medium to describe the effects of ionising radiation on living tissue. Based on the respective electron interaction cross sections, we provide a model, which allows the study of radiation effects not only in terms of energy deposition (absorbed dose and stopping power) but also in terms of the number of induced molecular processes. Results of these parameters for water and pyrimidine are presented and compared.

  2. Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of Some New Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled R. A. Abdellatif

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 3,6-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazin-4-one (3 was prepared by hydrolysis of ethyl 5-amino-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate (1 to afford the corresponding carboxylic acid 2, which was reacted with acetic anhydride to give 3. The pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazin-4-one 3 was reacted with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, urea, thiourea, thiosemicarbazide, phenylhydrazine and aromatic amines to afford the corresponding pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ones 4, 5a,b, 6, 7, 8a–e, respectively. Condensation of pyrazoloxazine derivative 3 with 99% hydrazine hydrate afforded the 5-aminopyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine derivative 9. Coupling of 9 with aromatic aldehydes yielded a series of 3,6-dimethyl-5-(4-substitutedbenzylideneamino-1-phenyl-1,5-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin- 4-ones 10a–e. The new compounds were tested for their antitumor activity on the MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line. Almost all the tested compounds revealed antitumor activity, especially 3,6-dimethyl-5-(4-nitrobenzylideneamino-1-phenyl-1,5-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one (10e which displayed the most potent inhibitory activity with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of 11 µM.

  3. Modification of potentially lethal damage in irradiated Chinese hamster V79 cells after incorporation of halogenated pyrimidines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, N. A.; van Bree, C. V.; Kipp, J. B.; Barendsen, G. W.

    1997-01-01

    Radiosensitization of exponentially growing and plateau phase Chinese hamster V79 cells by incorporation of halogenated pyrimidines (HP) was investigated for different culture conditions that influenced repair. For this purpose cells were grown for 72 h with 0, 1, 2 and 4 microM of chloro-(CldUrd),

  4. Pyrimidine dimers are not the principal pre-mutagenic lesions induced in lambda phage DNA by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine the role of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in the process of mutagenesis by ultraviolet light. Lambda phage DNA was irradiated with u.v. and then incubated with an Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme, which monomerizes cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers upon exposure to visible light. The photoreactivated DNA was packaged into lambda phage particles, which were used to infect E. coli uvr - host cells that had been induced for SOS functions by ultraviolet irradiation. Photoreactivation removed most toxic lesions from irradiated phage, but did not change the frequency of induction of mutations to the clear-plaque phenotype. This implies that cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers can be lethal, but usually do not serve as sites of mutations in the phage. The DNA sequences of mutants, derived from photoreactivated DNA showed that almost two-thirds (16/28) were transitions, the same fraction found for u.v. mutagenesis without photoreactivation. Thus the lesion inducing transitions is not the cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. Photoreactivation of SOS-induced host cells before infection with u.v.-irradiated phage reduced mutagenesis substantially. In this case, photoreversal of cyclobutyl dimers serves to reduce expression of the SOS functions that are required in targeted u.v. mutagenesis. (author)

  5. TD-DFT Investigation of the Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectra of Some Purine and Pyrimidine Bases of Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahleson, Tobias; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a computational study of the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra in the 200–300 nm wavelength region of purine and its derivative hypoxanthine, as well as of the pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids uracil, thymine, and cytosine, using the B3LYP and CAM–B3LYP functionals. Solvent...

  6. Ultraviolet-endonuclease activity in cell extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants defective in excision of pyrimidine dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekker, M.L.; Kaboev, O.K.; Akhmedov, A.T.; Luchkina, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Cell-free extracts of ultraviolet-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae defective in excision of pyrimidine dimers, rad1, rad2, rad3, rad4, rad10, and rad16, as well as the extracts of the wild-type strain RAD+, display ultraviolet-endonuclease activity

  7. Study of hydrogen mobility by hydrogen-deuterium exchange. II. Theoretical kinetic study in alkyl and amino-alkyl pyrimidines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompon, Alain

    1975-01-01

    Alkyl groups bound to the pyrimidine ring can be deuterium substituted on the carbon adjacent to the ring, in acidic D 2 O; kinetic equations corresponding to various exchange mechanism hypothesis are established. It is shown that theoretical and experimental results can be compared in order to precise the mechanism and to measure the characteristic parameters of the exchange reaction [fr

  8. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of polysubstituted pyrimidines as inhibitors of immune-activated nitric oxide production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Holý, Antonín; Dračínský, Martin; Kolman, Viktor; Janeba, Zlatko; Kmoníčková, Eva; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2015), s. 2154-2166 ISSN 1054-2523 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/0172; GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : pyrimidine * nitric oxide * NO * anti-inflammatory Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2015

  9. Consortium analysis of gene and gene–folate interactions in purine and pyrimidine metabolism pathways with ovarian carcinoma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Terry, Kathryn L; Goodman, Marc T

    2014-01-01

    SCOPE: We reevaluated previously reported associations between variants in pathways of one-carbon (1-C) (folate) transfer genes and ovarian carcinoma (OC) risk, and in related pathways of purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and assessed interactions with folate intake. METHODS AND RESULTS: Odds rat...

  10. Inhibition of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation in epidermal p53 gene of UV-irradiated mice by alpha-tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.; Barthelman, M.; Martinez, J.; Alberts, D.; Gensler, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    Mutations or alterations in the p53 gene have been observed in 50-100% of ultraviolet light (UV)-induced squamous cell carcinoma in humans and animals. Most of the mutations occurred at dipyrimidine sequences, suggesting that pyrimidine dimers in the p53 gene play a role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. We previously showed that topical alpha-tocopherol prevents UV-induced skin carcinogenesis in the mouse. In the present study we asked whether topical alpha-tocopherol reduces the level of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the murine epidermal p53 gene. Mice received six dorsal applications of 25 mg each of alpha-tocopherol, on alternate days, before exposure to 500 J/m2 of UV-B irradiation. Mice were killed at selected times after irradiation. The level of dimers in the epidermal p53 gene was measured using the T4 endonuclease V assay with quantitative Southern hybridization. Topical alpha-tocopherol caused a 55% reduction in the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the epidermal p53 gene. The rate of reduction of pyrimidine dimers between 1 and 10 hours after irradiation was similar in UV-irradiated mice, regardless of alpha-tocopherol treatment. Therefore, the lower level of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated mice treated with alpha-tocopherol than in control UV-irradiated mice resulted from the prevention of formation of the dimers, and not from enhanced repair of these lesions. Our results indicate that alpha-tocopherol acts as an effective sunscreen in vivo, preventing the formation of premutagenic DNA lesions in a gene known to be important in skin carcinogenesis

  11. Antitenascin antibody 81C6 armed with {sup 177}Lu: in vivo comparison of macrocyclic and acyclic ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, Alexander T. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Hens, Marc [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Pegram, Charles [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Bigner, Darell D. [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Zalutsky, Michael R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710 (United States)]. E-mail: zalut001@mc.duke.edu

    2007-02-15

    Introduction: When labeled with iodine-131, the antitenascin monoclonal antibody (mAb) 81C6 has shown promise as a targeted radiotherapeutic in patients with brain tumors. Because of its more favorable {gamma}-ray properties, lutetium-177 might be a better low-energy {beta}-emitter for this type of therapy. Materials and Methods: Chimeric 81C6 (ch81C6) was labeled with {sup 177}Lu using the acyclic 1B4M ligand and the macrocyclic ligands NHS-DOTA and MeO-DOTA and evaluated for binding to tenascin. Three paired-label tissue distribution experiments were performed in normal mice receiving one of the {sup 177}Lu-labeled immunoconjugates plus {sup 125}I-labeled ch81C6 labeled using Iodogen. Paired-label experiments in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous D54 MG human glioma xenografts were done to directly compare the biodistribution of ch81C6-1B4M-{sup 177}Lu and {sup 125}I-labeled ch81C6, and ch81C6-MeO-DOTA-{sup 177}Lu and {sup 125}I-labeled ch81C6. Similar comparisons were done using murine (mu) instead of ch81C6. The primary parameter utilized for evaluation was the {sup 177}Lu/{sup 125}I uptake ratio in each tissue. Results: In the studies performed in normal mice, the NHS-DOTA ligand yielded the highest {sup 177}Lu/{sup 125}I uptake ratios in tissues indicative of loss of label from the chelate; for this reason, only 1B4M and MeO-DOTA were evaluated further. The {sup 177}Lu/{sup 125}I ratio in bone increased gradually with time for the chimeric conjugates; however, there were no significant differences between ch81C6-1B4M-DTPA-{sup 177}Lu and ch81C6-MeO-DOTA-{sup 177}Lu. In contrast, mu81C6-1B4M-DTPA-{sup 177}Lu and mu81C6-MeO-DOTA-{sup 177}Lu showed a more dramatic increase in the {sup 177}Lu/{sup 125}I ratio in bone - from 2.4{+-}0.3 and 1.7{+-}0.2 at Day 1 to 8.5{+-}1.1 and 4.2{+-}0.5 at Day 7, respectively. Conclusion: With these antitenascin constructs, the nature of the mAb had a profound influence on the relative degree of loss of {sup 177}Lu from these

  12. Absolute total and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine at electron and proton intermediate impact velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Wania, E-mail: wania@if.ufrj.br; Luna, Hugo; Sigaud, Lucas; Montenegro, Eduardo C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PO 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tavares, Andre C. [Departamento de Física, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, PO 38071, Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-02-14

    Absolute total non-dissociative and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine were measured for electron impact energies ranging from 70 to 400 eV and for proton impact energies from 125 up to 2500 keV. MOs ionization induced by coulomb interaction were studied by measuring both ionization and partial dissociative cross sections through time of flight mass spectrometry and by obtaining the branching ratios for fragment formation via a model calculation based on the Born approximation. The partial yields and the absolute cross sections measured as a function of the energy combined with the model calculation proved to be a useful tool to determine the vacancy population of the valence MOs from which several sets of fragment ions are produced. It was also a key point to distinguish the dissociation regimes induced by both particles. A comparison with previous experimental results is also presented.

  13. Micrococcus luteus correndonucleases. II. Mechanism of action of two endonucleases specific for DNA containing pyrimidine dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riazuddin, S.; Grossman, L.

    1977-01-01

    Py--Py correndonucleases I and II from Micrococcus luteus act exclusively on thymine-thymine, cytosine-cytosine, and thymine-cytosine cyclobutyl dimers in DNA, catalyzing incision 5' to the damage and generating 3'-hydroxyl and 5'-phosphoryl termini. Both enzymes initiate excision of pyrimidine dimers in vitro by correxonucleases and DNA polymerase I. The respective incised DNAs, however, differ in their ability to act as substrate for phage T4 polynucleotide ligase or bacterial alkaline phosphatase, suggesting that each endonuclease is specific for a conformationally unique site. The possibility that their respective action generates termini which represent different degrees of single strandedness is suggested by the unequal protection by Escherichia coli binding protein from the hydrolytic action of exonuclease VII

  14. Repair of closely opposed cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in UV-sensitive human diploid fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, L.H.; Reynolds, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    An enzyme-sensitive site assay has been used to examine the fate of closely opposed pyrimidine dimers in fibroblasts from individuals afflicted with various genetic disorders that confer increased cellular sensitivity to UV radiation. The disappearance of bifilar enzyme-sensitive sites was found to be normal in cells from individuals with Fanconi's anemia, Cockayne's syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita and the variant form of xeroderma pigmentosum. The rate of bifilar enzyme-sensitive site removal in XP cells assigned to complementation group C was reduced by an amount similar to that observed for the repair of isolated dimers. Our results indicate that the initiation of repair at closely opposed dimers is slow in XP-C cells but normal in all other cells examined. (Auth.)

  15. Design, synthesis and antifungal activities of novel strobilurin derivatives containing pyrimidine moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang; Geo, Yongxin; Liu, Huijun; Guo, Baoyuan; Wang, Huili [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences/Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-15

    Strobilurins are one of the most important classes of agricultural fungicides. To discover new strobilurin derivatives with high activity against resistant pathogens, a series of novel β-methoxy acrylate analogues were designed and synthesized by integrating substituted pyrimidine with a strobilurin pharmacophore. The compounds were confirmed and characterized by infrared, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis and mass spectroscopy. The bioassays indicated that most of the compounds (1a-1h) exhibited potent antifungal activities against Colletotrichum orbicular, Botrytis cinerea Pers and Protoporphyria caps ici Leon ian at the concentration of 50 μg/mL. Exhilaratingly, compound 1d (R=3-trifluoromethylphenyl) showed better antifungal activity against all the tested fungi than the commercial stilbenetriol fungicide azoxystrobin.

  16. Syntheses and anti-microbial evaluation of new quinoline scaffold derived pyrimidine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha S. Dave

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of diversely substituted chalcones derived from a quinoline scaffold, e.g. (E-3-(2-chloroquinolin-3-yl-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl prop-2-en-1-one and its pyrimidine analogues e.g. 2-[2-amino-6-(2-chloroquinolin-3-yl-5,6-dihydropyrimidin-4-yl]phenols have been prepared by condensation of 2-chloro-3-formyl quinoline with differently substituted 2-hydroxy acetophenones and further treatment with guanidine carbonate. All the newly synthesized compounds have been evaluated for their in vitro growth inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus typhi, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas chrysogenum.

  17. 4-Aminoquinoline-pyrimidine hybrids: synthesis, antimalarial activity, heme binding and docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Khan, Shabana I; Tekwani, Babu L; Ponnan, Prija; Rawat, Diwan S

    2015-01-07

    A series of novel 4-aminoquinoline-pyrimidine hybrids has been synthesized and evaluated for their antimalarial activity. Several compounds showed promising in vitro antimalarial activity against both CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains with high selectivity index. All the compounds were found to be non-toxic to the mammalian cell lines. Selected compound 7g exhibited significant suppression of parasitemia in the in vivo assay. The heme binding studies were conducted to determine the mode of action of these hybrid molecules. These compounds form a stable 1:1 complex with hematin suggesting that heme may be one of the possible targets of these hybrids. The interaction of these conjugate hybrids was also investigated by the molecular docking studies in the binding site of PfDHFR. The pharmacokinetic property analysis of best active compounds was also studied using ADMET prediction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The relative cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and photoproducts in Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Moon-shong; Hrncir, J.; Mitchell, D.; Ross, J.; Clarkson, J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to calculate the relative cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and photoproducts, the authors have measured survival and mutation induction in UV-irradiated excision-deficient E. coli uvrA cells, with or without complete photoreactivation of the dimers. Radioimmunoassays with specificity for dimers or photoproducts have shown that maximum photoreactivation eliminates all of the dimers produce up to 10 Jm -2 254-nm light, while it has no effect on photoproducts. These results were confirmed by measuring the frequency of T4 endonuclease V-sensitive sites. Based on the best fit equations for survival and mutation induction, the authors have found that the calculated cytotoxicity of photoproducts is similar to that of dimers; however, the former is much more mutagenic than the latter. (Auth.)

  19. Enhanced DNA repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers changes the biological response to UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarosh, Daniel B

    2002-11-30

    The goal of DNA repair enzyme therapy is the same as that for gene therapy: to rescue a defective proteome/genome by introducing a substitute protein/DNA. The danger of inadequate DNA repair is highlighted in the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum. These patients are hypersensitive to sunlight and develop multiple cutaneous neoplasms very early in life. The bacterial DNA repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V was shown over 25 years ago to be capable of reversing the defective repair in xeroderma pigmentosum cells. This enzyme, packaged in an engineered delivery vehicle, has been shown to traverse the stratum corneum, reach the nuclei of living cells of the skin, and enhance the repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). In such a system, changes in DNA repair, mutagenesis, and cell signaling can be studied without manipulation of the genome.

  20. Photoreactivation of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of normal and xeroderma pigmentosum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, B.M.; Oliver, R.; Fuselier, C.O.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Photoproducts formed in the DNA of human cells irradiated with ultraviolet light (uv) were identified as cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers by their chromatographic mobility, reversibility to monomers upon short wavelength uv irradiation, and comparison of the kinetics of this monomerization with that of authentic cis--syn thymine--thymine dimers prepared by irradiation of thymine in ice. The level of cellular photoreactivation of these dimers reflects the level of photoreactivating enzyme measured in cell extracts. Action spectra for cellular dimer photoreactivation in the xeroderma pigmentosum line XP12BE agree in range (300 nm to at least 577 nm) and maximum (near 400 nm) with that for photoreactivation by purified human photoreactivating enzyme. Normal human cells can also photoreactivate dimers in their DNA. The action spectrum for the cellular monomerization of dimers is similar to that for photoreactivation by the photoreactivating enzyme in extracts of normal human fibroblasts

  1. One pyrimidine dimer inactivates expression of a transfected gene in xeroderma pigmentosum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protic-Sabljic, M.; Kraemer, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have developed a host cell reactivation assay of DNA repair utilizing UV-treated plasmid vectors. The assay primarily reflects cellular repair of transcriptional activity of damaged DNA measured indirectly as enzyme activity of the transfected genes. They studied three plasmids (pSV2cat, 5020 base pairs; pSV2catSVgpt, 7268 base pairs; and pRSVcat, 5027 base pairs) with different sizes and promoters carrying the bacterial cat gene (CAT, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) in a construction that permits cat expression in human cells. All human simian virus 40-transformed cells studied expressed high levels of the transfected cat gene. UV treatment of the plasmids prior to transfection resulted in differential decrease in CAT activity in different cell lines. With pSV2catSVgpt, UV inactivation of CAT expression was greater in the xeroderma pigmentosum group A and D lines than in the other human cell lines tested. The D 0 of the CAT inactivation curve was 50 J X m-2 for pSV2cat and for pRSVcat in the xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells. The similarity of the D0 data in the xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells for three plasmids of different size and promoters implies they all have similar UV-inactivation target size. UV-induced pyrimidine dimer formation in the plasmids was quantified by assay of the number of UV-induced T4 endonuclease V-sensitive sites. In the most sensitive xeroderma pigmentosum cells, with all three plasmids, one UV-induced pyrimidine dimer inactivates a target of about 2 kilobases, close to the size of the putative CAT mRNA

  2. One-electron oxidation reactions of purine and pyrimidine bases in cellular DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J Richard; Shafirovich, Vladimir; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this survey is to critically review the available information on one-electron oxidation reactions of nucleobases in cellular DNA with emphasis on damage induced through the transient generation of purine and pyrimidine radical cations. Since the indirect effect of ionizing radiation mediated by hydroxyl radical is predominant in cells, efforts have been made to selectively ionize bases using suitable one-electron oxidants that consist among others of high intensity UVC laser pulses. Thus, the main oxidation product in cellular DNA was found to be 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine as a result of direct bi-photonic ionization of guanine bases and indirect formation of guanine radical cations through hole transfer reactions from other base radical cations. The formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine and other purine and pyrimidine degradation products was rationalized in terms of the initial generation of related radical cations followed by either hydration or deprotonation reactions in agreement with mechanistic pathways inferred from detailed mechanistic studies. The guanine radical cation has been shown to be implicated in three other nucleophilic additions that give rise to DNA-protein and DNA-DNA cross-links in model systems. Evidence was recently provided for the occurrence of these three reactions in cellular DNA. There is growing evidence that one-electron oxidation reactions of nucleobases whose mechanisms have been characterized in model studies involving aqueous solutions take place in a similar way in cells. It may also be pointed out that the above cross-linked lesions are only produced from the guanine radical cation and may be considered as diagnostic products of the direct effect of ionizing radiation.

  3. MD study of pyrimidine base damage on DNA and its recognition by repair enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, M.

    2000-01-01

    The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used on the study of two specific damages of pyrimidine bases of DNA. Pyrimidine bases are major targets either of free radicals induced by ionizing radiation in DNA surrounding environment or UV radiation. Thymine dimer (TD) is UV induced damage, in which two neighboring thymines in one strand are joined by covalent bonds of C(5)-C(5) and C(6)-C(6) atoms of thymines. Thymine glycol (TG) is ionizing radiation induced damage in which the free water radical adds to unsaturated bond C(5)-C(6) of thymine. Both damages are experimentally suggested to be mutagenetic and carcinogenic unless properly repaired by repair enzymes. In the case of MD of TD, there is detected strong kink around the TD site that is not observed in native DNA. In addition there is observed the different value of electrostatic energy at the TD site - negative '-10 kcal/mol', in contrary to nearly neutral value of native thymine site. Structural changes and specific electrostatic energy - seems to be important for proper recognition of TD damaged site, formation of DNA-enzyme complex and thus for subsequent repair of DNA. In the case of TG damaged DNA there is major structural distortion at the TG site, mainly the increased distance between TG and the C5' of adjacent nucleotide. This enlarged gap between the neighboring nucleotides may prevent the insertion of complementary base during replication causing the replication process to stop. In which extend this structural feature together with energy properties of TG contributes to the proper recognition of TG by repair enzyme Endonuclease III is subject of further computational MD study. (author)

  4. Pharmacogenetic characterization of naturally occurring germline NT5C1A variants to chemotherapeutic nucleoside analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Jason; Zabriskie, Ryan; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Powell, Bradford C; Hicks, Stephanie; Kimmel, Marek; Meng, Qingchang; Ritter, Deborah I; Wheeler, David A; Gibbs, Richard A; Tsai, Francis T F; Plon, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations or alteration in expression of the 5’ nucleotidase gene family can confer altered responses to treatment with nucleoside analogs. While investigating leukemia susceptibility genes, we discovered a very rare p.L254P NT5C1A missense variant in the substrate recognition motif. Given the paucity of cellular drug response data from NT5C1A germline variation, we characterized p.L254P and eight rare variants of NT5C1A from genomic databases. Methods Through lentiviral infection, we created HEK293 cell lines that stably overexpress wildtype NT5C1A, p.L254P, or eight NT5C1A variants reported in the NHLBI Exome Variant server (one truncating and seven missense). IC50 values were determined by cytotoxicity assays after exposure to chemotherapeutic nucleoside analogs (Cladribine, Gemcitabine, 5-Fluorouracil). In addition, we used structure-based homology modeling to generate a 3D model for the C-terminal region of NT5C1A. Results The p.R180X (truncating), p.A214T, and p.L254P missense changes were the only variants that significantly impaired protein function across all nucleotide analogs tested (>5-fold difference versus WT; p<.05). Several of the remaining variants individually displayed differential effects (both more and less resistant) across the analogs tested. The homology model provided a structural framework to understand the impact of NT5C1A mutants on catalysis and drug processing. The model predicted active site residues within NT5C1A motif III and we experimentally confirmed that p.K314 (not p.K320) is required for NT5C1A activity. Conclusion We characterized germline variation and predicted protein structures of NT5C1A. Individual missense changes showed substantial variation in response to the different nucleoside analogs tested, which may impact patients’ responses to treatment. PMID:26906009

  5. Analysis of the Main Nucleosides in Cordyceps Sinensis by LC/ESI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Biao He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive, selective and reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with electrospray ionization interface method for simultaneous separation and determination of thymine, adenine, adenosine and cordycepin in Cordyceps sinensis has been established. The optimum separation for these analytes was achieved using a gradient elution system and a 2.0 × 150 mm Shimadzu VP-ODS column. 2-Chloroadenosine was used as internal standard for this assay. [M+H]+ions at m/z 127, 136, 268, 252 and 302 were chosen and selective ion monitoring (SIM mode was used for quantitative analysis of the four main nucleosides. The regression equations were linear in the range of 1.0–117.5 μg·mL-1 for thymine, 1.8-127.0 μg·mL-1 for adenine, 0.6-114.0 μg·mL-1 for adenosine and 0.5-107.5 μg·mL-1 for cordycepin. The limits of quantitation (LOQ and detection (LOD were 1.0 and 0.2 μg·mL-1 for thymine, 1.8 and 0.6 μg·mL-1 for adenine, 0.6 and 0.1 μg·mL-1 for adenosine and 0.5 and 0.1 μg·mL-1 for cordycepin, respectively. The recoveries of the four nucleosides ranged from 98.47 to 99.32%. The developed method was successfully used to determine nucleosides in Cordyceps sinensis from different sources.

  6. Absence of a Universal Mechanism of Mitochondrial Toxicity by Nucleoside Analogs▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Kaleb C.; Peterson, LaRae L.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2007-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs are associated with various mitochondrial toxicities, and it is becoming increasingly difficult to accommodate these differences solely in the context of DNA polymerase gamma inhibition. Therefore, we examined the toxicities of zidovudine (AZT) (10 and 50 μM; 2.7 and 13.4 μg/ml), didanosine (ddI) (10 and 50 μM; 2.4 and 11.8 μg/ml), and zalcitabine (ddC) (1 and 5 μM; 0.21 and 1.1 μg/ml) in HepG2 and H9c2 cells without the presumption of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) (0.5 μg/ml; 1.3 μM) was used as a positive control. AZT treatment resulted in metabolic disruption (increased lactate and superoxide) and increased cell mortality with decreased proliferation, while mtDNA remained unchanged or increased (HepG2 cells; 50 μM AZT). ddC caused pronounced mtDNA depletion in HepG2 cells but not in H9c2 cells and increased mortality in HepG2 cells, but no significant metabolic disruption in either cell type. ddI caused a moderate depletion of mtDNA in both cell types but showed no other effects. EtBr exposure resulted in metabolic disruption, increased cell mortality with decreased cell proliferation, and mtDNA depletion in both cell types. We conclude that nucleoside analogs display unique toxicities within and between culture models, and therefore, care should be taken when generalizing about the mechanisms of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor toxicity. Additionally, mtDNA abundance does not necessarily correlate with metabolic disruption, especially in cell culture; careful discernment is recommended in this regard. PMID:17470651

  7. Absence of a universal mechanism of mitochondrial toxicity by nucleoside analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Kaleb C; Peterson, LaRae L; Wallace, Kendall B

    2007-07-01

    Nucleoside analogs are associated with various mitochondrial toxicities, and it is becoming increasingly difficult to accommodate these differences solely in the context of DNA polymerase gamma inhibition. Therefore, we examined the toxicities of zidovudine (AZT) (10 and 50 microM; 2.7 and 13.4 microg/ml), didanosine (ddI) (10 and 50 microM; 2.4 and 11.8 microg/ml), and zalcitabine (ddC) (1 and 5 microM; 0.21 and 1.1 microg/ml) in HepG2 and H9c2 cells without the presumption of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) (0.5 microg/ml; 1.3 microM) was used as a positive control. AZT treatment resulted in metabolic disruption (increased lactate and superoxide) and increased cell mortality with decreased proliferation, while mtDNA remained unchanged or increased (HepG2 cells; 50 microM AZT). ddC caused pronounced mtDNA depletion in HepG2 cells but not in H9c2 cells and increased mortality in HepG2 cells, but no significant metabolic disruption in either cell type. ddI caused a moderate depletion of mtDNA in both cell types but showed no other effects. EtBr exposure resulted in metabolic disruption, increased cell mortality with decreased cell proliferation, and mtDNA depletion in both cell types. We conclude that nucleoside analogs display unique toxicities within and between culture models, and therefore, care should be taken when generalizing about the mechanisms of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor toxicity. Additionally, mtDNA abundance does not necessarily correlate with metabolic disruption, especially in cell culture; careful discernment is recommended in this regard.

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a nucleoside kinase from the hyperthermophile Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnfors, Linda; Hansen, Thomas; Meining, Winfried; Schönheit, Peter; Ladenstein, Rudolf

    2005-01-01

    Nucleoside kinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon M. jannaschii is a member of the PFK-B family which belongs to the ribokinase superfamily. Here, its expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis are described. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii nucleoside kinase (MjNK) is an ATP-dependent non-allosteric phosphotransferase that shows high catalytic activity for guanosine, inosine and cytidine. MjNK is a member of the phosphofructokinase B family, but participates in the biosynthesis of nucleoside monophosphates rather than in glycolysis. MjNK was crystallized as the apoenzyme as well as in complex with an ATP analogue and Mg 2+ . The latter crystal form was also soaked with fructose-6-phosphate. Synchrotron-radiation data were collected to 1.70 Å for the apoenzyme crystals and 1.93 Å for the complex crystals. All crystals exhibit orthorhombic symmetry; however, the apoenzyme crystals contain one monomer per asymmetric unit whereas the complex crystals contain a dimer

  9. The identification and characterization of non-coding and coding RNAs and their modified nucleosides by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ribonucleic acids (RNA) by mass spectrometry has been a valuable analytical approach for more than 25 years. In fact, mass spectrometry has become a method of choice for the analysis of modified nucleosides from RNA isolated out of biological samples. This review summarizes recent progress that has been made in both nucleoside and oligonucleotide mass spectral analysis. Applications of mass spectrometry in the identification, characterization and quantification of modified nucleosides are discussed. At the oligonucleotide level, advances in modern mass spectrometry approaches combined with the standard RNA modification mapping protocol enable the characterization of RNAs of varying lengths ranging from low molecular weight short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to the extremely large 23 S rRNAs. New variations and improvements to this protocol are reviewed, including top-down strategies, as these developments now enable qualitative and quantitative measurements of RNA modification patterns in a variety of biological systems. PMID:25616408

  10. The identification and characterization of non-coding and coding RNAs and their modified nucleosides by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Kirk W; Limbach, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ribonucleic acids (RNA) by mass spectrometry has been a valuable analytical approach for more than 25 years. In fact, mass spectrometry has become a method of choice for the analysis of modified nucleosides from RNA isolated out of biological samples. This review summarizes recent progress that has been made in both nucleoside and oligonucleotide mass spectral analysis. Applications of mass spectrometry in the identification, characterization and quantification of modified nucleosides are discussed. At the oligonucleotide level, advances in modern mass spectrometry approaches combined with the standard RNA modification mapping protocol enable the characterization of RNAs of varying lengths ranging from low molecular weight short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to the extremely large 23 S rRNAs. New variations and improvements to this protocol are reviewed, including top-down strategies, as these developments now enable qualitative and quantitative measurements of RNA modification patterns in a variety of biological systems.

  11. Enhancement of radiation-induced base release from nucleosides in alkaline solution: essential role of the O.- radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholes, M.L.; Schuchmann, M.N.; Sonntag, C. von

    1992-01-01

    The effect of pH on base release in the γ-radiolysis of N 2 O-saturated solutions of a number of nucleosides (including uridine, 3-methyluridine, 2', 3' -O-isopropylidene-uridine, and adenosine) has been investigated. For all these nucleosides, independent of the base or sugar moiety, base release is very low at pH below 10 (G∼(0.3-0.7) x 10 -7 mol J -1 ), but increases drastically to G∼(3-4) x 10 -7 mol J -1 at pH ≥ 13. It is concluded that the increase in base release at high pH is caused by the increasing participation of O .- , which, unlike . OH, attacks the nucleosides preferentially at their sugar moieties, and is not due to an OH - -induced radical transfer from the base to the sugar moiety. (author)

  12. Cu(I)-catalyzed efficient synthesis of 2′-Triazolo-nucleoside conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, D.; Rana, N.; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2015-01-01

    -nucleoside conjugates, which can be evaluated for different biological activity for suitable drug development, were unambiguously identified on the basis of 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and HRMS data analysis. These compounds have been synthesized for the first time and have not been reported in the literature earlier.......A small library of thirty-two 2′-triazolyl uridine and 2′-triazolyl-5-methyluridine has been synthesized by Cu(I)-catalyzed condensation of 2′-azido-2′-deoxyuridine and 2′-azido-2′-deoxy-5-methyluridine with different alkynes and aryl propargyl ethers in almost quantitative yields. Triazolo...

  13. Biophysical Insights into the Inhibitory Mechanism of Non-Nucleoside HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Sluis-Cremer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT plays a central role in HIV infection. Current United States Federal Drug Administration (USFDA-approved antiretroviral therapies can include one of five approved non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs, which are potent inhibitors of RT activity. Despite their crucial clinical role in treating and preventing HIV-1 infection, their mechanism of action remains elusive. In this review, we introduce RT and highlight major advances from experimental and computational biophysical experiments toward an understanding of RT function and the inhibitory mechanism(s of NNRTIs.

  14. Evaluation of localized bacterial infection using radioisotope-labeled nucleosides imaging modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Kyo Chul; An, Gwang II; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Conventional diagnostic methods for infections are difficult to distinguish localized bacterial infections from sites of sterile inflammation. For this reason, the importance of developing methods to image bacterial infections is widely recognized. In this study to acquire bacterial infection imaging with radiolabeled nucleosides, in vitro bacterial thymidine kinase (tk) activities of Salmonella typhimurium with [{sup 18}F]FLT and [{sup 125}I]IVDU were measured and localized infections model in BALB/c mice was imaged with [{sup 18}F]FLT or [{sup 125}I]FIAU

  15. Template-directed addition of nucleosides to DNA by the BfiI restriction enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Connolly, Bernard A.; Halford, Stephen E.; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2008-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases catalyse DNA cleavage at specific sites. The BfiI endonuclease cuts DNA to give staggered ends with 1-nt 3′-extensions. We show here that BfiI can also fill in the staggered ends: while cleaving DNA, it can add a 2′-deoxynucleoside to the reaction product to yield directly a blunt-ended DNA. We propose that nucleoside incorporation proceeds through a two-step reaction, in which BfiI first cleaves the DNA to make a covalent enzyme–DNA intermediate and then resolves it...

  16. Conformationally constrained nucleoside phosphonic acids - potent inhibitors of human mitochondrial and cytosolic 5'(3')-nucleotidases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimák, Ondřej; Pachl, Petr; Fábry, Milan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Jandušík, T.; Hnízda, Aleš; Skleničková, Radka; Petrová, Magdalena; Veverka, Václav; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Brynda, Jiří; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 40 (2014), s. 7971-7982 ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0820; GA ČR GA13-24880S; GA ČR GA13-26526S; GA MŠk(CZ) LK11205; GA AV ČR KAN200520801 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : 5'(3')-nucleotidase * structure * inhibition * cdN * mdN * nucleoside * SAR * phosphonic acid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.562, year: 2014

  17. Synthesis and in vitro growth inhibitory activity of novel silyl- and trityl-modified nucleosides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Panayides, Jenny-Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available -Farkas d, Hajierah Davids d,e , Leonie Harmse d , M. E. Christine Rey f , Ivan R. Green g, Stephen C. Pelly g, Robert Kiss c, Alexander Kornienko h, Willem A. L. van Otterlo a,g,⇑ a Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University..., Matieland 7602, South Africa hDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA Abstract Seventeen silyl- and trityl-modified (5'-O- and 3',5'-di-O-) nucleosides were synthesized with the aim of investigating...

  18. Synthesis and Crystal Structure Determination of a Nickel(II Complex of an Acyclic Pentadentate (N5 Mono Schiff Base Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Parish

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetrical tripodal tetraamine ligand N[(CH23NH2]2[(CH22NH2] (ppe was condensed with 2-acetylpyridine in the presence of nickel(II ion. In ethanolwater solution the reaction stops after the first stage of condensation, and a new nickel(II complex of an acyclic pentadentate (N5 mono Schiff base ligand was obtained. X-ray structure analysis of the resulting complex, [Ni(ppe-py(H2O](ClO42, indicates that condensation with 2-acetylpyridine is at the propylene chain of ppe. The geometry around the nickel ion is distorted octahedral in which the sixth co-ordination group is a solvent molecule.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of an Acyclic Isoprenoid from Semecarpus anacardium Linn. and its Antibacterial Potential in vitro - Antimicrobial Activity of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Seeds -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyakkannu Purushothaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Semecarpus anacardium Linn. is a plant well-known for its antimicrobial, antidiabetic and anti-arthritic properties in the Ayurvedic and Siddha system of medicine. This has prompted the screening of this plant for antibacterial activity. The main aims of this study were to isolate compounds from the plant’s seeds and to evaluate their antibacterial effects on clinical bacterial test strains. Methods: The n-butanolic concentrate of the seed extract was subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC and repeated silica gel column chromatography followed by elution with various solvents. The compound was identified based on observed spectral (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry data. The well diffusion method was employed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the isolated acyclic isoprenoid compound (final concentration: 5 - 15 μg/mL on four test bacterial strains, namely, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96, Bacillus cereus

  20. Two-dimensional condensation of pyrimidine oligonucleotides during their self-assemblies at mercury based surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hason, Stanislav [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. Kralovopolska 135, CZ-612 65 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: hasons@ibp.cz; Vetterl, Vladimir [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. Kralovopolska 135, CZ-612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Fojta, Miroslav [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. Kralovopolska 135, CZ-612 65 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: fojta@ibp.cz

    2008-02-15

    For the first time it is shown that homopyrimidine oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) adsorbed at mercury or amalgam electrode surface can condensate upon applying negative potentials (around -1.35 V vs. Ag/AgCl/3M KCl). This 2D condensation resulted in formation of capacitance pits on the C-E curves resembling those observed earlier with monomeric nucleic acid bases, nucleosides and nucleotides. Differences in behavior of the condensed layers of dT{sub 30} and dC{sub 30} ODNs, reflecting different physico-chemical and electrochemical properties of thymine and cytosine, were observed. Formation of the ODN condensed film involved reorientation of the oligonucleotide molecules firmly adsorbed at the electrode and took place even in the absence of any ODN in the bulk of solution. Homopurine ODNs did not form these two-dimensional (2D) condensed monolayers under the same conditions. A preliminary thermodynamic analysis of the condensed ODN layers is presented.

  1. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiwamoto, R., E-mail: reiko.kiwamoto@wur.nl; Spenkelink, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Punt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Physiologically based in silico models were made for 18 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. • Kinetic parameters were determined by in vitro incubations and a QSAR approach. • DNA adduct formation was negligible at levels relevant for dietary intake. • The use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling facilitates group evaluations and read-across.

  2. Photorepair and excision repair removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts in the tail fin of the Medaka, Oryzias latipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funayama, Tomoo; Mitani, Hiroshi; Shima, Akihiro; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Matsunaga, Tsukasa; Nikaido, Osamu.

    1994-01-01

    Induction and repair of UV-B induced DNA damage in the tail fin of the Medaka, were examined immunohistochemically and by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). UV-induced DNA damage was detected only in the outermost layer of epithelial cells and did not differ in fishes having different degree of melanization. Both pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts in the fin cells were removed by excision repair in the dark, the excision of (6-4) photoproducts being about twice as efficient as that of pyrimidine dimers. The rate of excision repair of UV-induced lesions in fin tissue was three to four times that in cultured Medaka cells, OL32.. In the fin cells, reductions in the numbers of pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts were seen after treatment with fluorescent light, whereas less reductions of pyrimidine dimers and no reductions of (6-4) photoproducts were observed in OL32 cells. (author)

  3. Effects of tritium-labeled pyrimidine nucleosides on epithelial cell proliferation in the mouse. I. Cytodynamic perturbations in normal circadian rhythms after a single injection of 3H-thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, L.

    1976-01-01

    In a combined stathmokinetic, autoradiographic, and microspectrophotometric study on the cytodynamics in mouse epidermis, cirdardian rhythms were observed in the number of cells within the various phases (except G 2 ) of the mitotic cell cycle, and in mitotic rate. S-Phase influx and efflux were computed and were found to vary during a 24-hr period. No diurnal rhythm was observed in mitotic rate in the epithelium of small intestine. 3 H-Thymidine (1 μCi/g; sp act 5 Ci/mmol) induced mitotic delay in labeled cells 2 to 8 hr after administration. A supranormal mitotic activity in unlabeled cells was observed 12 to 24 hr after injection of 3 H-TdR. ''Cold'' thymidine had no effects on epidermal cell proliferation. S-Phase duration and average cell cycle time were estimated by traditional cell kinetic methods. The results suggest a 3 H-TdR-induced synchrony in cells entering the S phase 0 to 15 hr after injection of the precursor. A mitotic delay was seen in small intestinal epithelium 2 to 6 hr after injection of the precursor

  4. The Synthesis and Study of New Ribavirin Derivatives and Related Nucleoside Azole Carboxamides as Agents Active against RNA Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    of the nitrate salt or degradation of the starting heterocycle. An alternate procedure for obtaining aromatic nitro compounds is the oxidation of the...SAcO OAc AcO OAc RO OR S102 99103, R-Ac 1--04, RC H -OH N HcO 0 cOY RO ᝹ HO O Ac RO OR 102 0_6 103, R - Ac 108, R = H 6- mercaptopurine riboside...occurring C-nucleoside antibiotic and unlike N-nucleosides, formycin B will not suffer enzymatic cleavage * 29 and degradation by phosphorolysis

  5. [Determination of 5 nucleosides components in culture of Paecilomyces hepialid by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Ma, Yun-shu; Huang, Ting-ting; Chen, Cheng

    2015-08-01

    The concentration of 5 nucleosides, uracil, uridine, guanidine, adenine and adenosine in culture of Paecilomyces hepialid was determined by the developed method of HPLC. The HPLC method was performed on a Waters SunFire C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) column with methanol-water gradient elution as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 260 nm and the colunmn temperature was controlled at 30 °C. The linear range was 10.00-200.00 mg · L(-1) (r = 0.9994) for uracil, 10.10-202.00 mg · L(-1) (r = 0.9992) for uridine, 10.00-200.00 mg · L(-1) (r = 0.9991) for guanidine, 10.30-206.00 mg · L(-1) (r = 0.9992) for adenine and 10.45-209.00 mg · L(-1) (r = 0.9991) for adenosine, respectively. The RSD of precision was 0.032%, 0.035%, 0.039%, 0.049%, 0.00080%, respectively. The average recoveries of uracil, guanidine, adenine, and adenosine were 97.34%, 99.10%, 101.6%, 98.61% and 100.2% with RSD of 1.3%, 2.1%, 0.96%, 0.95%, and 1.3% respectively. The method showed high sensitivity, good selectivity, linearity and repeatability, which was suitable for the content analysis of 5 nucleosides components in P. hepialid and its extracts.

  6. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez Barroso, J. A.; Pereira, H.; Miranda, M.; Pereira, C.; Garratt, R. C.; Aguilar, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    T. cruzi TcNDPK1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminally poly-His-tagged fusion protein and crystallized. The flagellated protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease. Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are enzymes that are involved in energy management and nucleoside balance in the cell. T. cruzi TcNDPK1, a canonical isoform, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminally poly-His-tagged fusion protein and crystallized. Crystals grew after 72 h in 0.2 M MgCl 2 , 20% PEG 3350. Data were collected to 3.5 Å resolution using synchrotron X-ray radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The crystals belonged to the trigonal space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 127.84, c = 275.49 Å. Structure determination is under way and will provide relevant information that may lead to the first step in rational drug design for the treatment of Chagas disease

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X ray analysis of nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1 from T. cruzi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Barroso, J.A.; Aguilar, C.F.; Miranda, M.R.; Pereira, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. The Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are enzymes involved in energy management and nucleoside balance in the cell. T. cruzi TcNDPK1, a canonical isoform. The objective of this work is obtaining protein's crystals, diffract and process the data for tridimensional structure resolution. Materials and Methods: TcNDPK1 was expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein with Nterminal His-tag. TcNDPK1 was overexpressed and purified by FPLC. Crystallization was assayed by sitting drop and hanging drop vapor diffusion method. Crystals was frozen and diffracted on synchrotron x-ray radiation in Campinas (Brasil). The data set collected was reduced and merged using MOSFLM and SCALA programs. Results and Discussion: His-TcNDPK was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals are diffracted and collected the data to 3.5A. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3, with unit cell parameters a=127.94, b=127.84, c=275.49. Structure determination is under way. These results will provide relevant information that could be the first step in rational drug design for treating Chagas disease.(authors)

  8. Methylated nucleosides in tRNA and tRNA methyltransferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eHori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To date, more than 90 modified nucleosides have been found in tRNA and the biosynthetic pathways of the majority of tRNA modifications include a methylation step(s. Recent studies of the biosynthetic pathways have demonstrated that the availability of methyl group donors for the methylation in tRNA is important for correct and efficient protein synthesis. In this review, I focus on the methylated nucleosides and tRNA methyltransferases. The primary functions of tRNA methylations are linked to the different steps of protein synthesis, such as the stabilization of tRNA structure, reinforcement of the codon–anticodon interaction, regulation of wobble base pairing, and prevention of frameshift errors. However, beyond these basic functions, recent studies have demonstrated that tRNA methylations are also involved in the RNA quality control system and regulation of tRNA localization in the cell. In a thermophilic eubacterium, tRNA modifications and the modification enzymes form a network that responses to temperature changes. Furthermore, several modifications are involved in genetic diseases, infections, and the immune response. Moreover, structural, biochemical, and bioinformatics studies of tRNA methyltransferases have been clarifying the details of tRNA methyltransferases and have enabled these enzymes to be classified. In the final section, the evolution of modification enzymes is discussed.

  9. Identification of a nucleoside analog active against adenosine kinase–expressing plasma cell malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Jouliana; Hernandez-Hopkins, Denise; Akar, Gunkut; Barelli, Peter J.; Sahai, Michelle A.; Zhou, Hufeng; Totonchy, Jennifer; Jayabalan, David; Niesvizky, Ruben; Guasparri, Ilaria; Liu, Yifang; Sei, Shizuko; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Elemento, Olivier; Kaye, Kenneth M.

    2017-01-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a largely incurable malignancy of B cell origin with plasmacytic differentiation. Here, we report the identification of a highly effective inhibitor of PEL. This compound, 6-ethylthioinosine (6-ETI), is a nucleoside analog with toxicity to PEL in vitro and in vivo, but not to other lymphoma cell lines tested. We developed and performed resistome analysis, an unbiased approach based on RNA sequencing of resistant subclones, to discover the molecular mechanisms of sensitivity. We found different adenosine kinase–inactivating (ADK-inactivating) alterations in all resistant clones and determined that ADK is required to phosphorylate and activate 6-ETI. Further, we observed that 6-ETI induces ATP depletion and cell death accompanied by S phase arrest and DNA damage only in ADK-expressing cells. Immunohistochemistry for ADK served as a biomarker approach to identify 6-ETI–sensitive tumors, which we documented for other lymphoid malignancies with plasmacytic features. Notably, multiple myeloma (MM) expresses high levels of ADK, and 6-ETI was toxic to MM cell lines and primary specimens and had a robust antitumor effect in a disseminated MM mouse model. Several nucleoside analogs are effective in treating leukemias and T cell lymphomas, and 6-ETI may fill this niche for the treatment of PEL, plasmablastic lymphoma, MM, and other ADK-expressing cancers. PMID:28504647

  10. Identification of a nucleoside analog active against adenosine kinase-expressing plasma cell malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Utthara; Sadek, Jouliana; Reichel, Jonathan; Hernandez-Hopkins, Denise; Akar, Gunkut; Barelli, Peter J; Sahai, Michelle A; Zhou, Hufeng; Totonchy, Jennifer; Jayabalan, David; Niesvizky, Ruben; Guasparri, Ilaria; Hassane, Duane; Liu, Yifang; Sei, Shizuko; Shoemaker, Robert H; Warren, J David; Elemento, Olivier; Kaye, Kenneth M; Cesarman, Ethel

    2017-06-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a largely incurable malignancy of B cell origin with plasmacytic differentiation. Here, we report the identification of a highly effective inhibitor of PEL. This compound, 6-ethylthioinosine (6-ETI), is a nucleoside analog with toxicity to PEL in vitro and in vivo, but not to other lymphoma cell lines tested. We developed and performed resistome analysis, an unbiased approach based on RNA sequencing of resistant subclones, to discover the molecular mechanisms of sensitivity. We found different adenosine kinase-inactivating (ADK-inactivating) alterations in all resistant clones and determined that ADK is required to phosphorylate and activate 6-ETI. Further, we observed that 6-ETI induces ATP depletion and cell death accompanied by S phase arrest and DNA damage only in ADK-expressing cells. Immunohistochemistry for ADK served as a biomarker approach to identify 6-ETI-sensitive tumors, which we documented for other lymphoid malignancies with plasmacytic features. Notably, multiple myeloma (MM) expresses high levels of ADK, and 6-ETI was toxic to MM cell lines and primary specimens and had a robust antitumor effect in a disseminated MM mouse model. Several nucleoside analogs are effective in treating leukemias and T cell lymphomas, and 6-ETI may fill this niche for the treatment of PEL, plasmablastic lymphoma, MM, and other ADK-expressing cancers.

  11. An Analysis of Enzyme Kinetics Data for Mitochondrial DNA Strand Termination by Nucleoside Reverse Transcription Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelsdorf, Katherine V.; Song, Zhuo; Cao, Yang; Samuels, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs used in antiretroviral treatment have been associated with mitochondrial toxicity. The polymerase-γ hypothesis states that this toxicity stems from the analogs' inhibition of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase (polymerase-γ) leading to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. We have constructed a computational model of the interaction of polymerase-γ with activated nucleoside and nucleotide analog drugs, based on experimentally measured reaction rates and base excision rates, together with the mtDNA genome size, the human mtDNA sequence, and mitochondrial dNTP concentrations. The model predicts an approximately 1000-fold difference in the activated drug concentration required for a 50% probability of mtDNA strand termination between the activated di-deoxy analogs d4T, ddC, and ddI (activated to ddA) and the activated forms of the analogs 3TC, TDF, AZT, FTC, and ABC. These predictions are supported by experimental and clinical data showing significantly greater mtDNA depletion in cell culture and patient samples caused by the di-deoxy analog drugs. For zidovudine (AZT) we calculated a very low mtDNA replication termination probability, in contrast to its reported mitochondrial toxicity in vitro and clinically. Therefore AZT mitochondrial toxicity is likely due to a mechanism that does not involve strand termination of mtDNA replication. PMID:19132079

  12. Crystal structure of 1-methyl-4-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed El Fal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C7H8N4S, the non-H atoms of the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine ring system and the methylsulfanyl group lie on a crystallographic mirror plane. In the crystal, molecules are linked via a number of π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distances vary from 3.452 (7 to 3.6062 (8 Å], forming a three-dimensional structure.

  13. Novel N-(pyrimidin-4-ylthiazol-2-amine derivatives as dual-action hypoglycemic agents that activate GK and PPARγ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-peng Song

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel N-(pyrimidin-4-ylthiazol-2-amine derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated as glucokinase (GK activators. Ethyl 2-(6-(4-(2-hydroxyethylpiperazin-1-yl-2-methylpyrimidin-4-yl-aminothiazole-5-carboxylate was found to be a potent dual-acting hypoglycemic agent activating both GK and PPARγ. When given orally to normal mice, the compound demonstrated significant efficacy in decreasing the glucose level after oral glucose loading.

  14. Analgesic Activity of Some 1,2,4-Triazole Heterocycles Clubbed with Pyrazole, Tetrazole, Isoxazole and Pyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdas Bhanudas Pandhare

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study in vivo analgesic activity of some previously synthesized 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine ring have been evaluated. Methods: Acetic acid induced writhing method and Hot plate method has been described to study analgesic activity of some 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine as a pharmacological active lead. Results: Thirty six different derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole ring were subjected to study their in vivo analgesic activity. Chloro, nitro and methoxy, hydroxy and bromo substituted derivatives showed excellent analgesic activity and dimethylamino, furan and phenyl substituted derivatives showed moderate analgesic activity in both of the methods. Compounds IIIa, IIId, IIIf, IIIi, IIIj, IVa, IVb, IVd, IVf, IVh, IVj IV3a and IIj were found to be superior analgesic agents after screening by Acetic acid induced writhing method. Compounds IIIb, IIId, IIIf, IIIh, IIIj, IVa, IVb, IVd, IVf, IVh, IVi, IV3c, IV3e and IIj were showed analgesic potential after screening of Hot plate method. Conclusion: All tested compounds containing 1,2,4-triazole were found to be promising analgesic agents, for this activity pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine leads might be supported.

  15. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Novel Spiroisoquinoline and Spiropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha M. Faty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromination of N-substituted homophthalimides and tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]- pyrimidine-5,7-diones produces 4,4-dibromohomophthalimide and 8,8-dibromo-tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine-5,7-dione derivatives, respectively, that can be used as precursors for spiro derivatives. The dibromo derivatives react with different binucleophilic reagents to produce several spiroisoquinoline and spirotetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]- pyrimidine-5,7-dione derivatives, respectively. Reaction of the dibromo derivatives with malononitrile produces dicyanomethylene derivatives which react with different binucleophiles to produce new spiro derivatives. All new compounds are prepared by using the usual chemical conditions and microwave assisted conditions. The latter conditions improved the reaction yields, reduced reaction times and ameliorated the effects on the surrounding environment as the reactions are carried out in closed systems. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds are proved using spectroscopic methods such as IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Some of the newly synthesized compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activities, whereby four of them showed moderate activities and the rest showed low or no activities towards the investigated species.

  16. Preconcentration and Extraction of Copper ion on Activated Carbon using α-Benzoinoxime and Pyrimidin 2-Thiole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Mortazavi, K.; Janbezar, M.; Parham, H.

    2006-01-01

    Activated carbon modified methods were used for preconcentration and determination of copper in some real sample by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The copper was adsorbed quantitatively on activated carbon due to their complexation with α-benzoinoxime and pyrimidin 2-thiole. The adsorbed copper on solid phase was eluted quantitatively using nitric acid. The important parameters such as pH, amount of carrier, flow rate, amount of activated carbon and type and concentration of eluting agent for obtaining maximum recovery was optimized. The methods based on α- benzoinoxime and pyrimidin 2-thiole at optimum conditions is linear over concentration range of 0.05-1.3 ug mL and 0.06-1.2 ug mL of copper with correlation coefficient of 0.9997 and 0.9994 and both detection limit of 1.2 ngmL, respectively. The preconcentration leads to enrichment factor of 200 and 240 and break through volume of 1200 mL for methods based on α- benzoinoxime and pyrimidin 2-thiole, respectively. The methods have good tolerance limit of interfering ion and selectivity that has been successfully applied for determination of copper content in real sample such as blood, wastewater and river sample. (author)

  17. Evaluation of nevirapine and/or hydroxyurea with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanckenberg, Daniel H.; Wood, Robin; Horban, Andrzej; Beniowski, Marek; Boron-Kaczmarska, Anna; Trocha, Hanna; Halota, Waldemar; Schmidt, Reinhold E.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Jessen, Heiko; Lange, Joep M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of adding nevirapine (NVP) and/or hydroxyurea (HU) to a triple nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) regimen in terms of efficacy and tolerability. Methods: HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive adults were randomized, using a factorial design, to add

  18. Pd-catalyzed versus uncatalyzed, PhI(OAc)2-mediated cyclization reactions of N6-([1,1'-biaryl]-2-yl)adenine nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satishkumar, Sakilam; Poudapally, Suresh; Vuram, Prasanna K; Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Pottabathini, Narender; Sebastian, Dellamol; Yang, Lijia; Pradhan, Padmanava; Lakshman, Mahesh K

    2017-11-09

    In this work we have assessed reactions of N 6 -([1,1'-biaryl]-2-yl)adenine nucleosides with Pd(OAc) 2 and PhI(OAc) 2 , via a Pd II /Pd IV redox cycle. The substrates are readily obtained by Pd/Xantphos-catalyzed reaction of adenine nucleosides with 2-bromo-1,1'-biaryls. In PhMe, the N 6 -biarylyl nucleosides gave C6-carbazolyl nucleoside analogues by C-N bond formation with the exocyclic N 6 nitrogen atom. In the solvent screening for the Pd-catalyzed reactions, an uncatalyzed process was found to be operational. It was observed that the carbazolyl products could also be obtained in the absence of a metal catalyst by reaction with PhI(OAc) 2 in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). Thus, under Pd catalysis and in HFIP, reactions proceed to provide carbazolyl nucleoside analogues, with some differences. If reactions of N 6 -biarylyl nucleoside substrates were conducted in MeCN, formation of aryl benzimidazopurinyl nucleoside derivatives was observed in many cases by C-N bond formation with the N 1 ring nitrogen atom of the purine (carbazole and benzimidazole isomers are readily separated by chromatography). Whereas Pd II /Pd IV redox is responsible for carbazole formation under the metal-catalyzed conditions, in HFIP and MeCN radical cations and/or nitrenium ions can be intermediates. An extensive set of radical inhibition experiments was conducted and the data are presented.

  19. Targeted Delivery of Deoxycytidine Kinase to Her2-Positive Cells Enhances the Efficacy of the Nucleoside Analog Fludarabine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha P Koduvayur

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic drugs, such as nucleoside analogs and toxins, commonly suffer from off-target effects. One approach to mitigate this problem is to deliver the cytotoxic drug selectively to the intended site. While for toxins this can be achieved by conjugating the cell-killing moiety to a targeting moiety, it is not an option for nucleoside analogs, which rely on intracellular enzymes to convert them to their active triphosphorylated form. To overcome this limitation, and achieve site-targeted activation of nucleoside analogs, we fused the coding region of a prodrug-activating enzyme, deoxycytidine kinase (dCK, to affinity reagents that bind to the Her2 cell surface protein. We evaluated dCK fusions to an anti-Her2 affibody and Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin for their ability to kill cancer cells by promoting the activation of the nucleoside analog fludarabine. Cell staining and flow cytometry experiments with three Her2 positive cancer cell lines (BT-474-JB, JIMT-1 and SK-OV-3 indicate dCK fusions binding and cellular internalization. In contrast, these reagents bind only weakly to the Her2 negative cell line, MCF-7. Cell proliferation assays indicate that SK-OV-3 and BT-474-JB cell lines exhibit significantly reduced proliferation rates when treated with targeting-module fused dCK and fludarabine, compared to fludarabine alone. These findings demonstrate that we have succeeded in delivering active dCK into the Her2-positive cells, thereby increasing the activation of fludarabine, which ultimately reduces the dose of nucleoside analog needed for cell killing. This strategy may help establish the therapeutic index required to differentiate between healthy tissues and cancer cells.

  20. UV-B-inducible and temperature-sensitive photoreactivation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Qishen; Hays, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CBPDs) in vivo from the DNA of UV-irradiated eight-leaf seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana was rapid in the presence of visible light (half-life about 1 hour); removal of CBPDs in the dark, presumably via excision repair, was an order of magnitude slower. Extracts of plants contained significant photolyase in vitro, as assayed by restoration of transforming activity to UV-irradiated Escherichia coli plasmids; activity was maximal from four-leaf to 12-leaf stages. UV-B treatment of seedlings for 6 hours increased photolyase specific activity in extracts twofold. Arabidopsis photolyase was markedly temperature-sensitive, both in vitro (half-life at 30C about 12 minutes) and in vivo (half-life at 30C, 30 to 45 minutes). The wavelength dependency of the photoreactivation cross-section showed a broad peak at 375 to 400 nm, and is thus similar to that for maize pollen; it overlaps bacterial and yeast photolyase action spectra

  1. Cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer accumulation in relation to UV-B sensitivity in mung bean cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Junmin; Wang Ruibin; Meng Zhaoni

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment is to reveal the relationship between cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) accumulation and UV-B sensitivity in mung bean cultivars. Two mung bean cultivars (Phaseolus raditus L. cv. Qindou -2 0 and Zhonglü -1 ) were grown in greenhouse with treatment or without treatment of UV-B radiation (0.4 W * m -2 ) for four days. The UV-B-induced CPDs in mung bean DNA were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with specific monoclonal antibody and the relationship between CPDs accumulation and the UV-B sensitivity of mung bean seedlings were discussed. The UV-B-induced inhibition of the biomass and net photosynthetic rate of the primary leaves of cultivar Zhonglü -1 were respectively lower than that of cultivar Qindou -2 0, so that the cultivar Zhonglü -1 was more tolerant to UV-B than the cultivar Qindou -2 0. Meanwhile, the cultivar Zhonglü -1 had lower CPD accumulation and susceptibility to CPD induction, higher photorepair capacity and same dark repair capacity as compared with the cultivar Qindou -2 0. Different UV-B sensitivities between two mung bean cultivars may be mainly caused by the differences in CPD accumulation, which are caused by the different susceptibility to CPD induction and the different photorepair capacities. In addition, the different susceptibility to CPD induction between two mung bean cultivars is related to the different levels of UV-absorbing compounds

  2. Glutamine domain of the chimeric protein, CAD, that initiates pyrimidine biosynthesis in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.E.; Kim, H.; Evans, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Glutamine dependent carbamyl phosphate synthesis, the first step in mammalian de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, is catalyzed by a 240 kDa chimeric protein, CAD, that also has the aspartate transcarbamylase and dihydroorotase activities. The complex was found to have a separate glutaminase activity of 0.04 μmol/min/mg, that increased five fold in the presence of bicarbonate and ATP. To determine whether the glutaminase activity, which provides ammonia for carbamyl phosphate synthesis, is associated with a separate structural domain (GLN), CAD was subjected to controlled proteolysis with elastase. The glutaminase, glutamine and ammonia dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase activities, as well as the partial reactions; carbamyl phosphate dependent ATP synthesis and bicarbonate dependent ATPase, were correlated with the concentration of the various proteolytic fragments that accumulated in the digest. While the glutamine dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase was rapidly inactivated, the glutaminase activity was found to be very resistant to proteolysis. The glutamine binding site of CAD was also specifically modified with 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON). The modification was accompanied by a loss of both glutaminase and glutamine dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase activities. Bicarbonate and ATP increased the rate of reaction of CAD with DON, while glutamine protected against inactivation. The stoichiometry of the reaction and the identity of the modified proteolytic fragments was determined using 14 C labelled DON

  3. Structural Insight into the Core of CAD, the Multifunctional Protein Leading De Novo Pyrimidine Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Morcillo, María; Grande-García, Araceli; Ruiz-Ramos, Alba; Del Caño-Ochoa, Francisco; Boskovic, Jasminka; Ramón-Maiques, Santiago

    2017-06-06

    CAD, the multifunctional protein initiating and controlling de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines in animals, self-assembles into ∼1.5 MDa hexamers. The structures of the dihydroorotase (DHO) and aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATC) domains of human CAD have been previously determined, but we lack information on how these domains associate and interact with the rest of CAD forming a multienzymatic unit. Here, we prove that a construct covering human DHO and ATC oligomerizes as a dimer of trimers and that this arrangement is conserved in CAD-like from fungi, which holds an inactive DHO-like domain. The crystal structures of the ATC trimer and DHO-like dimer from the fungus Chaetomium thermophilum confirm the similarity with the human CAD homologs. These results demonstrate that, despite being inactive, the fungal DHO-like domain has a conserved structural function. We propose a model that sets the DHO and ATC complex as the central element in the architecture of CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 5-(2-amimo-4-styryl pyrimidine-4-yl-4-methoxybenzofuran-6-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atteyat A Labib

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the organic synthesis of 5-(2-amimo-4-styryl pyrimidine-4-yl-4-methoxy benzofuran-6-ol (SPBF as an example of a benzofuran derivative used as a new series of amyloid imaging agents. These benzofuran derivatives may be useful amyloid imaging agents for detecting B-amyloid plagues in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease. The precursor is 1-[6-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzofuran-5-yl]-phenyl butadiene ketone, which react with guanidine hydrochloride. The purification process was done via crystallization using solvent ethanol. The overall yield was 75% and the structure of the synthesized compound was confirmed by correct analytical and spectral data. Also, The synthesized compound was labeled with radioactive iodine -125 via electrophilic substitution reaction, in the presence of iodogen as an oxidizing agent, the labeling process was carried out at 95oC for 20min. The radiochemical yield was determined by using a thin layer chromatography and the yield was equal to 80%. Preliminary an in-vivo study examined normal mice after intravenous injection through the tail vein and the data showed the labeling compound was quickly cleared from most body organs. The radioiodinated compound showed high brain uptake.The results of this study suggest that radioiodinated (SPBF may be useful as a brain imaging agents.

  5. Isomeric signatures in the fragmentation of pyridazine and pyrimidine induced by fast ion impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Wania, E-mail: wania@if.ufrj.br; Luna, Hugo; Montenegro, Eduardo C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-28

    We present fast proton impact induced fragmentations of pyrimidine and pyridazine as an experimental resource to investigate isomeric signatures. Major isomeric imprints are identified for few fragment ions and differences of more than an order of magnitude for the cross sections of fragments of the same mass were measured. The observation of the molecular structure of these isomers gives no apparent indication for the reasons for such substantial differences. It is verified that the simple displacement of the position of one nitrogen atom strongly inhibits or favors the production of some ionic fragment species. The dependency of the fragmentation cross sections on the proton impact energy, investigated by means of time of flight mass spectroscopy and of a model calculation based in first order perturbation theory, allows us to disentangle the complex collision dynamics of the ionic fragments. The proton-induced fragmentation discriminates rather directly the association between a molecular orbital ionization and the fragment-ions creation and abundance, as well as how the redistribution of the energy imparted to the molecules takes place, triggering not only single but also double vacancy and leads to specific fragmentation pathways.

  6. Heterocycles X V- one pot synthesis of indenyl pyrimidine- 2 - ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Rayyes, R. N.

    1997-01-01

    Condensation of 1- indanone, aryl aldehydes (Ia-k) and urea revealed the formation of the corresponding dihydropyrimidinones (I Ia - k). these were acetaldeyde and brominated to give compounds (III) and (IV) respective l. Dehydrogenation of (II) gave the corresponding pyrimuidunones (V). The structures of the products (II - V) were substantiated by chemical and spectral methods. In a previous work, 1- indanone was reacted with guanidine to produce 2- amino - isopropylenediamine (1) . On the other hand, indenyl pyrimidine - 2- ones were previously prepared through a multi - step synthesis (2,3). The present investigation describes a one - pot synthesis of some new dihydropyrimidinones (I Ia - K). Thus 1- indanone and urea were condensed with aryl aldehydes (Ia - K) to produce the corresponding 4- aryl - 3,4- dihydro - 5 [H] - indenyl (1,2 -e) py rimidin - 2 (I H) ones (I Ia - K) (2,3). The structure of these products was substantiated by chemical and spectral methods as well as elemental analysis.(author). 11 refs., 3 table

  7. Wavelength-dependent ultraviolet induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Justin D; Rochette, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    Exposition to ultraviolet (UV) light is involved in the initiation and the progression of skin cancer. The genotoxicity of UV light is mainly attributed to the induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), the most abundant DNA damage generated by all UV types (UVA, B and C). The human cornea is also exposed to the harmful UV radiations, but no UV-related neoplasm has been reported in this ocular structure. The probability that a specific DNA damage leads to a mutation and eventually to cellular transformation is influenced by its formation frequency. To shed light on the genotoxic effect of sunlight in the human eye, we have analyzed CPD induction in the cornea and the iris following irradiation of ex vivo human eyes with UVA, B or C. The extent of CPD induction was used to establish the penetrance of the different UV types in the human cornea. We show that UVB- and UVC-induced CPDs are concentrated in the corneal epithelium and do not penetrate deeply beyond this corneal layer. On the other hand, UVA wavelengths penetrate deeper and induce CPDs in the entire cornea and in the first layers of the iris. Taken together, our results are undoubtedly an important step towards better understanding the consequences of UV exposure to the human eye.

  8. Low liver stiffness among cirrhotic patients with hepatitis B after prolonged treatment with nucleoside analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Weiland, Ola; Leutscher, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Case reports and short-term clinical trials have suggested that treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) may lead to improvement of cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to measure liver stiffness in patients diagnosed with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis prior to prolonged...... treatment with nucleoside or nucleotide analogs (NUCs) for CHB. Materials and methods. Patients with CHB and advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis prior to treatment with NUCs for at least 1 year were offered inclusion in the study. We measured liver stiffness using transient elastography (TE) at follow-up. TE cut...... duration was 50.5 months. Among patients with cirrhosis prior to treatment, 26 (49%) had liver stiffness below 11.0 kPa at follow-up, suggesting regression of cirrhosis. Among patients with advanced fibrosis (F3) prior to treatment, 10 (77%) had liver stiffness below 8.1 kPa after treatment, suggesting...

  9. Complete inactivation of HIV-1 using photo-labeled non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Adan; Quesada, Jorge; Anderson, Dallas; Goldstein, Allan; Fossum, Theresa; Colby-Germinario, Susan; Wainberg, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that a photo-labeled derivative of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) dapivirine termed DAPY, when used together with exposure to ultraviolet light, was able to completely and irreversibly inactivate both HIV-1 RT activity as well as infectiousness in each of a T cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Control experiments using various concentrations of DAPY revealed that a combination of exposure to ultraviolet light together with use of the specific, high affinity photo-labeled compound was necessary for complete inactivation to occur. This method of HIV RT inactivation may have applicability toward preservation of an intact viral structure and warrants further investigation in regard to the potential of this approach to elicit a durable, broad protective immune response. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A fluorescence study of the molecular interactions of harmane with the nucleobases, their nucleosides and mononucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balón, M; Muñoz, M A; Carmona, C; Guardado, P; Galán, M

    1999-07-19

    Fluorescence binding studies of harmane to the elemental components of the nucleic acids were undertaken to investigate the origin of the interaction between the drug and DNA. Most of the tested substrates have been found to induce hypochromism in the absorption spectrum of harmane and to quench its fluorescence. The quenching process induced by the nucleobases and their nucleosides is mainly due to the formation of ground state 1:1 complexes. However, in the case of the mononucleotides a dynamic quenching component is also observed. This quenching component is likely due to the excited state interaction of harmane with the phosphate group of the nucleotides. UV-vis spectral changes and quenching measurements have been used to quantify the ground state association constants of the complexes and the quenching rate constants.

  11. Absence of a Universal Mechanism of Mitochondrial Toxicity by Nucleoside Analogs▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Kaleb C.; Peterson, LaRae L.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2007-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs are associated with various mitochondrial toxicities, and it is becoming increasingly difficult to accommodate these differences solely in the context of DNA polymerase gamma inhibition. Therefore, we examined the toxicities of zidovudine (AZT) (10 and 50 μM; 2.7 and 13.4 μg/ml), didanosine (ddI) (10 and 50 μM; 2.4 and 11.8 μg/ml), and zalcitabine (ddC) (1 and 5 μM; 0.21 and 1.1 μg/ml) in HepG2 and H9c2 cells without the presumption of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. E...

  12. Cytological localization of adenosine kinase, nucleoside phosphorylase-1, and esterase-10 genes on mouse chromosome 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelson, L.C.; Farber, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have determined the regional locations on mouse chromosome 14 of the genes for mouse adenosine kinase (ADK), nucleoside phosphorylase- 1 (NP-1), and esterase-10 (ES-10) by analysis of rearranged mouse chromosomes in gamma-irradiated Chinese hamster X mouse hybrid cell lines. Irradiated clones were screened for expression of the murine forms of these enzymes; segregant clones that expressed only one or two of the three markers were karyotyped. The patterns of enzyme expression in these segregants were correlated with the presence of rearranged chromosomes. The Adk gene was localized to bands A2 to B, Np-1 to bands B to C1, and Es-10 to bands D2 to E2

  13. Radiolysis of nucleosides in aqueous solutions: base liberation by the base attack mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, S.

    1984-01-01

    On the radiolysis of uridine and some other nucleosides in aqueous solution, a pH-dependent liberation of uracil or the corresponding base was found. e - sub(aq) and HOsup(anion radicals) 2 gave no freed bases, although many oxidizing radicals, including OH, Clsup(anion radicals) 2 , Brsup(anion radicals) 2 , (CNS)sup(anion radicals) 2 and SOsup(anion radicals) 4 , did cause the release of unaltered bases, depending on the pH of the solutions. The base yields were generally high at pH >= 11, with the exception of SOsup(anion radicals) 4 , which gave a rather high yield of uracil (from uridine) even in the pH region of - , present at high pH as the dissociated form of OH, may act partly as an oxidizing radical. A plausible mechanism of 3 1 -radical formation is discussed. (author)

  14. The thiopurine nucleoside analogue 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr) effectively blocks Zika virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Otavio Valério; Félix, Daniele Mendes; de Mendonça, Leila Rodrigues; de Araújo, Catarina Maria Cataldi Sabino; de Oliveira Franca, Rafael Freitas; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Silva Júnior, Abelardo; Pena, Lindomar José

    2017-12-01

    Since the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in 2015, 48 countries and territories in the Americas have confirmed autochthonous cases of disease caused by the virus. ZIKV-associated neurological manifestations and congenital defects make the development of safe and effective antivirals against ZIKV of utmost importance. Here we evaluated the antiviral activity of 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr), a thiopurine nucleoside analogue derived from the prodrug azathioprine, against the epidemic ZIKV strain circulating in Brazil. In all of the assays, an epithelial (Vero) and a human neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cell line were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity and effective concentrations of 6MMPr against ZIKV. Levels of ZIKV-RNA, viral infectious titre and the percentage of infected cells in the presence or absence of 6MMPr were used to determine antiviral efficacy. 6MMPr decreased ZIKV production by >99% in both cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, 6MMPr was 1.6 times less toxic to SH-SY5Y cells compared with Vero cells, presenting a 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC 50 ) of 460.3 µM and 291 µM, respectively. The selectivity index of 6MMPr for Vero and SH-SY5Y cells was 11.9 and 22.7, respectively, highlighting the safety profile of the drug to neuronal cells. Taken together, these results identify, for the first time, the thiopurine nucleoside analogue 6MMPr as a promising antiviral candidate against ZIKV that warrants further in vivo evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  15. Immuno-Northern Blotting: Detection of RNA Modifications by Using Antibodies against Modified Nucleosides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eikan Mishima

    Full Text Available The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A, N6-methyladenosine (m6A, pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism.

  16. Immuno-Northern Blotting: Detection of RNA Modifications by Using Antibodies against Modified Nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Eikan; Jinno, Daisuke; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Itoh, Kunihiko; Nankumo, Shinnosuke; Shima, Hisato; Kikuchi, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Elkordy, Alaa; Suzuki, Takehiro; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Ito, Sadayoshi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Abe, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB) analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A), N6-methyladenosine (m6A), pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C) showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism.

  17. The crystal structure of the hexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Bacillus subtilis in complex with adenosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuseppe, P.O.; Meza, A.N.; Martins, N.H.; Santos, C.R.; Murakami, M.T. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs) play a key role in the purine-salvage pathway in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Its ribosyltransferase activity is of great biotechnological interest due to potential application in the synthesis of nucleoside analogues used in the treatment of antiviral infections and in anticancer chemotherapy. Trimeric PNPs are found mainly in vertebrates and are specific for 6-oxo-purines whereas hexameric PNPs are prevalent in prokaryotes and exhibit a broad range of substrates including 6-oxo and 6-amino purines. BsPNP233, the hexameric PNP from B. subtilis, is able to catalyze the bioconversion of ribavirin, an anti-viral drug, and is relatively thermostable, being a good target for industrial use. Here we report the crystal structures of BsPNP233 in the apo form and in complex with adenosine solved at 2.65 and 1.91 resolution, respectively. The apo and ligand-bound BsPNP233 subunits superposed with an overall r.m.s. deviation of 0.31 for all C{alpha} atoms, which suggests that no major conformational changes occur upon substrate binding. Based on the crystal structure of BsPNP233 in complex with adenosine we have defined the active site residues implicated in binding the ribose (H4{sup *}, R43{sup *}, M64, R87, E178, M179, E180) and the nitrogenous base (S90, C91, G92, S202, V177, F159). These residues are highly conserved among the bacterial hexameric PNPs, suggesting they share the same mode of interaction with the substrates. This work will probably contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis for the broad substrate specificity of hexameric PNPs and to projects aiming the rational design of PNPs for industrial purposes. (author)

  18. Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) participates in the cytotoxic response to nucleoside-derived drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Torras, Sandra; Casado, F Javier; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2012-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs used in the chemotherapy of solid tumors, such as the capecitabine catabolite 5 ′ -deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5 ′ -DFUR) trigger a transcriptomic response that involves the aquaglyceroporin aquaporin 3 along with other p53-dependent genes. Here, we examined whether up-regulation of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) mRNA in cancer cells treated with 5 ′ -DFUR represents a collateral transcriptomic effect of the drug, or conversely, AQP3 participates in the activity of genotoxic agents. The role of AQP3 in cell volume increase, cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest was analyzed using loss-of-function approaches. 5 ′ -DFUR and gemcitabine, but not cisplatin, stimulated AQP3 expression and cell volume, which was partially and significantly blocked by knockdown of AQP3. Moreover, AQP3 siRNA significantly blocked other effects of nucleoside analogs, including G 1 /S cell cycle arrest, p21 and FAS up-regulation, and cell growth inhibition. Short incubations with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) also induced AQP3 expression and increased cell volume, and the inhibition of AQP3 expression significantly blocked growth inhibition triggered by this drug. To further establish whether AQP3 induction is related to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, cells were exposed to long incubations with escalating doses of 5-FU. AQP3 was highly up-regulated at doses associated with cell cycle arrest, whereas at doses promoting apoptosis induction of AQP3 mRNA expression was reduced. Based on the results, we propose that the aquaglyceroporin AQP3 is required for cytotoxic activity of 5’-DFUR and gemcitabine in the breast cancer cell line MCF7 and the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, and is implicated in cell volume increase and cell cycle arrest

  19. The resolution of acyclic P-stereogenic phosphine oxides via the formation of diastereomeric complexes: A case study on ethyl-(2-methylphenyl)-phenylphosphine oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, Péter; Varga, Bence; Szilágyi, András; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Czugler, Mátyás; Fogassy, Elemér; Keglevich, György

    2018-04-01

    As an example of acyclic P-chiral phosphine oxides, the resolution of ethyl-(2-methylphenyl)-phenylphosphine oxide was elaborated with TADDOL derivatives, or with calcium salts of the tartaric acid derivatives. Besides the study on the resolving agents, several purification methods were developed in order to prepare enantiopure ethyl-(2-methylphenyl)-phenylphosphine oxide. It was found that the title phosphine oxide is a racemic crystal-forming compound, and the recrystallization of the enantiomeric mixtures could be used for the preparation of pure enantiomers. According to our best method, the (R)-ethyl-(2-methylphenyl)-phenylphosphine oxide could be obtained with an enantiomeric excess of 99% and in a yield of 47%. Complete racemization of the enantiomerically enriched phosphine oxide could be accomplished via the formation of a chlorophosphonium salt. Characterization of the crystal structures of the enantiopure phosphine oxide was complemented with that of the diastereomeric intermediate. X-ray analysis revealed the main nonbonding interactions responsible for enantiomeric recognition. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Synthetic incorporation of Nile Blue into DNA using 2′-deoxyriboside substitutes: Representative comparison of (R- and (S-aminopropanediol as an acyclic linker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lachmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nile Blue chromophore was incorporated into oligonucleotides using “click” chemistry for the postsynthetic modification of oligonucleotides. These were synthesized using DNA building block 3 bearing an alkyne group and reacted with the azide 4. (R-3-amino-1,2-propanediol was applied as the linker between the phosphodiester bridges. Two sets of DNA duplexes were prepared. One set carried the chromophore in an A-T environment, the second set in a G-C environment. Both were characterized by optical spectroscopy. Sequence-dependent fluorescence quenching was applied as a sensitive tool to compare the stacking interactions with respect to the chirality of the acyclic linker attachment. The results were compared to recent results from duplexes that carried the Nile Blue label in a sequentially and structurally identical context, except for the opposite chirality of the linker ((S-3-amino-1,2-propandiol. Only minor, negligible differences were observed. Melting temperatures, UV–vis absorption spectra together with fluorescence quenching data indicate that Nile Blue stacks perfectly between the adjacent base pairs regardless of whether it has been attached via an S- or R-configured linker. This result was supported by geometrically optimized DNA models.

  1. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers photolyase from extremophilic microalga: Remarkable UVB resistance and efficient DNA damage repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chongjie [Key Laboratory of Marine Bioactive Substance, The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061 (China); Ma, Li [Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Mou, Shanli [Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao (China); Wang, Yibin, E-mail: wangyibin@fio.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Bioactive Substance, The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061 (China); Zheng, Zhou; Liu, Fangming; Qi, Xiaoqing; An, Meiling; Chen, Hao [Key Laboratory of Marine Bioactive Substance, The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061 (China); Miao, Jinlai, E-mail: miaojinlai@163.com [Key Laboratory of Marine Bioactive Substance, The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061 (China); State Key Laboratory of Biological Fermentation Engineering of Beer (In Preparation), Qingdao (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L photolyase gene PHR2 is first cloned and expressed in E. coli. • PHR2 complemented E. coli could efficiently survival from UV radiation. • Expressed PHR2 photolyase has distinct photo-reactivation activity in vitro. - Abstract: Bacteria living in the Antarctic region have developed several adaptive features for growth and survival under extreme conditions. Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-Lis well adapted to high levels of solar UV radiation. A putative photolyase was identified in the Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L transcriptome. The complete cDNA sequence was obtained by RACE-PCR. This PHR encoding includes a polypeptide of 579 amino acids with clear photolyase signatures belonging to class II CPD-photolyases, sharing a high degree of homology with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (68%). Real-time PCR was performed to investigate the potential DNA damage and responses following UVB exposure. CPD photolyase mRNA expression level increased over 50-fold in response to UVB radiation for 6 h. Using photolyase complementation assay, we demonstrated that DNA photolyase increased photo-repair more than 116-fold in Escherichia coli strain SY2 under 100 μw/cm{sup 2} UVB radiation. To determine whether photolyase is active in vitro, CPD photolyase was over-expressed. It was shown that pyrimidine dimers were split by the action of PHR2. This study reports the unique structure and high activity of the enzyme. These findings are relevant for further understanding of molecular mechanisms of photo-reactivation, and will accelerate the utilization of photolyase in the medical field.

  2. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers photolyase from extremophilic microalga: Remarkable UVB resistance and efficient DNA damage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chongjie; Ma, Li; Mou, Shanli; Wang, Yibin; Zheng, Zhou; Liu, Fangming; Qi, Xiaoqing; An, Meiling; Chen, Hao; Miao, Jinlai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L photolyase gene PHR2 is first cloned and expressed in E. coli. • PHR2 complemented E. coli could efficiently survival from UV radiation. • Expressed PHR2 photolyase has distinct photo-reactivation activity in vitro. - Abstract: Bacteria living in the Antarctic region have developed several adaptive features for growth and survival under extreme conditions. Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-Lis well adapted to high levels of solar UV radiation. A putative photolyase was identified in the Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L transcriptome. The complete cDNA sequence was obtained by RACE-PCR. This PHR encoding includes a polypeptide of 579 amino acids with clear photolyase signatures belonging to class II CPD-photolyases, sharing a high degree of homology with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (68%). Real-time PCR was performed to investigate the potential DNA damage and responses following UVB exposure. CPD photolyase mRNA expression level increased over 50-fold in response to UVB radiation for 6 h. Using photolyase complementation assay, we demonstrated that DNA photolyase increased photo-repair more than 116-fold in Escherichia coli strain SY2 under 100 μw/cm 2 UVB radiation. To determine whether photolyase is active in vitro, CPD photolyase was over-expressed. It was shown that pyrimidine dimers were split by the action of PHR2. This study reports the unique structure and high activity of the enzyme. These findings are relevant for further understanding of molecular mechanisms of photo-reactivation, and will accelerate the utilization of photolyase in the medical field

  3. Structure, stability, and thermodynamics of a short intermolecular purine-purine-pyrimidine triple helix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilch, D.S.; Shafer, R.H.; Levenson, C.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have investigated the structure and physical chemistry of the d(C 3 T 4 C 3 )·2[d(G 3 A 4 G 3 )] triple helix by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), 1 H NMR, and ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy. The triplex was stabilized with MgCl 2 at neutral pH. PAGE studies verify the stoichiometry of the strands comprising the triplex and indicate that the orientation of the third strand in purine-purine-pyrimidine (pur-pur-pyr) triplexes is antiparallel with respect to the purine strand of the underlying duplex. Imino proton NMR spectra provide evidence for the existence of new purine-purine (pur·pur) hydrogen bonds, in addition to those of the Watson-Crick (W-C) base pairs, in the triplex structure. These new hydrogen bonds are likely to correspond to the interaction between third-strand guanine NH1 imino protons and the N7 atoms of guanine residues on the puring strand of the underlying duplex. Thermal denaturation of the triplex proceeds to single strands in one step, under the conditions used in this study. Binding of the third strand appears to enhance the thermal stability of the duplex by 1-3 C, depending on the DNA concentration. This marked enhancement in stability, coupled with the lack of an acidic pH requirement, suggests that pur-pur-pyr triplexes are appealing choices for use in applications involving oligonucleotide targeting of duplex DNA in vitro and in vivo

  4. Genetic and phylogenetic characterization of the type II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyases encoded by Leporipoxviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C. James; Webb, Melissa; Willer, David O.; Evans, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Shope fibroma virus and myxoma virus encode proteins predicted to be Type II photolyases. These are enzymes that catalyze light-dependent repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). When the Shope fibroma virus S127L gene was expressed in an Escherichia coli strain lacking functional CPD repair pathways, the expressed gene protected the bacteria from 70-75% of the ultraviolet (UV) light-induced cytotoxic DNA damage. This proportion suggests that Leporipoxvirus photolyases can only repair CPDs, which typically comprise ∼70% of the damage caused by short wavelength UV light. To test whether these enzymes can protect virus genomes from UV, we exposed virus suspensions to UV-C light followed by graded exposure to filtered visible light. Viruses encoding a deletion of the putative photolyase gene were unable to photoreactivate UV damage while this treatment again eliminated 70-90% of the lethal photoproducts in wild-type viruses. Western blotting detected photolyase protein in extracts prepared from purified virions and it can be deduced that the poxvirion interior must be fluid enough to permit diffusion of this ∼50-kDa DNA-binding protein to the sites where it catalyzes photoreactivation. Photolyase promoters are difficult to categorize using bioinformatics methods, as they do not obviously resemble any of the known poxvirus promoter motifs. By fusing the SFV promoter to DNA encoding a luciferase open reading frame, the photolyase promoter was found to exhibit very weak late promoter activity. These data show that the genomes of Leporipoxviruses, similar to that of fowlpox virus, encode catalytically active photolyases. Phylogenetic studies also confirmed the monophyletic origin of poxviruses and suggest an ancient origin for these genes and perhaps poxviruses

  5. Resonance effects in elastic cross sections for electron scattering on pyrimidine: Experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regeta, Khrystyna; Allan, Michael; Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent; Mašín, Zdeněk; Gorfinkiel, Jimena D

    2016-01-14

    We measured differential cross sections for elastic (rotationally integrated) electron scattering on pyrimidine, both as a function of angle up to 180(∘) at electron energies of 1, 5, 10, and 20 eV and as a function of electron energy in the range 0.1-14 eV. The experimental results are compared to the results of the fixed-nuclei Schwinger variational and R-matrix theoretical methods, which reproduce satisfactorily the magnitudes and shapes of the experimental cross sections. The emphasis of the present work is on recording detailed excitation functions revealing resonances in the excitation process. Resonant structures are observed at 0.2, 0.7, and 4.35 eV and calculations for different symmetries confirm their assignment as the X̃(2)A2, Ã(2)B1, and B̃(2)B1 shape resonances. As a consequence of superposition of coherent resonant amplitudes with background scattering the B̃(2)B1 shape resonance appears as a peak, a dip, or a step function in the cross sections recorded as a function of energy at different scattering angles and this effect is satisfactorily reproduced by theory. The dip and peak contributions at different scattering angles partially compensate, making the resonance nearly invisible in the integral cross section. Vibrationally integrated cross sections were also measured at 1, 5, 10 and 20 eV and the question of whether the fixed-nuclei cross sections should be compared to vibrationally elastic or vibrationally integrated cross section is discussed.

  6. L-Aspartic and l-glutamic acid ester-based ProTides of anticancer nucleosides: Synthesis and antitumoral evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ling-Jie; De Jonghe, Steven; Daelemans, Dirk; Herdewijn, Piet

    2016-05-01

    A series of novel aryloxyphosphoramidate nucleoside prodrugs based on l-aspartic acid and l-glutamic acid as amino acid motif has been synthesized and evaluated for antitumoral activity. Depending on the cancer cell line studied and on the nature of the parent nucleoside compound (gemcitabine, 5-iodo-2'-deoxy-uridine, floxuridine or brivudin), the corresponding ProTides are endowed with an improved or decreased cytotoxic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Poly(alizarin red)/Graphene modified glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of purine and pyrimidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ba Xi; Luo Liqiang [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ding Yaping, E-mail: wdingyp@sina.com [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang Zhen [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Chu Yuliang [Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wang Bijun; Ouyang Xiaoqian [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2012-11-08

    Graphical abstract: DPVs of PAR/Graphene/GCE (a) and the bare GCE (c) in 0.1 M PBS containing 50.0 {mu}M G, 50.0 {mu}M A, 100.0 {mu}M T and 100.0 {mu}M C, (b) PAR/Graphene/GCE in 0.1 M PBS. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor exhibited well-separated peaks and low detection limit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor possesses high sensitivity and wide linear range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor was used for simultaneous detection of G, A, T and C successfully. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor was applied in a fish sperm DNA sample with satisfactory results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed sensor has good stability and reproducibility. - Abstract: In this work, a poly(alizarin red)/Graphene composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (PAR/Graphene/GCE) was prepared for simultaneous determination of four DNA bases (guanine, adenine, thymine and cytosine) without any pretreatment. The morphology and interface property of PAR/Graphene films were examined by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The PAR/Graphene/GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward purine (guanine and adenine) and pyrimidine (thymine and cytosine) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4). Under optimum conditions, differential pulse voltammetry was used to detect the oxidation of purine and pyrimidine. The results showed that PAR/Graphene/GCE exhibited well-separated peaks, low detection limit, high sensitivity and wide linear range for simultaneous detection of purine and pyrimidine. The proposed sensor also has good stability and reproducibility. Furthermore, the modified electrode was applied for the detection of DNA bases in a fish sperm DNA sample with satisfactory results.

  8. Poly(alizarin red)/Graphene modified glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of purine and pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba Xi; Luo Liqiang; Ding Yaping; Zhang Zhen; Chu Yuliang; Wang Bijun; Ouyang Xiaoqian

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: DPVs of PAR/Graphene/GCE (a) and the bare GCE (c) in 0.1 M PBS containing 50.0 μM G, 50.0 μM A, 100.0 μM T and 100.0 μM C, (b) PAR/Graphene/GCE in 0.1 M PBS. Highlights: ► The sensor exhibited well-separated peaks and low detection limit. ► The sensor possesses high sensitivity and wide linear range. ► The sensor was used for simultaneous detection of G, A, T and C successfully. ► The sensor was applied in a fish sperm DNA sample with satisfactory results. ► The proposed sensor has good stability and reproducibility. - Abstract: In this work, a poly(alizarin red)/Graphene composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (PAR/Graphene/GCE) was prepared for simultaneous determination of four DNA bases (guanine, adenine, thymine and cytosine) without any pretreatment. The morphology and interface property of PAR/Graphene films were examined by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The PAR/Graphene/GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward purine (guanine and adenine) and pyrimidine (thymine and cytosine) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4). Under optimum conditions, differential pulse voltammetry was used to detect the oxidation of purine and pyrimidine. The results showed that PAR/Graphene/GCE exhibited well-separated peaks, low detection limit, high sensitivity and wide linear range for simultaneous detection of purine and pyrimidine. The proposed sensor also has good stability and reproducibility. Furthermore, the modified electrode was applied for the detection of DNA bases in a fish sperm DNA sample with satisfactory results.

  9. [Separation of purines, pyrimidines, pterins and flavonoids on magnolol-bonded silica gel stationary phase by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Li, Laishen; Zhang, Yang; Zhou, Rendan

    2012-10-01

    A new magnolol-bonded silica gel stationary phase (MSP) was used to separate the basic drugs including four purines, eight pyrimidines, four pterins and five flavonoids as polar representative samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To clarify the separation mechanism, a commercial ODS column was also tested under the same chromatographic conditions. The high selectivities and fast baseline separations of the above drugs were achieved by using simple mobile phases on MSP. Although there is no end-caped treatment, the peak shapes of basic drugs containing nitrogen such as purines, pyrimidines and pterins were rather symmetrical on MSP, which indicated the the magnolol as ligand with multi-sites could shield the side effect of residual silanol groups on the surface of silica gel. Although somewhat different in the separation resolution, it was found that the elution orders of some drugs were generally similar on both MSP and ODS. The hydrophobic interaction should play a significant role in the separations of the above basic drugs, which was attributed to their reversed-phase property in the nature. However, MSP could provide the additional sites for many polar solutes, which was a rational explanation for the high selectivity of MSP. For example, in the separation of purines, pyrimidines and pterins on MSP, hydrogen-bonding and dipole-dipole interactions played leading roles besides hydrophobic interaction. Some solute molecules (such as mercaptopurine, vitexicarpin) and MSP can form the strong pi-pi stacking in the separation process. All enhanced the retention and improved the separation selectivity of MSP, which facilitated the separation of the basic drugs.

  10. Cross-coupling reactions of unprotected halopurine bases, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleoside triphosphates with 4-boronophenylalanine in water. Synthesis of (purin-8-yl)- and (purin-6-yl)phenylalanines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Petr; Pohl, Radek; Hocek, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 11 (2006), s. 2278-2284 ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS400550501; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : amino acids * purines * nucleosides * cross-coupling reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.874, year: 2006

  11. In vivo excision of pyrimidine dimers is mediated by a DNA N-glycosylase in Micrococcus luteus but not in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Belle, M.; Linn, S.

    1982-01-01

    It has been previously shown that Micrococcus luteus possesses a pyrimidine dimer-specific endonuclease which in vitro, functions as both an endonuclease and DNA-glycosylase. To determine if these combined activities function in vivo, the excision products of UV-irradiated M. luteus were isolated and examined. In addition, a procedure was devised to isolate and examine the excision products from UV-irradiated human fibroblasts to determine if an endonuclease/glycosylase activity functions in the excision of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in human fibroblasts. It was shown that, in vivo, an endonuclease/glycosylase mechanism is utilized extensively in the repair of pyrimidine dimers by M. luteus, but that human fibroblasts do not appear to use this mechanism. (author)

  12. In vivo excision of pyrimidine dimers is mediated by a DNA N-glycosylase in Micrococcus luteus but not in human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Belle, M; Linn, S [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1982-09-01

    It has been previously shown that Micrococcus luteus possesses a pyrimidine dimer-specific endonuclease which in vitro, functions as both an endonuclease and DNA-glycosylase. To determine if these combined activities function in vivo, the excision products of UV-irradiated M. luteus were isolated and examined. In addition, a procedure was devised to isolate and examine the excision products from UV-irradiated human fibroblasts to determine if an endonuclease/glycosylase activity functions in the excision of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in human fibroblasts. It was shown that, in vivo, an endonuclease/glycosylase mechanism is utilized extensively in the repair of pyrimidine dimers by M. luteus, but that human fibroblasts do not appear to use this mechanism.

  13. (3,5-Dimethylpyrazol-1-yl-[4-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylaminophenyl]methanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania B. Bakr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to enhance cytotoxic activity of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine core, we synthesized (3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl-[4-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylaminophenyl]methanone (4 by reacting 4-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylaminobenzohydrazide (3 with acetylacetone. Antiproliferative activity of this compound was screened against breast (MCF-7, colon (HCT-116, and liver (HEPG-2 cancer cell lines. The tested compound exhibited cytotoxic activity with IC50 = 5.00–32.52 μM. Moreover, inhibitory activity of this compound was evaluated against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR, the insulin receptor (IR, and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR. This target compound showed potent inhibitory activity, especially against FGFR with IC50 = 5.18 μM.

  14. Comparative studies on the correlation between pyrimidine dimer formation and tyrosinase activity in Cloudman S91 melanoma cells after ultraviolet-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niggli, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors compared the induction of pyrimidine dimer densities after UV-irradiation in mouse melanoma cells before and after treatment with cholera toxin. Treatment with cholera toxin stimulated tyrosinase activity up to 50-fold, leading to a marked, visually apparent increase in cellular melanin concentrations. Results indicate that de novo melanin pigmentation induced via the c-AMP pathway is not involved in protection against UV-induced thymine-containing pyrimidine dimers. In separate experiments, irradiation of toxin-treated and untreated mouse melanoma cells with UVC or UVB light produced a 20-30% lower dimer density compared to irradiated human skin fibroblasts. This finding suggests that melanin has some protection properties against UV-induced pyrimidine dimers, although the exact defense mechanism seems highly complex. (author)

  15. Discovery of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-based CHK1 inhibitors: A template-based approach-Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labroli, Marc; Paruch, Kamil; Dwyer, Michael P.; Alvarez, Carmen; Keertikar, Kartik; Poker, Cory; Rossman, Randall; Duca, Jose S.; Fischmann, Thierry O.; Madison, Vincent; Parry, David; Davis, Nicole; Seghezzi, Wolfgang; Wiswell, Derek; Guzi, Timothy J. [Merck

    2013-11-20

    Previous efforts by our group have established pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine as a viable core for the development of potent and selective CDK inhibitors. As part of an effort to utilize the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine core as a template for the design and synthesis of potent and selective kinase inhibitors, we focused on a key regulator in the cell cycle progression, CHK1. Continued SAR development of the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine core at the C5 and C6 positions, in conjunction with previously disclosed SAR at the C3 and C7 positions, led to the discovery of potent and selective CHK1 inhibitors.

  16. Absence of photoreactivation of pyrimidine dimers in the epidermis of hairless mice following exposures to ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, R D; Sedita, B A; Grube, D D

    1978-01-01

    The influence of photoreactivating light on the fate of uv-induced DNA damage has been measured in the epidermis of hairless mice using damage-specific endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus. Groups of mice were exposed to varying fluences of uv at 297 nm or from an FS40 fluorescent sun lamp to induce uv photoproducts. The same fluence-dependent DNA damage was observed in high molecular weight epidermal DNA regardless of whether the mice were killed immediately, or maintained in the dark or under photorectivating light for 20 h after uv. Thus, no detectable photoreactivation of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers could be demonstrated in mouse epithelial cells in vivo.

  17. Development of a series of aryl pyrimidine kynurenine monooxygenase inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Sherman, Leticia M; Prime, Michael E; Mrzljak, Ladislav; Beconi, Maria G; Beresford, Alan; Brookfield, Frederick A; Brown, Christopher J; Cardaun, Isabell; Courtney, Stephen M; Dijkman, Ulrike; Hamelin-Flegg, Estelle; Johnson, Peter D; Kempf, Valerie; Lyons, Kathy; Matthews, Kimberly; Mitchell, William L; O'Connell, Catherine; Pena, Paula; Powell, Kendall; Rassoulpour, Arash; Reed, Laura; Reindl, Wolfgang; Selvaratnam, Suganathan; Friley, Weslyn Ward; Weddell, Derek A; Went, Naomi E; Wheelan, Patricia; Winkler, Christin; Winkler, Dirk; Wityak, John; Yarnold, Christopher J; Yates, Dawn; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio; Dominguez, Celia

    2015-02-12

    We report on the development of a series of pyrimidine carboxylic acids that are potent and selective inhibitors of kynurenine monooxygenase and competitive for kynurenine. We describe the SAR for this novel series and report on their inhibition of KMO activity in biochemical and cellular assays and their selectivity against other kynurenine pathway enzymes. We describe the optimization process that led to the identification of a program lead compound with a suitable ADME/PK profile for therapeutic development. We demonstrate that systemic inhibition of KMO in vivo with this lead compound provides pharmacodynamic evidence for modulation of kynurenine pathway metabolites both in the periphery and in the central nervous system.

  18. The growth rate of pyrimidine auxotrophic mutants of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 is reduced in the presence of exogenous aspartate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Martinussen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is important for all cells as supplier of building blocks for the synthesis of nucleic acids and coenzymes. Furthermore, they act as intracellular energy carriers and allosteric effectors in a large number of enzymatic reactions. Nucleotides can either be made de novo or from...... encoding enzymes in the distal part of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway of L. lactis MG1363, results in reduction of the growth rate if exogenous aspartate is supplied to the growth medium. This observation can be explained by an increased accumulation of a toxic intermediate, most likely carbamoyl...... aspartate, provoked by high concentrations of aspartate....

  19. Stretches of alternating pyrimidine/purines and purines are respectively linked with pathogenicity and growth temperature in prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Bohlin, J; Hardy, SP

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The genomic fractions of purine (RR) and alternating pyrimidine/purine (YR) stretches of 10 base pairs or more, have been linked to genomic AT content, the formation of different DNA helices, strand-biased gene distribution, DNA structure, and more. Although some of these factors are ...... phyla. RR stretches are overrepresented in all phyla except for the Actinobacteria and beta-Proteobacteria. In contrast, YR tracts are underrepresented in all phyla except for the beta-Proteobacterial group. YR-stretches are associated with phylum, pathogenicity and habitat, whilst RR...

  20. Simple method for fast deprotection of nucleosides by triethylamine-catalyzed methanolysis of acetates in aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Lidiane; Monteiro, Gustavo C.; Baldissera, Rodrigo A.M.; Sa, Marcus Mandolesi

    2010-01-01

    A straightforward methodology for deacetylation of protected ribonucleosides was developed based on triethylamine-catalyzed solvolysis in aqueous methanol. Reactions are completed in a few minutes under microwave irradiation and the free nucleosides are obtained in high yield after simple evaporation of volatiles. Other important features include the involvement of readily available reagents and the compatibility with diverse functional groups, which make this process very attractive for broad application. (author)

  1. Sonogashira reactions of alpha and beta-1-ethynyl-2-deoxyribosides: synthesis of acetylene-extended C-nucleosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobula, T.; Hocek, Michal; Kotora, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2 (2010), s. 530-536 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA AV ČR IAA400550902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : alkynes * C-nucleosides * aryl halides * cross-coupling reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.011, year: 2010

  2. Sequence-engineered mRNA Without Chemical Nucleoside Modifications Enables an Effective Protein Therapy in Large Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Thess, Andreas; Grund, Stefanie; Mui, Barbara L; Hope, Michael J; Baumhof, Patrick; Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola; Schlake, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Being a transient carrier of genetic information, mRNA could be a versatile, flexible, and safe means for protein therapies. While recent findings highlight the enormous therapeutic potential of mRNA, evidence that mRNA-based protein therapies are feasible beyond small animals such as mice is still lacking. Previous studies imply that mRNA therapeutics require chemical nucleoside modifications to obtain sufficient protein expression and avoid activation of the innate immune system. Here we sh...

  3. Direct One-Pot Synthesis of Nucleosides from Unprotected or 5-O-Monoprotected D-Ribose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Downey, Alan Michael; Richter, C.; Pohl, Radek; Mahrwald, R.; Hocek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 18 (2015), s. 4604-4607 ISSN 1523-7060 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0344 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : nucleosides * cytostatics * biological activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.732, year: 2015 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.orglett.5b02332

  4. Anthraquinone as a Redox Label for DNA: Synthesis, Enzymatic Incorporation, and Electrochemistry of Anthraquinone-Modified Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balintová, Jana; Pohl, Radek; Horáková Brázdilová, Petra; Vidláková, Pavlína; Havran, Luděk; Fojta, Miroslav; Hocek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 50 (2011), s. 14063-14073 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035; GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : anthraquinone * DNA * electrochemistry * nucleosides * oligonucleotides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.925, year: 2011

  5. Design and synthesis of N₁-aryl-benzimidazoles 2-substituted as novel HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Anna-Maria; Ferro, Stefania; De Luca, Laura; Lo Surdo, Giuseppa; Morreale, Francesca; Pannecouque, Christophe; Balzarini, Jan; Chimirri, Alba

    2014-02-15

    A series of novel N1-aryl-2-arylthioacetamido-benzimidazoles were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Some of them proved to be effective in inhibiting HIV-1 replication at submicromolar and nanomolar concentration acting as HIV-1 non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs), with low cytotoxicity. The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these new derivatives was discussed and rationalized by docking studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An efficient synthesis of novel pyrano[2,3-d]- and furopyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidines via indium-catalyzed multi-component domino reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohain Mukut

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various novel pyrano [2,3-d]pyrimidines 5 and furopyrano [2,3-d]pyrimidines 7 were synthesized in 80–99% yields via a multicomponent domino Knoevenagel/hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of 1,3-dimethyl barbituric acid with an aromatic aldehyde and ethyl vinyl ether/2,3-dihydrofuran in presence of 1 mol% of indium(III chloride. The reaction also proceeds in aqueous media without using any catalyst, but the yield is comparatively less (65–70%.

  7. Pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase Campinas, a new mutation (p.R56G) in the NT5C3 gene associated with pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase type I deficiency and influence of Gilbert's Syndrome on clinical expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andrey dos; Dantas, Larissa Elizabeth Cordeiro; Traina, Fabiola; Albuquerque, Dulcineia Martins de; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Saad, Sara T Olalla

    2014-12-01

    Pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase type I (P5'NI) deficiency is an autosomal recessive condition that causes nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, characterized by marked basophilic stippling and pyrimidine nucleotide accumulation in erythrocytes. We herein present two African descendant patients, father and daughter, with P5'N deficiency, both born from first cousins. Investigation of the promoter polymorphism of the uridine diphospho glucuronosyl transferase 1A (UGT1A) gene revealed that the father was homozygous for the allele (TA7) and the daughter heterozygous (TA6/TA7). P5'NI gene (NT5C3) gene sequencing revealed a further change in homozygosity at amino acid position 56 (p.R56G), located in a highly conserved region. Both patients developed gallstones; however the father, who had undergone surgery for the removal of stones, had extremely severe intrahepatic cholestasis and, liver biopsy revealed fibrosis and siderosis grade III, leading us to believe that the homozygosity of the UGT1A polymorphism was responsible for the more severe clinical features in the father. Moreover, our results show how the clinical expression of hemolytic anemia is influenced by epistatic factors and we describe a new mutation in the P5'N gene associated with enzyme deficiency, iron overload, and severe gallstone formation. To our knowledge, this is the first description of P5'N deficiency in South Americans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nucleoside adducts are formed by cooperative reaction of acetaldehyde and alcohols: Possible mechanism for the role of ethanol in carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraenkel-Conrat, H.; Singer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The exocyclic amino groups of ribonucleosides and deoxyribonucleosides react rapidly at ambient temperature with acetaldehyde and alcohols to yield mixed acetals [-NH-CH(CH 3 )OR]. Nucleotides and nucleoside di- and triphosphates also react. Depending on the nucleoside used and on the relative amounts of aldehyde, alcohol, and water, preparative reactions reach equilibrium with yields up to 75% in a few house. The structures have been confirmed by fast atom bombardment MS and proton NMR. Half-lives at 37 degree C have been determined, and maximum stability is in the pH range of 7.5-9.5. In the absence of alcohol, acetaldehyde-nucleoside adducts could be isolated at 4 degree C, but these were too unstable to characterize except for their UV spectra, also at 4 degree C. Ethanol is often present in human blood and tissues, and acetaldehyde is its initial metabolic product, as well as being formed by many other metabolic processes. Both chemicals have separately been implicated in carcinogenic and other cytophathologic processes, but no cooperative mechanism has been proposed. The reactions reported here are of biological concern because they also occur in dilute aqueous solution. These finding supply a mechanism by which ethanol can be covalently bound to nucleic acids under physiological conditions

  9. Lack of the nucleoside transporter ENT1 results in the Augustine-null blood type and ectopic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Geoff; Ballif, Bryan A; Helias, Virginie; Saison, Carole; Grimsley, Shane; Mannessier, Lucienne; Hustinx, Hein; Lee, Edmond; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Peyrard, Thierry; Arnaud, Lionel

    2015-06-04

    The Augustine-negative alias At(a-) blood type, which seems to be restricted to people of African ancestry, was identified half a century ago but remains one of the last blood types with no known genetic basis. Here we report that a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in SLC29A1 (rs45458701) is responsible for the At(a-) blood type. The resulting p.Glu391Lys variation in the last extracellular loop of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1; also called SLC29a1) is known not to alter its ability to transport nucleosides and nucleoside analog drugs. Furthermore, we identified 3 individuals of European ancestry who are homozygous for a null mutation in SLC29A1 (c.589+1G>C) and thus have the Augustine-null blood type. These individuals lacking ENT1 exhibit periarticular and ectopic mineralization, which confirms an important role for ENT1/SLC29A1 in human bone homeostasis as recently suggested by the skeletal phenotype of aging Slc29a1(-/-) mice. Our results establish Augustine as a new blood group system and place SLC29A1 as a new candidate gene for idiopathic disorders characterized with ectopic calcification/mineralization. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  10. Determination of nucleosides in Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum by high performance liquid chromatography method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Shah Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nucleosides are supportive in the regulation and modulation of various physiological processes in body, they acts as precursors in nucleic acid synthesis, enhance immune response, help in absorption of iron and influence the metabolism of fatty acids. Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum are well-known for its use in traditional medicine of China, Nepal and India. They are rich in nucleosides such as adenine, adenosine, cordycepin, etc. Hence, a simple, economic and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analytical method was proposed for determination of adenine and adenosine for the quality control of plants. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic experiments were conducted on YL9100 HPLC system (South Korea. Reversed-phase chromatography was performed on a C18 column with methanol and dihydrogen phosphate as the mobile phase in isocratic elution method at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 254 nm, which gives a sharp peak of adenine and adenosine at a retention time of 6.53 ± 0.02 min and 12.41 ± 0.02, respectively. Results and Discussion: Linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed a good linear relationship between response and concentration in the range of 25–200 µg/mL for adenosine and 100–800 µg/mL for adenine with regression coefficient of 0.999 and 0.996, respectively. The adenine was found 0.16% and 0.71% w/w in G. lucidum and in C. sinensis, respectively, and adenosine was found to be 0.14% w/w in G. lucidum whereas absent in C. sinensis. Conclusion: The developed HPLC method for the quantification of adenosine and adenine can be used for the quality control and standardization of crude drug and for the different herbal formulations, in which adenine and adenosine are present as major constituents. The wide linearity range, sensitivity, accuracy, and simple mobile phase imply the method is suitable for routine quantification of adenosine and adenine with

  11. Removal of pyrimidine dimers from Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear DNA under nongrowth conditions as detected by a sensitive, enzymatic assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R J [Tennessee Univ., Oak Ridge (USA). Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

    1978-04-01

    A sensitive and quantitative procedure for the detection of pyrimidine dimers in yeast nuclear DNA is described. The assay employs dimer-specific, endonuclease activities from Micrococcus luteus together with DNA sedimentation through calibrated, alkaline sucrose gradients to detect endonuclease-induced, single-strand breaks. Breaks were induced in a dose-dependent manner from 0 to 80 J m/sup -2/ at 254 nm and in numbers equivalent to the numbers of dimers induced by similar doses. Endonuclease-sensitive sites in the wild-type, haploid strain S288C, after irradiation with 5 J m/sup -2/ (254 nm), were removed in less than 5 min when cells were incuba ted in buffer (pH 7.0) at 28/sup 0/C. After irra diation with dos es from 30 to 100 J m/sup -2/ site removal in S288C required longer postirradiation incubations and was about 90% complete. In a radiation-sensitive strain carrying the mutant allele rad 4-3 the number of endonuclease-sensitive sites remained constant for 6 h after irradiation with 5 J m/sup -2/. The retention of sites in this strain indicates that it is defective in the excision of pyrimidine dimers. (Auth.

  12. Excision of pyrimidine dimers from epidermal DNA and nonsemiconservative epidermal DNA synthesis following ultraviolet irradiation of mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, G.T.; Trosko, J.E.; Shapas, B.G.; Boutwell, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    Pyrimidine dimer production and excision in epidermal DNA were studied at five different dose levels of ultraviolet light in the skin of intact mice. Dimer production increased with dose up to 50,400 ergs/sq mm. Approximately 30 percent of the thymine-containing dimers were excised by 24 hr after irradiation at three lower dose levels of ultraviolet light. Nonsemiconservative DNA replication in ultraviolet-irradiated mouse skin was shown to continue for at least 18 hr. The rate of nonsemiconservative replication decreased with time, but did so slowly. The initial rates of nonsemiconservative replication increased with ultraviolet light dose levels up to about 4200 ergs/sq mm, after which the initial rates were decreased. Semiconservative epidermal DNA synthesis was shown to be inhibited by hydroxyurea, but hydroxyurea had no effect on ultraviolet light-induced nonsemiconservative DNA replication. The observed pyrimidine dimer excision and nonsemiconservative DNA replication suggest that in the intact mouse the cells of the epidermis are capable of DNA excision repair after ultraviolet irradiation of mouse skin

  13. Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Antimycotic Evaluation of Some 3-Acyl Imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Gómez-García

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of 3-benzoyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines, obtained from N-heteroarylformamidines in good yields, was tested in silico and in vitro for binding and inhibition of seven Candida species (Candida albicans (ATCC 10231, Candida dubliniensis (CD36, Candida glabrata (CBS138, Candida guilliermondii (ATCC 6260, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei (ATCC 6358 and Candida tropicalis (MYA-3404. To predict binding mode and energy, each compound was docked in the active site of the lanosterol 14α-demethylase enzyme (CYP51, essential for fungal growth of Candida species. Antimycotic activity was evaluated as the 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 for the test compounds and two reference drugs, ketoconazole and fluconazole. All test compounds had a better binding energy (range: −6.11 to −9.43 kcal/mol than that found for the reference drugs (range: 48.93 to −6.16 kcal/mol. In general, the test compounds showed greater inhibitory activity of yeast growth than the reference drugs. Compounds 4j and 4f were the most active, indicating an important role in biological activity for the benzene ring with electron-withdrawing substituents. These compounds show the best MIC50 against C. guilliermondii and C. glabrata, respectively. The current findings suggest that the 3-benzoyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine derivatives, herein synthesized by an accessible methodology, are potential antifungal drugs.

  14. Cyclobutane-type pyrimidine photodimer formation and induction of ornithine decarboxylase in human skin fibroblasts after UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niggli, H.J.; Roethlisberger, R.

    1988-01-01

    Cyclobutane-type pyrimidine photodimers as well as the induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) may serve as biochemical markers of the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet light (UV). For this reason, it is important to compare the formation of pyrimidine dimers with the induction of ODC in human skin fibroblasts after irradiation with UVC (200-290 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm). In our studies we determined cytosine-thymine (C-T) as well as thymine-thymine dimer yields (T-T) by high-pressure liquid chromatography in cultures of neonatal normal human foreskin-derived fibroblasts after irradiation with UVC and UVB light. It was found that the yield of dimerization and the ratio of T-T/C-T decreased from the UVC to the UVB region. Time-course studies of ODC-induction in the same cells indicated that the maximal activity after UVB irradiation was retarded compared to UVC exposure. For the UV-induced ODC-levels, however, no significant difference in maximal induction could be measured after UVC and UVB irradiation at fluences where comparable yields of thymine dimerization are produced. Similar ODC-maxima were obtained with strains from children, while cells from adults showed significantly less pronounced ODC induction, indicating that ODC-response decreases with age and may therefore be used as a marker of aging

  15. Studies on non-steroidal inhibitors of aromatase enzyme; 4-(aryl/heteroaryl)-2-(pyrimidin-2-yl)thiazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Zafer; Ertas, Merve; Berk, Barkın; Biltekin, Sevde Nur; Yurttas, Leyla; Demirayak, Seref

    2018-05-01

    Steroidal and non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors target the suppression of estrogen biosynthesis in the treatment of breast cancer. Researchers have increasingly focused on developing non-steroidal derivatives for their potential clinical use avoiding steroidal side-effects. Non-steroidal derivatives generally have planar aromatic structures attached to the azole ring system. One part of this ring system comprises functional groups that inhibit aromatization through the coordination of the haem group of the aromatase enzyme. Replacement of the triazole ring system and development of aromatic/cyclic structures of the side chain can increase selectivity over aromatase enzyme inhibition. In this study, 4-(aryl/heteroaryl)-2-(pyrimidin-2-yl)thiazole derivatives were synthesized and physical analyses and structural determination studies were performed. The IC 50 values were determined by a fluorescence-based aromatase inhibition assay and compound 1 (4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(pyrimidine-2-yl)thiazole) were found potent inhibitor of enzyme (IC 50 :0.42 nM). Then, their antiproliferative activity over MCF-7 and HEK-293 cell lines was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Compounds 1, 7, 8, 13, 15, 18, 21 were active against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Lastly, a series of docking experiments were undertaken to analyze the crystal structure of human placental aromatase and identify the possible interactions between the most active structure and the active site. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of conformational changes of proteins by synthesized pyrimidine derivative and its sensitivity towards FRET application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Swadesh; Singharoy, Dipti; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra

    2018-04-01

    Interest in synthesizing and characterizing (IR, NMR and HRMS spectroscopic methods) a pyrimidine based Schiff-base ligand, 2-(2-(Anthracen-9-ylmethylene) hydrazinyl)-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine (ANHP) has been developed for its application to ascertain the conformational change of protein and sensitivity towards fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. Location of ANHP in bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) proteins environment has been determined using different spectroscopic techniques. Weakly fluorescent ANHP have shown greater protein induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE) in case of HSA than BSA, though in both cases energy transfer efficiency are almost same but difference in binding constant values encourages us to find the location of ANHP within the complex protein environment. From the FRET parameter and α-helicity change, it has been found that ANHP bound with Trp-214 of HSA and surface Trp-134 of BSA. Conformational changes of proteins have been observed more for HSA than BSA in presence of ANHP, which has confirmed the location of ANHP in both the protein environments. Coupled with experimental studies, molecular docking analysis has also been done to explain the locations and distance dependent FRET process of ANHP in both proteins.

  17. Synthesis of New Visnagen and Khellin Furochromone Pyrimidine Derivatives and Their Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameen Ali Abu-Hashem

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available 6-[(4-Methoxy/4,9-dimethoxy-7-methylfurochromen-5-ylideneamino]-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydropyrimidin-4-ones 1a,b were prepared by reaction of 6-amino-2-thiouracil with visnagen or khellin, respectively. Reaction of 1a,b with methyl iodide afforded furochromenylideneaminomethylsulfanylpyrimidin-4-ones 2a,b. Compounds 2a,b were reacted with secondary aliphatic amines to give the corresponding furochromen-ylideneamino-2-substituted pyrimidin-4-ones 3a–d. Reaction of 3a–d with phosphorus oxychloride yielded 6-chlorofurochromenylidenepyrimidinamines 4a–d, which were reacted with secondary amines to afford furochromenylideneamino-2,6-disubstituted pyrimidin-4-ones 5a–d. In addition, reaction of 5a–d with 3-chloropentane-2,4-dione gave 3-chloro-furochromenylpyrimidopyrimidines 6a–d. The latter were reacted with piperazine and morpholine to give 1-(furochromenyl-pyrimidopyrimidine-3,6,8-triylpiperazines or -3,6,8-triylmorpholines 7a–d. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized compound ware characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectral analysis. These compounds were also screened for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Some of them, particularly 3–7, exhibited promising activities.

  18. Repair of pyrimidine dimers in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of yeast irradiated with low doses of ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, L [Rochester Univ., N.Y. (USA). Dept. of Radiation Biology and Biophysics

    1975-01-01

    The repair of damage induced by ultraviolet light has been examined in both the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sensitive assay used in this study is based on the capacity of the bacteriophage T4 u.v. endonuclease to produce single-strand breaks in DNA that contains pyrimidine dimers, thus permitting the use of low fluences (doses) of u.v. The results demonstrate that virtually all of the dimers induced in the nuclear DNA of a repair-proficient strain (RAD+) are removed following dark incubation for four hours in growth medium. In contrast, the dimers induced in mitochondrial DNA by the same u.v. fluence are retained under the same conditions. In the excision-deficient mutant, rad1-2, no evidence was obtained for removal of pyrimidine dimers from nuclear DNA. Photoreactivation of both RAD + and rad1-2 cultures resulted in decreases of dimers from both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. It is concluded that an excision-repair mechanism operates on nuclear but not mitochondrial DNA in repair-proficient yeast, and that the rad1-2 mutant is defective in this process.

  19. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C cells remove pyrimidine dimers selectively from the transcribed strand of active genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venema, J.; van Hoffen, A.; Karcagi, V.; Natarajan, A.T.; van Zeeland, A.A.; Mullenders, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have measured the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from DNA fragments of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) genes in primary normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) cells. Using strand-specific probes, we show that in normal cells, preferential repair of the 5' part of the ADA gene is due to the rapid and efficient repair of the transcribed strand. Within 8 h after irradiation with UV at 10 J m-2, 70% of the pyrimidine dimers in this strand are removed. The nontranscribed strand is repaired at a much slower rate, with 30% dimers removed after 8 h. Repair of the transcribed strand in XP-C cells occurs at a rate indistinguishable from that in normal cells, but the nontranscribed strand is not repaired significantly in these cells. Similar results were obtained for the DHFR gene. In the 3' part of the ADA gene, however, both normal and XP-C cells perform fast and efficient repair of either strand, which is likely to be caused by the presence of transcription units on both strands. The factor defective in XP-C cells is apparently involved in the processing of DNA damage in inactive parts of the genome, including nontranscribed strands of active genes. These findings have important implications for the understanding of the mechanism of UV-induced excision repair and mutagenesis in mammalian cells

  20. TD-DFT investigation of the magnetic circular dichroism spectra of some purine and pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahleson, Tobias; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Santoro, Fabrizio; Improta, Roberto; Coriani, Sonia

    2015-05-28

    We present a computational study of the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra in the 200-300 nm wavelength region of purine and its derivative hypoxanthine, as well as of the pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids uracil, thymine, and cytosine, using the B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals. Solvent effects are investigated within the polarizable continuum model and by inclusion of explicit water molecules. In general, the computed spectra are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones, apart from some overall blue shifts. Both the pseudo-A term shape of the MCD spectra of the purines and the B term shape of the spectra of pyrimidine bases are reproduced. Our calculations also correctly reproduce the reversed phase of the MCD bands in purine compared to that of its derivatives present in nucleic acids. Solvent effects are sizable and system specific, but they do not in general alter the qualitative shape of the spectra. The bands are dominated by the bright π → π* transitions, and our calculations in solution nicely reproduce their energy differences, improving the estimates obtained in the gas phase. Shoulders are predicted for purine and uracil due to n → π* excitations, but they are too weak to be observed in the experiment.