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Sample records for acutely sivagm-infected african

  1. Experimental depletion of CD8+ cells in acutely SIVagm-Infected African Green Monkeys results in increased viral replication

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    Apetrei Cristian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vivo CD8+ cell depletions in pathogenic SIV infections identified a key role for cellular immunity in controlling viral load (VL and disease progression. However, similar studies gave discordant results in chronically-infected SMs, leading some authors to propose that in natural hosts, SIV replication is independent of cellular immunity. To assess the role of cellular immune responses in the control of SIV replication in natural hosts, we investigated the impact of CD8+ cell depletion during acute SIV infection in AGMs. Results Nine AGMs were infected with SIVagm.sab and were followed up to day 225 p.i. Four were intravenously infused with the cM-T807 antibody on days 0 (50 mg/kg, 6, and 13 (10 mg/kg, respectively post infection (p.i.. CD8+ cells were depleted for up to 28 days p.i. in peripheral blood and LNs in all treated AGMs. Partial CD8+ T cell depletion occurred in the intestine. SIVagm VLs peaked at similar levels in both groups (107-108 RNA copies/ml. However, while VLs were controlled in undepleted AGMs, reaching set-point levels (104-105 RNA copies/ml by day 28 p.i., high VLs (>106 RNA copies/ml were maintained by day 21 p.i. in CD8-depleted AGMs. By day 42 p.i., VLs were comparable between the two groups. The levels of immune activation and proliferation remained elevated up to day 72 p.i. in CD8-depleted AGMs and returned to preinfection levels in controls by day 28 p.i. None of the CD8-depleted animals progressed to AIDS. Conclusion CD8+ cells are responsible for a partial control of postacute viral replication in SIVagm.sab-infected AGMs. In contrast to macaques, the SIVagm-infected AGMs are able to control viral replication after recovery of the CD8+ T cells and avoid disease progression.

  2. Innate immune responses and rapid control of inflammation in African green monkeys treated or not with interferon-alpha during primary SIVagm infection.

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    Béatrice Jacquelin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic immune activation (IA is considered as the driving force of CD4(+ T cell depletion and AIDS. Fundamental clues in the mechanisms that regulate IA could lie in natural hosts of SIV, such as African green monkeys (AGMs. Here we investigated the role of innate immune cells and IFN-α in the control of IA in AGMs. AGMs displayed significant NK cell activation upon SIVagm infection, which was correlated with the levels of IFN-α. Moreover, we detected cytotoxic NK cells in lymph nodes during the early acute phase of SIVagm infection. Both plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cell (pDC and mDC homing receptors were increased, but the maturation of mDCs, in particular of CD16+ mDCs, was more important than that of pDCs. Monitoring of 15 cytokines showed that those, which are known to be increased early in HIV-1/SIVmac pathogenic infections, such as IL-15, IFN-α, MCP-1 and CXCL10/IP-10, were significantly increased in AGMs as well. In contrast, cytokines generally induced in the later stage of acute pathogenic infection, such as IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α, were less or not increased, suggesting an early control of IA. We then treated AGMs daily with high doses of IFN-α from day 9 to 24 post-infection. No impact was observed on the activation or maturation profiles of mDCs, pDCs and NK cells. There was also no major difference in T cell activation or interferon-stimulated gene (ISG expression profiles and no sign of disease progression. Thus, even after administration of high levels of IFN-α during acute infection, AGMs were still able to control IA, showing that IA control is independent of IFN-α levels. This suggests that the sustained ISG expression and IA in HIV/SIVmac infections involves non-IFN-α products.

  3. Distinct expression profiles of TGF-β1 signaling mediators in pathogenic SIVmac and non-pathogenic SIVagm infections

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    Butor Cécile

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The generalized T-cell activation characterizing HIV-1 and SIVmac infections in humans and macaques (MACs is not found in the non-pathogenic SIVagm infection in African green monkeys (AGMs. We have previously shown that TGF-β1, Foxp3 and IL-10 are induced very early after SIVagm infection. In SIVmac-infected MACs, plasma TGF-β1 induction persists during primary infection 1. We raised the hypothesis that MACs are unable to respond to TGF-β1 and thus cannot resorb virus-driven inflammation. We therefore compared the very early expression dynamics of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers as well as of factors involved in the TGF-β1 signaling pathway in SIV-infected AGMs and MACs. Methods Levels of transcripts encoding for pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (tnf-α, ifn-γ, il-10, t-bet, gata-3 as well as for TGF-β1 signaling mediators (smad3, smad4, smad7 were followed by real time PCR in a prospective study enrolling 6 AGMs and 6 MACs. Results During primary SIVmac infection, up-regulations of tnf-α, ifn-γ and t-bet responses (days 1–16 p.i. were stronger whereas il-10 response was delayed (4th week p.i. compared to SIVagm infection. Up-regulation of smad7 (days 3–8 p.i., a cellular mediator inhibiting the TGF-β1 signaling cascade, characterized SIV-infected MACs. In AGMs, we found increases of gata-3 but not t-bet, a longer lasting up-regulation of smad4 (days 1–21 p.i, a mediator enhancing TGF-β1 signaling, and no smad7 up-regulations. Conclusion Our data suggest that the inability to resorb virus-driven inflammation and activation during the pathogenic HIV-1/SIVmac infections is associated with an unresponsiveness to TGF-β1.

  4. Functional cure of SIVagm infection in rhesus macaques results in complete recovery of CD4+ T cells and is reverted by CD8+ cell depletion.

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    Ivona Pandrea

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanism of infection control in elite controllers (EC may shed light on the correlates of control of disease progression in HIV infection. However, limitations have prevented a clear understanding of the mechanisms of elite controlled infection, as these studies can only be performed at randomly selected late time points in infection, after control is achieved, and the access to tissues is limited. We report that SIVagm infection is elite-controlled in rhesus macaques (RMs and therefore can be used as an animal model for EC HIV infection. A robust acute infection, with high levels of viral replication and dramatic mucosal CD4(+ T cell depletion, similar to pathogenic HIV-1/SIV infections of humans and RMs, was followed by complete and durable control of SIVagm replication, defined as: undetectable VLs in blood and tissues beginning 72 to 90 days postinoculation (pi and continuing at least 4 years; seroreversion; progressive recovery of mucosal CD4(+ T cells, with complete recovery by 4 years pi; normal levels of T cell immune activation, proliferation, and apoptosis; and no disease progression. This "functional cure" of SIVagm infection in RMs could be reverted after 4 years of control of infection by depleting CD8 cells, which resulted in transient rebounds of VLs, thus suggesting that control may be at least in part immune mediated. Viral control was independent of MHC, partial APOBEC restriction was not involved in SIVagm control in RMs and Trim5 genotypes did not impact viral replication. This new animal model of EC lentiviral infection, in which complete control can be predicted in all cases, permits research on the early events of infection in blood and tissues, before the defining characteristics of EC are evident and when host factors are actively driving the infection towards the EC status.

  5. Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing

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    Zar Heather J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs are important triggers of wheezing in young children. Wheezy illness has increasingly been recognised as an important cause of morbidity in African children, but there is little information on the contribution of HRV to this. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children. Methods Two hundred and twenty children presenting consecutively at a tertiary children's hospital with a wheezing illness from May 2004 to November 2005 were prospectively enrolled. A nasal swab was taken and reverse transcription PCR used to screen the samples for HRV. The presence of human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus and human coronavirus-NL63 was assessed in all samples using PCR-based assays. A general shell vial culture using a pool of monoclonal antibodies was used to detect other common respiratory viruses on 26% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis to determine circulating HRV species was performed on a portion of HRV-positive samples. Categorical characteristics were analysed using Fisher's Exact test. Results HRV was detected in 128 (58.2% of children, most (72% of whom were under 2 years of age. Presenting symptoms between the HRV-positive and negative groups were similar. Most illness was managed with ambulatory therapy, but 45 (35% were hospitalized for treatment and 3 (2% were admitted to intensive care. There were no in-hospital deaths. All 3 species of HRV were detected with HRV-C being the most common (52% followed by HRV-A (37% and HRV-B (11%. Infection with other respiratory viruses occurred in 20/128 (16% of HRV-positive children and in 26/92 (28% of HRV-negative samples. Conclusion HRV may be the commonest viral infection in young South African children with acute wheezing. Infection is associated with mild or moderate clinical disease.

  6. An analysis of prognostic variables in acute lymphocytic leukaemia in a heterogenous South African population

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    Hesseling, PB; Buurman, M; Oud, C; Nel, ED

    1997-01-01

    The records of all 96 children below the age of 15 years diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at Tygerberg Hospital in the Republic of South African between 1983 and 1995 were reviewed to determine risk factors which may predict poor outcome. Age <2 and > 8 years, and white cell count >20 x

  7. Renal dysfunction in African patients with acute heart failure

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    Sani, Mahmoud U.; Davison, Beth A.; Cotter, Gad; Sliwa, Karen; Edwards, Christopher; Liu, Licette; Damasceno, Albertino; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Ogah, Okechukwu S.; Mondo, Charles; Dzudie, Anastase; Ojji, Dike B.; Voors, Adrian A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims In Western countries with typically elderly ischaemic acute heart failure patients, predictors and clinical outcome of renal dysfunction and worsening renal function are well described. However, the prevalence, predictors and clinical outcome of renal dysfunction in younger, mainly hypertensive

  8. Acute HIV illness following blood transfusion in three African children.

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    Colebunders, R; Greenberg, A E; Francis, H; Kabote, N; Izaley, L; Nguyen-Dinh, P; Quinn, T C; Van der Groen, G; Curran, J W; Piot, P

    1988-04-01

    Three children are described in whom pre-transfusion samples were HIV-seronegative and post-transfusional samples, obtained within 1 week after transfusion, were HIV-seropositive. Two of them developed a transient fever within 1 week of receiving the blood transfusion, and a transient generalized skin eruption which lasted for about 2 weeks. All three developed persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. One child developed a lumbar herpes zoster 7 months after transfusion. IgM Western blots demonstrated the presence of antibodies to protein bands p17, p24 and p55 in all three children. These three case reports suggest that children who receive a seropositive blood transfusion are at high risk for developing acute manifestations of HIV infection.

  9. Diagnosis of presumed acute ischemic stroke and associated seizure management in a Congo African grey parrot.

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    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Gaschen, Lorrie; Ryan, Kirk; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Tully, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    A 14-year-old Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) was evaluated for an acute onset of falling off of its perch and tonic-clonic movements. Clinical signs were consistent with partial seizures. Findings on whole-body radiography, CBC, and plasma biochemical analysis were unremarkable. Plasma magnesium, ionized calcium, and bile acids concentrations were within reference limits. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the head revealed the presence of a focal hyperintensity at the central to left side of the optic chiasm and a hyperintense focus in the right side of the midbrain area in T2-weighted and FLAIR pulse sequence images. These findings were most consistent with an acute ischemic stroke with 2 brain infarcts. Seizures were initially managed with potassium bromide and phenobarbital administration. On the basis of poor results and difficulties to reach therapeutic blood concentrations, the treatment plan was changed to levetiracetam and zonisamide administration. Blood concentrations were monitored for both drugs, and the frequency of seizures substantially decreased thereafter. A follow-up MRI examination 2 months later revealed resolution of the hyperintense signals. During the 20-month follow-up period, subsequent clusters of seizures were managed by adjusting levetiracetam and zonisamide dosages and adding clonazepam and gabapentin administration to the treatment plan. Regression of intraparenchymal hyperintense lesions and improvement of clinical signs made a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke most likely. Findings for this Congo African grey parrot indicated that an antemortem diagnosis of an acute ischemic stroke followed by long-term seizure management may be possible in affected psittacines.

  10. Antibiotic prescription patterns of South African general medical practitioners for treatment of acute bronchitis.

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    Ncube, N B Q; Solanki, G C; Kredo, T; Lalloo, R

    2017-01-30

    Antibiotic resistance is a significant public health problem. Prudent use of antibiotics is crucial in reducing this resistance. Acute bronchitis is a common reason for consultations with general medical practitioners, and antibiotics are often prescribed even though guidelines recommend not prescribing them for uncomplicated acute bronchitis. To analyse the antibiotic prescription patterns of South African (SA) general medical practitioners in the treatment of acute bronchitis. The 2013 claims for members of 11 health insurance schemes were analysed to assess antibiotic prescription patterns for patients diagnosed with acute bronchitis. The patterns were assessed by type of bronchitis, chronic health status of the patients, sex and age group. The types of antibiotic prescribed were also analysed. Of 166 821 events analysed, an antibiotic was prescribed in more than half (52.9%). There were significant differences by type of bronchitis and chronic health status. Patients with viral bronchitis were more likely to be prescribed an antibiotic than those with bacterial bronchitis (odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 - 1.26). Patients with a chronic illness were less likely to be prescribed an antibiotic than those without (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.57 - 0.60). More than 70% of the antibiotics prescribed were cephalosporins, penicillins and other beta-lactams. Prescription rates of antibiotics for acute bronchitis by SA general medical practitioners are high. There is an urgent need to follow the guidelines for antibiotic use for acute bronchitis to reduce the likelihood of increasing resistance to available antibiotics.

  11. Acute toxicity of agricultural pesticides to embryo-larval and juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

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    Agbohessi, P T; Imorou Toko, I; Houndji, A; Gillardin, V; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2013-05-01

    Acute toxicities of Tihan 175 O-TEQ, as well as its active ingredients flubendiamide and spirotetramat, and of Thionex 350 EC (active compound endosulfan) were measured for embryo-larval and juvenile stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus to assess risks of pesticide use in the cotton basin in Benin (West Africa). For embryo-larval stages, Tihan was more toxic (LC5048h 20 ppm) than Thionex (LC5048h 56 ppm), and flubendiamide was more toxic (LC5048h 2.0 ppm) than spirotetramat (LC5048h 8.44 ppm). All decreased hatching rates. Tihan and spirotetramat disturbed larval swimming coordination; flubendiamide induced tail cleavage. For juvenile fish, Thionex was more toxic (LC5096h 0.22 ppm) than Tihan (LC5096h 8.8 ppm), and flubendiamide (LC5096h 4.7 ppm) was more toxic than spirotetramat (LC5096h 6.0 ppm). Eggs were more resistant than juvenile fish to all tested pesticides except flubendiamide. Although Thionex was more toxic to juvenile fish, replacing Thionex with Tihan may be undesirable for survival of eggs and larvae.

  12. Acute death associated with Citrobacter freundii infection in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

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    Ortega, Joaquín; Corpa, Juan M; Orden, José A; Blanco, Jorge; Carbonell, María D; Gerique, Amalia C; Latimer, Erin; Hayward, Gary S; Roemmelt, Andreas; Kraemer, Thomas; Romey, Aurore; Kassimi, Labib B; Casares, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    A 21-year-old male African elephant (Loxodonta africana) died suddenly with no previous medical history. Grossly, there were severe multifocal epicardial and endocardial hemorrhages of the atria and ventricles, hydropericardium, multifocal pleural hemorrhages, and severe pulmonary congestion and edema. Histologically, there was fibrinoid vasculitis and thrombosis in the heart and lung and myocardial necrosis. Citrobacter freundii was isolated in abundance in pure culture from liver and heart samples. Low levels of multiples types of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV-6, EEHV-2B, and EEHV-3A) were detected in spleen samples, but not in heart samples. The levels of EEHV DNA found were much lower than those usually associated with acute EEHV hemorrhagic disease, and many other genomic loci that would normally be found in such cases were evidently below the level of detection. Therefore, these findings are unlikely to indicate lethal EEHV disease. Polymerase chain reaction for encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and toxicology for oleander (Nerium oleander) were negative. Stress, resulting from recent transport, and antimicrobial therapy may have contributed to the death of this animal.

  13. The genetic risk of acute seizures in African children with falciparum malaria

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    Kariuki, Symon M; Rockett, Kirk; Clark, Taane G; Reyburn, Hugh; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Taylor, Terrie E; Birbeck, Gretchen L; Williams, Thomas N; Newton, Charles R J C

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It is unclear why some children with falciparum malaria develop acute seizures and what determines the phenotype of seizures. We sought to determine if polymorphisms of malaria candidate genes are associated with acute seizures. Methods Logistic regression was used to investigate genetic associations with malaria-associated seizures (MAS) and complex MAS (repetitive, prolonged, or focal seizures) in four MalariaGEN African sites, namely: Blantyre, Malawi; Kilifi, Kenya; Kumasi, Ghana; and Muheza, Tanzania. The analysis was repeated for five inheritance models (dominant, heterozygous, recessive, additive, and general) and adjusted for potential confounders and multiple testing. Key Findings Complex phenotypes of seizures constituted 71% of all admissions with MAS across the sites. MAS were strongly associated with cluster of differentiation-ligand-rs3092945 in females in Kilifi (p = 0.00068) and interleukin (IL)-17 receptor E-rs708567 in the pooled analysis across the sites (p = 0.00709). Complex MAS were strongly associated with epidermal growth factor module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor (EMR)1-rs373533 in Kumasi (p = 0.00033), but none in the pooled analysis. Focal MAS were strongly associated with IL-20 receptor A-rs1555498 in Muheza (p = 0.00016), but none in the pooled analysis. Prolonged MAS were strongly associated with complement receptor 1-rs17047660 in Kilifi (p = 0.00121) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-rs1050828 in females in the pooled analysis (p = 0.00155). Repetitive MAS were strongly associated with EMR1-rs373533 in Kumasi (p = 0.00003) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance receptor-rs17140229 in the pooled analysis (p = 0.00543). MAS with coma/cerebral malaria were strongly associated with EMR1-rs373533 in Kumasi (p = 0.00019) and IL10-rs3024500 in the pooled analysis across the sites (p = 0.00064). Significance We have identified a number of genetic associations that may explain the risk of seizures in >2,000 cases

  14. Chronic distress and acute vascular stress responses associated with ambulatory blood pressure in low-testosterone African men: the SABPA Study.

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    Malan, N T; Stalder, T; Schlaich, M P; Lambert, G W; Hamer, M; Schutte, A E; Huisman, H W; Schutte, R; Smith, W; Mels, C M C; van Rooyen, J M; Malan, L

    2014-06-01

    It is known that low testosterone (T) and high cortisol levels are associated with hypertension as well as with chronic stress, linking stress with elevated blood pressure (BP). However, the association between acute stress-, chronic stress responses and BP is not clear in Africans. Therefore, we examined the association between cortisol, psychological distress and BP responses in low- and high-T male subgroups. Beat-to-beat and ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) and electrocardiogram measures were obtained. Serum samples were collected and analyzed for sex hormones and cortisol. Chronic psychological distress was verified with the General Health Questionnaire and acute stress with the cold pressor test. More chronic psychological distress was observed in both low- and high-T Africans compared with the Caucasians. The low-T Africans tended to have more ischemic events (P=0.06) and ABPM values (P⩽0.01) than any of the other groups. Both chronic distress (cortisol) and acute stress (total peripheral resistance cold pressor responses) were associated with ABPM in the low-T African group. Acute and chronic stress may contribute to increased BP in low-T African men. Their cortisol and vascular responses supported a tendency for ischemia, increasing their risk for coronary artery disease.

  15. Israeli acute paralysis virus in Africanized honey bees in southeastern Brazilian Apiaries

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    Honey bee losses in Brazil have been observed over the past few years. These losses share somewhat similar symptoms with the syndrome known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in the USA. After more than a half century of introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata, Africanized honey bees have...

  16. Insuficiencia renal aguda asociada a picadura de abeja africanizada Acute renal failure secondary to africanized bee stings

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    Verny Huertas-Franco

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un adulto mayor diabético tipo 2, que sufrió un ataque masivo de abejas africanizadas, y llegó a la sala de emergencias tres horas después del inicio del ataque. El paciente presentó insuficiencia renal aguda por combinación de factores, y se recuperó con tratamiento de diálisis temprana. Se discuten los problemas que refieren estos pacientes, y cuál sería el manejo ideal de tales casos.This is the case of an elderly patient who suffered multiple Africanized bee stings. He developed acute renal failure as a complication. He however recovered completely after treatment with peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

  17. Acute health problems in African refugees: ten years' experience in a Swiss emergency department.

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    Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Graf, Fabienne; Tabbara, Malek; Tabarra, Malek; Lindner, Gregor; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2012-09-01

    Over the last two decades, the total number of applications from Africans for asylum in the countries of the European Union has increased from 578,000 to more than 2.9 million. About 20 % (7,196/36,100) of the asylum seekers in Switzerland originate from Africa. The disease profile of African asylum seekers is remarkably different from that of the native population in the country of application. We have therefore conducted an analysis of African asylum seekers presenting themselves to our emergency department. In a retrospective analysis, the central patient registry database was searched for patients originating from Africa admitted from 1 January 2000 to 30 November 2011 and labelled as "Asylbewerber" (asylum seeker) or "Flüchtling" (refugee). Three thousand six hundred and seventy-five African asylum seekers were admitted to our emergency department between 2000 and 2010. Thirty-four percent (n = 1,247) were female and 66 % (n = 2,426) male. Eighty percent (n = 1,940) of the men and 70 % (n = 823) of the women were younger than 40 years. Most of our patients originated from Algeria (n = 612). Forty-five percent (n = 1,628) of all patients presented with internal medical problems, 40 % (n = 1,487) with injuries. 3.5 % (n = 130) of all patients presented with psychiatric problems. Admission for psychiatric problems increased steadily from 2 % (n = 4) in 2001 to 10 % (n = 35) in 2011. The causes of presentation are manifold, including internal medical problems and injuries. Admissions for psychiatric problems are increasing. Establishing simple screening scores for somatization should be a key priority in providing more focused treatment in emergency departments.

  18. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

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    Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  19. Acute care needs in a rural Sub-Saharan African Emergency Centre: A retrospective analysis

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    Usha Periyanayagam

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: This pilot study describes the patient population, resource and training needs of a rural Emergency Centre in SSA. It demonstrates that acute care providers will be required to evaluate a wide variety of patient complaints, effectively utilise laboratory and radiologic testing, and perform numerous focused treatments and therapies. Specialised training programmes, such as GECC’s ECP programme, are needed to create providers able to provide high quality, lifesaving care.

  20. Acute phenanthrene toxicity to juvenile diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Molecular, biochemical, and histopathological alterations.

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    Karami, Ali; Romano, Nicholas; Hamzah, Hazilawati; Simpson, Stuart L; Yap, Chee Kong

    2016-05-01

    Information on the biological responses of polyploid animals towards environmental contaminants is scarce. This study aimed to compare reproductive axis-related gene expressions in the brain, plasma biochemical responses, and the liver and gill histopathological alterations in diploid and triploid full-sibling juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 96 h to one of the two waterborne phenanthrene (Phe) concentrations [mean measured (SD): 6.2 (2.4) and 76 (4.2) μg/L]. In triploids, exposure to 76 μg/L Phe increased mRNA level of fushi tarazu-factor 1 (ftz-f1). Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2) was also elevated in both ploidies following the exposure to 76 μg/L Phe compared to the solvent control. In triploids, 76 μg/L Phe increased plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels compared to the other Phe-exposed group. It also elevated lactate and glucose contents relative to the other groups. In diploids, however, biochemical biomarkers did not change. Phenanthrene exposures elevated glycogen contents and the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the liver and gills of both ploidies. This study showed substantial differences between diploids and triploids on biochemical and molecular biomarker responses, but similar histopathological alterations following acute Phe exposures.

  1. Acute diarrhea in West African children: diverse enteric viruses and a novel parvovirus genus.

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    Phan, Tung G; Vo, Nguyen P; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kapoor, Amit; Barro, Nicolas; O'Ryan, Miguel; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunling; Delwart, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Parvoviruses cause a variety of mild to severe symptoms or asymptomatic infections in humans and animals. During a viral metagenomic analysis of feces from children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso, we identified in decreasing prevalence nucleic acids from anelloviruses, dependoviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses, bocaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, cosavirus, astroviruses, and hepatitis B virus. Sequences from a highly divergent parvovirus, provisionally called bufavirus, were also detected whose NS1 and VP1 proteins showed parvoviruses. Four percent of the fecal samples were PCR positive for this new parvovirus, including a related bufavirus species showing only 72% identity in VP1. The high degree of genetic divergence of these related genomes from those of other parvoviruses indicates the presence of a proposed new Parvoviridae genus containing at least two species. Studies of the tropism and pathogenicity of these novel parvoviruses will be facilitated by the availability of their genome sequences.

  2. Frequent substitution polymorphisms in African green monkey CCR5 cluster at critical sites for infections by simian immunodeficiency virus SIVagm, implying ancient virus-host coevolution.

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    Kuhmann, S E; Madani, N; Diop, O M; Platt, E J; Morvan, J; Müller-Trutwin, M C; Barré-Sinoussi, F; Kabat, D

    2001-09-01

    5(Y14N) component that lacks an N-linked oligosaccharide binds the chemokine MIP-lbeta with a normal affinity and is fully active in signal transduction. Similarly, D13N and Q93R substitutions did not interfere with signal transduction. Thus, the common substitution polymorphisms in AGM CCR5 strongly inhibit SIVagm infections while substantially preserving chemokine signaling. In contrast, polymorphisms of human CCR5 are relatively infrequent, and the amino acid substitutions are randomly situated and generally without effects on coreceptor function. These results support an ancient coevolution of AGMs and SIVagm viruses and establish AGMs as a highly informative model for learning about host proteins that play critical roles in immunodeficiency virus infections.

  3. Sickle cell disease patients in eastern province of Saudi Arabia suffer less severe acute chest syndrome than patients with African haplotypes

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    Alabdulaali M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Genetic studies suggest that the sickle cell mutation has arisen on at least four separate occasions in Africa and as a fifth independent mutation in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia or India. The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD is essentially similar in these different areas although the frequency and severity of complications may vary between areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of acute chest syndrome (ACS in SCD patients from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in comparison with patients with African haplotypes. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study involving 317 SCD patients who were two years or older, admitted to King Fahad Hospital Hofuf between January-May 2003 for different etiologies. Twenty six patients presented with different causes of ACS; 11 patients presented with different pathologies other than ACS, but had past history of ACS; 280 patients presented with different pathologies and never presented with ACS. Clinical features, CBC, Hb-electrophoresis, G6PD activity, cultures, chest X-ray, arterial oxygen saturation, blood transfusion rates and outcome were studied. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were carried out to evaluate influence on ACS. Comparison between SCD patients with ACS from this study and from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to patients with African haplotypes were carried out, using data reported in the literature. Results : During the period of this study, 37 patients with new or previous episodes of ACS were studied (accounting for 11.67% of admitted SCD patients. Most of the patients with ACS had only one episode, but five patients (13.51% had had episodes or more. One patient died giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 1/26 (3.85%. Comparison of recurrence of ACS and mortality between SCD patients in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to that of patients with African haplotype showed that recurrence is

  4. Clinical Characteristics and 30-Day Outcomes of Intermittent Hemodialysis for Acute Kidney Injury in an African Intensive Care Unit

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    Arthur Kwizera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common occurrence in the intensive care unit (ICU. Studies have looked at outcomes of renal replacement therapy using intermittent haemodialysis (IHD in ICUs with varying results. Little is known about the outcomes of using IHD in resource-limited settings where continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is limited. We sought to determine outcomes of IHD among critically ill patients admitted to a low-income country ICU. Methods. A retrospective review of patient records was conducted. Patients admitted to the ICU who underwent IHD for AKI were included in the study. Patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics, cause of AKI, laboratory parameters, haemodialysis characteristics, and survival were interpreted and analyzed. Primary outcome was mortality. Results. Of 62 patients, 40 had complete records. Median age of patients was 38.5 years. Etiologic diagnoses associated with AKI included sepsis, malaria, and ARDS. Mortality was 52.5%. APACHE II (OR 4.550; 95% CI 1.2–17.5, p=0.028, mechanical ventilation (OR 13.063; 95% CI 2.3–72, p=0.003, and need for vasopressors (OR 16.8; 95% CI 3.4–82.6, p=0.001 had statistically significant association with mortality. Conclusion. IHD may be a feasible alternative for RRT in critically ill haemodynamically stable patients in low resource settings where CRRT may not be available.

  5. Pro- versus anti-inflammatory cytokine profile in African children with acute oro-facial noma (cancrum oris, noma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Reshma S; Enwonwu, Cyril O; Falkler, William A

    2005-01-01

    Fresh noma is a severe orofacial necrosis with an astonishingly rapid development. It is seen mainly in malnourished children less than 4 years old from developing countries. Cytokines play a central role in oral mucosal inflammation. We therefore studied the relevance of circulating cytokines to noma, and the key microorganisms associated with the lesion. Nigerian village children with acute noma (n=68) and their neighborhood village (n=63) as well as urban (n=45) counterparts of comparable age and free of overt infections were evaluated for serum cytokine levels by ELISA. Oral bacteria were studied by polymerase chain reaction. Evaluation of random cases of the village and noma children showed marked depletion (pnoma children than in the healthy urban children, but less so when compared to their neighborhood village counterparts. The increase in levels of the anti-inflammatory/regulatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta) was less marked relative to the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Bacteria observed at the highest frequencies in noma lesions were P. intermedia (83%), T. forsythensis (83%), P. gingivalis (50%), C. rectus (50%) and T. denticola (50%). We conclude that noma is an immunopathological response to potent bacterial factors resulting in uncontrolled production of cytokines and possibly other, still unknown, inflammatory mediators.

  6. Acute and Chronic Outcomes of Gas-Bubble Disease in a Colony of African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Julia Y; Felt, Stephen A; Bouley, Donna M; Green, Sherril L

    2017-02-01

    Gas-bubble disease occurs in aquatic species that are exposed to water that is supersaturated with gases. In February 2007, municipal water supersaturated with gas was inadvertently pumped into the vivarium's aquatic housing systems and affected approximately 450 adult female Xenopus laevis. The inflow of supersaturated water was stopped immediately, the holding tanks aggressively aerated, and all experimental manipulations and feeding ceased. Within the first 6 h after the event, morbidity approached 90%, and mortality reached 3.5%. Acutely affected frogs showed clinical signs of gas-bubble disease: buoyancy problems, micro- and macroscopic bubbles in the foot webbing, hyperemia in foot webbing and leg skin, and loss of the mucous slime coat. All of the frogs that died or were euthanized had areas of mesenteric infarction, which resulted in intestinal epithelial necrosis and degeneration of the muscular tunic. Over the subsequent 2 wk, as gas saturation levels returned to normal, the clinical symptoms resolved completely in the remaining frogs. However, 3 mo later, 85% of them failed to lay eggs or produce oocytes, and the remaining 15% produced oocytes of low number and poor quality, yielding cytosolic extracts with poor to no enzymatic activity. Histology of the egg mass from a single 2- to 3-y-old frog at 3 mo after disease resolution revealed irregularly shaped oocytes, few large mature oocytes, and numerous small, degenerating oocytes. At 6 mo after the incident, the remaining frogs continued to fail to produce eggs of sufficient quantity or quality after hormonal priming. The researchers consequently opted to cull the remainder of the colony and repopulate with new frogs.

  7. Cooking and season as risk factors for acute lower respiratory infections in African children: a cross-sectional multi-country analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Buchner

    Full Text Available Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI are a leading cause of death among African children under five. A significant proportion of these are attributable to household air pollution from solid fuel use.We assessed the relationship between cooking practices and ALRI in pooled datasets of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2011 in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The impacts of main cooking fuel, cooking location and stove ventilation were examined in 18 (n = 56,437, 9 (n = 23,139 and 6 countries (n = 14,561 respectively. We used a causal diagram and multivariable logistic mixed models to assess the influence of covariates at individual, regional and national levels.Main cooking fuel had a statistically significant impact on ALRI risk (p<0.0001, with season acting as an effect modifier (p = 0.034. During the rainy season, relative to clean fuels, the odds of suffering from ALRI were raised for kerosene (OR 1.64; CI: 0.99, 2.71, coal and charcoal (OR 1.54; CI: 1.21, 1.97, wood (OR 1.20; CI: 0.95, 1.51 and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.49; CI: 0.93, 2.35. In contrast, during the dry season the corresponding odds were reduced for kerosene (OR 1.23; CI: 0.77, 1.95, coal and charcoal (OR 1.35; CI: 1.06, 1.72 and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.07; CI: 0.69, 1.66 but increased for wood (OR 1.32; CI: 1.04, 1.66. Cooking location also emerged as a season-dependent statistically significant (p = 0.0070 determinant of ALRI, in particular cooking indoors without a separate kitchen during the rainy season (OR 1.80; CI: 1.30, 2.50. Due to infrequent use in Africa we could, however, not demonstrate an effect of stove ventilation.We found differential and season-dependent risks for different types of solid fuels and kerosene as well as cooking location on child ALRI. Future household air pollution studies should consider potential effect modification of cooking fuel by season.

  8. African Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Recek, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  9. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  10. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  11. AFRICAN TEXTILES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African textiles form an important aspect of African art. Their uniqueness in ... more improvised, fluid effect that plays with de- ... on the off-beat in African music, notions of re- ... also named after perceived visual similarities .... of palm leaf serves as a brush and the resist paint .... has begun to be seriously investigated.

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life Dynamics of HIV-positive South African Women up to ART Initiation: Evidence from the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita, Andrew; Garrett, Nigel; Werner, Lise; Burns, Jonathan K; Mpanza, Lindiwe; Mlisana, Koleka; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Karim, Salim S Abdool

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term dynamics in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among HIV-positive persons from acute infection. From 2004, 160 women were enrolled into the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study at two sites in the province of KwaZulu-Natal and underwent 3–6 monthly HRQoL assessments using the functional assessment of HIV infection (FAHI) instrument. Overall and 5 sub-scale FAHI scores [physical well-being (PWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional and global wel...

  13. African Journals Online: African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 56 ... The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original ... HINARI; Bioline; AJOL; Science Citation Index - Thompson Reuters. .... terms, word formations, syntactic structures, semantic connotations, social ...

  14. African America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Brown, Gloria

    1994-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of quality materials by and about African Americans in the areas of poetry, music, folklore, women, picture books, history/collective biography, authors, and professional materials. Activities are suggested in each area for Black History Month. (LRW)

  15. Effects of acute stress on aggression and the cortisol response in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus: differences between day and night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, R; Boerrigter, J G J; Cloosterman, M; Gorissen, M; Flik, G; van den Bos, R; van de Vis, H

    2016-06-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus were housed under continuous dim light (1 lx) or 12L:12D (350-0 lx) cycles. The number of skin lesions, as indicator of aggressive acts, and plasma cortisol levels, as indicator of stress-axis activity, were measured at baseline as well as following a stressor (given in the light or dark phase). Results showed that (1) baseline plasma cortisol levels were not different between photoperiods, (2) the number of baseline skin lesions was highest for C. gariepinus housed under continuous dim light, (3) stressor-induced peak levels of plasma cortisol were highest in the light phase and (4) the number of skin lesions following a stressor was highest in the dark phase. The higher number of stressor-related skin lesions in the dark (active) phase suggests increased stressor-induced aggression while in the active phase. In addition, the data suggest that housing under continuous dim light does not result in higher stress-axis activity, as measured by baseline levels of cortisol, but does result in more stressor-induced aggression, as measured by the higher number of skin lesions. The latter may be related to the fact that the continuous dim light photoperiod has twice the number of dark-phase (active) hours in which stressor-induced aggression is stronger compared to the 12L:12D photoperiod, which has a light phase in which stressor-induced aggression is lower.

  16. African-American Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  17. sources of African philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religion. 337. ON THE SOURCES ... myths, African languages, African symbols, African historical experience or social ..... African Symbols. The Dictionary of Sociology and Related Science (1965), .... Ropes of sand: Studies in Igbo history and culture. Ibadan:.

  18. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  19. Challenges of diagnosing acute HIV-1 subtype C infection in African women: performance of a clinical algorithm and the need for point-of-care nucleic-acid based testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleka Mlisana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prompt diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI benefits the individual and provides opportunities for public health intervention. The aim of this study was to describe most common signs and symptoms of AHI, correlate these with early disease progression and develop a clinical algorithm to identify acute HIV cases in resource limited setting. METHODS: 245 South African women at high-risk of HIV-1 were assessed for AHI and received monthly HIV-1 antibody and RNA testing. Signs and symptoms at first HIV-positive visit were compared to HIV-negative visits. Logistic regression identified clinical predictors of AHI. A model-based score was assigned to each predictor to create a risk score for every woman. RESULTS: Twenty-eight women seroconverted after a total of 390 person-years of follow-up with an HIV incidence of 7.2/100 person-years (95%CI 4.5-9.8. Fifty-seven percent reported ≥1 sign or symptom at the AHI visit. Factors predictive of AHI included age <25 years (OR = 3.2; 1.4-7.1, rash (OR = 6.1; 2.4-15.4, sore throat (OR = 2.7; 1.0-7.6, weight loss (OR = 4.4; 1.5-13.4, genital ulcers (OR = 8.0; 1.6-39.5 and vaginal discharge (OR = 5.4; 1.6-18.4. A risk score of 2 correctly predicted AHI in 50.0% of cases. The number of signs and symptoms correlated with higher HIV-1 RNA at diagnosis (r = 0.63; p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate recognition of signs and symptoms of AHI is critical for early diagnosis of HIV infection. Our algorithm may assist in risk-stratifying individuals for AHI, especially in resource-limited settings where there is no routine testing for AHI. Independent validation of the algorithm on another cohort is needed to assess its utility further. Point-of-care antigen or viral load technology is required, however, to detect asymptomatic, antibody negative cases enabling early interventions and prevention of transmission.

  20. Coronavirus antibodies in African bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A; Paweska, Janusz T; Leman, Patricia A; Drosten, Christian; Grywna, Klaus; Kemp, Alan; Braack, Leo; Sonnenberg, Karen; Niedrig, Matthias; Swanepoel, Robert

    2007-09-01

    Asian bats have been identified as potential reservoir hosts of coronaviruses associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV). We detected antibody reactive with SARS-CoV antigen in 47 (6.7%) of 705 bat serum specimens comprising 26 species collected in Africa; thus, African bats may harbor agents related to putative group 4 CoV.

  1. Ignoring Authentic African Literature Means Ignoring Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Carlin

    2005-01-01

    Africa produces imaginative and authentic literature whose texture makes it impossible to think of Africans as statistics. African writers, however have to struggle to get recognized in America due to their culture and other racial and social differences, hence suggesting that efforts should be made to give authentic African literature its due.

  2. African Journal of Aquatic Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... The African Journal of Aquatic Science is an international journal devoted to the study of the aquatic sciences, covering all African waters. The Journal publishes ...

  3. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  4. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the University of ... The application of analytical procedures in the audit process: A South African ...

  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review; The Basis of Distinction Between ... African Research Review; Fundamental Objectives and Directives Principles of State Policy: ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ...

  6. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More about AJOL and the challenges we work to address ... of Independent African Churches, 1890-1930: An Ethical-genesis of Nigerian Nationalism ... African Journal of Biotechnology; Project Work by Students for First Degree: An Appraisal

  7. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More about AJOL and the challenges we work to address ... The Rise of Independent African Churches, 1890-1930: An Ethical-genesis of Nigerian ... African Journal of Biotechnology; Project Work by Students for First Degree: An Appraisal

  8. Linguistic Imperialism: African Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Responds to an article on aspects of African language policy and discusses the following issues: multilingualism and monolingualism, proposed changes in language policy from the Organization for African Unity and South African initiatives, the language of literature, bilingual education, and whose interests English-language teaching is serving.…

  9. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of ... this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences.

  10. What drives a lecturer at the South African Military Academy to do a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    acute surgery in a South African context, and in particular in an SANDF context? Even though South ... largely against justice. Ehrlich reveals not only the gender non-representivity of judicial benches, ... shape their outcome."5 Reading this.

  11. Use of Morphine Sulphate by South African Paramedics for Prehospital Pain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Vincent-Lambert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence in the literature highlights the fact that acute pain in the prehospital setting remains poorly managed. Morphine remains the most commonly used analgesic agent in the South African prehospital emergency care setting. Although guidelines and protocols relating to the dosage and administration of morphine exist, little data are available describing its use by South African paramedics.

  12. Prevalence and outcomes of acute kidney injury in term neonates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and outcomes of acute kidney injury in term neonates with perinatal ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Background: The kidney is the most damaged organ in asphyxiated full-term infants.

  13. African Americans in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains research and expository papers by African-American mathematicians on issues related to their involvement in the mathematical sciences. Little is known, taught, or written about African-American mathematicians. Information is lacking on their past and present contributions and on the qualitative and quantitative nature of their existence in and distribution throughout mathematics. This lack of information leads to a number of questions that have to date remained unanswered. This volume provides details and pointers to help answer some of these questions. Features: Research articles by distinguished African-American mathematicians. Accomplishments of African-American researchers in the mathematical sciences. Articles that explore issues important to the African-American community and to the mathematics community as a whole. Inspiration for African-American students who wish to pursue advancement in the mathematical sciences.

  14. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Reflection on Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Perspectives ... just administrative action in the South African environmental governance sphere: ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ...

  15. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence; The Influence of ... in Social Science: Reflection on Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Perspectives ... African Journal of Governance and Development.

  16. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence; The Tuskegee ... in Social Science: Reflection on Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Perspectives ... African Journal of Governance and Development.

  17. Reading the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engage with, if it has to be relevant to the African context. In this vein, the article argued that a correct reading of the African context would lead to a more relevant theory and praxis of African Christianity for the benefit of all African peoples and their global neighbours. The contention of this article was that African Christianity has a significant role to play in the re-shaping of the African society and in the global community of humans, only that this role must be executed inclusively, responsibly and appropriately, together with all those who seek the holistic development of Africa towards one common destiny.

  18. Strengthening African Union for African Integration: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Union is a historical landmark of African Leaders' intention towards integration, project her continental interest in the international state system and seek for ... important to mention that, to a large extent, OAU was a success because it was able ...

  19. Acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... pancreatitis; Pancreas - inflammation Images Digestive system Endocrine glands Pancreatitis, acute - CT scan Pancreatitis - series References Forsmark CE. Pancreatitis. ...

  20. Cystitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  1. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  2. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  3. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  4. African Renaissance –

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mbeki also refers to the African Renaissance as a “journey of self-discovery and the restoration of our self-esteem.” Mbeki's own definition of the African Renaissance embraces “marriage of memory and dream, of past and future”. His objective ...

  5. African Journals Online: Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 7 of 7 ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies is a peer-reviewed academic ... View Journal | Current Issue | Register This Journal is Open Access ... and to broaden contributions to include writers from other African, ...

  6. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and…

  7. South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Medical Journal is published by the South African Medical Association, ... Guest Editorial: Growing wilderness and expedition medicine education in ... Does access to private healthcare influence potential lung cancer cure rates? ... Cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in children with chronic kidney ...

  8. African Journals Online: Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 167 of 167 ... Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine. The Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine is a quarterly medical journal focused on HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention and ... Journal of Health Research (TJHR) aims to facilitate the advance .... the Science and Technology of Radiology, clinical case reports, ...

  9. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  10. African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    politics in today's world took place among self-contained blocks and bounded cultures .... and the changing meanings of the 'universal'. Ends and Means ... strong' African American interest in Africa ensures that African history will be taught at a ...... Whereas some scholars today write of local resistance to global capitalism,.

  11. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  12. Acute Rhabdomyolysis Following Synthetic Cannabinoid Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Adedinsewo, Demilade A.; Oluwaseun Odewole; Taylor Todd

    2016-01-01

    Context: Novel psychoactive substances, including synthetic cannabinoids, are becoming increasingly popular, with more patients being seen in the emergency room following acute ingestion. These substances have been associated with a wide range of adverse effects. However, identification of complications, clinical toxicity, and management remain challenging. Case Report: We present the case of a young African-American male who developed severe agitation and bizarre behavior following acute K2 ...

  13. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoking also slows down the healing process. Acute bronchitis treatment Most cases of acute bronchitis can be treated at home.Drink fluids, but ... bronchial tree. Your doctor will decide if this treatment is right for you. Living with acute bronchitis Most cases of acute bronchitis go away on ...

  14. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Reflection on Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Perspectives ... just administrative action in the South African environmental governance sphere: An ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... Mizan Law Review; The Concept and Characteristics of Public Enterprises in ...

  15. adicating African Wars:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the military contribution to terminate wars on the African strategic landscape is dependent upon a military leadership that is able to interface political ...... leadership. A further obstacle resides in the costs of adjusting military forces.

  16. African Health Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letters to the Editor and Book reviews should be less than 1500 words and do not need an abstract. ... Examples of references: ... African Health Sciences expects authors to declare presence or absence conflict of interest in the manuscript.

  17. African Otter Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Reed-Smith

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Otter Network website and social media network, apublic Otter Awareness facebook page, encouraging online reporting of otter sightings, conducting otter awareness surveys, and emphasising the need for communication with the public, other members of the network and other professionals. information not shared or documented is information LOST. A Second African Otter Workshop should be held in 2017 elsewhere in Africa to encourage attendance from a wider range of countries.

  18. East- African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol 83 No. 8 August 2006 ... urology, ENT and orthopaedic groups and these ... no significant difference in orthopaedic patients mortality' with standard; we .... applying TRISS analysis to pediatric blunt trauma.

  19. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation based in South Africa. More about ... Preparation Of Charcoal Using Agricultural Wastes ... The role of strategic leadership in effective strategy implementation: Perceptions of South African strategic leaders

  20. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; The role played by the South African human rights commission's economic and social rights reports in good ... Vol 40, No 3 (2017) ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management.

  1. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Conflicts in Africa: Meaning, Causes, Impact and Solution African Research Review ... Vol 6, No 1 (2017): GHANA JOURNAL OF LINGUISTICS 6.1 (2017) ... KCA Journal of Business Management.

  2. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Featured Country: Ethiopia, Featured Journal: Journal of Business and Administrative ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... South African Journal of Education; Fundamental Objectives and Directives ...

  3. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review; The Roles of Information Communication ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Fundamental Objectives and ...

  4. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review; Conflicts in Africa: Meaning, Causes, Impact and Solution ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence; Fundamental Objectives and Directives Principles of State Policy: A ...

  5. African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More about AJOL and the challenges we work to address. AJOL hosts 520 ... Continuing Medical Education; The Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Some Ethical Reflections Thought and Practice ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Vol 15, No 42 ...

  6. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  7. Geoconservation - a southern African and African perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    1999-10-01

    In contrast to Europe, where geoconservation is actively pursued in most countries and where two international symposia on this subject have been staged in 1991 and 1996, geoconservation in Africa has indeed a very poor record. Considering the wealth of outstanding geological sites and the importance African stratigraphy has within the global geological record, pro-active geoconservation on this continent has not featured very prominently to date. In the interest of science, education and tourism, unique and typical geosites need to be identified, catalogued, and prioritised with the aim being their protection. Most African countries do not have vibrant non-governmental organisations such as a strong geological society, which could drive projects like geoconservation, or strong support from the private sector for environmental work. Here, a case is made for the role that established National Geological Surveys, some of which are already involved with retroactive environmental geological work, could play in the forefront of pro-active geoconservation and site protection.

  8. African literature to-day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sulzer

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Being interested in African literature one seems to swim from the very beginning in a terminological maelstrom. What is African literature? Is it literature written by any African author in any language? That would mean approaching the question from a purely racial basis. It would imply the art of demonstrating that any piece of such literature could infallibly be recognised as African, a thing which, as far as I know has never been done. Or is African literature strictly bound to traditional African culture?

  9. Narcolepsy in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Although narcolepsy affects 0.02-0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Critical Needs of African Universities: A Shared African-Japanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical Needs of African Universities: A Shared African-Japanese Perspective. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... toward strengthening the underdeveloped industrial sector through value addition by processing.

  11. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  12. Bronchitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001087.htm Bronchitis - acute To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflamed tissue in the main ...

  13. Coccidioidomycosis in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Barbara E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Ko, Marcia G.; Labonte, Helene R.; Borovansky, Jill A.; Boroff, Erika S.; Blair, Janis E.

    2011-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides species, a fungus endemic to the desert regions of the southwestern United States, and is of particular concern for African Americans. We performed a PubMed search of the English-language medical literature on coccidioidomycosis in African Americans and summarized the pertinent literature. Search terms were coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, race, ethnicity, African, black, and Negro. The proceedings of the national and international coccidioidomycosis symposia were searched. All relevant articles and their cited references were reviewed; those with epidemiological, immunologic, clinical, and therapeutic data pertaining to coccidioidomycosis in African Americans were included in the review. Numerous studies documented an increased predilection for severe coccidioidal infections, coccidioidomycosis-related hospitalizations, and extrapulmonary dissemination in persons of African descent; however, most of the published studies are variably problematic. The immunologic mechanism for this predilection is unclear. The clinical features and treatment recommendations are summarized. Medical practitioners need to be alert to the possibility of coccidioidomycosis in persons with recent travel to or residence in an area where the disease is endemic. PMID:21193657

  14. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  15. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  16. African perceptions of female attractiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J; Greeff, Jaco M; Lefevre, Carmen E; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2012-01-01

    .... To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial...

  17. African Journals Online: Fish & Fisheries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Marine Science provides an international forum for the ... The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries (Afr. J. Trop. ... promote the development of the fisheries profession and related disciplines in Nigeria, ...

  18. African Journal of Chemical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Chemical Education (AJCE) is a biannual online journal of the Federation of African Societies of Chemistry (FASC). ... availability and usability of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) resources in classroom ...

  19. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  20. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions : Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  1. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  2. The Struggles over African Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  3. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  4. The Struggles over African Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  5. English as an African Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Gaurav

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  6. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...

  7. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica in a captive colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic gram-negative pathogen that causes mesenteric lymphadenitis, terminal ileitis, acute gastroenteritis, and septicemia in domestic animals and primates. In 2012, 46 captive African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) died during an outbreak of acutely fat...

  8. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  9. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  10. African Oral Tradition Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Doris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the basic principles of two systems for notating African music and dance: Labanotation (created to record and analyze movements) and Greenotation (created to notate musical instruments of Africa and to parallel Labanotation whereby both music and dance are incorporated into one integrated score). (KH)

  11. African Journals Online: Religion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 6 of 6 ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... View Journal | Current Issue | Register This Journal is Open Access ... Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies is a peer-reviewed academic ... of Religion in Southern Africa as a forum for scholarly contributions of ...

  12. African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... African Health Sciences is an open access, free online, internationally refereed ... original articles on research, clinical practice, public health, policy, planning, ... Contribution of IgG avidity and PCR for the early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in ...

  13. African Journals Online: Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 27 of 27 ... African Journal of Management Research ... discuss and re-evaluate earlier or current research or publications by an author or authors. .... The Journal of Business Research (JBR) is an International journal published by the ...

  14. African Journals Online: Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 167 ... Papers relating to impact, care, prevention and social planning, as well as ... all fields within the Biomedical Sciences including the allied health fields. ... is to serve as a conduit for academic and professional media, covering all research ... The African Journal of Health Professions Education is an online, ...

  15. African Journals Online: Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 221 ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... journal covering all fields within the Biomedical Sciences including the allied health fields. ... serve as a conduit for academic and professional media, covering all research ..... The Annals of Modern Education will be considered for publication ...

  16. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  17. African Journals Online: Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 35 of 35 ... The African Journal of Chemical Education (AJCE) is a biannual online journal of the ... to the scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education. .... of disease and disability; Community oriented primary care; Education and .... It includes a variety of research genres; conference reviews and keynote ...

  18. Acute cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Halpin, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis causes unremitting right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and if untreated can lead to perforations, abscess formation, or fistulae. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones.It is thought that blockage of the cystic duct by a gallstone or local inflammation can lead to acute cholecystitis, but we don't know whether bacterial infection is also necessary.

  19. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  20. Acute nierschade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.E.; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  1. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing......The African Union (AU) is a young international organisation, founded in 2002, which is still in the process of setting up its various institutions, while constantly having to face up to new challenges, such as civil wars breaking out and military coups being undertaken in its member states......, just as they have very different strengths. Hence, any account of the AU and the RECs can only provide a ‘snapshot’ of the organisation at any given time, one which may soon become outdated. In contrast with regional and sub-regional organisations in the North, those in Africa are facing an additional...

  2. An African Reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Oliver

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 is the year in which the Reformation, started by Martin Luther, is celebrating its 500th birthday. This depicts a milestone in the life of the Church of the Reformation and also in the life of Christians worldwide. This is a good time to ponder on the epistemological question of the validity and necessity of the (European Reformation (i.e. improvement, renovation or change. If this question is answered in a positive way, then it could bring us to the realisation that the time is ripe for an African Reformation. This article will argue that this is indeed the case. A reformation, transformation and change is needed for the African Christian context. However, the question could well be asked: Who will be the ‘second Luther?’

  3. Steps to African Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  4. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  5. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  6. Exaggerated insulin secretion in Pima Indians and African-Americans but higher insulin resistance in Pima Indians compared to African-Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, N; Stumvoll, M; Weyer, C; Bogardus, C; Tataranni, P A; Pratley, R E

    2004-10-01

    African-Americans have a higher prevalence of Type 2 diabetes than Caucasians, but a lower prevalence than Pima Indians. Studies suggest that both African-Americans and Pima Indians are more insulin resistant and have higher acute insulin secretory responses to glucose than Caucasians; however, a direct comparison between these three populations is lacking. We measured insulin secretory responses to intravenous glucose (acute insulin response, AIR, 25 g ivGTT); insulin action at physiological (M-low) and supra-physiological (M-high) levels of hyperinsulinaemia (2-step hyperinsulinaemic clamp); basal and insulin-suppressed endogenous glucose production in 30 African-Americans, 30 Pima Indians and 30 Caucasians with normal glucose tolerance who were carefully matched for age, sex, and body fat (hydrodensitometry or DEXA). A subgroup of 24 subjects from each group additionally underwent a standardized mixed meal test. M-low was lower in Pima Indians (0.50 +/- 0.03) compared to Caucasians (0.59 +/- 0.02, P = 0.02) and African-Americans [0.58 +/- 0.03 mg/kgEMBS/min, log10 (means +/- SE), P = 0.03] but was not different between African-Americans and Caucasians. Basal endogenous glucose production was lower in Pima Indians (2.43 +/- 0.06) compared to African-Americans (2.70 +/- 0.06, P = 0.02) and was not different between Pima Indians and Caucasians (2.59 +/- 0.09 mg/kgEMBS/min) or African-Americans and Caucasians (all P > 0.18). Insulin-suppressed endogenous glucose production during the clamp was not different among the groups (all P > 0.40). AIR was higher in both African-Americans (13.51 +/- 0.26) and Pima Indians (13.72 +/- 0.27) compared to Caucasians (12.33 +/- 0.25 pM, log10, both P < 0.01). The areas under the curve for glucose in response to the oral glucose tolerance test and mixed meal test were higher in Pima Indians compared to African-Americans (P = 0.03 and P = 0.03, respectively) and Caucasians (P = 0.01, mixed meal test), but not different between

  7. Institution Building for African Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  8. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their tr......Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically...

  9. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  10. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  11. Acute Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of balance. Acute kidney failure — also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury — develops rapidly over ... 2015. Palevsky PM. Definition of acute kidney injury (acute renal failure). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April ...

  12. Clinical Review: Emergency management of acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. van Hoving

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this commissioned review was to establish concise guidelines for the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient in the Emergency Centre. The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists are the international leaders in the field of toxicology and the guidelines in their position papers were generally followed. Most of the dosage regimes are according to the South African Medicines Formulary.

  13. Adrenal crisis in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wang; Okwuwa, Ikemefuna; Toledo-Frazzini, Karla; Alhomosh, Alaaedin

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal crisis is a group of clinical manifestation predominantly with hypotensive shock, electrolyte imbalance in a patient with adrenal insufficiency or in a patient who was abruptly withdrawn from glucocorticoid treatment acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is one of the most common acute leukaemia in adults. Though the above diseases are commonly seen in individual patients, the coexistence of both conditions in the same patient is rare. We reported a 64-year-old African-American man with a his...

  14. The African Diaspora, Civil Society and African Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku-Mensah, Paul Yaw

    This paper, a work-in-progress, makes a contribution to the discussions on the appropriate modalities for incorporating the African diaspora in the African integration project.  It argues that the most appropriate entry points for incorporating the African diaspora into the integration project...... might not, necessarily, be in the formal political structures, although this is important. To the contrary, the most effective and sustainable might be within civil society---that is the links between the peoples and organizations of Africa and the diaspora. Using the case of the African academy......-- as an institution of civil society--- the paper outlines a conceptual framework for incorporating the diaspora into the African integration project....

  15. Phytogeography of African Commelinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Faden

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa (including Madagascar has nearly twice as many species of Commelinaceae as any other continent (approximately 270 species, or about 40% of the total in the family. Of the 17 genera which are native, seven (Anthericopsis, Coleotrype, Palisota, Polyspatha, Pseudoparis, Stanfieldiella and  Triceratella are endemic, the highest percentage generic endemism of any continent. Within Africa gcneric diversity is slightly higher in western than in eastern tropical floras. Species richness, however, is greatest in eastern Africa, mainly due to a high diversity of species of Commelina and Aneilema. Africa shares more genera with Asia (nine than with any other continent. Only one African genus, Buforrestia, is neither endemic nor shared with Asia. Its western African/northeastern South American distribution is unique in the family. Besides Buforrestia, only five other genera of Commelinaceae (out of a total of 50 in the family, occur in both the Old and New Worlds. These genera.  Aneilema, Commelina, Floscopa, Murdannia and  Pollia are all very widespread in the Old World, occurring in Australia and Asia in addition to Africa (both continental and Madagascar. Madagascar is relatively poor in species (31. but these include the endemic Madagascan genus Pseudoparis, the sole African species of Rhopalephora, and the largest number of species of the Afro-Malagasy endemic genus Coleotrype. The high rate of generic endemism of Commelinaceae in Africa probably indicates that Africa was one of the ancient centres of diversity for the family. The high species diversity is more likely due to relatively recent radiations by genera pre-adapted to survival in non-forest habitats. The occurrence of only a small number of genera on both sides of the Atlantic suggests that the Commelinaceae have been evolving independently in the eastern and western hemispheres for a long period.

  16. Cortisol Response to Physical Activity in African American Toddlers Attending Full-Time Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah J.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gladden, L. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American toddlers' cortisol response to acute physical play activity within a full-time subsidized day care environment. Saliva samples were taken from participants (N = 22, ages 26-45.5 months) before and after physical play and control play conditions at the same time of day. Actiheart[TM]monitors…

  17. Cortisol Response to Physical Activity in African American Toddlers Attending Full-Time Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah J.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gladden, L. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American toddlers' cortisol response to acute physical play activity within a full-time subsidized day care environment. Saliva samples were taken from participants (N = 22, ages 26-45.5 months) before and after physical play and control play conditions at the same time of day. Actiheart[TM]monitors…

  18. A Call to African Unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    This month's paper, written by Professor Mammo Muchie, examines the necessity for a pan-African monetary union.  Professor Muchie argues for the "the creation of a unified African strategy and unified approach to dealing with the outside donor world by neutralising the poison of money as honey...

  19. African Journal of Reproductive Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... The African Journal of Reproductive Health is a multidisciplinary and international journal that publishes original research, ... to share findings on all aspects of reproductive health, and to disseminate innovative, relevant ...

  20. A Call to African Unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    This month's paper, written by Professor Mammo Muchie, examines the necessity for a pan-African monetary union.  Professor Muchie argues for the "the creation of a unified African strategy and unified approach to dealing with the outside donor world by neutralising the poison of money as honey...

  1. African Conservation Tillage Network Website

    OpenAIRE

    African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Maintained by the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), this website provides information on Conservation Agriculture in an African context and gathered by stakeholders (NGOs) native to the continent. Resources on projects, practices, reports, and training courses are provided.

  2. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.

    In light of recent enthusiasm over the African private sector, this paper reviews the existing empirical literature on successful African enterprises and proposes an analytical framework for understanding African firm success. Overall, it is argued that we need to develop an understanding...... of African firm strategy and performance that takes into account the specificities of the African business environment and African firm capabilities. The paper starts by juxtaposing the widespread pessimistic view of African business with more recent, optimistic studies on African firms’ performance....... The latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises...

  3. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of the Central African Republic is on: geography; the people; history and political conditions; government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations with the US. The population of the Central African Republic totaled 2.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 134/1000 with life expectancy at 49 years. The Central African Republic is at almost the precise center of Africa, about 640 km from the nearest ocean. More than 70% of the population live in rural areas. There are more than 80 ethnic groups, each with its own language. The precolonial history of the area was marked by successive waves of migration, of which little is known. These migrations are responsible for the complex ethnic and linguistic patterns today. United with Chad in 1906, it formed the Oubangui-Chari-Chad colony. In 1910, it became 1 of the 4 territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa, along with Chad, Congo, and Gabon. After World War II, the French Constitution of 1946 inaugurated the first of a series of reforms that led eventually to complete independence for all French territories in western and equatorial Africa. The nation became an autonomous republic within the newly established French Community on December 1, 1958, and acceded to complete independence as the Central Africa Republic on August 13, 1960. The government is made up of the executive and the judicial branches. The constitution and legislature remain suspended. All executive and legislative powers, as well as judicial oversight, are vested in the chief of state. The Central African Republic is 1 of the world's least developed countries, with an annual per capita income of $310. 85% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming. Diamonds account for nearly 1/3 of export earnings; the industrial sector is limited. The US terminated bilateral assistance programs in 1979, due to the human rights violations of the Bokassa regime, but modest

  4. Booster for African Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s investment is fueling African growth SINCE 2000,driven by the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation,China’s foreign direct investment(FDI) in Africa has been growing rapidly.In the face of the global financial crisis,which led to global FDI flows falling,China’s investment in Africa has been on a steady, upbeat rise without any interruption.In 2009,China’s direct investment in Africa reached $1.44 billion,of which nonfinancial direct investment soared by 55.4 percent from the previous year.Africa

  5. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steverding Dietmar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.

  6. Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J A; Neumayr, A L; Hatz, C F

    2012-06-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense (West African form) and T.b. rhodesiense (East African form) that are transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly, Glossina spp.. Whereas most patients in endemic populations are infected with T.b. gambiense, most tourists are infected with T.b. rhodesiense. In endemic populations, T.b. gambiense HAT is characterized by chronic and intermittent fever, headache, pruritus, and lymphadenopathy in the first stage and by sleep disturbances and neuro-psychiatric disorders in the second stage. Recent descriptions of the clinical presentation of T.b. rhodesiense in endemic populations show a high variability in different foci. The symptomatology of travellers is markedly different from the usual textbook descriptions of African HAT patients. The onset of both infections is almost invariably an acute and febrile disease. Diagnosis and treatment are difficult and rely mostly on old methods and drugs. However, new molecular diagnostic technologies are under development. A promising new drug combination is currently evaluated in a phase 3 b study and further new drugs are under evaluation.

  7. Pretransplant identification of acute rejection risk following kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Lebranchu (Yvon); C.C. Baan (Carla); L. Biancone (Luigi); C. Legendre (Christophe); J.M. Morales (José Maria); L. Naesens; O. Thomusch (Oliver); P. Friend (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractLack of an accepted definition for 'high immunological risk' hampers individualization of immunosuppressive therapy after kidney transplantation. For recipient-related risk factors for acute rejection, the most compelling evidence points to younger age and African American ethnicity. Rec

  8. East African ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Kelali

    2016-10-01

    In the developing world astronomy had been treated as the science of elites. As a result of this overwhelming perception, astronomy compared with other applied sciences has got less attention and its role in development has been insignificant. However, the IAU General Assembly decision in 2009 opened new opportunity for countries and professionals to deeply look into Astronomy and its role in development. Then, the subsequent establishment of regional offices in the developing world is helping countries to integrate astronomy with other earth and space based sciences so as to progressively promote its scientific and development importance. Gradually nations have come to know that space is the frontier of tomorrow and the urgency of preeminence on space frontier starts at primary school and ascends to tertiary education. For this to happen, member nations in east African region have placed STEM education at the center of their education system. For instance, Ethiopian has changed University enrollment strategy to be in favor of science and engineering subjects, i.e. every year seventy percent of new University entrants join science and engineering fields while thirty percent social science and humanities. Such bold actions truly promote astronomy to be conceived as gateway to science and technology. To promote the concept of astronomy for development the East African regional office has actually aligned it activities to be in line with the focus areas identified by the IAU strategy (2010 to 2020).

  9. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  10. African Literature as a New Main Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaeshi, Basil

    1985-01-01

    This discussion of the classification of African literature in major schemes provides a review of the literature and examples from Library of Congress and Dewey Decimal classifications. A proposed class (PV) comprising categories of general African literature, African literature in European languages, and African literature in indigenous languages…

  11. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  12. Acute tonsillitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidell, Doug; Shapiro, Nina L

    2012-08-01

    Acute tonsillitis is an inflammatory process of the tonsillar tissues and is usually infectious in nature. Acute infections of the palatine tonsils predominantly occur in school-aged children, but patients of any age may be affected. Tonsillitis of viral origin is usually treated with supportive care. Bacterial tonsillitis is most commonly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Polymicrobial infections and viral pathogens are also important sources of infection. Penicillins remain the treatment of choice for S. pyogenes tonsillitis, and augmented aminopenicillins have gained utility in concert with the increasing incidence of beta-lactamase producing bacteria. We describe the anatomic features and the immunologic function of the palatine tonsils, including a detailed discussion of history and physical examination findings, treatment recommendations, and possible complications of acute tonsillitis. Establishing an accurate diagnosis and initiating appropriate treatment are key components of managing this common pathologic process.

  13. Surfaces on African sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mack

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Leonard Kahan, Donna Page, and Pascal James Imperato (eds in collaboration with Charles Bordogna and Bolaji Campbell with an introduction by Patrick McNaughton, Surfaces: Color, Substances, and Ritual Applications on African Sculpture, Indiana University Press, 2009.The book reviewed here has potential interest to a wide range of readers, whether researchers and academics, museum, curators, conservators or connoisseurs. It examines the perception of surface as an aspect of the indigenous understanding of sculpted objects in sub-Saharan Africa, treating of questions of materials, patination, colouration and use. It includes both survey essays and case studies (on the Bamana of Mali and the Yoriuba of Nigeria in a compendium which has suggestive implications beyond the immediate field of the Africanists to whom it is principally addressed.

  14. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  15. Pan-Africanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Diaz Guevara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This essaic-article goes against established conventions that there is anything ethno-cultural (and hence national about the so-called African tribes. Drawing largely from the culture history of precolonial/prepolitical Africans—that is, the Bantu/Cushitic-Ethiopians (Azanians—the author has demonstrated vividly that far from being distinct ethno-culture national communities, the so-called tribes of African states are better considered subculture groups, whose regional culture practices erstwhile paid tribute to their nation’s main culture center in Karnak. For example, using the culture symbols and practices of some local groups and linking them to the predynastic and dynastic Pharaonic periods, I argued that there is compelling evidence against qualifying Africa’s tribes as distinct ethno-culture national entities. In genuine culture context, I stressed that the Ritual of Resurrection and its twin culture process of the mummification of deceased indigenous Pharaohs tend to suggest that the object of the Bantu/Cushitic-Ethiopians national culture was life (in its eternal manifestation and then resurrection later, and that there are recurring (culturally sanctioned ethical examples among the culture custodians of these subculture groups that generally pay tribute to the overarching culture norm. Furthermore, the fact that the Ritual of Resurrection began in the Delta region and ended at the Sources of the Nile, where the spirit of the deceased indigenous Pharaohs was introduced into the spiritual world of their ancestors, contradicts conventional perceptions that ancient Egypt was a distinct national community isolated from precolonial/prepolitical Africa/Azania.

  16. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changes in the extent and scope of services were expected from the unit since .... (c) describe the demographic and general clinical profile of users, the ... hour assessment unit of this nature. Methods .... (NA) on duty during an average routine shift for inpatient care, 2 ..... career path and appropriate remuneration for each. A.

  17. Acute rhabdomyolysis following synthetic cannabinoid ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demilade A Adedinsewo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Novel psychoactive substances, including synthetic cannabinoids, are becoming increasingly popular, with more patients being seen in the emergency room following acute ingestion. These substances have been associated with a wide range of adverse effects. However, identification of complications, clinical toxicity, and management remain challenging. Case Report: We present the case of a young African-American male who developed severe agitation and bizarre behavior following acute K2 ingestion. Laboratory studies revealed markedly elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK with normal renal function. The patient was managed with aggressive intravenous (IV fluid hydration and treatment of underlying psychiatric illness. Conclusion: We recommend the routine evaluation of renal function and CPK levels with early initiation of IV hydration among patients who present to the emergency department following acute ingestion of synthetic cannabinoids to identify potential complications early as well as institute early supportive therapy.

  18. African Journal of Biotechnology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Electronic submission of manuscripts is strongly encouraged, provided that the text, tables, and .... Role of Genetic Engineering, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp 201-222.

  19. African Journal of Management Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topics and themes appropriate for African Journal of Management Research ... research and practice from a variety of management and organisational disciplines including: Finance, Operations, Human Resource, Organisational Behaviour, ...

  20. African Journals Online: All Titles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acta Structilia View Journal | Current Issue | Register This Journal is Open Access ... African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology View Journal .... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management View Journal ...

  1. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    Constitutional Court against the Supreme Court's ruling that he is obliged to issue such a certificate; and. (2) to have the ... South African courts may find Zimbabwean case law helpful in .... irrational or unreasonable administrative decisions,.

  2. African Journals Online: Sociology & Anthropology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 41 of 41 ... The African Journal of Social Work is an international refereed journal .... viewpoint, case study, literature review nature in broad topics in the field such as: .... media, cultural studies, law, education, leisure science and tourism.

  3. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African Community. ... World Development Indicators for the period 2000 – 2012 on the five EAC members and ... the domestic market, leading to low returns to local producers and ...

  4. South African Crime Quarterly 57

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institute for Security Studies/UCT

    The Criminal Procedure Act of 1977 contains various elements that guide a court in ... This includes the criminal justice system, ..... case that they were not flight risks, let alone ..... African, Indian and Coloured designated groups, unless the.

  5. African Journals Online: Veterinary Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... African Journals Online: Veterinary Science ... scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. ... Animal Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Animal Sciences, Pathology and ...

  6. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  7. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    African Journal of Economic Review, Volume III, Issue 2, July 2015 ... relationships among agriculture GDP, manufacturing GDP and exports in ..... The short run and long run Granger causality tests gave us another opportunity to conduct.

  8. Parental depression, family functioning and obesity among African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2008-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups of Americans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  9. Human African trypanosomiasis in non-endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshi, Darshan; Brown, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease, acquired by the bite of an infected tsetse fly. In non-endemic countries HAT is rare, and therefore the diagnosis may be delayed leading to potentially fatal consequences. In this article the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the two forms of HAT are outlined. Rhodesiense HAT is an acute illness that presents in tourists who have recently visited game parks in Eastern or Southern Africa, whereas Gambiense HAT has a more chronic clinical course, in individuals from West or Central Africa.

  10. Acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wig J

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.

  11. South African food allergy consensus document 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary.

  12. Sinusitis (acute)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1−5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides, different doses [amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides], long-course regimens), antihistamines, cephalosporins or macrolides, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), doxycycline, saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intra-nasal). PMID:19450327

  13. The New African Civil-Military Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the African continent to embark upon the New African Civil Military Relations (ACMR). In the last decade and half, the implosion of African states exposed to forces of democratization has escalated, manifest in Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Madagascar, Somalia, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Lesotho...... accorded the responsibility of organizing a Session on ACMR. From amongst some of the exciting Abstracts presented, authors submitted these as full chapters for this book which captures International African Studies Perspectives, managed by the African Public Policy & Research Institute (APPRI...

  14. Acute Pancreatitis Concomitant Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okay Abacı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory syndrome with unpredictable progression to systemic inflammation and multi-organ dysfunction. As in our case rarely, acute pancreatitis can be presented with the coexistance of acute coronary syndrome. To prevent a misdiagnosis of acute situation presented with chest or abdominal pain, physicians must be aware for coexisting pathophysiologies and take into account the differential diagnosis of all life-threatening causes such as cardiac ischemia or acute abdominal situations.

  15. An African ethic for nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  16. South African healthcare provider perspectives on transitioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African healthcare provider perspectives on transitioning adolescents into adult HIV care. ... South African Medical Journal ... Our study is the first to describe the perspectives of healthcare providers overseeing the transition in ...

  17. among black and white South Africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Research Specialist, Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Health,. Human Sciences ... Knowledge; condom use; adults; Blacks; Whites; South Africans. ... extensive primary health care network. There is ..... of South Africans (25-49 years old),.

  18. African Journal of Science and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) is a biannual technical publication ... Le Journal Africain de Science et de Technologie est une revue scientifique du Journal Africain ...

  19. AFRICAN UNITY, IDENTITY AND DEVELOPMENT IN SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    contemporary Igbo poems that address contemporary issues bordering on African unity, ... African unity, identity and development are topical issues that attract the attention of some ...... Literary Criticism. USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

  20. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal Clinical Nutrition is published by the South African ... a cross sectional survey using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) screening tool ... Poor complementary feeding practices among young children in Cameroon ...

  1. African horse sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  2. African palm ethno-medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of the State and University Libraries of Aarhus, National Library of Denmark and Copenhagen University Libraries, Harvard University Libraries, and the Mertz Library. Information about ethno-medicinal uses of palms was extracted and digitized in a database. Additionally, we used an African palm distribution...... database to compute the proportion of palm species that have been used for medicinal purposes in each country. Results We found 782 medicinal uses mentioned in 156 references. At least 23 different palm species (some remained unidentified) were used medicinally in 35 out of Africa׳s 48 countries. The most...... be directed at the central African region, because palm species richness (and plant species richness in general) is particularly high in this area, and only few ethno-botanical studies available have focused on this region. Conclusion The wide time span covered by our database (3500 years) shows that African...

  3. African perceptions of female attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinet Coetzee

    Full Text Available Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness, skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness.

  4. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  5. Empowering African genomics for infectious disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Anise N; Happi, Christian T

    2014-11-07

    At present, African scientists can only participate minimally in the genomics revolution that is transforming the understanding, surveillance and clinical treatment of infectious diseases. We discuss new initiatives to equip African scientists with knowledge of cutting-edge genomics tools, and build a sustainable critical mass of well-trained African infectious diseases genomics scientists.

  6. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  7. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  8. African Retentions in Blues and Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Eddie S.

    1979-01-01

    The perseverance of African musical characteristics among American Blacks is an historic reality. African retentions have been recorded in Black music of the antebellum period. Various African scales and rhythms permeate Black American music today as evidenced in the retentions found in blues and jazz. (RLV)

  9. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, particularly younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  10. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidney can often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury or trauma to ...

  11. Evidence of physiotherapeutic interventions for acute LBP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Louw

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the current evidence for acute low back pain (LBP treatment techniques and to amalgamate this information into a clinically applicable algorithm for South African physiotherapists.Study design: Systematic review.Methods: Computerized bibliographical databases were systematically searched during September 2006 and October 2006 for primary and secondary research reporting on the efficacy of various physiotherapeutic treatment techniques for acute LBP. A search for clinical guidelines regarding acute LBP was also undertaken. Evidence levels were allocated to the primary and secondary research retrieved. Results: Twenty-one systematic reviews, four randomized controlled trials and eleven clinical guidelines were included in this review. There is Level 1 evidence that advice to stay active, McKenzie preferential exercises and spinal manipulative therapy (up to six weeks is beneficial in the initial treatment of acute LBP. There is level 2 evidence that stability exercises, dry needling, heat wrap with exercises, cognitive behavioural therapy, printed patient education, massage (with education and exercises, and lifestyle modification might be potentially beneficial in the treatment of acute LBP. There is level 1 evidence that bed rest should not be recommended for simple acute LBP.  Should a patient not resolve in six weeks, red and yellow flags should be re-assessed, or patient should be referred to a specialist. Outcome: Based on the current evidence, a composite algorithm was developed to assist South African physiotherapists when making treatment decisions for acute LBP. Conclusion: There seems to be a lack of evidence for the efficacy of common treatment techniques used by physiotherapists in the management of acute LBP, indicating an urgent need for physiotherapy-specific, high-quality clinical trials. It is suggested that the evidence-based algorithm that has been developed, be used in the management of acute LBP to

  12. Developing programs for african families, by african families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halliday, Jennifer A; Green, Julie; Mellor, David

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...... effects of physical activity and nutrition to improve health within communities while reducing intergenerational and gender role family conflicts....

  13. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsephe M. Letseka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980 Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983 African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990 Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philosophy, Shutte’s (1993 Philosophy for Africa, Masolo’s (1994 African philosophy in search of identity and Gyekye’s (1995 An essay of African philosophical thought: The Akan conceptual scheme. It has been over 60 years since the publication of Temples’s book and there continues to be serious debate about African philosophy. This article sought to contribute to the debate on the various conceptions of African philosophy, but with a focus on the challenges of teaching African philosophy to Philosophy of Education students at an open distance learning institution in South Africa. This article discussed the tendency amongst undergraduate Philosophy of Education students to conflate and reduce African philosophy to African cultures and traditions, and to the notion of ubuntu, and sought to understand the reasons for students’ inclination to treat African philosophy in this way. It examined students’ background knowledge of African philosophy, their critical thinking skills and whether their official study materials are selected and packaged in a manner that, in fact, adds to the challenges they face. Finally, the article explored the ways in which Philosophy of Education lecturers can adapt their pedagogy to provide students with a better understanding of African philosophy.

  14. Acute Appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tind, Sofie; Qvist, Niels

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The classification of acute appendicitis (AA) into various grades is not consistent, partly because it is not clear whether the perioperative or the histological findings should be the foundation of the classification. When comparing results from the literature on the frequency...... patients were included. In 116 (89 %) of these cases, appendicitis was confirmed histological. There was low concordance between the perioperative and histological diagnoses, varying from 16 to 76 % depending on grade of AA. Only 44 % of the patients receiving antibiotics postoperatively had a positive...... peritoneal fluid cultivation. CONCLUSION: There was a low concordance in clinical and histopathological diagnoses of the different grades of appendicitis. Perioperative cultivation of the peritoneal fluid as a standard should be further examined. The potential could be a reduced postoperative antibiotic use...

  15. Periaortic haemangiosarcoma in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Newell-Fugate

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 9-year-old apparently healthy male African wild dog (Lycaon pictus was found dead in its enclosure at the De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Centre. Necropsy revealed a pericardium distended by approximately 250mℓ of thick blood. A soft, red, lobulated mass was attached to the periaortic fat between the level of the aortic valves and the pericardial reflection. Histologically, the mass was consistent with a haemangiosarcoma. Other findings in the heart included mild to moderate ventricular hypertrophy and moderate, acute perivascular myocardial necrosis. Sudden death was attributed to acute heart failure precipitated by cardiac tamponade.

  16. Childhood leukaemia and lymphoma: African experience supports a role for environmental factors in leukaemogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Christopher KO; Foroni, Letizia; Luzzatto,Lucio; Saliu, Idris; Levine, Arthur; Greaves, Mel F.

    2014-01-01

    Major differences exist in the nature of leukaemia and lymphoma in low-income African children compared to those in the high-income countries. These include the absence of the peak incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in under-five-year olds that characterizes the disease in high-income countries. Conversely, chloroma association with acute myelogenous leukaemia (CA-AML/AMML) and Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) are rare in the high-income countries. This report describes clinical and labo...

  17. South African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid appraisal of the status of mental health support in post-rape care ... Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A database analysis of South African private ... of depressive features amongst older adults in an urban city in eastern China ... knowledge about and attitudes towards electroconvulsive therapy in a South ...

  18. Advanced Search - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 500 ... African Journal of Paediatric Surgery · Vol 9, No 2 (2012) ... Vol 13, No 2 (2008), The safety and efficacy of trans-vesical prostatectomy done at ... Incision Laparoscopic Surgery for a Large Endometriotic Cyst, Abstract PDF ... on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs, Abstract PDF.

  19. Advanced Search - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 500 ... African Journal of Paediatric Surgery · Vol 9, No 2 (2012) ... Vol 13, No 2 (2008), The safety and efficacy of trans-vesical prostatectomy done at ... Incision Laparoscopic Surgery for a Large Endometriotic Cyst, Abstract PDF .... on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs, Abstract PDF.

  20. Classic African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  1. Reconstructive hermeneutics in African Christology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-10

    Apr 10, 2015 ... Athanasius held that the Word, God's speech which took flesh in .... limits. With regard to Asian liberationist Christologies, Felix. Wilfred (1988:321ff.) ... answer to the South African quest and hunger for freedom and complete ..... you have heard that it was said, 'Love your neighbour and hate your enemy' ...

  2. Corruption and the South African

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The SAPS justified the change, ... corruption and its effect on civilian perceptions ... groups were that participants had to be older than ... South African survey data on citizen attitudes towards police have, for the past ten years ... What would you like the government to do to .... time… when police used to come into the houses.

  3. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    African Journal of Economic Review, Volume IV, Issue 1, January 2016 .... quality education as a basis for promoting the necessary human resources; .... children of more educated parents are more likely to be enrolled and more likely to progress ... Most studies have not been based on large samples and data that is.

  4. African Journal of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... The Journal of African Health Sciences has been in production and ... The Journal has been produced through the efforts of Kenya Medical Research Institute ... A lot of interest had been created in the Journal locally and internationally.

  5. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    African Journal of Economic Review, Volume III, Issue 2, July 2015 ... Computerization of tax collection; expansion of the tax base; address problems associated ... The focus of this paper is to examine factors affecting revenue mobilization both in the short- ... approach, tax elasticity approach and tax buoyancy approach.

  6. African Journals Online: Economics & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 47 of 47 ... It is a social science journal whose major focus is on issues which are ... African National Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) and is ... a forum for information sharing, networking and learning in the field of ...

  7. Advanced Search - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 500 ... Search tips: ..... South African Medical Journal · Vol 104, No 5 (2014), Side-effects of systemic therapy for the management of breast cancer .... Vol 21, No 1 (2015), ENIGMA-II, and can an old dog be taught new tricks?

  8. African Journals Online: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 96 ... The African Review of Economics and Finance (AREF) is the official journal of ... Effective from January 2014, CME will be incorporated into a 'new-look' .... scholars, ministers of religion and specialists in religious, social and ...

  9. African Journal of Paediatric Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Paediatric Surgery aims to promote research, post- ... AJPS welcomes original articles, case reports, letters to the editor, editorials, commentaries, special communications and innovations related to ... Vol 11, No 2 (2014) ... A Canadian association of paediatric surgeons: Association of paediatric ...

  10. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    African Journal of Economic Review, Volume IV, Issue 2, July 2016 .... 3.2.1 Definition of variables and how they were estimated. ..... U.S.. Government printing office. Rosnau P V(1994) “Reflections on the cost consequences of the new gene ...

  11. Towards an indigenous African bioethics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet we know that such a lack of care for others and the community is foreign to a ... into the spheres of policy and social justice. Our health system must ... between other communitarian perspectives and the feminist ethics of care and African ... individual autonomy and the rational application of abstract theories and moral ...

  12. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    African Journal of Economic Review, Volume IV, Issue 1, January 2016 ... present value for lease and purchase are ₦ 7.292 108 and ₦ 6.882 108. Keywords: Lease, Net .... equipment lease for a period of ten years would add an extra value of.

  13. Sustainable intensification in African agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Pretty, J.; Toulmin, C.; Williams, S

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record For many developing countries, agricultural production gains have facilitated rural and urban economic growth. However, African countries in general are viewed as being unsuccessful in increasing productivity. Sustainable intensification is a method of production that incorporates the principles of natural resource conservation and efficient use with intensive agricultural practices. Recently, it is a coming into ideological and practical popularity among agriculturali...

  14. East African odontopygid millipedes 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Sara B.; Enghoff, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Five new species of the endemic East African genus Xystopyge are described: X. pelecys, X. frontieri, X. proplicatus, X. biacanthus, and X. zanzibarensis. Three are from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, two are from the Usambara Mtns. and one is from the Uluguru Mtns. One further species is f...

  15. Advanced Search - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 318 ... ... of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences, African Journal of ..... Sonographic correlation of thyroid nodules with ultrasound aided fine ... and biochemical profile in pregnant and non-pregnant dromedary camels, Abstract PDF .... Thyroid hormone: the modulator of erectile function in the rabbit.

  16. Acute Myopericarditis Mimicking Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval İzdeş

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute coronary syndromes among young adults are relatively low when compared with older population in the intensive care unit. Electrocardiographic abnormalities mimicking acute coronary syndromes may be caused by non-coronary syndromes and the differential diagnosis requires a detailed evaluation. We are reporting a case of myopericarditis presenting with acute ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes simulating acute coronary syndrome. In this case report, the literature is reviewed to discuss the approach to distinguish an acute coronary syndrome from myopericarditis. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9:68-70

  17. Attenuated NOx responses and myocardial ischemia, a possible risk for structural vascular disease in African men: the SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, A S; Malan, L; van Rooyen, J M; Steyn, H S; Reimann, M; Ziemssen, T

    2014-07-01

    Chronically elevated blood pressure has been associated with impaired NO-mediated vasodilation and structural vascular disease risk. This study aimed to determine whether significant associations exist regarding NO metabolite (NOx) responses, cardiovascular function and structural vascular disease in a cohort of African and Caucasian men. The study included 81 African and 94 Caucasian male teachers stratified via median splits into low and high NOx ethnic groups. Ambulatory blood pressure, electrocardiogram monitoring and ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) images were obtained. Cardiovascular measurements and fasting blood for NOx responses were measured during rest and on challenging the cardiovascular system with the Stroop colour-word conflict test. African men displayed significantly higher resting NOx as well as higher number of 24 h silent ischemic events than their Caucasian counterparts. Low NOx African men displayed enhanced α-adrenergic and ECG ST segment depression acute mental stress responses as well as 24 h silent ischemic events associated with CIMT (adjusted R(2) = 0.47; β = 0.25; confidence interval (CI) = 0.13, 0.41). African men demonstrated a vulnerable cardiovascular profile. Novel findings revealed α-adrenergic-driven blood pressure responses and less NO bioavailability during acute stress. The association between myocardial ischemia and CIMT in this group emphasized their risk for future coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular events.

  18. Acute otitis externa

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Charles PS

    2013-01-01

    Acute otitis externa, also known as ‘swimmer’s ear’, is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present.

  19. Acute otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Charles Ps

    2013-02-01

    Acute otitis externa, also known as 'swimmer's ear', is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present.

  20. Acute otitis externa

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Acute otitis externa, also known as ‘swimmer’s ear’, is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present.

  1. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  2. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis.

  3. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans......-Saharan migrants than autumn migration. Information about the behavior and interactions of migrants during the nonbreeding season in sub-Saharan Africa is also scarce for many species. Furthermore, very little is known about intra-African migration. This thesis summarizes my research on the autumn migration...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...

  4. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo ... RESULTS: Acute dental abscess, trauma, bleeding and pain in ... treatment when indicated. ... during implant procedure27 or third molar.

  5. An Overview of African Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kabii, T.

    1996-01-01

    The African region as described in this overview includes the mainland continent and the island states of Cape Verde, Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Sao Tome & Principe, and Seychelles, making up a total of 53 States, 23 of which are Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention. Africa's size and diversity of landscape are striking: bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Indian and Atlantic oceans to the east and west respectively, and the Antarctic in the south, it covers 70º o...

  6. African financial systems: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Allen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We start by providing an overview of financial systems in the African continent. We then consider the regions of Arab North Africa, West Africa, East and Central Africa, and Southern Africa in more detail. The paper covers, among other things, central banks, deposit-taking banks, non-bank institutions, such as the stock markets, fixed income markets, insurance markets, and microfinance institutions.

  7. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  8. Afri-Can Forum 2

    OpenAIRE

    Sartorius, Benn; Coetzee, Jenny; Mokgatswana, Kgaugelo; Jewkes, Rachel; Gray, Glenda E.; Dugas, Marylène; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Mbonye, Martin; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Nakamanya, Sarah; Muhumuza, Richard; Nalukenge, Winfred; Seeley, Janet; Atujuna, Millicent

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents A1 Introduction to the 2nd synchronicity forum of GHRI/CHVI-funded Canadian and African HIV prevention and vaccine teams O1 Voluntary medical male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV in adult males in Soweto: What do indicators and incidence rate show? Hillary Mukudu, Neil Martinson, Benn Sartorius O2 Developing a peer-led community mobilization program for sex workers in Soweto: HIV risk and demographics Jenny Coetzee, Janan Dietrich, Kgaugelo Mo...

  9. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gabriella; Jallow, Bintou; Le Doare, Kirsty; Pushparajah, Kuberan; Anderson, Suzanne T

    2015-04-01

    Poststreptococcal complications, such as acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD), are common in resource-limited settings, with RHD recognised as the most common cause of paediatric heart disease worldwide. Managing these conditions in resource-limited settings can be challenging. We review the investigation and treatment options for ARF and RHD and, most importantly, prevention methods in an African setting.

  10. African management : concept, content and usability.

    OpenAIRE

    Seny Kan, K. A.; Apitsa, S.M.; Adegbite, E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose While management research in African context is all but invisible in management literature, the notion of "African management" emerges through a piecemeal corpus of literature that has arisen in response to the exclusion and marginalisation of Africa in the broad field of management literature. The idea underlying this reasoning is that the Western management model prevailing so far in Africa is inadequate because of cultural considerations. However, what is meant by “African manag...

  11. Aspects of the phytogeography of African Pteridophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. C. L. E. Schelpe

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available A diversity of distribution patterns exhibited by African pteridophytes on intercontinental and continental scales are presented. Occasional random dispersal among the Pteridophyta over long distances is accepted. The ecological importance of the gametophyte phase is inferred. Future progress in the elucidation of African fern phytogeography will require a broader alpha-taxonomic pan-African base and the plotting of many more distribution maps.

  12. African Music: Source of the Blues

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Konrad Sidney

    2010-01-01

    [Abstract] African music is the primary source for the blues. Scholars have supplied ample evidence to support this assertion. However, the African retentions still present in the blues are not immediately apparent. African music and the blues share many similarities, including the predominance of rhythm, the uses of music as social commentary and critique, types of instruments, and musical structure. Slaves brought their culture with them to the New World when they were forcibly taken from t...

  13. A Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles:*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the dictionary "extends far beyond the field of South African language studies" and that it contributes ... African identity, changing the local perception of South African English and ..... For this reason, we believe that learners should be en-.

  14. Race, health, and the African Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora.

  15. The African diaspora: history, adaptation and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotimi, Charles N; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Baker, Jennifer L; Shriner, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The trans-Atlantic slave trade brought millions of Africans to the New World. Advances in genomics are providing novel insights into the history and health of Africans and the diasporan populations. Recent examples reviewed here include the unraveling of substantial hunter-gatherer and 'Eurasian' admixtures across sub-Saharan Africa, expanding our understanding of ancestral African genetics; the global ubiquity of mixed ancestry; the revealing of African ancestry in Latin Americans that likely derived from the slave trade; and understanding of the ancestral backgrounds of APOL1 and LPL found to influence kidney disease and lipid levels, respectively, providing specific insights into disease etiology and health disparities.

  16. African American girls and the challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  17. Cultural aspects of African American eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B

    1996-09-01

    The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans.

  18. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-11-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture.

  19. Diseases that turn African hair silky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2012-11-01

    African hair in its natural state poses tenacious grooming challenges; consequently a large portion of the African cosmetic industry is focused on means to relax the tight curls of African hair to make the hair more manageable. In malnourished and hypoproteinemic states, African hair straightens in an uncomplimentary manner. Recently, we observed that in certain diseases African hair changes to a desirable silky wavy texture. To identify the diseases that turn African hair silky and their parameters we examined 5612 dermatology patients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. We then studied the clinical and basic laboratory parameters of those patients whose diseases were accompanied by the silky hair change. Silky hair change similar to the hair of the African neonatal child was observed in five diseases, namely AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary tuberculosis with cachexia, and Behçet's disease. Our study identified retrogression of African hair to the neonatal structure in five diseases. Anemia of chronic illness, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mild hypocalcemia were significant laboratory parameters. This is an important observation, which should excite and advance research into the nature and structure of African hair. The causes of structural hair changes should include these five diseases. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  1. Southern African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines the ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested in cooperation with the South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Initial results from the System Planning and Test (SPLAT) model show that the share of renewable technologies in Southern Africa could increase from the current 10% to as much as 46% in 2030, with 20% of decentralised capacity coming from renewable sources and nearly 80% of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 being provided by renewable energy technologies. Deployment and export of hydropower from the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Inga hydropower project to the SADC region would significantly reduce average electricity generation costs. Analysis using SPLAT – along with a similar model developed for West Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  2. Nanobody conjugated PLGA nanoparticles for active targeting of African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, José L; Unciti-Broceta, Juan D; Maceira, José; Del Castillo, Teresa; Hernández-Quero, José; Magez, Stefan; Soriano, Miguel; García-Salcedo, José A

    2015-01-10

    Targeted delivery of therapeutics is an alternative approach for the selective treatment of infectious diseases. The surface of African trypanosomes, the causative agents of African trypanosomiasis, is covered by a surface coat consisting of a single variant surface glycoprotein, termed VSG. This coat is recycled by endocytosis at a very high speed, making the trypanosome surface an excellent target for the delivery of trypanocidal drugs. Here, we report the design of a drug nanocarrier based on poly ethylen glycol (PEG) covalently attached (PEGylated) to poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) to generate PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles. This nanocarrier was coupled to a single domain heavy chain antibody fragment (nanobody) that specifically recognizes the surface of the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma brucei. Nanoparticles were loaded with pentamidine, the first-line drug for T. b. gambiense acute infection. An in vitro effectiveness assay showed a 7-fold decrease in the half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the formulation relative to free drug. Furthermore, in vivo therapy using a murine model of African trypanosomiasis demonstrated that the formulation cured all infected mice at a 10-fold lower dose than the minimal full curative dose of free pentamidine and 60% of mice at a 100-fold lower dose. This nanocarrier has been designed with components approved for use in humans and loaded with a drug that is currently in use to treat the disease. Moreover, this flexible nanobody-based system can be adapted to load any compound, opening a range of new potential therapies with application to other diseases.

  3. African power in the 21st century and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra-Rivano Neantro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the concept of international power in connection with demographic trends as forecast by the United Nations. It focuses its attention on the situation of Africa, a region projected to become the second largest in terms of population by the turn of the century. The argument to be developed is that the large number of new entrants to labor markets of African countries will likely be deprived of the labor skills necessary to allow them earn a livelihood. The “demographic dividend” will thus be denied and the consequences will be felt not only in Africa but in the world at large, most acutely in Europe. To prevent the rise of this “disruptive” power in Africa the paper offers some novel ideas on how to redesign Official Development Assistance (ODA so as to promote human capital investment.

  4. Noma (cancrum oris) in the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Altini, M; Chandran, R; Khammissa, R A G; Masipa, J N; Mohamed, A; Lemmer, J

    2014-01-01

    Noma (cancrum oris) is a destructive necrotising disease affecting orofacial tissues predominantly of malnourished young children. It is characterised by a rapid acute onset which usually starts in the mouth, spreads intra-orally destroying soft tissue and bone and progresses to perforate the facial skin, causing disfigurement. Polybacterial anaerobic infection is critical too, but is not alone sufficient for the initiation of noma. Cofactors, first and foremost malnutrition, but also systemic viral and bacterial infections are crucial to the development of noma. A patient with necrotising stomatitis or noma must be admitted to hospital for antibiotic treatment, fluid and electrolytes as well as nutritional supplementation and general supportive treatment. The epidemiology of noma in the South African population is unknown, and the clinicopathological features are poorly characterised. Although worldwide there is no evidence that HIV infection is a strong risk factor for noma, HIV infection may play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of noma in South Africa.

  5. Parental depression, family functioning, and obesity among African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups ofAmericans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, weight, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura 's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  6. Fragile states and protection under the 1969 African Refugee Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Wood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Current practice in African states highlights both the potential andthe limitations of the 1969 African Refugee Convention in providingprotection to persons displaced from fragile states.

  7. African Agency and EU–African Economic Partnership Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kohnert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Review Article: European Parliament (EP (ed. (2014, African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP Countries’ Position on Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs, Brussels: European Parliament, Directorate-General for External Policies, Policy Department, April, ISBN 978-92-823- 5667-8, 84 pp. Contemporary Politics (2014, vol. 20, issue 1, Special Issue: Perspectives on the Trade–Development Nexus in the European Union, London: Routledge, ISSN: 1356-9775 (print, 1469-3631 (online, 126 pp. Trommer, Silke (2014, Transformations in Trade Politics: Participatory Trade Politics in West Africa, London: Routledge, ISBN: 978-0- 415-81973-2, 232 pp.

  8. Rotavirus vaccination within the South African Expanded Programme on Immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seheri, L Mapaseka; Page, Nicola A; Mawela, Mothahadini P B; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Steele, A Duncan

    2012-09-07

    Diarrhoeal diseases are ranked the third major cause of childhood mortality in South African children less than 5 years, where the majority of deaths are among black children. Acute severe dehydrating rotavirus diarrhoea remains an important contributor towards childhood mortality and morbidity and has been well documented in South Africa. As the preventive strategy to control rotavirus diarrhoea, South Africa became the first country in the WHO African Region to adopt the rotavirus vaccine in the national childhood immunisation programme in August 2009. The rotavirus vaccine in use, Rotarix, GSK Biologicals, is given at 6 and 14 weeks of age, along with other vaccines as part of Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). Studies which facilitated the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in South Africa included the burden of rotavirus disease and strain surveillance, economic burden of rotavirus infection and clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of vaccine candidates. This paper reviews the epidemiology of rotavirus in South Africa, outlines some of the steps followed to introduce rotavirus vaccine in the EPI, and highlights the early positive impact of vaccination in reducing the rotavirus burden of disease based on the post-marketing surveillance studies at Dr George Mukhari hospital, a sentinel site at University of Limpopo teaching hospital in Pretoria, South Africa, which has conducted rotavirus surveillance for >20 years.

  9. Poor consistency in evaluating South African adults with neurogenic dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mckinley; Pillay, Mershen

    2017-01-23

    Speech-language therapists are specifically trained in clinically evaluating swallowing in adults with acute stroke. Incidence of dysphagia following acute stroke is high in South Africa, and health implications can be fatal, making optimal management of this patient population crucial. However, despite training and guidelines for best practice in clinically evaluating swallowing in adults with acute stroke, there are low levels of consistency in these practice patterns. The aim was to explore the clinical practice activities of speech-language therapists in the clinical evaluation of swallowing in adults with acute stroke. Practice activities reviewed included the use and consistency of clinical components and resources utilised. Clinical components were the individual elements evaluated in the clinical evaluation of swallowing (e.g. lip seal, vocal quality, etc.)Methods: The questionnaire used in the study was replicated and adapted from a study increasing content- and criterion-related validity. A narrative literature review determined what practice patterns existed in the clinical evaluation of swallowing in adults. A pilot study was conducted to increase validity and reliability. Purposive sampling was used by sending a self-administered, electronic questionnaire to members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Thirty-eight participants took part in the study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and the small qualitative component was subjected to textual analysis. There was high frequency of use of 41% of the clinical components in more than 90% of participants (n = 38). Less than 50% of participants frequently assessed sensory function and gag reflex and used pulse oximetry, cervical auscultation and indirect laryngoscopy. Approximately a third of participants showed high (30.8%), moderate (35.9%) and poor (33.3%) consistency of practice each. Nurses, food and liquids and medical consumables were used usually and

  10. Poor consistency in evaluating South African adults with neurogenic dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mckinley Andrews

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Speech-language therapists are specifically trained in clinically evaluating swallowing in adults with acute stroke. Incidence of dysphagia following acute stroke is high in South Africa, and health implications can be fatal, making optimal management of this patient population crucial. However, despite training and guidelines for best practice in clinically evaluating swallowing in adults with acute stroke, there are low levels of consistency in these practice patterns.Objective: The aim was to explore the clinical practice activities of speech-language therapists in the clinical evaluation of swallowing in adults with acute stroke. Practice activities reviewed included the use and consistency of clinical components and resources utilised. Clinical components were the individual elements evaluated in the clinical evaluation of swallowing (e.g. lip seal, vocal quality, etc.Methods: The questionnaire used in the study was replicated and adapted from a study increasing content- and criterion-related validity. A narrative literature review determined what practice patterns existed in the clinical evaluation of swallowing in adults. A pilot study was conducted to increase validity and reliability. Purposive sampling was used by sending a self-administered, electronic questionnaire to members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Thirty-eight participants took part in the study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and the small qualitative component was subjected to textual analysis.Results: There was high frequency of use of 41% of the clinical components in more than 90% of participants (n = 38. Less than 50% of participants frequently assessed sensory function and gag reflex and used pulse oximetry, cervical auscultation and indirect laryngoscopy. Approximately a third of participants showed high (30.8%, moderate (35.9% and poor (33.3% consistency of practice each. Nurses, food and liquids and

  11. The African agent discovered: The recognition and involvement of the African biblical interpreter in Bible translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Coertze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the extent to which the role of the African biblical interpreter is acknowledged in the process of Bible translation, as the Bible and Bible translation form an important part of the establishment of the African church on the continent of Africa. It points out that even though foreign discovery of African agency in Bible translation is evident, indigenous discovery of the same is largely absent. Part of the relevance of this article is for the African church to own and be actively involved in the translation of the Bible into the remaining African languages that are in need of a translation of the Bible.

  12. Acute bee paralysis virus [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Acute bee paralysis virus [gbvrl]: 14 CDS's (15780 codons) fields: [triplet] [frequ...osomal protein / MAP kinase List of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage Acute bee paralysis virus ...

  13. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  14. Histoplasmosis - acute (primary) pulmonary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000098.htm Histoplasmosis - acute (primary) pulmonary To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis is a respiratory infection that is caused by ...

  15. Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Side Effects Additional Content Medical News Acute Mesenteric Ischemia By Parswa Ansari, MD, Department of Surgery, Lenox ... Abscesses Abdominal Wall Hernias Inguinal Hernia Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Appendicitis Ileus Intestinal Obstruction Ischemic Colitis Perforation of ...

  16. Protection of European domestic pigs from virulent African isolates of African swine fever virus by experimental immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine; Chapman, Dave; Argilaguet, Jordi M; Fishbourne, Emma; Hutet, Evelyne; Cariolet, Roland; Hutchings, Geoff; Oura, Christopher A L; Netherton, Christopher L; Moffat, Katy; Taylor, Geraldine; Le Potier, Marie-Frederique; Dixon, Linda K; Takamatsu, Haru-H

    2011-06-20

    African swine fever (ASF) is an acute haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs for which there is currently no vaccine. We showed that experimental immunisation of pigs with the non-virulent OURT88/3 genotype I isolate from Portugal followed by the closely related virulent OURT88/1 genotype I isolate could confer protection against challenge with virulent isolates from Africa including the genotype I Benin 97/1 isolate and genotype X Uganda 1965 isolate. This immunisation strategy protected most pigs challenged with either Benin or Uganda from both disease and viraemia. Cross-protection was correlated with the ability of different ASFV isolates to stimulate immune lymphocytes from the OURT88/3 and OURT88/1 immunised pigs.

  17. Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicating chemotherapy for acute myeloblastic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Olfa Kassar; Feten Kallel; Manel Ghorbel; Hatem. Bellaaj; Zeineb Mnif; Moez Elloumi

    2015-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a rare complication in the treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis remains difficult during neutropenic period. We present two acute myeloblastic leukemia patients that developed acute acalculous cholecystitis during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. They suffered from fever, vomiting and acute pain in the epigastrium. Ultrasound demonstrated an acalculous gallbladder. Surgical management was required in one patie...

  18. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention.

  19. Why Give?: Exploring Social Exchange and Organization Identification Theories in the Promotion of Philanthropic Behaviors of African-American Millennials at Private-HBCUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Noah D.

    2009-01-01

    African Americans give a larger percentage of their disposable income to non-profits than any other racial group, including Whites. However, there is a lack of literature on Black giving to higher education. This lack of research is particularly acute in our current state of decreased funding to higher education. This case study of the United…

  20. Genetics Home Reference: African iron overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about the gene associated with African iron overload SLC40A1 Related Information What is a gene? What is a gene mutation and how do mutations occur? How can gene mutations affect health and development? More about ... Pattern African iron overload seems to run in families, and high iron ...

  1. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  2. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  3. South African red data book - Aves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Siegfried, WR

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided on 101 South African bird species thought to be eligible for conservation attention. A list is also provided of 35 species which might qualify for inclusion in a revised South African Red Data Book....

  4. Precolonial African History. AHA Pamphlets, 501.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Philip D.

    This pamphlet surveys western historiography of precolonial Africa. Prior to World War II, African history emphasized the European role in Africa, relegating African history before European colonization to minor importance. Only after the increase in university enrollments and funding in the 1960's did opportunities for innovative research and new…

  5. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  6. Computer Networks and African Studies Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    The use of electronic communication in the 12 Title VI African Studies Centers is discussed, and the networks available for their use are reviewed. It is argued that the African Studies Centers should be on the cutting edge of contemporary electronic communication and that computer networks should be a fundamental aspect of their programs. An…

  7. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  8. A Reevaluation of African Education: Woodson Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the ideas of C. G. Woodson (1875-1950) about the inappropriate education received by African Americans. Although Woodson's book, "The Mis-Education of the Negro," was written in 1933, his diagnosis of the state of the African-American community appears to hold up well today. (SLD)

  9. The South African pleuronectiform ichthyofauna is diverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    African coast, from the South African Cape west coast to the Arabian Sea, on predominantly sandy substrata at depths of 30–430 .... Port Elizabeth. Study area ... Ovary larger, becoming orange-red, with a grainy appearance due to visible eggs. Testes whitish ...... species of the Eastern Cape coast of South Africa, with notes.

  10. Brazilian Literature in African Descent Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Soares Fonseca, Maria Nazareth

    2016-01-01

    The essay argues about the meanings given to the terms "black literature," African-Brazilian literature", "Afro-descendant literature" and "black-Brazilian literature" present in anthologies of black African-Brazilian poetry in Brazil. It also discusses the ways these directions are presented in the writers' texts published in the anthologies highlighted in this study.

  11. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  12. African Regional Integration: Implications for Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.

    2011-01-01

    This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the

  13. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  14. Hidden Education among African Americans during Slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundaker, Grey

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Historical studies examine aspects of African American education in and out of school in detail (Woodson 1915, 1933, Bullock 1970, Anderson 1988, Morris 1982, Rachal 1986, Rose 1964, Webber 1978, Williams 2005). Scholars of African American literacy have noted ways that education intersects other arenas such as religion and…

  15. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  16. African American Teachers and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michele

    An overview is presented of research on African American teachers, addressing the large body of literature written by policy analysts, first-person narratives, and the sociological and anthropological literature. Policy research has identified the small number of African American teachers and has studied some reasons for this shortage and some of…

  17. African witchcraft in theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.W.C. van Wyk

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theological contribution aimed at creating an understanding of the phenomenon of witchcraft in South Africa. Witchcraft still causes major social problems in this country. The article argues that the development of a culture of human rights and the improvement of the judicial process alone will not solve this problem. Witchcraft is a too deeply rooted religious phenomenon. The phenomenon is described in its religious complexity and diversity. Witchcraft is discussed within the framework of the African theodicy.

  18. Population genetics of African ungulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline

    Molecular genetic techniques were used to gain insights into the evolutionary forces that have shaped the present day diversity of African savannah ungu-lates, which constitute the most species-rich mega faunal assemblage on earth. The studies included in this thesis represent individual species......-specific data sets, which are used to elucidate evolutionary processes of importance to the savannah ungulate community. Patterns of DNA variation were analyzed to assess the genetic signatures of Pleistocene refugia and investigate aspects of speciation, intraspecific structuring, hybridization, and historic...

  19. South African cities and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Vacchiani-Marcuzzo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Illustration 1 – Centre des affaires, Le CapAuteur : Céline Vacchiani-Marcuzzo.Born with colonial settlement patterns, the South-African urban system has experienced half a century of Apartheid. Under the effects of globalization, this urban system evolves as more developed urban systems and mature settlement patterns. This urbanization process (in the limits of functional urban agglomeration makes South Africa one of the most advanced countries in Africa in terms of urban growth. The world-...

  20. Acute mastoiditis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute...... otitis media....

  1. Detailed analysis of the African green monkey model of Nipah virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sara C; Briese, Thomas; Bell, Todd M; Pratt, William D; Shamblin, Joshua D; Esham, Heather L; Donnelly, Ginger C; Johnson, Joshua C; Hensley, Lisa E; Lipkin, W Ian; Honko, Anna N

    2015-01-01

    Henipaviruses are implicated in severe and frequently fatal pneumonia and encephalitis in humans. There are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use, and testing of candidates requires the use of well-characterized animal models that mimic human disease. We performed a comprehensive and statistically-powered evaluation of the African green monkey model to define parameters critical to disease progression and the extent to which they correlate with human disease. African green monkeys were inoculated by the intratracheal route with 2.5 × 10(4) plaque forming units of the Malaysia strain of Nipah virus. Physiological data captured using telemetry implants and assessed in conjunction with clinical pathology were consistent with shock, and histopathology confirmed widespread tissue involvement associated with systemic vasculitis in animals that succumbed to acute disease. In addition, relapse encephalitis was identified in 100% of animals that survived beyond the acute disease phase. Our data suggest that disease progression in the African green monkey is comparable to the variable outcome of Nipah virus infection in humans.

  2. Detailed analysis of the African green monkey model of Nipah virus disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C Johnston

    Full Text Available Henipaviruses are implicated in severe and frequently fatal pneumonia and encephalitis in humans. There are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use, and testing of candidates requires the use of well-characterized animal models that mimic human disease. We performed a comprehensive and statistically-powered evaluation of the African green monkey model to define parameters critical to disease progression and the extent to which they correlate with human disease. African green monkeys were inoculated by the intratracheal route with 2.5 × 10(4 plaque forming units of the Malaysia strain of Nipah virus. Physiological data captured using telemetry implants and assessed in conjunction with clinical pathology were consistent with shock, and histopathology confirmed widespread tissue involvement associated with systemic vasculitis in animals that succumbed to acute disease. In addition, relapse encephalitis was identified in 100% of animals that survived beyond the acute disease phase. Our data suggest that disease progression in the African green monkey is comparable to the variable outcome of Nipah virus infection in humans.

  3. An African VLBI network of radio telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaylard, M J; Combrinck, L; Booth, R S; Buchner, S J; Fanaroff, B L; MacLeod, G C; Nicolson, G D; Quick, J F H; Stronkhorst, P; Venkatasubramani, T L

    2014-01-01

    The advent of international wideband communication by optical fibre has produced a revolution in communications and the use of the internet. Many African countries are now connected to undersea fibre linking them to other African countries and to other continents. Previously international communication was by microwave links through geostationary satellites. These are becoming redundant in some countries as optical fibre takes over, as this provides 1000 times the bandwidth of the satellite links. In the 1970's and 1980's some two dozen large (30 m diameter class) antennas were built in various African countries to provide the satellite links. Twenty six are currently known in 19 countries. As these antennas become redundant, the possibility exists to convert them for radio astronomy at a cost of roughly one tenth that of a new antenna of similar size. HartRAO, SKA Africa and the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) have started exploring this possibility with some of the African countries...

  4. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  5. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist.

  6. Acute cor pulmonale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, François; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine

    2009-02-01

    Acute cor pulmonale is a form of acute right heart failure produced by a sudden increase in resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary circulation, which is now rapidly recognized by bedside echocardiography. In the clinical setting, acute cor pulmonale is mainly observed as a complication of massive pulmonary embolism or acute respiratory distress syndrome. In acute respiratory distress syndrome, the worsening effect of mechanical ventilation has been recently emphasized. As a general rule, the treatment consists in rapidly reducing resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary circulation, obtained by a specific strategy according to etiology.

  7. Social motility in african trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oberholzer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomes are devastating human and animal pathogens that cause significant human mortality and limit economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies of trypanosome biology generally consider these protozoan parasites as individual cells in suspension cultures or in animal models of infection. Here we report that the procyclic form of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei engages in social behavior when cultivated on semisolid agarose surfaces. This behavior is characterized by trypanosomes assembling into multicellular communities that engage in polarized migrations across the agarose surface and cooperate to divert their movements in response to external signals. These cooperative movements are flagellum-mediated, since they do not occur in trypanin knockdown parasites that lack normal flagellum motility. We term this behavior social motility based on features shared with social motility and other types of surface-induced social behavior in bacteria. Social motility represents a novel and unexpected aspect of trypanosome biology and offers new paradigms for considering host-parasite interactions.

  8. Acute loss of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness.

  9. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  10. Towards an Africological Pedagogical Approach to African Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor

    1996-01-01

    Presents a case study of controversies related to African studies and makes the case for an Africological pedagogical approach to African Civilization. The title "African Civilization" reflects the African place in the whole of world civilization even though that place is itself a multiple entity. (SLD)

  11. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  12. Decitabine in Treating Children With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  13. An unusual cause of acute kidney injury due to oxalate nephropathy in systemic scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascio, Heather M; Joya, Christie A; Plasse, Richard A; Baker, Thomas P; Flessner, Michael F; Nee, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Oxalate nephropathy is an uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. Far rarer is its association with scleroderma, with only one other published case report in the literature. We report a case of a 75-year-old African-American female with a history of systemic scleroderma manifested by chronic pseudo-obstruction and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) treated with rifaximin, who presented with acute kidney injury with normal blood pressure. A renal biopsy demonstrated extensive acute tubular injury with numerous intratubular birefringent crystals, consistent with oxalate nephropathy. We hypothesize that her recent treatment with rifaximin for SIBO and decreased intestinal transit time in pseudo-obstruction may have significantly increased intestinal oxalate absorption, leading to acute kidney injury. Oxalate nephropathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute kidney injury in scleroderma with normotension, and subsequent evaluation should be focused on bowel function to include alterations in gut flora due to antibiotic administration.

  14. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgios K Georgiou; Haralampos Harissis; Michalis Mitsis; Haralampos Batsis; Michalis Fatouros

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse.The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy,trauma or surgery,and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention.However,when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly,the patient may present with signs of peritonitis.Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation,appendicitis or visceral ischemia.Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported.Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis.This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis,and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis.The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer,since,due to hypertriglyceridemia,serum amylase values appeared within the normal range.Moreover,abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis.Following abdominal lavage and drainage,the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  15. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  16. Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ellen R

    2011-05-01

    Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis are 2 of the most common indications for antimicrobial agents in children. Together, they are responsible for billions of dollars of health care expenditures. The pathogenesis of the 2 conditions is identical. In the majority of children with each condition, a preceding viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of the acute bacterial complication. It has been shown that viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of acute otitis media in 37% of cases. Currently, precise microbiologic diagnosis of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis requires performance of tympanocentesis in the former and sinus aspiration in the latter. The identification of a virus from the nasopharynx in either case does not obviate the need for antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs are not useful in predicting the results of culture of the middle ear or paranasal sinus. However, it is possible that a combination of information regarding nasopharyngeal colonization with bacteria and infection with specific viruses may inform treatment decisions in the future.

  17. Acute pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic involvement in the course of acute (nonfulminant) viral hepatitis.METHODS: We prospectively assessed the pancreatic involvement in patients with acute viral hepatitis who presented with severe abdomimanl pain.RESULTS: We studied 124 patients with acute viral hepatitis, of whom 24 presented with severe abdominal pain. Seven patients (5.65%) were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. All were young males. Five patients had pancreatitis in the first week and two in the fourth week after the onset of jaundice. The pancreatitis was mild and all had uneventful recovery from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment.The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 4,hepatitis A virus in 2, and hepatitis B virus in 1 patient.One patient had biliary sludge along with HEV infection.The abdominal pain of remaining seventeen patients was attributed to stretching of Glisson's capsule.CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis occurs in 5.65% of patients with acute viral hepatitis, it is mild and recovers with conservative management.

  18. [Acute Sensory Neuropathies and Acute Autonomic Neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Haruki

    2015-11-01

    From the perspective of neuropathies with an acute onset mimicking that of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), cases with profound sensory and/or autonomic impairment without any significant weakness have been reported. Although the possibility of infectious or toxic etiologies should be carefully excluded, immune mechanisms similar to those in GBS are suggested to be involved in these so-called acute sensory neuropathies and acute autonomic neuropathies. The types of neuropathy include those with predominant sensory manifestations, predominant autonomic manifestations such as autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, and both sensory and autonomic manifestations such as acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. Neuronopathy in the sensory and/or autonomic ganglia (i.e., ganglionopathy) has been commonly suggested in patients with these types of neuropathies. The presence of Anti-GD1b antibodies has been reported in some of the patients with acute sensory neuropathy with deep sensory impairment, whereas anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies are reported to be present in half of the patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The discovery of anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies significantly expanded the spectrum of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. This is because some of the patients with chronic progression mimicking neurodegenerative diseases such as pure autonomic failure were positive for these antibodies. In contrast, pathologically significant autoantibodies have not been identified in acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathogenesis and the spectrum of these types of neuropathies.

  19. Salient Themes as Voices in African Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B. Ogunyemi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the various voices in African poetry. African poets use their themes as echoes to salvage various inherences found in the decaying political, economic and social landscape. The paper argues textually the cultural ethos and the contemporary post-independence disillusionment on the African psyche as a result of colonilization. Using the meta-critical approach combined with realism, within sociological approach, the research calls for a concerted effort to stimulate originality and harness the benefits of globalization for the development of humanity in Africa.

  20. African traditional fermented foods and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anukam, Kingsley C; Reid, Gregor

    2009-12-01

    African traditional fermented foods remain the main source of nutrition for many rural communities in Africa. Although lactic acid bacteria are integral to many of these foods, little is known about the specific health benefits they confer or the properties of their strains. This mini-review explores the history of some African fermented foods and their microbial content and properties within the context of probiotic characteristics. Given the recent upsurge in probiotic research, recommendations are made on studies that could be performed with African fermented foods and their strains, with a view to improving the health of people in sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  2. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Hansen, Michael Wendelboe; Jeppesen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    a growing number of studies suggest profound improvements in the performance of African enterprises, data limitations, conceptual ambiguities and absence of comprehensive studies still cautions against sweeping generalizations. The paper reviews the literature on factors shaping the performance of African...... enterprises, observing that while much research is focusing on the role of the African business environments for enterprise development, much less attention has been devoted to the role of firm-specific capabilities, strategies and management. The paper concludes by advocating a contingency approach...

  3. The African concept of caring for life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maake Masango

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the village concept of caring among African people. The old pattern of caring was based on the concept of ubuntu (humanity which respects people, because they are created in the imago Dei. Then the article compares the western concept of caring, which is based on individualism and people's privacy. Finally, economy, globalisation and this western concept are analysed. The impact of the above concepts affects Africans in urban areas, who are caught up in the two worlds, namely the African and western worlds.

  4. South African Homelands as Frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book explores what happened to the homelands – in many ways the ultimate apartheid disgrace – after the fall of apartheid. The nine chapters contribute to understanding the multiple configurations that currently exist in areas formerly declared "homelands" or "Bantustans". Using the concept...... of frontier zones, the homelands emerge as areas in which the future of the South African postcolony is being renegotiated, contested and remade with hyper-real intensity. This is so because the many fault lines left over from apartheid (its loose ends, so to speak) – between white and black; between...... in these settings that the postcolonial promise of liberation and freedom must face its test. As such, the book offers highly nuanced and richly detailed analyses that go to the heart of the diverse dilemmas of post-apartheid South Africa as a whole, but simultaneously also provides in condensed form an extended...

  5. African Biochemists Plan More Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N. Campbell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS was the first regional organisation of biochemists, holding its first congress in London in 1964. There followed the creation of the Pan American Association of Biochemical Societies (PAABS and then the Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists (FAOB. An obvious development was the formation of a similar organisation to take care of Africa, but this proved impossible so long as apartheid survived in South Africa. With the removal of the latter, the way was clear for the foundation of the Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (FASBMB. The first congress of the new federation was held in Nairobi in September 1996 under the Presidency of Prof. Dominic Makawiti of Nairobi University. Among the 300 participants were representatives from 19 countries in Africa. The second congress was held at Potchefstroom in South Africa in 1998 and the third was just held in Cairo.

  6. Egalitarianism in female African lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, C; Pusey, A E; Eberly, L E

    2001-07-27

    Because most cooperative societies are despotic, it has been difficult to test models of egalitarianism. Female African lions demonstrate a unique form of plural breeding in which companions consistently produce similar numbers of surviving offspring. Consistent with theoretical predictions from models of reproductive skew, female lions are unable to control each other's reproduction because of high costs of fighting and low access to each other's newborn cubs. A female also lacks incentives to reduce her companions' reproduction, because her own survival and reproduction depend on group territoriality and synchronous breeding. Consequently, female relationships are highly symmetrical, and female lions are "free agents" who only contribute to communal care when they have cubs of their own.

  7. African swine fever : transboundary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-L. Penrith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100 % mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents - Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959 and the Caucasus (2007. It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus.

  8. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundiran Temidayo O

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa.

  9. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiran, Temidayo O

    2004-01-01

    Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa. PMID:15488145

  10. [Acute rheumatic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Kommer, Vera

    2016-03-01

    We report on a young women with acute rheumatic fever. Acute rheumatic fever has become a rare disease in Germany, especially in adults. This carries the risk that it can be missed in the differential diagnostic considerations of acute rheumatic disorders and febrile status. If rheumatic fever is not diagnosed and treated correctly, there is a considerable risk for rheumatic valvular heart disease. In this article diagnosis, differential diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic fever are discussed extensively.

  11. Acute Idiopathic Scrotal Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheál Breen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE in a 4-year-old boy who presented with acute scrotal pain and erythema. The clinical features, ultrasound appearance, and natural history of this rare diagnosis are reviewed. In this report, we highlight the importance of good ultrasound technique in differentiating the etiology of the acute scrotum and demonstrate the color Doppler “Fountain Sign” that is highly suggestive of AISE.

  12. Pharm GKB: Leukemia, Nonlymphocytic, Acute [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Overview Alternate Names: Synonym ANLL; Acute Nonlymphoblastic Leukemia; Acute Nonl...ymphoblastic Leukemias; Acute Nonlymphocytic Leukemia; Acute Nonlymphocytic Leukemias; Leukemia, Acute Nonly...mphoblastic; Leukemia, Acute Nonlymphocytic; Leukemia, Nonlymphoblastic, Acute; Leukemias, Acute Nonlymphoblastic; Leukemias, Acute... Nonlymphocytic; Nonlymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute; Nonlymphoblastic Leukemias, Acut...e; Nonlymphocytic Leukemia, Acute; Nonlymphocytic Leukemias, Acute PharmGKB Accessi

  13. Pharm GKB: Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Amino Acid Translations are all sourced from dbSNP 144 Overview Alternate Names: Synonym AML - Acute... myeloblastic leukaemia; Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia; Acute Myeloblastic Leukemias; Acute... Myelocytic Leukemia; Acute Myelocytic Leukemias; Acute Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Myelogenous Leukemias; Acute... granulocytic leukaemia; Acute myeloblastic leukemia; Acute myeloid leukaemia; Acute myeloid leukaemia - category; Acute... myeloid leukaemia, disease; Acute myeloid leukemia; Acute myelo

  14. A Meta-analysis of the Association of Estimated GFR, Albuminuria, Age, Race, and Sex With Acute Kidney Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grams, Morgan E.; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Kimm, Heejin; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Naimark, David; Oien, Cecilia; Smith, David H.; Coresh, Josef; Sarnak, Mark J.; Stengel, Benedicte; Tonelli, Marcello; de Zeeuw, Dick; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van der Harst, Pim; Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Hillege, Hans L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious global public health problem. We aimed to quantify the risk of AKI associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria (albumin-creatinine ratio [ACR]), age, sex, and race (African American and white). Study Design: Collaborativ

  15. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. ... Traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care system: A preliminary ... Studies on the antioxidant properties of Tualang honey of Malaysia · EMAIL FREE ...

  16. South African red data book - large mammals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skinner, JD

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided for 22 threatened South African large mammals, one exterminated (Liechtenstein1s hartebeest), eight endangered (cheetah, hunting dog, dugong, Cape mountain zebra, black rhinoceros, tsessebe, roan antelope, suni), one...

  17. Browse Title Index - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 88, No 1 (1998), Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ... Vol 85, No 9 (1995), Monitoring of rotavirus infection in a paediatric hospital by ... Monitoring the South African National Antiretroviral Treatment Programme, ...

  18. A PHILOSOPHICAL INVESTIGATON INTO AFRICAN VALUES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    first place. In comparison, most African political organizations were ... behind Europe, the U.S and even many countries that were then .... Augustine sees the idea of re-election, by which ..... Surulere: Realm Communications Ltd.,. 2001.

  19. Ecological flow requirements for South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, AA

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available This document contains the proceedings of a workshop which was convened to debate the ecological flow requirements of South African rivers. Topics which are discussed include the influence of weirs and impoundments, the quantity requirements...

  20. Social space: Philosophical reflections | Strauss | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Higher Education ... as well as the social space required by educational and academic institutions within a differentiated society. Finally ... with special reference to the task of 'community service' and 'affirmative action'.

  1. The African Proverbs Project and After

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    It organised international and interdisciplinary sympo- sia and embarked on three ..... Language maps for each African country show the state of proverb research in each ... significant and self-generating continuation. It is like the Sesotho ...

  2. AFRICAN BUFFALO OPTIMIZATION ico-pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Beneoluchi Odili

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is an introductory paper to the newly-designed African Buffalo Optimization (ABO algorithm for solving combinatorial and other optimization problems. The algorithm is inspired by the behavior of African buffalos, a species of wild cows known for their extensive migrant lifestyle. This paper presents an overview of major metaheuristic algorithms with the aim of providing a basis for the development of the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm which is a nature-inspired, population-based metaheuristic algorithm. Experimental results obtained from applying the novel ABO to solve a number of benchmark global optimization test functions as well as some symmetric and asymmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problems when compared to the results obtained from using other popular optimization methods show that the African Buffalo Optimization is a worthy addition to the growing number of swarm intelligence optimization techniques.

  3. African Journal of Social Work: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statement of policy: The African Journal of Social Work (AJSW)is an ... Underpinned by theories of social work, social sciences, humanities and ... This is necessary for indexing services and to optimise visibility of articles on search engines.

  4. Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities in the ... especially in the hitherto, non-consuming segments of the society including the upper ... resources could be exploited to their disadvantage is very much a possibility.

  5. Internal displacement in the Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Perez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Central African Republic (CAR, where mostdisplaced people are unaware of their rights, the NorwegianRefugee Council (NRC is seeking to promote widerawareness of, and respect for, the Guiding Principles.

  6. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter U

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 7 of 7 ... African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter U ... English and other European languages and literatures, Chinese and other Asian languages and ... UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology.

  7. South African sign language assistive translation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a novel approach and practical solution to an interactive sign language machine translation system from English to South African Sign Language. They interface the system with the GNApp application, which is an augmentative...

  8. South African southern ocean research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the South African National Antarctic Research Programme's (SANARP) physical, chemical and biological Southern Ocean research programme. The programme has three main components: ecological studies of the Prince Edward Islands...

  9. Towards an African Theory of Democracy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reginald M. J. Oduor

    cultural traditions can provide a resonant African theory of democracy. The paper .... It is important to note that the supposed causal relation between democracy and development is ..... Wiredu uses the example of the traditional Akan political.

  10. African Journals Online: Biology & Life Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 71 ... View Journal | Current Issue | Register This Journal is Open Access ... The African Journal of biomedical Research was founded in 1998 as a joint project ..... International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research.

  11. speakers of Black South African English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "Another important tools in conducting clinical trials are statisticians. " Lexical Density ...... International Review of Applied Linguistics 10, 209-230. Titlestad, P. 1996. English, the ... African English: A new English? Observations from a phonetic.

  12. South African Antarctic earth science research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the past, current and planned future South African earth science research programme in the Antarctic, Southern Ocean and subantarctic regions. The scientific programme comprises five components into which present and future...

  13. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C

    2012-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.

  14. African Journal of Management Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Management Research seeks to publish works that test, advance ... operations, human resource, organisational behaviour, marketing, services). ... managerial processes and functions and critical firm level challenges facing ...

  15. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes original research, case report/case series, letter to the editor, reviews of health ... Democracy & Development: Journal of West African Affairs ... Civic organisations and the new and innovative programmes, activities, and ...

  16. Studies of mineralization in South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, GC

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available Several South African rivers are polluted by mineral salts of diffuse source. This pollution can be related to geological phenomena and to irrigation practices. Mineralization is problematic in that it can render surface waters unsuitable...

  17. 265 Statistical Consulting and the African Universities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... Indexed African Journals Online. An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia ... engineering, medicine, public health, psychology, marketing, ..... method and the role of statistics; Statistical Consulting Environments (Life ... intelligible reports, makes presentations using PowerPoint and persuasive.

  18. AN ALTERNATIVE VIEW OF SOUTH AFRICAN ARTILLERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Lillie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been said that 'Necessity is the mother of invention' and there can be few countries, if any, where this is more true than in South Africa.In the late 1930's, prior to World War II, the South African Artillery was severely restricted due to its lack of mobility. The inventiveness shown in tackling this probelm is surely not a thing of the past and the possiblity of adapting South African artillery to current South african needs in warfare should not be overlooked. The South African Defence Force is not able to purchase armament in a free and open market place and the costs of developing new artillery are prohibitive in a country of South Africa's size. it will be argued that it is necessary and possible, in the short term, to take what is currently available and adapt this to South Africa's needs.

  19. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. ...

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING CONDOM USE AMONG SOUTH AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-01-01

    Jan 1, 2000 ... Condoms are an integral part of STD and HIV/. AIDS prevention, and .... specific disease, perceived benefits of preventive behaviour, and barriers to ..... condom use in sub-Saharan African developing countries. J. Roy. S. Hea ...

  1. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Agricultural Extensionaims to: * advance and apply the science of extension and of rural development as scientific discipline by ... collaboration in agricultural innovation systems amongst stakeholders in the North ...

  2. Curriculum reform for reproductive health | Olatunbosun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Reproductive Health ... A new model of reproductive health care delivery is unfolding, driven by ... A three-pronged approach based on reproductive health, problem-based learning and evidence-based medicine, has much ...

  3. Southern Ocean - South African cooperative research programme.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-05-01

    Full Text Available South African research in the Southern Ocean has already produced some important and illuminating results. Most of these efforts, however, were of an individual and uncoordinated nature. Due to increasing interest in the ocean- in South Africa...

  4. African Journal of Governance and Development: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Governance and Development is a multidisciplinary ... political and economic development not only for academic consumption, but also for ... of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

  5. African Journal of Sustainable Development: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nature of Articles: Articles should be of sustainable development interest and ... to African Journal of Sustainable Development (AJSD) is open to all members of .... of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

  6. South African red data book - fishes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skelton, PH

    1977-07-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided for 28 threatened South African fish species, of which five are considered to be endangered (Barbus trevelyani, Klegethon, Treurensis, Oveodaimon quathlambae and Clarias cavernicola), one to be endangered in South Africa...

  7. 500 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL September2006

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Request for reprints to: Dr. T. Taiwo, University of Alberta, Edmonton, St Albert, ... Objective: To examine prevalence of drug use in adolescent students in a rural South African ... Reported lifetime prevalence of alcohol use was 47.9% (95% CI:.

  8. Mixed phenotype acute leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Zixing; Wang Shujie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To highlight the current understanding of mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL).Data sources We collected the relevant articles in PubMed (from 1985 to present),using the terms "mixed phenotype acute leukemia","hybrid acute leukemia","biphenotypic acute leukemia",and "mixed lineage leukemia".We also collected the relevant studies in WanFang Data base (from 2000 to present),using the terms "mixed phenotype acute leukemia" and "hybrid acute leukemia".Study selection We included all relevant studies concerning mixed phenotype acute leukemia in English and Chinese version,with no limitation of research design.The duplicated articles are excluded.Results MPAL is a rare subgroup of acute leukemia which expresses the myeloid and lymphoid markers simultaneously.The clinical manifestations of MPAL are similar to other acute leukemias.The World Health Organization classification and the European Group for Immunological classification of Leukaemias 1998 cdteria are most widely used.MPAL does not have a standard therapy regimen.Its treatment depends mostly on the patient's unique immunophenotypic and cytogenetic features,and also the experience of individual physician.The lack of effective treatment contributes to an undesirable prognosis.Conclusion Our understanding about MPAL is still limited.The diagnostic criteria have not been unified.The treatment of MPAL remains to be investigated.The prognostic factor is largely unclear yet.A better diagnostic cdteria and targeted therapeutics will improve the therapy effect and a subsequently better prognosis.

  9. Pathology of African swine fever: the role of monocyte-macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Bautista, M J; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Carrasco, L

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease with different clinical and lesional changes depending of virulence of strains/isolates and immunological status of pigs. In acute and subacute forms of ASF, severe vascular changes are present, with hemorrhages in different organs (mainly melena, epistaxis, erythema, renal petechiaes and diffuse hemorrhages in lymph nodes), pulmonary edema, disseminate intravascular coagulation and thrombocytopenia. Lymphopenia and monocytopenia are developed during acute and subacute ASF. Lymphopenia is associated with lymphoid depletion in primary and secondary lymphoid organs, which is caused by apoptosis. All these lesions are not related to viral replication in endothelial cells or lymphocytes. Monocytes-macrophages show viral replication and cytophatic effect, including hemadsorption. The more significant changes in these cells are increased number and secretory activation (increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines) in targets organs. Proinflammatory activation is the initial cause of clinical and lesional pictures in ASF, including fever and changes in levels of acute phase proteins. Levels of IFN-β and -γ are increased from initial phase of acute ASF. Anti-inflammatory response, represented by increased level of IL-10, is observed also, although in the final phase of acute ASF only.

  10. Automated visual recognition of individual African penguins

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, T.; Thomas, B; Barham, PJ; Calic, J.

    2004-01-01

    African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) carry a pattern of black spots on their chests that does not change from season to season during their adult life. Further, as far as we can tell, no two penguins have exactly the same pattern. We have developed a real-time system that can confidently locate African penguins whose chests are visible within video sequences or still images. An extraction of the chest spot pattern allows the generation of a unique biometrical identifier for each penguin. Us...

  11. Economic Key to Sino-African Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Following Chinese President Hu Jintao's visit to Africa's Morocco, Nigeria and Kenya in April, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao is currently visiting seven African countries-Egypt, Ghana, Republic of Congo, Angola, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. Haile-Kiros Gessesse, Ethiopia's Ambassador to China, discussed with Beijing Review reporter Ni Yanshuo the future of the Sino-African relationship. As special envoy for the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, he also expressed his expectations of the forum summit t...

  12. South African coal statistics 2006. Marketing manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The report shows that South African thermal exports increased 5% from 66.6Mt to 69.9Mt in 2005 and that the country was the world's third largest seaborne exporter of thermal coal last year. Covering local coal consumption, South African coal imports, exports, prices and qualities, the report offers a complete statistical review of 2005. The report also includes details on labour, individual collieries, export and rail infrastructure and Black Empowerment (BEE) companies.

  13. Pharm GKB: Kidney Failure, Acute [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iew Alternate Names: Synonym ARF - Acute renal failure; Acute Kidney Failure; Acute Kidney Failures; Acute K...idney Insufficiencies; Acute Kidney Insufficiency; Acute Renal Failure; Acute Renal Failures; Acute... Renal Insufficiencies; Acute Renal Insufficiency; Acute renal failure syndrome, NOS; Failure, Acute... Kidney; Failure, Acute Renal; Failures, Acute Kidney; Failures, Acute Renal; Insufficiencies, Acute... Kidney; Insufficiencies, Acute Renal; Insufficiency, Acute Kidney; Insufficiency, Acute

  14. Infant acute myocarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilouche, Samia; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Sahnoun, Maha; Chkirbène, Youssef; Mestiri, Sarra; Boughamoura, Lamia; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed; Souguir, Mohamed Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium with heterogeneous clinical manifestations and progression. In clinical practice, although there are many methods of diagnosis of acute myocarditis, the diagnosis remains an embarrassing dilemma for clinicians. The authors report the case of 9-month-old infant who was brought to the Pediatric Emergency Department with sudden onset dyspnea. Examination disclosed heart failure and resuscitation was undertaken. The electrocardiogram showed an ST segment elevation in the anterolateral leads with a mirror image. Cardiac enzyme tests revealed a significant elevation of troponin and creatine phosphokinase levels. A diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was made, and heparin therapy was prescribed. The infant died on the third day after admission with cardiogenic shock. The autopsy showed dilatation of the ventricles and massive edema of the lungs. Histological examinations of myocardium samples revealed the presence of a marked lymphocytic infiltrate dissociating myocardiocytes. Death was attributed to acute myocarditis. The authors call attention to the difficulties of differential diagnosis between acute myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction especially in children, and to the important therapeutic implications of a correct diagnosis. PMID:28210569

  15. Tsetse Flies (Glossina) as Vectors of Human African Trypanosomiasis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamwiri, Florence Njeri; Changasi, Robert Emojong

    2016-01-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) transmitted by the tsetse fly continues to be a public health issue, despite more than a century of research. There are two types of the disease, the chronic gambiense and the acute rhodesiense-HAT. Fly abundance and distribution have been affected by changes in land-use patterns and climate. However, disease transmission still continues. Here, we review some aspects of HAT ecoepidemiology in the context of altered infestation patterns and maintenance of the transmission cycle as well as emerging options in disease and vector control.

  16. Tsetse Flies (Glossina as Vectors of Human African Trypanosomiasis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Njeri Wamwiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT transmitted by the tsetse fly continues to be a public health issue, despite more than a century of research. There are two types of the disease, the chronic gambiense and the acute rhodesiense-HAT. Fly abundance and distribution have been affected by changes in land-use patterns and climate. However, disease transmission still continues. Here, we review some aspects of HAT ecoepidemiology in the context of altered infestation patterns and maintenance of the transmission cycle as well as emerging options in disease and vector control.

  17. Partiality and distributive justice in African bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Christopher Simon

    2017-04-01

    African ethical theories tend to hold that moral agents ought to be partial, in the sense that they should favour members of their family or close community. This is considered an advantage over the impartiality of many Western moral theories, which are regarded as having counterintuitive implications, such as the idea that it is unethical to save a family member before a stranger. The partiality of African ethics is thought to be particularly valuable in the context of bioethics. Thaddeus Metz, in particular, argues that his African-derived theory best accounts for a number of plausible intuitions, such as the intuition that health care practitioners ought to be biased towards the patients for whom they are directly responsible. In this article, I claim that the plausible intuitions drawn on in favour of partiality can be satisfactorily explained on the basis of impartial moral theories. Moreover, I argue that blanket acceptance of partiality has problematic consequences for distributive justice in resource allocation in biomedical contexts. By contrast, impartial theories can justify plausible instances of partiality whilst avoiding the pitfalls of fully partial moral theories. Although this provides grounds for abandoning partiality in principle, I claim that this finding should not be seen as damaging to African medical ethics. Instead, it prompts investigation of underexplored possibilities of impartial African moral theories. To demonstrate the value of this direction, I sketch some novel and attractive conceptions that combine impartiality with elements of African ethics.

  18. Acute myopericarditis masquerading as acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Tian; Zixin Zhang; Xiaojuan Bai; Dingyin Zeng; Guoxian Qi

    2008-01-01

    Patients with abrupt onset of chest pain, ischemic ECG abnormalities and elevated levels of cardiac markers could be given a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. However, some other diseases should be taken into consideration in this clinical setting when coronary arteries are proven to be normal. Here we report a case of acute myopericarditis with clinical presentation of myocardial infarction and normal coronary anatomy. The Herpes Simplex Virus Ⅱ was considered as the organism causing myopericarditis and the patient was recovered by the treatment with valacicloavir. A precise diagnosis is a prerequisite of successful treatment and favorable prognosis.

  19. West African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines a ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested with assistance from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Initial results from the ECOWAS Renewable Energy Planning (EREP) model for continental ECOWAS countries show that the share of renewable technologies in the region could increase from the current 22% of electricity generation to as much as 52% in 2030, provided that the cost of these technologies continues to fall and fossil fuel prices continue to rise. In this scenario, nearly half of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 would be with renewable technologies. Analysis using EREP – along with a similar model developed for Southern Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  20. Rehabilitation needs of persons discharged from an African trauma center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Asare; González-Fernández, Marlís; Mayer, Robert Samuel; Haig, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Background The study prospectively assessed the functional impairments and rehabilitation needs of Africans admitted to a regional trauma center. It also acts as a pilot study to demonstrate the practical use of the Language Independent Functional Evaluation (L.I.F.E.) software in an acute hospital setting. Methods A 5 page questionnaire was used to gather demographic data (age, sex, medical diagnosis, education, housing type, place of residency, occupation), cause of disability/injury, severity of disability or functional impairment, and rehabilitation treatment received (types of rehab, frequency of treatment, duration of therapy, follow up therapy, equipment). Functional status on discharge was evaluated with the L.I.F.E. scale. Results 84 consecutive consenting subjects were recorded. The predominant disability/injury of respondents involved the lower extremities (70%), followed by upper extremities (23%). The mechanisms of injury were largely related to auto accidents (69%). Falls made up 17% of these injuries and 14% were related to violence. Eleven subjects had disability measured using L.I.F.E and all were classified as having major disabilities. Only 14 patients (17%) received any rehabilitation therapy which consisted of only physical therapy provided at a frequency of once a day for less than one week duration. Conclusion This study found that most persons admitted to a sophisticated trauma unit in Ghana are discharged without adequate rehabilitation services, and that the level of disability experienced by these people can be measured, even while they are still sick and in the hospital, using L.I.F.E. The implications are clear: African trauma systems must measure the long term outcomes from their treatments and provide the inpatient medical rehabilitation services that are a standard of care for trauma victims elsewhere in the world. PMID:22187614

  1. African Games of Strategy: A Teaching Manual. African Outreach Series, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Louise

    Appreciation of African games has increased in this country; especially board games which have been popularized through commercial versions. African games are invaluable resources for studying subjects requiring mathematical concepts, as well as social studies, history, geography, and languages. This manual presents some of the better known…

  2. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  3. Accessibility perspectives on enabling South African sign language in the South African National Accessibility Portal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available and services. One such mechanism is by embedding animated Sign Language in Web pages. This paper analyses the effectiveness and appropriateness of using this approach by embedding South African Sign Language in the South African National Accessibility Portal...

  4. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  5. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  6. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and generational…

  7. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  8. African Self-Consciousness and Health-Promoting Behaviors among African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shawn N.; Chambers, John W., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated three models of relationships between African self-consciousness, health consciousness, and health-promoting behaviors among African American college students. The models included the mediator model, moderator model, and independent model. Surveys of 80 students supported the independent model, suggesting that African…

  9. An Ambivalent Community: International African Students in Residence at a South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Everard

    2016-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of the experiences and perceptions of South African and especially international, African students living in university residences in South Africa. The concept, community, is used to interpret interview data. This community was characterised by ambivalent social relations: There was discrimination by South Africans…

  10. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  11. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and generational…

  12. Pan-African Genetic Structure in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer): Investigating Intraspecific Divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smitz, N.; Berthouly, C.; Cornelis, D.; Heller, R.; Hooft, van W.F.; Chardonnet, P.; Caron, A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Jansen van Vuuren, B.; Iongh, de H.H.; Michaux, J.

    2013-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) exhibits extreme morphological variability, which has led to controversies about the validity and taxonomic status of the various recognized subspecies. The present study aims to clarify these by inferring the pan-African spatial distribution of genetic diversit

  13. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  14. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  15. Corticosteroids for acute rhinosinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venekamp, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    Acute rhinosinusitis is a common reason for consultations in general practice, with typically 50 cases seen by a general practitioner annually. Traditionally, acute rhinosinusitis has been regarded as a bacterial infection of the paranasal sinuses. Therefore, numerous randomised controlled trials ha

  16. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  17. Acute recurrent polyhydramnios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bundgaard, Anne; Skibsted, Lillian

    2007-01-01

    Acute recurrent polyhydramnios is a rare occurrence characterized by a poor fetal outcome. This is a case report describing a 34-year-old woman presenting with acute recurrent polyhydramnios. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and therapeutic amniocenteses was initiated ...

  18. Acute kidney injury during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, James W

    2014-12-01

    Acute kidney injury complicates the care of a relatively small number of pregnant and postpartum women. Several pregnancy-related disorders such as preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathies may produce acute kidney injury. Prerenal azotemia is another common cause of acute kidney injury in pregnancy. This manuscript will review pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury from a renal functional perspective. Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury will be reviewed. Specific conditions causing acute kidney injury and treatments will be compared.

  19. [Chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, T; Katada, N; Nishimura, D; Hoshino, H; Shimizu, F; Suzuki, R; Sano, H; Kato, K

    1998-11-01

    MRCP has been recognized as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic method. In the present study we evaluated the usefulness of MRCP in diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis. Two-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo (FASE) MRCP was performed in 40 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 13 with acute pancreatitis. In 29 patients (72.5%) with chronic pancreatitis and 9 (66.7%) with acute pancreatitis, main pancreatic duct (MPD) was visualized entirely. MRCP could demonstrate the characteristic findings of chronic pancreatitis such as dilatation and irregularity of MPD in most cases. In acute pancreatitis, MRCP indicated that MPD was normal in diameter, but irregular in configuration compared with that of the control group. MRCP may facilitate the diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome After HIV Acquisition in South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Werner, Lise; Mlisana, Koleka; Naicker, Nivashnee; Feinstein, Addi; Gray, Clive M; Masson, Lindi; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Williamson, Carolyn; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Garrett, Nigel J

    2016-12-01

    Noncommunicable diseases are common among chronically infected patients with HIV in the developed world, but little is known about these conditions in African cohorts. We assessed the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome among young South African women during the first 3 years after HIV acquisition. A total of 160 women were followed prospectively in the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection study. Metabolic syndrome was defined as a constellation of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia/diabetes, and abdominal obesity. Time trends were assessed using generalized estimation equation models. Median age was 24 years and body mass index 27 kg/m. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome at infection was 8.7% increasing to 19.2% over 36 months (P = 0.001). The proportion of women with body mass index >30 kg/m increased from 34.4% to 47.7% (P = 0.004), those with abnormal waist circumference and elevated blood pressure increased from 33.5% to 44.3% (P = 0.060) and 23.8% to 43.9% (P metabolic syndrome was 9.13/100 person-years (95% CI: 6.02 to 13.28). Predictors of metabolic syndrome were age (per year increase odds ratio (OR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.16), time postinfection (per year OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.92), family history of diabetes (OR = 3.13; 95% CI: 1.71 to 5.72), and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*81:01 allele (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.21 to 7.17), whereas any HLA-B*57 or B*58:01 alleles were protective (OR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.77). HIV-1 RNA (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.27) and CD4 count (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.11) did not predict metabolic syndrome. The high burden of metabolic conditions in young South African HIV-infected women highlights the need to integrate noncommunicable disease and HIV care programs. Interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease must start at HIV diagnosis, rather than later during the disease course.

  1. Pharm GKB: Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Overview Alternate Names: Synonym Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Acute Monoblastic Leukemias; Acute... Monocytic Leukemia; Acute Monocytic Leukemias; Acute monoblastic leukaemia; Acute monoblastic leukemia; Acute... monocytic leukaemia; Acute monocytic leukemia, morphology; Acute monocytoid leukemia; Leukemia, Acute... Monoblastic; Leukemia, Acute Monocytic; Leukemia, Monoblastic, Acute; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute... Schilling-Type Myeloid; Leukemias, Acute Monoblastic; Leukemias, Acute Monocytic; M5a - Acute monoblastic leukaemia; M5a - Acute

  2. The South African nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmsley, John

    1997-07-01

    The history of the South African nuclear industry is outlined and its present status described. Eskom, the state electric utility, generates 5% of its output from two 921MWe PWRs sited at Koeberg near Capetown. A pebble bed variant of the HTGR is being considered as an option for future nuclear power generation. The Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) in the past developed a complete front-end fuel cycle capability, conversion of the mining output of ammonium diuranate to UF{sub 6}, enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities, post-irradiation facilities for Koeberg fuel and one of the best low level waste repositories in the world. It also designed a nuclear weapon, six of which were built and later dismantled. Recently, government policy has dictated drastic staff reductions at AEC. The enrichment plant has been dismantled and the PWR fuel fabrication is under threat of closure. Considerable effort is being put into Molecular Laser Isotope Separation, in cooperation with the French organisation COGEMA, as a project with good commercial prospects in the medium term. The Council for Nuclear Safety is the licensing authority for Koeberg, AEC activities and mining and minerals processing. Uranium production in the mines has dropped dramatically with South Africa now being eighth in the world ranking whereas at its peak in 1980 it ranked third. (UK).

  3. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans-Saharan m......Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...... in the population of the species. The papers show that adult and juvenile birds can use different migration strategies depending on time of season and prevailing conditions. Also, the fuel loads of some individuals were theoretically sufficient for a direct flight to important goal area, but whether they do so...

  4. Afriphone Literature as a Prototypical Form of African Literature: Insights from Prototype Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodomo, Adams

    2016-01-01

    What is the most prototypical form of African literature? Shouldn't we be using African languages to produce African literary texts, shouldn't we produce more Afriphone African literature compared to Europhone African literature or Afro-Europhone literature? This issue underlies the reality that the vast majority of African writers presumably…

  5. ERCP in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jijo V Cherian; Joye Varghese Selvaraj; Rajesh Natrayan; Jayanthi Venkataraman

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the management of acute pancreatitis has evolved over years since its introduction in 1968. Its importance in diagnosing the etiology of pancreatitis has steadily declined with the advent of less invasive diagnostic tools. The therapeutic implications of ERCP in acute pancreatitis are many fold and are directed towards management of known etiological factors or its related complications. This article highlights the current status of ERCP in acute pancreatitis. DATA SOURCES:An English literature search using PubMed database was conducted on ERCP in acute pancreatitis, the etiologies and complications of pancreatitis amenable to endotherapy and other related subjects, which were reviewed. RESULTS: ERCP serves as a primary therapeutic modality for management of biliary pancreatitis in speciifc situations, pancreatitis due to microlithiasis, speciifc types of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, pancreas divisum, ascariasis and malignancy. In recurrent acute pancreatitis and smoldering pancreatitis it has a deifnite therapeutic utility. Complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic-duct disruptions or leaks, benign pancreatic-lfuid collections and pancreatic necrosis can be beneifcially dealt with. Intraductal ultrasound and pancreatoscopy during ERCP are useful in detecting pancreatic malignancy. CONCLUSIONS:The role of ERCP in acute pancreatitis is predominantly therapeutic and occasionally diagnostic. Its role in the management continues to evolve and advanced invasive procedures should be undertaken only in centers dedicated to pancreatic care.

  6. Acute intermittent porphyria presenting as progressive muscular atrophy in a young black man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertyn, C H; Sonderup, M; Bryer, A; Corrigall, A; Meissner, P; Heckmann, J M

    2014-04-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria, the most common porphyria affecting the nervous system, typically presents with neurovisceral crises followed by a motor neuropathy. We describe a 23-year-old black South African man presenting with a progressive stuttering, lower motor neuron syndrome developing over months. He had not experienced pain or neuropsychiatric symptoms. One year after symptom onset he was bed-bound with a flaccid quadriparesis. There was marked amyotrophy, but without fasciculations. Sensation was intact apart from a hypo-aesthetic patch over the thigh. Electrophysiological investigations showed an active motor axonopathy. Urinary porphyrins, delta-aminolaevulinic acid and porphobilinogen were elevated. Mutation analysis revealed the c445C>T (R149X) mutation in the porphobilinogen deaminase gene. The patient responded dramatically to haem arginate and could walk with assistance 2 weeks later. We identified the first molecularly confirmed acute intermittent porphyria in a black South African. The clinical presentation mimicked a progressive lower motor neuron syndrome.

  7. Acute Splenic Sequestration Crisis in a 70-Year-Old Patient With Hemoglobin SC Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Squiers BSE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old African American female with a past medical history significant for chronic bilateral shoulder pain and reported sickle cell trait presented with acute-onset bilateral thoracolumbar pain radiating to her left arm. Two days after admission, Hematology was consulted for severely worsening microcytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Examination of the patient’s peripheral blood smear from admission revealed no cell sickling, spherocytes, or schistocytes. Some targeting was noted. A Coombs test was negative. The patient was eventually transferred to the medical intensive care unit in respiratory distress. Hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed a diagnosis of hemoglobin SC disease. A diagnosis of acute splenic sequestration crisis complicated by acute chest syndrome was crystallized, and red blood cell exchange transfusion was performed. Further research is necessary to fully elucidate the pathophysiology behind acute splenic sequestration crisis, and the role of splenectomy to treat hemoglobin SC disease patients should be better defined.

  8. Functional morphology of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikera S. Ibe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A gross morphological study of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840 was undertaken in order to document its normal features and assess the structure-function paradigm. The study was conducted by direct observation of 29 adult African giant pouched rats’ brains. In the telencephalon, the cerebral cortex was devoid of prominent gyri and sulci, but the large olfactory bulb and tract relaying impulses to the olfactory cortex were very prominent. The large size of the olfactory bulb correlated with the established sharp olfactory acuity of the rodent. In the mesencephalic tectum, the caudal colliculi were bigger than the rostral colliculi, indicating a more acute sense of hearing than sight. In the metencephalon, the cerebellar vermis, the flocculus and the paraflocculus were highly coiled and, thus, well developed. The myelencephalon revealed a better organised ventral surface than dorsal surface; the cuneate fascicle, the intermediate sulcus and the lateral sulcus were not evident on the dorsal surface, but there were clearly visible pyramids and olivary prominence on the ventral surface. In conclusion, the highly coiled cerebellar vermis, flocculus and paraflocculus, as well as the conspicuous pyramids and olivary prominence are indicative of a good motor coordination and balance in the African giant pouched rat.

  9. Specific Cell Targeting Therapy Bypasses Drug Resistance Mechanisms in African Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unciti-Broceta, Juan D.; Arias, José L.; Maceira, José; Soriano, Miguel; Ortiz-González, Matilde; Hernández-Quero, José; Muñóz-Torres, Manuel; de Koning, Harry P.; Magez, Stefan; Garcia-Salcedo, José A.

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomiasis is a deadly neglected disease caused by the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Current therapies are characterized by high drug toxicity and increasing drug resistance mainly associated with loss-of-function mutations in the transporters involved in drug import. The introduction of new antiparasitic drugs into therapeutic use is a slow and expensive process. In contrast, specific targeting of existing drugs could represent a more rapid and cost-effective approach for neglected disease treatment, impacting through reduced systemic toxicity and circumventing resistance acquired through impaired compound uptake. We have generated nanoparticles of chitosan loaded with the trypanocidal drug pentamidine and coated by a single domain nanobody that specifically targets the surface of African trypanosomes. Once loaded into this nanocarrier, pentamidine enters trypanosomes through endocytosis instead of via classical cell surface transporters. The curative dose of pentamidine-loaded nanobody-chitosan nanoparticles was 100-fold lower than pentamidine alone in a murine model of acute African trypanosomiasis. Crucially, this new formulation displayed undiminished in vitro and in vivo activity against a trypanosome cell line resistant to pentamidine as a result of mutations in the surface transporter aquaglyceroporin 2. We conclude that this new drug delivery system increases drug efficacy and has the ability to overcome resistance to some anti-protozoal drugs. PMID:26110623

  10. In vitro effects of thiamethoxam on larvae of Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Daiana Antonia; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias; Malaspina, Osmar

    2015-09-01

    Several investigations have revealed the toxic effects that neonicotinoids can have on Apis mellifera, while few studies have evaluated the impact of these insecticides can have on the larval stage of the honeybee. From the lethal concentration (LC50) of thiamethoxam for the larvae of the Africanized honeybee, we evaluated the sublethal effects of this insecticide on morphology of the brain. After determine the LC50 (14.34 ng/μL of diet) of thiamethoxam, larvae were exposed to a sublethal concentration of thiamethoxam equivalent to 1.43 ng/μL by acute and subchronic exposure. Morphological and immunocytochemistry analysis of the brains of the exposed bees, showed condensed cells and early cell death in the optic lobes. Additional dose-related effects were observed on larval development. Our results show that the sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam tested are toxic to Africanized honeybees larvae and can modulate the development and consequently could affect the maintenance and survival of the colony. These results represent the first assessment of the effects of thiamethoxam in Africanized honeybee larvae and should contribute to studies on honey bee colony decline.

  11. Specific Cell Targeting Therapy Bypasses Drug Resistance Mechanisms in African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unciti-Broceta, Juan D; Arias, José L; Maceira, José; Soriano, Miguel; Ortiz-González, Matilde; Hernández-Quero, José; Muñóz-Torres, Manuel; de Koning, Harry P; Magez, Stefan; Garcia-Salcedo, José A

    2015-06-01

    African trypanosomiasis is a deadly neglected disease caused by the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Current therapies are characterized by high drug toxicity and increasing drug resistance mainly associated with loss-of-function mutations in the transporters involved in drug import. The introduction of new antiparasitic drugs into therapeutic use is a slow and expensive process. In contrast, specific targeting of existing drugs could represent a more rapid and cost-effective approach for neglected disease treatment, impacting through reduced systemic toxicity and circumventing resistance acquired through impaired compound uptake. We have generated nanoparticles of chitosan loaded with the trypanocidal drug pentamidine and coated by a single domain nanobody that specifically targets the surface of African trypanosomes. Once loaded into this nanocarrier, pentamidine enters trypanosomes through endocytosis instead of via classical cell surface transporters. The curative dose of pentamidine-loaded nanobody-chitosan nanoparticles was 100-fold lower than pentamidine alone in a murine model of acute African trypanosomiasis. Crucially, this new formulation displayed undiminished in vitro and in vivo activity against a trypanosome cell line resistant to pentamidine as a result of mutations in the surface transporter aquaglyceroporin 2. We conclude that this new drug delivery system increases drug efficacy and has the ability to overcome resistance to some anti-protozoal drugs.

  12. Specific Cell Targeting Therapy Bypasses Drug Resistance Mechanisms in African Trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D Unciti-Broceta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomiasis is a deadly neglected disease caused by the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Current therapies are characterized by high drug toxicity and increasing drug resistance mainly associated with loss-of-function mutations in the transporters involved in drug import. The introduction of new antiparasitic drugs into therapeutic use is a slow and expensive process. In contrast, specific targeting of existing drugs could represent a more rapid and cost-effective approach for neglected disease treatment, impacting through reduced systemic toxicity and circumventing resistance acquired through impaired compound uptake. We have generated nanoparticles of chitosan loaded with the trypanocidal drug pentamidine and coated by a single domain nanobody that specifically targets the surface of African trypanosomes. Once loaded into this nanocarrier, pentamidine enters trypanosomes through endocytosis instead of via classical cell surface transporters. The curative dose of pentamidine-loaded nanobody-chitosan nanoparticles was 100-fold lower than pentamidine alone in a murine model of acute African trypanosomiasis. Crucially, this new formulation displayed undiminished in vitro and in vivo activity against a trypanosome cell line resistant to pentamidine as a result of mutations in the surface transporter aquaglyceroporin 2. We conclude that this new drug delivery system increases drug efficacy and has the ability to overcome resistance to some anti-protozoal drugs.

  13. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 18, No 4 ... Physical growth and academic intelligence of rural South African children: ... The influence of exergaming on the functional fitness in overweight and obese children ...

  14. Horton Revisited: African Traditional Thought and Western Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Horton Revisited: African Traditional Thought and Western Science. ... he refers to as the 'continuity thesis' according to which there are theoretical similarities between African traditional thought and modern Western science. ... Article Metrics.

  15. Conceptualizing the Qatari-African foreign policy and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conceptualizing the Qatari-African foreign policy and economic relations: the case of soft ... relations strategies with select, geo-politically important African states, ... Keywords: Soft Power; Qatar; Africa; Sudan; Somalia; International Relations; ...

  16. Attitudes to organ donation among some urban South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unique opportunity to explore the views of two distinct socio- ... The research was approved by the human ... African cohort, the gender, age, language ... ape. Total sample. Fig. 1. Comparison of the study samples for the black African study ...

  17. The value of traditional African religious music into liturgy: Lobethal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-04

    Jun 4, 2015 ... Music and dance provide ... movement in the form of dance. ..... the South African Constitution Act', Master's thesis, Dept. of Church History,. University of Pretoria. Mugambi, J.N.K., 1989, The African heritage and contemporary ...

  18. the admissibility of subregional courts' decisions before the african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AbdiJA

    (III). Art 7 empowers the African Court to apply the provisions of the African Charter .... November 1950 at Rome, entered into force on 3 September 1953. ..... admissibility criteria has been taken as one of the steps to reform the European.

  19. Why African Stock Markets Should Formally Harmonise and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    one hand, on the other hand, it offers significant portfolio diversification opportunities for ... investigated African stock markets indices were weak-form efficient. Ghana and. Zimbabwe ...... New Frontier Markets tempt Investors. African Review of.

  20. Philomena A. Ojomo Critique of an African Perspective on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philomena A. Ojomo

    An African Understanding of Environmental Ethics 49. An African .... gender and class on the one hand, and human domination of the earth on the other. It uses the ..... Morality and Moral Controversies: Readings in Moral, Social, and Political.

  1. South Africa calling cultural tourists | Ivanovic | African Journal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... that cultural diversity is the core feature of South African marketing strategy, ... Keywords: Cultural tourism, cultural tourists, cultural heritage, South Africa, European and USA cultural ...

  2. The ethical awareness of the leadership of South African business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iSouthern African Business Review Volume 19 Number 2 2015 ... 1In spite of the world-class business ethics paradigm established prominently and explicitly .... of South African business schools sets the tone for good ethical practices at these.

  3. HLT profile of the official South African languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grover, AS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Human Language technologies (HLT) have been identified as a priority area by South African government to enable its eleven official languages technologically. We present the results of a technology audit for the South African HLT landscape...

  4. Foundations in the South African senior phase curriculum for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foundations in the South African senior phase curriculum for entrepreneurship education in consumer studies. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... A qualitative curriculum content analysis was undertaken to investigate the ...

  5. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 16 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of the state in sport for development: A South African scenario · EMAIL ... Influence of nutritional status on bone health in young South African women ... year old overweight and obese children · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  6. The translation of biblical texts into South African Sign Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lombaard, Susan; Naudé, Jacobus A

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to prove that biblical texts in South African Sign Language (SASL) are more accessible than written or printed biblical texts for deaf-born South African people who use sign language as their first language...

  7. The antibacterial potentials of Nauclea latifolia | Okwori | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced ... Herbal medicine is readily available in diverse African vegetation with the potentials of introducing new templates into medicine worldwide. Evaluating plants from the ...

  8. On the development of uniquely African management theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the development of uniquely African management theory. ... Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee ...

  9. Outcome of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in a South African private practice setting. ... South African Journal of Surgery ... hernia recurrence, chronic pain and technique preference if they had previously undergone an open repair.

  10. Strategic culture of the Southern African Development Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    architecture of the African Standby Force (ASF) of the African Union (AU) and the SADC Mutual .... In effect, security culture acts as the guiding intelligence ..... for alleged personal and business reasons that still remain shady and divisive.

  11. Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    ... is as old as humanity. Basil Okolo defines African philosophy as the critical thinking on the ... to develop a new, and possibly, unique political theory, based on African traditional socialism and ..... JONES , Frankfurt . [Academic Encyclopedia ...

  12. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. ... Brand confusion in South African Rugby – Super 12 brands vs Currie-Cup brands ... A sustainable marketing strategy for Dutch tourists to South Africa · EMAIL ...

  13. Racialised retail expansion and South African foreign investors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANBR

    presence of South African investors in African retailing since the 1990s. ... The second section in this paper examines the themes of race, region and ...... Zambian students conducting research in the village of Luangeni, Chipata, had learnt.

  14. THE SOUTH AFRICAN 'WAR RESISTANCE' MOVEMENT 1974–1994

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    . Africa. ... by exiled self-styled 'war resisters' who set up a number of support ... African war resistance movement, especially the Committee on South African War ..... had come into exile for other reasons but had an interest in working against.

  15. Rethinking resistance : revolt and violence in African history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    This collective volume reinterprets the genre of resistance studies, introduces recent conceptual perspectives and considers examples of African (civil) wars and insurgent movements. Contributions: Rethinking resistance in African history, an introduction, by Klaas van Walraven and Jon Abbink. Part

  16. Challenges facing young African scientists in their research careers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges facing young African scientists in their research careers: A qualitative exploratory study. ... This study aimed at identifying the challenges that young African scientists face in their career development. Methods: This ... Article Metrics.

  17. Acute oncological emergencies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  18. Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicating chemotherapy for acute myeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Kassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a rare complication in the treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis remains difficult during neutropenic period. We present two acute myeloblastic leukemia patients that developed acute acalculous cholecystitis during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. They suffered from fever, vomiting and acute pain in the epigastrium. Ultrasound demonstrated an acalculous gallbladder. Surgical management was required in one patient and conservative treatment was attempted in the other patient. None treatment measures were effective and two patients died. Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a serious complication in neutropenic patients. Earlier diagnosis could have expedited the management of these patients.

  19. Population Genomics of sub-saharan Drosophila melanogaster: African diversity and non-African admixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Pool

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has played a pivotal role in the development of modern population genetics. However, many basic questions regarding the demographic and adaptive history of this species remain unresolved. We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of D. melanogaster, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indicated a pervasive influence of non-African admixture in many African populations, motivating the development and application of a novel admixture detection method. Admixture proportions varied among populations, with greater admixture in urban locations. Admixture levels also varied across the genome, with localized peaks and valleys suggestive of a non-neutral introgression process. Genomes from the same location differed starkly in ancestry, suggesting that isolation mechanisms may exist within African populations. After removing putatively admixed genomic segments, the greatest genetic diversity was observed in southern Africa (e.g. Zambia, while diversity in other populations was largely consistent with a geographic expansion from this potentially ancestral region. The European population showed different levels of diversity reduction on each chromosome arm, and some African populations displayed chromosome arm-specific diversity reductions. Inversions in the European sample were associated with strong elevations in diversity across chromosome arms. Genomic scans were conducted to identify loci that may represent targets of positive selection within an African population, between African populations, and between European and African populations. A disproportionate number of candidate selective sweep regions were located near genes with varied roles in gene regulation. Outliers for Europe-Africa F(ST were found to be enriched in genomic regions of locally

  20. South African Artillery in the Eighties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Lillie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from the Second World War armed with the then completely adequate 25 pounder and BL 5.5" guns, the South African Field Artillery continued to use the same guns operationally over thirty years later.When the armed forces of South Africa were thrown into a conventional conflict during the Angolan Civil War in 1975, the gunners found their equipment to be woefully inadequate. Soviet made artillery systems in the hands of the Russian-backed forces possessed ranges far in excess of the Second World War vintage South African systems and brought home in a very real way the need for drastic modernisation of the artillery branch of the South African Army.

  1. Cytokine Profiles during Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease Predict Outcome in African Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, James J.; Heath, Jennifer N.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Naranbhai, Vivek; Mandala, Wilson; MacLennan, Jenny M.; Molyneux, Elizabeth M.; Graham, Stephen M.; Drayson, Mark T.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.

    2016-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of sepsis in African children. Cytokine responses are central to the pathophysiology of sepsis and predict sepsis outcome in other settings. In this study, we investigated cytokine responses to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Malawian children. We determined serum concentrations of 48 cytokines with multiplexed immunoassays in Malawian children during acute iNTS disease (n = 111) and in convalescence (n = 77). Principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to identify cytokine signatures of acute iNTS disease. We further investigated whether these responses are altered by HIV coinfection or severe malnutrition and whether cytokine responses predict inpatient mortality. Cytokine changes in acute iNTS disease were associated with two distinct cytokine signatures. The first is characterized by increased concentrations of mediators known to be associated with macrophage function, and the second is characterized by raised pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines typical of responses reported in sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens. These cytokine responses were largely unaltered by either severe malnutrition or HIV coinfection. Children with fatal disease had a distinctive cytokine profile, characterized by raised mediators known to be associated with neutrophil function. In conclusion, cytokine responses to acute iNTS infection in Malawian children are reflective of both the cytokine storm typical of sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens and the intramacrophage replicative niche of NTS. The cytokine profile predictive of fatal disease supports a key role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of NTS sepsis. PMID:27170644

  2. Cytokine Profiles during Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease Predict Outcome in African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, James J; Heath, Jennifer N; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Naranbhai, Vivek; Mandala, Wilson; MacLennan, Jenny M; Molyneux, Elizabeth M; Graham, Stephen M; Drayson, Mark T; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2016-07-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of sepsis in African children. Cytokine responses are central to the pathophysiology of sepsis and predict sepsis outcome in other settings. In this study, we investigated cytokine responses to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Malawian children. We determined serum concentrations of 48 cytokines with multiplexed immunoassays in Malawian children during acute iNTS disease (n = 111) and in convalescence (n = 77). Principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to identify cytokine signatures of acute iNTS disease. We further investigated whether these responses are altered by HIV coinfection or severe malnutrition and whether cytokine responses predict inpatient mortality. Cytokine changes in acute iNTS disease were associated with two distinct cytokine signatures. The first is characterized by increased concentrations of mediators known to be associated with macrophage function, and the second is characterized by raised pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines typical of responses reported in sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens. These cytokine responses were largely unaltered by either severe malnutrition or HIV coinfection. Children with fatal disease had a distinctive cytokine profile, characterized by raised mediators known to be associated with neutrophil function. In conclusion, cytokine responses to acute iNTS infection in Malawian children are reflective of both the cytokine storm typical of sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens and the intramacrophage replicative niche of NTS. The cytokine profile predictive of fatal disease supports a key role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of NTS sepsis.

  3. Association of Substance Use Disorders With Childhood Trauma but not African Genetic Heritage in an African American Cohort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuan, Nicole P; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, Lynn R; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; Goldman, David; Roy, Alec

    2009-01-01

    ... to environmental risk factors, including poverty and trauma. Method: The authors used 186 ancestry-informative markers to measure African ancestry in 407 addicts and 457 comparison subjects self-identified as African Americans...

  4. Developing suicide prevention programs for African American youth in African American churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal; Puri, Rupa; Lyles, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Suicide prevention programs for African American youth in African American churches may have broad appeal because: (1) the Black Church has a strong history of helping community members, regardless of church membership; (2) African Americans have the highest level of public and private religiousness; and (3) the church can help shape religious and cultural norms about mental health and help-seeking. The proposed gatekeeper model trains lay helpers and clergy to recognize the risk and protective factors for depression and suicide, to make referrals to the appropriate community mental health resources, and to deliver a community education curriculum. Potential barriers and suggestions for how to overcome these barriers are discussed.

  5. What is Ubuntu? Different Interpretations among South Africans of African Descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe and systematize the different answers to the question 'What is Ubuntu?' that I have been able to identify among South Africans of African descent (SAADs). I show that it is possible to distinguish between two clusters of answers. The answers of the first cluster all...... define ubuntu as a moral quality of a person, while the answers of the second cluster all define ubuntu as a phenomenon (for instance a philosophy, an ethic, African humanism, or, a wordview) according to which persons are interconnected. The concept of a person is of central importance to all...

  6. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): A Fact Sheet for the Public ... is called the radiation dose. People exposed to radiation will get ARS only if: The radiation dose ...

  7. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  8. Low back pain - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that ...

  9. Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attacks, but are usually not chronic. Wearing a Medic Alert bracelet is advisable for patients who have ... Week is ONE Month Away! Mar 17, 2017 Access to Care Toolkit for the Acute Porphyrias is ...

  10. Acute genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  11. Treatment of acute gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the treatment of acute gout. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments, monotherapy versus combination therapy, suggested recommendations, guidelines for treatment, and drugs under development are discussed.

  12. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for information in your local library and on the Internet. Good sources include the National Cancer Institute, the ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/acute-lymphocytic-leukemia/basics/definition/CON-20042915 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  13. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for information in your local library and on the Internet. Good sources include the National Cancer Institute, the ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/acute-myelogenous-leukemia/basics/definition/CON-20043431 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  14. Acute heart failure syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tandfonline.com/ ... When heart failure develops gradually, there is time for the compensatory ... of this can be seen in acute brain injury, some forms of takotsubo syndrome or .... reduce blood pressure in cases presenting with elevated blood pressure.

  15. The Role of the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    tic terms as well as children's dictionaries constitute part of ALRI's contribution towards the goal of ... nations. Arguments for and against the use of African languages in the school ... The following year, 1985, the Organization of African Unity .... African Languages Research Institute, discusses their impact on language ter-.

  16. Thoughts on Intellectual and Institutional Links Between African and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-09-10

    Sep 10, 2008 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2008 .... of the African people that dominates the Northern perception of ..... nomic refuge, and who rely on the goodwill of their white hosts, African- ... tourist attraction. ..... ASA 50th Anniversary Celebrations. in African Studies Review, Vol.

  17. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting…

  18. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Botigué, Laura R; Civit, Sergi

    2012-01-01

    One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient popu...

  19. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  20. Barriers to Hospice Use among African Americans: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla T.; Bickel-Swenson, Denise; Stephens, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The present review was undertaken to explore recent evidence in the professional literature pertaining to use of hospice services by African Americans. The article addresses the research methods that have been used to study African American hospice use, obstacles to African American participation in hospice that have been identified, and…

  1. The African Storybook and Language Teacher Identity in Digital Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranger--Johannessen, Espen; Norton, Bonny

    2017-01-01

    The African Storybook (ASb) is a digital initiative that promotes multilingual literacy for African children by providing openly licenced children's stories in multiple African languages, as well as English, French, and Portuguese. Based on Darvin and Norton's (2015) model of identity and investment, and drawing on the Douglas Fir Group's (2016)…

  2. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8776 of January 31, 2012 National African American History Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The story of African Americans is a story of... for the better. During National African American History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy...

  3. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrquin, Anna F.

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  4. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Kikora

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  5. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  6. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  7. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Botigué, Laura R.; Civit, Sergi

    2012-01-01

    One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient popu...

  8. Teaching pervasive skills to South African accounting students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching pervasive skills to South African accounting students. ... Southern African Business Review ... This study investigates the manner in which SAICAaccredited South African universities offer and teach pervasive skills, and attempts ... diversity, and this result corresponds with those reported elsewhere in the literature.

  9. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  10. Contrastive Studies - African Languages and English. Specialised Bibliography C9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This selective bibliography lists 8 books and 19 journal articles dealing with contrastive studies of African languages and English. The entries range in date from 1953 to 1972 with the majority published since 1965. The books cited are African and British publications and the articles appeared in well-known African, European or American…

  11. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Kikora

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  12. Teaching and Learning African Music and Jaques-Dalcroze's Eurhythmics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuthego, Mothusi

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the indigenous music of Botswana as an African musical idiom, to illustrate common aspects between approaches to teaching and learning music in African societies and the Jaques-Dalcroze approach. The author argues that a strong foundation exists in African musical practices upon which the Dalcroze approach can build. That…

  13. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  14. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots. Connecting…

  15. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  16. Acute management of stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Osther, Palle J S

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stone management is often conservative due to a high spontaneous stone passage rate or non-symptomatic calyceal stones that do not necessarily require active treatment. However, stone disease may cause symptoms and complications requiring urgent intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: In this review, we update latest research and current recommendations regarding acute management of stones, with particular focus on imaging, pain management, active stone interventions, medical expulsive therapy, and urolithiasis in pregnancy and childhood. RESULTS: Acute stone management should be planned...

  17. Acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Bjerring, Peter Nissen

    2011-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these.......Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these....

  18. Feigning Acute Intermittent Porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Elkhatib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP is an autosomal dominant genetic defect in heme synthesis. Patients with this illness can have episodic life-threatening attacks characterized by abdominal pain, neurological deficits, and psychiatric symptoms. Feigning this illness has not been reported in the English language literature to date. Here, we report on a patient who presented to the hospital with an acute attack of porphyria requesting opiates. Diligent assessment of extensive prior treatment records revealed thirteen negative tests for AIP.

  19. Acute local radiation injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongora, R. (Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)); Jammet, H. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, ISPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France))

    1983-01-01

    Local acute radiation injuries do not occur very often. Their origin is generally accidental. They show specific anatomo-clinical features. The clinical evolution and therapeutic behaviour are dependent on the dose level and topographical distribution. The dosimetric assessment requires physical methods and paraclinical investigations. From a study of 60 cases followed by the International Center of Radiopathology, the clinical symptomatology is described and the problems raised to the radiopathologist physician by local acute radiation injuries are stated.

  20. [Acute Kidney Injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Silke; Stahl, Rolf

    2017-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important part of renal diseases and a common clinical problem. AKI is an acute decline in renal function. Due to a lack of therapeutic options, prevention and optimal management of patients with AKI are the most important strategies. Although seldom the sole cause of patients' death, AKI is associated with a significant increase in mortality. Our objective is to draw the attention towards the prevention of AKI of non-renal causes.

  1. Consumers' perceptions of African wildlife meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    African wildlife meat offers South Africans' a healthy and novel red meat alternative, yet consumption is far less than that of beef and lamb. Laddering interviews with 40 respondents were employed to identify the consequences and values associated with the product's perceived attributes. Important...... attributes included low levels of fat, dryness, novelty, and special preparation requirements. Significant values included security, self-esteem, hedonism, tradition, and stimulation. Promoters of the product are advised to capitalize on consumers' interest in health and the health benefits of the meat...

  2. Differential responses of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) to viral replication following mechanical transmission or Varroa destructor parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Goodwin, Paul H; Reyes-Quintana, Mariana; Koleoglu, Gun; Correa-Benítez, Adriana; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, adults and brood of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) were compared for relative virus levels over 48 h following Varroa destructor parasitism or injection of V. destructor homogenate. Rates of increase of deformed wing virus (DWV) for Africanized versus European bees were temporarily lowered for 12h with parasitism and sustainably lowered over the entire experiment (48 h) with homogenate injection in adults. The rates were also temporarily lowered for 24h with parasitism but were not affected by homogenate injection in brood. Rates of increase of black queen cell virus (BQCV) for Africanized versus European bees were similar with parasitism but sustainably lowered over the entire experiment with homogenate injection in adults and were similar for parasitism and homogenate injection in brood. Analyses of sac brood bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus were limited as detection did not occur after both homogenate injection and parasitism treatment, or levels were not significantly higher than those following control buffer injection. Lower rates of replication of DWV and BQCV in Africanized bees shows that they may have greater viral resistance, at least early after treatment.

  3. Endophytic bacteria in toxic South African plants: identification, phylogeny and possible involvement in gousiekte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Brecht; Van Elst, Daan; Steyn, Hester; Van Wyk, Braam; Lemaire, Benny; Smets, Erik; Dessein, Steven

    2011-04-26

    South African plant species of the genera Fadogia, Pavetta and Vangueria (all belonging to Rubiaceae) are known to cause gousiekte (literally 'quick disease'), a fatal cardiotoxicosis of ruminants characterised by acute heart failure four to eight weeks after ingestion. Noteworthy is that all these plants harbour endophytes in their leaves: nodulating bacteria in specialized nodules in Pavetta and non-nodulating bacteria in the intercellular spaces between mesophyll cells in Fadogia and Vangueria. Isolation and analyses of these endophytes reveal the presence of Burkholderia bacteria in all the plant species implicated in gousiekte. Although the nodulating and non-nodulating bacteria belong to the same genus, they are phylogenetically not closely related and even fall in different bacterial clades. Pavetta harborii and Pavetta schumanniana have their own specific endophyte--Candidatus Burkholderia harborii and Candidatus Burkholderia schumanniana--while the non-nodulating bacteria found in the other gousiekte-inducing plants show high similarity to Burkholderia caledonica. In this group, the bacteria are host specific at population level. Investigation of gousiekte-inducing plants from other African countries resulted in the discovery of the same endophytes. Several other plants of the genera Afrocanthium, Canthium, Keetia, Psydrax, Pygmaeothamnus and Pyrostria were tested and were found to lack bacterial endophytes. The discovery and identification of Burkholderia bacteria in gousiekte-inducing plants open new perspectives and opportunities for research not only into the cause of this economically important disease, but also into the evolution and functional significance of bacterial endosymbiosis in Rubiaceae. Other South African Rubiaceae that grow in the same area as the gousiekte-inducing plants were found to lack bacterial endophytes which suggests a link between bacteria and gousiekte. The same bacteria are consistently found in gousiekte-inducing plants

  4. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ogbu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to beresponsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea,vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection withprofuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever isendemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Somestudies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across WestAfrica. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa wereidentified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity ofresources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise theWest African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region.There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care ofpatients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectiouslaboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  5. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J

    2007-03-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  6. Quantification of airborne African swine fever virus after experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Ferreira, H C; Weesendorp, E; Quak, S; Stegeman, J A; Loeffen, W L A

    2013-08-30

    Knowledge on African Swine Fever (ASF) transmission routes can be useful when designing control measures against the spread of ASF virus (ASFV). Few studies have focused on the airborne transmission route, and until now no data has been available on quantities of ASF virus (ASFV) in the air. Our aim was to validate an air sampling technique for ASF virus (ASFV) that could be used to detect and quantify virus excreted in the air after experimental infection of pigs. In an animal experiment with the Brazil'78, the Malta'78 and Netherlands'86 isolates, air samples were collected at several time points. For validation of the air sampling technique, ASFV was aerosolised in an isolator, and air samples were obtained using the MD8 air scan device, which was shown to be suitable to detect ASFV. The half-life of ASFV in the air was on average 19 min when analysed by PCR, and on average 14 min when analysed by virus titration. In rooms with infected pigs, viral DNA with titres up to 10(3.2) median tissue culture infective dose equivalents (TCID50eq.)/m(3) could be detected in air samples from day 4 post-inoculation (dpi 4) until the end of the experiments, at dpi 70. In conclusion, this study shows that pigs infected with ASFV will excrete virus in the air, particularly during acute disease. This study provides the first available parameters to model airborne transmission of ASFV.

  7. Prospects for development of African swine fever virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L K; Abrams, C C; Chapman, D D G; Goatley, L C; Netherton, C L; Taylor, G; Takamatsu, H H

    2013-01-01

    African swine fever virus is a large DNA virus which can cause an acute haemorrhagic fever in pigs resulting in high mortality. No vaccine is available, limiting options for control. The virus encodes up to 165 genes and virus particles are multi-layered and contain more than 50 proteins. Pigs immunised with natural low virulence isolates or attenuated viruses produced by passage in tissue culture and by targeted gene deletions can be protected against challenge with virulent viruses. CD8+ cells are required for protection induced by attenuated strain OURT88/3. Passive transfer of antibodies from immune to naïve pigs can also induce protection. Knowledge of the genome sequences of attenuated and virulent strains and targeted gene deletions from virulent strains have identified a number of virus genes involved in virulence and immune evasion. This information can be used to produce rationally attenuated vaccine strains. Virus antigens that are targets for neutralising antibodies have been identified and immunisation with these recombinant proteins has been shown to induce partial protection. However knowledge of antigens which encode the dominant protective epitopes recognised by CD8+ T cells is lacking.

  8. Effects of Mediated Learning Experience on Raven's Matrices Scores of African and Non-African University Students in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuy, Mervyn; Gewer, Anthony; Osrin, Yael; Khunou, David; Fridjhon, Peter; Rushton, J. Philippe

    2002-01-01

    Studied whether mediated learning experience would improve the scores of African students on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Seventy African and 28 non-African college students in South Africa were given the Raven's Progressive Matrices on 2 occasions, and some subjects were exposed to the mediated learning experience. Both groups improved…

  9. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  10. The African VLBI network project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Anita

    2015-01-01

    larger teams in science, engineering and technology issues and collaborate with the broader global science community to develop new African radio astronomy science communities.

  11. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.

  12. Masks, Performing Traditions, and Cultural Diversity: Exploring African Culture through African Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto-Escalera, Brenda L.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the mask and masquerade traditions, focusing specifically on African culture as a source of exciting and varied materials that can help theater arts teachers and specialists who are in search of culturally diverse materials. Offers a classroom application. (PRA)

  13. Helen Lauer African and Non-African Time, to Contrast or not to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oduor

    Temporality in Intercultural Perspective”, presented scholarship elaborating this hypothesis: ... environment and political history upon intercultural inquiry, so the venue of the second ...... rigidity or cognitive insularity peculiar to African cultures.

  14. South African Journal of African Languages - Vol 35, No 2 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embracing the use of African languages as additional languages of teaching and ... experienced by children with hearing impairments—the learner's experience ... Code-switching among chiShona-English bilinguals in courtroom discourse: ...

  15. The African Renaissance and its relation to the geosciences: a South African perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtimkulu, M. N.; Motloung, M.; Graham, I. T.; Eriksson, P. G.; Bumby, A. J.

    2001-08-01

    Implicit in the African Renaissance is the synergy between government, the private sector, the educated minority and the disadvantaged majority. For this concept to work, belief and commitment must arise first from the African individual, whatever his or her potential contribution may be. The geosciences in South Africa provide a currently vibrant example of such cooperation, which has the potential to contribute significantly to the upliftment of the country and its neighbouring states. Based largely on personal interviews with various role players, from the Presidency of South Africa, through ministerial levels, the corporate sector and down to the individual, we present a spectrum of viewpoints and initiatives which are starting to result in practical implementation of the African revival. An end to conflict and xenophobia, the entrenchment of democratic government and corporate expression of the entrepreneurial spirit are essential to provide the framework within which the individual African can become a "Renaissance Man or Woman".

  16. "Now the African reigns supreme": the rise of African boxing on the Witwatersrand, 1924-1959.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the growth of boxing among the African populations on the Witwatersrand region of South Africa between 1924 and 1959. It details how the sport's jump in popularity with Africans paralleled migration to Johannesburg. Africans increasingly saw boxing as an activity and skill conducive with survival in this new environment, and thus the sport grew in popularity, stature, and skill-level amongst this emergent urban population. The essay further explores the various ways that the sport was disseminated and popularized during the era, thus detailing how the sport reached both the African masses and petit-bourgeois educated elite. As their presence in Johannesburg became more and more permanent, boxing came to encompass various meanings and ideals, such as notions of discipline, independence and civility, to these urban populations.

  17. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2012-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family support and CRC beliefs with African Americans patients. This may improve patient-provider shared decision-making satisfaction and CRC screening adherence among African American patients.

  18. African-American women and abortion: a neglected history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, L J

    1992-01-01

    The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a brief historical record of the ways African-American women have sought to control their fertility through the use of abortion and birth control. It also examines the activism of African-American women in the establishment of family planning clinics and in defense of abortion rights.

  19. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2...

  20. South African human language technologies audit

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grover, AS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Human language technologies (HLT) can play a vital role in bridging the digital divide and thus the HLT field has been recognised as a priority area by the South African government. The authors present the work on conducting a technology audit...

  1. East African Journal of Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims The East African Journal of Sciences (EAJS) publishes original scientific papers ... Scope The journal publishes peer reviewed original research articles in various disciplines of ... Dr. Solomon Assefa, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ... Tilahun Sahilu, Langston University, USA.

  2. Prevalence of Stuttering in African American Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C.; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). Method: A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual…

  3. Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, J.; Godivier, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic are described including a map of Bouguer anomalies at 1/1,000,000 in two sections (eastern sheet, western sheet) and a map, in color, of Bouguer anomalies at 1/2,000,000. Instrumentation, data acquisition, calibration, and data correction procedures are discussed.

  4. South African human language technology audit

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grover, AS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Human language technology (HLT) has been identified as a priority area by the South African government. However, despite efforts by government and the research and development (R&D) community, South Africa has not yet been able to maximise...

  5. The nomenclature of the African wild ass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Smeenk, C.

    2007-01-01

    The 19th-century reports on the occurrence and identity of wild asses in North-East Africa are reviewed, as well as the names applied in various publications by Fitzinger and von Heuglin, respectively. The first published name for the African wild ass, Asinus africanus Fitzinger, 1858, is a nomen nu

  6. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  7. Wildlife resources of the West African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, de S.

    1991-01-01

    The wild fauna in Africa is a renewable resource and its overexploitation has led to the depletion of animal populations. This thesis focusses on the ecological characterization of the ungulate community of the West African savanna, with special reference to the Biosphere Reserve 'Boucle du

  8. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African Americans Format: Select One File [163K] ...

  9. Towards a critique of indigenous African religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Strijdom

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is argued that a postcolonial critique of the colonial study of religion should not preclude a critique of indigenous African religion itself. The latter may be developed from a human rights perspective and a critique of exclusionary views of indigeneity. The argument is illustrated by means of specific case studies.

  10. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  11. Examining School Engagement of African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk; Jackson, Lisa R.

    This study investigated the impact of behavioral and affective factors on 688 African American high school students' academic performance, examining the relationship between school engagement, educational expectations, self-esteem, and school achievement; noting differences between males and females; and discussing whether behavioral and affective…

  12. African Women in the Visual Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Lisa

    1991-01-01

    Explores recent studies in anthropology, art history, and archeology on African women's art from a feminist theoretical perspective. Relates women's arts to several sociological and economic factors and suggests new avenues of exploration, especially in the face of urbanization and modernization. (CJS)

  13. The nomenclature of the African wild ass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Smeenk, C.

    2007-01-01

    The 19th-century reports on the occurrence and identity of wild asses in North-East Africa are reviewed, as well as the names applied in various publications by Fitzinger and von Heuglin, respectively. The first published name for the African wild ass, Asinus africanus Fitzinger, 1858, is a nomen nu

  14. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars;

    in the early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  15. Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submit: New submission | Revised submission | Thesis abstract ... which time the author will have two working days to mark any typographical errors. ... If payment is done by EFT from a non-South African bank account, the author will be .... usage behaviour and compile aggregate data that will allow content improvements ...

  16. TRIAGE — A SOUTH AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    While an estimated 60 000 South Africans are murdered and die in road traffic accidents each year,1 at ... to medical priority rather than rank (a revolutionary concept at the time). Those with the ... life-threatening conditions. • requires minimal ...

  17. The South African Species of Commiphora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J.A. van der Walt

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the South African species of Commiphora (Burseraceae is presented in which 2 keys are provided to the 18 species recognized. A comprehensive morphological study, including an anatomical study of the stems and leaves, was regarded as essential for an accurate delimitation of the different species. Maps, sketches and photographs serve for illustration.

  18. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  19. African-American Women in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Describes two reference books suitable for middle/junior high school library media centers that present information about African-American women and suggests activities for Afro-American History Month. Library media skills objectives, social studies and art objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, activities and procedures,…

  20. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 10 of 10 ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... The Lagos Business School Management Review is published by ... In consonance with best academic practices, it equally takes a very ... Economics and Firms, Human Development & Social Economics, ...