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Sample records for acutely influences motivated

  1. Exogenous cortisol acutely influences motivated decision making in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Peter; Antypa, Niki; Crysovergi, Panagiota; van der Does, Willem A J

    2010-02-01

    The glucocorticoid (GC) hormone cortisol is the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). Acute psychological stress increases HPA activity and GC release. In humans, chronic disturbances in HPA activity have been observed in affective disorders and in addictive behaviour. Recent research indicates that acute effects of GCs may be anxiolytic and increase reward sensitivity. Furthermore, cortisol acutely influences early cognitive processing of emotional stimuli. In order to extend such findings to more complex emotional-cognitive behaviour, the present study tested acute effects of 40 mg cortisol on motivated decision making in 30 healthy young men. Results showed that cortisol indeed increased risky decision making, as predicted. This effect occurred for decisions where making a risky choice could potentially yield a big reward. These results are discussed with respect to currently proposed mechanisms for cortisol's potential anxiolytic effect and GCs' involvement in reward systems.

  2. Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Swart, Jennifer C; Schmidt, Kristin; Fekkes, Durk; Geurts, Dirk E M; Cools, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin has long been implicated in the motivational control of behaviour. Recent theories propose that the role of serotonin can be understood in terms of an interaction between a motivational and a behavioural activation axis. Experimental support for these ideas, however, has been mixed. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of serotonin (5HT) in behavioural vigour as a function of incentive motivation. We employed dietary acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower the 5HT precursor tryptophan during the performance of a speeded visual discrimination task. Feedback valence and feedback probability were manipulated independently and cued prior to target onset. On feedback trials, fast correct responses led to either reward or avoidance of punishment, while slow or incorrect responses led to reward omission or punishment. We show that behavioural responding is inhibited under high incentive motivation (i.e. high-feedback probability) at baseline 5HT levels and that lowering these leads to behavioural disinhibition, while leaving accuracy unaffected. Surprisingly, there were no differential effects of motivational valence, with 5HT depletion releasing behavioural inhibition under both appetitive and aversive motivation. Our findings extend current theories on the role of 5HT in behavioural inhibition by showing that reductions in serotonin lead to increased behavioural vigour only if there is a motivational drive to inhibit behaviour at baseline.

  3. Affective and motivational influences in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Jefferson, Anneli; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal impression formation is highly consequential for social interactions in private and public domains. These perceptions of others rely on different sources of information and processing mechanisms, all of which have been investigated in independent research fields. In social psychology, inferences about states and traits of others as well as activations of semantic categories and corresponding stereotypes have attracted great interest. On the other hand, research on emotion and reward demonstrated affective and motivational influences of social cues on the observer, which in turn modulate attention, categorization, evaluation, and decision processes. While inferential and categorical social processes have been shown to recruit a network of cortical brain regions associated with mentalizing and evaluation, the affective influence of social cues has been linked to subcortical areas that play a central role in detection of salient sensory input and reward processing. In order to extend existing integrative approaches to person perception, both the inferential-categorical processing of information about others, and affective and motivational influences of this information on the beholder should be taken into account.

  4. Affective and motivational influences in person perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana eKuzmanovic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal impression formation is highly consequential for social interactions in private and public domains. These perceptions of others rely on different sources of information and processing mechanisms, all of which have been investigated in independent research fields. In social psychology, inferences about states and traits of others as well as activations of semantic categories and corresponding stereotypes have attracted great interest. On the other hand, research on emotion and reward demonstrated affective and motivational influences of social cues on the observer, which in turn modulate attention, categorization, evaluation and decision processes. While inferential and categorical social processes have been shown to recruit a network of cortical brain regions associated with mentalizing and evaluation, the affective influence of social cues has been linked to subcortical areas that play a central role in detection of salient sensory input and reward processing. In order to extend existing integrative approaches to person perception, both the inferential-categorical processing of information about others, and affective and motivational influences of this information on the beholder should be taken into account.

  5. Motivation's Influence on English Learning and Strategies for Improving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玢; 张亚铃

    2009-01-01

    The article mainly focuses on the relationship between motivation and English learning,the influence of motivation on English learning(That is,English learning motive may be simply viewed as the reason of learning English;different motives will lead to different learning methods;generally speaking,surface motive does not endure longer than deep motive.;strong motivation can lead to final Success.)and six strategies of improving English learning(That is,developing proper attitudes towards English learning and letting students know the pressure of it;goal and feedback;praise and criticism;contest and cooperation;expectation and appraisement;achievement motive.).

  6. The Influence of Motivation on Employees' Performance: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigates the influence of Extrinsic and Intrinsic motivation on ... relationship between extrinsic motivation and the performance of employees while no ... should adopt extrinsic rewards in their various firms to increase productivity.

  7. Teachers' motivation and its influence on quality assurance in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivational strategies like staff training and development, promotion, salary, remuneration, working conditions, status and participatory decision making, acted as a barrier towards achieving quality assurance in the educational system. Some challenges that negatively influenced teacher motivation and recommendations ...

  8. The influence of motivation on Librarians' job satisfaction | Nwaigwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A general opinion that is supported by research is that motivation is crucial to any workforce, if they are expected to perform to their optimum. The common understanding being that motivated staff will put in more and be satisfied with their jobs. The influence of motivation on the job satisfaction of librarians is therefore crucial ...

  9. The Influence of Personality Characteristics on Children's Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Emma; McGeown, Sarah P.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that children's motivation to read is influenced by their level of reading skill and reading self-concept. However, it is possible that characteristics unrelated to reading, such as underlying personality characteristics, may also influence children's motivation to read. The current study examined the extent to which children's…

  10. A Study of Motivational Influences on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of motivation on academic achievement. The theoretical rationale for the study is grounded in bridging two influential yet isolated literatures of motivation: goal setting theory and achievement goal theory. Although it is clear that academic performance should be influenced by assigned learning goals,…

  11. Influence of non-conscius motives to leadership behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Boštjančič

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past century McClelland (1975 began exploring non-conscious motives and their influence on leader's behaviour. We investigated how leader's intrinsic motivation influences his leadership behaviour, both with managers and entrepreneurs. Our randomized sample included 59 executives employed in Slovenian and international companies with headquarters in Slovenia. We conducted a one hour long structured interview with each individual and asked at least nine of their subordinates to fill in two different questionnaires based on the executive's behaviour under study. Winter's motive scoring system for coding power, affiliation and achievement motives and expressions of responsibility was used to analyse the interviews. The evaluation method proved not to be sufficiently reliable. Factor analysis showed five different styles of leadership: value based leadership, directive leadership, participative leadership, productivity oriented leadership and supportive leadership. Achievement and power motivation are prevailing in entrepreneurs, whereas in managers the leader motivational profile is more often (33% noticed (high power motivation, high concern for the moral exercise of power, and power motivation greater than affiliative motivation. The prediction of influence of unconscious motives presents a smaller part than expected.

  12. Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Hamilton, Derek A; Adcock, R Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for navigating to correct locations (approach) or punished for navigating to incorrect platforms (avoidance). Participants' skin conductance levels (SCLs) were recorded during navigation to investigate the role of physiological arousal in motivated learning. Behavioral results revealed that, overall, approach motivation enhanced and avoidance motivation impaired memory performance compared to nonmotivated spatial learning. This advantage was evident across several performance indices, including accuracy, learning rate, path length, and proximity to platform locations during probe trials. SCL analysis revealed three key findings. First, within subjects, arousal interacted with approach motivation, such that high arousal on a given trial was associated with performance deficits. In addition, across subjects, high arousal negated or reversed the benefits of approach motivation. Finally, low-performing, highly aroused participants showed SCL responses similar to those of avoidance-motivation participants, suggesting that for these individuals, opportunities for reward may evoke states of learning similar to those typically evoked by threats of punishment. These results provide a novel characterization of how approach and avoidance motivation influence declarative memory and indicate a critical and selective role for arousal in determining how reinforcement influences goal-oriented learning.

  13. Motivational Strategies and Possible Influence on Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and administered to the 360 teachers. The data collected were subjected to statistical analyses using ANOVA. The test yielded significant influence of motivational strategies on teachers' work performance. Based on the findings, recommendations were made. KEY WORDS: Motivational Strategies, Teaching Performance.

  14. Influence of motivation on academic library employees' performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of motivation on academic library employees' performance and productivity in ... Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... motivated from time to time to boost their morale for efficiency and higher productivity. ... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  15. Motivating the Generations: Economic and Educational Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herley, Wade

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the various generations that include the greatest generation, the baby-boomers, generation X, and generation Y. The research encompasses many motivational elements that each generation covets, rejects, or shares. These generations are at different stages in life and each plays a vital role within our society. The workforce has…

  16. How People's Motivational System and Situational Motivation Influence Their Risky Financial Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekścińska, Katarzyna; Maison, Dominika Agnieszka; Trzcińska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    People's preferences for risks have been a subject of interest to researchers in both the economy and psychology fields over the last few years. This has given rise to many important findings about the role of psychological factors that influence people's choices. The presented studies focused on the role of motivational systems (described by Higgins in the Regulatory Focus Theory) in explaining people's financial choices. The main goal was to examine the relationship between people's chronic promotion and prevention motivational system and their propensity to (1) invest, (2) undertake investment risks, and (3) assume financial risks in gambling tasks in both the gain and loss decision-making frame. Moreover, we aimed to investigate how chronic motivational systems confronted with situationally induced promotion and prevention motivation would affect people's propensity to invest and embrace financial risks. Two CAWI studies on a Polish national representative sample (N1 = 1093; N2 = 1096) were conducted. The second study consisted of two waves with a 2-week break. The studies provided evidence of higher chronic promotion motivation as well as higher prevention motivation associated with the propensity to invest; however, induced promotion motivation results in a lower propensity to invest compared to induced prevention motivation. Participants with an activated promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with an induced prevention system. Moreover, participants with a low chronic promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with a high promotion motivation system as long as their prevention system was also low. In terms of gambling decisions in both the gain and loss frame, a higher level of chronic promotion motivation and situationally induced promotion motivation were related to the preference for the non-sure option over the sure one. PMID:27630611

  17. How people’s motivational system and situational motivation influence their risky financial choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sekścińska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available People’s preferences for risks have been a subject of interest to researchers in both the economy and psychology fields over the last few years. This has given rise to many important findings about the role of psychological factors that influence people’s choices. The presented studies focused on the role of motivational systems (described by Higgins in the Regulatory Focus Theory in explaining people’s financial choices. The main goal was to examine the relationship between people’s chronic promotion and prevention motivational system and their propensity to (1 invest, (2 undertake investment risks, and (3 assume financial risks in gambling tasks in both the gain and loss decision-making frame. Moreover, we aimed to investigate how chronic motivational systems confronted with situationally induced promotion and prevention motivation would affect people’s propensity to invest and embrace financial risks. Two CAWI studies on a Polish national representative sample (N1 = 1093; N2 = 1096 were conducted. The second study consisted of two waves with a two-week break.The studies provided evidence of higher chronic promotion motivation as well as higher prevention motivation associated with the propensity to invest; however, induced promotion motivation results in a lower propensity to invest compared to induced prevention motivation. Participants with an activated promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with an induced prevention system. Moreover, participants with a low chronic promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with a high promotion motivation system as long as their prevention system was also low. In terms of gambling decisions in both the gain and loss frame, a higher level of chronic promotion motivation and situationally induced promotion motivation were related to the preference for the non-sure option over the sure one.

  18. Motivation for Enrolment and Influence of Postgraduate Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivation for Enrolment and Influence of Postgraduate Study Programme on Career Satisfaction among Agriculture Students in Southwestern Nigeria. ... and the need to meet requirements for choice career/job (mean=3.09) ranked as the major factors influencing enrolment for postgraduate programme among respondents ...

  19. Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, H.E.M. den; Swart, J.C.; Schmidt, K.; Fekkes, D.; Geurts, D.E.M.; Cools, R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The neurotransmitter serotonin has long been implicated in the motivational control of behaviour. Recent theories propose that the role of serotonin can be understood in terms of an interaction between a motivational and a behavioural activation axis. Experimental support for these ideas,

  20. Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, H.E.M. den; Swart, J.C.; Schmidt, K.; Fekkes, D.; Geurts, D.E.M.; Cools, R.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: The neurotransmitter serotonin has long been implicated in the motivational control of behaviour. Recent theories propose that the role of serotonin can be understood in terms of an interaction between a motivational and a behavioural activation axis. Experimental support for these ideas,

  1. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114

  2. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-15

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  3. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Dimmock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  4. Positive emotion, reward, and cognitive control: emotional versus motivational influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Sarah Chiew

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective influences can contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behaviour. However, much work is still needed to properly characterize these influences and the mechanisms by which they contribute to cognitive processing. An important question concerns the nature of emotional manipulations (i.e., direct induction of affectively-valenced subjective experience versus motivational manipulations (e.g., delivery of performance-contingent rewards and punishments and their impact on cognitive control. Empirical evidence suggests that both kinds of manipulations can influence cognitive control in a systematic fashion, but investigations of both have largely been conducted independently of one another. Likewise, some theoretical accounts suggest that emotion and motivation may modulate cognitive control via common neural mechanisms, while others suggest the possibility of dissociable influences. Here, we provide an analysis and synthesis of these various accounts, suggesting potentially fruitful new research directions to test competing hypotheses.

  5. Attitudinal and motivational factors influencing job performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the attitudinal and motivational factors influencing job performance of female extension agents in Edo State, Nigeria. A random sample of 35 female extension agents was selected for the study. Findings reveal that the majority of the respondents (57.1%) were in the age group of 31 – 40 years and ...

  6. Influencing Academic Motivation: The Effects of Student-Faculty Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolian, Teniell L.; Jach, Elizabeth A.; Hanson, Jana M.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, we examined the influence of student-faculty interactions on student academic motivation over 4 years of college. Results suggest that several forms of student-faculty interaction, such as quality of faculty contact, frequency of faculty contact, research with faculty, personal…

  7. Motivation as factor influencing productivity and job satisfaction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated the influence of motiv ation on productivity of staff on the basis of job satisfaction, participation in office decision s and attitude of supervisor to staff personal problems. Survey method was used to c arry out the research and total enumerative techniques in addition to interview were employed in ...

  8. Influence of motivation, library materials and location on use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of motivation, availability and adequacy of library materials as well as location of library on the use of library by undergraduates in University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The convenience sampling technique was adopted to select only 150 undergraduates while the questionnaire was used as the ...

  9. motivational strategies and possible influence on secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDUAK

    This study investigated the influence of motivational strategies on teachers' teaching performance in public secondary schools in Uyo – Urban, Akwa Ibom State. One hypothesis was formed to guide the study and Expo Facto design was adopted for the study. A sample of three hundred and sixty (360) teachers were ...

  10. The influence of extrinsic motivation on competition-based selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sänger, Jessica; Wascher, Edmund

    2011-10-10

    The biased competition approach to visuo-spatial attention proposes that the selection of competing information is effected by the saliency of the stimulus as well as by an intention-based bias of attention towards behavioural goals. Wascher and Beste (2010) [32] showed that the detection of relevant information depends on its relative saliency compared to irrelevant conflicting stimuli. Furthermore the N1pc, N2pc and N2 of the EEG varied with the strength of the conflict. However, this system could also be modulated by rather global mechanisms like attentional effort. The present study investigates such modulations by testing the influence of extrinsic motivation on the selection of competing stimuli. Participants had to detect a luminance change in various conditions among others against an irrelevant orientation change. Half of the participants were motivated to maximize their performance by the announcement of a monetary reward for correct responses. Participants who were motivated had lower error rates than participants who were not motivated. The event-related lateralizations of the EEG showed no motivation-related effect on the N1pc, which reflects the initial saliency driven orientation of attention towards the more salient stimulus. The subsequent N2pc was enhanced in the motivation condition. Extrinsic motivation was also accompanied by enhanced fronto-central negativities. Thus, the data provide evidence that the improvement of selection performance when participants were extrinsically motivated by announcing a reward was not due to changes in the initial saliency based processing of information but was foremost mediated by improved higher-level mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Personality and Motivation on Oral Presentation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hsin-Yi; Kelsen, Brent

    2018-01-19

    Personality and motivation have been identified as influential variables associated with foreign language learning; however, few studies have investigated their effect on oral presentations. This study addresses the importance of both personality and motivation in students' collaborative oral presentation performance. A Big Five personality trait questionnaire measuring Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism and Openness to Experience, together with the Collaborative Inquiry-based Project Questionnaire measuring Task, Project Work, Reinforcement, Social Learning and Social Pressure motivational constructs were employed to evaluate 257 university students. In general, the results showed that Extraversion, Project Work and Social Pressure were significant correlates of oral presentation scores. The first result suggests that extraverts possess superiority in situations where oral language production is central to communication. This was particularly true for lower-level students, inferring that extraverted personalities can compensate for a lower English language ability. The second indicates that the inquiry-based nature of the assignments was an intrinsic motivator especially valued by extraverts. The third implies that extrinsic motivation was a factor influencing student performance. These findings extend previous research by highlighting the contextual relationships between these affective variables and performance in collaborative oral presentation contexts.

  12. Some Characteristics that Influence Motivation for Learning in Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Merkac Skok

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to discover the motives for lifelong learning, for studying part time, possibilities for personal and career development and the level of learning support within organisations, where randomly selected students are already employed. We were interested in motivation for learning on behalf of the individual and its potential links with the organisation.In this research we tried to establish which factors have the most influence on individual’s personal development and career planning; whether organisation promotes career development; whether organisations promote learning and which support mechanisms are available. Employees’ motive for learning, education and training – even after they become employed – is linked with the possibility to receive a promotion. The research was conducted among large group of part time students, already holding a job. Over 150 respondents filled out questionnaire and results were statistically treated. The results of this research show, similar to other recent findings, that knowledge and work experience have the most influence on the possibility for development and for a career. Clear personal and organisational objectives are also crucial. And the importance of knowledge sharing with the help of peers, coaches or mentors is significant.

  13. Negative affect varying in motivational intensity influences scope of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threadgill, A Hunter; Gable, Philip A

    2018-04-06

    Emotions influence cognitive processes involved in memory. While some research has suggested that cognitive scope is determined by affective valence, recent models of emotion-cognition interactions suggest that motivational intensity, rather than valence, influences these processes. The present research was designed to clarify how negative affects differing in motivational intensity impact memory for centrally or peripherally presented information. Experiments 1 & 2 found that, relative to a neutral condition, high intensity negative affect (anger) enhances memory for centrally presented information. Experiment 3 replicated this effect using another high intensity negative affect (threat). Experiment 4 extended this by finding that, relative to a neutral condition, low intensity negative affect (sadness) enhanced memory for peripherally presented information. Finally, in Experiment 5, the effects of sadness and threat on scope of memory were directly compared, finding that threat narrowed scope of memory, while sadness broadened scope of memory. Together, these results provide additional support for the motivational dimensional model of cognitive scope, in that high intensity emotions narrow cognitive scope, while low intensity emotions broaden cognitive scope.

  14. Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of copper sulphate and lead nitrate against Oreochromis niloticus. KA Bawa-Allah, F Osuala, J Effiong. Abstract. This study investigated the salinity-tolerance of Oreochromis niloticus and the influence of salinity changes on the acute toxicities of copper sulphate ...

  15. Positive Teacher Influence Strategies to Improve Secondary Instrumental Students' Motivation and Perceptions of Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Olivia Gail

    2018-01-01

    Asmus's model of achievement motivation in music established a framework for the study of motivation in music education. Student perceptions of self were included in the model as a dynamic factor in student motivation to accomplish music learning tasks. Research has revealed further teacher influence on student motivation and perceptions of self…

  16. MOTIVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction What is the difference between instrumental and integrative motivation? What kind of motivations do students have? How can our knowledge of motivation help the language learning process? Motivation can be very important in language teaching. Students can do very well when they are motivated. Teachers, with their knowledge of motivation, can make their classes more efficient and successful. Middle school teachers, in addition to learning about the English language itself, and about teaching methods, should also learn more about motivation and how this affects our students. "When we consider language teaching, motivation can be classified as either integrative or instrumental motivation" (Luxon)

  17. Influence of Motivation on the Effectiveness of Work in a chosen Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Hrutkaiová, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is concerned with motivation of employees, describes factors, which can directly or indirectly influence workers and instigate them to efficient work. Theory engages with the definition of motivation term, and its importance, motivation progression and also describes concrete tools, which stimulate increase in employee's motivation. The practical part evaluates system of motivation and its effect in chosen company and also decides whether chosen methods succeeded.

  18. Factors influencing the academic motivation of individual college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Mizuno, Kei; Ishii, Akira; Nozaki, Kumi; Urakawa, Ayako; Cho, Yuki; Kataoka, Yosky; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2008-10-01

    Motivation is an important psychological concept in academic learning. Subjects performed jigsaw puzzle and square puzzle sessions (as difficulty variant task) and 80%, 50%, and 20% completion sessions (as completion variant task). After square puzzle or 20% completion sessions, subjective motivation decreased. Although baseline scores on an academic motivation scale were negatively correlated with changes in subjective motivation for the square puzzle session, a positive correlation was observed for the 20% completion session. These suggest that while continual completion of facile task trials may support the motivation of college students with lower academic motivation, attempting difficult task trials may sustain that of those with higher academic motivation.

  19. How motivation influences breastfeeding duration among low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Frick, Kevin D; Strobino, Donna; Carpenter, Laura M; Milligan, Renee; Pugh, Linda C

    2009-05-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 low-income breastfeeding women to explore the incentives and disincentives to breastfeeding experienced within 6 months postpartum. Using an individual net benefit maximization (INBM) framework based on economic theory, we assessed women's motivations, incentives, and disincentives for breastfeeding. Based on the framework and their experience breastfeeding, women fell into 3 groups: intrinsically motivated, extrinsically motivated, and successfully experienced with both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Successfully experienced women were most likely to breastfeed to 6 months. Intrinsically motivated women valued breastfeeding but often required information and instruction to reach breastfeeding goals. Extrinsically motivated women were least likely to continue breastfeeding even with support and instruction. Providers can screen women to determine their experience and motivation then tailor interventions accordingly. Intrinsically motivated women may need support and instruction, extrinsically motivated women may benefit from motivational interviewing, and successfully experienced women may need only minimal breastfeeding counseling.

  20. The Moderating Influence of Situational Motivation on the Relationship Between Preferred Exercise and Positive Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite convincing evidence supporting the association between exercise and positive affect, this complex relationship requires further theoretical and person-centered explanation. The nature of one’s motivation for exercise, as postulated by Self-Determination Theory (SDT, may supply a missing and understudied link. The primary aim of this experimental study was to examine the moderating influence of situational motivation from SDT on the relationship between an acute bout of preferred exercise, namely running (vs. control, and changes in positive affect. Forty-one active women attended two sessions to engage in (a a 30-min moderate-intensity self-paced treadmill run and (b a 30-min quiet activity (i.e., newspaper reading. Participants with high introjection versus those with low introjection reported a greater increase in positive affect from pre- to postrunning and a greater decrease in positive affect from pre- to postcontrol. A “relief from guilt” effect was postulated to explain these results. Motivational variables accounted for 7% of variance in postrun positive affect. Consistent with SDT, running because one values this behavior and its benefits (i.e., identified regulation was significantly associated with postrun positive affect.

  1. The influence of attention, learning, and motivation on visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Michael D; Flowers, John H

    2012-01-01

    The 59th Annual Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (The Influence of Attention, Learning, and Motivation on Visual Search) took place April 7-8, 2011, on the University of Nebraska-Lincoln campus. The symposium brought together leading scholars who conduct research related to visual search at a variety levels for a series of talks, poster presentations, panel discussions, and numerous additional opportunities for intellectual exchange. The Symposium was also streamed online for the first time in the history of the event, allowing individuals from around the world to view the presentations and submit questions. The present volume is intended to both commemorate the event itself and to allow our speakers additional opportunity to address issues and current research that have since arisen. Each of the speakers (and, in some cases, their graduate students and post docs) has provided a chapter which both summarizes and expands on their original presentations. In this chapter, we sought to a) provide additional context as to how the Symposium came to be, b) discuss why we thought that this was an ideal time to organize a visual search symposium, and c) to briefly address recent trends and potential future directions in the field. We hope you find the volume both enjoyable and informative, and we thank the authors who have contributed a series of engaging chapters.

  2. Acute alcohol effects on explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol in socially drinking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Elisabeth; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Wiers, Corinde E; Sommer, Christian; Garbusow, Maria; Bernhardt, Nadine; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Smolka, Michael N; Zimmermann, Ulrich S

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol-related cues can evoke explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol. Concerning the links between explicit and implicit motivation, there are mixed findings. Therefore, we investigated both concepts in 51 healthy 18- to 19-year-old males, who are less affected by neuropsychological deficits in decision-making that are attributed to previous alcohol exposure than older participants. In a randomized crossover design, adolescents were infused with either alcohol or placebo. Self-ratings of alcohol desire, thirst, well-being and alcohol effects comprised our explicit measures of motivation. To measure implicit motivation, we used money and drink stimuli in a Pavlovian conditioning (Pc) task and an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). Alcohol administration increased explicit motivation to drink alcohol, reduced Pc choices of alcoholic drink-conditioned stimuli, but had no effect on the AAT. This combination of results might be explained by differences between goal-directed and habitual behavior or a temporary reduction in rewarding outcome expectancies. Further, there was no association between our measures of motivation to drink alcohol, indicating that both self-reported motivation to drink and implicit approach tendencies may independently contribute to adolescents' actual alcohol intake. Correlations between Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores and our measures of motivation to drink alcohol suggest that interventions should target high-risk adolescents after alcohol intake. Clinical trials: Project 4: Acute Effects of Alcohol on Learning and Habitization in Healthy Young Adults (LeAD_P4); NCT01858818; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01858818.

  3. Motivations influencing the specialty choices of medical school graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zarghami M

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growing national concern about distortions in the size, specially composition, and availability of the physician workforce -especially after "cultural revolution n- has evoked challenges in Iran. Purpose: To determine various factors that influence medical graduates choices for residency program. Methods: All applicants for residency program in Mazandaran university of Medical Sciences and Health Services completed the Medical School Graduation Questionnaire, and rated each factor using 0 to 4 Likert-type scale. Factors' ratings were also compared across applicants of different residency program, and demographic variables. Results: The top two factors rated as having strong influences were ones related to interest in helping peop1e (rated 3.07, and intellectual content of the specially (rated 3. Malpractice insurance cost has the least influence (rated 0.98. Most of men preferred independence, whereas most of women preferred predictable working hours. Opportunity to make differences in people's l(fe influenced the specially choices of usual participants. whereas those who used war veterans quota paid more attention to independence and exercise of social responsibility. Patient contact factors were less important to graduates who chose diagnostic speciafties. Also, there was a significant association between the participants' age and four factors. Conclusion: These graduates based their specially preference heavily on the opportunity that the specially affords to help people, and intellectual content of the specially. Knowing the hierarchy of influences on graduates' motivations should help education strategists determine what experiences and perceptions must change if a different mix of specially decision is to result. Keywords: SPECIAL TY, MEDICAL SCHOOL, SARI, MAZANDARAN

  4. Investigation into Motivation Types and Influences on Motivation: The Case of Chinese Non-English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is one of the most important factors affecting students' performance of English learning, which is widely concerned by foreign language teachers and researchers for a long time. However, how to promote students' motivation in learning English by knowing their English learning motivation types at the initial stages and the factors that…

  5. Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill children presenting in ... height/length) measurements and z-scores calculated for the individual nutritional ... The factors associated with malnutrition included early introduction of ...

  6. A validity generalization procedure to test relations between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and influence tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuto, John E; Moss, Jennifer A

    2006-08-01

    The relations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with use of consultative, legitimating, and pressure influence tactics were examined using validity generalization procedures. 5 to 7 field studies with cumulative samples exceeding 800 were used to test each relationship. Significance was found for relation between agents' intrinsic motivation and their use of consultative influence tactics and agents' extrinsic motivation and their use of legitimating influence tactics.

  7. On Motivation and Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea UDRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Economic motivations were a big influence on consumer behavior motivation. In this context, it is considered that the general motives which give motivation to purchase content can be structured into rational and emotional motives, the motives innate and acquired motives, all gaining an individual or group event. The study of consumer behavior, with general motivations, attention increasingly larger granted special incentives, consisting of assertiveness feeling (emerging desire for a product)...

  8. Atmospheric pressure does not influence acute diverticular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Velayos Jiménez, Benito; Pons Renedo, Fernando; Feranández Salazar, Luis; Muñoz, María Fe; Olmo, Lourdes del; Almaraz Gómez, Ana; Beltrán de Heredia, Juan; Hernández González, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Producción Científica The article offers information on a study which examines the influence of atmospheric pressure on the development of acute diverticular disease. The value of atmospheric pressure and its daily trends in 2012 was collected to prove whether atmospheric pressure influence this disease by raising intra-diverticular pressure in days with higher atmospheric pressure. The study involved patients with acute diverticulitis who underwent computed tomography.

  9. The significance of motivation in periodontal treatment: the influence of adult patients' motivation on the clinical periodontal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruba, Z; Pac, A; Olszewska-Czyż, I; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, M

    2014-09-01

    Motivation plays an important role in the treatment process of chronic diseases, as treatment requires behavioural change and lifelong adherence to medical recommendations. Periodontitis is a good example of such health condition as to maintain good periodontal health patients have to adhere to a strict oral hygiene regimen. To examine whether the motivation of patients suffering from chronic periodontitis influences their clinical periodontal condition. Cross sectional study. Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Dental University Clinic, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland. 199 adult periodontal patients, aged 20-78 years. Questionnaire concerning patients' medical and dental history, modified Zychlińscy motivation assessment questionnaire, clinical periodontal examination. The extent of motivation. Periodontal status evaluated with the use of periodontal indices (API, BOP, CPITN). The mean motivation score was 57.4. The mean API and BOP values were 55.7% and 46.4%, respectively. For most of the patients the recorded CPITN value was 3. Correlations were observed between motivation and both API and BOP, and between API and BOP. Periodontal patients with greater motivation having better oral health (lower API and BOP) suggests an influence on the quality of their self-management of the disease (i.e. adherence to their oral hygiene regimen).

  10. Motivators that Do Not Motivate: The Case of Chinese EFL Learners and the Influence of Culture on Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Judy F.; Warden, Clyde A.; Chang, Huo-Tsan

    2005-01-01

    Language learning motivation plays an important role in both research and teaching, yet language learners are still largely understood in terms of North American and European cultural values. This research explored language learning motivation constructs in a Chinese cultural setting, where large numbers of students are required to study English.…

  11. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in early adolescents' friendship development: friendship selection, influence, and prospective friendship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Hawley, Patricia H; Little, Todd D

    2010-12-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and extrinsic friendship motivation on friendship selection and social influence by utilizing social network modeling. In addition, longitudinal relations among motivation and friendship quality were estimated with structural equation modeling. Extrinsic motivation predicted activity in making friendship nominations during the sixth grade and lower friendship quality across time. Intrinsic motivation predicted inactivity in making friendship nominations during the sixth, popularity as a friend across the transition to middle school, and higher friendship quality across time. Social influence effects were observed for both motives, but were more pronounced for intrinsic motivation. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  13. Vertical Relationships on the Workplace and their Influence on Employee's Work Motivation: Sociology Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Krösslová, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Subject of this bachelor's thesis is "Vertical relationships at the workplace and theirs influence on employee's work motivation". In the theoretical part, I defined key words, such as: Motivation, vertical and horizontal relationships, work sociology etc. I also stated concepts, related to work sociology and motivation. Practical part deals with the qualitative research (case study), which relates to vertical relationships on workplace as one of the key points of work motivation. That resear...

  14. INFLUENCE MOTIVATION, ABILITY, AND DISCIPLINE ON PERFORMACE EMPLOYEE DEPARTMENT SALES DAN MARKETING PT PIONIRBETON INDUSTRY JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okiy Hartato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research are to: 1 Test empirically influence of working motivation on performance employee, 2 Test empirically influence of working ability on performance employee, 3 Test empirically influence of working discipline on performance employee, 4 Test empirically influence of working motivation, ability, discipline on performance employee. This study used multiple regression analysis. The research was conducted in Sales and Marketing Department of PT Pionirbeton Industry with population of 43 workers, while the data collecting technique used questionnaire and SPSS version 20.0 for data processing. The result show a significant influence of working motivation on performance employee, working ability on performance employee, working discipline on performance employee. Working motivation, working ability, and working discipline on performance employee, The study found that a of the performance employee as dependent variable is influenced by motivation, ability, and discipline.

  15. Is All Motivation Good for Learning? Dissociable Influences of Approach and Avoidance Motivation in Declarative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed…

  16. Motivation in Business Survey Response Behavior : Influencing motivation to improve survey outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres van Grinsven, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355608510

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation we show theoretical and empirical insights into the concept of motivation in the context of the business and organizational survey task. The research has led to a number of recommendations on how to improve organizational survey and communication design to enhance motivation and

  17. Tutors' Influence on Distance Language Students' Learning Motivation: Voices from Learners and Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junhong

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' influence on students' learning motivation is a well-researched topic. Nevertheless, the majority of such studies are situated in the conventional learning context despite the rapid growth of distance language learning. This study set out to investigate tutors' influence on students' learning motivation in the Chinese distance language…

  18. Ecological momentary assessment of acute alcohol use disorder symptoms: associations with mood, motives, and use on planned drinking days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Pearson, Matthew R; Day, Anne M

    2014-08-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one's mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes within subjects. The current study used EMA with 74 moderate drinkers who responded to fixed and random mood, motive, alcohol use, and AUD criteria prompts over a 21-day assessment period. A temporal pattern of daytime mood, evening drinking motivation, and nighttime alcohol use and acute AUD symptoms on planned drinking days was modeled to examine how these associations unfold throughout the day. The results suggest considerable heterogeneity in drinking motivation across drinking days. Additionally, an affect regulation model of drinking to cope with negative mood was observed. Specifically, on planned drinking days, the temporal association between daytime negative mood and the experience of acute AUD symptoms was mediated via coping motives and alcohol use. The current study found that motives are dynamic, and that changes in motives may predict differential drinking patterns across days. Further, the study provides evidence that emotion-regulation-driven alcohol involvement may need to be examined at the event level to fully capture the ebb and flow of negative affect motivated drinking.

  19. How Motivation Influences Student Engagement: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sitwat; Zyngier, David

    2012-01-01

    The authors use Ryan and Deci's (2000) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to better understand how student motivation and engagement are linked combined with Schlechty's Student Engagement Continuum to analyse the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on students' different engagement types. The study seeks to understand which type of…

  20. Animal Cruelty Motivations: Assessing Demographic and Situational Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have examined childhood and adolescent animal cruelty motives. Using a sample of 261 inmates surveyed at both medium and maximum security prisons in a southern state, the present study examined the impact of demographic attributes and situational factors relating specifically to a range of animal cruelty motivations. Almost half of the…

  1. Teacher Professionalization: Motivational Factors and the Influence of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Susan A.; Eom, Minhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines motivational factors of teachers who have achieved a national standard of professionalization. Data were collected from National Board certified teachers in the United States (N = 453) using a two-part, web-based survey. Exploratory factor analysis found five motivators: improved teaching, financial gain, collaborative…

  2. Motivation and expectancy influences in placebo responding: the mediating role of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Carrie; Svanum, Soren

    2014-12-01

    Drawing upon research in perception and motivation, the current study proposes a motivation-attention model of placebo in which more motivated persons pay greater attention to placebo-related stimuli, directly influencing placebo response. We manipulated both motivation to respond to placebo and expectations of placebo response in a 2 × 2 design. Participants (N = 152) evaluated a series of placebo pheromones (slightly scented water) of potential romantic dates and made desirability ratings. Consistent with hypotheses, more highly motivated participants demonstrated greater placebo responses, as evidenced by higher desirability ratings of the "pheromone" and greater variability among ratings, when compared to less motivated participants. Moreover, the relation between motivation and placebo response was mediated by attention. Contrary to expectations, we found no effect for expectancy. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and the mediating factor of attention in placebo and support goal-oriented models of placebo. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Influence of involvement and motivation to correction on product evaluation: Asymmetry for strong and weak brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Styśko-Kunkowska Małgorzata A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous research, studies on motivated correction in the evaluation of branded products are rare. This experimental study with 246 participants examined how the motivation to correct the impact of brand knowledge influences the product evaluation of actual strong and weak brands in low and high involvement situations. As predicted, asymmetry between the strong and weak brands was observed. After the induction of the motivation to correction, the smaller brand effect occurred only in the cases of low involvement and the weak (negative brand. The effect of motivated correction was smaller than the effect of high involvement; therefore, the overall results suggest that conscious explicit motivation to correction evokes correction only in cases of weak brands under certain circumstances. However, this impact is not as strong as the influence of high motivation or a strong brand, even though explicit instructions are given to avoid the negative influence of the brand.

  4. Acute Stress Influences Neural Circuits of Reward Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony John Porcelli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available People often make decisions under aversive conditions such as acute stress. Yet, less is known about the process in which acute stress can influence decision-making. A growing body of research has established that reward-related information associated with the outcomes of decisions exerts a powerful influence over the choices people make and that an extensive network of brain regions, prominently featuring the striatum, is involved in the processing of this reward-related information. Thus, an important step in research on the nature of acute stress’ influence over decision-making is to examine how it may modulate responses to rewards and punishments within reward-processing neural circuitry. In the current experiment, we employed a simple reward processing paradigm – where participants received monetary rewards and punishments – known to evoke robust striatal responses. Immediately prior to performing each of two task runs, participants were exposed to acute stress (i.e., cold pressor or a no stress control procedure in a between-subjects fashion. No stress group participants exhibited a pattern of activity within the dorsal striatum and orbitofrontal cortex consistent with past research on outcome processing – specifically, differential responses for monetary rewards over punishments. In contrast, acute stress group participants’ dorsal striatum and orbitofrontal cortex demonstrated decreased sensitivity to monetary outcomes and a lack of differential activity. These findings provide insight into how neural circuits may process rewards and punishments associated with simple decisions under acutely stressful conditions.

  5. The Influence of Skill Process of Science and Motivation to Students Learn of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Budi Bhakti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the influence process of science skill and motivation learning with creativity learn. Data about the process of scince skill, motivation and creativity learn collected by test questioner instrument. Data analysis with regression analysis and correlation . Research shows that: There is the influence of skill process of science to the process of creativity learn with correlation coefficient r = 0.634 , there is the influence of motivation learn students to creativity learning with correlation coefficient r = 0.55, the process of science skills and motivation to study for students influence of creativity learn with correlation coefficient r = 0.935. This study concluded that skill process of science and the motivation to study student could creative learning.

  6. Indonesian Tourists’ Preferences Influence of Conscious and Unconscious Motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismayanti Ismayanti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is the foremost variable to explain the travel preferences. It is identified that there are two motives of travelling: inner intention as the unconscious motives and outer magnet as the conscious motives. Inner intentions derive from tourists’ mindset and push the actor to perform. Outer magnet is created by destination (tourism supplier, operators, hotelier etc. to pull the customers. From 331 respondents in Jakarta (capital city and Bandung as tourist generating regions in Indonesia showed that there are partial element of inner intention that encourage Indonesian to travel: religiousness and leisure time, and there are collective element of outer magnet that fascinate Indonesian tourist: cultural attraction and activities, outrange between domicile region and destination, and sophisticated amenities.

  7. Motivational variables that influence fan attendance in domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A convenience sample of 180 fans was surveyed from a Gauteng based team. A factor analytical approach revealed seven dimensions of fan motivation, namely, ... marketing communication strategies in various aspects of fan attendance.

  8. The Influence of Motivation on Employees' Performance: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    motivation on employees' performance of selected manufacturing firms in Anambra State ..... Research Design: The survey research design method was used in this study. ... manager, the accountant, and the production manager). The sample.

  9. Acute Exercise Improves Mood and Motivation in Young Men with ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Kathryn M; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about whether acute exercise affects signs or symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. This experiment sought to determine the effects of a single bout of moderate-intensity leg cycling exercise on measures of attention, hyperactivity, mood, and motivation to complete mental work in adult men reporting elevated ADHD symptoms. A repeated-measures crossover experiment was conducted with 32 adult men (18-33 yr) with symptoms consistent with adult ADHD assessed by the Adult Self-Report Scale V1.1. Measures of attention (continuous performance task and Bakan vigilance task), motivation to perform the mental work (visual analog scale), lower leg physical activity (accelerometry), and mood (Profile of Mood States and Addiction Research Center Inventory amphetamine scale) were measured before and twice after a 20-min seated rest control or exercise condition involving cycling at 65% V˙O2peak. Condition (exercise vs rest) × time (baseline, post 1, and post 2) ANOVA was used to test the hypothesized exercise-induced improvements in all outcomes. Statistically significant condition-time interactions were observed for vigor (P motivation (P = 0.027), and Profile of Mood States depression (P = 0.027), fatigue (P = 0.030), and confusion (P = 0.046) scales. No significant interaction effects were observed for leg hyperactivity, simple reaction time, or vigilance task performance (accuracy, errors, or reaction time). In young men reporting elevated symptoms of ADHD, a 20-min bout of moderate-intensity cycle exercise transiently enhances motivation for cognitive tasks, increases feelings of energy, and reduces feelings of confusion, fatigue, and depression, but this has no effect on the behavioral measures of attention or hyperactivity used.

  10. Beyond self-esteem: influence of multiple motives on identity construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoles, Vivian L; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Golledge, Jen; Scabini, Eugenia

    2006-02-01

    Diverse theories suggest that people are motivated to maintain or enhance feelings of self-esteem, continuity, distinctiveness, belonging, efficacy, and meaning in their identities. Four studies tested the influence of these motives on identity construction, by using a multilevel regression design. Participants perceived as more central those identity elements that provided a greater sense of self-esteem, continuity, distinctiveness, and meaning; this was found for individual, relational, and group levels of identity, among various populations, and by using a prospective design. Motives for belonging and efficacy influenced identity definition indirectly through their direct influences on identity enactment and through their contributions to self-esteem. Participants were happiest about those identity elements that best satisfied motives for self-esteem and efficacy. These findings point to the need for an integrated theory of identity motivation. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. It's the Motivation Stupid! : The Influence of Motivation of Secondary Currency Initiators on the Currencies' Success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Fesenfeld (Lukas); J. Stuckatz (Jan); I. Summerson (Iona); T. Kiesgen (Thomas); D. Russ (Daniela); M. Klimaschewski (Maja)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper attempts to explain the success of secondary currencies. Success is defined as the degree to which the initiators of these currencies manage to reach their original goals. In order to do so, we draw on two explanatory factors: the motivation of a currency’s founder and the

  12. Outdoor experiential-based training: motivational and environmental influences affecting outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa (Birdie) High; Alan R. Graefe

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to go beyond the examination of the single construct of team building by measuring the impact of motivational and environmental factors on the effectiveness of an outdoor-based training (OBT) intervention. The study assessed the self-perceptions of trainee attitudes and attributes that influenced the constructs of motivation to learn,...

  13. The Influence of Motivational Regulation Strategies on Online Students' Behavioral, Emotional, and Cognitive Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghoon; Yun, Heoncheol

    2018-01-01

    Providing effective motivational support is a critical determinant of a successful online distance learning experience for students in higher education. In this study, we examined how students' academic level and use of 8 motivational regulation strategies influence 3 types of student engagement: behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, and…

  14. Motivation in the workplace and its influence on the effectiveness of work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Avbar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question(RQ:How can we motivate efficiency of the work, which is managed by the individual or the group? Different ways of motivating an individual in an organization? Purpose: The purpose of the research is to determine positive ways of motivation which would allow individuals in different organizations how to improve the efficiency of the work they perform. The aim of the research is the actual use of motivational tools in practice. Method: The article is transparent and theoretical. It is based primarily on an analysis of available domestic and foreign literature and Internet sources on the issues addressed. Results: In this study, it was found that the motivation and efficiency is directly related. Factors are also interdependent, which means that in the case of lack of motivation of employees in an organization there is significant reduced of efficiency. Motivational motives may be monetary (financial rewards and non-monetary (progression in nature. Society: The survey can point to the importance of motivation in the workplace. Originality: Originality of research is reflected in the examination of the importance of motivation in the workplace and their influence on these positive results and performance at work. Limitations/Future Research: A further education of managers and leaders in organizations, to realize that with the help of motivated collective we can achieve better excellence and results.

  15. Pharmaceutical Sponsorship Bias Influences Thrombolytic Literature in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Radecki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke remains controversial in Emergency Medicine and has not been fully endorsed by either the American College of Emergency Physicians or the American Academy of emergency medicine. A growing recognition exists of the influence of pharmaceutical sponsorship on the reported findings of published clinical trials. Sponsorship bias has been suggested as a potential criticism of the literature and guidelines favoring thrombolytic therapy. Objective: The objective of this study is to review the most influential literature regarding thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke and document the presence or absence of pharmaceutical sponsorship. Methods: A publication-citation analysis was performed to identify the most frequently cited articles pertaining to thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Identified articles were reviewed for disclosures of pharmaceutical funding. Results: Of the 20 most-cited articles pertaining to thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke, 17 (85% disclosed pharmaceutical sponsorship. These disclosures range from general sponsorship to direct employment of authors by pharmaceutical companies. Conclusion: An overwhelming predominance of the most influential literature regarding thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke is susceptible to sponsorship bias. This potential bias may provide a basis for physician concern regarding the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy. Further, large, independent, placebo-controlled studies may be required to guide therapy and professional guidelines definitively for acute ischemic stroke. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:435–441.

  16. attitudinal and motivational factors influencing job performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    Key words: Attitude, motivation, female extension agents, job performance. ... profession as factors limiting their job performance include lack of incentives, irregular ... Organization (FAO) survey reports that 95% of agricultural extension services ... Several studies also report the problems with male extension services as ...

  17. Control and Effort Costs Influence the Motivational Consequences of Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Sullivan-Toole

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The act of making a choice, apart from any outcomes the choice may yield, has, paradoxically, been linked to both the enhancement and the detriment of intrinsic motivation. Research has implicated two factors in potentially mediating these contradictory effects: the personal control conferred by a choice and the costs associated with a choice. Across four experiments, utilizing a physical effort task disguised as a simple video game, we systematically varied costs across two levels of physical effort requirements (Low-Requirement, High-Requirement and control over effort costs across three levels of choice (Free-Choice, Restricted-Choice, and No-Choice to disambiguate how these factors affect the motivational consequences of choosing within an effortful task. Together, our results indicated that, in the face of effort requirements, illusory control alone may not sufficiently enhance perceptions of personal control to boost intrinsic motivation; rather, the experience of actual control may be necessary to overcome effort costs and elevate performance. Additionally, we demonstrated that conditions of illusory control, while otherwise unmotivating, can through association with the experience of free-choice, be transformed to have a positive effect on motivation.

  18. Influence of motivation and job satisfaction on the performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated two forms of relationships i.e relationship between motivation and performance as well as relationship between job satisfaction and job performance in university libraries in North central geo-political zone of Nigeria. Null hypotheses were formulated thus “there is no significant relationship between ...

  19. Learning to Program with Personal Robots: Influences on Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of using robots in introductory programming courses is to increase motivation among learners. There have been several types of robots that have been used extensively in the classroom to teach a variety of computer science concepts. A more recently introduced robot designed to teach programming to novice students is the Institute…

  20. MOTIVES INFLUENCING NEEDS TO ACHIEVE IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HELTZEL, FRANCES B.

    THIS RESEARCH SOUGHT TO MEASURE M TIVATION UNDERLYING ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED BEHAVIOR AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL, SPECIFICALLY OF STUDENTS IN VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS. PARALLEL INSTRUMENTS OF 42 ITEMS WERE CONSTRUCTED TO MEASURE MOTIVE FOR STRIVING, BASED ON MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEED FOR SECURITY, BELONGINGNESS, ESTEEM, AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION. STRENGTH OF…

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL ON STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION THROUGHOUT THEIR LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ALBU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Approaching students’ motivation by only focusing on the internal (intrinsic motivation and external (extrinsic motivation has already become a cliché. This approach, while being important and necessary, and thus worthy of the focus education researchers and practitioners place on it, is not sufficient. The study shows that school can develop (and/or reinforce other types of motivation, such as preventive, promotive, and altruist motivation. The study underlines the fact that, while intrinsic and extrinsic motivation deal with how students relate to their own activity, the preventive, promotive, and altruist motivation deal with how students relate to their present and future life.INFLUENŢA ŞCOLII ASUPRA MOTIVAŢIEI ELEVULUI PENTRU ÎNTREAGA LUI VIAŢĂA devenit aproape un clişeu ca atunci când ne ocupăm de motivaţia elevului să avem în vedere doar diada motivaţie internă (intrinsecă-motivaţie externă (extrinsecă. Deşi importantă şi necesară şi, prin urmare, demnă de toată atenţia cercetătorilor şi practicienilor din educaţie, o asemenea înţelegere şi abordare nu sunt şi suficiente. Studiul arată că, în şcoală, putem dezvolta (şi/sau întări şi alte tipuri de motivaţii, precum motivaţia preventivă, motivaţia promotoare şi motivaţia altruistă. El evidenţiază faptul potrivit căruia, dacă motivaţia intrinsecă şi cea extrinsecă au, mai ales, în vedere raportarea elevului la propria sa activitate, motivaţia preventivă, promotoare şi altruistă au, mai ales, în vedere raportarea elevului la propria lui viaţă, prezentă şi viitoare.

  2. Personal and Contextual Influences on Township School Learners' Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduld, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Learners' self-regulation, which includes motivational variables, is influenced by personal variables within learners themselves, as well as by contextual factors. A great deal of research has focused on personal variables in learners that influence their self-regulated behaviours; yet contextual influences that operate outside of formal schooling…

  3. [Interpersonal motivation in a First Year Experience class influences freshmen's university adjustment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Rumiko; Nakanishi, Yoshifumi; Nagahama, Fumiyo; Nakajima, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined the influence of interpersonal motivation on university adjustment in freshman students enrolled in a First Year Experience (FYE) class. An interpersonal motivation scale and a university adjustment (interpersonal adjustment and academic adjustment) scale were administered twice to 116 FYE students; data from the 88 students who completed both surveys were analyzed. Results from structural equation modeling indicated a causal relationship between interpersonal, motivation and university adjustment: interpersonal adjustment served as a mediator between academic adjustment and interpersonal motivation, the latter of which was assessed using the internalized motivation subscale of the Interpersonal Motivation Scale as well as the Relative Autonomy Index, which measures the autonomy in students' interpersonal attitudes. Thus, revising the FYE class curriculum to include approaches to lowering students' feelings of obligation and/or anxiety in their interpersonal interactions might improve their adjustment to university.

  4. The psychological characteristics of experiences that influence science motivation and content knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Meghan; Schunn, Christian

    2017-11-01

    While motivational changes towards science are common during adolescence, our work asks which perceived classroom experiences are most strongly related to these changes. Additionally, we examine which experiences are most strongly associated with learning classroom content. In particular, using self-reports from a sample of approximately 3000 middle school students, this study investigates the influence of perceived science classroom experiences, namely student engagement and perceived success, on motivational change (fascination, values, competency belief) and content knowledge. Controlling for demographic information, school effects, and initial levels of motivation and content knowledge, we find that dimensions of engagement (affect, behavioural/cognitive) and perceived success are differentially associated with changes in particular motivational constructs and learning. Affective engagement is positively associated with motivational outcomes and negatively associated with learning outcomes, behavioural-cognitive engagement is associated only with learning, and perceived success is related only to motivational outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  5. Perceived parental influences on motivational profiles of secondary school athletes

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    M.Sc. This study investigated the correlations between the motivational profiles as defined by Achievement Goal Theory (AGT) and parental expectations and criticism of secondary school children in South Africa who participate in sport. A sample of 267 secondary school athletes completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) as well as the Parental Expectations (PE) and Parental Criticism (PC) subscales of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS). Results indicat...

  6. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors Influencing Employee Motivation: Lessons from AMREF Health Africa in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Morangi Nyambegera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the factors that influence employee motivation in Kenyan Organizations. The study was guided by the following research questions: (i what are the extrinsic factors that influence employee motivation in AMREF Health Africa in Kenya? (ii what intrinsic factors influence employee motivation in AMREF Health Africa in Kenya? A descriptive research design was adopted. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw a sample size of 96 respondents. The data collection instrument was a structured questionnaire developed by the researchers.  A set of descriptive and correlation statistics were adopted for analysis. The study identified several intrinsic factors that influence employee motivation. These included employee achievements, recognition, work itself, responsibility and advancement, salary structure, the level to which the employees feel appreciated, and the employee perception of their jobs among other factors. The study further, established that the intrinsic factors that influence employee motivation include empowerment and autonomy, employees’ view of their work, organization trust, skill variety requirements among others. The study recommends that the organization should acknowledge and make use of a proper mix of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in their human resource management practices to ensure that employees are well motivated to perform their tasks.

  7. Experience-based teaching of acute medicine for extra motivated medical students and young physicians – 4th Emergency Medicine Course and 6th AKUTNĚ.CZ Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Štourač

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Faculty of Medicine of the Masaryk University (MU, and especially its departments focusing on acute medicine, make an active effort to find and to support extra motivated students by organising courses and congresses with simulation-based learning sessions for them. 4th Emergency Medicine Course (EMC and 6th AKUTNĚ.CZ Congress were organised during 2014. EMC was held during a weekend in mid-April for 80 medical students. The congress was held on 22nd November 2014. A group of more than 700 enthusiastic professionals including physicians, nursing staff and medical students interested in acute medicine met again in Brno at the University Campus Bohunice. We also report the evaluation of effectiveness of different types of sessions, as well as its influence on practical skills and the fixation of memory footprint. The website AKUTNĚ.CZ (www.akutne.cz is freely accessible, and anyone can find and watch all the videos and presentations there.

  8. Exploring the influence of trust relationships on motivation in the health sector: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Dickson R O; Gilson, Lucy

    2015-03-31

    Dedicated and motivated health workers (HWs) play a major role in delivering efficient and effective health services that improve patients' experience of health care. Growing interest in HW motivation has led to a global focus on pay for performance strategies, but less attention has been paid to nurturing intrinsic motivation. Workplace trust relationships involve fair treatment and respectful interactions between individuals. Such relationships enable cooperation among HWs and their colleagues, supervisors, managers and patients and may act as a source of intrinsic motivation. This paper presents findings from a qualitative systematic review of empirical studies providing evidence on HW motivation, to consider what these studies suggest about the possible influence of workplace trust relationships over motivation. Five electronic databases were searched for articles reporting research findings about HW motivation for various cadres published in the 10-year period 2003 to 2013 and with available full free text in the English language. Data extraction involved consideration of the links between trust relationships and motivation, by identifying how studies directly or indirectly mention and discuss relevant factors. Twenty-three articles from low- and middle-income countries and eight from high-income countries that met predetermined quality and inclusion criteria were appraised and subjected to thematic synthesis. Workplace trust relationships with colleagues, supervisors and managers, employing organisation and patients directly and indirectly influence HW motivation. Motivational factors identified as linked to trust include respect; recognition, appreciation and rewards; supervision; teamwork; management support; autonomy; communication, feedback and openness; and staff shortages and resource inadequacy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first systematic review on trust and motivation in the health sector. Evidence indicates that workplace trust

  9. Approach motivation and cognitive resources combine to influence memory for positive emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Adrienne; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the elaborated intrusion theory of desire, the current research tested the hypothesis that persons higher in trait approach motivation process positive stimuli deeply, which enhances memory for them. Ninety-four undergraduates completed a measure of trait approach motivation, viewed positive or negative image slideshows in the presence or absence of a cognitive load, and one week later completed an image memory test. Higher trait approach motivation predicted better memory for the positive slideshow, but this memory boost disappeared under cognitive load. Approach motivation did not influence memory for the negative slideshow. The current findings support the idea that individuals higher in approach motivation spontaneously devote limited resources to processing positive stimuli.

  10. Transformational Leadership and Change: How Leaders Influence Their Followers' Motivation Through Organizational Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Carl; Rinfret, Natalie; Lagacé, Marie Claude; Privé, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the reform of Québec's healthcare establishments has resulted in a reduction in the number of institutions through mergers and closures. In this report, we investigate the consequences of reform by looking at managers' motivations and related mitigating factors. We examine the influence that transformational leaders have on their employees' motivation through organizational justice. Using a survey of 253 healthcare managers, we describe how the positive impact of transformational leadership on motivation is fully mediated via different aspects of organizational justice. The results indicate that while transformational leaders influence each type of organizational justice, followers' motivation is affected primarily by procedural and interpersonal justice and little by distributive justice.

  11. Motivating and demotivating forces in teams: cross-level influences of empowering leadership and relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gilad; Sharma, Payal Nangia; Edinger, Suzanne K; Shapiro, Debra L; Farh, Jiing-Lih

    2011-05-01

    Using cross-cultural laboratory and field studies with samples of leaders, employees, and students from the United States and the People's Republic of China, we examined how team-level stimuli, including empowering leadership and relationship conflict, combine to influence individual members' motivational states of psychological empowerment and affective commitment. As predicted, we found that these motivational states are individually and jointly influenced by teams' level of empowering leadership and relationship conflict and that these motivational states mediate the relationships between team stimuli and team members' innovative and teamwork behaviors and turnover intentions. In addition, results held despite controlling for team members' nationality and collectivism. We discuss contributions of our study to the team motivation, conflict, and stress literatures.

  12. The Influence of Perceived Disgust on Students' Motivation and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Hummel, Eberhard; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter

    2013-11-01

    There are a wide range of student emotions in academic settings, but apart from emotions such as interest and well-being, disgust is a negative emotion which might be relevant in biology education, for instance, during dissection or when encountering living animals. This paper addresses the issue of situational disgust during a course at the university using living animals and prepared mounts. The course covers a wide range of organisms from protists (e.g. Paramecium) through invertebrates to vertebrates and uses many methods (e.g. microscopy, dissection, and behavioral observations) and specific content (anatomy, structure, and behavior). The dissection of the trout was rated as most disgusting, followed by working with living woodlice, living earthworms, and living snails. The least disgusting lessons were those dealing with microscopy, mammalian skulls, honeybee dance, and bird flight. Based on animals, macro-invertebrates were rated as most disgusting and mammals as least disgusting. Concerning methods, observing through a microscope was perceived as being least disgusting, followed by experiments without animals, then followed by experiments with living animals and, most disgusting, dissection. Disgust was correlated negatively with interest, well-being, and competence but positively with pressure and boredom. Thus, low disgust is related to high interest, well-being, and competence, while higher disgust is related to higher pressure and boredom. The results show a need for measuring situational disgust in addition to survey studies. They also suggest that perceived disgust negatively affects intrinsic motivation. This has implications for biology teaching, because carrying out dissections or experiencing living animals in the classroom may have a detrimental effect on motivation.

  13. Dissociable influences of reward motivation and positive emotion on cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Kimberly S; Braver, Todd S

    2014-06-01

    It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective and/or motivational influences contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behavior. An unresolved question is whether emotional manipulations (i.e., direct induction of affectively valenced subjective experience) and motivational manipulations (e.g., delivery of performance-contingent rewards and punishments) have similar or distinct effects on cognitive control. Prior work has suggested that reward motivation can reliably enhance a proactive mode of cognitive control, whereas other evidence is suggestive that positive emotion improves cognitive flexibility, but reduces proactive control. However, a limitation of the prior research is that reward motivation and positive emotion have largely been studied independently. Here, we directly compared the effects of positive emotion and reward motivation on cognitive control with a tightly matched, within-subjects design, using the AX-continuous performance task paradigm, which allows for relative measurement of proactive versus reactive cognitive control. High-resolution pupillometry was employed as a secondary measure of cognitive dynamics during task performance. Robust increases in behavioral and pupillometric indices of proactive control were observed with reward motivation. The effects of positive emotion were much weaker, but if anything, also reflected enhancement of proactive control, a pattern that diverges from some prior findings. These results indicate that reward motivation has robust influences on cognitive control, while also highlighting the complexity and heterogeneity of positive-emotion effects. The findings are discussed in terms of potential neurobiological mechanisms.

  14. The Influence of Teacher’s Competence towards the Motivation of Students in Learning English

    OpenAIRE

    Bustami Usman; Tengku Maya Silviyanti; Marzatillah Marzatillah

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to find out the influence of the teacher’s competence towards the motivation of students in learning English. A questionnaire was given to 24 students at a sports school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The five (5) closed and open questions were adapted from Zhao (2012). The results from this study show that the competences of the teacher including cognitive, affective, and psychomotor competence (Syah, 2013) enhance the motivation of students to learn English. The teacher’s ...

  15. Sudden unexpected death under acute influence of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Kauferstein, Silke; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Daldrup, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The acute toxicity of cannabinoids is said to be low and there is little public awareness of the potentially hazardous cardiovascular effects of cannabis, e.g. marked increase in heart rate or supine blood pressure. We describe the cases of two young, putative healthy men who died unexpectedly under the acute influence of cannabinoids. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of suspected fatal cannabis intoxications where full postmortem investigations, including autopsy, toxicological, histological, immunohistochemical and genetical examinations, were carried out. The results of these examinations are presented. After exclusion of other causes of death we assume that the young men experienced fatal cardiovascular complications evoked by smoking cannabis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of reward motivation on human declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Bavelier, Daphne; Schwartz, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Motivational relevance can prioritize information for memory encoding and consolidation based on reward value. In this review, we pinpoint the possible psychological and neural mechanisms by which reward promotes learning, from guiding attention to enhancing memory consolidation. We then discuss how reward value can spill-over from one conditioned stimulus to a non-conditioned stimulus. Such generalization can occur across perceptually similar items or through more complex relations, such as associative or logical inferences. Existing evidence suggests that the neurotransmitter dopamine boosts the formation of declarative memory for rewarded information and may also control the generalization of reward values. In particular, temporally-correlated activity in the hippocampus and in regions of the dopaminergic circuit may mediate value-based decisions and facilitate cross-item integration. Given the importance of generalization in learning, our review points to the need to study not only how reward affects later memory but how learned reward values may generalize to related representations and ultimately alter memory structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors Influencing Participation in Continuing Professional Development: A Focus on Motivation Among Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; de Boer, Anthonius; Croiset, Gerda; Koster, Andries S; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2016-01-01

    The interest in continuing education (CE) for pharmacists has increased because of patient safety issues, advancing science and the quick changes in the profession. Therefore, contemporary pharmaceutical care requires an effective and sustainable system for pharmacists to maintain and improve competencies. Although motivation plays an important role both as a facilitator (desire to learn) and a barrier (lack of motivation), there is little investigated about this specific factor. The aim of the study was to explore what factors influence pharmacists' participation in CE with a focus on motivation. The theoretical framework was self-determination theory (SDT), which describes autonomous motivation (AM) representing motivation from an internal locus of causality, controlled motivation (CM) originating from an external locus of causality, and relative autonomous motivation (RAM) that measures the AM in an individual after correcting for the CM. The relationship between pharmacists' characteristics, especially their motivation (AM, CM and RAM) in CE, and their participation in CE activities was explored using the AMS-questionnaire and the Dutch online portfolio system. RAM was positively correlated with CE participation of pharmacists and explained 7.8% of the variance. The correlations between the independent variables AM and CM and CE hours were negative (-0.301 and -0.476, respectively). Other factors influencing CE participation were pharmacy school (6.8%), traineeship (10.9%), and work experience (7.8%). Pharmacists participated for 27.0 hours on average in CE during 11 months and preferred face-to-face-learning (85.5%) above e-learning (13.8%). Our findings show a positive relationship between RAM and CE participation. The current CE system is probably not conducive to stimulation of AM. Further research is needed to understand the factors that stimulate pharmacists' motivation and participation in CE.

  18. Practical implications of understanding the influence of motivations on commitment to voluntary urban conservation stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asah, Stanley T; Blahna, Dale J

    2013-08-01

    Although the word commitment is prevalent in conservation biology literature and despite the importance of people's commitment to the success of conservation initiatives, commitment as a psychological phenomenon and its operation in specific conservation behaviors remains unexplored. Despite increasing calls for conservation psychology to play a greater role in meeting conservation goals, applications of the psychological sciences to specific conservation behaviors, illustrating their utility to conservation practice, are rare. We examined conservation volunteers' motivations and commitment to urban conservation volunteering. We interviewed key informant volunteers and used interview findings to develop psychometric scales that we used to assess motivations and commitment to volunteer. We surveyed 322 urban conservation volunteers and used factor analysis to reveal how volunteers structure their motivations and commitment to volunteer for urban conservation activities. Six categories of motivations and 2 categories of commitment emerged from factor analysis. Volunteers were motivated by desires to help the environment, defend and enhance the ego, career and learning opportunities, escape and exercise, social interactions, and community building. Two forms of commitment, affective and normative commitment, psychologically bind people to urban conservation volunteerism. We used linear-regression models to examine how these categories of motivations influence volunteers' commitment to conservation volunteerism. Volunteers' tendency to continue to volunteer for urban conservation, even in the face of fluctuating counter urges, was motivated by personal, social, and community functions more than environmental motivations. The environment, otherwise marginally important, was a significant motivator of volunteers' commitment only when volunteering met volunteers' personal, social, and community-building goals. Attention to these personal, social, and community

  19. Influence of science and technology magnet middle schools on students' motivation and achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David

    Some informal discussions among educators regarding motivation of students and academic performance have included the topic of magnet schools. The premise is that a focused theme, such as an aspect of science, positively affects student motivation and academic achievement. However, there is limited research involving magnet schools and their influence on student motivation and academic performance. This study provides empirical data for the discussion about magnet schools influence on motivation and academic ability. This study utilized path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to simultaneously investigate the relationships between demographic exogenous independent variables, the independent variable of attending a science or technology magnet middle school, and the dependent variables of motivation to learn science and academic achievement in science. Due to the categorical nature of the variables, Bayesian statistical analysis was used to calculate the path coefficients and the standardized effects for each relationship in the model. The coefficients of determination were calculated to determine the amount of variance each path explained. Only five of 21 paths had statistical significance. Only one of the five statistically significant paths (Attended Magnet School to Motivation to Learn Science) explained a noteworthy amount (45.8%) of the variance.

  20. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    visual perception, colour vision, vigilance as well as the psychomotor functions. However, the influence on the performance tests was not seen in all studies. Variations in the air concentration of toluene with peaks op to 300 ppm causes fluctuation in the alveolar concentrations, but no acute effect...... of printers occupationally exposed to mixtures of solvents were compared with a matched unexposed control group. There was no difference between printers and controls in the performance in the psychological test, but in two of the tests there were tendencies to increased sensitivity to toluene in the group...

  1. Autonomy, Affiliation, and Ability: Relative Salience of Factors that Influence Online Learner Motivation and Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Chung Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy, affiliation, and ability appear as main factors that influence online learners‟ motivation and learning outcomes, however, the relative salience of these three factors remains unclear in the online learning literature. Drawing on Deci and Ryan‟s self-determination theory, this study sought to bridge this gap by investigating the relative salience of perceived autonomy, affiliation, and ability on learner motivation and learning outcomes in two special education online programs (N = 262. This study found that the most salient predictor varied from categories of motivation and learning outcomes, and the number of significant predictors increased by participants‟ level of motivation/self-determination. Results of this study provide implications for online learner support.

  2. Longitudinal examination of social and environmental influences on motivation for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth A; McDonough, Meghan; Fu, Rong

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity behavior is influenced by numerous factors including motivation, social interactions, and the walkability of the environment. To examine how social contexts and environmental features affect physical activity motivational processes across time. Participants (N=104) completed 3 monthly online surveys assessing self-determination theory constructs, social partners in physical activity, neighborhood walkability, and weekly physical activity. Longitudinal path analysis examined the degree to which physical activity was predicted by individual goals, orientation, and autonomy support and whether these associations were meditated by motivation and moderated by the social and environmental contexts of physical activity. The effect of controlled exercise orientations on physical activity was mediated by autonomous motivation. This association was stronger among those who perceived less crime in their neighborhoods. To improve the ability to tailor physical activity counseling it is important to understand how each person views exercise situations and to understand his/her social and neighborhood environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human aging reduces the neurobehavioral influence of motivation on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Maiya R; Mattfeld, Aaron T; Angeles, Carlo de Los; Keshavan, Anisha; Gabrieli, John D E

    2018-05-01

    The neural circuitry mediating the influence of motivation on long-term declarative or episodic memory formation is delineated in young adults, but its status is unknown in healthy aging. We examined the effect of reward and punishment anticipation on intentional declarative memory formation for words using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) monetary incentive encoding task in twenty-one younger and nineteen older adults. At 24-hour memory retrieval testing, younger adults were significantly more likely to remember words associated with motivational cues than neutral cues. Motivational enhancement of memory in younger adults occurred only for recollection ("remember" responses) and not for familiarity ("familiar" responses). Older adults had overall diminished memory and did not show memory gains in association with motivational cues. Memory encoding associated with monetary rewards or punishments activated motivational (substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area) and memory-related (hippocampus) brain regions in younger, but not older, adults during the target word periods. In contrast, older and younger adults showed similar activation of these brain regions during the anticipatory motivational cue interval. In a separate monetary incentive delay task that did not require learning, we found evidence for relatively preserved striatal reward anticipation in older adults. This supports a potential dissociation between incidental and intentional motivational processes in healthy aging. The finding that motivation to obtain rewards and avoid punishments had reduced behavioral and neural influence on intentional episodic memory formation in older compared to younger adults is relevant to life-span theories of cognitive aging including the dopaminergic vulnerability hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of motivation on control hierarchy in the human frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Aarts, Esther; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-02-18

    The frontal cortex mediates cognitive control and motivation to shape human behavior. It is generally observed that medial frontal areas are involved in motivational aspects of behavior, whereas lateral frontal regions are involved in cognitive control. Recent models of cognitive control suggest a rostro-caudal gradient in lateral frontal regions, such that progressively more rostral (anterior) regions process more complex aspects of cognitive control. How motivation influences such a control hierarchy is still under debate. Although some researchers argue that both systems work in parallel, others argue in favor of an interaction between motivation and cognitive control. In the latter case it is yet unclear how motivation would affect the different levels of the control hierarchy. This was investigated in the present functional MRI study applying different levels of cognitive control under different motivational states (low vs high reward anticipation). Three levels of cognitive control were tested by varying rule complexity: stimulus-response mapping (low-level), flexible task updating (mid-level), and sustained cue-task associations (high-level). We found an interaction between levels of cognitive control and motivation in medial and lateral frontal subregions. Specifically, flexible updating (mid-level of control) showed the strongest beneficial effect of reward and only this level exhibited functional coupling between dopamine-rich midbrain regions and the lateral frontal cortex. These findings suggest that motivation differentially affects the levels of a control hierarchy, influencing recruitment of frontal cortical control regions depending on specific task demands. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353207-11$15.00/0.

  5. Motivational factors influencing the homeowners’ decisions between residential heating systems: An empirical analysis for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, Carl Christian; Madlener, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Heating demand accounts for a large fraction of the overall energy demand of private households in Germany. A better understanding of the adoption and diffusion of energy-efficient and renewables-based residential heating systems (RHS) is of high policy relevance, particularly against the background of climate change, security of energy supply and increasing energy prices. In this paper, we explore the multi-dimensionality of the homeowners’ motivation to decide between competing RHS. A questionnaire survey (N=2440) conducted in 2010 among homeowners who had recently installed a RHS provides the empirical foundation. Principal component analysis shows that 25 items capturing different adoption motivations can be grouped around six dimensions: (1) cost aspects, (2) general attitude towards the RHS, (3) government grant, (4) reactions to external threats (i.e., environmental or energy supply security considerations), (5) comfort considerations, and (6) influence of peers. Moreover, a cluster analysis with the identified motivational factors as segmentation variables reveals three adopter types: (1) the convenience-oriented, (2) the consequences-aware, and (3) the multilaterally-motivated RHS adopter. Finally, we show that the influence of the motivational factors on the adoption decision also differs by certain characteristics of the homeowner and features of the home. - Highlights: ► Study of the multi-dimensionality of the motivation to adopt residential heating systems (RHS). ► Principal component and cluster analysis are applied to representative survey data for Germany. ► Motivation has six dimensions, including rational decision-making and emotional factors. ► Adoption motivation differs by certain characteristics of the homeowner and of the home. ► Many adopters are driven by existing habits and perceptions about the convenience of the RHS

  6. The Influence of Incentive towards Their Motivation and Discipline (A Case Study at Rectorate of Andalas University, West Sumatera, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frengki; Hubeis, Aida Vitayala; Affandi, M. Joko

    2017-01-01

    There are several ways that can be done to improve employee performance, among others, by motivating employees and improving work discipline. Increased motivation and discipline can be pursued by the provision of incentive. This study aims to analyze the influence of incentive on Andalas University's employee motivation and discipline and analyze…

  7. Influence of motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification on perceptions of EMS effectiveness in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Chung, Shan Shan

    2004-02-01

    This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm's reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits.

  8. Positive affect and cognitive control: approach-motivation intensity influences the balance between cognitive flexibility and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Wang, Zhenhong

    2014-05-01

    In most prior research, positive affect has been consistently found to promote cognitive flexibility. However, the motivational dimensional model of affect assumes that the influence of positive affect on cognitive processes is modulated by approach-motivation intensity. In the present study, we extended the motivational dimensional model to the domain of cognitive control by examining the effect of low- versus high-approach-motivated positive affect on the balance between cognitive flexibility and stability in an attentional-set-shifting paradigm. Results showed that low-approach-motivated positive affect promoted cognitive flexibility but also caused higher distractibility, whereas high-approach-motivated positive affect enhanced perseverance but simultaneously reduced distractibility. These results suggest that the balance between cognitive flexibility and stability is modulated by the approach-motivation intensity of positive affective states. Therefore, it is essential to incorporate motivational intensity into studies on the influence of affect on cognitive control.

  9. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Noshir S; DeChurch, Leslie A

    2014-09-16

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the "who" and the "how" of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India.

  10. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Noshir S.; DeChurch, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person’s attitudes and behaviors affect another’s) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the “who” and the “how” of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373

  11. The Influence of Competence, Motivation, and Organisational Culture to High School Teacher Job Satisfaction and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, H. Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to find out and analyze the influence of competence, motivation, and organizational competence to high school teacher job satisfaction and performance in Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia. The study was conducted on 117 respondents of 346 teachers by means of questionnaire. Data is analyzed by SEM analysis method in AMOS program.…

  12. Creativity in Unique Problem-Solving in Mathematics and Its Influence on Motivation for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Saied

    2016-01-01

    This research study investigates the ability of students to tackle the solving of unique mathematical problems in the domain of numerical series, verbal and formal, and its influence on the motivation of junior high students with learning disabilities in the Arab sector. Two instruments were used to collect the data: mathematical series were…

  13. The Influence of Need-Supportive Teacher Behavior on the Motivation of Students with Congenital Deafblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakma, Ineke; Janssen, Marleen; Minnaert, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research has indicated that need-supportive learning environments positively influence students' motivation. According to self-determination theory, a need-supportive learning environment is one in which teachers provide structure, autonomy support, and involvement, and thereby support their students' psychological needs for…

  14. Implementing an Active Learning Environment to Influence Students' Motivation in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuto, Camila Aparecida Tolentino; Torres, Bayardo Baptista

    2016-01-01

    The Biochemistry: Biomolecules Structure and Metabolism course's goal is to promote meaningful learning through an active learning environment. Thus, study periods (SP) and discussion groups (DG) are used as a substitute for lecture classes. The goal of this study was to evaluate how this learning environment influences students' motivation (n =…

  15. Motives of Cheating among Secondary Students: The Role of Self-Efficacy and Peer Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Wong Lok Yan; Zhang, Kaili Chen

    2010-01-01

    A survey research study was conducted with a sample of 100 secondary students from a local secondary school about the motives of cheating. The primary focus of this study was the interplay among variables of self-efficacy, peer influence and cheating. The results showed that students with low self-efficacy were more likely to cheat than those who…

  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in early adolescents' friendship development : Friendship selection, influence, and prospective friendship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.; Ojanen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early

  17. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Early Adolescents' Friendship Development: Friendship Selection, Influence, and Prospective Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and…

  18. Understanding employees' informal workplace learning: The joint influence of career motivation and self-construal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Monique; Yang, H.; Sanders, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the joint influence of employees' career motivation and their self-construal on their engagement in three informal workplace learning activities: keeping up-to-date, asking for feedback from supervisors and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach –

  19. Influence of Achievement Motivation on Nigerian Undergraduates' Attitude towards Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboyega, Lateef Omotosho

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigated the influence of achievement motivation on Nigerian undergraduates' attitude towards examination. Descriptive survey of the correlational type was employed for the study. One thousand, five hundred and thirty-six (1,536) undergraduates in Nigeria were drawn using purposive and stratified sampling techniques. Four research…

  20. Influence of Peripheral and Motivational Cues on Rigid-Flexible Functioning: Perceptual, Behavioral, and Cognitive Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretenet, Joel; Dru, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown that performing approach versus avoidance behaviors (arm flexion vs. extension) effectively influences cognitive functioning. In another area, lateralized peripheral activations (left vs. right side) of the motivational systems of approach versus avoidance were linked to various performances in cognitive tasks. By…

  1. Gender differences in second language motivation: An investigation of micro- and macro-level influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Kissau

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present article is part of a large-scale study conducted in Ontario that investigated gender differences in motivation to learn French. However, for this particular article second language (L2 motivation theory is the primary focus. Over the past 30 years of research, the study of L2 motivation has evolved. There appears to be a definite shift away from the societal (macro-level approaches that dominated the research of the 1970s and 1980s toward an approach that emphasizes the influence of the L2 classroom. The researcher calls into question this evolution in research. A mixed methodology was used to determine if gender differences in a variety of motivational factors exist among Grade 9 French as a second language (FSL students. Approximately 500 students in Grade 9 completed a questionnaire. The significant findings of the questionnaire were then explored in interviews with students and teachers. Quantitative results indicated significant differences in regard to several motivational factors. However, the qualitative data emphasized that at the root of these differences were societal influences.

  2. The influence of reading motives on the responses after reading blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shia; Chou, Yu-Jen; Lin, Che-Hung

    2008-06-01

    As the number of blogs increases dramatically, these online forums have become important media people use to share feelings and information. Previous research of blogs focuses on writers (i.e., bloggers), but the influence of blogs also requires investigations from readers' perspectives. This study therefore explores motives for reading blogs and discusses their effects on the responses after reading blogs. According to a factor analysis of 204 respondents in Taiwan, motives for reading blogs consist of affective exchange, information search, entertainment, and getting on the bandwagon. A regression analysis suggests the effects of these motives on three major responses--opinion acceptance, interaction intentions, and word-of-mouth (WOM) intentions--reflect the influence of blogs. Specifically, readers who focus on affective exchanges believe blog messages, interact with bloggers, and spread messages to others. Information search and entertainment motives positively affect opinion acceptance; blog readers who focus on information and those who read for fun both view blogs as trustworthy sources. Getting on the bandwagon also positively influences interaction and WOM intentions; these readers interact with bloggers and transmit messages to others.

  3. Achievement motivation and memory: achievement goals differentially influence immediate and delayed remember-know recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Little research has been conducted on achievement motivation and memory and, more specifically, on achievement goals and memory. In the present research, the authors conducted two experiments designed to examine the influence of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals on immediate and delayed remember-know recognition memory. The experiments revealed differential effects for achievement goals over time: Performance-approach goals showed higher correct remember responding on an immediate recognition test, whereas mastery-approach goals showed higher correct remember responding on a delayed recognition test. Achievement goals had no influence on overall recognition memory and no consistent influence on know responding across experiments. These findings indicate that it is important to consider quality, not just quantity, in both motivation and memory, when studying relations between these constructs.

  4. Influence of brand differential on motivation to conform and manufacturer versus store brand purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran, E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationships and characteristics that influence consumers’ purchase decision between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings have emerged as an interesting and practical area of research. From a management perspective, understanding the process by which consumers make purchase choices between these brand offerings would lead to both theoretical and practical applications. Therefore, this study attempts to enhance understanding about the factors that influence consumers’ manufacturer versus store brand purchase decisions. A conceptual model is developed to integrate the manner by which a consumer’s motivation to conform to the perceived social norm of purchasing manufacturer brand products influences this purchase decision. The model is tested using survey data. Findings indicate the importance of the intensity of perceived differences between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings in affecting consumers’ purchase intention of these products. The relationship is also mediated by consumers’ motivation to conform to manufacturer brand products in their purchase decision.

  5. [The influence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection on acute coronary syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Choroszy-Król, Irena; Zyśko, Dorota; Teryks-Wołyniec, Dorota; Halawa, Bogumił

    2003-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of the infectious factors the role of which is considered in the process of atherosclerosis and its complications. Of the study was to assess the incidence of Ch. pneumoniae infection in the patients with acute coronary events. The study was carried out in 36 patients, mean age 61.2 +/- 13.4 years, 27 men and 9 women hospitalised in our Department with the diagnosis of previous or recent acute myocardial infarction. The control group consisted of 19 subjects, aged 61.1 +/- 14.3 years, 10 men and 9 women hospitalised due to other reasons. In all studied patients during the first 24 hours venous blood was taken for the assessment of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and titres of IgA and IgG anti-Ch. pneumoniae antibodies, and pharyngeal swabs were done for Ch. pneumoniae assessment. Positive swab tests were found in 19% of the patients, positive IgG titres in 80% and IgA in 64% of the patients. In the control group the corresponding values were 11, 79, 42%, respectively. In the patients with positive IgG titres, negative IgA titre result was observed in 21% and in the control group in 53% (p < 0.05). The CRP level was significantly higher in the studied patients than in the control group (24.2 vs 4.2 mg/l; p < 0.05). 1. The high percentage of positive serologic tests and rare positive results of pharyngeal swabs indicate a frequent contact with Ch. pneumoniae in human population. 2. Ch. pneumoniae infection exerts no significant influence on the unspecific markers of inflammation. 3. The higher frequency of seroconversion-positive IgG and negative IgA titres--in the control group indicates the role of prolonged or acute Ch. pneumoniae infection in the development or progression of coronary atherosclerosis and its complications.

  6. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation.

  7. Context influences the motivation for stereotypic and repetitive behaviour in children diagnosed with intellectual disability with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2012-05-01

    Children are motivated to engage in stereotypic and repetitive behaviours for a number of reasons. Their motivation seems to change according to context, but little empirical evidence supports that observation. Interventions designed to reduce the behaviours may be improved by an increased understanding of the interaction between motivation and context. Using Rasch analysis, we analysed data describing stereotypic behaviours from 279 Revised Motivation Assessment Scales (MAS:R). Data were gathered from two groups of children: Group 1 with intellectual disability (n = 37) and Group 2 with both intellectual disability and autism (n = 37). We examined behaviours in three contexts: free time, transition and while engaged in tasks. MAS:R distinguishes two intrinsic motivators: enhanced sensation and decreased anxiety and three extrinsic motivators: seeking attention or objects or escape. Significant differences in motivators were observed during free time and transition. No one motivator predominated while children were engaged in tasks. For both groups, sensory enhancement was a more likely motivator in free time and anxiety reduction was a more likely motivator during transition. Transition was the context most likely to influence extrinsic motivators, but there were significant differences between the groups. Context influences the motivation for stereotyped and repetitive behaviours. Transition has a particularly powerful effect. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Affective-motivational influences on feedback-related ERPs in a gambling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Shigeki; Gehring, William J; Takasawa, Noriyoshi; Yamazaki, Katuo

    2006-08-11

    Theories have proposed that both the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) and the medial frontal negativity (MFN) reflect affective/motivational processing. We examined the effect of the motivational impact of feedback stimuli on these ERPs using a simple gambling task, focusing on the influence of prior losses and gains on ERPs and choice behavior. Choices were riskier following large losses than following small losses or large gains. The MFN, however, was larger following larger gains. The SPN preceding the outcome was also larger after a greater gain. Thus, we confirmed that both the MFN and the SPN respond to the motivational properties of the feedback. A dissociation between risk-taking behavior and these ERPs suggests that there could be two monitoring systems: one that leads to riskier responses following losses and a second that leads to heightened expectancy.

  9. The Influence of Affective States Varying in Motivational Intensity on Cognitive Scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie eHarmon-Jones

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We review a program of research that has suggested that affective states high in motivationally intensity (e.g., enthusiasm, disgust narrow cognitive scope, whereas affective states low in motivationally intensity (e.g., joy, sadness broaden cognitive scope. Further supporting this interpretation, indices of brain activations, derived from human electroencephalography, suggest that the motivational intensity of the affective state predicts the narrowing of cognitive scope. Finally, research suggests that the relationship between emotive intensity and cognitive scope is bi-directional, such that manipulated changes in cognitive scope influence early brain activations associated with emotive intensity. In the end, the review highlights how emotion can impair and improve certain cognitive processes.

  10. The Influence of Treatment Motivation on Outcomes of Social Skills Training for Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, Jessica J; Hoeve, Machteld; van der Laan, Peter H; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the influence of treatment motivation on posttreatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents imposed as a penal sanction. Propensity score matching was used to match a control group of juveniles receiving treatment as usual ( n = 108 of total N = 354) to a treatment group of juveniles receiving Tools4U, a social skills training with a parental component ( N = 115). Treatment motivation was examined as a moderator and predictor of treatment effects on impulsivity, social perspective-taking, social problem-solving, lack of critical reasoning, developmental task-related skills, and parenting skills. Treatment effects were mostly consistent across juveniles with different levels of treatment motivation. Only one moderating effect was found on active tackling (i.e., actively addressing problems), and predictive effects were found on seeking social support, cognitive empathy, hostile intent attribution, and self-centeredness. Implications for further research are discussed.

  11. The Influence of Treatment Motivation on Outcomes of Social Skills Training for Juvenile Delinquents

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, Jessica J.; Hoeve, Machteld; van der Laan, Peter H.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of treatment motivation on posttreatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents imposed as a penal sanction. Propensity score matching was used to match a control group of juveniles receiving treatment as usual (n = 108 of total N = 354) to a treatment group of juveniles receiving Tools4U, a social skills training with a parental component (N = 115). Treatment motivation was examined as a moderator and predictor of treatment effects on impulsivity, social perspective-taking, social problem-solving, lack of critical reasoning, developmental task-related skills, and parenting skills. Treatment effects were mostly consistent across juveniles with different levels of treatment motivation. Only one moderating effect was found on active tackling (i.e., actively addressing problems), and predictive effects were found on seeking social support, cognitive empathy, hostile intent attribution, and self-centeredness. Implications for further research are discussed. PMID:27225504

  12. Parents’ motives for home education: The influence of methodological design and social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Spiegler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Parents’ motives for home education are one of the most researched topics within home education research. The focus of this article is on the question of the degree to which the results regarding these motives are influenced and shaped by the applied methods and the social context. The empirical basis is a meta-analysis of twelve research examples from the last two decades. It is concluded that the diversity within the results can partly be traced back to fundamental differences in the methodological design, to the absence of detailed theoretical modelling and remarkable differences of the survey instruments and that the role of the social environment and the process of the construction of motives in a certain social context deserve more attention.

  13. Parents’ motives for home education: The influence of methodological design and social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas SPIEGLER

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Parents’ motives for home education are one of the most researched topics within home education research. The focus of this article is on the question of the degree to which the results regarding these motives are influenced and shaped by the applied methods and thesocial context. The empirical basis is a meta-analysis of twelve research examples from the last two decades. It is concluded that the diversity within the results can partly be traced back to fundamental differences in the methodological design, to the absence of detailed theoretical modelling and remarkable differences of the survey instruments and that the role of the social environment and the process of the construction of motives in a certain socialcontext deserve more attention.

  14. [Which factors influence job satisfaction and motivation in an institute of radiology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterweger, M; Imhof, S; Mohr, H; Römpler, M; Kubik-Huch, R A

    2007-08-29

    As empirically shown, increasing job satisfaction and motivations correlates with reduced job fluctuation and costs of absenteeism in an organisation. To provide a motivating environment for employees becomes more important in the health-care system and thus also in radiology. The purpose of our study was therefore to evaluate job satisfaction of our team and to define important influencing factors. For data collection, as standardized questionnaire was designed. As a result of a discussion in a focus group, 9 indicators characterizing job satisfaction and motivation were determined (four-point ordinal scale), in addition there were open questions as well as space for comments. The questionnaires were distributed to all employees at the institute during the study period 11/2005. It was assured in the study design that data analysis was anonymous. For statistical analysis, all replies were coded (scale 1-4) and transferred to an excel sheet. Rate of return was 92% (46/50). In general, employees enjoyed work (mean 3.37 +/- 0.5); no significant difference between physicians, technicians and other staff members were observed. Factors most important for personal motivation were good working climate (3.85 +/- 0.4), good reputation of the institute (3.56 +/- 0.8) and personal recognition (3.54 +/- 0.6). Wage raise (3.01 +/- 0.9) and bonus payments (3.11 +/- 0.9) were rated less important. Communication between groups of employees could be improved (2.78 +/- 0.7). When asked, which factors would improve motivation, common answer included teamwork and communication (n = 9), more participation in planning processes (n = 8), more appreciation (n = 7) and continuing education (n = 5). Profound knowledge of factors influencing job satisfaction and motivation of employees allows for the implementation of targeted strategies for continuous improvement.

  15. Influence of Motivation and Job Training The Performance of Employees PT. RB Sukasada Palembang.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Rakhmalina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of motivation and job training to employees performance of PT. RB Sukasada. This research is causality. The population in this study is the overall employees of PT. RB Sukasada Jl. Kebumen Land No. 901-902, 17 Ilir, Ilir Tim. I, Palembang, South Sumatra 30122, amounting to 39 employees, with census sampling.Data collection techniques used in this study was a questionnaire with the answer given a score based on a scale interval of 1-5 with the Likert method. With multiple linear regress analysis tools. The next test of the hypothesis that f test and t-test to determine of independent variables on the dependent variable, and making inferences. Data analysis techniques in this study assisted by the Statistical program for special science (SPSS The results of research by F test resulted in no significant effect Motivation and Job Training together with the Employee Performance at PT. RB Sukasada with a coefficient of determination (R Square of 34.9%. While based on the t-test a significant difference between motivation and job training partially on performance. With the results of multiple regression 57.0% effect of motivation on the performance and 47.6% influence on the performance of job training. Conclusion motivation and job training are still low in achieving performance.

  16. Motivational factors influencing nurses to undertake postgraduate hospital-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Danny; Fry, Margaret; Zecchin, Alison

    2018-05-01

    Specialist postgraduate education improves patient health outcomes, and assists in meeting the emerging specialisation of nursing practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the motivational factors that influence nurses' engagement with hospital-based postgraduate education. The research design was descriptive and exploratory, using a survey method. The survey consisted of demographic details, the Participation Reasons Scale (PRS) and open-ended questions. Thirty-four participants (100%) completed the survey. Of the PRS extrinsic and intrinsic factors, Professional Improvement and Development (Factor 1) and Professional Service (Factor 2), both intrinsic factors, ranked the highest. Therefore, this study identified that intrinsic motivation factors influenced engagement with postgraduate specialty programs for early career nurses. These results highlight the importance of intrinsic motivation factors for a nursing workforce and how this can potentially drive behaviour and decision making. A better understanding of motivation factors across a nurse's career could lead to educational strategies that optimise postgraduate program engagement to better support healthcare delivery and a culture of lifelong learning. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Teleworking Technology Adoption in Organizations: Explaining the Role of Social Influence, Motivation and Facilitating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alirezaei Alirezaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the structural relationship between social influence, motivation and facilitating conditions with the use behaviour of teleworking technology, considering the moderating effect of behavioural intention to utilize teleworking. The research is done according to descriptive method with correlational type. Statistical population is public organizations and the sample was selected using simple random sampling. Data collection tool was questionnaire and experts judged its validity. The reliability of the tool was evaluated using a pre-test of 30 people. The data gathered from a sample of 365 people used to test the hypothesis and conceptual model of the research. By exploratory factor analysis and structural equation model path analysis was done. The results show that social influence, motivation and facilitating conditions have a positive impact on behavioural intention to use teleworking systems and this behavioural intention cause an increase in using behaviour among employees.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATING OPERATIONS ON GENERALIZATION PROBES OF SPECIFIC MANDS BY CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    OpenAIRE

    Fragale, Christina L; O'Reilly, Mark F; Aguilar, Jeannie; Pierce, Nigel; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of motivating operations on the generalization of newly taught mands across settings and communication partners for 3 children with autism. Two conditions were implemented prior to generalization probes. In the first condition, participants were given access to a preferred item until they rejected the item (i.e., abolishing operation). In the second condition, the item was not available to participants prior to generalization probes (i.e., establishing operation)...

  19. Manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke, frequency and influence on functional outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P M; Jørgensen, H S; Kammersgaard, L P

    2001-01-01

    To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome.......To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome....

  20. Identifying the influence of gender on motivation and engagement levels in student physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Susan

    2015-04-01

    There is an increasing focus in higher education on the role of learner characteristics and their influence on academic performance. Educators are interested in how students engage with learning activities as they progress through the curriculum. A previous study highlighted gender effects in academic performance in student physiotherapists, despite comparable entry scores. The aim of this study was to determine variation in student motivation and engagement, across the four year levels of the physiotherapy program at The University of Notre Dame Australia while considering gender and age. A cross-sectional design was adopted surveying 233 students utilising the Motivation and Engagement Scale - University/College (MES-UC), to review motivational thoughts and behaviours influencing learning. RESULTS identified gender effects with males having on average significantly lower scores for planning, task management and persistence; and higher scores for disengagement from their studies. Females displayed higher average scores for anxiety particularly in their first year and final clinical year. RESULTS were consistent with gender effects noted in academic performance throughout the program for previous student cohorts. The application of the MES-UC early in course would highlight to educators the areas where intervention can be targeted. Early individualized intervention is recommended to address learner characteristics influencing performance.

  1. Endocannabinoid Signaling in Motivation, Reward, and Addiction: Influences on Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheddu, Claudia; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Pistis, Marco; Melis, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system has been conserved in the animal kingdom for 500 million years, and this system influences many critical behavioral processes including associative learning, reward signaling, goal-directed behavior, motor skill learning, and action-habit transformation. Additionally, the neurotransmitter dopamine has long been recognized to play a critical role in the processing of natural rewards, as well as of motivation that regulates approach and avoidance behavior. This motivational role of dopamine neurons is also based upon the evidence provided by several studies investigating disorders of dopamine pathways such as drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. From an evolutionary point of view, individuals engage in behaviors aimed at maximizing and minimizing positive and aversive consequences, respectively. Accordingly, those with the greatest fitness have a better potential to survival. Hence, deviations from fitness can be viewed as a part of the evolutionary process by means of natural selection. Given the long evolutionary history of both the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems, it is plausible that they must serve as fundamental and basic modulators of physiological functions and needs. Notably, endocannabinoids regulate dopamine neuronal activity and its influence on behavioral output. The goal of this chapter is to examine the endocannabinoid influence on dopamine signaling specifically related to (i) those behavioral processes that allow us to successfully adapt to ever-changing environments (i.e., reward signaling and motivational processes) and (ii) derangements from behavioral flexibility that underpin drug addiction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE, TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP, AND WORK MOTIVATION ON TEACHER JOB PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kartini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at investigating the influence of organizational climate, transformational leadership, and work motivation on teacher job performance at Pondok Modern Tazakka, Batang - Central Java.The research using a quantitative approach with survey method. Amount of the samples in this research are 55 teachers that selected randomly. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and inferential statistic using path analysis. (1 organizational climate have positive direct effect on teacher performance with path coefficient (py1 = 0,257 and t-count 2,963> t-table 1,684; (2 transformational leadership have positive direct effect on teacher performance with path coefficient (py2 = 0,489 and t-count 5,164> t-table 1,684, (3 work motivation have positive direct effect to teacher performance with path coefficient (py3 = 0,261 and t count 2,42> t-table 1,684, (4 organizational climate have positive direct effect (p31 = 0.391 and t-count 3.990> t-table 1.684, and (5 transformational leadership have a direct positive effect on work motivation with path coefficient (p32 = 0.526 and t-count 5,376> t- table 1,684. The Conclusion is organizational climate, transformational leadership, and work motivation have a direct effect on teacher job performance. Organizational climate and transformational leadership also have a direct effect on teacher work motivation. Therefore to improve teacher job performance, organizational climate, transformational leadership, and work motivation must be considered to be improved.

  3. Scaffolding software: How does it influence student conceptual understanding and motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kyle A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of scaffolding software on student conceptual understanding and motivation. This study also provides insight on how students use the scaffolding features found in Artemis and the extent to which features show a relationship to student conceptual understanding and motivation. A Randomized Solomon Four Group Design was used in this study. As students worked through a project based unit over photosynthesis, the students performed information seeking activities that were based on their own inquiry. For this purpose, the students in the experimental group used an example of scaffolding software called Artemis, while the students in the control group used a search engine of their choice. To measure conceptual understanding, the researcher analyzed student generated concept maps on photosynthesis using three different methods (quantitative, qualitative, hierarchical). To measure motivation, the researcher used a survey that measured motivation on five different indicators: intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy for learning and performance. Finally, the researcher looked at the relationship and influence of the scaffolding features on two student performance scores at the end of the unit. This created a total of ten dependent variables in relationship to the treatment. Overall, the students used the collaborative features 25% of the time, the maintenance features 0.84% of the time, the organizational features 16% of the time, the saving/viewing features 7% of the time and the searching features 51% of the time. There were significant correlations between the saving/viewing features hits and the students' task value (r = .499, p motivation.

  4. Gifted Students' Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations and Parental Influence on Their Motivation: From the Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhamit, Yahya; Kreishan, Lana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to describe and investigate a sample of school gifted students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and the role of their parents in fostering motivational achievements in Jordan. In the study, 122 gifted students were selected to complete a questionnaire (adapted from Pelletier, Fortier and Vallerand et?al.)…

  5. Modern foraging: Presence of food and energy density influence motivational processing of food advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-12-01

    More energy dense foods are preferable from an optimal foraging perspective, which suggests these foods are more motivationally relevant due to their greater capability of fulfilling biological imperatives. This increase in motivational relevance may be exacerbated in circumstances where foraging will be necessary. This study examined how food energy density and presence of food in the immediate environment interacted to influence motivational processing of food advertisements. N = 58 adults viewed advertisements for foods varying in energy density in contexts where the advertised food was actually present in the viewing room or not. Advertisements for more energy dense foods elicited greater skin conductivity level compared to ads for less energy dense foods when food was not present. All ads elicited decreases in corrugator supercilii activation indicating positive emotional response resultant from appetitive motivational activation, though the greatest activation was exhibited toward higher energy density foods when food was present. This supports an optimal foraging perspective and has implications for healthy eating interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of patient's motivation on reported pain during orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio José da Silva Campos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients usually experience pain during orthodontic treatment. This fact can affect cooperation and the development of treatment. Reporting pain during treatment seems to be influenced by emotional aspects such as the patient's motivation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between patient's motivation and the intensity of reported pain during two stages of treatment. METHODS: Twenty males (11-37 years old answered a questionnaire divided into five categories regarding their motivation towards treatment. The subjects were studied for 14 days (7 days with bonded brackets and 7 days with the initial arch inserted and the intensity of pain was evaluated on a daily basis. All the issues, including the intensity of pain, were measured through the visual analog scale (VAS. RESULTS: The VAS-associated questionnaire proved to have good temporal reliability and reasonable internal consistency, being that the "perceived severity" domain had the greatest, although not significant (p = 0.196 correlation with pain intensity. Only the question asking the patients if they thought that their teeth were too uneven showed a positive correlation with pain intensity (p = 0.048. CONCLUSION: The results seem to indicate that the five categories related to treatment motivation cannot be used to predict discomfort during treatment. In addition, patients who think their teeth are too uneven may experience more severe pain due to greater force application after insertion of the initial arch.

  7. Amygdala mu-opioid receptors mediate the motivating influence of cue-triggered reward expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Nina T; Wassum, Kate M

    2017-02-01

    Environmental reward-predictive stimuli can retrieve from memory a specific reward expectation that allows them to motivate action and guide choice. This process requires the basolateral amygdala (BLA), but little is known about the signaling systems necessary within this structure. Here we examined the role of the neuromodulatory opioid receptor system in the BLA in such cue-directed action using the outcome-specific Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) test in rats. Inactivation of BLA mu-, but not delta-opioid receptors was found to dose-dependently attenuate the ability of a reward-predictive cue to selectively invigorate the performance of actions directed at the same unique predicted reward (i.e. to express outcome-specific PIT). BLA mu-opioid receptor inactivation did not affect the ability of a reward itself to similarly motivate action (outcome-specific reinstatement), suggesting a more selective role for the BLA mu-opioid receptor in the motivating influence of currently unobservable rewarding events. These data reveal a new role for BLA mu-opioid receptor activation in the cued recall of precise reward memories and the use of this information to motivate specific action plans. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Making Good Choices: How Autonomy Support Influences the Behavior Change and Motivation of Troubled and Troubling Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Autonomy is a basic human need having influence on motivation. Facilitating student autonomy is an essential ingredient of effective programs for maximizing internalized change and increasing motivation in troubled and troubling youth. This article examines the theoretical concepts of autonomy and control related to choices and considers their…

  9. Influence of Psychosocial Classroom Environment on Students' Motivation and Self-Regulation in Science Learning: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, Sunitadevi; Aldridge, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was two-fold: 1) to identify salient psychosocial features of the classroom environment that influence students' motivation and self-regulation in science learning; and 2) to examine the effect of the motivational constructs of learning goal orientation, science task value and self-efficacy in science learning on…

  10. The influence of motivating operations on generalization probes of specific mands by children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragale, Christina L; O'Reilly, Mark F; Aguilar, Jeannie; Pierce, Nigel; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of motivating operations on the generalization of newly taught mands across settings and communication partners for 3 children with autism. Two conditions were implemented prior to generalization probes. In the first condition, participants were given access to a preferred item until they rejected the item (i.e., abolishing operation). In the second condition, the item was not available to participants prior to generalization probes (i.e., establishing operation). The effects of these conditions on the generalization of newly taught mands were evaluated in a multielement design. Results indicated differentiated responding during generalization probes in which more manding with the target mand was observed following the presession no-access condition than in the presession access condition. These results support the consideration of motivating operations when assessing generalization of target mands to various untrained contexts.

  11. Environmental Practices. Motivations and Their Influence on the Level of Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Cruz del Río-Rama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify and analyze good environmental practices followed by the Thermal sector in Spain. It is also to analyze if the motivations that lead thermal establishments to implement environmental practices influence their level of implementation. The methodology used is the performance of a descriptive and regression analysis of the data obtained through a structured questionnaire. The target population consists of 112 health resorts, obtaining a sample size of 62 valid surveys, which implies a response rate of 55.36%. The results obtained have enabled the performance of an environmental diagnosis of the Thermal sector in Spain, identifying the strengths and weaknesses of Environmental Management, as well as corroborating that motivations affect the level of implementation of environmental practices.

  12. Enriching traditional biology lectures digital concept maps and their influence on cognition and motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Schaal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Higher education deals with complex knowledge and university teaching should focus on conceptual understanding. Adequate knowledge structures are essential and active knowledge construction should be supported for meaningful learning. But traditional lectures mostly are structured by slides which may misleadingly cause linear representations of knowledge. In this study, a framework for digital concept maps was developed to complement lectures in human biology. The course was aimed at student science teachers at the undergraduate level. The work is based on theoretical research on computer-supported learning, on knowledge structures perspectives within learning environments as well as on self-determination theory. Each session was supplemented by a digital, multimedia-enriched concept map. After each single lecture, students had free access to the concept maps to reinforce the latest topics. The objective of the study was to examine if the use of complementary concept maps (i influences achievement and (ii if motivational variables influence the use of the concept maps. In both cases, influences of computer-user self-efficacy were expected (iii. The students’ (N = 171 concept map use was logged, achievement was tested and motivational variables were surveyed (e.g. interest/ enjoyment, perceived competence, effort/ importance, value/usefulness. The logfile-data allowed distinguishing learners according to their concept map use. Results reveal the benefit of additional concept maps for achievement, positive motivational aspects and computer-user self-efficacy as mediating factors showed some influence. The emphasize of further research should be on students’ active engagement in structuring their individual learning by constructing concept maps themselves, especially in science education courses.

  13. Influence of motivation, self-efficacy and situational factors on the teaching quality of clinical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybowski, Christoph; Sehner, Susanne; Harendza, Sigrid

    2017-05-08

    Being exposed to good teachers has been shown to enhance students' knowledge and their clinical performance, but little is known about the underlying psychological mechanisms that provide the basis for being an excellent medical teacher. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) postulates that more self-regulated types of motivation are associated with higher performance. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) focuses on self-efficacy that has been shown to be positively associated with performance. To investigate the influences of different types of teaching motivation, teaching self-efficacy, and teachers' perceptions of students' skills, competencies and motivation on teaching quality. Before the winter semester 2014, physicians involved in bedside teaching in internal medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf completed a questionnaire with sociodemographic items and instruments measuring different dimensions of teaching motivation as well as teaching self-efficacy. During the semester, physicians rated their perceptions of the participating students who rated the teaching quality after each lesson. We performed a random intercept mixed-effects linear regression with students' ratings of teaching quality as the dependent variable and students' general interest in a subject as covariate. We explored potential associations between teachers' dispositions and their perceptions of students' competencies in a mixed-effects random intercept logistic regression. 94 lessons given by 55 teachers with 500 student ratings were analyzed. Neither teaching motivation nor teaching self-efficacy were directly associated with students' rating of teaching quality. Teachers' perceptions of students' competencies and students' general interest in the lesson's subject were positively associated with students' rating of teaching quality. Physicians' perceptions of their students' competencies were significantly positively predicted by their teaching self-efficacy. Teaching quality

  14. The Influence of Dengue Virus Serotype-2 Infection on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Motivation and Avidity to Blood Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Gandini, Mariana; Koella, Jacob C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a species that lives in close association with human dwellings. The behavior of DENV-infected mosquitoes needs further investigation, especially regarding the potential influence of DENV on mosquito biting motivation and avidity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We orally challenged 4-5 day-old Ae. aegypti females with a low passage DENV serotype -2 (DENV-2) to test whether the virus influences motivation to feed (the likelihood ...

  15. The Influence of Motivation of Public Officials on their Corrupt Behavior in the System of Public Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлий Анатольевич Нисневич

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the influence of motivation of public officials on their corrupt behavior. In the framework of normative-value conceptualization corruption is considered as anti-social, auto-destructive deviant behavior. The represented two-dimensional curve of motivation consists of two segments. The first, “thirst for recognition” segment consists of pro-social, positive and altruistic motives, and the second, “greed” segment consists of negative and selfish motives. This article shows that motivation, especially with external locus of control has a decisive influence on corrupt behavior as means of the goals achievement. Particularly, it directly allows public officials to use “aim justifies the means” principle, or indirectly predetermine the very aim of their actions.

  16. Motivated malleability: Frontal cortical asymmetry predicts the susceptibility to social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuerch, Robert; Pfattheicher, Stefan

    2017-07-16

    Humans, just as many other animals, regulate their behavior in terms of approaching stimuli associated with pleasure and avoiding stimuli linked to harm. A person's current and chronic motivational direction - that is, approach versus avoidance orientation - is reliably reflected in the asymmetry of frontal cortical low-frequency oscillations. Using resting electroencephalography (EEG), we show that frontal asymmetry is predictive of the tendency to yield to social influence: Stronger right- than left-side frontolateral activation during a resting-state session prior to the experiment was robustly associated with a stronger inclination to adopt a peer group's judgments during perceptual decision-making (Study 1). We posit that this reflects the role of a person's chronic avoidance orientation in socially adjusted behavior. This claim was strongly supported by additional survey investigations (Studies 2a, 2b, 2c), all of which consistently revealed that trait avoidance was positively linked to the susceptibility to social influence. The present contribution thus stresses the relevance of chronic avoidance orientation in social conformity, refining (yet not contradicting) the longstanding view that socially influenced behavior is motivated by approach-related goals. Moreover, our findings valuably underscore and extend our knowledge on the association between frontal cortical asymmetry and a variety of psychological variables.

  17. INFLUENCE OF ACUTE EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Serdar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative oxidative insult caused by exercise and smoking on biological systems are well documented, however, their cumulative influence needs to be clarified. In order to examine the collective effects of exercise and smoking on oxidant and antioxidant parameters, young male smokers (n=10 and non-smokers (n=10 made to perform a negative slope (10% cycling exercise for 30 minutes at individual load equivalent to 60% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Pre- and post-exercise (post-ex haematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, protein carbonyl formation and non-HDL oxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, serum ceruloplasmin (CER and urinary cotinine concentrations were evaluated. Pre-ex CER and urinary cotinine concentrations of smokers were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively compared to that of non-smokers and pre-ex CER concentrations were significantly correlated with cotinine levels in all subjects (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.01 increases were observed in non-HDL oxidation following the exercise in both groups and the elevations were more pronounced in smokers. Pre-ex SOD and GPX activities were not different between the two groups, however post-ex enzyme activities were significantly reduced in smokers (p<0.05. MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations were not different between the two groups and there were not any significant changes due to exercise.In conclusion, according to the results of the present study, we suggest that erythrocyte antioxidants SOD and GPX and plasma non-HDL are more prone to the possible oxidant damage of acute physical exercise in chronic smokers.

  18. Motivational factors influencing millennials to purchase and consume luxury brands : the influence of actual and ideal self-congruity on brand attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Arminen, Leena

    2017-01-01

    The thesis explores motivational factors that influence young consumers’ brand attitudes towards luxury brands. Former research in this field is rather small-scale and the objective of this research was to provide new insights regarding how different luxury value perceptions affect consumer motivation. Particularly the effects of actual and ideal self-congruity were in central focus of the study in order to find out how and to what extent these factors influence millennial cons...

  19. Influence of Career Motivation on Science Learning in Korean High-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sein; Lee, Jun-Ki; Ha, Minsu

    2017-01-01

    Motivation to learn is an essential element in science learning. In this study, the role of career motivation in science learning was examined. In particular, first, a science motivation model that focused on career motivation was tested. Second, the role of career motivation as a predictor of STEM track choice was examined. Third, the effect of…

  20. Overlapping genetic and child-specific nonshared environmental influences on listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Victoria J; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the genetic and environmental influences on observed associations between listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 284 pairs of twins at a mean age of 9.81 years. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for statistically significant variance in listening and reading comprehension, and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variance in reading motivation. Furthermore, listening comprehension demonstrated unique genetic and nonshared environmental influences but also had overlapping genetic influences with reading comprehension. Reading motivation and reading comprehension each had unique and overlapping nonshared environmental contributions. Therefore, listening comprehension appears to be related to reading primarily due to genetic factors whereas motivation appears to affect reading via child-specific, nonshared environmental effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Overlapping Genetic and Child-Specific Nonshared Environmental Influences on Listening Comprehension, Reading Motivation, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Victoria J.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the genetic and environmental influences on observed associations between listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 284 pairs of twins at a mean age of 9.81 years. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for statistically significant variance in listening and reading comprehension, and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variance in reading motivation. Furthermore, listening comprehension demonstrated unique genetic and nonshared environmental influences but also had overlapping genetic influences with reading comprehension. Reading motivation and reading comprehension each had unique and overlapping nonshared environmental contributions. Therefore, listening comprehension appears to be related to reading primarily due to genetic factors whereas motivation appears to affect reading via child-specific, nonshared environmental effects. PMID:26321677

  2. The Influence of Inquiry-Based Teaching on Male and Female Students' Motivation and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yen-Ruey; Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Chin, Chi-Chin

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of inquiry-based instruction on eighth-grade male and female students' motivation and engagement in science learning in two public junior high schools in central Taiwan. Mixed-methods methodology was adopted with 60 students (32 males and 28 females) in the experimental group and 56 students (28 males and 28 females) in the control group. The study lasted for one semester and six units using inquiry-based teaching (90-180 min each) were implemented in the experimental group. Questionnaires used for measuring students' motivation and engagement in science learning were administered as pre- and post-tests. In addition, eight to ten male and female students from both experimental and control groups, as well as two instructors were interviewed four times throughout the semester. Quantitative data were analyzed with t test and the interview data were fully transcribed and coded. Results show that male and female students under intervention expected to do more experiments because it improved their understanding. Male and female students under intervention also used more learning strategies. However, males benefited more than females from the intervention in regard to their motivation and engagement in learning science. Males improved more in motivational constructs, recognized the value of learning science, and increased their cognitive, behavioral, and emotional engagement because what they learned applied to real life. In contrast, females had higher exam anxiety and lower cognitive engagement due to mathematics fear, stronger sense of pride in class, and caring too much about the right answers.

  3. ANALYSIS OF MANAGERIAL INFLUENCE ON THE PERSONAL MOTIVATION IN ORGANISATIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina ILCIUC

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to make people work, the art of motivating others for a common goal, is essential to the success of any manager. Diagnosis of motivational and employee motivational factors can be considered a first step in developing an appropriate staff motivation policy. Thus, in this article we intended to analyse some of the motivational strategies that Moldovan organisations apply to their employees, what rewards systems are applied and how managers at various levels are involved in motivating staff.

  4. Influence of Ongoing Task Difficulty and Motivation Level on Children's Prospective Memory in a Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pi-Guo; Han, Lei; Bian, Yu-Long; Tian, Yu; Xu, Min-Xia; Gao, Feng-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the process associated with the task of realizing delayed intentions in the future. Researchers distinguish two types of PM, namely time-based PM (tbPM) and event-based PM (ebPM). Experiment 1 investigated the developmental trajectory of 3- to 5-year-old preschool children's PM ability, and the occurrence of delayed retrieval (children execute the PM task in a larger window of opportunity) in both tbPM and ebPM tasks. Results revealed that the 5-year-old children outperformed the 3- and 4-year-old children in PM. Moreover, delayed retrieval was more likely to occur in tbPM task than in ebPM task. In Experiment 2, the influence of ongoing task (OT) difficulty on PM performance was investigated with a sample of 5-year-old children. Results revealed no significant effect of OT difficulty on PM performance. In Experiment 3, we improved children's motivation level to complete the OT, then explored the influence of OT difficulty on children's PM performance. Results revealed that the effect of OT difficulty on PM performance became significant after increasing the children's motivation to complete the OT. These results provide insights into the mechanism of attentional resource allocation in PM tasks and have crucial educational and social implications.

  5. What Kinds of Volunteers become more motivated by Community Currency? : Influence of Perceptions of Reward on Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kurita (Ken-ichi); M. Yoshida (Masayuki); Y. Miyazaki (Yoshihisa)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLocal communities in Japan are struggling to increase the number of participants in volunteer activities in order to revitalize local life. To maintain the enthusiasm of active volunteers and entice new volunteers, a new type of reward to increase motivation is needed. Accordingly,

  6. Influence of trait behavioral inhibition and behavioral approach motivation systems on the LPP and frontal asymmetry to anger pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Poole, Bryan D

    2014-02-01

    Behavioral approach and avoidance are fundamental to the experience of emotion and motivation, but the motivational system associated with anger is not well established. Some theories posit that approach motivational processes underlie anger, whereas others posit that avoidance motivational processes underlie anger. The current experiment sought to address whether traits related to behavioral approach or avoidance influence responses to anger stimuli using multiple measures: ERP, electroencephalographic (EEG) α-asymmetry and self-report. After completing the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral approach system (BIS/BAS) scales, participants viewed anger pictures and neutral pictures. BAS predicted larger late positive potentials (LPPs) to anger pictures, but not to neutral pictures. In addition, BAS predicted greater left-frontal asymmetry to anger pictures. Moreover, larger LPPs to anger pictures related to greater left-frontal EEG asymmetry during anger pictures. These results suggest that trait approach motivation relates to neurophysiological responses of anger.

  7. The Influence of Content on Adult L2 Learners’ Task Motivation: An Interest Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Poupore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the influence of content-related conditions on adult second language learners’ task motivation during interactive tasks. It also aims to identify what is referred to as interestingness conditions within task content, that is, elements that are intrinsically interesting to most individuals. The investigation was conducted with 38 adult Korean English learners of intermediate proficiency in a conversation course as part of a TESOL certificate program. Using a mixed methods approach to research, results from a task motivation questionnaire, a topic preference questionnaire, and interviews show that content associated with immediate personal life themes such as personal growth, human relationships, and life challenges is perceived to be more intrinsically interesting than that associated with more remote and abstract topics such as those related to global issues and current affairs. Consequently, incorporating life themes into adult-based courses, especially through story-based texts, may act as an important springboard for active motivational engagement during task-based interaction. Résumé Cette étude examine l’influence des conditions, en fonction du contenu, de certaines tâches interactives sur la motivation d’adultes apprenant une langue seconde. L’étude cherche également à identifier ce qui est appelé des conditions favorisant l’intérêt en rapport au contenu des tâches, c’est-à-dire des éléments qui s’avèrent intrinsèquement intéressants pour la plupart des individus. Cette étude a été menée auprès de 38 apprenants d’anglais, soit des adultes coréens de niveau intermédiaire inscrits à un cours de conversation faisant partie d’un programme de certificat en enseignement de l’anglais langue seconde. L’étude a été entreprise selon une approche méthodologique mixte de recherche. Les résultats proviennent d’un questionnaire traitant de la motivation des

  8. Relationship Between Career Aspirations and Measures of Motivation Toward Biology and Physics, and the Influence of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Chantara, Soontornpathai

    2011-12-01

    A student's motivational orientation is considered to be a predictor of a range of related education decisions, from attending classes to choosing a particular course or a profession. This survey study conducted with student volunteers (males = 519; females = 904) enrolled in secondary school science-math academic stream in Thailand investigated the relationship between measures of motivation (achievement goal orientation and physics and biology classroom anxiety) and aspirations for high earning science and math related careers. Results of multiple discriminant analyses showed gender differences in the motivational factors that influence career aspirations. Our interpretation of the findings highlights the significance of cultural beliefs about gender in decision making for careers.

  9. The Influence of the Economic Students’ Motivations and Language Learning Strategies towards Their English Achievement in STIE Muhammadiyah Palopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iksan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: (1 to investigate the students’ motivations, (2 to investigate the language learning strategies (LLSs that are used by the students, (3 to investigate the level of students’ LLSs usage, and (4 to investigate the influence of the students’ motivations and the level of students’ LLSs usage towards their English competence. This research gave descriptions about the students’ motivations, LLSs that are used by the students, and the level of students’ LLSs usage. The sample of this research was 111 students that were taken from three classes of the first year students from three study programs, i.e. Ilmu Ekonomi, Manajemen, and Akuntansi. This research revealed that the students were categorized into high motivated to learn English where 70 students (63% had high motivation, 25 students (23% had very high motivation, 13 students (12% had medium motivation, and 3 students (3% had low motivation. This research also found that the students were dominantly used metacognitive strategies (44%, followed by compensation strategies (18%, affective strategies (14%, social strategies (10%, cognitive strategies (8%, and the least used strategies were memory strategies (6%. For the level of the students’ language learning strategies usage, the researcher found that the students level were categorized into medium, where 78 students (70% mediumly used the LLSs, 30 students (27% highly used the LLSs, 2 students (2% lowly used the LLSs, and 1 student (1% very highly used the LLSs.

  10. Pharmacogenetics Influence Treatment Efficacy in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devidsen, M.L.; Dalhoff, K.; Schmiegelow, K.

    2008-01-01

    in treatment resistance and toxic side effects. As most childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment protocols include up to 13 different chemotherapeutic agents, the impact of individual SNPs has been difficult to evaluate. So far Focus has mainly been on the widely used glucocorticosteroids, methotrexate...

  11. Influence of Nerve Flossing Technique on acute sciatica and hip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-08-21

    Aug 21, 2015 ... Physiotherapy treatment of acute sciatica includes cold therapy, rest, manual therapy (spinal manipulation and soft tissue mobilization) and electrotherapy.[9]. Other forms of management include aerobic conditioning, core muscle strengthening, stretching of tight structures, mechanical traction and corsets.

  12. Drinking status but not acute alcohol consumption influences delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sally; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the following: (a) the effects of acute alcohol on delay discounting; (b) the effects of drinking status on delayed discounting; and (c) whether these effects differ according to reward type (alcohol vs. money). Heavy and light social alcohol users (n = 96) were randomized to receive either an acute dose of alcohol at 0.4 or 0.6 g/kg or placebo in a between-subjects, double-blind design. Delay discounting of alcohol and monetary rewards was measured using a hyperbolic model, with higher scores indicative of greater delay discounting. ANOVA of discount scores indicated a main effect of reward type, where all participants had higher discount scores for alcohol versus money rewards. A main effect of drinking status was also observed, where heavier drinkers had higher discount scores compared with lighter drinkers. We did not observe a main effect of acute alcohol use on delay discounting or the hypothesized interactions between acute alcohol use and drinking status with reward type. Our data suggest that heavier drinkers discount the value of delayed rewards more steeply than lighter drinkers. Delay discounting may therefore be a promising marker of heavy alcohol consumption in social drinkers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effect of failure/success feedback and the moderating influence of personality on reward motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Deepika; Oehlberg, Katherine A; Treadway, Michael T; Nusslock, Robin

    2016-01-01

    While motivation to pursue goals is often assumed to be a trait-like characteristic, it is influenced by a variety of situational factors. In particular, recent experiences of success or failure, as well as cognitive responses to these outcomes, may shape subsequent willingness to expend effort for future rewards. To date, however, these effects have not been explicitly tested. In the present study, 131 healthy individuals received either failure or success feedback on a cognitive task. They were then instructed to either ruminate or distract themselves from their emotions. Finally, they completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task, a laboratory measure of reward motivation. Results indicate that participants who received failure feedback relied more strongly on the reward magnitude when choosing whether to exert greater effort to obtain larger rewards, though this effect only held under conditions of significant uncertainty about whether the effort would be rewarded. Further, participants with high levels of trait inhibition were less responsive to reward value and probability when choosing whether to expend greater effort, results that echo past studies of effort-based decision-making in psychological disorders.

  14. Influence of packing motives on charge Carrier mobility in perylene tetracarboxdiimide derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Falk; Andrienko, Denis [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Marcon, Valentina [Center of Smart Interfaces, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Discotic mesophases are known for their ability to self-assemble into columnar structures and can serve as semiconducting molecular wires. Charge carrier mobility along these wires strongly depends on molecular packing which is controlled by intermolecular interactions. In this work we compare the influence of side chains on the packing motives of perylene tetracarboxdiimide (PDI) derivatives. Two different (alkyl and glycol) side chains are considered. We first establish how the packing of side chains affects the molecular orientation within the columns using molecular dynamics. Then, using the high temperature non-adiabatic limit of Marcus theory for hopping rates and solving the rate equation for charge transport, we analyze the link between the secondary structure and charge carrier mobility. This analysis eventually provides a pathway to rational design of columnar assemblies of PDI derivatives with high charge mobilities.

  15. Role of parental autonomy support on self-determination in influencing diet and exercise motivation in older adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison SA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shannon A Morrison, Carol J Dashiff, David E Vance School of Nursing, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Parental influence to promote autonomy and self-determination in their children as they grow up may also motivate them to exercise and eat healthily. Unfortunately, nutritious dietary consumption and physical activity frequency tend to decline during the adolescent years and reaches its lowest level as the adolescent nears adulthood. In this study of 132 freshman and sophomore college students, the influence of parental autonomy support on overall adolescents self-determination was examined to determine whether self-determination influences adolescents' motivation to engage in healthy diet and exercise behaviors. Utilizing hierarchical multiple regression analyses, parental autonomy support was not predictive of older adolescents' motivation for diet and exercise; however, study results did indicate that parental autonomy support remains highly influential in adolescent self-determination (F[2, 130] = 22.21; P = 0.001 during early college years and that in this sample, adolescent self-determination is predictive of motivation for diet (t = 2.21; P < 0.05, but not exercise. Findings suggest that parental autonomy support continues to influence adolescent internalization of attitudes and behaviors during latter adolescence, but may play a lessor role in motivation for specific health-related behaviors as the adolescent nears adulthood. A better understanding of health motivation antecedents of adolescents may facilitate nurses develop new approaches to health-promotion strategies. Keywords: parental autonomy support, self-determination, adolescent health behaviors, motivation

  16. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 different occasions, 16 men and women consumed a high-fat milk shake followed by either 16 ounces of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or bottled water. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours following intake of the milk shake and analyzed for triglycerides (TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC. Results Values for TAG and MDA ( P 0.05. Conclusions Acute coffee consumption following a high-fat milk shake has no impact on postprandial oxidative stress.

  17. Social influence and motivation to change health behaviors among Mexican-origin adults: implications for diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Wilkinson, Anna V; Koehly, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether influence from social network members is associated with motivation to change dietary and physical activity behaviors. Baseline assessment followed by mailing of family health history-based personalized messages (2 weeks) and follow-up assessment (3 months). Families from an ongoing population-based cohort in Houston, Texas. 475 adults from 161 Mexican-origin families. Out of 347 households contacted, 162 (47%) participated. Family health history, social networks, and motivation to change behaviors. Two-level logistic regression modeling. Having at least one network member who encourages one to eat more fruits and vegetables (p = .010) and to engage in regular physical activity (p = .046) was associated with motivation to change the relevant behavior. About 40% of the participants did not have encouragers for these behaviors. Identification of new encouragers within networks and targeting natural encouragers (e.g., children, spouses) may increase the efficacy of interventions to motivate behavioral changes among Mexican-origin adults.

  18. Differential influences of achievement approach goals and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation on help-seeking in e-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance yet paucity of help-seeking in e-learning, the present study investigated the motivational antecedents of help-seeking among online college students. We explored and compared the influences of achievement approach goals from the old and new achievement motivation models (Elliot & McGregor, 2001; Elliot, Murayama, & Pekrun, 2011 on online students’ help-seeking through intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. Path analyses were used to test two models of help-seeking among college students from four online educational psychology classes (N = 93 based on the two models of achievement goals. Our results showed that the new 3 × 2 model was a better fit than the old 2 × 2 model, suggesting that the achievement approach goals of the new model differ from those of the old model conceptually as Elliot, Murayama, and Pekrun (2011 posited. Second, our results revealed both unexpected direct and indirect positive influence of performance- and other-approach goals on online students’ help-seeking behaviour through extrinsic motivation. Third, while mastery-approach goals indirectly predicted help-seeking through intrinsic motivation, self- and task-approach predicted help-seeking in a dramatically different manner. Self-approach goals displayed indirect influence on help-seeking through intrinsic motivation similar to mastery-approach, yet task-approach displayed a negative direct influence on help-seeking. These results suggested the potential positive impact of self-approach and the detrimental influence of task-approach goals on help-seeking in e-learning environment. Conceptual issues and pedagogical implications for online instructions are discussed.

  19. The Influence of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation on Employee Perfomance at Bank Sulut Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Mundung, Shintya Ervina Donna; Pangemanan, Sifrid Pangemanan

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is the basic desire why people do job and performance of employee have a strong related with employee's motivation and the purpose of this study was to investigate how two variable of motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic motivation) based on Herzberg (1966) that affect employee performance, A conceptual framework based on Human Resources Management, was utilized to form 2 hypotheses predicting the causality between the different variables. After validating the scale to data gathered...

  20. The Influence of Teacher Motivation in the Context of Performance-Based Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jason E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine teacher motivation in the context of performance-based compensation systems. The researcher specifically sought to address four research questions: 1. To what extent are teachers motivated for behavioristic/economic reasons and extrinsic rewards? 2. To what extent are teachers motivated for altruistic/PSM…

  1. Age differences in attitude change: influences of cognitive resources and motivation on responses to argument quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Chen, Yiwei

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the influences of cognitive resources and motivation on how young and older adults process different quantities of persuasive arguments. In the first experiment session, both young and older adults rated their attitudes toward marijuana legalization and capital punishment. After a week, they read either 3 or 9 similar-quality arguments supporting marijuana legalization and capital punishment. Half of participants were assigned to the high-involvement condition (i.e., told that they were going to discuss the arguments later with the experimenter) and the other half were assigned to the low-involvement condition (i.e., given no instructions). After reading the arguments, participants rated their attitudes toward those 2 social issues again. Highly involved young adults changed their attitudes regardless of the quantity of arguments, whereas lowly involved young adults' attitude change was influenced by the argument quantity. Older adults in both high-involvement and low-involvement conditions changed their attitudes according to the argument quantity. Working memory was found to mediate the age effects on attitude change. This finding demonstrated the importance of a cognitive mechanism in accounting for age differences in attitude change.

  2. The influence of preliminary motivation on successful realization of the artistic task

    OpenAIRE

    Tancoš, Teja

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of theory of my thesis I present the motivation during the lessons. In this chapter I dealt with both sorts of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic as well as the relation between them. I also focused on the theories of motivation. In the second part of the theory I explored the problem of the preliminary motivation at the subject of art that has a great impact on the execution of the teaching process. I wrote about how to motivate in the preliminary part of the lesson. I...

  3. Perception Shapes Experience: The Influence of Actual and Perceived Classroom Environment Dimensions on Girls' Motivations for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Juliette; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2013-01-01

    The classroom environment influences students' academic outcomes, but it is often students' perceptions that shape their classroom experiences. Our study examined the extent to which observed classroom environment features shaped perceptions of the classroom, and explained levels of, and changes in, girls' motivation in junior secondary school…

  4. When does taking a break help in negotiations? The influence of breaks and social motivation on negotiation processes and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harinck, F.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2011-01-01

    Most negotiations are interrupted from time to time to reflect on the negotiation or to do other pressing tasks. This study investigated how these breaks and the thoughts during these breaks influence subsequent negotiation behavior. Prosocially motivated dyads, with a tendency to think

  5. The Influence of Ability Beliefs and Motivational Orientation on the Self-Efficacy of High School Science Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Koul, Ravinder; Sujivorakul, Chuchai

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of entity beliefs, gender stereotypes and motivational goals on participants' self-efficacy in biology and physics and their career aspirations. Participants (n = 2638, males 46% and females 54%) were students enrolled in Years 10-12 of the academic science-maths stream in Thailand. Entity beliefs were…

  6. Using Extrinsic Motivation to Influence Student Attitude and Behavior toward State Assessments at an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to discover the influence of a student achievement program implemented at one large urban high school that employed extrinsic motivation to promote student achievement on state assessments. Using organismic integration theory as the theoretical framework, 19 randomly selected students participated…

  7. Work Ethic, Motivation, and Parental Influences in Chinese and North American Children Learning to Play the Piano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Gilles; Huta, Veronika; Liu, YiFei

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 50 Chinese and 100 North American Caucasian children aged 6 to 17 who were learning piano, in terms of their work ethic, motivation, and parental influences. Compared to North American Caucasians, Chinese children and parents believed more strongly that musical ability requires hard work, and Chinese children were more…

  8. The Influence of Parents' Involvement on Children with Special Needs' Motivation and Learning Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariroh, Siti

    2018-01-01

    Some of the abnormal children face burden, distraction, interruption, tardiness, or risk factors so that they cannot get an optimum growth without special treatment or intervention. This study was aimed at discovering the influence of parents' involvement to the learning motivation and achievement of children with different abilities. This…

  9. Influence of Web-Aided Cooperative Learning Environment on Motivation and on Self-Efficacy Belief in Biology Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevedanli, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the web-aided cooperative learning environment on biology preservice teachers' motivation and on their self-efficacy beliefs in biology teaching. The study was carried out with 30 biology preservice teachers attending a state university in Turkey. In the study, the pretest-posttest…

  10. The influence of teacher perceived administration of self-regulated learning on students' motivation and information-processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, JS; Minnaert, A; Boekaerts, M

    This study investigates the influence of teacher perceived administration of self-regulated learning on students' motivation and information-processing over time. This was done in the context of the Interactive Learning group System (ILS (R)): a large-scale innovation program in Dutch vocational

  11. A Study on the Influence of Home Environment on Autonomous Motivation Toward Study in Junior High School Students : Focus on Father's Home Participation and Marital Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    尾形, 和男

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed at considering the influence which the marital relationship based on a father's home participation has on a child's autonomous motivation toward study. 334 university students(mean age 19.22 years)completed questionnaires designed to investigate the relation among marital relationships, father's and mother's autonomous motivation to their children's study, autonomous support, children's motivational traits, and children's autonomous motivation toward study in their junior ...

  12. How does confirmation of motivations influence on the pre- and post-visit change of image of a destination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Beerli-Palacio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyse the influence of the confirmation of the motivations of tourists in changing image of a tourist destination pre- and post-visit. That is, considering whether once the tourist has made the trip, depending on whether their expectations have been met and confirmed motivations, will have a more or less image gap. Design/methodology/approach - The authors conducted an empirical study with a representative sample of leisure tourists to Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain of both sexes, 16 or more years of age, and visiting the island of Tenerife for the first time from abroad and from the rest of Spain. The final sample was 411 participants. Findings - The results verify that the confirmation of the intellectual and escape motivations influences directly and positively change cognitive image pre- and post-visit. The fact that the affiliation motivations do not influence the cognitive image gap may be due to that tourists who visit a destination stay with friends or family and for this they interact less with the destination, which will imply that the cognitive image pre- and post-visit do not vary. Originality/value - This research has sought to contribute towards a better understanding of the area, which is concerned, with the image of destinations and, more specifically, the concept of how the image changes after a visit to the destination. In this sense, and given the of lack empirical evidence about how confirmation of motivations influences on destination image gap, this research aims to contribute to the improvement of knowledge about the personal factors that influence the change of the pre- and post-visit destination image.

  13. Influence of Acute Normobaric Hypoxia on Hemostasis in Volunteers with and without Acute Mountain Sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schaber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a 12-hour exposure in a normobaric hypoxic chamber would induce changes in the hemostatic system and a procoagulant state in volunteers suffering from acute mountain sickness (AMS and healthy controls. Materials and Methods. 37 healthy participants were passively exposed to 12.6% FiO2 (simulated altitude hypoxia of 4,500 m. AMS development was investigated by the Lake Louise Score (LLS. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, and platelet count were measured and specific methods (i.e., thromboelastometry and a thrombin generation test were used. Results. AMS prevalence was 62.2% (LLS cut off of 3. For the whole group, paired sample t-tests showed significant increase in the maximal concentration of generated thrombin. ROTEM measurements revealed a significant shortening of coagulation time and an increase of maximal clot firmness (InTEM test. A significant increase in maximum clot firmness could be shown (FibTEM test. Conclusions. All significant changes in coagulation parameters after exposure remained within normal reference ranges. No differences with regard to measured parameters of the hemostatic system between AMS-positive and -negative subjects were observed. Therefore, the hypothesis of the acute activation of coagulation by hypoxia can be rejected.

  14. Influence of age, sex, and race on college students' exercise motivation of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W; Melton, Bridget F; Czech, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive research design was employed. Significant differences were found in 3 of 14 exercise motivational subscales by age (affiliation, health pressures, and ill health avoidance) (p motivated by intrinsic factors (strength, competition, and challenge) (p motivations (p motivations in college-aged population by demographics were documented. Understanding these differences is important for college health professionals for programming strategies and promoting physical activity.

  15. How do rewards and management styles influence the motivation to share knowledge?

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Mie

    2008-01-01

    How to motivate knowledge sharing is of crucial importance to many companies. This paper analyzes individual knowledge sharing behavior in a self-determination theory (SDT) perspective. The primary aim is to explore what type of motivation predicts knowledge sharing behavior and how this type of motivation is affected by reward structures and management styles in organizations. The paper builds on survey and interview data from a pilot case study and provides statistical evidence of a strong ...

  16. The influence of implicit achievement motive and graphological variables on learning variables

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Nicole; Kreuzpointner, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    There are several methods of implicit measurement. A very valid and wide spread assessment of motives by using the technique of projection are picture story exercises (PSE). Graphology, as theory of inferences on personality and motives by analyses of handwriting, is another one. The presented study examines the commons of these both measurement methods and their prediction of achievement behaviour. So, the achievement motive of 189 students was assessed using the PSE of Heckhausen (1963) and...

  17. Perceived barriers and motivating factors influencing student midwives' acceptance of rural postings in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, Jody R; Rominski, Sarah D; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Muriu, Eunice W; Kweku, Nakua E; Agyei-Baffour, Peter

    2012-07-24

    Research on the mal-distribution of health care workers has focused mainly on physicians and nurses. To meet the Millennium Development Goal Five and the reproductive needs of all women, it is predicted that an additional 334,000 midwives are needed. Despite the on-going efforts to increase this cadre of health workers there are still glaring gaps and inequities in distribution. The objectives of this study are to determine the perceived barriers and motivators influencing final year midwifery students' acceptance of rural postings in Ghana, West Africa. An exploratory qualitative study using focus group interviews as the data collection strategy was conducted in two of the largest midwifery training schools in Ghana. All final year midwifery students from the two training schools were invited to participate in the focus groups. A purposive sample of 49 final year midwifery students participated in 6 focus groups. All students were women. Average age was 23.2 years. Glaser's constant comparative method of analysis was used to identify patterns or themes from the data. Three themes were identified through a broad inductive process: 1) social amenities; 2) professional life; and 3) further education/career advancement. Together they create the overarching theme, quality of life, we use to describe the influences on midwifery students' decision to accept a rural posting following graduation. In countries where there are too few health workers, deployment of midwives to rural postings is a continuing challenge. Until more midwives are attracted to work in rural, remote areas health inequities will exist and the targeted reduction for maternal mortality will remain elusive.

  18. Perceived barriers and motivating factors influencing student midwives’ acceptance of rural postings in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Jody R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the mal-distribution of health care workers has focused mainly on physicians and nurses. To meet the Millennium Development Goal Five and the reproductive needs of all women, it is predicted that an additional 334,000 midwives are needed. Despite the on-going efforts to increase this cadre of health workers there are still glaring gaps and inequities in distribution. The objectives of this study are to determine the perceived barriers and motivators influencing final year midwifery students’ acceptance of rural postings in Ghana, West Africa. Methods An exploratory qualitative study using focus group interviews as the data collection strategy was conducted in two of the largest midwifery training schools in Ghana. All final year midwifery students from the two training schools were invited to participate in the focus groups. A purposive sample of 49 final year midwifery students participated in 6 focus groups. All students were women. Average age was 23.2 years. Glaser’s constant comparative method of analysis was used to identify patterns or themes from the data. Results Three themes were identified through a broad inductive process: 1 social amenities; 2 professional life; and 3 further education/career advancement. Together they create the overarching theme, quality of life, we use to describe the influences on midwifery students’ decision to accept a rural posting following graduation. Conclusions In countries where there are too few health workers, deployment of midwives to rural postings is a continuing challenge. Until more midwives are attracted to work in rural, remote areas health inequities will exist and the targeted reduction for maternal mortality will remain elusive.

  19. Environmental Influences on Adult Motivation for Career Choice in Science Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett-Adams, Victoria Joan

    Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education is an issue of great concern for the country with implications for sustaining a skilled workforce in science-based professions. This empirical study explored adults' science career choice and explored the environmental influences that motivated, influenced and shaped these choices. This qualitative study used the analytical lens of narrative inquiry storytelling and thick description. Participants lived in medium-sized rural towns and a small city, and they were adults who had been in science careers for a minimum of ten years in the fields of health care, education and agriculture. Interviews were semi-structured with open-ended questions and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Observations took place at the workplace site. The interview transcripts were reviewed with each participant in person for authenticity and additional specific questions were designed to further explore their responses, meaning and provide accurate interpretations of the data. Themes and subthemes emerged from coding the data and suggested four dominant themes: people, identity, beliefs and attitudes, and feelings. Findings showed that people such as parents, grandparents, siblings and teachers were most influential in forming identity as well as shaping beliefs and attitudes, and feelings in science career choice. Participants did not remember educational experiences as influential; however, they did remember some teachers and advisors as influential, especially during college. The researcher recommends that parents and other adults build relationships with students specifically to discuss career opportunities. Parents and teachers should increase their knowledge and awareness of science careers. This knowledge can then contribute to a more informed conversation when discussing career objectives with students. Industry should partner with K-16 education to help develop a scientific workforce and participate in further career

  20. Influence of chronic internal and acute external irradiations on the critical tissues of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, O.P.; Ryasnenko, N.A.; Grodzins'kij, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Peculiarities of chronic internal and acute external irradiations of the critical (as for irradiation influence) plants part, meristem, are studied. In particular, the investigation has aimed to evaluate the level of doses, accumulated by plant tissues, of the chronic internal irradiation from radiocaesium incorporated by them, and to compare its possible effect to one caused by the acute external irradiation. It is shown that the effects of both chronic and acute irradiations have similar features, and it is assumed that they have the very same mechanisms. We think that such a parameter of the plant ability to accumulate radiocaesium as the ratio of its content in a root tip and in the whole root system is a very sensible and useful criterion to estimate the irradiation influence on plants

  1. Process of making decisions on loan currency: Influence of representativeness on information processing and coherence with consumption motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationality of decision maker is often reduced by heuristics and biases, and also by different types of external stimuli. In decision-making process individuals simplify phases of information selection and information processing by using heuristics, simple rules which are focused on one aspect of complex problem and ignore other aspects, and in that way 'speed up' decision-making process. This method of making decisions, although efficient in making simple decisions, can lead to mistakes in probability assessment and diminish rationality of decision maker. In that way it can influence drastically on transaction outcome for which decision is being made. The subject of this study is influence of representativeness heuristic on making financial decisions by individuals, and influence of consumption motives on stereotypical elements in information processing phase. Study was conducted by determining attitudes of respondents toward currencies, and then by conducting experiments with aim of analyzing method of making decisions on loan currency. Aim of study was determining whether and to what extent representativeness influence choice of currency in process of making loan decisions. Results of conducted behavioral experiments show that respondents, opposite to rational model, do not asses probability by processing available information and in accordance with their preferences, but by comparing decision objects with other objects which have same attributes, showing in that way moderate positive correlation between stereotypical attitudes and choice of loan currency. Experiments have shown that instrumental motive significantly influence representativeness heuristics, that is, individuals are prone to process information with diminished influence of stereotypical attitudes caused by external stimuli, in situations where there is no so called 'hedonistic decision-making'. Respondents have been making more efficient decisions if they had motive which does

  2. Influence of pre-existing inflammation on the outcome of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odeberg, J.; Freitag, M.; Forssell, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation is a well-established risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, less is known about its influence on the outcome of ACS. The aim of this study was to determine if blood biomarkers of inflammation were...... that a pre-existing low-grade inflammation may dispose towards MI over UA....

  3. An exploration of motivations for two screen viewing, social interaction behaviors, and factors that influence viewing intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hongjin; Oh, Poong; Song, Hyunjin; Lee, Yeonkyung

    2015-03-01

    This study explores whether, and how, motivations for two screen viewing predicted social interaction behaviors and subsequent viewing intention of TV programs. A total of 453 respondents who responded that they use social networking sites (SNSs) via smartphones and actively watch entertainment programs completed an online survey questionnaire. In agreement with uses and gratifications assumptions, motivations for TSV predicted distinctive sets of social interaction behaviors, which mediated the influence of motivations on viewing intentions. Respondents' two screen viewing was meaningfully related with social interaction, engagement with programs, information seeking, and passing time. Results suggest that two screen viewing could provide shared experiences nourishing social capital and reintegrate TV audiences by social adhesive resulting from TV with SNSs.

  4. Continuing to drive while sleepy: the influence of sleepiness countermeasures, motivation for driving sleepy, and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher N; Armstrong, Kerry A; Obst, Patricia L; Smith, Simon S

    2014-12-01

    Driver sleepiness is a major contributor to road crashes. The current study sought to examine the association between perceptions of effectiveness of six sleepiness countermeasures and their relationship with self-reports of continuing to drive while sleepy among 309 drivers after controlling for the influence of age, sex, motivation for driving sleepy, and risk perception of sleepy driving. The results demonstrate that the variables of age, sex, motivation, and risk perception were significantly associated with self-reports of continuing to drive while sleepy and only one countermeasure was associated with self-reports of continuing to drive while sleepy. Further, it was found that age differences in self-reports of continuing to drive while sleepy was mediated by participants' motivation and risk perception. These findings highlight modifiable factors that could be focused on with interventions that seek to modify drivers' attitudes and behaviours of driving while sleepy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Procedural justice and the hedonic principle: How approach versus avoidance motivation influences the psychology of voice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Prooijen, J.W.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; van Beest, I.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigate the relation between the hedonic principle (people's motivations to approach pleasure and to avoid pain) and procedural justice. They explore whether approach or avoidance motivation increases the effect that people feel they were treated more fairly following procedures that

  6. Hope and Anxiety in Physics Class: Exploring Their Motivational Antecedents and Influence on Metacognition and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Antonio; Fernández, María-Victoria Carrera; Paoloni, Paola-Verónica

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on achievement in science asserts that motivation, emotion, and metacognition are important driving forces for learning. This study sought to examine the relationships between two physics class emotions (hope and anxiety), their motivational predictors (instrumentality and self-efficacy), and their effects on metacognitive problem…

  7. Foreign Language Learning Motivation in the Japanese Context: Social and Political Influences on Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita McEown, Maya; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Harada, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    The study focuses on the role of different theories when considered together in a foreign language other than English (LOTE) context. Specifically, the study examines (a) to what extent influential second language (L2) motivational theories, when integrated, explain motivation to learn LOTEs, and (b) how the powerful status of English in Japan…

  8. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  9. Parental Influences on the Academic Motivation of Gifted Students: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    The home environment that parents provide their gifted children can have a significant impact on academic motivation, yet limited research has focused on this topic. Self-determination theory, a comprehensive framework of motivation, was used in the current study to explore two research questions: (a) What attitudes do parents of gifted students…

  10. The influence of mental fatigue and motivation on neural network dynamics; an EEG coherence study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, Monicque M.; Bezdan, Eniko; Caat, Michael ten; Span, Mark M.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of mental fatigue and motivation on neural network dynamics activated during task switching. Mental fatigue was induced by 2 h of continuous performance; after which subjects were motivated by using social comparison and monetary reward as

  11. The motivational theory of role modeling : How role models influence role aspirants' goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenroth, Thekla; Ryan, Michelle K.; Peters, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Role models are often suggested as a way of motivating individuals to set and achieve ambitious goals, especially for members of stigmatized groups in achievement settings. Yet, the literature on role models tends not to draw on the motivational literature to explain how role models may help role

  12. Motivational Constructs Influencing Undergraduate Students' Choices to become Classroom Music Teachers or Music Performers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Kelly A.; Jones, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether any of the six motivational constructs in the expectancy-value model of motivation (i.e., expectancy, ability perceptions, intrinsic interest value, attainment value, social utility value, and cost) would predict whether students intended to have a career teaching classroom music or…

  13. Fundamental movement skills and motivational factors influencing engagement in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaja, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony

    2010-08-01

    To assess whether subgroups based on children's fundamental movement skills, perceived competence, and self-determined motivation toward physical education vary with current self-reported physical activity, a sample of 316 Finnish Grade 7 students completed fundamental movement skills measures and self-report questionnaires assessing perceived competence, self-determined motivation toward physical education, and current physical activity. Cluster analysis indicated a three-cluster structure: "Low motivation/low skills profile," "High skills/low motivation profile," and "High skills/high motivation profile." Analysis of variance indicated that students in the third cluster engaged in significantly more physical activity than students of clusters one and two. These results provide support for previous claims regarding the importance of the relationship of fundamental movement skills with continuing engagement in physical activity. High fundamental movement skills, however, may represent only one element in maintaining adolescents' engagement in physical activity.

  14. A review of the automated detection and classification of acute leukaemia: Coherent taxonomy, datasets, validation and performance measurements, motivation, open challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalem, M A; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Hashim, M; Madhloom, H T; Azeez, N D; Alsyisuf, S

    2018-05-01

    Acute leukaemia diagnosis is a field requiring automated solutions, tools and methods and the ability to facilitate early detection and even prediction. Many studies have focused on the automatic detection and classification of acute leukaemia and their subtypes to promote enable highly accurate diagnosis. This study aimed to review and analyse literature related to the detection and classification of acute leukaemia. The factors that were considered to improve understanding on the field's various contextual aspects in published studies and characteristics were motivation, open challenges that confronted researchers and recommendations presented to researchers to enhance this vital research area. We systematically searched all articles about the classification and detection of acute leukaemia, as well as their evaluation and benchmarking, in three main databases: ScienceDirect, Web of Science and IEEE Xplore from 2007 to 2017. These indices were considered to be sufficiently extensive to encompass our field of literature. Based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria, 89 articles were selected. Most studies (58/89) focused on the methods or algorithms of acute leukaemia classification, a number of papers (22/89) covered the developed systems for the detection or diagnosis of acute leukaemia and few papers (5/89) presented evaluation and comparative studies. The smallest portion (4/89) of articles comprised reviews and surveys. Acute leukaemia diagnosis, which is a field requiring automated solutions, tools and methods, entails the ability to facilitate early detection or even prediction. Many studies have been performed on the automatic detection and classification of acute leukaemia and their subtypes to promote accurate diagnosis. Research areas on medical-image classification vary, but they are all equally vital. We expect this systematic review to help emphasise current research opportunities and thus extend and create additional research fields. Copyright

  15. Introspective responses to cues and motivation to reduce cigarette smoking influence state and behavioral responses to cue exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we aimed to extend smoking cue-reactivity research by evaluating delay discounting as an outcome of cigarette cue exposure. We also separated introspection in response to cues (e.g., self-reporting craving and affect) from cue exposure alone, to determine if introspection changes behavioral responses to cigarette cues. Finally, we included measures of quit motivation and resistance to smoking to assess motivational influences on cue exposure. Smokers were invited to participate in an online cue-reactivity study. Participants were randomly assigned to view smoking images or neutral images, and were randomized to respond to cues with either craving and affect questions (e.g., introspection) or filler questions. Following cue exposure, participants completed a delay discounting task and then reported state affect, craving, and resistance to smoking, as well as an assessment of quit motivation. We found that after controlling for trait impulsivity, participants who introspected on craving and affect showed higher delay discounting, irrespective of cue type, but we found no effect of response condition on subsequent craving (e.g., craving reactivity). We also found that motivation to quit interacted with experimental conditions to predict state craving and state resistance to smoking. Although asking about craving during cue exposure did not increase later craving, it resulted in greater delaying of discounted rewards. Overall, our findings suggest the need to further assess the implications of introspection and motivation on behavioral outcomes of cue exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Psychosocial Classroom Environment on Students' Motivation and Self-Regulation in Science Learning: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, Sunitadevi; Aldridge, Jill M.

    2013-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was two-fold: 1) to identify salient psychosocial features of the classroom environment that influence students' motivation and self-regulation in science learning; and 2) to examine the effect of the motivational constructs of learning goal orientation, science task value and self-efficacy in science learning on students' self-regulation in science classrooms. Data collected from 1360 science students in grades 8, 9 and 10 in five public schools in Perth, Western Australia were utilized to validate the questionnaires and to investigate the hypothesized relationships. Structural Equation Modeling analysis suggested that student cohesiveness, investigation and task orientation were the most influential predictors of student motivation and self-regulation in science learning. In addition, learning goal orientation, task value and self-efficacy significantly influenced students' self-regulation in science. The findings offer potential opportunities for educators to plan and implement effective pedagogical strategies aimed at increasing students' motivation and self-regulation in science learning.

  17. Influence of a multidimensional measure of attitudes on motives to use social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Archana; Hunt, Daniel Scot

    2015-03-01

    Positive attitudes toward a new communication technology tend to be a significant motivator in subsequent adoption and use. The recent spurt in the adoption of social media tools such as social networking sites (SNSs) demands the examination of attitudinal variables on motives to use these Web sites. This study explicated a multidimensional measure of attitudes toward SNSs and tested a theoretical model to examine the effect of attitudes on motives to use SNSs and SNS activity. Participants (N=674) completed a cross-sectional survey consisting of measures of attitudes toward SNSs, motives of SNS use, and level of activity. Results showed support for a revised model in which attitudinal variables-ease of use, self-disclosure, and social connection-strongly predicted motives of SNS use such as passing time, information/entertainment, social conformity, and, most importantly, socialization. The motive of using SNSs as a social tool superseded the direct effect of other motives on SNS activity, suggesting that users' primary activity on SNSs was for socialization and for relational development and maintenance.

  18. Factors influencing motivation and job satisfaction among supervisors of community health workers in marginalized communities in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Akintola, Olagoke; Chikoko, Gamuchirai

    2016-01-01

    Background Management and supervision of community health workers are factors that are?critical to the success of community health worker programmes. Yet few studies have explored the perspectives of supervisors in these programmes. This study explored factors influencing motivations of supervisors in community health worker programmes. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with 26 programme staff providing supervision to community health workers in eight community-based organizations i...

  19. Role of parental autonomy support on self-determination in influencing diet and exercise motivation in older adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison SA; Dashiff CJ; Vance DE

    2013-01-01

    Shannon A Morrison, Carol J Dashiff, David E Vance School of Nursing, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Parental influence to promote autonomy and self-determination in their children as they grow up may also motivate them to exercise and eat healthily. Unfortunately, nutritious dietary consumption and physical activity frequency tend to decline during the adolescent years and reaches its lowest level as the adolescent nears adulthood. In this study of 132 freshman and sop...

  20. The Influence of Working Environment Conditions, Compensation and Career Development on Employees’ Working Motivation at an Indonesian Bank

    OpenAIRE

    SUPRANOWO

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to understand and analyse the influence of working environment conditions and career development towards the improvement of employees’ working motivation. This research is conducted at the Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Ltd. Tulungagung Jawa Timur Office Branch. The sample amount counted by census technique and acquired 91 responses. The sampling method used was census technique. The data collection instrument is a questionnaire which is analysed by path analysis. Findings...

  1. INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATOR ON EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH PLANNING ON PHYSICS IN HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandra M. Sokolyuk

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author considers the problem of the determination the role of instruction in the organization of educational research activity in the senior classes according to their profile area in view of motivator.

  2. INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATOR ON EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH PLANNING ON PHYSICS IN HIGH SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandra M. Sokolyuk

    2010-01-01

    In the article the author considers the problem of the determination the role of instruction in the organization of educational research activity in the senior classes according to their profile area in view of motivator.

  3. Influence of Social Factors and Motives on Commitment of Sport Events Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Farideh Sharififar; Zahra Jamalian; Reza Nikbakhsh; Zahra Nobakht Ramezani

    2011-01-01

    In sport, human resources management gives special attention to method of applying volunteers, their maintenance, and participation of volunteers with each other and management approaches for better operation of events celebrants. The recognition of volunteers- characteristics and motives is important to notice, because it makes the basis of their participation and commitment at sport environment. The motivation and commitment of 281 volunteers were assessed using the org...

  4. INFLUENCE OF PSEUDOFACTORS MOTIVATION ON QUALITY OF SERVICES IN SCHOOL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Jukić, Dinko; Dunković, Božica

    2010-01-01

    According to the modern concept of social validation pseudofactor motivation which is based on preferences Herzberg’s motivation theory in school management may culminate inadequate service and poor quality. A key factor is precisely the strategic management, which must comply with the basics KM, and comparison of the hierarchy of needs and the hierarchy of values. Th e paper points to the obsolescence of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Herzberg theories arising from the latter...

  5. The influence of dengue virus serotype-2 infection on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae motivation and avidity to blood feed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV is transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a species that lives in close association with human dwellings. The behavior of DENV-infected mosquitoes needs further investigation, especially regarding the potential influence of DENV on mosquito biting motivation and avidity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We orally challenged 4-5 day-old Ae. aegypti females with a low passage DENV serotype -2 (DENV-2 to test whether the virus influences motivation to feed (the likelihood that a mosquito obtains a blood-meal and the size of its blood meal and avidity (the likelihood to re-feed after an interrupted first blood-meal. To assay motivation, we offered mosquitoes an anesthetized mouse for 2, 3, 4 or 5 minutes 7 or 14 days after the initial blood meals and measured the time they started feeding. 60.5% of the unexposed mosquitoes fed on the mouse, but only 40.5% of the positive ones did. Exposed but negative mosquitoes behaved similarly to unexposed ones (55.0% feeding. Thus DENV-2 infection decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed. To assay avidity, we offered the same mosquitoes a mouse two hours after the first round of feeding, and we measured the time at which they started probing. The exposed (positive or negative mosquitoes were more likely to re-feed than the unexposed ones and, in particular, the size of the previous blood-meal that kept mosquitoes from re-feeding was larger in the exposed than in the unexposed mosquitoes. Thus, DENV-2 infection increased mosquito avidity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DENV-2 significantly decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed, but increased their avidity (even after taking account the amount of blood previously imbibed. As these are important components of transmission, we expect that the changes of the blood-feeding behaviour impact the vectorial capacity Ae. aegypti for dengue.

  6. The influence of dengue virus serotype-2 infection on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) motivation and avidity to blood feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Gandini, Mariana; Koella, Jacob C

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a species that lives in close association with human dwellings. The behavior of DENV-infected mosquitoes needs further investigation, especially regarding the potential influence of DENV on mosquito biting motivation and avidity. We orally challenged 4-5 day-old Ae. aegypti females with a low passage DENV serotype -2 (DENV-2) to test whether the virus influences motivation to feed (the likelihood that a mosquito obtains a blood-meal and the size of its blood meal) and avidity (the likelihood to re-feed after an interrupted first blood-meal). To assay motivation, we offered mosquitoes an anesthetized mouse for 2, 3, 4 or 5 minutes 7 or 14 days after the initial blood meals and measured the time they started feeding. 60.5% of the unexposed mosquitoes fed on the mouse, but only 40.5% of the positive ones did. Exposed but negative mosquitoes behaved similarly to unexposed ones (55.0% feeding). Thus DENV-2 infection decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed. To assay avidity, we offered the same mosquitoes a mouse two hours after the first round of feeding, and we measured the time at which they started probing. The exposed (positive or negative) mosquitoes were more likely to re-feed than the unexposed ones and, in particular, the size of the previous blood-meal that kept mosquitoes from re-feeding was larger in the exposed than in the unexposed mosquitoes. Thus, DENV-2 infection increased mosquito avidity. DENV-2 significantly decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed, but increased their avidity (even after taking account the amount of blood previously imbibed). As these are important components of transmission, we expect that the changes of the blood-feeding behaviour impact the vectorial capacity Ae. aegypti for dengue.

  7. Age-differences in work motivation and job satisfaction. The influence of age on the relationships between work characteristics and workers' outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Nicolle P G; de Jong, Ad H J; Janssen, Sara M

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age on the relationship between work characteristics and workers' work motivation and job satisfaction. In total, 1036 workers of a Dutch division of a multinational organization participated. Data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Two interaction terms in the regression on work motivation were significant. The first interaction showed that the positive correlation between Motivating Potential Score (MPS) and motivation was much stronger for older than for younger employees. So, to remain motivated, older employees seem more in need of intrinsic challenging and fulfilling jobs. The second significant interaction indicated that the positive association between career opportunities and motivation was much stronger for younger employees than for older employees. This means that, especially, younger workers' motivation increases as they are offered more career opportunities. Careful career mentoring by the supervisor as part of an aging policy can contribute to the maintenance of workers of any age.

  8. Motivational and Emotional Influences on Cognitive Control in Depression: A Pupillometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Neil P.; Siegle, Greg J.; Mandell, Darcy

    2014-01-01

    Depressed people perform poorly on cognitive tasks, however under certain conditions they show intact cognitive performance with physiological reactivity consistent with needing to recruit additional cognitive control. We hypothesize that this apparent compensation is driven by the presence of affective processes (e.g., state anxiety) which in turn are moderated by the depressed individual’s motivational state. Clarifying these processes may help researchers identify targets for treatment that if addressed may improve depressed patients’ cognitive functioning. To test this hypothesis, 36 participants with unipolar depression and 36 never-depressed controls completed a problem-solving task modified to elicit anxiety. Participants completed measures of motivation, anxiety, sadness, and rumination, while pupillary responses were continuously measured during problem-solving as an index of cognitive control. Anxiety increased throughout the task for all participants, while both sadness and rumination were decreased during the task. In addition, anxiety more strongly affected planning accuracy in depressed participants relative to controls, regardless of participants’ levels of motivation. In contrast, differential effects of anxiety on pupillary responses were observed as a function of depressed participants’ levels of motivation. Consistent with behavioral results, less-motivated and anxious depressed participants demonstrated smaller pupillary responses, whereas more highly-motivated and anxious depressed participants demonstrated larger pupillary responses than controls. Strong effects of sadness and rumination on cognitive control in depression were not observed. Thus, we conclude that anxiety inhibits the recruitment of cognitive control in depression and that a depressed individual’s motivational state determines, in part, whether they are able to compensate by recruiting additional cognitive control. PMID:25280561

  9. Gender, age and ethnicity influence on pain levels and analgesic use in the acute whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, L; Peled, E; Trogan, R; Norman, D; Berkovich, Y; Israelit, S

    2015-06-01

    Initial pain level in the acute whiplash injury is the most consistent predictor of transformation to a chronic pain syndrome. The risk factors for those early pain levels were, to our knowledge, scarcely evaluate to this date. We set to evaluate whether gender, age or ethnicity comprise a risk factor for those initial pain levels. Further, gender, age and ethnicity have been shown to be bias factors in pain management. We investigated if gender, age or ethnicity are bias factor in pain management in the face of a standardized pain treatment protocol in the acute whiplash injury. We reviewed 2,538 patients with acute whiplash injury that were treated at our emergency department (ED). Gender, age and ethnicity were investigated as risk factors for elevated visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Those factors were also investigated as bias in pain medication administration in the face of a standardized analgesic protocol. Women had significantly higher VAS scores (p = 0.009). Age and ethnicity did not influence pain levels. There was no influence of gender or age on pain medication administration. The Jewish patients (the majority in Israel) were administered fewer pain medication (p whiplash injury. Age and ethnicity have less impact on those pain levels. A pain management protocol might reduce bias in pain management in the acute whiplash injury in the ED. The Jewish population tends to be less receptive to pain medication administration.

  10. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  11. Social influence and motivation to change health behaviors among Mexican origin adults: Implications for diet and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether influence from social network members is associated with motivation to change dietary and physical activity behaviors. Design Baseline assessment followed by mailing of family health history-based personalized messages (2 weeks) and follow-up assessment (3 months). Setting Families from an ongoing population-based cohort in Houston, TX. Subjects 475 adults from 161 Mexican origin families. Out of 347 households contacted, 162 (47%) participated. Measures Family health history, social networks, and motivation to change behaviors. Analysis Two-level logistic regression modeling. Results Having at least one network member who encourages one to eat more fruits and vegetables (p=.010) and to engage in regular physical activity (p=.046) was associated with motivation to change the relevant behavior. About 40% of the participants did not have encouragers for these behaviors. Conclusions Identification of new encouragers within networks and targeting natural encouragers (e.g., children, spouses) may increase the efficacy of interventions to motivate behavioral changes among Mexican origin adults. PMID:22208416

  12. Influence of the motivational class climate on adolescents’ school engagement and their academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchor GUTIÉRREZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific literature provides empirical evidence on the relationship between school engagement and numerous important variables of the adolescents’ educational context. The school engagement has been related, among other important constructs, with burnout of both teachers and students, school performance, satisfaction with the school, behavioral disruption, goal orientation and motivational climate in the classroom. Because of it, the aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between perceived motivational class climate and students’ academic achievement, with school engagement acting as a mediator. A sample of 2028 teenagers completed various instruments to measure the perception of motivational climate, perceived basic psychological needs satisfaction, perceived autonomy support provided by the teacher, and academic achievement. The data were analyzed using a structural equation model with observed variables (path analysis. The results have shown a significant relationship between motivational climate and school engagement, and of this with academic achievement. It should also be highlighted the direct relationship of perceived competence and perceived autonomy support with perception of academic success. Of the three variables to be predicted (Portuguese and Mathematics marks and Academic success, the largest percentage of variance explained was the one of academic success. The results are discussed within the framework of achievement goal theory, the self-determined motivation, and in terms of contributing practical issues to adolescents’ teaching-learning process.

  13. Learning environments matter: Identifying influences on the motivation to learn science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Schulze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the poor academic achievement in science by secondary school students in South Africa, students' motivation for science learning should be enhanced. It is argued that this can only be achieved with insight into which motivational factors to target, with due consideration of the diversity in schools. The study therefore explored the impact of six motivational factors for science learning in a sample of 380 Grade Nine boys and girls from three racial groups, in both public and independent schools. The students completed the Student Motivation for Science Learning questionnaire. Significant differences were identified between different groups and school types. The study is important for identifying the key role of achievement goals, science learning values and science self-efficacies. The main finding emphasises the significant role played by science teachers in motivating students for science in terms of the learning environments that they create. This has important implications for future research, aimed at a better understanding of these environments. Such insights are needed to promote scientific literacy among the school students, and so contribute to the improvement of science achievement in South Africa.

  14. The influence of motivation in recruitment and retention of rural and remote allied health professionals: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N; McAllister, L; Eley, D

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of allied health professionals (AHPs) to remote and rural Australia is challenging and correlates with poorer health status of remote and rural residents. While much has been written about the recruitment and retention problem, this study took a new approach by reviewing the literature describing the motivation of AHPs to work in remote and rural areas and then analyzing the findings from the perspective of motivation theory using Herzberg's extrinsic and intrinsic classification. Intrinsic motivation incentives are known to contribute to job satisfaction and come from within the individual, for example the pleasure derived from autonomy or challenge at work. In contrast, extrinsic motivation incentives are provided by the job and include such factors as salary and professional development provisions. Extrinsic incentives are important because they prevent job dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction has been shown to be linked with increased retention. Thirty-five articles, including 26 from Australia, met the inclusion criteria. The key findings related to motivation from each article are outlined and the results classified into the extrinsic-intrinsic framework. The incentives are then further analyzed as having a positive or a negative influence. In total, 38 different incentives were described a total of 246 times. Of the total, almost half (n=115) comprised extrinsic incentives with a negative influence, with poor access to professional development, professional isolation and insufficient supervision the most frequently reported. Rural lifestyle and diverse caseloads were the most frequently mentioned positive extrinsic incentives, while autonomy and community connectedness were the most cited positive intrinsic incentives. Negative intrinsic incentives were mentioned least frequently (n=18); however, of these, feeling overwhelmed and that your work was not valued by the community were the most commonly reported. The results demonstrate the

  15. Motivated Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ePatterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.

  16. Influence of Strategy of Learning and Achievement Motivation of Learning Achievement Class VIII Students of State Junior High School in District Blitar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayundawati, Dyah; Setyosari, Punaji; Susilo, Herawati; Sihkabuden

    2016-01-01

    This study aims for know influence of problem-based learning strategies and achievement motivation on learning achievement. The method used in this research is quantitative method. The instrument used in this study is two fold instruments to measure moderator variable (achievement motivation) and instruments to measure the dependent variable (the…

  17. Age-Differences in Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction. The Influence of Age on the Relationships between Work Characteristics and Workers' Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Nicolle P. G.; de Jong, Ad H. J.; Janssen, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age on the relationship between work characteristics and workers' work motivation and job satisfaction. In total, 1036 workers of a Dutch division of a multinational organization participated. Data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Two interaction terms in the regression on work motivation were…

  18. How the Interplay between Consumer Motivations and Values Influences Organic Food Identity and Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Ingerslev Sørensen, Maria; Riwerts Eriksen, Marie-Louise

    2018-01-01

    This study develops a baseline model specifying expected relationships between consumer motivations (health, environmental, and social consciousness), organic food identity, and organic food behavior. Based on an online survey of 1176 Danish food consumers, we investigate whether...... to change is low, health consciousness has a positive effect on intentional organic food behavior through organic food identity, whereas social consciousness has a negative effect on intentional organic food behavior through organic food identity. Our results provide guidance to those seeking to segment...... organic food markets based on consumers’ motivations and values....

  19. Factors influencing job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Liana M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influencing job satisfaction and the perspective of frontline medical imaging staff in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 359 registered radiologic technologists who were working as staff technologists in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators influences overall satisfaction with the work environment and job and commitment to the employer.

  20. Influence of arterial occlusion on outcome after intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, Friedrich; Amiguet, Michael; Vanacker, Peter; Michel, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the interaction between intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and arterial occlusion on acute cervicocerebral computed tomographic angiography on the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Patients from the Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL) registry with onset-to-door-time ≤4 hours, acute cervicocerebral computed tomographic angiography, a premorbid modified Rankin Scale ≤2, and a National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) >4 were selected. Patients with significant intracranial arterial obstruction (≥50%-99%) and undergoing acute endovascular treatment were excluded. An interaction analysis of IVT and initial arterial occlusion for favorable 3 months outcome (modified Rankin Scale <3) were performed with adjustment for potential confounders. Among 654 included patients, 382 (58%) showed arterial occlusion, of whom 263 (69%) received IVT. Two hundred seventy-two showed no/minimal obstruction of whom 139 (51%) received IVT. In the adjusted interaction analysis, there was a trend in favor of the arterial occlusion group (odds ratio [OR]=3.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-18.97; P=0.08). IVT (versus no IVT) was associated with better outcome in patients with occlusion (adjusted OR for favorable outcome, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.10-8.28) but not in patients with no/minimal obstruction (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.21-2.74). Conversely, patients with occlusion had a similar rate of favorable outcome as no/minimal obstruction when thrombolysed (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.17-1.47) but had a less favorable outcome without thrombolysis (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.04-0.44). In this retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, there was a trend for more favorable outcomes with IVT in the setting of initial arterial occlusion than in the setting of no/minimal obstruction. Before confirmation in randomized controlled studies, this information should not influence thrombolysis decisions, however. © 2014 American Heart

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION AND WORK ENVIRONMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchtar Muchtar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.This  aims to determine the factors that affect the performance of employees of the University PGRI RonggolaweTuban. These factors are motivation and work environment. Employees who have a high motivation to work will have a positive impact for the organization, so as to achieve organizational goals. Hypothesis testing is done by spreading the questionnaire as many as 52 employees of the University PGRI RonggolaweTuban. Analysis using multiple linear regression analysis. Results of testing the hypothesis that the value F = 4,312; and p = 0.019 (p 0.05, meaning that work motivation has no significant effect on employee performance. On the environment variable obtained value t = 2,376; and p = 0.021 (p <0.05, which means that the working environment have a significant effect on employee performance. R2 = 0.115 shows that simultaneously motivated and able to contribute to the environmental performance of 11.5% on the employees of the University of PGRI RonggolaweTuban..

  2. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing in influencing smoking cessation in pregnant and postpartum disadvantaged women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Catherine B

    2013-05-01

    Systematic assessments of Motivational Interviewing (MI) in smoking behavior have been rare to date. This study aimed to determine whether an integrated approach, involving staff training in MI techniques, was sufficient to affect change in smoking status or intensity in low-income pregnant and postpartum women.

  3. Please Pass the Peas: Influence of Emotions on Adult Learning Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha; Holyoke, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand the knowledge of adult motivation in unconventional professional settings. Nine focus group interviews were conducted with child care providers in child care settings from four states in the Western United States: California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. At each focus group interview three to eight…

  4. Friend Influence on Prosocial Behavior: The Role of Motivational Factors and Friendship Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Wentzel, Kathryn R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined motivation (prosocial goals), individual characteristics (sex, ethnicity, and grade), and friendship characteristics (affective quality, interaction frequency, and friendship stability) in relation to middle adolescents' prosocial behavior over time. Ninth- and 10th-grade students (N=208) attending a suburban, mid-Atlantic…

  5. Socio-Political Influences on EFL Motivation and Attitudes: Comparative Surveys of Korean High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Young

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates Korean high school students' English learning motivation and attitudes. In this regard, the results of a 2002 study were compared with those of a 2006 study. Questionnaire data were obtained from a total of 1,037 high school students in a major city in South Korea, and the data were compared with those on the students'…

  6. Motivational Influences on Cognition: Task Involvement, Ego Involvement, and Depth of Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra; Golan, Shari

    1991-01-01

    Task involvement and ego involvement were studied in relation to depth of information processing for 126 fifth and sixth graders in 2 experiments. Ego involvement resulted in poorer word recall at deep rather than shallow information processing levels. Implications for the study of motivation are discussed. (SLD)

  7. The Influence of Physical Activity, Sport and Exercise Motives among UK-Based University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…

  8. Influence of dental education in motivational interviewing on the efficacy of interventions for smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonheim-Klein, M.; Gresnigt, C.; van der Velden, U.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To test whether education of dental students in motivational interviewing (MI) for smoking cessation counselling will increase the number of patients and students who quit smoking and will improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards tobacco cessation counselling. Methods Over 2

  9. The Influence of Past Experiences on the Motivation of Adult Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eason

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available From its’ conception, 4-H has encouraged volunteerism and utilized volunteers to accomplish its’ mission - to assist youth in acquiring knowledge, developing life skills, and forming attitudes that will enable them to become self-directing, productive and contributing members of society. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the factors that motivated [state] 4-H camp volunteers to volunteer with 4-H youth. The Volunteer Functions Inventory was used as the theoretical base for this study. The Values construct (M=3.68 of the VFI was the highest motivating factor of adult 4-H volunteers. The Understanding construct (M=3.39 ranked the second highest motivational factor in volunteerism followed by Social construct (M=3.28, the Enhancement construct (M = 3.05 and the Protective construct (M=2.78. The Career construct (M=2.61 was the least motivating factor to adult volunteers. It was also found that participants that were not involved with 4-H as a youth volunteered more days per year than did participants who were former 4-H members.

  10. Service and the Millennial Business Student: The Motivating Influence of an E-Book Class Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William W.

    2017-01-01

    A commitment to voluntary service that benefits others was reinforced for students who authored an e-book on service as a class project in a senior business course. The immersive experience of writing short essays that focused on service shifted students' motivations toward service and solidified their intentions to continue with service after…

  11. Examining Factors That Influence Donor Motivation among Former Student-Athletes and NCAA DI Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchette, Brett M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify motivational factors that contribute to the philanthropic decision making of the former NCAA Division I student-athlete. A 47-item survey instrument was modified from a prior study and distributed electronically to 8,461 male and female former student-athletes at three participating NCAA Division I…

  12. Evaluation of the Influence of Wording Changes and Course Type on Motivation Instrument Functioning in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komperda, Regis; Hosbein, Kathryn N.; Barbera, Jack

    2018-01-01

    Increased understanding of the importance of the affective domain in chemistry education research has led to the development and adaptation of instruments to measure chemistry-specific affective traits, including motivation. Many of these instruments are adapted from other fields by using the word "chemistry" in place of other…

  13. Self-Handicapping in School Physical Education: The Influence of the Motivational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Martyn; Treasure, Darren C.; Hooper, Katherine; Kuczka, Kendy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Self-handicapping is an attribution-related process whereby individuals create performance impediments/excuses to protect self-worth in socially evaluative environments. Thus, the prevailing motivational climate would appear to be an important factor when attempting to understand the situational self-handicapping process within school…

  14. Visual Perception and Regulatory Conflict: Motivation and Physiology Influence Distance Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Shana; Balcetis, Emily; Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory conflict can emerge when people experience a strong motivation to act on goals but a conflicting inclination to withhold action because physical resources available, or "physiological potentials", are low. This study demonstrated that distance perception is biased in ways that theory suggests assists in managing this conflict.…

  15. Influence of Metacognitive Awareness on Motivation and Performance in High School Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jane Frazier

    2015-01-01

    Students who actively engage in metacognitive thinking and self-regulation and are self-motivating appear to be more successful than those who take a more passive role in learning. This causal comparative research study explored whether increasing metacognitive awareness through participating in metacognitive surveys outside of class improved…

  16. Multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis of the motivational influencing individuals’ decisions about participating in intramural sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rickel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramural programs provide competition and recreation during the academic year for the diverse college populations of faculty, staff, and currently enrolled students and their spouses/partners who do not participate in other organized sports on campus. Sport psychologists, physical activity leaders, and others have shown an increased interest in the psychological factors that motivate college students to consume sport and physical activity (Rickel, Stoll, &Beller, 2005, 2006; Harkema, Dieser, Lankford, & Scholl, 2006; Yue-de, Wen-hao, & Ying-chun, 2009. Little research has been done with regard to the motivational factors affecting individuals’ decisions about participating specifically in intramural sports such as flag football, basketball, and soccer, etc. The purpose of this study was to independently test the measurement model of the Participant Motivations Questionnaire (PMQ assumed to underlie the motivational factors of the intramural sport participation by male and female college students. In addition, this study also examined whether or not PMQ was valid for the intramural sport participants in a northwestern university of the USA. Based on the results of the CFA, the one-factor model does fit both male and female college students. However, the factor loadings are not equivalent across the two groups. In summary, it is noted that the regenerated 24-item PMQ for the intramural sport participants is unequally valid for the current subjects of male and female college students.

  17. Demographic and Educational Influences on Academic Motivation, Competence, and Achievement in Minority Urban Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    Using the Scale of Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom (S. Harter, 1980) and the Self-Perception Profile for Children (S. Harter, 1985), this study of 222 urban early adolescents (median age=149 months) examined differences in motivation that might affect academic achievement and perceptions of competence. Socioeconomic status…

  18. Influences of prior miscarriage and weight status on perinatal psychological well-being, exercise motivation and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Courtenay A.; Huberty, Jennifer; Downs, Danielle Symons

    2017-01-01

    Objectives women who have experienced miscarriage may be at increased risk for elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms in subsequent pregnancies. Exercise may be a useful strategy for coping with these symptoms. Little is known about how miscarriage influences prenatal exercise behavior. The study purpose was to examine the influences of miscarriage history and prepregnancy weight status on pregnant women’s psychological health, exercise motivation, and behavior using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants/Setting Pregnant women (N=203; 41 with prior miscarriage; 72 overweight/obese; BMI > 25.0) in the northeast United States. Design Women prospectively reported their depressive/anxiety symptoms and exercise motivation/behavior in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters via mailed surveys. Group differences in depressive/anxiety symptoms, exercise behavior, and its motivational determinants were examined using Chi Square analyses and Univariate and Multivariate Analyses of Covariance. Measurements and findings Women with a history of miscarriage had higher 1st and 2nd trimester depressive/anxiety symptoms and lower 1st trimester attitudes about exercise and 1st and 2nd trimester perceived behavior control than women without a history of miscarriage. Overweight/obese women had higher 1st and 2nd trimester pregnancy depressive/anxiety symptoms, engaged in less prepregnancy exercise, and had lower levels of exercise intention, attitude, and perceived behavior control throughout pregnancy than normal weight women. Key Conclusions Women with a history of miscarriage and overweight/obese women have poorer psychological health and lower motivation to exercise during pregnancy than women without a history of miscarriage and normal weight women. Implications for practitioners Interventions and healthcare provider communications aimed at promoting perinatal exercise behavior and psychological health should take into account pre-pregnancy weight status and pregnancy history

  19. The influence of motivational factors on the frequency of participation in citizen science activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Tiago

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science has become a mainstream approach to collect information and data on many different scientific subjects. In this study, we assess the effectiveness of engagement and meaningful experience of participants in citizen science projects. We use motivational measures calculated from a web survey where respondents answered questions regarding to their motivation to participate in BioDiversity4All, a Portuguese citizen science project. We adapted the intrinsic motivation inventory (IMI and considered seven categories of measurement: Interest/Enjoyment, Perceived Competence, Effort/Importance, Perceived Choice, Value/Usefulness, Project Relatedness, and Group Relatedness each of them with statements rated on a seven-point Likert scale. We received 149 survey responses, corresponding to 10.3 % of BioDiversity4All Newsletter’s receivers. We analyzed for possible differences among the categories pertaining to gender, age, level of education and level of participation in the project. Finally, we assessed the different patterns of motivation existing among the users. No statistical differences were found between genders, age classes and levels of education for the averages in any category of analysis. However, IMI categories presented different results for respondents with different levels of participation. The highest value of Interest/Enjoyment and Perceived Competence was obtained by the group of respondents that participate a lot and the lowest by the ones that never participated. Project Relatedness had the highest value for all groups except for the group that never participated. This group had completely different motivations from the other groups, showing the lowest levels in categories such as Perceived Competence, Value/Usefulness, Project Relatedness and Group Relatedness. In conclusion, the results from our work show that working deeply on people’s involvement is fundamental to increase and maintain their participation on

  20. Dispelling the myth that habitual caffeine consumption influences the performance response to acute caffeine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Lívia de Souza; Painelli, Vitor de Salles; Yamaguchi, Guilherme; Oliveira, Luana Farias de; Saunders, Bryan; da Silva, Rafael Pires; Maciel, Erika; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the influence of habitual caffeine intake on aerobic exercise-performance responses to acute caffeine supplementation. A double-blind, crossover, counterbalanced study was performed. Forty male endurance-trained cyclists were allocated into tertiles, according to their daily caffeine intake: low (58 ± 29 mg/d), moderate (143 ± 25 mg/d), and high (351 ± 139 mg/d) consumers. Participants completed three trials in which they performed simulated cycling time trials (TTs) in the fastest time possible following ingestion of the following: caffeine (CAF: 6 mg/kg body mass), placebo (PLA), and no supplement (CON). A mixed-model analysis revealed that TT performance was significantly improved in CAF compared with PLA and CON (29.92 ± 2.18 vs. 30.81 ± 2.67 and 31.14 ± 2.71 min, respectively; P = 0.0002). Analysis of covariance revealed no influence of habitual caffeine intake as a covariate on exercise performance ( P = 0.47). TT performance was not significantly different among tertiles ( P = 0.75). No correlation was observed between habitual caffeine intake and absolute changes (CAF - CON) in TT performance with caffeine ( P = 0.524). Individual analysis showed that eight, seven, and five individuals improved above the variation of the test in CAF in the low, moderate, and high tertiles, respectively. A Fisher's exact test did not show any significant differences in the number of individuals who improved in CAF among the tertiles ( P > 0.05). Blood lactate and ratings of perceived exertion were not different between trials and tertiles ( P > 0.05). Performance effects of acute caffeine supplementation during an ~30-min cycling TT performance were not influenced by the level of habitual caffeine consumption. NEW & NOTEWORTHY There has been a long-standing paradigm that habitual caffeine intake may influence the ergogenicity of caffeine supplementation. Low, moderate, and high caffeine consumers showed similar absolute and

  1. The influence of ethical values and food choice motivations on intentions to purchase sustainably sourced foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Kylie; Burke, Karena J

    2013-10-01

    This study examined a three-step adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) applied to the intention of consumers to purchase sustainably sourced food. The sample consisted of 137 participants, of which 109 were female, who were recruited through a farmers market and an organic produce outlet in an Australian capital city. Participants completed an online questionnaire containing the TPB scales of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention; measures of positive moral attitude and ethical self identity; and food choice motives. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the predictive utility of the TPB in isolation (step 1) and the TPB expanded to include the constructs of moral attitude and ethical self-identity (step 2). The results indicated the expansion of the TPB to include these constructs added significantly to the predictive model measuring intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. The third step in the adaptation utilised this expanded TPB model and added a measure of retail channel (where consumers reported buying fresh produce) and 9 food choice motives, in order to assess the predictive utility of the inclusion of choice motivations in this context. Of the 8 food choice motives examined, only health and ethical values significantly predicted intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. However, with the addition of food choice motives, ethical self-identity was no longer a significant predictor of intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. Overall the adapted TPB model explained 76% of the variance in intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Zinc Supplementation in Acute Diarrhea Differs by the Isolated Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana B. Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation is recommended in all acute diarrheas in children from developing countries. We aimed to assess whether zinc supplementation would be equally effective against all the common organisms associated with acute diarrheas. We used data on 801 children with acute diarrhea recruited in a randomized, double blind controlled trial (ISRCTN85071383 of zinc and copper supplementation. Using prespecified subgroup analyses, multidimensionality reduction analyses, tests of heterogeneity, and stepwise logistic regression for tests of interactions, we found that the influence of zinc on the risk of diarrhea for more than 3 days depended on the isolated organism—beneficial in Klebsiella, neutral in Esherichia coli and parasitic infections, and detrimental in rotavirus coinfections. Although we found similar results for the outcome of high stool volume, the results did not reach statistical significance. Our findings suggest that the current strategy of zinc supplementation in all cases of acute diarrheas in children may need appropriate fine tuning to optimize the therapeutic benefit based on the causative organism, but further studies need to confirm and extend our findings.

  3. Attitudes towards exercise in patients with chronic disease: the influence of comorbid factors on motivation and ability to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Claire-Louise; Sheane, Barry J; Cunnane, Gaye

    2011-02-01

    Exercise is an integral part of a healthy lifestyle. It has a well defined role in maintaining health in chronic illness. This study was undertaken to determine attitudes towards exercise in patients admitted to hospital with medical illnesses. A questionnaire on attitudes to and extent of exercise was devised and administered to patients admitted to an acute medical unit of a large university teaching hospital in 2008. Data were analysed using SPSS. 107 patients participated, mean age 57 years (range 20-92): 79% had at least one chronic disease, 60% were overweight, 42% did little or no exercise, while 81% did not achieve moderate physical activity. Factors associated with reduced activity included increasing age, alcohol excess, lower education level, and unemployment. Approximately 50% of the patients blamed health problems while the other half cited lack of time or motivation as reasons for not exercising. Only 3% were aware of national or international exercise recommendations. Much greater awareness of the importance of exercise and its impact on health and longevity is needed. Healthcare providers have an important role in exercise education in patients with acute and chronic disease.

  4. Predicting visual attention to nutrition information on food products: the influence of motivation and ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Monique Mitchell; Skubisz, Christine; Pandya, Sejal Patel; Silverman, Meryl; Austin, Lucinda L

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is linked to numerous diseases including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. To address this issue, food and beverage manufacturers as well as health organizations have developed nutrition symbols and logos to be placed on the front of food packages to guide consumers to more healthful food choices. In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requested information on the extent to which consumers notice, use, and understand front-of-package nutrition symbols. In response, this study used eye-tracking technology to explore the degree to which people pay visual attention to the information contained in food nutrition labels and front-of-package nutrition symbols. Results indicate that people with motivation to shop for healthful foods spent significantly more time looking at all available nutrition information compared to people with motivation to shop for products on the basis of taste. Implications of these results for message design, food labeling, and public policy are discussed.

  5. Mood, motivation, and misinformation: aging and affective state influences on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; Popham, Lauren E; Emery, Lisa; Elliott, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Normative age differences in memory have typically been attributed to declines in basic cognitive and cortical mechanisms. The present study examined the degree to which dominant everyday affect might also be associated with age-related memory errors using the misinformation paradigm. Younger and older adults viewed a positive and a negative event, and then were exposed to misinformation about each event. Older adults exhibited a higher likelihood than young adults of falsely identifying misinformation as having occurred in the events. Consistent with expectations, strength of the misinformation effect was positively associated with dominant mood, and controlling for mood eliminated any age effects. Also, motivation to engage in complex cognitive activity was negatively associated with susceptibility to misinformation, and susceptibility was stronger for negative than for positive events. We argue that motivational processes underlie all of the observed effects, and that such processes are useful in understanding age differences in memory performance.

  6. Motivational influences on the safer sex behavior of agency-based male sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D; Seal, David W

    2008-10-01

    Although indoor male sex workers (MSWs) have been found to engage in lower rates of HIV risk behavior with clients than street-based MSWs, few studies have examined the motivations behind such practices. We interviewed 30 MSWs working for the same escort agency regarding their safer sex practices with clients and their reasons for these. As in other research, MSWs reported little risk behavior with clients. Five motivational themes related to safer sex on the job emerged: health concerns, emotional intimacy, client attractiveness, relationships, and structural work factors. Results suggest that participants engaged in rational decision-making relative to sex with clients, facilitated by reduced economic incentive for riskier behavior and a supportive social context. MSWs desired a safe sexual work place, personal integrity, and minimal negative consequences to personal relationships. Collaborating with sex work employers to study their role in encouraging a safer workplace may be important to future research.

  7. Exploration of Factors Influencing the Customers’ Motivation in Buyer-supplier Relationships on Industrial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Markus Zunk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To gain a competitive advantage on industrial markets, suppliers need to understand what motivates their customers to collaborate in long-term buyer-supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper presents (i a literature-based model of a 12-part industrial customers’ motivation profile, and (ii empirical findings from an explorative survey of 118 decision makers in the purchasing departments of firms in the technology sector. The results indicate that, “the optimum value for money”, “the holistic problem-solving capability of the suppliers and their high degree of performance” and “the good assistance in economically hard times in the past, which has led to a feeling of gratefulness” are all of great importance to industrial customers for building and maintaining relationships.

  8. The Influence of 16-year-old Students' Gender, Mental Abilities, and Motivation on their Reading and Drawing Submicrorepresentations Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devetak, Iztok; Aleksij Glažar, Saša

    2010-08-01

    Submicrorepresentations (SMRs) are a powerful tool for identifying misconceptions of chemical concepts and for generating proper mental models of chemical phenomena in students' long-term memory during chemical education. The main purpose of the study was to determine which independent variables (gender, formal reasoning abilities, visualization abilities, and intrinsic motivation for learning chemistry) have the maximum influence on students' reading and drawing SMRs. A total of 386 secondary school students (aged 16.3 years) participated in the study. The instruments used in the study were: test of Chemical Knowledge, Test of Logical Thinking, two tests of visualization abilities Patterns and Rotations, and questionnaire on Intrinsic Motivation for Learning Science. The results show moderate, but statistically significant correlations between students' intrinsic motivation, formal reasoning abilities and chemical knowledge at submicroscopic level based on reading and drawing SMRs. Visualization abilities are not statistically significantly correlated with students' success on items that comprise reading or drawing SMRs. It can be also concluded that there is a statistically significant difference between male and female students in solving problems that include reading or drawing SMRs. Based on these statistical results and content analysis of the sample problems, several educational strategies can be implemented for students to develop adequate mental models of chemical concepts on all three levels of representations.

  9. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Robert Nicholls

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012 infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes’ scores in these constructs.

  10. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Morley, David; Perry, John L

    2015-01-01

    The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012) infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years) completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes' scores in these constructs.

  11. Influence of acute exercise with and without carbohydrate replacement on postprandial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael; O'Gorman, Donal J; McCaffrey, Noel; Hamilton, Marc T; Zderic, Theodore W; Carson, Brian P; Moyna, Niall M

    2009-03-01

    Acute exercise, undertaken on the day before an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT), typically reduces postprandial triglycerides (TG) and increases high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). However, the benefits of acute exercise may be overstated when studies do not account for compensatory changes in dietary intake. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute exercise, with and without carbohydrate (CHO) replacement, on postprandial lipid metabolism. Eight recreationally active young men underwent an OFTT on the morning after three experimental conditions: no exercise [control (Con)], prolonged exercise without CHO replacement (Ex-Def) and prolonged exercise with CHO replacement to restore CHO and energy balance (Ex-Bal). The exercise session in Ex-Def and Ex-Bal consisted of 90 min cycle ergometry at 70% peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2peak)) followed by 10 maximal 1-min sprints. CHO replacement was achieved using glucose solutions consumed at 0, 2, and 4 h postexercise. Muscle glycogen was 40 +/- 4% (P Con values on the morning of the Ex-Def and Ex-Bal OFTT, respectively. Postprandial TG were 40 +/- 14% lower and postprandial HDL-C, free fatty acids, and 3-hydroxybutyrate were higher in Ex-Def compared with Con (P < 0.05). Most importantly, these exercise effects were not evident in Ex-Bal. Postprandial insulin and glucose and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) were not significantly different across trials. There was no relation between the changes in postprandial TG and muscle glycogen across trials. In conclusion, the influence of acute exhaustive exercise on postprandial lipid metabolism is largely dependent on the associated CHO and energy deficit.

  12. Motivational factors influencing small construction and auto repair enterprises to participate in occupational health and safety programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Laura Veng; Hasle, Peter; Christensen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    the processmeaningful. Contextual factors, as experienced by the owner-managers, influenced the motivation foractive participation. These included inter alia general attitude towards authorities and procedures, accessto relevant projects and technical equipment, the characteristics of the manager, and the workplace......Small enterprises have limited resources to prioritise occupational health and safety (OHS) so regulatorsand other stakeholders have developed programmes to support them. The present study analysed thefactors influencing active participation of small construction and auto repair enterprises...... foractive participation also depended on the content of the prevention package, the economic support andthe possibility for facilitation. The decision to start the implementation process depended on whether theowner-managers acknowledged the need for the new OHS approach and whether they found...

  13. [Development of a scale for work motivation of home care workers and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yasuhisa; Sugiura, Keiko; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop a scale for home care workers focusing on work motivation and to determine influential underlying factors. This study was an anonymous mailed survey of home care workers who provided home help services in July 2007. We collected information in the following areas: demographics of home care workers and care-recipients, burnout, stress, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and self-esteem (SE). Hierarchical regression analysis was performed in order to identify factors related to work motivation. Construct validity was analyzed by factor analysis. Two subscales were obtained by the analysis and designated as "positive appraisal of the current state" (9 items) and "uplift of morale" (3 items). Content validity was analyzed by good-poor and item-total, and all correlations were strongly positive. Reliability was analyzed by internal consistency. Cronbach's ? values were 0.94 and 0.77, respectively. Concurrent validity was analyzed by correlation coefficient and a significant negative correlation was seen between the two subscales and burnout (r = -0.23--0.50), while positive correlations were noted for job or life satisfaction (r= 0.24-0.49). The positive influential factors on "positive appraisal of the current state" were satisfaction in 1) relation to care-recipients, 2) work environment for skill improvement and 3) the wages. The positive influential factors on "uplift of morale" were satisfaction with relation to care-recipients and their own life. This scale has sufficient reliability and validity. "Positive appraisal of the current state" and "uplift of morale" were confirmed as appropriate work motivation subscales for home care workers. Thus, support to augment job satisfaction with the work environment and wages appears to enhance "positive appraisal of the current state" and support to augment life satisfaction appears to enhance "uplift of morale".

  14. Perfectionism in High-Ability Students: Relational Precursors and Influences on Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.; Finch, Holmes

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create and test a model that (a) illustrated variables influencing the development of perfectionism, and (b) demonstrated how different types of perfectionism may influence the achievement goals of high-ability students. Using a multiple groups path analysis, the researchers found that parenting style was…

  15. Social Influence and Cognitive-Motivational Effects on Terrorism Preparedness: A Hurdle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Philip W.; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The identification of factors which influence peoples' preparation for health safety risks posed by natural and man-made disasters is a central concern in health education. Prior studies have generally approached this issue from either a cognitive or a social influence perspective, and have failed to recognise the increased importance…

  16. Toward an Understanding of Motivational Influences on Prospective Memory Using Value-Added Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel I Cook

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined value-added intentions by manipulating the cognitive frame associated with monetary contingencies for detecting prospective memory cues. We associated a loss-frame with a monetary punishment for failing to respond to cues and a gain-frame with a monetary reward for remembering to respond to cues and compared those frames to a no-frame control condition with no contingency linked to performance. Across two experiments, we find increased prospective memory performance for participants in the loss-frame (Experiments 1 and 2 and in the gain-frame (Experiment 2 conditions relative to the no-frame condition. This value-related improvement in prospective memory was not accompanied by a significant increase in cue monitoring as measured by intention induced interference to an ongoing task and recognition memory for ongoing task items. The few previous studies investigating motivational prospective memory showed mixed results regarding whether prospective memory improves due to incentives or not. Our results provide further evidence that, under some experimental conditions, prospective memory improves with rewards and that the benefit generalizes to penalizing performance. The results have both practical implications and theoretical implications for motivation models of prospective memory.

  17. Selective Engagement of Cognitive Resources: Motivational Influences on Older Adults’ Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, I present a framework for understanding the impact of aging-related declines in cognitive resources on functioning. I make the assumption that aging is associated with an increase in the costs of cognitive engagement, as reflected in both the effort required to achieve a specific level of task performance and the associated depletion or fatigue effects. I further argue that these costs result in older adults being increasingly selective in the engagement of cognitive resources in response to these declines. This selectivity is reflected in (a) a reduction in the intrinsic motivation to engage in cognitively demanding activities, which, in part, accounts for general reductions in engagement in such activities, and (b) greater sensitivity to the self-related implications of a given task. Both processes are adaptive if viewed in terms of resource conservation, but the former may also be maladaptive to the extent that it results in older adults restricting participation in cognitively demanding activities that could ultimately benefit cognitive health. I review supportive research and make the general case for the importance of considering motivational factors in understanding aging effects on cognitive functioning. PMID:26173272

  18. Influence of delays on perforation risk in adults with acute appendicitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, D

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This study analyzed whether prehospital or in-hospital delay was the more significant influence on perforation rates for acute appendicitis and whether any clinical feature designated patients requiring higher surgical priority. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted over one year at a tertiary referral hospital without a dedicated emergency surgical theater. Admission notes, theater logbook, and the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry system were reviewed to identify the characteristics and clinical course of patients aged greater than 16 years who were operated upon for histologically confirmed acute appendicitis. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen patients were studied. The overall perforation rate was 17 percent. The mean duration of symptoms prior to hospital presentation was 38.1 hours with the mean in-hospital waiting time prior to operation being 23.4 hours. Although body temperature on presentation was significantly greater in patients found to have perforated appendicitis (P < 0.05), only patient heart rate at presentation and overall duration of symptoms, but not in-hospital waiting time, independently predicted perforation by stepwise linear regression modeling. CONCLUSION: In-hospital delay was not an independent predictor of perforation in adults with acute appendicitis although delays may contribute if patients are left to wait unduly. Tachycardia at presentation may be a quantifiable feature of those more likely to have perforation and who should be given higher surgical priority.

  19. The Influence of findings of coronary artery on myocardial salvage in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itano, Midoriko; Naruse, Hitoshi; Morita, Masato; Kawamoto, Hideo; Yamamoto, Juro; Fukutake, Naoshige; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1992-01-01

    201 Tl stress myocardial scintigraphy was performed in convalescent patients with acute myocardial infarction, to evaluate the influence of stenosis and collateral circulation of coronary artery in acute phase, on myocardial salvage in chronic phase. In 14 cases of unsuccessful coronary revascularization (complete occlusion), a complete defect of thallium imaging in chronic phase was seen in only one case of four cases with good collateral circulation, while eight of 10 cases with poor collateral circulation. In 16 cases with collateral circulation, six cases showed a complete defect, although the target vessel had improved to less than 75% of stenosis. However, in cases of good collateral circulation, no case showed a complete defect when the target vessel had improved to less than 75% of stenosis. The myocardial salvage is quite possible (p<0.05), when the coronary angiography in acute phase showed the forward flow (99% or 90% of stenosis) before coronary revascularization and/or good collateral circulation (Rentrop 2deg or 3deg). (author)

  20. The influence of a fentanyl and dexmedetomidine combination on external respiratory functions in acute hemorrhage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay G. Vengerovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The synthetic opioid analgesic fentanyl is widely used for prophylaxis and therapy of traumatic shock associated with massive bleeding. Its side effects – skeletal muscle rigidity and respiratory center depression – are especially pronounced with repeated administration. It is rational to apply fentanyl in diminished doses in combination with non-opioid analgesics in order to reduce respiratory disturbances risk.Aim. The aim of the work is to justify the influence of opioid analgesic fentanyl and α2 -adrenomimetic dexmedetomidine combination on external respiratory functions in acute hemorrhage model.Materials and methods. Acute loss of 35–40% of circulating blood volume was modeled in experiments on 75 white mongrel male rats. The external respiratory functions (respiratory rate, respiratory volume, breath volume per minute were estimated in animals of 5 groups: 1 – rats without analgesic help (controls; 2–3 – rats receiving a single fentanyl intramuscular injection (ED99 98,96 mcg/kg or fentanyl together with dexme detomidine (ED99 of combination 67,94 mcg/kg 15 min after acute blood loss; 4–5 – rats receiving the same drugs 15 min, 30, 45 and 60 min later.Results. In experimental acute loss of 35–40% of circulating blood volume, 15 min later a secondary acute respiratory failure developed with a drop of respiratory rate, respiratory volume and volume of breath per minute by 30%, 21 and 47% (p < 0,05. The external respiratory functions recoverеd after 4 h mainly due to the increase of respiratory volume. A single intramuscular injection of fentanyl caused respiratory depression 15 min after experimental blood loss which resulted in the decrease of breath volume per minute to 30–61% (p < 0,05 for 90 min. Four intramuscular injections of fentanyl 15 min, 30, 45 and 60 min after hemorrhage caused a severe respiratory dysfunction, accompanied by apnea periods and Biot’s respiration. Respiratory rate was reduced

  1. Measuring more than we know? An examination of the motivational and situational influences in science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydel, Angela Michelle

    The purpose of this dissertation was to advance theoretical understanding about fit between the personal resources of individuals and the characteristics of science achievement tasks. Testing continues to be pervasive in schools, yet we know little about how students perceive tests and what they think and feel while they are actually working on test items. This study focused on both the personal (cognitive and motivational) and situational factors that may contribute to individual differences in achievement-related outcomes. 387 eighth grade students first completed a survey including measures of science achievement goals, capability beliefs, efficacy related to multiple-choice items and performance assessments, validity beliefs about multiple-choice items and performance assessments, and other perceptions of these item formats. Students then completed science achievement tests including multiple-choice items and two performance assessments. A sample of students was asked to verbalize both thoughts and feelings as they worked through the test items. These think-alouds were transcribed and coded for evidence of cognitive, metacognitive and motivational engagement. Following each test, all students completed measures of effort, mood, energy level and strategy use during testing. Students reported that performance assessments were more challenging, authentic, interesting and valid than multiple-choice tests. They also believed that comparisons between students were easier using multiple-choice items. Overall, students tried harder, felt better, had higher levels of energy and used more strategies while working on performance assessments. Findings suggested that performance assessments might be more congruent with a mastery achievement goal orientation, while multiple-choice tests might be more congruent with a performance achievement goal orientation. A variable-centered analytic approach including regression analyses provided information about how students, on

  2. The Influence of Organizational Commitment and Motivation in the Relationship between Budget Participation and Managerial Performance (Empirical Study on Provincial Government Agencies ( SKPA of Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim A. Djalil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of research is to empirically examine the influence of organizational commitment and motivation in the relationship between budget participation and managerialperformance of Provincial Government Agencies (SKPA of Aceh Province.Total samples used in this study were 92 respondents who were in the position of Echelon III and IV in SKPA of Aceh Province. The data source of this study was primary data obtained through the distribution of a questionnaire to the selected respondents. The collected data were analyzed by using Path Analysis Method.The result of the study indicated that the organizational commitment, motivation, and budget participation have a significant influence on the managerial performance both simultaneously and partially. However, the organizational commitment and motivation did not mediate the relationshipbetween budget participation and managerial performance.Keywords: Managerial Performance, Budget Participation, Organizational Commitment, Motivation

  3. The Influence of Hedonic and Utilitarian Motivators on Likelihood to Buy a Tourism Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra VINEREAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To fully understand the pattern of choice, it is important that any explanation of consumer behavior to be accompanied by a complete understanding of the interplay between a consumer’s functional goals and experiential preferences within the decision context. Consumer researchers have increasingly begun to investigate consumer choice based on distinctions that involve the purchase and consumption of goods for pleasure versus for more utilitarian and instrumental purposes. Consumers are often faced with these types of choices between hedonic and utilitarian alternatives that are at least partly driven by emotional desires rather than cold cognitive deliberations. This research approaches factor analysis and multiple linear regression in the context of 150 international respondents and their perception of hedonic and utilitarian motivators on likelihood to buy a tourism package.

  4. The influence of motivation on stress: is it stressful not to fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Sebastian; Wolf, Oliver T; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present research elaborates on the regulatory fit hypothesis by investigating a biological stress marker in a motivational fit- and non-fit-situation. Recent stress theories lead to the assumption that the participants' stress level in fit-situations remains constant or rather decreases, whereas under non-fit-conditions an increase of the stress activity is observed. We tested this hypothesis by assessment of salivary α-amylase (sAA), a saliva-based stress marker presumed to reflect noradrenergic activity. The results indicated that participants in a fit-situation show a decrease in sAA, whereas participants in a non-fit-situation demonstrate a contrary effect with an increase in sAA. These findings extend the concept of regulatory fit by illustrating that there are differences in sAA activity depending on whether participants are in a fit-situation. The experience of regulatory fit appears to be associated with a reduction of stress.

  5. Dimensions of Motivation to Transfer: A Longitudinal Analysis of Their Influence on Retention, Transfer, and Attitude Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the multidimensionality of motivation to transfer training. Based on self-determination theory, expectancy theory, and the theory of planned behaviour, motivation to transfer was conceptualized in three dimensions: autonomous motivation to transfer, controlled motivation to transfer, and intention to transfer.…

  6. Male Peer Influence on African American Men’s Motivation for Physical Activity: Men’s and Women’s Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Derek M.; King, Andrea; Allen, Julie Ober

    2012-01-01

    Thematic analysis of data from nine exploratory focus groups conducted with 71 middle-aged and older African American men and eight focus groups with 77 key women in their lives revealed how social norms and modeling of physical activity influenced men’s motivation to exercise. Both men and women identified male peers as an important source of ideas, encouragement, and support to initiate and sustain physical activity, yet sedentary peers also could contribute to men being less motivated to b...

  7. A Study of the Influence of College Students' Exercise and Leisure Motivations on the Leisure Benefits – Using Leisure Involvement as a Moderator

    OpenAIRE

    Chiung-En Huang; Cheng-Yu Tsai; Shane-Chung Lee

    2014-01-01

    This study aim at the influence of college students’ exercise and leisure motivations on the leisure benefits while using the leisure involvement as a moderator. Whereby, the research tools used in this study included the application of leisure motivation scale, leisure involvement scale and leisure benefits scale, and a hierarchical regression analysis was performed by using a questionnaire-based survey, in which, a total of 1,500 copies of questionnaires were administered and 917 valid ques...

  8. Working motivation as mediating variable for the influence of Spiritual quotient towards working performance: a study in the Regional Secretary of Puncak Jaya

    OpenAIRE

    NUHUJANAN ROMUALDUS PHILIPPUS; TROENO EKA AFNAN; NOERMIJATI N.; SUDIRO ACHMAD

    2016-01-01

    Spiritual quotient is an important element for an individual to achieve self-actualization. An individual who understands his or her talent and potentiality is creative, visionary and flexible. Such individual has strong motivation to improve his/her performance. The purpose of the study was to analyze the influence of spiritual quotient towards working performance that was mediated by working motivation. The subjects were 89 employees working in the Regional Secretary of Puncak Jaya. The pop...

  9. Maternal and newborn healthcare providers in rural Tanzania: in-depth interviews exploring influences on motivation, performance and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytherch, H; Kakoko, D C V; Leshabari, M T; Sauerborn, R; Marx, M

    2012-01-01

    Major improvements in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) remain elusive in Tanzania. The causes are closely related to the health system and overall human resource policy. Just 35% of the required workforce is actually in place and 43% of available staff consists of lower-level cadres such as auxiliaries. Staff motivation is also a challenge. In rural areas the problems of recruiting and retaining health staff are most pronounced. Yet, it is here that the majority of the population continues to reside. A detailed understanding of the influences on the motivation, performance and job satisfaction of providers at rural, primary level facilities was sought to inform a research project in its early stages. The providers approached were those found to be delivering MNH care on the ground, and thus include auxiliary staff. Much of the previous work on motivation has focused on defined professional groups such as physicians and nurses. While attention has recently broadened to also include mid-level providers, the views of auxiliary health workers have seldom been explored. In-depth interviews were the methodology of choice. An interview guideline was prepared with the involvement of Tanzanian psychologists, sociologists and health professionals to ensure the instrument was rooted in the socio-cultural setting of its application. Interviews were conducted with 25 MNH providers, 8 facility and district managers, and 2 policy-makers. Key sources of encouragement for all the types of respondents included community appreciation, perceived government and development partner support for MNH, and on-the-job learning. Discouragements were overwhelmingly financial in nature, but also included facility understaffing and the resulting workload, malfunction of the promotion system as well as health and safety, and security issues. Low-level cadres were found to be particularly discouraged. Difficulties and weaknesses in the management of rural facilities were revealed. Basic steps

  10. Achievement goals in the classroom and their possible influence on motivational patterns for chemistry learning in two Brazilian high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denilson Mendes de Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Classroom structures constitute motivational aspects to learn, which can be easily manipulated by teachers during mediation of scientific knowledge to ensure students’ engagement. Organization of learning activities, evaluation and autonomy are some examples of such structures. Two types of goals may be developed in classrooms due to different instructional strategies: performance goals and mastery goals. This work’s objectives were to compare instructional strategies of two high school chemistry teachers (Teacher A and Teacher B from two public schools located in Viçosa (Brazil and infer possible motivational patterns found among students. The comparison was based on the achievement goal theory and organized within the three classroom structures. Data were gathered through field notes from participant observation in two Chemistry classes and semi-structured interviews with both of the teachers. It was verified that Teacher A utilized strategies aligned with mastery goals, while Teacher B utilized instructional strategies that were consistent with the two types of goals. It is concluded that this can influence student engagement during Chemistry classes, considering that teachers have an important role in the orchestration of classroom structures, articulating instructional strategies that favor learning and mediation of the scientific knowledge.

  11. Social identity influences stress appraisals and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Meaney, Sarah; Muldoon, Orla T

    2014-09-01

    This study tested a recent theoretical development in stress research to see whether group membership influenced cardiovascular reactions following exposure to acute stress. Participants (N = 104) were exposed to a message in which a maths test was described as stressful or challenging by an ingroup member (a student) or outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout a standard reactivity study. As expected, a significant interaction was found; relative to those who were told that the task was challenging, ingroup members reported more stress and had higher DBP and HR reactivity when told by an ingroup member that the maths task was stressful; task information did not have the same effect for outgroup members. These results indicate that informational support is not constant but varies as a function of group membership. Finally, this recent development in stress research may prove useful for those interested in investigating the interactions between social, psychological and physiological processes underlying health disparities. What is already known on this subject? Stress is a common risk factor for hypertension and coronary heart disease. Social support has been found to reduce cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. The influence of social support on stress varies as a consequence of social identity. What does this study add? The social group that one belongs to influences how one appraises and responds to stress. Social identity provides a useful framework for understanding how social processes are associated with health disparities. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Assessing the Motivators and Barriers Influencing Undergraduate Students' Choices to Participate in International Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, J.C.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Israel, Glenn D.; Edwards, M. Craig

    2013-01-01

    International experiences (IEs) are becoming one of the most critical elements of an undergraduate student's education to address the knowledge needed to become globally competent. However, student enrollment in IEs has been limited. Agricultural educators can more easily influence students' decisions regarding participation in IEs if they…

  13. Ideologically motivated activism: How activist groups influence corporate social change activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hond, F.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; Hickman, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Using insights from the social movement literature and institutional change theory, we explore how activism influences corporate social change activities. As the responsibility for addressing a variety of social issues is transferred from the state to the private sector, activist groups increasingly

  14. Factors influencing motivation and job satisfaction among supervisors of community health workers in marginalized communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, Olagoke; Chikoko, Gamuchirai

    2016-09-06

    Management and supervision of community health workers are factors that are critical to the success of community health worker programmes. Yet few studies have explored the perspectives of supervisors in these programmes. This study explored factors influencing motivations of supervisors in community health worker programmes. We conducted qualitative interviews with 26 programme staff providing supervision to community health workers in eight community-based organizations in marginalized communities in the greater Durban area of South Africa from July 2010 to September 2011. Findings show that all the supervisors had previous experience working in the health or social services sectors and most started out as unpaid community health workers. Most of the participants were poor women from marginalized communities. Supervisors' activities include the management and supply of material resources, mentoring and training of community health workers, record keeping and report writing. Supervisors were motivated by intrinsic factors like making a difference and community appreciation and non-monetary incentives such as promotion to supervisory positions; acquisition of management skills; participation in capacity building and the development of programmes; and support for educational advancement like salary, bonuses and medical benefits. Hygiene factors that serve to prevent dissatisfaction are salaries and financial, medical and educational benefits attached to the supervisory position. Demotivating factors identified are patients' non-adherence to health advice and alienation from decision-making. Dissatisfiers include working in crime-prevalent communities, remuneration for community health workers (CHWs), problems with material and logistical resources, job insecurity, work-related stressors and navigating the interface between CHWs and management. While participants were dissatisfied with their low remuneration, they were not demotivated but continued to be motivated

  15. Motivational aspects that influence the elderly to enroll on and continue participating in physical exercise programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Freyre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a growing demand for physical exercise in programs promoting health; however, the elderly are still under-represented in such programs. This study aims to identify, classify and discuss social, cultural and educational factors relating to the health and quality of life of the elderly, establishing relationships with the motives for which they join and adhere to regular physical exercise programs in public areas. This was a field study employing descriptive quantitative and qualitative methodology and for which 120 participants from two physical exercise programs in Recife were interviewed. The results indicate that the most important motives for participation were as follows: to improve health (84.2%, to improve physical performance (70.8%, to adopt a healthy lifestyle (62.5%, to reduce stress (60.8%, to comply with doctor’s orders (56.7%, to recover from injury (55%, to improve self-image (50.8% and to enhance self-esteem and relax (47.5%. The most important motives for continuing to attend such programs were: to improve posture (75%; to promote a feeling of wellbeing (74.2%; to keep fi t (70.8%; to experience pleasure (66.7%; to become stronger and be motivated by the instructor (62.5%; to experience a feeling of well-being produced by the social environment (60%; and to experience self-realization and receive attention from the instructor (57.5%. For the men (35.1%, the habit of performing physical exercise in their youth had no bearing on their joining such programs. On the basis of these indicators, universities can make a valuable contribution by offering socio-educational health-related projects encouraging the elderly population to avoid a sedentary lifestyle. RESUMO Atualmente, a busca pela prática de exercícios físicos em programas para promoção de saúde vem crescendo; porém a procura pelos idosos é insuficiente. Esta investigação identifica, classifica e discute os aspectos socioculturais e educativos

  16. Testing the influence of external and internal cues on smoking motivation using a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Erika B; Brandon, Thomas H

    2010-02-01

    Exposing smokers to either external cues (e.g., pictures of cigarettes) or internal cues (e.g., negative affect induction) can induce urge to smoke and other behavioral and physiological responses. However, little is known about whether the two types of cues interact when presented in close proximity, as is likely the case in the real word. Additionally, potential moderators of cue reactivity have rarely been examined. Finally, few cue-reactivity studies have used representative samples of smokers. In a randomized 2 x 2 crossed factorial between-subjects design, the current study tested the effects of a negative affect cue intended to produce anxiety (speech preparation task) and an external smoking cue on urge and behavioral reactivity in a community sample of adult smokers (N = 175), and whether trait impulsivity moderated the effects. Both types of cues produced main effects on urges to smoke, despite the speech task failing to increase anxiety significantly. The speech task increased smoking urge related to anticipation of negative affect relief, whereas the external smoking cues increased urges related to anticipation of pleasure; however, the cues did not interact. Impulsivity measures predicted urge and other smoking-related variables, but did not moderate cue-reactivity. Results suggest independent rather than synergistic effects of these contributors to smoking motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The influence of a motivational climate intervention on participants' salivary cortisol and psychological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Candace M; Fry, Mary D; Fry, Andrew C; Pressman, Sarah D

    2013-02-01

    Research in achievement goal perspective theory suggests that the creation of a caring/task-involving (C/TI) climate results in more advantageous psychological and behavioral responses relative to an ego-involving (EI) climate; however, research has not yet examined the physiological consequences associated with psychological stress in relation to climate. Given the possible health and fitness implications of certain physiological stress responses, it is critical to understand this association. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether an EI climate procures increases in the stress-responsive hormone cortisol, as well as negative psychological changes, following the learning of a new skill, compared with a C/TI climate. Participants (n = 107) were randomized to a C/TI or an EI climate in which they learned how to juggle for 30 min over the course of 2 hr. Seven salivary cortisol samples were collected during this period. Results indicated that EI participants experienced greater cortisol responses after the juggling session and significantly greater anxiety, stress, shame, and self-consciousness relative to C/TI participants. In contrast, the C/TI participants reported greater enjoyment, effort, self-confidence, and interest and excitement regarding future juggling than the EI participants. These findings indicate that motivational climates may have a significant impact on both the physiological and psychological responses of participants.

  18. Pedestrian and bicyclist motivation: an assessment of influences on pedestrians’ and bicyclists’ mode choice in Mt. Pleasant, Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery M. Guinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of short distance travel in North America is completed by single occupancy vehicles. Substituting walking and bicycling for these trips would reduce energy use and environmental pollution, while improving quality of life. Therefore, understanding influences on non-automotive travel behavior is crucial. Researchers and planners have touted specific factors for encouraging walking and biking, but the body of work remains fragmented. Previous studies have focused on a smaller number of factors and most of them relate to physical design. This study tests the relative importance of a range of factors, both physical and perceptual that could influence one’s choice to walk or bike. The Mt. Pleasant neighborhood in Vancouver, B.C., Canada was chosen as the location for this study as all of the pedestrian-motivating factors identified in a literature review were present. A questionnaire-based survey addressing distance, sidewalks/bike lanes, pedestrian/bicycle traffic signals, buffering from auto traffic, sense of security, cleanliness, opportunities to talk with others, enforcement of traffic laws, concern for the environment, weather, terrain, saving money, opportunities for exercise, and a visually appealing environment as influential factors was administered in person and online yielding 774 responses. All factors were shown to influence the decision to walk or bike, but some proved more significant than others, especially opportunities for exercise.

  19. Motivation and value influences in the relative balance of goal-directed and habitual behaviours in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Baek, K; Enander, J; Worbe, Y; Morris, L S; Harrison, N A; Robbins, T W; Rück, C; Daw, N

    2015-11-03

    Our decisions are based on parallel and competing systems of goal-directed and habitual learning, systems which can be impaired in pathological behaviours. Here we focus on the influence of motivation and compare reward and loss outcomes in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on model-based goal-directed and model-free habitual behaviours using the two-step task. We further investigate the relationship with acquisition learning using a one-step probabilistic learning task. Forty-eight OCD subjects and 96 healthy volunteers were tested on a reward and 30 OCD subjects and 53 healthy volunteers on the loss version of the two-step task. Thirty-six OCD subjects and 72 healthy volunteers were also tested on a one-step reversal task. OCD subjects compared with healthy volunteers were less goal oriented (model-based) and more habitual (model-free) to reward outcomes with a shift towards greater model-based and lower habitual choices to loss outcomes. OCD subjects also had enhanced acquisition learning to loss outcomes on the one-step task, which correlated with goal-directed learning in the two-step task. OCD subjects had greater stay behaviours or perseveration in the one-step task irrespective of outcome. Compulsion severity was correlated with habitual learning in the reward condition. Obsession severity was correlated with greater switching after loss outcomes. In healthy volunteers, we further show that greater reward magnitudes are associated with a shift towards greater goal-directed learning further emphasizing the role of outcome salience. Our results highlight an important influence of motivation on learning processes in OCD and suggest that distinct clinical strategies based on valence may be warranted.

  20. Influence of socioeconomic status on childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Saskia; Sitaresmi, Mei N; Gundy, Chad M; Sutaryo; Veerman, Anjo J P

    2006-12-01

    A major reason for poor survival of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in developing countries is treatment refusal or abandonment. This can be associated with parental socioeconomic status and attitudes of health care providers. Our study examined the influence of 2 socioeconomic status determinants, parental income and education, on treatment in an Indonesian academic hospital. Medical charts of 164 patients who received a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia between 1997 and 2002 were abstracted retrospectively. Data on treatment results and parental financial and educational background were collected. Open interviews were conducted with parents and health care providers. Of all patients, 35% refused or abandoned treatment, 23% experienced treatment-related death, 22% had progressive or relapsed leukemia, and 20% had an overall event-free survival. Treatment results differed significantly between patients with different socioeconomic status; 47% of poor and 2% of prosperous patients refused or abandoned treatment. Although poor and prosperous patients used the same protocol, the provided treatment differed. Poor patients received less individualized attention from oncologists and less structured parental education. Strong social hierarchical structures hindered communication with doctors, resulting in a lack of parental understanding of the necessity to continue treatment. Most poor patients could not afford treatment. Access to donated chemotherapy also was inadequate. Treatment refusal or abandonment frequently resulted. There was no follow-up system to detect and contact dropouts. Health care providers were not fully aware that their own attitude and communication skills were important for ensuring compliance of patients and parents. Children's survival of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in developing countries could improve if problems that are associated with parental financial and educational background and medical teams' attitudes to treatment and

  1. Predicting Intra-Individual Academic Achievement Trajectories of Adolescents Nested in Class Environment: Influence of motivation, implicit theory of intelligence, self-esteem and parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Roskam

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In a longitudinal study conducted on 1130 adolescents (557 male and 573 female in the 1st-6th grades from Belgian secondary schools, we tested the influence of individual factors (motivational constructs, implicit theory of intelligence and self-esteem and environmental determinants (parenting and class environment of academic achievement (grades in mathematics, language arts and GPA at three points in time. Using hierarchical linear models, we observed a decrease of grade over the course of the study, reciprocal relations between motivational constructs, self-esteem and academic achievement, a strong positive impact of supportive parenting and a moderate influence of class environment.

  2. Influence of acute static stretching on the behavior of maximum muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Borges Bastos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the influence of acute static stretching on maximal muscle strength (1RM. The non-probabilistic sample consisted of 30 subjects split into two groups: static stretching (SS= 15 and without stretching group (WS= 15. Muscle strength evaluation (1RM was conducted with a Dynamometer model 32527pp400 Pound push / pull devices coupled in knee extension (KE and bench press (BP. The Wilcoxon test for intragroup comparisons and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparisons between groups (p< 0.05 were selected. There were no significant differences (p> 0.05 between the SS and WS in exercise KE and BP. Therefore, it can be concluded that there was no reduction in the performance of 1RM performing the exercises KE and BP when preceded by static stretching.

  3. Factors influencing job satisfaction and ethical dilemmas in acute psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinsson, E; Hummelvoll, J K

    2001-06-01

    This study addressed the factors that nursing staff perceived as creating job satisfaction in their working environment in addition to addressing the ethical dilemmas that staff experienced within an acute psychiatric care setting. It also addressed how clinical supervision contributed to job satisfaction among staff as well as the differences between staff who attended and staff who did not attend to clinical supervision. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Overall, the results of this study showed that the factors influencing nurses are related to areas of dissatisfaction, for example, stress and experiences with shortcomings. Factors that contribute to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction were found to be related to the nurses' value systems. The ethical dilemmas that were specifically addressed involved how to care for patients and handle work in relation to patients' autonomy, how to approach the patient, how to provide care against the will of the patient, and what action was ethically right for each particular patient.

  4. Influence of the cortical midline structures on moral emotion and motivation in moral decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin; Chen, Jingyuan; Jeong, Changwoo; Glover, Gary H

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to examine the relationship between the cortical midline structures (CMS), which have been regarded to be associated with selfhood, and moral decision making processes at the neural level. Traditional moral psychological studies have suggested the role of moral self as the moderator of moral cognition, so activity of moral self would present at the neural level. The present study examined the interaction between the CMS and other moral-related regions by conducting psycho-physiological interaction analysis of functional images acquired while 16 subjects were solving moral dilemmas. Furthermore, we performed Granger causality analysis to demonstrate the direction of influences between activities in the regions in moral decision-making. We first demonstrate there are significant positive interactions between two central CMS seed regions-i.e., the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)-and brain regions associated with moral functioning including the cerebellum, brainstem, midbrain, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula (AI); on the other hand, the posterior insula (PI) showed significant negative interaction with the seed regions. Second, several significant Granger causality was found from CMS to insula regions particularly under the moral-personal condition. Furthermore, significant dominant influence from the AI to PI was reported. Moral psychological implications of these findings are discussed. The present study demonstrated the significant interaction and influence between the CMS and morality-related regions while subject were solving moral dilemmas. Given that, activity in the CMS is significantly involved in human moral functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the influence of motivations and attitude on mobile social networking use

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Martí Parreño, José; Hernández Fernández, Asunción

    2013-01-01

    Social media have become one of the strongest growing Web 2.0 services worldwide as they are a powerful tool for consumers to recommend products and services. The influence of social networking sites in purchase behaviour and their growing use by consumers justify the need to further study key drivers of users’ behaviour. Although there is now a significant body of literature on the use of social networks from a computer, there is scant literature on their use from mobile devices. As media co...

  6. Training loads and injury risk in Australian football—differing acute: chronic workload ratios influence match injury risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Blanch, Peter; Ong, Kok-Leong; Crossley, Kay M; Crow, Justin; Morris, Meg E

    2017-01-01

    Aims (1) To investigate whether a daily acute:chronic workload ratio informs injury risk in Australian football players; (2) to identify which combination of workload variable, acute and chronic time window best explains injury likelihood. Methods Workload and injury data were collected from 53 athletes over 2 seasons in a professional Australian football club. Acute:chronic workload ratios were calculated daily for each athlete, and modelled against non-contact injury likelihood using a quadratic relationship. 6 workload variables, 8 acute time windows (2–9 days) and 7 chronic time windows (14–35 days) were considered (336 combinations). Each parameter combination was compared for injury likelihood fit (using R2). Results The ratio of moderate speed running workload (18–24 km/h) in the previous 3 days (acute time window) compared with the previous 21 days (chronic time window) best explained the injury likelihood in matches (R2=0.79) and in the immediate 2 or 5 days following matches (R2=0.76–0.82). The 3:21 acute:chronic workload ratio discriminated between high-risk and low-risk athletes (relative risk=1.98–2.43). Using the previous 6 days to calculate the acute workload time window yielded similar results. The choice of acute time window significantly influenced model performance and appeared to reflect the competition and training schedule. Conclusions Daily workload ratios can inform injury risk in Australian football. Clinicians and conditioning coaches should consider the sport-specific schedule of competition and training when choosing acute and chronic time windows. For Australian football, the ratio of moderate speed running in a 3-day or 6-day acute time window and a 21-day chronic time window best explained injury risk. PMID:27789430

  7. Myocardial Creatine Levels Do Not Influence Response to Acute Oxidative Stress in Isolated Perfused Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksentijević, Dunja; Zervou, Sevasti; Faller, Kiterie M. E.; McAndrew, Debra J.; Schneider, Jurgen E.; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple studies suggest creatine mediates anti-oxidant activity in addition to its established role in cellular energy metabolism. The functional significance for the heart has yet to be established, but antioxidant activity could contribute to the cardioprotective effect of creatine in ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Objectives To determine whether intracellular creatine levels influence responses to acute reactive oxygen species (ROS) exposure in the intact beating heart. We hypothesised that mice with elevated creatine due to over-expression of the creatine transporter (CrT-OE) would be relatively protected, while mice with creatine-deficiency (GAMT KO) would fare worse. Methods and Results CrT-OE mice were pre-selected for creatine levels 20–100% above wild-type using in vivo 1H–MRS. Hearts were perfused in isovolumic Langendorff mode and cardiac function monitored throughout. After 20 min equilibration, hearts were perfused with either H2O2 0.5 µM (30 min), or the anti-neoplastic drug doxorubicin 15 µM (100 min). Protein carbonylation, creatine kinase isoenzyme activities and phospho-PKCδ expression were quantified in perfused hearts as markers of oxidative damage and apoptotic signalling. Wild-type hearts responded to ROS challenge with a profound decline in contractile function that was ameliorated by co-administration of catalase or dexrazoxane as positive controls. In contrast, the functional deterioration in CrT-OE and GAMT KO hearts was indistinguishable from wild-type controls, as was the extent of oxidative damage and apoptosis. Exogenous creatine supplementation also failed to protect hearts from doxorubicin-induced dysfunction. Conclusions Intracellular creatine levels do not influence the response to acute ROS challenge in the intact beating heart, arguing against creatine exerting (patho-)physiologically relevant anti-oxidant activity. PMID:25272153

  8. Influence of social motivation, self-perception of social efficacy and normative adjustment in the peer setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera López, Mauricio; Romera Félix, Eva M; Ortega Ruiz, Rosario; Gómez Ortiz, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to adapt and test the psychometric properties of the Social Achievement Goal Scale (Ryan & Shim, 2006) in Spanish adolescent students. The second objective sought to analyse the influence of social goals, normative adjustment and self-perception of social efficacy on social adjustment among peers. A total of 492 adolescents (54.1% females) attending secondary school (12-17 years; M = 13.8, SD = 1.16) participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were performed. The validation confirmed the three-factor structure of the original scale: social development goals, social demonstration-approach goals and social demonstration-avoidance goals. The structural equation model indicated that social development goals and normative adjustment have a direct bearing on social adjustment, whereas the social demonstration-approach goals (popularity) and self-perception of social efficacy with peers and teachers exert an indirect influence. The Spanish version of the Social Achievement Goal Scale (Ryan & Shim, 2006) yielded optimal psychometric properties. Having a positive motivational pattern, engaging in norm-adjusted behaviours and perceiving social efficacy with peers is essential to improving the quality of interpersonal relationships.

  9. The Role of Motivation in Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    The mastery of English learning is influenced by some variables, one of them is motivation. Motivation in learning second language is classified as integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. Some experts of language teaching also categorized motivation into two types namely intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. This paper discusses about kinds of motivation and how it takes a role in influencing students mastery in learning language. It was literature study that focused to f...

  10. Influence of distance on the motivation and frequency of household recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L; Adenso-Díaz, B

    2005-01-01

    People choose to participate in recycling for a variety of reasons. This study analyzes the relationship between the frequency of selective separation and general refuse disposal, and the influence on the recycling habit of the walking distance to drop off the materials. The methodology employed was one of personal interviews in the street, the study population being a region in the north of Spain (Principality of Asturias). More than one thousand people participated in this survey carried out in 2002. Five hypotheses related to three variables (the frequency for depositing recycling materials and general refuse, the distance to recycling and general bins, and the recycling habit) were tested using different statistical tests. Results show that the people who frequently go to the bins to dispose of general refuse are more likely to recycle some product at home, and in most cases, as the distance to the recycling bins decreases, the number of fractions that citizens separate and collect at home increases. Most of the results obtained have been compared with other previous in literature.

  11. Modelling and simulation of the influence of acute and chronic hypoxia on [18F]fluoromisonidazole PET imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnich, D.; Troost, E.G.C.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Alber, M.; Thorwarth, D.

    2012-01-01

    Tumour hypoxia can be assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) using radiotracers like [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole (Fmiso). The purpose of this work was to independently investigate the influence of chronic and acute hypoxia on the retention of Fmiso on the microscale. This was approached by

  12. Motivation in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate medical students’ motivation, particularly the importance of quality of motivation, factors influencing and outcomes and to explore how these can be applied to ...

  13. Learner Motivation and Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina; Gudeva, Liljana Koleva; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...

  14. Factors Influencing Facebook Usage and Facebook Addictive Tendency in University Students: The Role of Online Psychological Privacy and Facebook Usage Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Su-Lin

    2016-04-01

    There are few studies analysing the influence of personal traits and motivation factors on Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency as seen in university students. In this study, 225 Taiwanese university students completed a questionnaire to determine their online psychological privacy scale, Facebook usage motivation scale, Facebook usage scale and Facebook addictive tendency scale, in order to evaluate the items that can be conceptualized as the effect of university students' online psychological privacy personal trait and motive factors, and Facebook usage motivation with respect to Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency. The study found that a desire for more online psychological privacy correlates with a stronger motivation to use Facebook and more Facebook usage behaviour among university students who may become high-risk groups for Facebook addictive tendency. The study found that a desire for or an acceptance of a lower online psychological privacy correlates with a stronger motivation to use Facebook among university students who may have more Facebook usage behaviour. This study can help understand university students' Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency and provide feature indicators for those who may become high-risk groups for Facebook addictive tendency. Finally, this study conducts discussion and proposes relevant suggestions for future study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Students' Persistence and Academic Success in a First-Year Professional Bachelor Program: The Influence of Students' Learning Strategies and Academic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Vanthournout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores whether students' learning strategies and academic motivation predict persistence and academic success in the first year of higher education. Freshmen students in a professional bachelor program in teacher education were questioned on their learning strategy use and motivation at the start and at the end of the academic year. Students' learning strategies were assessed using the inventory of learning styles-SV. Motivation was measured using scales from the self-regulation questionnaire and the academic motivation scale. Gender and students' prior education were incorporated as control variables. Logistic regression analyses and general linear modelling were applied to predict persistence and academic success, respectively. In each case a stepwise approach in data analysis was used. Results on persistence indicate that lack of regulation and amotivation at the start of the year are significant predictors. For academic success, results showed that relating and structuring, lack of regulation, and lack of motivation at the end of the year are meaningful predictors. Overall, our study demonstrates that learning strategies and motivation have a moderate explanatory value regarding academic success and persistence, and that these effects remain even after controlling for the influence of background variables.

  16. A Bayesian Mixed-Methods Analysis of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction through Outdoor Learning and Its Influence on Motivational Behavior in Science Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Dettweiler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that outdoor educational interventions can lead to students' increased self-regulated motivational behavior. In this study, we searched into the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN, i.e., autonomy support, the learners' experience of competence, and relatedness, both within the peer group and with their teachers, through outdoor learning. From 2014 to 2016, n = 281 students attended “research weeks” at a Student Science Lab in the Alpine National Park Berchtesgaden (Germany. The program is a curriculum-based one-week residential course, centered on a 2-day research expedition. Both before and after the course, students completed a composite questionnaire addressing BPN-satisfaction and overall motivational behavior in relation to the Self-Determination Index (SDI. At the latter time-point, students also reported on their experiences during the intervention. Questionnaire data was analyzed using a set of Bayesian General Linear Models with random effects. Those quantitative measures have been complemented by and contextualized with a set of qualitative survey methods. The results showed that the basic psychological needs influence the motivational behavior in both contexts equally, however on different scale levels. The basic needs satisfaction in the outdoor context is decisively higher than indoors. Moreover, the increment of competence-experience from the school context to the hands-on outdoor program appears to have the biggest impact to students' increased intrinsic motivation during the intervention. Increased autonomy support, student-teacher relations, and student-student relations have much less or no influence on the overall difference of motivational behavior. Gender does not influence the results. The contextualization partly supports those results and provide further explanation for the students' increased self-regulation in the outdoors. They add some explanatory thrust to the argument that outdoor

  17. An Examination of the Influence of Consumer Motivation on Salesperson Appraisal and Emotional Response to Salesperson Behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Mallalieu, Lynnea Anne

    2000-01-01

    This research examines the effects of consumer motivation during an interpersonal sales encounter. The research proposes that a consumer's motivational mind-set affects the consumer's cognitive appraisal of the salesperson and the consumer's subsequent emotional response. Of primary interest is the interaction between a consumer's motivation and a salesperson's behavior. A main thesis of this research is that a congruency mechanism operates between the consumer and the salesperson during a...

  18. Managing motivational conflict: how self-esteem and executive resources influence self-regulatory responses to risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Justin V; Holmes, John G; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Murray, Sandra L; Wood, Joanne V

    2012-09-01

    This article explores how self-esteem and executive resources interact to determine responses to motivational conflict. One correlational and 3 experimental studies investigated the hypothesis that high and low self-esteem people undertake different self-regulatory strategies in "risky" situations that afford opportunity to pursue competing goals and that carrying out these strategies requires executive resources. When such resources are available, high self-esteem people respond to risk by prioritizing and pursuing approach goals, whereas low self-esteem people prioritize avoidance goals. However, self-esteem does not influence responses to risk when executive resources are impaired. In these studies, risk was operationalized by exposing participants to a relationship threat (Studies 1 and 2), by using participants' self-reported marital conflict (Study 3), and by threatening academic competence (Study 4). Executive resources were operationalized as cognitive load (Studies 1 and 2), working memory capacity (Study 3), and resource depletion (Study 4). When executive resources were ample, high self-esteem people responded to interpersonal risk by making more positive relationship evaluations (Studies 1, 2, and 3) and making more risky social comparisons following a personal failure (Study 4) than did low self-esteem people. Self-esteem did not predict participants' responses when executive resources were impaired or when risk was absent. The regulatory function of self-esteem may be more resource-dependent than has been previously theorized.

  19. An Integrated Behavioural Model towards Evaluating and Influencing Energy Behaviour—The Role of Motivation in Behaviour Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Blanke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The change in the actual use of buildings by its occupants is receiving more and more attention. Over the lifecycle of a building the occupants and therefore the demands towards the buildings often change a lot. To match these altering conditions, particularly in the context of the demand for energy efficiency, purely technical approaches usually cannot solve the problem on their own or are not financially viable. It is therefore essential to take the behaviour of the end user into account and ask the fundamental question: “How is it possible to influence people’s behaviour towards a more pro-environmental outcome, and also in the long-term?” To approach this question we will present a model-driven approach for dynamically involving building occupants into the energy optimisation process. To do so we will further develop an integrated behavioural model based on established behavioural theories, having a closer look how motivational variables can be integrated into the process. This should lead to novel approaches for behaviour demand response, enabling additional demand shifting and shedding through targeted real-time engagement with energy prosumers.

  20. Manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke, frequency and influence on functional outcome: The Copenhagen Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, P M; Jørgensen, H S; Kammersgaard, L P; Nakayama, H; Raaschou, H O; Olsen, T S

    2001-09-01

    To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome. Seven hundred seventy six unselected, acute stroke patients who were admitted within seven days of stroke onset with unimpaired consciousness were included. If possible, the patients were assessed for manual and oral apraxia on acute admission. Neurologic stroke severity including aphasia was assessed with the Scandinavian Stroke Scale, and activities of daily living function was assessed with the Barthel Index. All patients completed their rehabilitation in the same large stroke unit. Six hundred eighteen patients could cooperate with the apraxia assessments. Manual apraxia was found in 7% of subjects (10% in left and 4% in right hemispheric stroke; chi2 = 9.0; P = 0.003). Oral apraxia was found in 6% (9% in left and 4% in right hemispheric stroke; chi2 = 5.4; P = 0.02). Both manual and oral apraxia were related to increasing stroke severity, and manual, but not oral, apraxia was associated with increasing age. There was no gender difference in frequency of apraxia. Patients with either type of apraxia had temporal lobe involvement more often than patients without. When analyzed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses, neither manual nor oral apraxia had any independent influence on functional outcome. Apraxia is significantly less frequent in unselected patients with acute stroke than has previously been assumed and has no independent negative influence on functional outcome.

  1. Influence of Student Learning Experience on Academic Performance: The Mediator and Moderator Effects of Self-Regulation and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Hoi Kwan; Downing, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediator and moderator roles of self-regulation and motivation constructs in the relationship between learning experience and academic success. Self-reported measures of learning experience, self-regulation and motivation were obtained from 384 undergraduate students from a university in Hong Kong. Structural equation…

  2. Context Influences the Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behaviour in Children Diagnosed with Intellectual Disability with and without Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children are motivated to engage in stereotypic and repetitive behaviours for a number of reasons. Their motivation seems to change according to context, but little empirical evidence supports that observation. Interventions designed to reduce the behaviours may be improved by an increased understanding of the interaction between…

  3. The role of motivation in understanding social contextual influences on physical activity in underserved adolescents in the ACT Trial: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawman, Hannah G; Wilson, Dawn K; Van Horn, M Lee; Zarrett, Nicole

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has shown that social contextual factors are important in understanding physical activity (PA) behavior, although little is known about how these factors may relate to PA, especially in underserved adolescents (low income, minorities). This study examined how motivation may differentially mediate the relationship of two social contextual variables (i.e., peer and parent social support) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Baseline data (n = 1421 sixth graders, 54% female, 72% African American) from the Active by Choice Today (ACT) trial in underserved adolescents were analyzed. Motivation was examined as a mediator of the relationships between peer social support, parent social support, and MVPA (measured by 7-day accelerometer estimates). Motivation and peer but not parent support were significantly related to MVPA overall. Significant mediation effects were found indicating motivation partially mediated the relation between peer social support and MVPA and to a lesser degree parent support and MVPA. These findings provide support for the importance of social contextual influences, especially peer social support, on underserved adolescents' PA and motivation for PA.

  4. Psychosocial stress factors, including the relationship with the coach, and their influence on acute and overuse injury risk in elite female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensgaard, Anne Marte; Ivarsson, Andreas; Nilstad, Agnethe; Solstad, Bård Erlend; Steffen, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between specific types of stressors (eg, teammates, coach) and acute versus overuse injuries is not well understood. To examine the roles of different types of stressors as well as the effect of motivational climate on the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries. Players in the Norwegian elite female football league (n=193 players from 12 teams) participated in baseline screening tests prior to the 2009 competitive football season. As part of the screening, we included the Life Event Survey for Collegiate Athletes and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Norwegian short version). Acute and overuse time-loss injuries and exposure to training and matches were recorded prospectively in the football season using weekly text messaging. Data were analysed with Bayesian logistic regression analyses. Using Bayesian logistic regression analyses, we showed that perceived negative life event stress from teammates was associated with an increased risk of acute injuries (OR=1.23, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.48)). There was a credible positive association between perceived negative life event stress from the coach and the risk of overuse injuries (OR=1.21, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.45)). Players who report teammates as a source of stress have a greater risk of sustaining an acute injury, while players reporting the coach as a source of stress are at greater risk of sustaining an overuse injury. Motivational climate did not relate to increased injury occurrence.

  5. Motivator-manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2009-01-01

    The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs.

  6. The Influence of Acute Hyperglycemia in an Animal Model of Lacunar Stroke That Is Induced by Artificial Particle Embolization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Jun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Kuo, Yu-Min; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have revealed that hyperglycemia during ischemic stroke increases the stroke's severity and the infarct size in clinical and animal studies. However, no conclusive evidence demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia worsens post-stroke outcomes and increases infarct size in lacunar stroke. In this study, we developed a rat model of lacunar stroke that was induced via the injection of artificial embolic particles during full consciousness. We then used this model to compare the acute influence of hyperglycemia in lacunar stroke and diffuse infarction, by evaluating neurologic behavior and the rate, size, and location of the infarction. The time course of the neurologic deficits was clearly recorded from immediately after induction to 24 h post-stroke in both types of stroke. We found that acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic deficit in diffuse infarction at 24 h after stroke, and also aggravated the cerebral infarct. Furthermore, the infarct volumes of the basal ganglion, thalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum but not the cortex were positively correlated with serum glucose levels. In contrast, acute hyperglycemia reduced the infarct volume and neurologic symptoms in lacunar stroke within 4 min after stroke induction, and this effect persisted for up to 24 h post-stroke. In conclusion, acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic outcomes in diffuse infarction, although it significantly reduced the size of the cerebral infarct and improved the neurologic deficits in lacunar stroke. PMID:27226775

  7. Training loads and injury risk in Australian football-differing acute: chronic workload ratios influence match injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Blanch, Peter; Ong, Kok-Leong; Crossley, Kay M; Crow, Justin; Morris, Meg E

    2017-08-01

    (1) To investigate whether a daily acute:chronic workload ratio informs injury risk in Australian football players; (2) to identify which combination of workload variable, acute and chronic time window best explains injury likelihood. Workload and injury data were collected from 53 athletes over 2 seasons in a professional Australian football club. Acute:chronic workload ratios were calculated daily for each athlete, and modelled against non-contact injury likelihood using a quadratic relationship. 6 workload variables, 8 acute time windows (2-9 days) and 7 chronic time windows (14-35 days) were considered (336 combinations). Each parameter combination was compared for injury likelihood fit (using R 2 ). The ratio of moderate speed running workload (18-24 km/h) in the previous 3 days (acute time window) compared with the previous 21 days (chronic time window) best explained the injury likelihood in matches (R 2 =0.79) and in the immediate 2 or 5 days following matches (R 2 =0.76-0.82). The 3:21 acute:chronic workload ratio discriminated between high-risk and low-risk athletes (relative risk=1.98-2.43). Using the previous 6 days to calculate the acute workload time window yielded similar results. The choice of acute time window significantly influenced model performance and appeared to reflect the competition and training schedule. Daily workload ratios can inform injury risk in Australian football. Clinicians and conditioning coaches should consider the sport-specific schedule of competition and training when choosing acute and chronic time windows. For Australian football, the ratio of moderate speed running in a 3-day or 6-day acute time window and a 21-day chronic time window best explained injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Pengaruh Self-Efficacy, Budaya Organisasi Dan Motivasi Kerja Terhadap Komitmen Organisasi [The Influence of Self-Efficacy, Organizational Culture, and Work Motivation toward Organizational Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Yulan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study is to find out the following: 1 does self-efficacy have a positive influence on work motivation, 2 does organizational culture have a positive influence on work motivation, 3 does self-efficacy have a positive influence on organizational commitments, 4 does organizational culture have a positive influence on organizational commitments, and, 5 does work motivation have a positive influence on organizational commitments in a TMAP Foundation. The data collection in this study is done using a questionare given to all employee of the foundation. The number of the respondents was 30 people. The method used in this research was quantitative research by using the path analysis method. This study is using the PLS-SEM approach with the help of SmartPLS tools to evaluate the outer model and inner model. The finding of this study is that self-efficacy has positive effects on work motivation, organizational culture has positive effects on work motivation, self-efficacy has positive effects on organizational commitments, organizational culture has positive effects on organizational commitments, and working motivation has positive effects on organizational commitments. This study can provide input for the foundation to develop and empower their employees so they can become better. In addition, the results of this study can also help other non-profit organization foundations located specifically in remote areas. BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui: 1 apakah self-efficacy memiliki pengaruh positif terhadap motivasi kerja, 2 apakah budaya organisasi memiliki pengaruh positif terhadap motivasi kerja, 3 apakah self –efficacy memiliki pengaruh positif terhadap komitmen organisasi, 4 budaya organisasi memiliki pengaruh positif terhadap komitmen organisasi, 5 motivasi kerja memiliki pengaruh positif terhadap komitmen organisasi bagi karyawan Yayasan TMAP. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan penyebaran

  9. The influence of leader's spiritual values of servant leadership on employee motivational autonomy and eudaemonic well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Chen, Chun-Hsi Vivian; Li, Chun-I

    2013-06-01

    This research examined the role of leader's spiritual values in terms of the "servant leadership" in the process of promoting employee's autonomous motivation and eudaemonic well-being. Sample consists of 265 Chinese supervisor-subordinate dyads recruited from a variety of industries in Taiwan. Spiritual values perceived by the subordinates, as well as the discrepancy between leader-subordinate perceptions, but not the leader's self-perceptions of spiritual values, were found to contribute significantly beyond transactional leadership in predicting subordinate motivational autonomy and eudaemonic well-being, and subordinate autonomous motivations fully mediates the relationship between spiritual values and eudaemonic well-being.

  10. Acute running stimulates hippocampal dopaminergic neurotransmission in rats, but has no influence on brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    OpenAIRE

    Goekint, Maaike; Bos, Inge; Heyman, Elsa; Meeusen, Romain; Michotte, Yvette; Sarre, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein is increased with exercise in rats. Monoamines seem to play a role in the regulation of BDNF, and monoamine neurotransmission is known to increase with exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acute exercise on monoaminergic neurotransmission and BDNF protein concentrations. Hippocampal microdialysis was performed in rats that were subjected to 60 min of treadmill running at 20 m/min or rest. Two hours pos...

  11. Structural Modeling for Influence of Mathematics Self-Concept, Motivation to Learn Mathematics and Self-Regulation Learning on Mathematics Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Hamideh Jafari Koshkouei; Ahmad Shahvarani; Mohammad Hassan Behzadi; Mohsen Rostamy-Malkhalifeh

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of mathematics self-concept (MSC), motivation to learn mathematics (SMOT) and self-regulation learning (SRL) on students' mathematics academic achievement. This study is of a descriptive survey type. 300 female students at the first grade of high school (the second period) in City Qods, were selected by multiple step cluster sampling method and completed MSC, SMOT and SRL questionnaires. Mathematics academic achievement was measur...

  12. How do ecological, economic and social sustainability influence on employee motivation? : A case study of a German company in the solar energy sector

    OpenAIRE

    Krenz, Susanne; Torets Ruiz, Patricia Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This research has generated interesting findings from the inductive approach and the qualitative methods that were used in the inquiry process. Thanks to the literature review, the semi-structure interviews, a focus group and secondary data it was possible to obtain the necessary information to answer the research question: How do ecological, economic and social sustainability influence employee motivation? In order to answer this question, two sub-questions were considered first, namely What...

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF PRACTICE FACILITIES DAN PRACTICE LEARNINGIN MOTIVATION TOWARD THE IMPORVEMENT OF LEARNING ACHIEVEMTN OF HYDROLIC SYSTEM AMONG THE ELEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMK TAKAHUS WONOSOBO IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2013/2014

    OpenAIRE

    Adi Nika Prasetyo; Subagyo Subagyo

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this tudy are to describe (1) the influence of learning facilities toward the learning achievement of hydrolic system, (2) the influence of practice learning motivation toward the learning achievement of hydrolic system, and (3) the influence of learning facilities and practice learning motivation toward the learning achievement of hydrolic system in the academic year 2013/2014. This study shows that (1) there is a positif and significant learning facilities toward the learn...

  14. The Influence of E-learning Use to Student Cognitive Performance and Motivation in Digital Simulation Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigowati Tigowati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently the technology is growing and sophisticated. Technological advances have also entered the world of education. One of them their is  online learning. Examples of learning that utilizes technology that is using Schoology and Edmodo. By using Schoology and Edmodo is expected to increase student motivation and learning outcomes. This study investigates whether the use of different learning management would affect (1 the student’s cognitive achievement (2 student’s motivation (3 the level motivation. This research method using mixed methods. The data collection technique using the test method to determine the cognitive performance. Questionnaires and interviews to find the motivation. The analysis of quantitative data using normality test, homogeneity test, tests of balance and hypothesis testing using independent t test, while the analysis of qualitative data using interactive models. Based on the results of the study (1 there are differences in the cognitive performance between classes that use e-learning based Schoology and e-learning based Edmodo. The cognitive performance classes that use Schoology better than the class that uses Edmodo, because schoology easiness to acces, the students has a target value, better understand the lesson and more active in study this may have an effect on cognitive performance.(2 there is a difference in motivation between classes that use e-learning based Schoology and e-learning based Edmodo. Motivation class with Schoology based e-learning is better than classes with e-learning based Edmodo, because schoology can interested in simulation course, more passion, make happy, easier to learn anywhere and more motivated to learn. (3 the level of motivation of students using e-learning based Schoology and Edmodo included in the medium category

  15. [Influence of Leukodeplated Blood Transfusion on Cellular Immunity of Acute Leukemia Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ya-Lan; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Yu-Fang; Ke, Shan-Dong; Ke, Jin-Yong; Liu, Geng-Fu; Chen, Shi-Ming

    2016-08-01

    To study the influence of leukodeplated blood transfusion on cellular immunity of patients with acute leuemia, so as to provide support for application of leuko-deplated blood transfusion in clinic. A total of 100 AL patients from January 2012 to December 2015 were chosen, and were divided into 2 groups: leukodeplated blood transfusion group(50 cases) and routine blood transfusion group(RBT) as control (50 cases). The effective rate, side effects, peripheral blood T cells and expression level of TLR2 and TLR4 were compared between 2 groups. The expression levels CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD4(+)/CD8(+) of TLR2 and TLR4 in control group were (52.18±2.14)%, (27.28±1.19)%,(24.21±1.65)%,1.22±0.18,0.62±0.04 and 0.57±0.05, respectively, after treatment; while these indicators in LdBT group were (52.18±2.14)%,(30.97±2.01)%,(27.08±1.55)%,1.39±0.24,0.91±0.06 and 0.87±0.07, respectively, and above-mentioned indicators in LdBT group were significantly higher than those in control group(P0.05). The rate of side effects in study group was 6% (3/50), 18% (9/50) in control group, with statistically significance difference (Pblood transfusion can improve the cellular immunity of AL patients, and reduce the rate of side effects.

  16. Influence of Spironolactone on Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of enzymes important for the resorption of extracellular matrices, control of vascular remodeling and repair. Increased activity of MMP2 has been demonstrated in heart failure, and in acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF a decrease in circulating MMPs has been demonstrated along with successful treatment. Objective: Our aim was to test the influence of spironolactone in MMP2 levels. Methods: Secondary analysis of a prospective, interventional study including 100 patients with ADHF. Fifty patients were non-randomly assigned to spironolactone (100 mg/day plus standard ADHF therapy (spironolactone group or standard ADHF therapy alone (control group. Results: Spironolactone group patients were younger and had lower creatinine and urea levels (all p < 0.05. Baseline MMP2, NT-pro BNP and weight did not differ between spironolactone and control groups. A trend towards a more pronounced decrease in MMP2 from baseline to day 3 was observed in the spironolactone group (-21 [-50 to 19] vs 1.5 [-26 to 38] ng/mL, p = 0.06. NT-pro BNP and weight also had a greater decrease in the spironolactone group. The proportion of patients with a decrease in MMP2 levels from baseline to day 3 was also likely to be greater in the spironolactone group (50% vs 66.7%, but without statistical significance. Correlations between MMP2, NT-pro BNP and weight variation were not statistically significant. Conclusion: MMP2 levels are increased in ADHF. Patients treated with spironolactone may have a greater reduction in MMP2 levels.

  17. Interrupting Prolonged Sitting with Regular Activity Breaks does not Acutely Influence Appetite: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, Evelyn M; Perry, Tracy L; Haszard, Jillian J; Homer, Ashleigh R; Fenemor, Stephen P; Rehrer, Nancy J; Skeaff, C Murray; Peddie, Meredith C

    2018-01-26

    Regular activity breaks increase energy expenditure; however, this may promote compensatory eating behaviour. The present study compared the effects of regular activity breaks and prolonged sitting on appetite. In a randomised, cross-over trial, 36 healthy adults (BMI (Body Mass Index) 23.9 kg/m² (S.D. = 3.9)) completed four, two-day interventions: two with prolonged sitting (SIT), and two with sitting and 2 min of walking every 30 min (RAB). Standardized meals were provided throughout the intervention, with an ad libitum meal at the end of Day 2. Appetite and satiety were assessed throughout both days of each intervention using five visual analogue scales. The five responses were combined into a single appetite response at each time point. The area under the appetite response curve (AUC) was calculated for each day. Intervention effects for appetite response AUC and ad libitum meal intake were tested using linear mixed models. Appetite AUC did not differ between interventions (standardised effect of RAB compared to SIT: Day 1: 0.11; 95% CI: -0.28, 0.06; p = 0.212; Day 2: 0.04; 95% CI: -0.15, 0.24; p = 0.648). There was no significant difference in energy consumed at the ad libitum lunch meal on Day 2 between RAB and SIT. Interrupting prolonged sitting with regular activity breaks does not acutely influence appetite or volume of food consumed, despite inferred increases in energy expenditure. Longer-term investigation into the effects of regular activity breaks on energy balance is warranted.

  18. Interrupting Prolonged Sitting with Regular Activity Breaks does not Acutely Influence Appetite: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn M. Mete

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular activity breaks increase energy expenditure; however, this may promote compensatory eating behaviour. The present study compared the effects of regular activity breaks and prolonged sitting on appetite. In a randomised, cross-over trial, 36 healthy adults (BMI (Body Mass Index 23.9 kg/m2 (S.D. = 3.9 completed four, two-day interventions: two with prolonged sitting (SIT, and two with sitting and 2 min of walking every 30 min (RAB. Standardized meals were provided throughout the intervention, with an ad libitum meal at the end of Day 2. Appetite and satiety were assessed throughout both days of each intervention using five visual analogue scales. The five responses were combined into a single appetite response at each time point. The area under the appetite response curve (AUC was calculated for each day. Intervention effects for appetite response AUC and ad libitum meal intake were tested using linear mixed models. Appetite AUC did not differ between interventions (standardised effect of RAB compared to SIT: Day 1: 0.11; 95% CI: −0.28, 0.06; p = 0.212; Day 2: 0.04; 95% CI: −0.15, 0.24; p = 0.648. There was no significant difference in energy consumed at the ad libitum lunch meal on Day 2 between RAB and SIT. Interrupting prolonged sitting with regular activity breaks does not acutely influence appetite or volume of food consumed, despite inferred increases in energy expenditure. Longer-term investigation into the effects of regular activity breaks on energy balance is warranted.

  19. Differentiating Motivational from Affective Influence of Performance-contingent Reward on Cognitive Control: The Wanting Component Enhances Both Proactive and Reactive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillou, Anne-Clémence; Giersch, Anne; Hoonakker, Marc; Capa, Rémi L; Bonnefond, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Positive affect strongly modulates goal-directed behaviors and cognitive control mechanisms. It often results from the presence of a pleasant stimulus in the environment, whether that stimulus appears unpredictably or as a consequence of a particular behavior. The influence of positive affect linked to a random pleasant stimulus differs from the influence of positive affect resulting from performance-contingent pleasant stimuli. However, the mechanisms by which the performance contingency of pleasant stimuli modulates the influence of positive affect on cognitive control mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these differentiated effects are the consequence of the activation of the motivational "wanting" component specifically under performance contingency conditions. To that end, we directly compared the effects on cognitive control of pleasant stimuli (a monetary reward) attributed in a performance contingent manner, and of random pleasant stimuli (positive picture) not related to performance, during an AX-CPT task. Both proactive and reactive modes of control were increased specifically by performance contingency, as reflected by faster reaction times and larger amplitude of the CNV and P3a components. Our findings advance our understanding of the respective effects of affect and motivation, which is of special interest regarding alterations of emotion-motivation interaction found in several psychopathological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF PATHOGENETIC THERAPY ON THE LEVER OF CYTOKINES IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE BRUCELLOSIS

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    N. I. Kovalevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the level of proinflammatory cytokines: IL-12, IL-8 and IFNγ, neopterin and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in the serum of patients with acute brucellosis before and after antibiotic therapy. The clinical data from 32 patients with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis — “acute brucellosis” admitted to the diagnosis, treatment and examination of occupational diseases brucellosis GBUZ SC “City Clinical Hospital No. 2”, the city of Stavropol were used in the study. The concentrations IL-12, IL-8, IFNγ cytokines and acute-phase proteins in serum was determined by ELISA. In the acute phase of brucellosis infection (before treatment had high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IFNγ, but despite holding a course of antibiotic treatment in the serum of patients with preserved high levels of IL-8, indicative of active inflammation in the absence of clinical manifestations. IL-12 level, a key cytokine in the initiation of lymphocyte-dependent immune response was lower than in the control group. Evaluation of the cytokine status (IL-8, IL-12, IL-18 and proteins of acute inflammation phase (neopterin and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein will provide valuable information for monitoring the effect of pharmacotherapy of acute brucellosis. Indicators of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and neopterin in the serum of patients with brucellosis should be considered as a marker of inflammatory activity and as a predictor of outcome of acute brucellosis.

  1. Influence of delayed cholecystectomy after acute gallstone pancreatitis on recurrence: consequences of lack of resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bejarano-González

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute pancreatitis is often a relapsing condition, particularly when its triggering factor persists. Our goal is to determine the recurrence rate of acute biliary pancreatitis after an initial episode, and the time to relapse, as well as to identify the risk factors for recurrence. Material and method: We included all patients admitted for a first acute gallstone pancreatitis event during four years. Primary endpoints included readmission for recurrence and time to relapse. Results: We included 296 patients admitted on a total of 386 occasions. The incidence of acute biliary pancreatitis in our setting is 17.5/100,000 population/year. In all, 19.6% of pancreatitis were severe (22.6% of severe acute pancreatitis for first episodes versus 3.6% for recurring pancreatitis, with an overall mortality of 4.4%. Overall recurrence rate was 15.5%, with a median time to relapse of 82 days. In total, 14.2% of patients relapsed after an acute pancreatitis event without cholecystectomy or endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography. Severe acute pancreatitis recur in 7.2% of patients, whereas mild cases do so in 16.3%, this being the only risk factor for recurrence thus far identified. Conclusions: Patients admitted for pancreatitis should undergo cholecystectomy as soon as possible or be guaranteed priority on the waiting list. Otherwise, endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography with sphincterotomy may be an alternative to surgery for selected patients.

  2. Public Service Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Marilena Mihalcioiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.

  3. The influence of psychosocial factors on recovery following acute whiplash trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Tina Birgitte Wisbech

    2012-12-01

    Persistent pain and disability after whiplash trauma has become an increasingly significant problem in many industrialized countries entailing comprehensive individual as well as social costs. The dissertation includes two areas of research within whiplash trauma. The first part contains two empirical articles focusing on risk factors for poor recovery. The second part contains a systematic review and an empirical article and concerns the influence of coping strategies on recovery with a special emphasis on possible gender differences. All empirical articles in the dissertation are based on self-reported questionnaire data on a patient cohort of whiplash-exposed. Patients are consecutively included in the study within the first ten days of collision recruited from emergency departments and general practitioners in four counties in Denmark from April 2001 to June 2003. One of the empirical articles in the dissertation is supplemented with data from a social register of transfer benefits on the patient cohort as well as on a matched register control cohort in the general population. In this dissertation we wish to answer the following questions: 1) Do self-reported pre-collision health-related and socio-demographic factors affect self-reported work capability and neck pain one year after acute whiplash trauma? 2) Do transfer benefits before the accident predict negative change in future health-related provisional situation and future neck pain? 3) Do persons with acute whiplash trauma experience more negative change in future health-related provisional situation compared to a matched register control group? 4) Does research in the use of coping strategies after whiplash trauma show that these predict poor restitution and is there any research on gender differences in the use of coping strategies in whiplash-exposed? 5) Do gender and coping strategies interact in the prediction of future neck pain following acute whiplash trauma? Self-reported unspecified pain, female

  4. Motivation in Experiential Education

    OpenAIRE

    Porada, Petr

    2007-01-01

    This project is dedicated to study of motivation in experiential courses. More exactly it tries to describe motivation means suitable for teenage trainees to make them cooperate willingly and actively on course asset. And not just that. It also describes factors which have influence on quality and quantity of aplicated effort, manners how to enforce trainees to carry on working when some problem appears and also how the motivation is affected by the instructor's and peers' admittance. The pro...

  5. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ion Salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia: I. Influence of background water chemistry.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides concentration-response data and associated general chemistry conditions for 26 experiments consisting of 149 tests regarding the acute toxicity...

  6. Influence of motivation upon effectiveness of physical culture and sport profile high educational facilities teachers' proffessional-pedagogical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanchenko N.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivation of teachers for professional-pedagogical activity and levels of forming of their pedagogical skills were determined based on the results of self evaluation and evaluation that was performed by the students. Evaluation of teachers' pedagogical skills and self evaluation were compared to dominating motivation for professional activity of teachers. 42 teachers and 78 students took part in this experiment. To determine proffessional-pedagogical activity motivation the tool of K. Zamfir in modification by A. Rean was used. To determine self evaluation of pedagogical skills "Scale of self evaluation of pedagogical activity" and tool of B. Zelentsov "Students about a teacher" were used. It was shown that it is characteristic for teachers to over estimate their pedagogical skills in comparison to the evaluation made by students: high level of forming of pedagogical skills comprise 40,48 % of respondents, while according to the students evaluation this figure is almost twice lower and comprises - 21,43%; average level evaluation, shows only 14,28 %, when students evaluate that 35,71% of teachers have average level of pedagogical skills forming. It was declared that teachers with the most determined internal motives are more objective in their self evaluation. It was proven that teachers whose pedagogical skills are on high level and who are evaluated by the students on the same level the are lead by domination of internal motivation.

  7. Listening to the rural health workers in Papua New Guinea - the social factors that influence their motivation to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razee, Husna; Whittaker, Maxine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Yap, Lorraine; Brentnall, Lee

    2012-09-01

    Despite rural health services being situated and integrated within communities in which people work and live, the complex interaction of the social environment on health worker motivation and performance in Low Middle Income Countries has been neglected in research. In this article we investigate how social factors impact on health worker motivation and performance in rural health services in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 33 health workers from three provinces (Central, Madang, and Milne Bay) in PNG between August and November 2009. They included health extension officers, community health workers and nursing officers, some of whom were in charge of the health centres. The health centres were a selection across church based, government and private enterprise health facilities. Qualitative analysis identified the key social factors impacting on health worker motivation and performance to be the local community context, gender roles and family related issues, safety and security and health beliefs and attitudes of patients and community members. Our study identified the importance of strong supportive communities on health worker motivation. These findings have implications for developing sustainable strategies for motivation and performance enhancement of rural health workers in resource poor settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The experimental investigation of fibrinolytic system under the influence of flocalin in conditions of acute hypoxic kidney injury

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    A. I. Gozhenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the experiments on rats subjected to acute hypoxic histochemical nephropathy, caused by sodium nitrite and 2,4-dinitrophenol, fibrinolytic activities of blood plasma, urine, renal cortex, medulla, and papilla after treatment with flocalin – the activator of KATP channels, were studied­. It was shown that in the conditions of acute kidney hypoxic injury flocalin administration resulted in the increase and essential restoration of fibrinolysis in blood plasma diminished under hypoxia, which was due to the growth of non-enzymatic fibrinolysis, whereas in urine and renal medulla the appreciable increase of enzymatic fibrinolytic activity took place. Moreover, the treatment of hypoxic nephropathy animals by flocalin resulted in the marked restoration of kidney ion regulatory and protein excretory functions that proves the positive influence of KATP channels activation on the one of the biochemical mechanisms of acute kidney injury as well as the protective effect of flocalin in relation to tubular cells of nephron. The obtained results testify to the beneficial effects of KATP channels activation in the conditions of acute hypoxic kidneys injury.

  9. Older adolescents' motivations for social network site use: the influence of gender, group identity, and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Valerie

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed motives for social network site (SNS) use, group belonging, collective self-esteem, and gender effects among older adolescents. Communication with peer group members was the most important motivation for SNS use. Participants high in positive collective self-esteem were strongly motivated to communicate with peer group via SNS. Females were more likely to report high positive collective self-esteem, greater overall use, and SNS use to communicate with peers. Females also posted higher means for group-in-self, passing time, and entertainment. Negative collective self-esteem correlated with social compensation, suggesting that those who felt negatively about their social group used SNS as an alternative to communicating with other group members. Males were more likely than females to report negative collective self-esteem and SNS use for social compensation and social identity gratifications.

  10. Influence of acute normobaric hypoxia on physiological variables and lactate turn point determination in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner, Michael; Wonisch, Manfred; Frei, Mario; Tschakert, Gerhard; Domej, Wolfgang; Kröpfl, Julia M; Hofmann, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the response of physiological variables to acute normobaric hypoxia compared to normoxia and its influence on the lactate turn point determination according to the three-phase model of energy supply (Phase I: metabolically balanced at muscular level; Phase II: metabolically balanced at systemic level; Phase III: not metabolically balanced) during maximal incremental exercise. Ten physically active (VO2max 3.9 [0.49] l·min(-1)), healthy men (mean age [SD]: 25.3 [4.6] yrs.), participated in the study. All participants performed two maximal cycle ergometric exercise tests under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions (FiO2 = 14%). Blood lactate concentration, heart rate, gas exchange data, and power output at maximum and the first and the second lactate turn point (LTP1, LTP2), the heart rate turn point (HRTP) and the first and the second ventilatory turn point (VETP1, VETP2) were determined. Since in normobaric hypoxia absolute power output (P) was reduced at all reference points (max: 314 / 274 W; LTP2: 218 / 184 W; LTP1: 110 / 96 W), as well as VO2max (max: 3.90 / 3.23 l·min(-1); LTP2: 2.90 / 2.43 l·min(-1); LTP1: 1.66 / 1.52 l·min(-1)), percentages of Pmax at LTP1, LTP2, HRTP and VETP1, VETP2 were almost identical for hypoxic as well as normoxic conditions. Heart rate was significantly reduced at Pmax in hypoxia (max: 190 / 185 bpm), but no significant differences were found at submaximal control points. Blood lactate concentration was not different at maximum, and all reference points in both conditions. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) (max: 1.28 / 1.08; LTP2: 1.13 / 0.98) and ventilatory equivalents for O2 (max: 43.4 / 34.0; LTP2: 32.1 / 25.4) and CO2 (max: 34.1 / 31.6; LTP2: 29.1 / 26.1) were significantly higher at some reference points in hypoxia. Significant correlations were found between LTP1 and VETP1 (r = 0.778; p better the performance of the athletes the higher is the effect of hypoxiaThe HRTP and LTP2 are

  11. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurdak, M.; Wolstein, J.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized

  12. The impact of post-event information on study-related memories: an exploration of the roles of judgemental anchoring, specific expectations about change, and motivational influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmeier, Peter; Jaeger, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    We explored how well common theories about the impact of post-event information on memories explain recollections that occur naturally in university students' study routines. Instead of starting from a familiar research paradigm, such as those used in hindsight-bias research, the present study used a situation common to university students, and examined how well three candidate explanations--judgemental anchoring, implicit theories of change, and motivational influences--could explain the results we obtained in a long-term memory study that included three sessions, six months apart. We found that about two thirds of the memories of study-related issues were indeed biased, and that the impact of post-event information being used as an anchor is the most plausible explanation for the results. There were also some indications that memory biases might have been due, at least in part, to motivational factors.

  13. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Moon, Hong Ju; Chang, Hye Young; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH). Methods We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT) of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128). Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH) (n = 642). Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer. Results In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041), peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001), bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (HR = 1.001, Phepatitis A. PMID:26090677

  14. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Moon, Hong Ju; Chang, Hye Young; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH). We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT) of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128). Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH) (n = 642). Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer. In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041), peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001), bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (HR = 1.001, P hepatitis A.

  15. Influence of pH on the acute toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsills siliquoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Erickson, R.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Brunson, E.L.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pH on the toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels. Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity tests were conducted with 10-d-old juvenile mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) at five pH levels ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 in flow-through diluter systems at 20??C. Acute 48-h tests with amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and 96-h tests with oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were conducted concurrently under the same test conditions to determine the sensitivity of mussels relative to these two commonly tested benthic invertebrate species. During the exposure, pH levels were maintained within 0.1 of a pH unit and ammonia concentrations were relatively constant through time (coefficient of variation for ammonia concentrations ranged from 2 to 30% with a median value of 7.9%). The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of total ammonia nitrogen (N) for mussels were at least two to six times lower than the EC50s for amphipods and oligochaetes, and the EC50s for mussels decreased with increasing pH and ranged from 88 mg N/L at pH 6.6 to 0.96 mg N/L at pH 9.0. The EC50s for mussels were at or below the final acute values used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acute water quality criterion (WQC). However, the quantitative relationship between pH and ammonia toxicity to juvenile mussels was similar to the average relationship for other taxa reported in the WQC. These results indicate that including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC would lower the acute criterion but not change the WQC mathematical representation of the relative effect of pH on ammonia toxicity. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  16. Investigating the Influences of Core Self-Evaluations, Job Autonomy, and Intrinsic Motivation on In-Role Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Baek-Kyoo; Jeung, Chang-Wook; Yoon, Hea Jun

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of core self-evaluations, job autonomy, and intrinsic motivation on employees' perceptions of their in-role job performance, based on a cross-sectional survey of 283 employees in a Fortune Global 100 company in Korea. The results suggest that employees perceived higher in-role job performance when they had…

  17. Examination of Food Choice Motives: The Influence of an Innovative, Interdisciplinary Learning Community Related to Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Kelly J.

    2014-01-01

    What and how much an individual eats largely defines his/her health. The most used dietary intervention models target individuals' concern for personal health, thereby undermining the interdisciplinary trajectory of the nutrition field. The purpose of this study was to compare the food choice motives of students enrolled in an interdisciplinary…

  18. The Influence of the Antecedent Variable on the Teachers' Performance through Achievement Motivation in Senior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Erni R.; Bundu, Patta; Tahmir, Suradi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analysing whether the antecedent variable directly affects the performance of the high school teachers or not. In addition, this research strives to find out whether the antecedent variable indirectly affects the teachers' performance through the achievement motivation of the high school teachers. It was a quantitative research…

  19. The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulated Motivation on Civic Learning in Service Learning Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, K. Andrew R.; Levesque-Bristol, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Service learning can help students to engage in the community while applying lessons learned in their coursework. Using self-determination theory, we evaluated the relationship among self-efficacy, self-regulated motivation, and civic learning in service learning courses. Participants included 242 college students (122 females, 120 males) across…

  20. Understanding Social OER Environments--A Quantitative Study on Factors Influencing the Motivation to Share and Collaborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkkalainen, Henri; Jokinen, Jussi P. P.; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    Social software environments are increasingly used for open education: teachers and learners share and collaborate in these environments. While there are various possibilities for the inclusion of such social functionalities for OER, many organizational, individual and technological challenges can hinder the motivation of teachers to share and…

  1. Motivational, Parental, and Cultural Influences on Achievement and Persistence in Basic Skills Mathematics at the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Donna E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the gap in the current literature on community college students in basic math courses by examining motivational, parental and cultural factors as predictors of achievement and persistence of students enrolled in basic skills mathematics courses at a community college. More specifically, this study…

  2. Investigating the Influences of a LEAPS Model on Preservice Teachers' Problem Solving, Metacognition, and Motivation in an Educational Technology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Ian A.; Ge, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a qualitative study which examined students' problem-solving, metacognition, and motivation in a learning environment designed for teaching educational technology to pre-service teachers. The researchers converted a linear and didactic learning environment into a new open learning environment by contextualizing domain-related…

  3. How Do College/University Teacher Misbehaviors Influence Student Cognitive Learning, Academic Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Curiosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between teacher misbehaviors and a variety of outcome variables, including cognitive learning, motivation, curiosity, and academic self-efficacy. Research has yet to directly address how teacher misbehaviors affect cognitive learning. It is important to assess actual learning as opposed…

  4. Enabling employees to work safely: the influence of motivation and ability in the design of safety instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Pieter August; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: One of the major challenges for modern organizations is to create healthy and safe work environments, as evidenced by the number of occupational deaths (worldwide: four per minute), and an even higher number of injuries. This study explores different levels of motivation and ability, to

  5. When helping helps: autonomous motivation for prosocial behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Ryan, Richard M

    2010-02-01

    Self-determination theory posits that the degree to which a prosocial act is volitional or autonomous predicts its effect on well-being and that psychological need satisfaction mediates this relation. Four studies tested the impact of autonomous and controlled motivation for helping others on well-being and explored effects on other outcomes of helping for both helpers and recipients. Study 1 used a diary method to assess daily relations between prosocial behaviors and helper well-being and tested mediating effects of basic psychological need satisfaction. Study 2 examined the effect of choice on motivation and consequences of autonomous versus controlled helping using an experimental design. Study 3 examined the consequences of autonomous versus controlled helping for both helpers and recipients in a dyadic task. Finally, Study 4 manipulated motivation to predict helper and recipient outcomes. Findings support the idea that autonomous motivation for helping yields benefits for both helper and recipient through greater need satisfaction. Limitations and implications are discussed. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Afterschool School Triathlon Training for 11- to 14-Year Old Girls: Influences on Academic Motivation and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatz, Jennifer; Kelly, Angela M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of a Transformation through Triathlon after school programme in promoting health status, academic motivation and socioemotional development in at-risk girls aged 11-14 years attending middle school in the USA. Design: A phenomenological approach was employed with elements of grounded theory to analyse…

  7. The Perception of Same Gender Coaches by Iranian Skaters and its Influence on Sport Achievement Motivation and Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar HOMAYONI IZAD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine the relationship between the perception of same gender coaches by male and female Iranian skaters and their sport achievement motivation and commitment. Participants: Fifty two female and forty two male skaters, age range 13 to 18 years, from the province of Isfahan in Iran. Materials: The following 3 questionnaires, tested for reliability and validity for the Iranian population and adapted for Farsi, were used: i Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand and Briere (2001 Interpersonal Behaviour Scale to measure social support of trainers, ii Gill and Deeter (1988 Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ to measure achievement motivation, and iii Scanlan, Simons, Car penter, Schmidt and Keeler (1993 Sport Commitment Model to measure sport commitment. Procedure: The questionnaires were administered to participants in person by the first author after training sessions in sport stadiums. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between perceived coaches' social support and sport achievement motivation and commitment for both male and female participants. However, on all of the above measures females scored significantly more positive ratings than their male c ounterparts. Results of regression analyses conducted separately for males and females showed that relatedness support is the strongest predictor for sport achievement motivation and commitment for males, whereas autonomy support was the strongest predicto r for sport commitment amongst females. Implications: These findings are of particular interest in understanding the impact of perceived coaching support for young male and female athletes, especially if coached exclusively by the same gender.

  8. The Influence of Organisational Commitment, Job Involvement and Utility Perceptions on Trainees' Motivation to Improve Work through Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Treuer, Kathryn; McHardy, Katherine; Earl, Celisha

    2013-01-01

    Workplace training is a key strategy often used by organisations to optimise performance. Further, trainee motivation is a key determinant of the degree to which the material learned in a training programme will be transferred to the workplace, enhancing the performance of the trainee. This study investigates the relationship between several…

  9. Factors influencing current interests and motivations of local governments to supply carbon offset credits from urban forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Poudyal; J. Siry; M. Bowker

    2009-01-01

    This study conducted a nationwide survey of municipal governments in the United States to assess their motivations, willingness, and technical as well as managerial capacities of cities to store carbon and sell carbon offsets. The analysis reveals that cities are fairly interested in selling carbon offsets and their interest in carbon trading is driven by the degree of...

  10. The Influence of Racism-Related Stress on the Academic Motivation of Black and Latino/a Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Sneva, Jacob N.; Beehler, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of racism-related stress on the academic and psychological factors affecting the success of 151 Black and Latino/a college students enrolled at several predominantly White universities in the northeastern United States. Institutional racism-related stress was negatively correlated with extrinsic motivation but…

  11. Influence of Family Processes, Motivation, and Beliefs about Intelligence on Creative Problem Solving of Scientifically Talented Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seokhee; Lin, Chia-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Predictive relationships among perceived family processes, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, incremental beliefs about intelligence, confidence in intelligence, and creative problem-solving practices in mathematics and science were examined. Participants were 733 scientifically talented Korean students in fourth through twelfth grades as well as…

  12. The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors on Academic Performance in General Chemistry Course: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alci, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the predictive and explanatory model in terms of university students' academic performance in "General Chemistry" course and their motivational features. The participants were 169 university students in the 1st grade at university. Of the participants, 132 were female and 37 were male students. Regarding…

  13. The influence of aging on outgroup stereotypes: the mediating role of cognitive and motivational facets of deficient flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnek, Gabriela; Kossowska, Malgorzata; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: The current study was designed to examine previously reported findings about age-related changes in drawing stereotypic inferences; specifically, that older adults are more likely than younger adults to stereotype outgroup members. The study replicates previous research and extends it by exploring the cognitive and motivational facets of deficient flexibility underlying this effect and comparing stereotypes towards ingroup and outgroup members. In the experiment, younger and older adults read stories that allowed for stereotypic inferences. They also completed the Trail Making Test (TMT) and Need for Closure Scale (NFC) as cognitive and motivational measures of deficient flexibility. The results of the experiment revealed that, compared to younger participants, older adults were more likely to rely upon stereotypic inferences when they read a story about outgroup members; however, there were no age-group differences in using stereotypes when they read a story about ingroup members. In addition, the findings showed that making more stereotypical inferences by older versus younger adults in relation to outgroup members was mediated by cognitive (TMT) and motivational (NFC) facets of deficient flexibility. A major implication of these findings is that both cognitive and motivational facets of deficient flexibility contribute to the reliance of older adults on stereotypes compared with younger adults. However, this is only true when older adults process information about outgroup members, but not about ingroup members. Thus, the current research goes beyond previous results by providing direct evidence that ingroup-outgroup perception contributes to stereotyping among older participants.

  14. Motivational states influence effort-based decision making in rats: the role of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Bettina; Sommer, Susanne; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    Decision-making policies are subject to modulation by changing motivational states. However, so far, little is known about the neurochemical mechanisms that bridge motivational states with decision making. Here we examined whether dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) modulates the effects of motivational states on effort-based decision making. Using a cost-benefit T-maze task in rats, we examined the effects of AcbC DA depletions on effort-based decision making, in particular on the sensitivity of effort-based decision making to a shift from a hungry to a sated state. The results demonstrated that, relative to sham controls, rats with AcbC DA depletion in a hungry as well as in a sated state had a reduced preference for effortful but large-reward action. This finding provides further support for the notion that AcbC DA regulates how much effort to invest for rewards. Importantly, our results further revealed that effort-based decision making in lesioned rats, as in sham controls, was still sensitive to a shift from a hungry to a sated state; that is, their preferences for effortful large-reward actions became lower after a shift from a restricted to a free-feeding regimen. These finding indicate that AcbC DA is not necessarily involved in mediating the effects of a shift in motivational state on decision-making policies.

  15. The incidence of postoperative radiotherapy-induced acute dermatitis in breast cancer and its influencing factors for Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding J

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Jingxian Ding,1,2,* Yonghong Guo,3,* Qingge Li,1 Jun Chen,4 Pinghua Hu,4 Qiuming Liu,4 Yali Cao,4 Jiong Wu5,6 1Department of Radiation Oncology, The Third Hospital of Nanchang, Nanchang, China; 2Department of Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China; 3Department of Radiation Oncology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China; 4Department of Breast Surgery, The Third Hospital of Nanchang, Nanchang, China; 5Department of Breast Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China; 6Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To investigate the incidence of skin acute reaction and its influencing factors in postoperative breast cancer radiotherapy patients. Methods: One hundred and seventy three cases of breast cancer patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy were consecutively enrolled from June 1, 2016 to July 31, 2017 in our breast cancer center. Irradiation technology includes conformal intensity-modulated radiotherapy and a conventional two-dimensional one with conventional fraction. Any acute radiation dermatitis was recorded and the influencing factors were analyzed at the end of the radiation treatment. Results: Radiotherapy-induced acute dermatitis in patients with breast-conserving surgery was relatively mild. Among the 173 patients, 33 cases had no obvious changes in the skin (grade 0; 121 cases had grade 1 skin reactions, manifested as local dark erythema and dry peeling; 29 cases had grade 2 skin reactions, characterized by edema, hyperemia, or erosion part; no grade 3 cases of skin reactions were observed. The incidence of grade 0, grade 1, and grade 2 reactions in all patients was 19.1%, 69.9%, and 11.0%, respectively. The severity of skin acute reaction is independent of the tumor sites, molecular subtypes, patients’ age, and irradiation modalities, but it

  16. Examining Motivations to Play Pokémon GO and Their Influence on Perceived Outcomes and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Oriol; Alberico, Claudia; Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J Aaron

    2017-10-24

    Pokémon GO is the most played augmented reality game in history. With more than 44 million players at the peak of its popularity, the game has sparked interest on its effects on the young population's health. This pilot study examined motivations to start playing Pokémon GO among a sample of US college students, and how motivations were associated with perceived outcomes of the playing experience and physical activity derived while playing. In November 2016, we asked a sample of 47 US college students (all Pokémon GO players) to complete online surveys and install an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) tool and step counter on their smartphones. The EMA tool prompted a set of questions on playing behavior and physical activity, 3 times per day (12:00 PM, 7:00 PM, and 10:00 PM), for 7 days. We used a factorial analysis to identify 3 distinctive groups of players based on their motivations to start playing Pokémon GO. We tested differences across motivation groups related to 5 unique outcomes using 1-way analysis of variance. We extracted 3 interpretable factors from the clustering of motivations to start playing Pokémon GO: Pokémon and video game fans (n=26, 55% of the sample), physical activity seekers (n=8, 17%), and curious & social (n=13, 28%). The clusters differed significantly on the enjoyment of different aspects of the game, particularly battling, discovering new places, and meeting new people, as well as differences in agreement that playing improved mood and made them more social. Days when playing Pokémon GO were associated with higher number of steps reported at the end of the day, especially among physical activity seekers, but also for Pokémon and video game fans. All groups perceived traffic as a major threat to playing. Days during which Pokémon GO was played were positively associated with a set of beneficial health behaviors, including higher physical activity levels, more socialization, and better mood. Results, however, depended on

  17. Review of the factors influencing the motivation of community drug distributors towards the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Krentel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Community drug distributors or neglected tropical disease (NTD volunteers have played a crucial role in ensuring the success of mass drug administration (MDA programs using preventive chemotherapy (PC for lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trachoma and soil transmitted helminths. In recent years however, a noticeable decline in motivation of some of these volunteers has been perceived, potentially negatively impacting the success of these programs. Potential hypotheses for this change in motivation include the long duration of many MDA programs, the change in sociocultural environments as well as the changes to the programs over time. This literature review identifies factors that affect NTD volunteer performance and motivation, which may be used to influence and improve future programming.A systematic search was conducted to identify studies published between January 1995 and September 2016 that investigate factors pertaining to volunteer motivation and performance in NTD drug distribution programs. Searches from several databases and grey literature yielded 400 records, of which 28 articles from 10 countries met the inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of studies was performed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme(CASP checklist. Data pertaining to motivation, performance, retention and satisfaction was extracted and examined for themes. Recurring themes in the literature included monetary and material incentives, intrinsic motivation, gender, cost to participate, and health systems and community support. Of these, community support and the health system were found to be particularly impactful. Very few studies were found to explicitly look at novel incentives for volunteers and very few studies have considered the out of pocket and opportunity costs that NTD volunteers bear carrying out their tasks.There is currently great interest in incorporating more attractive incentive schemes for NTD volunteers. However

  18. Review of the factors influencing the motivation of community drug distributors towards the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentel, Alison; Gyapong, Margaret; Mallya, Shruti; Boadu, Nana Yaa; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Stephens, Mariana; McFarland, Deborah A

    2017-12-01

    Community drug distributors or neglected tropical disease (NTD) volunteers have played a crucial role in ensuring the success of mass drug administration (MDA) programs using preventive chemotherapy (PC) for lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trachoma and soil transmitted helminths. In recent years however, a noticeable decline in motivation of some of these volunteers has been perceived, potentially negatively impacting the success of these programs. Potential hypotheses for this change in motivation include the long duration of many MDA programs, the change in sociocultural environments as well as the changes to the programs over time. This literature review identifies factors that affect NTD volunteer performance and motivation, which may be used to influence and improve future programming. A systematic search was conducted to identify studies published between January 1995 and September 2016 that investigate factors pertaining to volunteer motivation and performance in NTD drug distribution programs. Searches from several databases and grey literature yielded 400 records, of which 28 articles from 10 countries met the inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of studies was performed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme(CASP) checklist. Data pertaining to motivation, performance, retention and satisfaction was extracted and examined for themes. Recurring themes in the literature included monetary and material incentives, intrinsic motivation, gender, cost to participate, and health systems and community support. Of these, community support and the health system were found to be particularly impactful. Very few studies were found to explicitly look at novel incentives for volunteers and very few studies have considered the out of pocket and opportunity costs that NTD volunteers bear carrying out their tasks. There is currently great interest in incorporating more attractive incentive schemes for NTD volunteers. However, our results show

  19. Microinjection studies of phosphate permeability in rats during mild saline diuresis: influence of acute thyroparathyroidectomy and parathormone administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poujeol, P.; Rouffignac, C. de.

    1975-01-01

    The tubular permeability to phosphate of the different segments of the rat nephron and the influence of parathyroid hormone on such a permeability were investigated. Tracer microinjections of 32 P and 3 H inulin were performed in control, acutely thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) and TPTX + PTH animals undergoing saline diuresis. In order to estimate the 32 P reabsorption capacity of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), the loop of Henle and the terminal part of the nephron, microinjections were performed in early proximal, late proximal and early distal tubules respectively. The results reported confirm that the renal phosphate reabsorption is under PTH control [fr

  20. Does acute led (Pb) contamination influence membrane fatty acid composition and freeze tolerance in intertidal blue mussels in arctic Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Juhl, Bodil Klein; Holmstrup, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In their natural habitats, organisms are exposed to multiple stressors. Heavy metal contamination stresses the cell membrane due to increased peroxidation of lipids. Likewise, sub-zero air temperatures potentially reduce membrane functionality in ectothermal animals. We tested if acute lead (Pb......) exposure for 7 days would influence survival in intertidal blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) after exposure to realistic sub-zero air temperatures. A full factorial experiment with five tissue Pb concentrations between 0 and 3500 lg Pb/g and six sub-zero temperatures from 0 to -17 °C were used to test...

  1. Increased stocking density influences the acute physiological stress response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio (L.))

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.; Carballo, E.C.; Komen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The physiological response of common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) to increased stocking density and an additional acute net confinement stressor was investigated. Stocking densities were increased from 28.4 to 56.8 or 113.6 kg m¿3 by the use of crowding screens and fish were sampled from the crowded

  2. Emotional contrast or compensation? How support reminders influence the pain of acute peer disapproval in preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Sander; Sedikides, Constantine; Reijntjes, Albert; Brummelman, Eddie; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-10-01

    When children experience habitual peer difficulties, adults often remind them that many people care about them. How do such reminders of support impact children's emotional responses to acute experiences of peer disapproval? Intuitively, support reminders would exert compensatory effects attenuating the emotional impact of acute disapproval. Theory suggests, however, that support reminders might also lead to contrast effects magnifying the emotional impact of acute disapproval, especially among socially vulnerable children. These opposing perspectives were pitted against each other. In 2 experiments, children (aged 9-13, M(age) = 11.5) were randomly assigned to reflect on their relationships with either supportive others (support condition) or mere acquaintances (control condition). Children experienced acute peer disapproval immediately after (Experiment 1) or before (Experiment 2) the manipulated support reminder. Among children who experienced higher levels of peer difficulties in their daily life, the support reminder increased externalized emotional reactivity and decreased internalized emotional recovery following disapproval. Thus, consistent with emotional contrast theory, support reminders magnified the disapproval-based emotional responses of socially vulnerable children. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Lymphocyte subsets are influenced by positivity levels in healthy subjects before and after mild acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Nisini, Roberto; Castellani, Valeria; Vittorio, Pasquali; Alessandri, Guido; Vincenzo, Ziparo; Claudia, Ferlito; Valentina, Germano; Andrea, Picchianti Diamanti; Biondo, Michela Ileen; Milanetti, Francesca; Salerno, Gerardo; Vincenzo, Visco; Mario, Pietrosanti; Aniballi, Eros; Simonetta, Salemi; Angela, Santoni; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    In the current study, the possible association of positivity (POS), recently defined as general disposition to view life under positive outlook, with immune markers and post-stress modifications, was analyzed. Circulating lymphocyte subsets and serum cytokine levels were evaluated before and after a standard mild acute stress test, in 41 healthy students, previously selected by a questionnaire for their level of POS (high [POS-H] and low [POS-L]). The CD3 + and CD4 + cell frequency was higher in the POS-H students before and after acute stress. CD4 + subpopulation analysis revealed baseline higher terminally differentiated frequency in the POS-H, whereas higher effector memory frequency was present in the POS-L students. Moreover, the frequency of post-stress B cells was higher in the POS-H students. The mild-stress test was associated to an increase of the IL-10 mean values, while mean values of the other cytokines tested did not change significantly. It is tempting to speculate that IL-10 may work as biomarker of response to acute mild stress and that POS-H may be associated to a better capacity of the immune system to contrast the disturbing effects of mild acute stress. Yet further studies on lymphocyte subset absolute number and function of larger and different populations are needed to definitively prove these preliminary observations. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of gender, age and motives underlying food choice on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2007-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to study the effect of different carriers and enrichments on the perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods; and to evaluate the effect of age, gender and motives underlying food choice. Participants had to evaluate different functional food concepts and had to answer a food choice questionnaire. Results showed that carrier products had the largest effect on consumers' perception of healthiness and willingness to try of the evaluated functional foods concepts. The highest positive relative utilities were achieved when the enrichment was a functional ingredient inherent in the product. Furthermore, gender, age and motives underlying food choice affected the preference patterns for the evaluated functional foods concepts, but it depended on the carrier and enrichment considered, suggesting that functional foods might not be accepted by all the consumers and that they could be tailored for certain groups.

  5. Influence of acute treatment with sibutramine on the sympathetic neurotransmission of the young rat vas deferens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Bruno Palmieri; da Silva, Edilson Dantas; Jurkiewicz, Aron; Jurkiewicz, Neide Hyppolito

    2014-09-05

    The effects of acute treatment with sibutramine on the peripheral sympathetic neurotransmission in vas deferens of young rats were still not evaluated. Therefore, we carried out this study in order to verify the effects of acute sibutramine treatment on the neuronal- and exogenous agonist-induced contractions of the young rat vas deferens. Young 45-day-old male Wistar rats were pretreated with sibutramine 6 mg/kg and after 4h the vas deferens was used for experiment. The acute treatment with sibutramine was able to increase the potency (pD2) of noradrenaline and phenylephrine. Moreover, the efficacy (Emax) of noradrenaline was increased while the efficacy of serotonin and nicotine were decreased. The maximum effect induced by a single concentration of tyramine was diminished in the vas deferens from treated group. Moreover, the leftward shift of the noradrenaline curves promoted by uptake blockers (cocaine and corticosterone) and β-adrenoceptor antagonist (propranolol) was reduced in the vas deferens of treated group. The initial phasic and secondary tonic components of the neuronal-evoked contractions of vas deferens from treated group at the frequencies of 2 Hz were decreased. Moreover, only the initial phasic component at 5 Hz was diminished by the acute treatment with sibutramine. In conclusion, we showed that the acute treatment with sibutramine in young rats was able to affect the peripheral sympathetic nervous system by inhibition of noradrenaline uptake and reduction of the neuronal content of this neurotransmitter, leading to an enhancement of vas deferens sensitivity to noradrenaline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of reward preferences in attracting, retaining, and motivating knowledge workers in South African information technology companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bussin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The world of work is evolving and the nature of relationships between knowledge workers and their employers has changed distinctly, leading to a change in the type of rewards they prefer. The nature of these preferences in the South African, industry-specific context is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to deepen understanding of the reward preferences of Information technology (IT knowledge workers in South Africa, specifically as these relate to the attraction, retention and motivation of knowledge workers. Design: The research design included a quantitative, empirical and descriptive study of reward preferences, measured with a self-administered survey and analysed using non-parametric tests for variance between dependent and independent groups and non-parametric analysis of variance. Findings: This study found that there are specific reward preferences in knowledge workers in the IT sector in South Africa and that these preferences apply differently when related to the attraction, retention and motivation of employees. It identified the most important reward components in the competition for knowledge workers and also demonstrated that demographic characteristics play a statistically significant role in determining reward preferences. Practical implications: The study’s findings show that a holistic approach to total rewards is required, failing which, companies will find themselves facing increased turnover and jobhopping. Importantly, the study also highlights that different rewards need to form part of knowledge workers’ relationship with their employer in three different scenarios: attraction, retention and motivation.

  7. THE CHARACTERIZATION OF DIDACTIC SPEECH OF A BIOLOGY TEACHER AND HIS INFLUENCE IN THE MOTIVATION OF STUDENTS FOR BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Bejarano Beltrán

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pedagogic practice is the staging of knowledge for consideration and recognition of acquired understanding in the academic and personal level that took place in the Commercial Technical School Manuela Beltran, showing that students present lack of motivation to learn Biology , which is expressed in the limited relationship between reality, scientific concepts together with the technical language. The experiments and innovation are left aside. This is why there is a question in relation to the didactic speech and motivation of seventh and eighth grade students towards Biology. In this way the didactic speech of the teacher has been characterized to allow the identification of elements that facilitate the teaching in terms of motivation. In the same way the space for recognizing the factors that generate in the students pleasure for the subject given, in which the games, the participation and the experiments were aspects that they will like to have in their classes. The present investigation had and interpretative paradigm and a qualitative perspective, such instruments like the nonparticipant observation,six recordings of Biology classes making analyses of information units where categories emerged, as well as a questionnaire applied to 25 students.

  8. Factors that motivate and influence excellence in human performance: A case study of inspection personnel in the complex context of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, S.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigates the problem of poor performance among nuclear power plant inspection personnel both in training and in the field. First, a systems perspective is employed to explore the psychological processes and relevant human factors that may be associated with workers' inadequate performance. Second, two separate yet related approaches are used to clarify the definition of competence: (a) a theory-based (or top-down) approach, in which effective performance is construed as a product of a skillful, motivated person interacting with a responsive environment; and (b) an empirical (or bottom-up) approach, in which key person and context characteristics are generated based on the opinions of experts in the industry. Using a series of semistructured interviews, two empirical studies were conducted in the latter approach. Workers motivational characteristics appeared to be largely a function of their current working conditions. Overall, the results of both studies converged with the theoretical analysis emphasizing (a) the reciprocal and dynamic interplay of contextual and motivational factors influencing performance, and (b) the salient role of supervisory practices in terms of support, cooperation, and efficiency in contributing to the outcome of performance

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT IN THE MOTIVATION OF THE TEACHERS OF THE FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF ESPÍRITO SANTO-BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Bricio Amaral

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of a dissertation about the curricular dynamics and teaching-learning process with the objective of answering the problem of School Management of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Espírito Santo (Câmpus Vitória, specifically about the Mechanics offered by this institution. In the years 2011 to 2014, we sought to investigate the relationship between School Management and its influence on the motivation of teachers involved based on theories of Administration and Democratic Management. As a research hypothesis, it is assumed that the management model adopted by the institute has discouraged teachers from the Mechanical Engineering Course. The research was carried out through a field survey of the type of data collection, whose research instrument was the application of questionnaires and interviews to the subjects, the teachers of the course in question. It was possible to prove the hypothesis in the sense that the adopted management model has had a negative effect on the teacher motivation, generating emotional discomforts, professional insecurities, among other aspects. The final analysis showed that the management adopted, specifically in this campus, evokes a transformation to motivate teachers in their professional performance and personal fulfillment as members of the educational team of the institution.

  10. Motives for corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Mazereeuw V/d Duijn Schouten, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we analyze the motives of executives to take responsibility for the labor, environmental and social aspects of their business. We distinguish three motives: one extrinsic (financial) and two intrinsic (ethical and altruistic) motives and empirically investigate the influences of

  11. Factors influencing incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in conformal and standard radiation treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Hunt, Margie A.; Epstein, Barry

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The fundament hypothesis of conformal radiation therapy is that tumor control can be increased by using conformal treatment techniques that allow a higher tumor dose while maintaining an acceptable level of complications. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary first to estimate the incidence of morbidity for both standard and conformal fields. In this study, we examine factors that influence the incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients treated with conformal and standard radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-seven consecutive patients treated with conformal technique are combined with and compared to 162 consecutive patients treated with standard techniques. The conformal technique includes special immobilization by a cast, careful identification of the target volume in three dimensions, localization of the inferior border of the prostate using the retrograde urethrogram, and individually shaped portals that conform to the Planning Target Volume (PTV). Univariate analysis compares differences in the incidence of RTOG-EORTC grade two acute morbidity by technique, T stage, age, irradiated volume, and dose. Multivariate logistic regression includes these same variables. Results: In nearly all categories, the conformal treatment group experienced significantly fewer acute grade 2 complications than the standard treatment group. Only volume (prostate ± whole pelvis) and technique (conformal vs. standard) were significantly related to incidence of morbidity on multivariate analysis. When dose is treated as a continuous variable (rather than being dichotomized into two levels), a trend is observed on multivariate analysis, but it does not reach significant levels. The incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients 65 years or older is significantly reduced by use of the conformal technique. Conclusion: The conformal technique is associated with fewer grade 2 acute toxicities for all patients. This

  12. Influencing factors for acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by hypertriglyceridemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAI Yunlei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes, in order to guide the prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis in patients with diabetes. MethodsA total of 46 patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by acute pancreatitis who were admitted to The First Hospital of Yulin from January 2013 to December 2016 were enrolled as study group, and 52 patients with type 2 diabetes alone who were admitted to our hospital within the same period of time were enrolled as control group. Related data were recorded, including age, sex, course of diabetes, body height and weight, abdominal circumference, smoking, drinking, gallstones, hypertension, blood glucose, and blood lipids [total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C]. The incidence rates of complications associated with diabetes were analyzed. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data (general status, blood lipids, and diabetic complications between two groups; and the t-test was used for comparison of such data between two groups. A logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. ResultsThere were no significant differences between the two groups in age, sex composition, body height and weight, abdominal circumference, smoking and drinking habits, hypertension, gallstones, and course of diabetes (all P>005. The study group had significantly higher levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C than the control group (t=5.122, 4.127, and 3.524, P<0.01, <0.01, and =0.012, while the control group had a significantly higher level of HDL-C than the study group (t=2.231, P=0.037. The study group had a significantly higher incidence rate of diabetic microangiopathy (diabetic retinopathy and chronic diabetic nephropathy than the control group (χ2=92.126, P<0.01. The multivariate analysis showed that

  13. Hospital nurses' work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p extrinsic motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  14. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.

  15. Student and Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors and the Influence of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors on Student Motivation to Learn Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Vania

    The National Assessment on Educational Progress signals that American students are not being adequately prepared to compete globally in an ever changing scientific society. As a result, legislation mandated that all students be assessed and show proficiency in scientific literacy beginning in Grade 4 with the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2002 also known as No Child Left Behind. Research indicates a disturbing decline in the number of U.S. students pursuing more rigorous science courses in high school, majoring in scientific areas in college, and choosing future careers in science. With a need to improve science instruction and enhance science literacy for all students, this study focuses on immediate communication behaviors of the classroom teacher as a deciding factor in the opinions of high school students towards science. The purpose of this study was to reveal high school science student perceptions of teacher communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, and how they influence their motivation to learn science. The researcher utilized a nonexperimental, quantitative research design to guide this study. Teacher and student data were collected using the Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ). The Student Motivation to Learn Instrument (SMLI) across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status survey was used to evaluate student motivation in science. Participants were encouraged to be honest in reporting and sharing information concerning teacher communication behaviors. The data revealed that teacher immediacy behaviors, both verbal and nonverbal, were perceived differently in terms of student gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The results showed that teachers who display positive communication behaviors and use challenging questioning followed with positive responses create pathways to potentially powerful relationships. These relationships between teachers and students can lead to increased student

  16. Acute bouts of wheel running decrease cocaine self-administration: Influence of exercise output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Fronk, Gaylen E; Zhang, Huailin; Magee, Charlotte P; Robinson, Andrea M

    Exercise is associated with lower rates of drug use in human populations and decreases drug self-administration in laboratory animals. Most of the existing literature examining the link between exercise and drug use has focused on chronic, long-term exercise, and very few studies have examined the link between exercise output (i.e., amount of exercise) and drug self-administration. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute bouts of exercise on cocaine self-administration, and to determine whether these effects were dependent on exercise output and the time interval between exercise and drug self-administration. Female rats were trained to run in automated running wheels, implanted with intravenous catheters, and allowed to self-administer cocaine on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule of reinforcement. Immediately prior to each test session, subjects engaged in acute bouts of exercise in which they ran for 0, 30, or 60min at 12m/min. Acute bouts of exercise before test sessions decreased cocaine self-administration in an output-dependent manner, with the greatest reduction in cocaine intake observed in the 60-min exercise condition. Exercise did not reduce cocaine self-administration when wheel running and test sessions were separated by 12h, and exercise did not reduce responding maintained by food or responding during a saline substitution test. These data indicate that acute bouts of exercise decrease cocaine self-administration in a time- and output-dependent manner. These results also add to a growing body of literature suggesting that physical activity may be an effective component of drug abuse treatment programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Glutamate excitoxicity is the key molecular mechanism which is influenced by body temperature during the acute phase of brain stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Francisco; Pérez-Mato, María; Agulla, Jesús; Blanco, Miguel; Barral, David; Almeida, Angeles; Brea, David; Waeber, Christian; Castillo, José; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate excitotoxicity, metabolic rate and inflammatory response have been associated to the deleterious effects of temperature during the acute phase of stroke. So far, the association of temperature with these mechanisms has been studied individually. However, the simultaneous study of the influence of temperature on these mechanisms is necessary to clarify their contributions to temperature-mediated ischemic damage. We used non-invasive Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to simultaneously measure temperature, glutamate excitotoxicity and metabolic rate in the brain in animal models of ischemia. The immune response to ischemia was measured through molecular serum markers in peripheral blood. We submitted groups of animals to different experimental conditions (hypothermia at 33°C, normothermia at 37°C and hyperthermia at 39°C), and combined these conditions with pharmacological modulation of glutamate levels in the brain through systemic injections of glutamate and oxaloacetate. We show that pharmacological modulation of glutamate levels can neutralize the deleterious effects of hyperthermia and the beneficial effects of hypothermia, however the analysis of the inflammatory response and metabolic rate, demonstrated that their effects on ischemic damage are less critical than glutamate excitotoxity. We conclude that glutamate excitotoxicity is the key molecular mechanism which is influenced by body temperature during the acute phase of brain stroke.

  18. Multiple motives and persuasive communication : Creative elaboration as a result of impression motivation and accuracy motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, AE; Manstead, ASR; Spears, R

    The authors examined the influence of impression motivation (Experiments 1 and 2) and the combined effects of accuracy motivation and impression motivation (Experiment 3) on the elaboration of persuasive messages as reflected in attitude change and cognitive responses. Intermediate levels of

  19. Analysis of factors influencing survival in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ji; Kim, Dae Bum; Chung, Woo Chul; Lee, Ji Min; Youn, Gun Jung; Jung, Yun Duk; Choi, Sooa; Oh, Jung Hwan

    2017-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) ranges from a mild and self-limiting disease to a fulminant illness with significant morbidity and mortality. Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is defined as persistent organ failure lasting for 48 h. We aimed to determine the factors that predict survival and mortality in patients with SAP. We reviewed a consecutive series of patients who were admitted with acute pancreatitis between January 2003 and January 2013. A total of 1213 cases involving 660 patients were evaluated, and 68 cases with SAP were selected for the study. Patients were graded based on the Computer Tomography Severity Index (CTSI), the bedside index for severity (BISAP), and Ranson's criteria. The frequency of SAP was 5.6% (68/1213 cases). Among these patients, 17 died due to pancreatitis-induced causes. We compared several factors between the survivor (n = 51) and non-survivor (n = 17) groups. On multivariate analysis, there were significant differences in the incidence of diabetes mellitus (p = .04), Ranson score (p = .03), bacteremia (p = .05) and body mass index (BMI) (p = .02) between the survivor and non-survivor groups. Bacteremia, high Ranson score, DM, and lower BMI were closely associated with mortality in patients with SAP. When patients with SAP show evidence of bacteremia or diabetes, aggressive treatment is necessary. For the prediction of disease mortality, the Ranson score might be a useful tool in SAP.

  20. Influence of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms on the development of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, D Z; Chen, J; Huang, D P

    2015-02-03

    We investigated the association between 3 main proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6] and the risk of acute pancreatitis. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to genotype IL-1β+3954 C/T (rs1143634) and IL-1β-511 C/T (rs16944) and IL-6 -174 G/C (rs1800795) and IL-6 -634 C/G (rs1800796). The genotype distributions of IL-1β+3954 C/T (rs1143634) and IL-1β-511 C/T (rs16944) and IL-6 -174 G/C (rs1800795) and IL-6 -634 C/G (rs1800796) were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the control group. Multivariate regression analyses showed that subjects carrying the rs1143634 TT genotype had a significantly increased risk of acute pancreatitis, with an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.11 (1.03-4.51). Subjects carrying the IL-1β rs1143634 TT genotype had a significantly increased risk of acute pancreatitis in our Chinese population.

  1. Study on the Strategic Motivation and Influencing Factors of Standard Alliance%标准联盟战略动机及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚稳健; 汤易兵; 余晓

    2017-01-01

    Developing technical standards through standard alliance is an important trend of international standardization. This paper mainly studies the strategic motivation and the influencing factors of standard alliance. The research shows that the strategic motivation of enterprise standard alliance mainly includes market uncertainty reduction, knowledge acquisition, market access and consistency with government policy, but it is different from the general strategic alliance. Enterprise R&D intensity, market innovation, company scale, international trade, whether to set up independent standardization organization and competitive environment all influence the strategic motivation of enterprise standard alliance. The research results have certain guiding significance.%通过标准联盟创立技术标准正成为国际标准化领域的重要趋势,基于文献,本文主要研究企业标准联盟的战略动机及其影响因素.研究表明,企业标准联盟战略动机主要包括降低市场的不确定性、知识的获取、市场准入和与政府政策的一致性,但与一般的战略联盟有所区别;企业R&D强度、市场创新、公司规模、国际贸易、是否设置独立标准化组织以及竞争环境影响着企业标准联盟的战略动机.研究结果具有一定的指导意义.

  2. Under the influence of Facebook? Excess use of social networking sites and drinking motives, consequences, and attitudes in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormes, Julia M

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims Excessive use of social networking sites (SNS) has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction (i.e., "disordered SNS use") using key criteria for the diagnosis of substance dependence and shown to be associated with a variety of impairments in psychosocial functioning, including an increased risk of problem drinking. This study sought to characterize associations between "disordered SNS use" and attitudes towards alcohol, drinking motives, and adverse consequences resulting from alcohol use in young adults. Methods Undergraduate students (n = 537, 64.0% female, mean age = 19.63 years, SD = 4.24) reported on their use of SNSs and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Temptation and Restraint Inventory, Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol and Drinking Motives Questionnaires, and Drinker Inventory of Consequences. Results Respondents meeting previously established criteria for "disordered SNS use" were significantly more likely to use alcohol to cope with negative affect and to conform to perceived social norms, reported significantly more conflicting (i.e., simultaneous positive and negative) attitudes towards alcohol, and had experienced significantly more, and more frequent adverse consequences from drinking in their inter- and intrapersonal, physical, and social functioning, compared to individuals without problems related to SNS use. Discussion and conclusions Findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting a link between excess or maladaptive SNS use and problems related to alcohol in young adults and point to emotion dysregulation and coping motives as potential shared risk factors for substance and behavioral addictions in this demographic.

  3. Under the influence of Facebook? Excess use of social networking sites and drinking motives, consequences, and attitudes in college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormes, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Excessive use of social networking sites (SNS) has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction (i.e., “disordered SNS use”) using key criteria for the diagnosis of substance dependence and shown to be associated with a variety of impairments in psychosocial functioning, including an increased risk of problem drinking. This study sought to characterize associations between “disordered SNS use” and attitudes towards alcohol, drinking motives, and adverse consequences resulting from alcohol use in young adults. Methods Undergraduate students (n = 537, 64.0% female, mean age = 19.63 years, SD = 4.24) reported on their use of SNSs and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Temptation and Restraint Inventory, Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol and Drinking Motives Questionnaires, and Drinker Inventory of Consequences. Results Respondents meeting previously established criteria for “disordered SNS use” were significantly more likely to use alcohol to cope with negative affect and to conform to perceived social norms, reported significantly more conflicting (i.e., simultaneous positive and negative) attitudes towards alcohol, and had experienced significantly more, and more frequent adverse consequences from drinking in their inter- and intrapersonal, physical, and social functioning, compared to individuals without problems related to SNS use. Discussion and conclusions Findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting a link between excess or maladaptive SNS use and problems related to alcohol in young adults and point to emotion dysregulation and coping motives as potential shared risk factors for substance and behavioral addictions in this demographic. PMID:28092186

  4. Motivation and evaluation of empolyees

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkulová, Anna

    2015-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is focused on motivation and assessment of employees in the company. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the influence of team building and benefits on employees' motivation. Literature based theoretical part of my thesis describes and investigates the real meaning and purpose of motivation and basic motivational concepts. Furthermore, I outlined the basics behind employee benefits, team building and also stated the current given trends in these areas. The practical pa...

  5. Development of an instrument based on the protection motivation theory to measure factors influencing women's intention to first pap test practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Lale; Dehdari, Tahereh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2014-01-01

    Given that there are many Iranian women who have never had a Pap smear, this study was designed to develop and validate a measurement tool based on the Protection Motivation Theory to assess factors influencing the Iranian women's intention to perform first Pap testing. In this psychometric research, to determine the Content Validity Index (CVI) and the Content Validity Ratio (CVR), a panel of experts (n=10) reviewed scale items. Reliability was estimated through the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (n=30) and internal consistency (n=240). Also, factor analysis (exploratory and conformity) was performed on the data of the sample women who had never had a Pap smear test (n=240). A 26-item questionnaire was developed. The CVI and CVR scores of the scale were 0.89 and 0.90, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis loaded a 26-item with seven factors questionnaire (perceived vulnerability and severity, fear, response costs, response efficacy, self-efficacy, and protection motivation (or intention)) that jointly accounted for 72.76% of the observed variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit for the data. Internal consistency (range 0.70-0.93) and test-retest reliability (range 0.72-0.96) of sub-scales were acceptable. This study showed that the designed instrument was a valid and reliable tool for measuring the factors influencing the women's intention to perform their first Pap testing.

  6. Afferent Connections to the Rostrolateral Part of the Periaqueductal Gray: A Critical Region Influencing the Motivation Drive to Hunt and Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Mota-Ortiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that a particular site in the periaqueductal gray (PAG, the rostrolateral PAG, influences the motivation drive to forage or hunt. To have a deeper understanding on the putative paths involved in the decision-making process between foraging, hunting, and other behavioral responses, in the present investigation, we carried out a systematic analysis of the neural inputs to the rostrolateral PAG (rlPAG, using Fluorogold as a retrograde tracer. According to the present findings, the rlPAG appears to be importantly driven by medial prefrontal cortical areas involved in controlling attention-related and decision-making processes. Moreover, the rlPAG also receives a wealth of information from different amygdalar, hypothalamic, and brainstem sites related to feeding, drinking, or hunting behavioral responses. Therefore, this unique combination of afferent connections puts the rlPAG in a privileged position to influence the motivation drive to choose whether hunting and foraging would be the most appropriate adaptive responses.

  7. Influence of fitness and age on the endothelial response to acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Elizabeth C; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Ranadive, Sushant M; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo

    2018-04-16

    What is the central question of the study? The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age and fitness on the vascular response to acute inflammation in younger and older adults. What is the main finding and its importance? In older adults, cardiorespiratory fitness level has a differential impact on endothelial function following acute inflammation: older moderately fit adults have a greater decrease in endothelial function, similar to that of younger adults. These findings have important implications of further supporting the beneficial effects of higher cardiorespiratory fitness in maintaining vascular reactivity and the ability to respond to stressors. Inflammation is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular events and reduced vascular function with aging. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events and better vascular function. We evaluated the role of fitness in the vascular response to acute inflammation in 26 younger (YA) and 62 older (OA) adults. We used an influenza vaccine to induce acute inflammation. Blood pressure, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), augmentation index (AIx@75), carotid elastic modulus (Ep) and inflammatory markers were measured before and 24-hours after vaccination. VO 2 peak was measured via a treadmill test. Fit was defined as a VO 2 peak greater than the age- and sex-determined 50 th percentile according to the American College of Sports Medicine. An interaction effect existed for the FMD response during acute inflammation (p fit: 11.5 ± 1.8 to 9.2 ± 1.3%; moderately fit: 11.9 ± 0.8 to 9.0 ± 0.8%) and moderately fit OA (7.5 ± 1.0 to 3.9 ± 0.8%) had similar reductions in FMD at 24h (p fit OA did not reduce FMD at 24h (5.5 ± 0.4 to 5.2 ± 0.5%, p > 0.05). The reduction in FMD in YA was similar between fitness groups (p > 0.05). All groups had similar reductions in mean arterial pressure and increases in inflammatory markers. AIx@75 and Ep did not

  8. Predicting Inpatient Detoxification Outcome of Alcohol and Drug Dependent Patients: The Influence of Sociodemographic Environment, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Medical Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Sofin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This prospective study aims to identify patient characteristics as predictors for treatment outcome during inpatient detoxification treatment for drug and alcohol dependent patients. Methods. A mixed gender sample of 832 consecutively admitted drug and alcohol dependent patients were interviewed by an experienced physician. The impact of a variety of factors concerning social environment, therapy motivation, impulsivity related variables, medical history, and addiction severity on treatment outcome was examined. Results. 525 (63.1% of the patients completed detoxification treatment whereas 307 (36.9% dropped out prematurely. Being female, living in a partnership, having children, being employed, and having good education were predictive for a positive outcome. Family, health, the fear of losing the job, prosecution, and emergency admission were significant motivational predictors for treatment outcome. Being younger, history of imprisonment, and the number of previous drop-outs were predictive for a negative outcome. Conclusions. Variables concerning social environment and the number of previous drop-outs have been identified as best predictors for treatment outcome. Socially stable patients benefit from the current treatment setting and treatment shall be adapted for patients with negative predictors. Treatment may consequently be tailored with respect to intervention type, duration, and intensity to improve the outcome for those patients that fulfil criteria with negative impact on treatment retention.

  9. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = - 1.18), binge drinking (d = - 1.61) and drunkenness (d = - 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588).

  10. Acute intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide influences the immune system in the absence of gut dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Kristyn E; Demas, Gregory E

    2018-03-01

    There is bidirectional communication between the immune system and the gut microbiome, however the precise mechanisms regulating this crosstalk are not well understood. Microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) within the gut, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that produces a quick and robust activation of the immune system, may be one way by which these interactions occur. Endogenous levels of LPS in the gut are low enough that they do not usually cause disease, although, in times of increased LPS loads, they may be capable of increasing vulnerability of the gut to pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, chronic, low-grade inflammation can have lasting effects on the gut, but the effects of acute inflammation on gut communities have not been thoroughly assessed. In this study, we first investigated whether a single modest dose of LPS administered to adult male and female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) activated the immune system by measuring levels of circulating cortisol and the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the liver compared with saline-treated animals. We then investigated whether this same acute dose of LPS altered the microbiome 48 h after treatment. We found that, although LPS increased cortisol and liver cytokine levels, and produced changes in food intake and body mass in both sexes, immunological changes were independent of gut dysbiosis 48 h after LPS injection. These data suggest that an acute immune activation may not be capable of altering the gut microbiome in healthy individuals. It is likely, however, that this type of immune challenge may have other physiological impacts on the gut's vulnerability, and future studies will investigate these relationships further. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF HEDONIC SHOPPING MOTIVATION TO THE IMPULSE BUYING OF ONLINE-SHOPPING CONSUMER ON INSTAGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnawati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the influence of Adventure Shopping, Relaxation Shopping, Value Shopping, Social Shopping and Idea Shopping variables to the variable of Impulse Buying of Online-Shopping Consumer on Instagram. The type of the research is explanatory research. The result of F-test showed that Fcount (12.829 > Ftable (2.669 which meant that research variables had influences to the Impulse Buying. With partial correlation value of 0.548, Idea Shopping variable became the dominant factor influencing Impulse Buying on the online-shopping purchase on Instagram.

  12. The influence of blood pressure management on neurological outcome in endovascular therapy for acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M; Espelund, U S; Juul, N; Yoo, A J; Sørensen, L H; Sørensen, K E; Johnsen, S P; Andersen, G; Simonsen, C Z

    2018-06-01

    Observational studies have suggested that low blood pressure and blood pressure variability may partially explain adverse neurological outcome after endovascular therapy with general anaesthesia (GA) for acute ischaemic stroke. The aim of this study was to further examine whether blood pressure related parameters during endovascular therapy are associated with neurological outcome. The GOLIATH trial randomised 128 patients to either GA or conscious sedation for endovascular therapy in acute ischaemic stroke. The primary outcome was 90 day modified Rankin Score. The haemodynamic protocol aimed at keeping the systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and mean blood pressure >70 mm Hg during the procedure. Blood pressure related parameters of interest included 20% reduction in mean blood pressure; mean blood pressure blood pressure blood pressure; mean blood pressure at the time of groin puncture; postreperfusion mean blood pressure; blood pressure variability; and use of vasopressors. Sensitivity analyses were performed in the subgroup of reperfused patients. Procedural average mean and systolic blood pressures were higher in the conscious sedation group (Pblood pressure blood pressure blood pressure variability, and use of vasopressors were all higher in the GA group (Pblood pressure related parameters and the modified Rankin Score in the overall patient population, and in the subgroup of patients with full reperfusion. We found no statistically significant association between blood pressure related parameters during endovascular therapy and neurological outcome. NCT 02317237. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Acute High Glucose on Protein Abundance Changes in Murine Glomerular Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T. Barati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute exposure to high glucose levels as experienced by glomerular mesangial cells in postprandial conditions and states such as in prediabetes were investigated using proteomic methods. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods were used to identify protein expression patterns in immortalized rat mesangial cells altered by 2 h high glucose (HG growth conditions as compared to isoosmotic/normal glucose control (NG⁎ conditions. Unique protein expression changes at 2 h HG treatment were measured for 51 protein spots. These proteins could be broadly grouped into two categories: (1 proteins involved in cell survival/cell signaling and (2 proteins involved in stress response. Immunoblot experiments for a protein belonging to both categories, prohibitin (PHB, supported a trend for increased total expression as well as significant increases in an acidic PHB isoform. Additional studies confirmed the regulation of proteasomal subunit alpha-type 2 and the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone and oxidoreductase PDI (protein disulfide isomerase, suggesting altered ER protein folding capacity and proteasomal function in response to acute HG. We conclude that short term high glucose induces subtle changes in protein abundances suggesting posttranslational modifications and regulation of pathways involved in proteostasis.

  14. The influence of acute stress on the regulation of conditioned fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace M. Raio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fear learning and regulation is a prominent model for describing the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and stress-related psychopathology. Fear expression can be modulated using a number of regulatory strategies, including extinction, cognitive emotion regulation, avoidance strategies and reconsolidation. In this review, we examine research investigating the effects of acute stress and stress hormones on these regulatory techniques. We focus on what is known about the impact of stress on the ability to flexibly regulate fear responses that are acquired through Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our primary aim is to explore the impact of stress on fear regulation in humans. Given this, we focus on techniques where stress has been linked to alterations of fear regulation in humans (extinction and emotion regulation, and briefly discuss other techniques (avoidance and reconsolidation where the impact of stress or stress hormones have been mainly explored in animal models. These investigations reveal that acute stress may impair the persistent inhibition of fear, presumably by altering prefrontal cortex function. Characterizing the effects of stress on fear regulation is critical for understanding the boundaries within which existing regulation strategies are viable in everyday life and can better inform treatment options for those who suffer from anxiety and stress-related psychopathology.

  15. Influence of acute exercise of varying intensity and duration on postprandial oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Robert E; Farney, Tyler M; McCarthy, Cameron G; Bloomer, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    Aerobic exercise can reduce postprandial lipemia, and possibly oxidative stress, when performed prior to a lipid-rich meal. To compare the impact of acute exercise on postprandial oxidative stress. We compared aerobic and anaerobic exercise bouts of different intensities and durations on postprandial blood triglycerides (TAG), oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, advanced oxidation protein products), and antioxidant status (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase). Twelve trained men (21-35 years) underwent four conditions: (1) No exercise rest; (2) 60-min aerobic exercise at 70% heart rate reserve; (3) five 60-s sprints at 100% max capacity; and (4) ten 15-s sprints at 200% max capacity. All exercise bouts were performed on a cycle ergometer. A high-fat meal was consumed 1 h after exercise cessation. Blood samples were collected pre-meal and 2 and 4 h post-meal and analyzed for TAG, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidant status. No significant interaction or condition effects were noted for any variable (p > 0.05), with acute exercise having little to no effect on the magnitude of postprandial oxidative stress. In a sample of healthy, well-trained men, neither aerobic nor anaerobic exercise attenuates postprandial oxidative stress in response to a high-fat meal.

  16. How Peer Communication and Engagement Motivations Influence Social Media Shopping Behavior: Evidence from China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Sidharth; Men, Linjuan Rita

    2015-10-01

    Based on consumer socialization theory, this study proposes and tests a conceptual model of social media shopping behavior, which links the antecedents of user motivations of engagement and peer communication about products to shopping behavior through social media. A cross-cultural survey was conducted with social media users in two culturally distinct markets with the largest Internet population: China (n=304) and the United States (n=328). Findings showed that social interaction, information, and remuneration were positive antecedents of peer communication for users from both countries. Peer communication positively impacted social media shopping behavior, and cultural differences were observed, with social interaction being important to Chinese users' shopping behavior, while remuneration was more important to American users. Implications are discussed.

  17. Beyond Affective Influences on Deontological Moral Judgment: The Role of Motivations for Prevention in the Moral Condemnation of Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez-Djokic, Monica; Molden, Daniel

    2016-09-20

    Past research suggests that deontological judgments, which condemn deliberate harm no matter what the beneficial consequences, typically arise from emotional and intuitive reactions to the harm, whereas utilitarian judgments, which acknowledge the potential benefits of deliberate harm, typically arise from rational deliberation about whether these benefits outweigh the costs. The present research explores whether specific motivational orientations might, at times, increase the likelihood of deontological judgments without increasing emotional reactions. A meta-analysis of 10 newly conducted studies indicated that, compared with when focused on advancement (promotion), when people were focused on security (prevention) they made stronger deontological judgments in hypothetical moral dilemmas. Moreover, this effect could not be explained by participants' differing emotional reactions to the dilemmas when prevention-focused, but instead mirrored reports of their explicit reasoning. Implications for expanding current models of deontological and utilitarian moral judgment are discussed. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF HEDONIC SHOPPING MOTIVATION TO THE IMPULSE BUYING OF ONLINE-SHOPPING CONSUMER ON INSTAGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Asnawati; Wahyuni S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to know the influence of Adventure Shopping, Relaxation Shopping, Value Shopping, Social Shopping and Idea Shopping variables to the variable of Impulse Buying of Online-Shopping Consumer on Instagram. The type of the research is explanatory research. The result of F-test showed that Fcount (12.829) > Ftable (2.669) which meant that research variables had influences to the Impulse Buying. With partial correlation value of 0.548, Idea Shopping variable became the dominant fa...

  19. Meaning in family caregiving for people with dementia: a narrative study about relationships, values, and motivation, and how day care influences these factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretteteig, Signe; Vatne, Solfrid; Rokstad, Anne Marie Mork

    2017-01-01

    In addition to care-related burdens, most caregivers of a person with dementia perceive a variety of positive and satisfying experiences, such as feeling needed and useful in their family caregiving role. "Meaning-focused coping" describes both positive and negative emotions in periods with high levels of stress. Day care service may have the potential to increase caregivers' positive experiences and meaning-focused coping, and positively influence interpersonal relationships between those giving care and those receiving care. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about family caregivers' experiences of meaning in their caring role. Additionally, the influence of day care services on caregivers' experiences and motivation in their caregiving role is explored. A qualitative design based on individual interviews was used. The interviews were analyzed using a narrative method and a case study approach. Family caregivers' roles and coping strategies were related to their relational ties. Caregivers had to make decisions about whether to enhance, maintain, or let go of emotional ties to find a good balance between meeting their own needs and the needs of the person with dementia. Family caregivers reported that day care positively influenced their "relationship-oriented coping" and experience of meaning. Finding meaning in the role of a family caregiver for persons with dementia is closely connected to the caregivers' own values and goals. Finding a balance between attending to their own needs and the needs of the person with dementia is crucial. Day care has the potential to increase family caregivers' motivation to care by supporting their capacity to meet their own needs, cooperate and communicate with the person with dementia, and make competent and autonomous choices, thus increasing their feeling of mastery.

  20. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving. Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because the cows were not able to combine a learnt response with the motivation to isolate. Dominant cows had the highest chance of calving in an individual calving pen. If an alien calf was present in the group pen or any of the individual pens, cows were less likely to calve in an individual calving pen. Future studies should allow cows easy access to an individual calving pen and explore what motivates pre-parturient cows to seek isolation in order to facilitate voluntary use of individual calving pens.

  1. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving. Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because the cows were not able to combine a learnt response with the motivation to isolate. Dominant cows had the highest chance of calving in an individual calving pen. If an alien calf was present in the group pen or any of the individual pens, cows were less likely to calve in an individual calving pen. Future studies should allow cows easy access to an individual calving pen and explore what motivates pre-parturient cows to seek isolation in order to facilitate voluntary use of individual calving pens. PMID:29346399

  2. Motivation and learning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Hans Ernst; Horstendahl, Michaela

    1997-09-01

    Being involved in science education we cannot avoid confronting the problem of students' waning interest in physics. Therefore, we want to focus on arguments developed by new theoretical work in the field of motivation. Especially, we are attracted by the theory of motivation featured by Deci and Ryan, because it is related to an assumptions of human development similar to our own approach. Beneath elements of cognitive development, motivation is seen as a basic concept to describe students' learning in a physics classroom. German students at lower and upper secondary level regard physics as very difficult to learn, very abstract and dominated by male students. As a result physics at school continuously loses importance and acceptance although a lot of work has been done to modernise and develop the related physics courses. We assume that knowing about the influence of motivation on learning physics may lead to new insights in the design of classroom settings. Referring to Deci and Ryan, we use a model of motivation to describe the influence of two different teaching strategies (teacher and discourse oriented) on learning. Electrostatics was taught in year 8. The outcomes of a questionnaire which is able to evaluate defined, motivational states are compared with the interpretation of the same student's interaction in the related situation of the physics classroom. The scales of the questionnaire and the categories of analysis of the video-recording are derived from the same model of motivation.

  3. Hepato- and neuro-protective influences of biopropolis on thioacetamide-induced acute hepatic encephalopathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Rasha E; Salama, Abeer A A; Abdel-Rahman, Rehab F; Ogaly, Hanan A

    2017-05-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that ultimately occurs as a complication of acute or chronic liver failure; accompanied by hyperammonemia. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of biopropolis as a hepato- and neuro-protective agent using thioacetamide (TAA)-induced acute HE in rats as a model. Sixty Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: Group 1 (normal control) received only saline and paraffin oil. Group 2 (hepatotoxic control) received TAA (300 mg/kg, once). Groups 3, 4, and 5 received TAA followed by vitamin E (100 mg/kg) and biopropolis (100 and 200 mg/kg), respectively, daily for 30 days. Evidences of HE were clearly detected in TAA-hepatotoxic group including significant elevation in the serum level of ammonia, liver functions, increased oxidative stress in liver and brain, apoptotic DNA fragmentation and overexpression of iNOS gene in brain tissue. The findings for groups administered biopropolis, highlighted its efficacy as a hepato- and neuro-protectant through improving the liver functions, oxidative status and DNA fragmentation as well as suppressing the brain expression of iNOS gene. In conclusion, biopropolis, at a dose of 200 mg/kg per day protected against TAA-induced HE through its antioxidant and antiapoptotic influence; therefore, it can be used as a protective natural product.

  4. Acute Superoxide Radical Scavenging Reduces Blood Pressure but Does Not Influence Kidney Function in Hypertensive Rats with Postischemic Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Miloradović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in hypertensive surroundings. We investigated superoxide radical molecules influence on systemic haemodynamic and kidney function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with induced postischemic AKI. Experiment was performed in anesthetized adult male SHR. The right kidney was removed, and left renal artery was subjected to ischemia by clamping for 40 minutes. The treated group received synthetic superoxide dismutase mimetic TEMPOL in the femoral vein 5 minutes before, during, and 175 minutes after the period of reperfusion, while the control AKI group received the vehicle via the same route. All parameters were measured 24 h after renal reperfusion. TEMPOL treatment significantly decreased mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance P<0.05 compared to AKI control. It also increased cardiac output and catalase activity P<0.05. Lipid peroxidation and renal vascular resistance were decreased in TEMPOL P<0.05. Plasma creatinine and kidney morphological parameters were unchanged among TEMPOL treated and control groups. Our study shows that superoxide radicals participate in haemodynamic control, but acute superoxide scavenging is ineffective in glomerular and tubular improvement, probably due to hypertension-induced strong endothelial dysfunction which neutralizes beneficial effects of O2− scavenging.

  5. Influence of Chemotherapy on the Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Sanaat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic agents used in patients with cancer cause to generate the enormous amounts of free radicals associated with cell injury. In this study we assess the effects of chemotherapy regimen on oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML. 38 newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia were recruited in this study. All patients received cytarabine and daunorubicin as chemotherapy regimen. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant status (TAS, and the levels of erythrocyte activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were determined before chemotherapy and 14 days after chemotherapy with cytarabine and daunorubicin. Plasma MDA concentrations increased significantly (from 2.68±0.89 nmol/L to 3.14±1.29 nmol/L during the 14days post-chemotherapy period (P=0.04. Plasma TAS concentrations changed with chemotherapy from 1.09±0.15 mmol/L to 1.02±0.14 mmol/L with P=0.005. Erythrocyte SOD and GPX activity decreased overtime from 1157.24±543.61 U/g Hb to 984.01±419.09 U/g Hb (P=0.04 and 46.96±13.70 U/g Hb to 41.40±6.44 U/g Hb (P=0.02 respectively. We report here that there is an increase in malondialdehyde levels and a decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant status. This suggests that chemotherapy causes these changes as a result of enormous production of reactive oxygen species in the patients with AML. Antioxidant supplementation must be approached with caution because of the probability of reduction the therapeutic efficacy of these cytotoxic drugs.

  6. The influence of acute stress on attention mechanisms and its electrophysiological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eSänger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For the selection of relevant information out of a continuous stream of information, which is a common definition of attention, two core mechanisms are assumed: a competition-based comparison of the neuronal activity in sensory areas and the top-down modulation of this competition by frontal executive control functions. Those control functions are thought to bias the processing of information towards the intended goals. Acute stress is thought to impair these frontal functions through the release of cortisol.In the present study, subjects had to detect a luminance change of a stimulus and ignore more salient but task irrelevant orientation changes. Before the execution of this task, subjects underwent a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT or a non-stressful control situation. The SECPT revealed reliable stress response with a significant increase of cortisol and alpha-amylase. Stressed subjects showed higher error rates than controls, particularly in conditions which require top-down control processing to bias the less salient target feature against the more salient and spatially separated distracter.By means of the EEG, subjects who got stressed showed a reduced allocation to the relevant luminance change apparent in a modulation of the N1pc. The following N2pc, which reflects a re-allocation of attentional resources, supports the error pattern. There was only an N2pc in conditions, which required to bias the less salient luminance change. Moreover, this N2pc was decreased as a consequence of the induced stress. These results allow the conclusion that acute stress impairs the intention-based attentional allocation and enhances the stimulus-driven selection, leading to a strong distractibility during attentional information selection.

  7. Acute and chronic influence of temperature on red blood cell anion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, F B; Wang, T; Brahm, J

    2001-01-01

    Unidirectional (36)Cl(-) efflux via the red blood cell anion exchanger was measured under Cl(-) self-exchange conditions (i.e. no net flow of anions) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and red-eared freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta to examine the effects of acute temperature changes and acclimation temperature on this process. We also evaluated the possible adaptation of anion exchange to different temperature regimes by including our previously published data on other animals. An acute temperature increase caused a significant increase in the rate constant (k) for unidirectional Cl(-) efflux in rainbow trout and freshwater turtle. After 3 weeks of temperature acclimation, 5 degrees C-acclimated rainbow trout showed only marginally higher Cl(-) transport rates than 15 degrees C-acclimated trout when compared at the same temperature. Apparent activation energies for red blood cell Cl(-) exchange in trout and turtle were lower than values reported in endothermic animals. The Q(10) for red blood cell anion exchange was 2.0 in trout and 2.3 in turtle, values close to those for CO(2) excretion, suggesting that, in ectothermic animals, the temperature sensitivity of band-3-mediated anion exchange matches the temperature sensitivity of CO(2) transport (where red blood cell Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange is a rate-limiting step). In endotherms, such as man and chicken, Q(10) values for red blood cell anion exchange are considerably higher but are no obstacle to CO(2) transport, because body temperature is normally kept constant at values at which anion exchange rates are high. When compared at constant temperature, red blood cell Cl(-) permeability shows large differences among species (trout, carp, eel, cod, turtle, alligator, chicken and man). Cl(-) permeabilities are, however, remarkable similar when compared at preferred body temperatures, suggesting an appropriate evolutionary adaptation of red blood cell anion exchange function to the different thermal niches occupied

  8. Influence of the timing of cardiac catheterization and amount of contrast media on acute renal failure after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohsen Mirmohammad; Gharipour, Mojgan; Nilforoush, Peiman; Shamsolkotabi, Hamid; Sadeghi, Hamid Mirmohammad; Kiani, Amjad; Sadeghi, Pouya Mirmohammad; Farahmand, Niloufar

    2011-04-01

    There is limited data about the influence of timing of cardiac surgery in relation to diagnostic angiography and/or the impact of the amount of contrast media used during angiography on the occurance of acute renal failure (ARF). Therefore, in the present study the effect of the time interval between diagnostic angiography and cardiac surgery and also the amount of contrast media used during the diagnostic procedure on the incidence of ARF after cardiac surgery was investigated. Data of 1177 patients who underwent different types of cardiac surgeries after cardiac catheterization were prospectively examined. The influence of time interval between cardiac catheterization and surgery as well as the amount of contrast agent on postoperative ARF were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. The patients who progressed to ARF were more likely to have received a higher dose of contrast agent compared to the mean dose. However, the time interval between cardiac surgery and last catheterization was not significantly different between the patients with and without ARF (p = 0.05). Overall, postoperative peak creatinine was highest on day 0, then decreased and remained significantly unchanged after this period. Overall prevalence of acute renal failure during follow-up period had a changeable trend and had the highest rates in days 1 (53.57%) and 6 (52.17%) after surgery. Combined coronary bypass and valve surgery were the strongest predictor of postoperative ARF (OR: 4.976, CI = 1.613-15.355 and p = 0.002), followed by intra-aortic balloon pump insertion (OR: 6.890, CI = 1.482-32.032 and p = 0.009) and usage of higher doses of contrast media agent (OR: 1.446, CI = 1.033-2.025 and p = 0.031). Minimizing the amount of contrast agent has a potential role in reducing the incidence of postoperative ARF in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, but delaying cardiac surgery after exposure to these agents might not have this protective effect.

  9. Experimental Longitudinal Test of the Influence of Autonomy-Supportive Teaching on Motivation for Participation in Elementary School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptokaridou, Elisavet T.; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of autonomy-supportive teaching during elementary school physical education (PE) in influencing pupils' enjoyment, fear of failure, boredom and effort. A sample of 54 pupils attending fifth and sixth grades comprised the control group (typical instruction; n = 27) and the experimental group…

  10. An Understanding of How Peer, Genetic, and Environmental Influences Can Motivate Terrorists or Ordinary People to Kill Themselves and Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Perusse, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to find a correlation between peer, genetic, and environmental influences and the behavior and personality development during childhood. This study focuses on the 1999 Columbine High School Massacre to try to explain certain kinds of behavior. The study made on 275 freshmen at Cornell University showed that…

  11. Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; D'Agostino, Paul R; Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Wilkowski, Benjamin M

    2012-01-01

    A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue) indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context), but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context). These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes.

  12. Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Meier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context, but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes.

  13. Color in Context: Psychological Context Moderates the Influence of Red on Approach- and Avoidance-Motivated Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P.; D’Agostino, Paul R.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.; Wilkowski, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. Methodology/Principal Findings The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue) indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context), but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context). Conclusions/Significance These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes. PMID:22808136

  14. The influence of antiobesity media content on intention to eat healthily and exercise: a test of the ordered protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritland, Raeann; Rodriguez, Lulu

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the ordered protection motivation framework to determine whether exposure and attention to antiobesity media content increases people's appraisals of threat and their ability to cope with it. It also assesses whether these cognitive processes, in turn, affected people's intention to abide by the practices recommended to prevent obesity. The results of a national online survey using a nonprobability sample indicate that attention to mediated obesity and related information significantly increased people's intention to exercise as well as their overall coping appraisals (the perceived effectiveness of the recommended behaviors and their ability to perform them). Likewise, increased threat and coping appraisals were both found to significantly influence people's intention to exercise and diet. Coping (rather than threat) appraisals more strongly predicted behavioral intent. Following the attitude-behavior literature, behavioral intention was used as the most proximate predictor of actual behavior (i.e., stronger intentions increase the likelihood of behavior change).

  15. Influence of the ventilatory mode on acute adverse effects and facial thermography after noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Suzy Maria Montenegro; Melo, Luiz Henrique de Paula; Maia, Nathalia Parente de Sousa; Nogueira, Andrea da Nóbrega Cirino; Vasconcelos, Thiago Brasileiro; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Bastos, Vasco Pinheiro Diógenes; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2017-01-01

    To compare the incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects and the variation in the temperature of facial skin by thermography after the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We included 20 healthy volunteers receiving NIV via oronasal mask for 1 h. The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups according to the ventilatory mode: bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Facial thermography was performed in order to determine the temperature of the face where it was in contact with the mask and of the nasal dorsum at various time points. After removal of the mask, the volunteers completed a questionnaire about adverse effects of NIV. The incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects were higher in the individuals receiving BiPAP than in those receiving CPAP (16.1% vs. 5.6%). Thermographic analysis showed a significant cooling of the facial skin in the two regions of interest immediately after removal of the mask. The more intense acute adverse effects occurred predominantly among the participants in whom the decrease in the mean temperature of the nasal dorsum was lower (14.4% vs. 7.2%). The thermographic visual analysis of the zones of cooling and heating on the face identified areas of hypoperfusion or reactive hyperemia. The use of BiPAP mode was associated with a higher incidence and intensity of NIV-related acute adverse effects. There was an association between acute adverse effects and less cooling of the nasal dorsum immediately after removal of the mask. Cutaneous thermography can be an additional tool to detect adverse effects that the use of NIV has on facial skin. Comparar a incidência e a intensidade de efeitos adversos agudos e a variação da temperatura da pele da face através da termografia após a aplicação de ventilação não invasiva (VNI). Foram incluídos 20 voluntários sadios, de ambos os gêneros, submetidos à VNI com máscara oronasal por 1 h e divididos aleatoriamente em

  16. Acute stress influences the discrimination of complex scenes and complex faces in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M; Lech, R K; Scheil, J; Dierolf, A M; Suchan, B; Wolf, O T

    2016-04-01

    The stress-induced release of glucocorticoids has been demonstrated to influence hippocampal functions via the modulation of specific receptors. At the behavioral level stress is known to influence hippocampus dependent long-term memory. In recent years, studies have consistently associated the hippocampus with the non-mnemonic perception of scenes, while adjacent regions in the medial temporal lobe were associated with the perception of objects, and faces. So far it is not known whether and how stress influences non-mnemonic perceptual processes. In a behavioral study, fifty male participants were subjected either to the stressful socially evaluated cold-pressor test or to a non-stressful control procedure, before they completed a visual discrimination task, comprising scenes and faces. The complexity of the face and scene stimuli was manipulated in easy and difficult conditions. A significant three way interaction between stress, stimulus type and complexity was found. Stressed participants tended to commit more errors in the complex scenes condition. For complex faces a descriptive tendency in the opposite direction (fewer errors under stress) was observed. As a result the difference between the number of errors for scenes and errors for faces was significantly larger in the stress group. These results indicate that, beyond the effects of stress on long-term memory, stress influences the discrimination of spatial information, especially when the perception is characterized by a high complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of acute erythrocythemia on temperature regulation during exercise-heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawka, M.N.; Gonzalez, R.R.; Dennis, R.C.; Young, A.J.; Muza, S.R.; Martin, J.W.; Francesconi, R.P.; Pandolf, K.B.; Valeri, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    We studied the effects of acute erythrocythemia on temperature regulation responses during exercise in the heat. In a double blind study, 6 subjects (Ss) received a 700-ml solution of autologous red blood cells at a 60% Hct, and 3 Ss (control) received a 700-ml saline solution. All Ss attempted a Heat Stress Test (HST) two weeks prior to and 48-h post-transfusion during summer months. After 30 min of rest in a 20 0 C antechamber, the HST consisted of a 120-min exposure (two repeats of 15-min rest and 45-min treadmill walk) in a 35 0 C, 45% rh environment while euhydrated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and red cell volume (RCV, 51 Cr) were measured approximately 24 h before each HST. For experimental Ss, an increase in RCV (11%, P 2 max (11%, P < 0.05) was found following transfusion, whereas, differences were not observed in the control Ss. During the HSTs for experimental Ss, metabolic rate as well as steady state rectal and esophageal temperatures were similar, but heat storage tended (P = 0.13) to be lower post-transfusion. Steady state local arm (R + C) was reduced (P < 0.05) with no change in total body sweating rate or local arm evaporative heat loss post-transfusion. For control Ss, thermoregulatory responses were generally not altered post-transfusion. Erythrocythemia may improve steady state sensible heat exchange by allowing a greater volume of blood to be directed to the cutaneous vasculature

  18. [Influence of weather in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in Galicia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, José Manuel; Dosil Díaz, Olga; Taboada Hidalgo, Juan José; Fernández, José Ramón; Sánchez-Santos, Luis

    2015-08-07

    To assess the interactions between weather and the impact of each individual meteorological parameters in the incidence of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) in Galicia. Retrospective study analyzing the number of AMI diagnosed and transferred to the hospital by the Emergencies Sanitary System of Galicia between 2002 and 2009. We included patients with clinical and ECG findings of AMI. The correlation between 10-minute meteorological variables (temperature, humidity, pressure, accumulated rainfall and wind speed) recorded by MeteoGalicia and the incidence of AMI was assessed. A total of 4,717 AMI were registered (72.8% men, 27.2% women). No seasonal variations were found. No significant correlations were detected with regard to average daily temperature (P=.683) or wind speed (P=.895). Correlation between atmospheric pressure and incidence of AMI was significant (P<.005), as well as with the daily relative humidity average (P=.005). Our study showed a statistical significant association with atmospheric pressure and with the daily relative humidity average. Since the local conditions of weather are widely variable, future studies should establish the relationship between weather patterns (including combinations of meteorological parameters), rather than seasonal variations, and the incidence of AMI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of depression and anxiety on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Francesca; Di Stefano, Rossella; Pini, Stefano; Mazzotta, Gianfranco; Bovenzi, Francesco M; Bertoli, Daniele; Abelli, Marianna; Borelli, Lucia; Cardini, Alessandra; Lari, Lisa; Gesi, Camilla; Michi, Paola; Morrone, Doralisa; Gnudi, Luigi; Balbarini, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are related to endothelial function and progression of coronary artery disease. There is evidence of decreased numbers of circulating EPCs in patients with a current episode of major depression. We investigated the relationships between the level of circulating EPCs and depression and anxiety in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients with ACS admitted to three Cardiology Intensive Care Units were evaluated by the SCID-I to determine the presence of lifetime and/or current mood and anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria. The EPCs were defined as CD133(+) CD34(+) KDR(+) and evaluated by flow cytometry. All patients underwent standardized cardiological and psychopathological evaluations. Parametric and nonparametric statistical tests were performed where appropriate. Out of 111 ACS patients, 57 were found to have a DSM-IV lifetime or current mood or anxiety disorder at the time of the inclusion in the study. The ACS group with mood or anxiety disorders showed a significant decrease in circulating EPC number compared with ACS patients without affective disorders. In addition, EPC levels correlated negatively with severity of depression and anxiety at index ACS episode. The current study indicates that EPCs circulate in decreased numbers in ACS patients with depression or anxiety and, therefore, contribute to explore new perspectives in the pathophysiology of the association between cardiovascular disorders and affective disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Influence of salinity and dissolved organic carbon on acute Cu toxicity to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher A; Tait, Tara; Gray, Holly; Cimprich, Giselle; Santore, Robert C; McGeer, James C; Wood, Christopher M; Smith, D Scott

    2014-01-21

    Acute copper (Cu) toxicity tests (48-h LC50) using the euryhaline rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were performed to assess the effects of salinity (3, 16, 30 ppt) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, ∼ 1.1, ∼ 3.1, ∼ 4.9, ∼ 13.6 mg C L(-1)) on Cu bioavailability. Total Cu was measured using anodic stripping voltammetry, and free Cu(2+) was measured using ion-selective electrodes. There was a protective effect of salinity observed in all but the highest DOC concentrations; at all other DOC concentrations the LC50 value was significantly higher at 30 ppt than at 3 ppt. At all salinities, DOC complexation significantly reduced Cu toxicity. At higher concentrations of DOC the protective effect increased, but the increase was less than expected from a linear extrapolation of the trend observed at lower concentrations, and the deviation from linearity was greatest at the highest salinity. Light-scattering data indicated that salt induced colloid formation of DOC could be occurring under these conditions, thereby decreasing the number of available reactive sites to complex Cu. When measurements of free Cu across DOC concentrations at each individual salinity were compared, values were very similar, even though the total Cu LC50 values and DOC concentrations varied considerably. Furthermore, measured free Cu values and predicted model values were comparable, highlighting the important link between the concentration of bioavailable free Cu and Cu toxicity.

  1. Acute ureterolithiasis: Incidence of secondary signs on unenhanced helical CT and influence on patient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ege, G. E-mail: gurkanege@yahoo.com; Akman, H.; Kuzucu, K.; Yildiz, S

    2003-12-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of secondary signs associated with ureteral stones on unenhanced helical computed tomography (CT) of patients with acute renal colic, and to correlate these with patient management and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with ureterolithiasis were evaluated prospectively for the secondary signs of obstruction on unenhanced helical CT. Our attention was focused primarily on the presence or absence of seven secondary signs on unenhanced helical CT, including hydronephrosis, unilateral renal enlargement, perinephric oedema, unilateral absence of the white pyramid, hydroureter, periureteral oedema and lateroconal fascial thickening. RESULTS: Of the 110 patients, 91 (82.7%) had hydroureter, 88 (80%) had hydronephrosis, 65 (59%) had periureteric oedema and 63 (57.2%) had unilateral renal enlargement. Ninety stones passed spontaneously and 21 required intervention. CONCLUSION: Secondary signs of urinary tract obstruction are useful and supportive findings in interpretation of the CT examination. In our experience, the most reliable signs indicating ureteral obstruction are hydroureter, hydronephrosis, periureteral oedema and unilateral renal enlargement, respectively. In addition, stones larger than 6 mm, located within the proximal two thirds of the ureter, and seen associated with five or more the secondary signs of obstruction, are more likely to require endoscopic removal and/or lithotripsy.

  2. Influence of Personality Traits in Self-Evaluative Salience, Motivational Salience and Self-Consciousness of Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos da Silva Mendes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AimThe aim of this study was to understand the possible influence of personality traits on the importance and significance of perception of body image and self-awareness of appearance in individuals.Method214 online recruited subjects between the ages of 17 and 64 years answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Portuguese version of the instruments NEO-FFI (NEO-Five Factor Inventory, ASI-R (The Appearance Schemas Inventory – Revised and DAS-24 (Derriford Appearance Scale – short.ResultsIt was found that age, Neuroticism and Agreeableness dimensions significantly influence an individual's investment in body image and self-awareness of appearance. Sexual orientations differed with regard to Self-Evaluative Salience and Self-Consciousness of Appearance.ConclusionThe performed analysis showed that neuroticism and agreeableness are related to Self-Evaluative Salience and Self-Consciousness of Appearance.

  3. Evaluating arguments during instigations of defence motivation and accuracy motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Hong

    2017-05-01

    When people evaluate the strength of an argument, their motivations are likely to influence the evaluation. However, few studies have specifically investigated the influences of motivational factors on argument evaluation. This study examined the effects of defence and accuracy motivations on argument evaluation. According to the compatibility between the advocated positions of arguments and participants' prior beliefs and the objective strength of arguments, participants evaluated four types of arguments: compatible-strong, compatible-weak, incompatible-strong, and incompatible-weak arguments. Experiment 1 revealed that participants possessing a high defence motivation rated compatible-weak arguments as stronger and incompatible-strong ones as weaker than participants possessing a low defence motivation. However, the strength ratings between the high and low defence groups regarding both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar. Experiment 2 revealed that when participants possessed a high accuracy motivation, they rated compatible-weak arguments as weaker and incompatible-strong ones as stronger than when they possessed a low accuracy motivation. However, participants' ratings on both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar when comparing high and low accuracy conditions. The results suggest that defence and accuracy motivations are two major motives influencing argument evaluation. However, they primarily influence the evaluation results for compatible-weak and incompatible-strong arguments, but not for compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Influencing risk behavior of sexually transmitted infection clinic visitors: efficacy of a new methodology of motivational preventive counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Lisette; de Wit, John; Heijman, Titia; Fennema, Han; van Bergen, Jan; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2009-06-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted at a Dutch sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic to compare the effects of educational counseling and motivational interviewing (MI)-based HIV/STI counseling on determinants of condom use and partner notification at 6-month follow-up. It also examined the feasibility of MI-based counseling in a busy real-life clinic. The counseling approaches were historically compared: respondents in the control condition were recruited between April and July 2005, those in the experimental condition between September and December 2005. The study involved 428 participants. These were all high-risk clients of the STI clinic. Their mean age was 33.7 years, and 39.6% were female. The study showed that MI-based counseling had a more positive effect on self-efficacy, intentions to use condoms with casual partners, and long-term condom use with steady partners. It had no adversarial outcomes on other social cognitions or behaviors compared to educational counseling. Furthermore, MI-based counseling is experienced as a more respectful and structured way of counseling. MI-based counseling was relatively easily implemented into the current clinic procedures. In addition to the implementation of the training, neither specialized staff nor additional or longer client visits were needed. However, some nurses indicated that the new method required more personal investment and effort. Limitations of the current study are the low response rates, the high educational level of most participants, and the small sample size regarding partner notification. Nonetheless, we conclude that MI-based counseling was a more effective approach to preventive counseling compared to educational counseling and feasible in the busy real-life setting.

  5. Influence of drugs of abuse and alcohol upon patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards: physician's assessment compared to blood drug concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordal, Jon; Medhus, Sigrid; Holm, Bjørn; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2013-06-01

    In acute psychiatric services, rapid and accurate detection of psychoactive substance intake may be required for appropriate diagnosis and intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between (a) drug influence as assessed by physicians and (b) blood drug concentrations among patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards. We also explored the possible effects of age, sex, and psychotic symptoms on physician's assessment of drug influence. In a cross-sectional study, the sample comprised 271 consecutive admissions from 2 acute psychiatric wards. At admission, the physician on call performed an overall judgment of drug influence. Psychotic symptoms were assessed with the positive subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Blood samples were screened for a wide range of psychoactive substances, and quantitative results were used to calculate blood drug concentration scores. Patients were judged as being under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol in 28% of the 271 admissions. Psychoactive substances were detected in 56% of the blood samples. Altogether, 15 different substances were found; up to 8 substances were found in samples from 1 patient. Markedly elevated blood drug concentration scores were estimated for 15% of the patients. Physician's assessment was positively related to the blood drug concentration scores (r = 0.52; P < 0.001), to symptoms of excitement, and to the detection of alcohol, cannabis, and amphetamines. The study demonstrates the major impact of alcohol and drugs in acute psychiatric settings and illustrates the challenging nature of the initial clinical assessment.

  6. Hematocrit and Serum Hemoglobin Do Not Influence Values in Computed Tomography Perfusion of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacki, Grzegorz Marek; Benz, Matthias Richard; Tyndall, Anthony Joseph; Ulmer, Stephan

    There is a correlation between both serum hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) and attenuation values of vessels in noncontrast-enhanced computed tomography (NECT), which could influence calculated perfusion maps in CT perfusion. We retrospectively included 45 patients, who presented with acute new neurological symptoms and underwent NECT and CT perfusion (128-row multi detector scanner, coverage: 6.9 cm craniocaudally; 80 kV; 200 mAs; temporal resolution: 2 seconds using 40 mL Ultravist 370 at a flow rate of 5 mL/s) on admission and a follow-up MRI within 1 week of admission. Hematocrit, HGB, and attenuation values did not differ between patients with stroke and controls. A statistically significant correlation was found between HCT and HGB and attenuation values in the internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery on NECT (P Hematocrit and HGB do not influence calculated perfusion maps. There is no need for HCT/HGB-adjusted cerebral blood volume thresholds in stroke patients.

  7. Self-symbols as implicit motivators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, R.W.; Wennekers, A.M.; Bijlstra, G.; Jongenelen, M.M.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2009-01-01

    The present research explored the nonconscious motivational influence of self-symbols. In line with recent findings on the motivational influence of positive affect, we hypothesized that positive affect associated with self-symbols may boost motivation. In Study I people drank more of a beverage

  8. Self-symbols as implicit motivators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, R.W.; Wennekers, A.M.; Bijlstra, G.; Jongenelen, M.M.; van Knippenberg, A.

    2009-01-01

    The present research explored the nonconscious motivational influence of self-symbols. In line with recent findings on the motivational influence of positive affect, we hypothesized that positive affect associated with self-symbols may boost motivation. In Study 1 people drank more of a beverage

  9. Influence of case definition on incidence and outcome of acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Azam; Cleland, John G F; Sherwi, Nasser; Atkin, Paul; Panahi, Hossein; Kilpatrick, Eric; Thackray, Simon; Hoye, Angela; Alamgir, Farqad; Goode, Kevin; Rigby, Alan; Clark, Andrew L

    2016-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are common, but their incidence and outcome might depend greatly on how data are collected. We compared case ascertainment rates for ACS and myocardial infarction (MI) in a single institution using several different strategies. The Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals serve a population of ∼560 000. Patients admitted with ACS to cardiology or general medical wards were identified prospectively by trained nurses during 2005. Patients with a death or discharge code of MI were also identified by the hospital information department and, independently, from Myocardial Infarction National Audit Project (MINAP) records. The hospital laboratory identified all patients with an elevated serum troponin-T (TnT) by contemporary criteria (>0.03 µg/L in 2005). The prospective survey identified 1731 admissions (1439 patients) with ACS, including 764 admissions (704 patients) with MIs. The hospital information department reported only 552 admissions (544 patients) with MI and only 206 admissions (203 patients) were reported to the MINAP. Using all 3 strategies, 934 admissions (873 patients) for MI were identified, for which TnT was >1 µg/L in 443, 0.04-1.0 µg/L in 435, ≤0.03 µg/L in 19 and not recorded in 37. A further 823 patients had TnT >0.03 µg/L, but did not have ACS ascertained by any survey method. Of the 873 patients with MI, 146 (16.7%) died during admission and 218 (25.0%) by 1 year, but ranging from 9% for patients enrolled in the MINAP to 27% for those identified by the hospital information department. MINAP and hospital statistics grossly underestimated the incidence of MI managed by our hospital. The 1-year mortality was highly dependent on the method of ascertainment.

  10. Influence of Cranial Radiotherapy on Outcome in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treated With Contemporary Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreano, Anita; Pui, Ching-Hon; Hunger, Stephen P.; Schrappe, Martin; Moericke, Anja; Biondi, Andrea; Escherich, Gabriele; Silverman, Lewis B.; Goulden, Nicholas; Taskinen, Mervi; Pieters, Rob; Horibe, Keizo; Devidas, Meenakshi; Locatelli, Franco; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We sought to determine whether cranial radiotherapy (CRT) is necessary to prevent relapse in any subgroup of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients and Methods We obtained aggregate data on relapse and survival outcomes for 16,623 patients age 1 to 18 years old with newly diagnosed ALL treated between 1996 and 2007 by 10 cooperative study groups from around the world. The proportion of patients eligible for prophylactic CRT varied from 0% to 33% by trial and was not related to the proportion eligible for allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in first complete remission. Using a random effects model, with CRT as a dichotomous covariate, we performed a single-arm meta-analysis to compare event-free survival and cumulative incidence of isolated or any CNS relapse and isolated bone marrow relapse in high-risk subgroups of patients who either did or did not receive CRT. Results Although there was significant heterogeneity in all outcome end points according to trial, CRT was associated with a reduced risk of relapse only in the small subgroup of patients with overt CNS disease at diagnosis, who had a significantly lower risk of isolated CNS relapse (4% with CRT v 17% without CRT; P = .02) and a trend toward lower risk of any CNS relapse (7% with CRT v 17% without CRT; P = .09). However, this group had a relatively high rate of events regardless of whether or not they received CRT (32% [95% CI, 26% to 39%] v 34% [95% CI, 19% to 54%]; P = .8). Conclusion CRT does not have an impact on the risk of relapse in children with ALL treated on contemporary protocols. PMID:26755523

  11. Does Viral Co-Infection Influence the Severity of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011-2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role.

  12. The Influence of Word of Mouth and Customer Motivations on Consumer Buying Behavior at Pondok Teterusan Restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    David, Ezara Daniella

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences and tastes constantly change. It is important for marketers to know what consumer needs and wants, how they spend their resources, how they decided to shop, visit, to eat, when to buy, and what to purchase. Experiences is one of the major factors of how customer make a decision. Good experiences means good viral marketing. Consumers value word of mouth twice as much as they value advertising. The objectives of this research are to analyze the influence of word of mouth to...

  13. Influence of motive activity on forming of proof skills of healthy way of life of students of higher educational establishments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trotsenko V.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation and the analysis of impellent activity of students is considered. The importance of impellent activity in forming a healthy way of life of students is shown. In research the data of questionnaire of students are used. sports priorities of students are revealed should to undertake in attention by development of the program of physical training. The wide spectrum of the reasons which interfere with exercises is revealed. These reasons should be considered during individual work with each student. It is proved, that impellent activity influences forming of proof skills of a healthy way of life of students.

  14. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  15. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    . This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  16. Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.

    The paper draws together a wide variety of research which relates to the topic of intrinsic motivation; intrinsically motivated activities are defined as those which a person does for no apparent reward except the activity itself or the feelings which result from the activity. Most of this research was not originally reported within the framework…

  17. Gerontechnology motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Gerontechnology’s framework has been formulated in a functional way, with little attention paid to motivation. Abraham H. Maslow’s theory of human motivation (1943) can fill this gap with his hierarchy of needs to be fulfilled in the following order: physiological, safety related, social, esteem and

  18. INTEREST AND READING MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamdu Alhamdu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interest and reading motivation based on literature review. The concept of the interest portrayed as a psychological state that occurs during interaction between individual and specific topic, object or activity including process of willingness, increased attention, concentration and positive feeling to the topic, object or activity. Meanwhile reading motivation emphasized to mental readiness, willingness and refers to beliefs and perception of individual to engage in reading activity. Some researchers were identified factors that influenced reading motivation such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors, self-concept and value of reading, and interest. In general, the literature review described that have positive relationship between interest and reading motivation.

  19. Motivation and library management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Likar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.

  20. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...

  1. Meaning in family caregiving for people with dementia: a narrative study about relationships, values, and motivation, and how day care influences these factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretteteig S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Signe Tretteteig,1,2 Solfrid Vatne,3 Anne Marie Mork Rokstad1,3 1Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, Norway; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo; Oslo, Norway; 3Faculty of Health Sciences and Social Care, Molde University College, Molde, Norway Background: In addition to care-related burdens, most caregivers of a person with dementia perceive a variety of positive and satisfying experiences, such as feeling needed and useful in their family caregiving role. “Meaning-focused coping” describes both positive and negative emotions in periods with high levels of stress. Day care service may have the potential to increase caregivers’ positive experiences and meaning-focused coping, and positively influence interpersonal relationships between those giving care and those receiving care. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about family caregivers’ experiences of meaning in their caring role. Additionally, the influence of day care services on caregivers’ experiences and motivation in their caregiving role is explored. Methods: A qualitative design based on individual interviews was used. The interviews were analyzed using a narrative method and a case study approach. Findings: Family caregivers’ roles and coping strategies were related to their relational ties. Caregivers had to make decisions about whether to enhance, maintain, or let go of emotional ties to find a good balance between meeting their own needs and the needs of the person with dementia. Family caregivers reported that day care positively influenced their “relationship-oriented coping” and experience of meaning. Conclusion: Finding meaning in the role of a family caregiver for persons with dementia is closely connected to the caregivers’ own values and goals. Finding a balance between attending to their own needs and the needs of the person with dementia is crucial. Day care has the potential to increase

  2. The characteristics and effects of motivational music in exercise settings: the possible influence of gender, age, frequency of attendance, and time of attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, D L; Karageorghis, C I; Sharp, N C C

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the characteristics and effects of motivational music in British gymnasia. The secondary purpose was to determine whether the characteristics and effects of motivational music were invariant in relation to gender, age, frequency of gymnasium attendance, and the time of day at which exercise participants attended gymnasia. Participants (n=532) from 29 David Lloyd Leisure exercise facilities across Britain responded to a questionnaire that was designed to assess music preferences during exercise via 2 open-ended questions and 1 scaled-response item. A content analysis of the questionnaire data yielded 45 analytic properties that were grouped into the following categories: specific music factors, general music factors, music programme factors, delivery factors, televisual factors, personal factors, contextual factors, and psychophysical response factors. The relative incidence of these analytic properties across gender groups (male/female), age groups (16-26 y, 27-34 y, 35-45 y, 46+ y), frequency of attendance groups (low, medium, high), and time of attendance groups (morning, afternoon, evening) was tested by use of chi(2) analyses. Of the personal variables tested, age exerted the greatest influence on musical preference during exercise; older participants expressed a preference for quieter, slower, and generally less overtly stimulative music. Music programmes that are prescribed to accompany exercise should be varied in terms of musical idiom and date of release. Such programmes will account for the preferences of different groups of exercise participants that attend gymnasia at different times of the day. Further, the music chosen should be characterised by a strong rhythmical component.

  3. Influence of the timing of cardiac catheterization and amount of contrast media on acute renal failure after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mirmohammad Sadeghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited data about the influence of timing of cardiac surgery in relation to diagnostic angiography and/or the impact of the amount of contrast media used during angiography on the occurance of acute renal failure (ARF. Therefore, in the present study the effect of the time interval between diagnostic angiography and cardiac surgery and also the amount of contrast media used during the diagnostic procedure on the incidence of ARF after cardiac surgery was investigated. Methods: Data of 1177 patients who underwent different types of cardiac surgeries after cardiac catheterization were prospectively examined. The influence of time interval between cardiac catheterization and surgery as well as the amount of contrast agent on postoperative ARF were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: The patients who progressed to ARF were more likely to have received a higher dose of contrast agent compared to the mean dose. However, the time interval between cardiac surgery and last catheterization was not significantly different between the patients with and without ARF (p = 0.05. Overall, postoperative peak creatinine was highest on day 0, then decreased and remained significantly unchanged after this period. Overall prevalence of acute renal failure during follow-up period had a changeable trend and had the highest rates in days 1 (53.57% and 6 (52.17% after surgery. Combined coronary bypass and valve surgery were the strongest predictor of postoperative ARF (OR: 4.976, CI = 1.613-15.355 and p = 0.002, followed by intra-aortic balloon pump insertion (OR: 6.890, CI = 1.482-32.032 and p = 0.009 and usage of higher doses of contrast media agent (OR: 1.446, CI = 1.033-2.025 and p = 0.031. Conclusions: Minimizing the amount of contrast agent has a potential role in reducing the incidence of postoperative ARF in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, but delaying cardiac surgery after exposure to these agents might not have

  4. The influence of anatomic variance in the coronary artery on cardiac function with PCI after acute inferior wall myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hongming; Feng Jue; Fang Fengning; Wu Heping; Wang Fengqin; Ma Huili

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the influence in anatomic variance of coronary artery on function of left and right ventricles after acute inferior myocardial infarction (AIMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention therapy (PCI). Methods: Forty-seven inferior AIMI patients were divided into 2 groups: 12 left dominant group [including equipollent case, i.e. inferior wall of left ventricle supplied by left circumflex coronary artery (LCX), right ventricle by right coronary artery (RCA)] and 35 right dominant group (both inferior wall and right ventricle were supplied by RCA). Equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography (ERNA) and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) were used for comparing the influence between different coronary artery flow patterns on biventricular hemodynamics, blood supply and prognosis of PCI after 3 months. Results: Comparison of ventricular function in left and right dominant coronal artery type groups discharged 7- 10 d after PCI, there were differences in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) [(63.03 ± 5.64)% vs (57.67 ± 7.35)%, P=0.012], peak ejection rate (PER) [(3.52 ± 0.66) end-diastolic volume (EDV)/s vs (2.93 ± 0.73) EDV/s, P =0.011], peak filling rate (PFR) [(2.71 ± 0.88) EDV/s vs (2.11 ± 0.45 ) EDV/s, P=0.004], left free-wall regional ejection fraction [(81.94 ± 20.75)% vs (67.25 ± 16.54)%, P = O.032], and right free-wall regional ejection fraction [(57.86 ± 11.77)% vs (67.83 ± 10.38)%, P=0.012], right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) [(37.89 ± 3.86)% vs (41.67 ± 4.81)%, P=0.09]. After 3 months,there was difference only in RVEF [(44.60 ± 5.29)% vs (48.00 ± 3.30)%, P=0.043], but no difference in myocardial perfusion of left ventricle (P=0.357). Conclusions: In acute stage of AIMI right dominant group, there was more severe injury of right ventricle, in convalescent stage most of the right ventricular function resumed. The sustained right ventricular function in part of the patients can be demonstrated by ERNA

  5. The employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhrmannová, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor's study is to describe and analyze the employee motivation and benefits in the payroll system and human recources field. Theoretical part attends to general terms as the employee motivation, the theory of the motivation,the types of the employee benefits, the influence of benefits to the employee's working performance. The practial part focuses on Elanor company, includes introduction of the company, it's history and the present, the offer of the employee benefits. Ne...

  6. Influence of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Atsushi; Kunimoto, Masaru; Takeno, Sachio; Sumiya, Takahiro; Ishino, Takashi; Sugino, Hirotoshi; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated: (i) changes in the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) following introduction of public funding for free inoculation with 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13, respectively) and (ii) changes in the rate of myringotomies for AOM (MyfA) in children 1year following the publication of the first edition of the clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of AOM in children in Japan. PCV7 was launched on the Japanese market in 2010 and gained public funding in 2011. PCV7 was replaced with PCV13 in November 2013. Using the Japan Medical Data Center Claims Database, an 11-year study conducted between January 2005 and December 2015 investigated the decline in the incidence of visits to medical institutions (VtMI) due to all-cause AOM in children <15years. The rate of MyfA from January 2007 to December 2015was also investigated and changes before and after introduction of public funding for PCV7 (pfPCV7) and PCV13 (pfPCV13) for children were examined. Statistical data for the age group between 10 years and <15years served as the control. An analysis was conducted to examine changes for each age group, from infants that had received PCVs to children <5years. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and Ryan's multiple comparison tests. Ryan's multiple comparison tests were applied at a 5% level of significance. Due to significant changes in the guidelines on the indications for myringotomy introduced in 2013, statistical analysis of the rate of MyfA was limited to the pre- and post-PCV7 period. After introduction of pfPCV7 and pfPCV13, no significant suppression of the incidence of VtMI was observed in any age group. There was a gradual decline in the rate of MyfA after 2011. Compared to the control group, significant differences in all age groups from infants to children <5years were observed (p<0.009, chi-square test). Within 2 years after the introduction of PCV7, a significant

  7. Influence of Acute Multispecies and Multistrain Probiotic Supplementation on Cardiovascular Function and Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Young Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Clara M; Olsa, Eamon J A; Ginty, Annie T; Rapelje, Alyssa L; Tindall, Christina L; Holesh, Laura A; Petersen, Karen L; Conklin, Sarah M

    2017-10-01

    The potential influence of probiotic supplementation on cardiovascular health and stress responsivity remains largely unexplored. Some evidence suggests the possibility that probiotics may influence blood pressure. A separate body of research suggests that exaggerated cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress in the laboratory predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The current investigation explored the effect of acute probiotic use on (1) resting cardiovascular measures in healthy young adults and (2) cardiovascular and psychological reactions to an acute psychological stressor in the laboratory. Participants (N = 105, M [SD] age = 20.17 [1.26], 84.8% white) completed a 2-week, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial of a multispecies and multistrain probiotic. Exclusion criteria included previous probiotic use, diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder, and/or current antibiotic use. At visits 1 and 2, participants completed the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, a widely used psychological stress task. Participants were randomly assigned to a probiotic blend or matched placebo. Compared with placebo, 2-week probiotic supplementation did not affect resting measures of cardiovascular function, cardiovascular responses during or recovery from stress, or psychological reactions to acute psychological stress. Contrary to expectations, short-term use of a probiotic supplement in healthy participants did not influence measures of cardiovascular function or responsivity to psychological stress. Future research is needed to determine species- and strain-specific effects of probiotics in healthy participants with various degrees of stress responsiveness, as well as in diseased populations.

  8. Motivating students through positive learning experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Coto Chotto, Mayela; Jantzen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Based on the assumption that wellbeing, positive emotions and engagement influence motivation for learning, the aim of this paper is to provide insight into students’ emotional responses to and engagement in different learning designs. By comparing students’ reports on the experiential qualities...... of three different learning designs, their respective influence on students’ motivation for learning is discussed with the purpose of exploring the relationship between positive emotions, engagement and intrinsic motivation for learning. Our study thus aims at evaluating the motivational elements...

  9. Acute interventional diagnosis and treatment of upper gastrointestinal arterial hemorrhage: its clinical value and influence factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongli; Cui Shitao; Zhang Jiaxing; Ru Fuming; Xu Jiahua; Xu Jichong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate emergent angiography and interventional management in treating massive upper gastrointestinal (GI) arterial hemorrhage, and to discuss the factors influencing the angiographic bleeding signs and the interventional therapeutic results. Methods: The clinical data of 56 patients with massive upper GI arterial hemorrhage, who underwent diagnostic arteriography and interventional management with trans-catheter vasopressin infusion and embolization, were retrospectively analyzed. Systolic blood pressure of both pre-and post-interventional therapy was recorded and statistically analyzed. The arteriographic positive rates were separately calculated according to the catheter tip's location, being placed at the 2nd grade branch or at the 3 rd -4 th grade branch of the artery, and the relation of the positive rate with the tip's location was analyzed. A comparison of the hemostatic effect between trans-catheter vasopressin infusion and trans-catheter embolization was made. Results: The average systolic blood pressure of pre-and post-procedure was (93.14 ± 18.63) mmHg and (11.64 ± 13.61) mmHg respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.023). The angiographic bleeding signs were demonstrated in 12 cases (21.4%) with the catheter's tip at the 2nd grade branch and in 56 cases (100%) with the catheter's tip at the 3 rd -4 th grade branch,the difference between the two was of statistically significance (P < 0.05). The technical success rate and the clinical hemostasis rate of via catheter vasopressin infusion was 80% (16 / 20) and 55% (11/20) respectively. Of nine re-bleeding cases, seven were successfully controlled with embolization therapy by using microcatheter and two had to receive surgery because of arterial rupture which was proved by angiography. The technical and the clinical rates of success for transcatheter embolization therapy were 93% (42 / 45) and 89% (40 / 45) respectively. Recurrence of bleeding was seen in two patients who got

  10. [Acute pain therapy in German hospitals as competitive factor. Do competition, ownership and case severity influence the practice of acute pain therapy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlenwein, J; Hinz, J; Meißner, W; Stamer, U; Bauer, M; Petzke, F

    2015-07-01

    Due to the implementation of the diagnosis-related groups (DRG) system, the competitive pressure on German hospitals increased. In this context it has been shown that acute pain management offers economic benefits for hospitals. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the competitive situation, the ownership and the economic resources required on structures and processes for acute pain management. A standardized questionnaire on structures and processes of acute pain management was mailed to the 885 directors of German departments of anesthesiology listed as members of the German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Anästhesiologie und Intensivmedizin). For most hospitals a strong regional competition existed; however, this parameter affected neither the implementation of structures nor the recommended treatment processes for pain therapy. In contrast, a clear preference for hospitals in private ownership to use the benchmarking tool QUIPS (quality improvement in postoperative pain therapy) was found. These hospitals also presented information on coping with the management of pain in the corporate clinic mission statement more often and published information about the quality of acute pain management in the quality reports more frequently. No differences were found between hospitals with different forms of ownership in the implementation of acute pain services, quality circles, expert standard pain management and the implementation of recommended processes. Hospitals with a higher case mix index (CMI) had a certified acute pain management more often. The corporate mission statement of these hospitals also contained information on how to cope with pain, presentation of the quality of pain management in the quality report, implementation of quality circles and the implementation of the expert standard pain management more frequently. There were no differences in the frequency of using the benchmarking

  11. The Impact of Motivation and Task Difficulty on Resource Engagement: Differential Influences on Cardiovascular Responses of Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian T.; Hess, Thomas M.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether the level of cognitive engagement older adults were willing to invest is disproportionately influenced by the personal implications of the task, as suggested by Selective Engagement Theory. We experimentally altered the personal implications of the task by manipulating participants accountability for their performance. Young (N = 50) and older (N = 50) adults performed a memory-search task of moderate difficulty but within the capabilities of both age groups. Both physiological (systolic blood pressure responsivity; SBP-R) and subjective (NASA-TLX) measures of cognitive effort were assessed across all difficulty levels. The results replicated findings from previous research that indicated older adults must exert more effort than younger adults to achieve the same level of objective performance. Most importantly, our results showed that older adults were especially sensitive to our accountability manipulation, with the difference in SBP-R between accountability conditions being greater for older than for young adults. Finally, we found that there was little relation between subjective measures of workload and our physiological measures of task engagement. Together, the results of this study provide continued support for the Selective Engagement Theory. PMID:29670932

  12. Tourists' motivations for visiting Kakum National Park, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tourists' motivations for visiting Kakum National Park, Ghana. ... four main motivations of tourists who visited the park, namely adventure, education, ... Park were influenced by varied combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors.

  13. The Influence of Motivational Climate Task-Oriented Against The Self-Discipline of Students in Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anung Priambodo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine: 1 The difference between the effects of training methods and the gradual striking distance striking distance remains as to the accuracy of hitting the ball Softball. 2 The difference in accuracy influence Softball hitting the ball between the athletes who have a good kinesthetic perception, kinesthetic perception was, and kinesthetic perception less. 3 The effect of interaction between training methods with kinesthetic perception as to the accuracy of hitting the ball Softball. This study used an experimental method with 2x3 factorial design. The results of this study were: 1 There is a significant difference between the gradual striking distance training methods and training methods remain striking distance of the ability to hit a softball with the result of the acquisition value p-value = 0.027 smaller than 0.05. 2 There is a significant difference between athletes who have a kinesthetic perception of good, moderate, lacking the ability to hit a softball with the result of the acquisition value p-value = 0.000, which is smaller than 0.05. 3 There is an interaction between striking distance training methods and kinesthetic perception of the ability to hit a softball with the result of the acquisition value p-value = 0.000, which is smaller than 0.05 The conclusion of this study were: 1 Gradually striking distance training methods have a better effect than the fixed striking distance training methods. 2 Athletes who have less kinesthetic perception has better results than the athletes who have good kinesthetic perception and being. 3 There is an interaction between striking distance training methods and kinesthetic perception of the ability to hit a softball.

  14. Motivational Issues in Knowledge Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BOGDAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the place of emotions in modern theories of motivation, and the influence of the knowledge-oriented paradigm on redefining motivation and rethinking ways of rendering work, knowledge work, in particular, more efficient, in a society in which human participation and deployment of intellectual capital become key factors of success, replacing traditional, tangible-focused, factors of production.

  15. Logistical Factors in Teachers' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Research in education and psychology contributes to an understanding of how educators create contexts for learning that encourage intrinsic motivation and increase academic achievement. In this article, the researcher investigated how teachers themselves define effectiveness and identified what factors influence their motivation, both positively…

  16. Influence of insurance and marital status on outcomes of adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintel, Andrew E; Jamy, Omer; Martin, Mike G

    2015-06-01

    Although outcomes for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are worse when treated according to adult rather than pediatric protocols, one criticism is that this may be due to the emancipation of young adults. Using case listing session of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 (1973-2010), we examined outcomes for AYA with ALL defined similar to Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 10,403 criteria (age 18-30) predicated on marital and insurance status as surrogates for emancipation (limiting analysis to 2007-2010). Analyses were conducted with SEER*Stat 8.1.2, Microsoft Excel 2007, and GraphPad Prism 6. Comparisons were made by the Fisher exact test and log rank test (Mantel-Cox); all P values were 2-sided. Although age (24 and younger vs. 25 and older) was predictive of median overall survival (OS) (not reached vs. 33; P = .0029) (3-year OS 66% vs. 49%), social factors were not. Three-year OS for insured versus uninsured patients was 61% versus 50%, and median OS was not reached versus 30 months (P = .2334). Three-year OS for single versus married patients was 62% versus 55%, with median OS not reached for both groups (P = .1084). Insurance status and marriage did not influence outcomes for AYA with ALL, suggesting that intrinsic differences in disease and disease-specific therapies are more important than social issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive factors that influence delayed decision to seek treatment among older patients with acute myocardial infarction in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seon Young; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is rapidly increasing among older adults in Korea. However, the factors associated with a delayed decision to visit a hospital and the reasons for this delay have not been explored adequately among older patients. To determine factors predicting a prehospital delay time of > 6 h and to identify the cognitive barriers in the delayed decision of AMI patients aged ≥ 65 years. This study adopted a mixed methodological approach using quantitative and qualitative analyses. The sample included 94 male and 71 female patients hospitalized for first-time AMI at a university hospital in Korea. Thematic content analysis was used to identify the themes from the qualitative interview data, and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict delayed hospital presentation by > 6 h. The median prehospital delay time was 12 h. Low education level, presence of preinfarction angina pain, and attribution of symptoms to a non-cardiac origin were found to be the predicting factors. From the qualitative data, four meaningful themes including 10 subthemes that influenced the delayed decision were identified. Some culturally peculiar themes were found in this Korean sample. Educational strategies that focus on these cognitive decision-making barriers should be planned for elderly Korean at high risk for AMI.

  18. Overestimation of Albumin Measured by Bromocresol Green vs Bromocresol Purple Method: Influence of Acute-Phase Globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Moreira, Vanessa; Beridze Vaktangova, Nana; Martinez Gago, Maria Dolores; Laborda Gonzalez, Belen; Garcia Alonso, Sara; Fernandez Rodriguez, Eloy

    2018-05-22

    Usually serum albumin is measured with dye-binding assay as bromocresol green (BCG) and bromocresol purple (BCP) methods. The aim of this paper was to examine the differences in albumin measurements between the Advia2400 BCG method (AlbBCG), Dimension RxL BCP (AlbBCP) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Albumin concentrations from 165 serum samples were analysed using AlbBCG, AlbBCP and CZE. CZE was employed to estimate different serum protein fractions. Influence of globulins on albumin concentration discrepancies between methods was estimated as well as the impact of the albumin method on aCa concentrations. Medcalc was employed for statistical analysis, setting a value of P albumin concentrations. AlbBCG were positively biased versus CZE (3.54 g/L). There was good agreement between CZE and ALbBCP (Albumin results from the BCP and BCG methods may result in unacceptable differences and clinical confusion, especially at lower albumin concentrations. Serum acute phase proteins contribute to overestimating the albumin concentration using AlbBCG.

  19. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  20. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...... are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research...

  1. Attentional states influence early neural responses associated with motivational processes: local vs. global attentional scope and N1 amplitude to appetitive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2011-05-01

    Positive affects vary in the degree with which they are associated with approach motivation, the drive to approach an object or a goal. High approach-motivated positive affects cause a narrowing of attention, whereas low approach-motivated positive affects causes a broadening of attention. The current study was designed to extend this work by examining whether the relationship between motivation and attentional bias was bi-directional. Specifically, the experiment investigated whether a manipulated local attentional scope would cause greater approach motivational processing than a global attentional scope as measured by neural processes as early as 100 ms. As compared to a global attentional scope, a local attentional scope caused greater neural processing associated with approach motivation as measured by the N1 to appetitive pictures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Students' Persistence and Academic Success in a First-Year Professional Bachelor Program: The Influence of Students' Learning Strategies and Academic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Vanthournout, Gert; Gijbels, David; Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; Van Petegem, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores whether students' learning strategies and academic motivation predict persistence and academic success in the first year of higher education. Freshmen students in a professional bachelor program in teacher education were questioned on their learning strategy use and motivation at the start and at the end of the academic year. Students' learning strategies were assessed using the inventory of learning styles-SV. Motivation was measured using scales from the self-regu...

  3. Influence exerted by risk factors of space and erath weather on frequency of emergency calls from patients with acute cerebral circulation disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Belyaeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High morbidity with cardiovascular pathology increases loads on a public healthcare system and is not only social but also an economic problem. To optimize cardiovascular pathology prevention, it is necessary to thoroughly analyze risk factors which cause its occurrence. Our research goal was to examine a dynamics of acute cerebral circulation disorders depending on meteorological factors and heliofactors allowing for a seasonal component. We performed a retrospective analysis of morbidity with acute cerebral circulation disorders in winter, spring, and summer in 2012 on the basis of the archives obtained from an emergency station in Vladikavkaz. We analyzed 509 cases of the disease (294 women and 215 men. On the basis of our analysis results we assessed influence exerted by external factors on frequency of applications to emergency from patients with acute cerebral circulation disorders. We analyzed meteorological factors and heliofactors and their derivatives: average daily temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud coverage, weather pathogenicity, Sun radiation flux density at a wave length equal to 10.7, and a number of sunspots. We detected that in winter negative influence was exerted by temperature; there was also a multi-factor dependence between frequency of acute cerebral circulation disorders and such predictors as temperature pathogenicity index and speed of changes in Sun radiation flux density during a day (Rmulti = 0.50; R2 = 0.25. Drastic temperature fluctuations make for increase in morbidity in spring. Morbidity cases frequency in women in this period correlates not only with temperature pathogenicity index but also with pathogenicity index of air pressure changes. Morbidity increase in summer is caused by simultaneous drop both in air pressure and relative humidity (Rmulti = 0.59; R2 = 0.35. Overall, correlation between external factors and morbidity with acute cerebral circulation disorder has seasonal

  4. The Influence of Antiobesity Media Content on Intention to Eat Healthily and Exercise: A Test of the Ordered Protection Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeann Ritland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study extended the ordered protection motivation framework to determine whether exposure and attention to antiobesity media content increases people’s appraisals of threat and their ability to cope with it. It also assesses whether these cognitive processes, in turn, affected people’s intention to abide by the practices recommended to prevent obesity. The results of a national online survey using a nonprobability sample indicate that attention to mediated obesity and related information significantly increased people’s intention to exercise as well as their overall coping appraisals (the perceived effectiveness of the recommended behaviors and their ability to perform them. Likewise, increased threat and coping appraisals were both found to significantly influence people’s intention to exercise and diet. Coping (rather than threat appraisals more strongly predicted behavioral intent. Following the attitude-behavior literature, behavioral intention was used as the most proximate predictor of actual behavior (i.e., stronger intentions increase the likelihood of behavior change.

  5. The Motivational Climate and Intrinsic Motivation in the Rehabilitation Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman-Majewski, Rachel E; Weiss, Windee M

    2018-02-06

    The motivational climate created by the athletic trainer in rehabilitation may be critical in influencing athletes' intrinsic motivation and other psychosocial outcomes in the rehabilitation and the recovery process. The purpose of this study was to examine intercollegiate athletes' perceptions of the motivational climate in the rehabilitation setting. Specifically, examining if perceptions of the motivational climate can predict athletes' levels of intrinsic motivation with rehabilitation as well as the relationship between perceptions of the motivational climate and athlete demographics (gender, starter status, athletic trainer gender, etc). Cross-sectional, descriptive research. College sport team and athletic training center. NCAA Division II intercollegiate athletes from one institution (n = 187; 125 male, 62 female). Paper-based survey measuring: mastery and performance perceptions of the motivational climate in rehabilitation, athletes' goal orientation in sport, athletes' levels of motivation in rehabilitation. Perceptions of a performance climate was positively related to intrinsic motivation effort-improvement (effect size=25.34%). Perceptions of a mastery climate were positively related to interest-enjoyment and perceived competence and negatively related to tension-pressure (effect size=39.03%). In general, female athletes, as well as athletes with a female athletic trainer, had significantly higher perceptions of mastery motivational climate effort-improvement compared to male athletes and athletes with male athletic trainers. While male athletes and athletes with male athletic trainers had higher perceptions of intra-team member rivalry in rehabilitation. The athlete's gender and goal orientation, as well as the gender of the athletic trainer creating the motivational climate, can influence whether the environment is perceived as more mastery or performance. The recovering athletes' perceptions of the climate in rehabilitation can, in turn, affect

  6. Team leaders' motivational behaviour and its influence upon team performance. A study on self-perceptions and team members' perceptions in a South African multinational

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Verbaan, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study that is described in this article was to determine the relationship between team leaders' motivational behavior and the performance of their team members. Moreover, the differences between the team leaders' self-assessments of their motivational behavior and their team members'

  7. Changes in perceptions and motivators that influence the implementation of on-farm Salmonella control measures by pig farmers in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marier, Elizabeth; Piers Smith, Richard; Ellis-Iversen, Johanne; Watson, Eamon; Armstrong, Derek; Hogeveen, Henk; Cook, Alasdair J C

    2016-10-01

    This study presents British farmers' perception of, and barriers to, implementing Salmonella control on pig farms. Four farms that had implemented interventions and their 33 close contacts (known to the intervention farmers) took part in interviews before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) intervention trials to assess the difference in perception over time. Their results were compared against those from nine randomly selected control farms. The hypothesis was that farms implementing interventions whether or not successful, would influence their close contacts' opinion over time. Based on a 'pathway to disease control' model, three intrinsic factors known to influence motivation - attitudes, social norms and self-efficacy - were evaluated. Farmers mentioned that successful interventions on a farm would attract their attention. The use of an appropriate communication strategy is therefore recommended to stimulate farmers' intent to implement control measures. Both before and after the intervention trials, all farmers had a positive attitude towards Salmonella control and felt that their peers and authorities were supportive of controlling Salmonella on farms. In phase 2, however, farmers were more likely to want to share the burden of control with other stakeholders along the food chain and their belief in self-efficacy had weakened. Whilst social norms were not associated with an intention to take action on control, a positive attitude towards Salmonella control and a belief in self-efficacy were more likely to result in an intent to control. In phase 2, farmers with an intent to implement an intervention appeared to have a greater, but not significant positive belief in self-efficacy (p=0.108). This study confirmed that farmers recognised their responsibility for controlling Salmonella in pork - even though their confidence in their ability to control Salmonella decreased over time - and believed that responsibility should be shared with the rest of the production

  8. Influence of melanocytes in the ex-vivo reconstructed epidermal melanin unit following an acute UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cario-Andre, M.

    2000-11-01

    Influence of melanocytes in skin pigmentation is well documented, however its photo-protective role has given rise to controversy. The role of melanocytes have been investigated on reconstructed epidermis with 100 % of keratinocytes or 95 % of keratinocytes and 5 % of melanocytes. In a first time, the effect of an acute UVB dose has been studied on both reconstructed epidermis, next we have investigated UVA and UVA+B effects on these epidermis. Following irradiation, the presence of melanocytes in reconstructed epidermis protects against apoptosis without protecting significantly against DNA damage formation (CPD, 6-4PP) and protects against UV-induced unbalance of the SOD/catalase ratio (antioxidants enzymes). On the contrary, the presence of melanocytes in reconstructed epidermis amplifies lipids and proteins oxidations but seems to protect against DNA oxidations. Melanocytes differ from keratinocytes by their melanin content and their more important concentration in polyunsaturated fatty acids. To evaluate what is the part of melanin and the part of polyunsaturated fatty acids in epidermal UV responses, reconstructed epidermis with keratinocytes have been supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acid. This study indicates that polyunsaturated fatty acids are responsible for lipids and proteins oxidations and that melanin protect against DNA oxidation induced by lipid peroxidation. All these studies demonstrate that, model of reconstructed epidermis and epidermis in-vivo have the same behaviour following UV irradiation. In the last part, sunscreens and antioxidants have been tested on reconstructed epidermis and have demonstrated that model of reconstructed epidermis is suitable for photo-protective molecules screening. (author)

  9. The influences of reproductive status and acute stress on the levels of phosphorylated mu opioid receptor immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith L. Gonzales

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Opioids play a critical role in hippocampally dependent behavior and plasticity. In the hippocampal formation, mu opioid receptors (MOR are prominent in parvalbumin (PARV containing interneurons. Previously we found that gonadal hormones modulate the trafficking of MORs in PARV interneurons. Although sex differences in response to stress are well documented, the point at which opioids, sex and stress interact to influence hippocampal function remains elusive. Thus, we used quantitative immunocytochemistry in combination with light and electron microscopy for the phosphorylated MOR at the SER375 carboxy-terminal residue (pMOR in male and female rats to assess these interactions. In both sexes, pMOR-immunoreactivity (ir was prominent in axons and terminals and in a few neuronal somata and dendrites, some of which contained PARV in the mossy fiber pathway region of the dentate gyrus (DG hilus and CA3 stratum lucidum. In unstressed rats, the levels of pMOR-ir in the DG or CA3 were not affected by sex or estrous cycle stage. However, immediately following 30 minutes of acute immobilization stress (AIS, males had higher levels of pMOR-ir whereas females at proestrus and estrus (high estrogen stages had lower levels of pMOR-ir within the DG. In contrast, the number and types of neuronal profiles with pMOR-ir were not altered by AIS in either males or proestrus females. These data demonstrate that although gonadal steroids do not affect pMOR levels at resting conditions, they are differentially activated both pre- and post-synaptic MORs following stress. These interactions may contribute to the reported sex differences in hippocampally dependent behaviors in stressed animals.

  10. Influence of detection of pretreatment cytogenetic abnormalities on first complete remission and survival in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgieva Velizarova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adults focuses on the initial assessment of the prognostic relevant cytogenetic features as well as a response-guided therapy based on molecular data. We examined the importance of molecular-cytogenetic abnormalities for complete remission (CR rates and the overall survival (OS in adult ALLs.Materials and Methods: Conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed on bone marrow cells from 33 newly-diagnosed ALL adults. Two karyotype categories [standard- risk group- normal karyotype, hyperdiplody and other structural aberrations, and high-risk group-t(11q23/MLL, t(9;22/bcr-abl, t(1;19, t(8;14, C-MYC and complex karyotype] and the biologically and clinically relevant ALL ploidy subgroups were prospectively defined.Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 52% of the cases with a high rate of poor-risk translocations - t(9;22, t(8q24, t(11q23, t(1;19. The total CR rate was 67% and the median time for achievement 2.33 months. Male sex, an age below 35 years and the absence of high risk translocations might have contributed to the high CR rates. Female patients, hyperdiplody, low white blood cells (WBC, and random cytogenetic aberrations had the longest OS. OS, 3- and 5-years survival periods were significantly shorter for poor-risk than standard risk group (p=.015, p=.001 and p=.005, respectively.Conclusion: This study emphasizes the lack of influence of cytogenetic aberrations on the CR and the time to achieve CR. However, our observations show that these aberrations are an independent prognostic factor in adult ALL - they allow predicting therapy resistance and the OS time after intensetreatment.

  11. Exploring Japanese University EFL Teacher Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Current studies show that it is becoming clear that language teachers give significant importance to learners' motivation level, interest levels, and attitudes toward their learning. Motivated teachers can have a powerful influence on students' career directions, and positively impact learners' motivations and interests. However, not many studies…

  12. Motivation and Its Relationship with Learning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunzhen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates motivation that influences heritage and non-heritage students' learning of Chinese, and its relationship with Chinese language learning strategies (LLS). The study uses Deci and Ryan's typology--"Intrinsic Motivation" and "Extrinsic Motivation", for the investigation, examining issues such as: (1) What…

  13. A Review of Reading Motivation Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Marcia H.; Tonks, Stephen M.; Hock, Michael; Wang, Wenhao; Rodriguez, Aldo

    2018-01-01

    Reading motivation is a critical contributor to reading achievement and has the potential to influence its development. Educators, researchers, and evaluators need to select the best reading motivation scales for their research and classroom. The goals of this review were to identify a set of reading motivation student self-report scales used in…

  14. MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of multimodal and multi-agent approach to acute pain management for better patient care. Data Source:The material ..... in the management of pain and stiffness arising ..... include immediate, direct psychologic feedback to the motivated ...

  15. Influence of chitosan and melanin-glucan complex onto gamma-exposure with low doses and acute stressful reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyuk, O.F.; Tarasenko, P.D.; Pazukhin, Eh.M.; Gorovoj, L.F.; Varlamov, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    Possibilities of prevention and reduction of consequences of acute exposure on the background of immobilization stress with the help of chitosan preparations and of melanin - glucan complex of highest bazidiomicetes (fungi) were studied. Tested preparations were capable to protect hematological and immunological homeostasis of line BALB/c mice from stressful reaction provoked by acute exposure and two-hour immobilization. The most expressed normalizing and adapting effect had the mixture composed of chitosan and melanin-glucan complex

  16. Motivation and its importance in learning English

    OpenAIRE

    Нетесова, Мария Витальевна

    2015-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to pay our attention to such a significant problem as motivation in the process of learning a foreign language. The paper is devoted to the very important problem concerning educational process. For most purposes in today, motivation has different reasons why we act in a certain way. We may indeed be motivated by influences as basic as pain and pleasure. The key to understanding motivation is, to some, understanding why it is important to an individual...

  17. Academic Motivation of Students - The German Case

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Heike; Virgillito, Alfredo; Wilkesmann, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The concept of motivation is used in many different disciplines to analyze the ‘what and why’ (Deci & Ryan, 2000) of human action. A vast body of literature exists on the relationship of motivation and performance in professional work and organization settings (e.g. Osterloh, Frey & Homberger, 2011; Gagné & Deci, 2005). Motivation is widely acknowledged to enhance performance and efficiency of staff (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Beyond work settings motivation may influence performance in academic set...

  18. Influencing factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents in patients with stroke history following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jia, Ming; Jia, Shijie; Wan, Jiuhe; Zhou, Xiao; Luo, Zhimin; Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Jianqun

    2014-06-01

    To analyse risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) in patients with stroke history, and to propose preventive measures to reduce the incidence of these events. A total of 468 patients with a history of stroke underwent OPCAB surgery in Beijing Anzhen Hospital of China from January 2010 to September 2012. They were retrospectively divided into two groups according to the occurrence of early acute cerebrovascular accidents within 48 hours following OPCAB. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find risk or protective factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following the OPCAB. Fifty-two patients (11.1%) suffered from early acute cerebrovascular accidents in 468 patients, including 39 cases of cerebral infarction, two cases of cerebral haemorrhage, 11 cases of transient ischaemic attack (TIA). There were significant differences between the two groups in preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, severe bilateral carotid artery stenosis, poorly controlled hypertension, intraoperative application of Enclose® II proximal anastomotic device, postoperative acute myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, hypotension, ventilation time > 48h, ICU duration >48h and mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative severe bilateral carotid stenosis (OR=6.378, 95%CI: 2.278-20.987) and preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35% (OR=2.737, 95%CI: 1.267-6.389), postoperative acute myocardial infarction (OR=3.644, 95%CI: 1.928-6.876), postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR=3.104, 95%CI:1.135∼8.016) and postoperative hypotension (OR=4.173, 95%CI: 1.836∼9.701) were independent risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents in patients with a history of stroke following OPCAB procedures, while intraoperative application of Enclose® II proximal anastomotic device was protective factor (OR=0.556, 95%CI: 0.337-0.925). This

  19. Work and family decision-making framework: A motivational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chinchilla, Nuria; Moragas, Maruja; Kim, Sowon

    2012-01-01

    We introduce motivation theory as a way of understanding the decision-making process in the work and family context. We use core concepts from motivation theory - extrinsic, intrinsic and prosocial motivation - and link them to motivational learning to build our framework. We then propose a framework illustrating motivational factors that influence work-family decision-making and offer propositions focusing on the motivational consequences for individuals which will impact their future decisi...

  20. Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Acute Otitis Media with Severe Middle Ear Inflammation: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Hirotoshi; Tsumura, Shigeru; Kunimoto, Masaru; Noda, Masuhiro; Chikuie, Daisuke; Noda, Chieko; Yamashita, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hidemasa; Tashiro, Toru; Iwata, Kazuhiro; Kono, Takashi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Sumiya, Takahiro; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for acute otitis media in children recommend classifying acute otitis media by age, manifestations and local findings, and also recommend myringotomy for moderate-grade cases with severe local findings, severe-grade cases, and treatment-resistant cases. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was released in Japan in February 2010. In Hiroshima City, public funding allowing free inoculation with this vaccine was initiated from January 2011, and the number of vaccinated individuals has since increased dramatically. This study investigated changes in the number of myringotomies performed to treat acute otitis media during the 5-year period from January 2008 to December 2012 at two hospitals and five clinics in the Asa Area of Hiroshima City, Japan. A total of 3,165 myringotomies for acute otitis media were performed. The rate of procedures per child-year performed in otitis media in 1-year-old infants decreased significantly in the 2 years after the introduction of public funding for heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to all years before introduction (potitis media in reducing the financial burden of myringotomy. In addition, this vaccine may help prevent acute otitis media with severe middle ear inflammation in 1-year-old infants.