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Sample records for acutely influences motivated

  1. Influence of Motivation on Wayfinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Samvith

    2010-01-01

    This research explores the role of affect in the domain of human wayfinding by asking if increased motivation will alter the performance across various routes of increasing complexity. Participants were asked to perform certain navigation tasks within an indoor Virtual Reality (VR) environment under either motivated and not-motivated instructions.…

  2. Influencing Motivation in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Simon James

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is one of the main determining factors of success in developing a second or foreign language. However, motivation is a complex phenomenon and the more its constructs are understood the better we are able to understand the extent to which we can influence it. Teachers can cultivate student motivation to varying degrees and play a central…

  3. STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION IN EFL CONTEXT: MOTIVATIONAL INFLUENCES AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Јагода П. Топалов Топалов

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses students’ motivation to learn English as an optional foreign language at the Faculty of Philosophy in Novi Sad, with respect to their success in learning. Motivation to learn a foreign language is a complex concept which is under the influence of cognitive factors, affective (emotional factors and the context in which learning takes place. In this respect, the research reported in this paper analysed three stages in the students’ motivation (preactional, actional and postactional stage during two phases of research, on a sample of eighty-seven (N=87 first and second year students. For the purpose of gathering data, two questionnaires, which contained items that were rated on a 5-point Likert scale, were used during the research. The results of the research indicate that there is a relationship between certain aspects of motivation and the success students achieved in learning English. Specifically, the results indicate the following: first of all, the influence of the preactional stage in the institutionalized context of learning English is decreased; second of all, there is a direct connection between the actional stage and the results of the proficiency test; finally, the postactional stage can be a strong indicator of future success.

  4. Task motivation influences alpha suppression following errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Rebecca J; Bissey, Bryn; Worby-Selim, Sharoda

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the present research is to examine the influence of motivation on a novel error-related neural marker, error-related alpha suppression (ERAS). Participants completed an attentionally demanding flanker task under conditions that emphasized either speed or accuracy or under conditions that manipulated the monetary value of errors. Conditions in which errors had greater motivational value produced greater ERAS, that is, greater alpha suppression following errors compared to correct trials. A second study found that a manipulation of task difficulty did not affect ERAS. Together, the results confirm that ERAS is both a robust phenomenon and one that is sensitive to motivational factors. PMID:24673621

  5. Motivation's Influence on English Learning and Strategies for Improving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玢; 张亚铃

    2009-01-01

    The article mainly focuses on the relationship between motivation and English learning,the influence of motivation on English learning(That is,English learning motive may be simply viewed as the reason of learning English;different motives will lead to different learning methods;generally speaking,surface motive does not endure longer than deep motive.;strong motivation can lead to final Success.)and six strategies of improving English learning(That is,developing proper attitudes towards English learning and letting students know the pressure of it;goal and feedback;praise and criticism;contest and cooperation;expectation and appraisement;achievement motive.).

  6. Affective and motivational influences in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Jefferson, Anneli; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal impression formation is highly consequential for social interactions in private and public domains. These perceptions of others rely on different sources of information and processing mechanisms, all of which have been investigated in independent research fields. In social psychology, inferences about states and traits of others as well as activations of semantic categories and corresponding stereotypes have attracted great interest. On the other hand, research on emotion and reward demonstrated affective and motivational influences of social cues on the observer, which in turn modulate attention, categorization, evaluation, and decision processes. While inferential and categorical social processes have been shown to recruit a network of cortical brain regions associated with mentalizing and evaluation, the affective influence of social cues has been linked to subcortical areas that play a central role in detection of salient sensory input and reward processing. In order to extend existing integrative approaches to person perception, both the inferential-categorical processing of information about others, and affective and motivational influences of this information on the beholder should be taken into account. PMID:23781188

  7. Affective and motivational influences in person perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana eKuzmanovic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal impression formation is highly consequential for social interactions in private and public domains. These perceptions of others rely on different sources of information and processing mechanisms, all of which have been investigated in independent research fields. In social psychology, inferences about states and traits of others as well as activations of semantic categories and corresponding stereotypes have attracted great interest. On the other hand, research on emotion and reward demonstrated affective and motivational influences of social cues on the observer, which in turn modulate attention, categorization, evaluation and decision processes. While inferential and categorical social processes have been shown to recruit a network of cortical brain regions associated with mentalizing and evaluation, the affective influence of social cues has been linked to subcortical areas that play a central role in detection of salient sensory input and reward processing. In order to extend existing integrative approaches to person perception, both the inferential-categorical processing of information about others, and affective and motivational influences of this information on the beholder should be taken into account.

  8. The Influence of Job Motivation versus Downsizing on Individual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalajas, David S.; Bommer, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Engineers (n=146) who survived downsizing participated in a study of intrinsic motivation and effects of past downsizing and threat of future downsizing. Job motivation was a more powerful influence on job behavior than fear of downsizing. (SK)

  9. A Study of Motivational Influences on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of motivation on academic achievement. The theoretical rationale for the study is grounded in bridging two influential yet isolated literatures of motivation: goal setting theory and achievement goal theory. Although it is clear that academic performance should be influenced by assigned learning goals,…

  10. Motivation and Satisfaction of Employees. Influence of Cultural Differences on Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Zubova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to learn about factors that might lead to employees’ job dissatisfaction and factors that motivate employees. Also the aim was to understand how cultural differences can influence employees’ motivation and performance. The theoretical part of the thesis included such topics as human resource management, motivation, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, satisfaction and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. The information for this part was gathered from secondary sou...

  11. Influence of non-conscius motives to leadership behaviour

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    Eva Boštjančič

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past century McClelland (1975 began exploring non-conscious motives and their influence on leader's behaviour. We investigated how leader's intrinsic motivation influences his leadership behaviour, both with managers and entrepreneurs. Our randomized sample included 59 executives employed in Slovenian and international companies with headquarters in Slovenia. We conducted a one hour long structured interview with each individual and asked at least nine of their subordinates to fill in two different questionnaires based on the executive's behaviour under study. Winter's motive scoring system for coding power, affiliation and achievement motives and expressions of responsibility was used to analyse the interviews. The evaluation method proved not to be sufficiently reliable. Factor analysis showed five different styles of leadership: value based leadership, directive leadership, participative leadership, productivity oriented leadership and supportive leadership. Achievement and power motivation are prevailing in entrepreneurs, whereas in managers the leader motivational profile is more often (33% noticed (high power motivation, high concern for the moral exercise of power, and power motivation greater than affiliative motivation. The prediction of influence of unconscious motives presents a smaller part than expected.

  12. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol. PMID:25413719

  13. The influence of rewards on employee motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Ščigulinská, Erika

    2013-01-01

    The main topic of this thesis is the impact of reward system on the motivation of employees, which is one of the most important tools for human resources management. The main objective of this paper is the description, analysis and evaluation of the impact of this system on the motivation of employees in the selected company and the proposal of changes in this system. The theoretical part includes a literature review that has been prepared for the purpose of outlining definitions and ...

  14. The influence of motivational factors on choice behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amelsfort, D.H.; Steg, L.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Schuitema, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate if and how motivational factors influence choice behaviour. We study four motivational factors: attitude towards car use, personal norm to reduce car use, car use habit, and perceived behavioural control to change car use to explain the choice behaviour of respondents in

  15. Research on Sociocultural Influences on Motivation and Learning, Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M., Ed.; Van Etten, Shawn, Ed.

    This collection of papers explores sociocultural influences on motivation and learning across a broad range of settings and content areas. There are 16 papers in five sections. "Introduction" includes: (1) "Modern Education Needs Cross-Cultural Psychology" (Harry Triandis). Part 1, "The Motivation Context," includes: (2) "Beyond Dichotomous…

  16. Influence of non-conscius motives to leadership behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Boštjančič

    2010-01-01

    In the past century McClelland (1975) began exploring non-conscious motives and their influence on leader's behaviour. We investigated how leader's intrinsic motivation influences his leadership behaviour, both with managers and entrepreneurs. Our randomized sample included 59 executives employed in Slovenian and international companies with headquarters in Slovenia. We conducted a one hour long structured interview with each individual and asked at least nine of their subordinates to...

  17. A Discussion on Motivation Factor Influencing Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛芊芊

    2016-01-01

    Various characteristics can influence students'second language acquisition and language development, which in-cludes age, gender, personality, cognitive ability, motivation, learning strategies and so on. Among all these factors mentioned, motivation factor that is categorized into learner factors affects learner's learning effect to a great extent. In this paper, motiva-tion characteristic that influences second language learning are discussed. At last, some strategies on the real classroom teaching application are provided after the discussion, which aims at making contribution to the second language teaching process as well as students'language development.

  18. [Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestelkamp, Silke; Wartberg, Lutz; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use Brief interventions are recommended for prevention and early intervention of risky alcohol use. However, evidence of their effectiveness, in particular for children and adolescents, is heterogeneous. Analysis of counsellor and intervention variables may provide insights into mechanisms of action in brief interventions and thereby contribute to an enhanced effectiveness. We analyzed data of N = 141 children and adolescents who were treated for acute alcohol intoxication in the emergency department. Study participants received a brief motivational intervention to reduce risky alcohol use during hospitalization. We applied multiple regression analysis to examine counsellor variables (empathy, affirmation, competence, congruence) and intervention variables (readiness and confidence ruler, decisional balance, goal agreement) as predictors of motivation to change. Higher scores on the basic therapeutic skill "positive affirmation" (R2 = 7.1 %; p < .01), finishing the intervention with a written goal agreement (R2 = 2.9 %; p < .05) and younger age were associated with greater readiness to change (R2 = 10.2 %; p < .01). Therefore, a special focus should be put on the counsellor skill "positive affirmation" when training new counsellors. Results also indicate that younger patients respond stronger to a brief intervention in this context. PMID:27595811

  19. How People's Motivational System and Situational Motivation Influence Their Risky Financial Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekścińska, Katarzyna; Maison, Dominika Agnieszka; Trzcińska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    People's preferences for risks have been a subject of interest to researchers in both the economy and psychology fields over the last few years. This has given rise to many important findings about the role of psychological factors that influence people's choices. The presented studies focused on the role of motivational systems (described by Higgins in the Regulatory Focus Theory) in explaining people's financial choices. The main goal was to examine the relationship between people's chronic promotion and prevention motivational system and their propensity to (1) invest, (2) undertake investment risks, and (3) assume financial risks in gambling tasks in both the gain and loss decision-making frame. Moreover, we aimed to investigate how chronic motivational systems confronted with situationally induced promotion and prevention motivation would affect people's propensity to invest and embrace financial risks. Two CAWI studies on a Polish national representative sample (N 1 = 1093; N 2 = 1096) were conducted. The second study consisted of two waves with a 2-week break. The studies provided evidence of higher chronic promotion motivation as well as higher prevention motivation associated with the propensity to invest; however, induced promotion motivation results in a lower propensity to invest compared to induced prevention motivation. Participants with an activated promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with an induced prevention system. Moreover, participants with a low chronic promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with a high promotion motivation system as long as their prevention system was also low. In terms of gambling decisions in both the gain and loss frame, a higher level of chronic promotion motivation and situationally induced promotion motivation were related to the preference for the non-sure option over the sure one.

  20. How People's Motivational System and Situational Motivation Influence Their Risky Financial Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekścińska, Katarzyna; Maison, Dominika Agnieszka; Trzcińska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    People's preferences for risks have been a subject of interest to researchers in both the economy and psychology fields over the last few years. This has given rise to many important findings about the role of psychological factors that influence people's choices. The presented studies focused on the role of motivational systems (described by Higgins in the Regulatory Focus Theory) in explaining people's financial choices. The main goal was to examine the relationship between people's chronic promotion and prevention motivational system and their propensity to (1) invest, (2) undertake investment risks, and (3) assume financial risks in gambling tasks in both the gain and loss decision-making frame. Moreover, we aimed to investigate how chronic motivational systems confronted with situationally induced promotion and prevention motivation would affect people's propensity to invest and embrace financial risks. Two CAWI studies on a Polish national representative sample (N 1 = 1093; N 2 = 1096) were conducted. The second study consisted of two waves with a 2-week break. The studies provided evidence of higher chronic promotion motivation as well as higher prevention motivation associated with the propensity to invest; however, induced promotion motivation results in a lower propensity to invest compared to induced prevention motivation. Participants with an activated promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with an induced prevention system. Moreover, participants with a low chronic promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with a high promotion motivation system as long as their prevention system was also low. In terms of gambling decisions in both the gain and loss frame, a higher level of chronic promotion motivation and situationally induced promotion motivation were related to the preference for the non-sure option over the sure one. PMID:27630611

  1. How People's Motivational System and Situational Motivation Influence Their Risky Financial Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekścińska, Katarzyna; Maison, Dominika Agnieszka; Trzcińska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    People's preferences for risks have been a subject of interest to researchers in both the economy and psychology fields over the last few years. This has given rise to many important findings about the role of psychological factors that influence people's choices. The presented studies focused on the role of motivational systems (described by Higgins in the Regulatory Focus Theory) in explaining people's financial choices. The main goal was to examine the relationship between people's chronic promotion and prevention motivational system and their propensity to (1) invest, (2) undertake investment risks, and (3) assume financial risks in gambling tasks in both the gain and loss decision-making frame. Moreover, we aimed to investigate how chronic motivational systems confronted with situationally induced promotion and prevention motivation would affect people's propensity to invest and embrace financial risks. Two CAWI studies on a Polish national representative sample (N1 = 1093; N2 = 1096) were conducted. The second study consisted of two waves with a 2-week break. The studies provided evidence of higher chronic promotion motivation as well as higher prevention motivation associated with the propensity to invest; however, induced promotion motivation results in a lower propensity to invest compared to induced prevention motivation. Participants with an activated promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with an induced prevention system. Moreover, participants with a low chronic promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with a high promotion motivation system as long as their prevention system was also low. In terms of gambling decisions in both the gain and loss frame, a higher level of chronic promotion motivation and situationally induced promotion motivation were related to the preference for the non-sure option over the sure one.

  2. Influence of the perception of discrimination on women's work motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Temmerman, Laura; Marin, Sarah; Akelian, Areni; Lambillon, Coraline; van der Linden, Jan; Closon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, despite anti-discrimination policies, women suffer frequently from a lack of consideration from their male colleagues, altering their well-being and motivation to work. More precisely, perceived personal or groupal discrimination, could have a distinct influence on work motivation. Previous studies showed that the impact on women varies in function of the type of perceived discrimination (Bourguignon et al. 2006). Based on the self-categorization and the social identity theory, work...

  3. Motivational factors that influence the acceptance of Moodle using TAM

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte Hueros, Ana María; Arteaga Sánchez, Rocío

    2010-01-01

    Moodle and other virtual teaching platforms have bolstered the ability and motivation of universities to support distance learning. The aim of our study is to improve understanding of the motivational factors behind student satisfaction, or dissatisfaction, with the Web-based learning platform, Moodle. Our study extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to include technical support and perceived self-efficacy, with the expectation that they influence usage of Moodle. We surveyed 226 stu...

  4. Some Characteristics that Influence Motivation for Learning in Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Marjana Merkac Skok

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research was to discover the motives for lifelong learning, for studying part time, possibilities for personal and career development and the level of learning support within organisations, where randomly selected students are already employed. We were interested in motivation for learning on behalf of the individual and its potential links with the organisation. In this research we tried to establish which factors have the most influence on individual’s personal developmen...

  5. Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, H.E.M. den; Swart, J.C.; Schmidt, K.; Fekkes, D.; Geurts, D.E.M.; Cools, R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The neurotransmitter serotonin has long been implicated in the motivational control of behaviour. Recent theories propose that the role of serotonin can be understood in terms of an interaction between a motivational and a behavioural activation axis. Experimental support for these ideas,

  6. Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, H.E.M. den; Swart, J.C.; Schmidt, K.; Fekkes, D.; Geurts, D.E.M.; Cools, R.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: The neurotransmitter serotonin has long been implicated in the motivational control of behaviour. Recent theories propose that the role of serotonin can be understood in terms of an interaction between a motivational and a behavioural activation axis. Experimental support for these ideas,

  7. What influences motivation in Physical Education? A multilevel approach for identifying climate determinants of achievement motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Niederkofler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research tested the longitudinal and hierarchical influences of students’ climate perception on the development of achievement motives in Physical Education (PE. Students from Switzerland (N = 919; 45 classes; 50.1% female, age: M = 13.2, SD = 0.6 responded to the questionnaire. Perceived climate was measured using the German LASSO scales (Von Saldern & Littig, 1987, namely teacher care, classmate cooperativeness and satisfaction with teaching. To assess sport specific achievement motives (Hope of Success, HS; Fear of Failure, FF, we used a validated German scale from Elbe, Wenhold, and Müller (2005. Multilevel analysis revealed a link between perceived climate on change of students’ motivation in PE. The investigation also identified factors determining motivation decline caused by the classroom environment and teachers. Moreover, results showed significant gender effects on both motives and a significant impact of individual teacher care on the HS. This was also found for individual and aggregated satisfaction with teaching. The latter was significant for FF on both levels. Interestingly, teacher care showed inhibitory effects on both achievement motives. These findings suggest that students in PE may have unique behaviour which requires a different teaching approach than in normal classroom. This describes a specific learning environment in PE classes. Results are discussed based on students’ unique needs and gender effects.

  8. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  9. Positive emotion, reward, and cognitive control: emotional versus motivational influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Sarah Chiew

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective influences can contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behaviour. However, much work is still needed to properly characterize these influences and the mechanisms by which they contribute to cognitive processing. An important question concerns the nature of emotional manipulations (i.e., direct induction of affectively-valenced subjective experience versus motivational manipulations (e.g., delivery of performance-contingent rewards and punishments and their impact on cognitive control. Empirical evidence suggests that both kinds of manipulations can influence cognitive control in a systematic fashion, but investigations of both have largely been conducted independently of one another. Likewise, some theoretical accounts suggest that emotion and motivation may modulate cognitive control via common neural mechanisms, while others suggest the possibility of dissociable influences. Here, we provide an analysis and synthesis of these various accounts, suggesting potentially fruitful new research directions to test competing hypotheses.

  10. The influence of implicit motives on implicit instrumental conditioning: Testing a principle focusing on the power motive

    OpenAIRE

    Köllner, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis tested a principle according to which implicit motives influence implicit instrumental conditioning processes. Analyzing results from four studies I investigated possible scaling effects of implicit motives, motivational dispositions working outside of conscious awareness that select, energize and orient behavior, on implicit instrumental conditioning processes in a sequence learning paradigm. I focused on the power motive (n Power), the capacity to experience having impact on oth...

  11. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis. PMID:25016451

  12. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis.

  13. Sex ratio influences the motivational salience of facial attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, A. C; Fisher, C. I.; DeBruine, L. M.; Jones, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    The sex ratio of the local population influences mating-related behaviours in many species. Recent experiments show that male-biased sex ratios increase the amount of financial resources men will invest in potential mates, suggesting that sex ratios influence allocation of mating effort in humans. To investigate this issue further, we tested for effects of cues to the sex ratio of the local population on the motivational salience of attractiveness in own-sex and opposite-sex faces. We did thi...

  14. Some Characteristics that Influence Motivation for Learning in Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Merkac Skok

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to discover the motives for lifelong learning, for studying part time, possibilities for personal and career development and the level of learning support within organisations, where randomly selected students are already employed. We were interested in motivation for learning on behalf of the individual and its potential links with the organisation.In this research we tried to establish which factors have the most influence on individual’s personal development and career planning; whether organisation promotes career development; whether organisations promote learning and which support mechanisms are available. Employees’ motive for learning, education and training – even after they become employed – is linked with the possibility to receive a promotion. The research was conducted among large group of part time students, already holding a job. Over 150 respondents filled out questionnaire and results were statistically treated. The results of this research show, similar to other recent findings, that knowledge and work experience have the most influence on the possibility for development and for a career. Clear personal and organisational objectives are also crucial. And the importance of knowledge sharing with the help of peers, coaches or mentors is significant.

  15. Dopaminergic signaling mediates the motivational response underlying the opponent process to chronic but not acute nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Taryn E; Sellings, Laurie H; Vargas-Perez, Hector; Ting-A-Kee, Ryan; Siu, Eric C; Tyndale, Rachel F; van der Kooy, Derek

    2010-03-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is implicated in the processing of the positive reinforcing effect of all drugs of abuse, including nicotine. It has been suggested that the dopaminergic system is also involved in the aversive motivational response to drug withdrawal, particularly for opiates, however, the role for dopaminergic signaling in the processing of the negative motivational properties of nicotine withdrawal is largely unknown. We hypothesized that signaling at dopaminergic receptors mediates chronic nicotine withdrawal aversions and that dopaminergic signaling would differentially mediate acute vs dependent nicotine motivation. We report that nicotine-dependent rats and mice showed conditioned place aversions to an environment paired with abstinence from chronic nicotine that were blocked by the DA receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol (alpha-flu) and in DA D(2) receptor knockout mice. Conversely, alpha-flu pretreatment had no effect on preferences for an environment paired with abstinence from acute nicotine. Taken together, these results suggest that dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the opponent motivational response to nicotine in dependent, but not non-dependent, rodents. Further, signaling at the DA D(2) receptor is critical in mediating withdrawal aversions in nicotine-dependent animals. We suggest that the alleviation of nicotine withdrawal primarily may be driving nicotine motivation in dependent animals. PMID:20032966

  16. Dopaminergic signaling mediates the motivational response underlying the opponent process to chronic but not acute nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Taryn E; Sellings, Laurie H; Vargas-Perez, Hector; Ting-A-Kee, Ryan; Siu, Eric C; Tyndale, Rachel F; van der Kooy, Derek

    2010-03-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is implicated in the processing of the positive reinforcing effect of all drugs of abuse, including nicotine. It has been suggested that the dopaminergic system is also involved in the aversive motivational response to drug withdrawal, particularly for opiates, however, the role for dopaminergic signaling in the processing of the negative motivational properties of nicotine withdrawal is largely unknown. We hypothesized that signaling at dopaminergic receptors mediates chronic nicotine withdrawal aversions and that dopaminergic signaling would differentially mediate acute vs dependent nicotine motivation. We report that nicotine-dependent rats and mice showed conditioned place aversions to an environment paired with abstinence from chronic nicotine that were blocked by the DA receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol (alpha-flu) and in DA D(2) receptor knockout mice. Conversely, alpha-flu pretreatment had no effect on preferences for an environment paired with abstinence from acute nicotine. Taken together, these results suggest that dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the opponent motivational response to nicotine in dependent, but not non-dependent, rodents. Further, signaling at the DA D(2) receptor is critical in mediating withdrawal aversions in nicotine-dependent animals. We suggest that the alleviation of nicotine withdrawal primarily may be driving nicotine motivation in dependent animals.

  17. What Motivational Factors Influence African American Males to Enter a Doctorial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the motivational factors that influence African American men to enter a doctoral program by identifying the motivational factors that influenced them to enter a doctorial program. The findings were compared to Dr. Gloria J. Hill's dissertation study (2005), "What Motivational Factors Influence…

  18. Influence of Motivation on the Effectiveness of Work in a chosen Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Hrutkaiová, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is concerned with motivation of employees, describes factors, which can directly or indirectly influence workers and instigate them to efficient work. Theory engages with the definition of motivation term, and its importance, motivation progression and also describes concrete tools, which stimulate increase in employee's motivation. The practical part evaluates system of motivation and its effect in chosen company and also decides whether chosen methods succeeded.

  19. Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  20. Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed. PMID:18232579

  1. The Moderating Influence of Situational Motivation on the Relationship Between Preferred Exercise and Positive Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite convincing evidence supporting the association between exercise and positive affect, this complex relationship requires further theoretical and person-centered explanation. The nature of one’s motivation for exercise, as postulated by Self-Determination Theory (SDT, may supply a missing and understudied link. The primary aim of this experimental study was to examine the moderating influence of situational motivation from SDT on the relationship between an acute bout of preferred exercise, namely running (vs. control, and changes in positive affect. Forty-one active women attended two sessions to engage in (a a 30-min moderate-intensity self-paced treadmill run and (b a 30-min quiet activity (i.e., newspaper reading. Participants with high introjection versus those with low introjection reported a greater increase in positive affect from pre- to postrunning and a greater decrease in positive affect from pre- to postcontrol. A “relief from guilt” effect was postulated to explain these results. Motivational variables accounted for 7% of variance in postrun positive affect. Consistent with SDT, running because one values this behavior and its benefits (i.e., identified regulation was significantly associated with postrun positive affect.

  2. Work Motivation in Geriatric Care: How Specific Factors Influence The Work Motivation of Geriatric Care Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Work motivation is one of the most researched topics in organisational behavioural studies and widely used by businesses to increase employee motivation. Despite its popularity, motivational literature is basically non-existent for the increasingly important sector of geriatric care. It is therefore the objective of this paper to present an insight of the work motivation in geriatric care. Therefore, 20 geriatric care professionals participated in semi-structured interviews and the gather...

  3. Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for naviga...

  4. Motivation in Business Survey Response Behavior : Influencing motivation to improve survey outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres van Grinsven, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation we show theoretical and empirical insights into the concept of motivation in the context of the business and organizational survey task. The research has led to a number of recommendations on how to improve organizational survey and communication design to enhance motivation and

  5. Is All Motivation Good for Learning? Dissociable Influences of Approach and Avoidance Motivation in Declarative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed…

  6. The influence of employee motivation on productivity in a merged real estate environment / R. Swart

    OpenAIRE

    Swart, Renier

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine if motivation had any influence on productivity in a merged real estate company. A secondary purpose of this research was also to determine the influence of commitment on motivation and productivity. A questionnaire was designed by the researcher emanating from the literature review addressing the variables of motivation, productivity and commitment. The questionnaire consisted of 58 questions: 4 demographical questions and 54 qu...

  7. The entrepreneurs influence in employee motivation in small firms

    OpenAIRE

    Magdinceva Sopova, Marija; Postolov, Kiril

    2015-01-01

    This book is organized in three chapters. In the first chapter the importance of the organizational conditions for employee motivation is being stressed. In the second chapter the process of rewarding and the types of recognition systems for the the employees in small firms has been outlined.In the third chapter it is explained the process of employee motivation by the entrepreneurs.And finally the application of motivation strategies and techniques in the small firms has been explained.

  8. Tutors' Influence on Distance Language Students' Learning Motivation: Voices from Learners and Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junhong

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' influence on students' learning motivation is a well-researched topic. Nevertheless, the majority of such studies are situated in the conventional learning context despite the rapid growth of distance language learning. This study set out to investigate tutors' influence on students' learning motivation in the Chinese distance language…

  9. Motivation and expectancy influences in placebo responding: the mediating role of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Carrie; Svanum, Soren

    2014-12-01

    Drawing upon research in perception and motivation, the current study proposes a motivation-attention model of placebo in which more motivated persons pay greater attention to placebo-related stimuli, directly influencing placebo response. We manipulated both motivation to respond to placebo and expectations of placebo response in a 2 × 2 design. Participants (N = 152) evaluated a series of placebo pheromones (slightly scented water) of potential romantic dates and made desirability ratings. Consistent with hypotheses, more highly motivated participants demonstrated greater placebo responses, as evidenced by higher desirability ratings of the "pheromone" and greater variability among ratings, when compared to less motivated participants. Moreover, the relation between motivation and placebo response was mediated by attention. Contrary to expectations, we found no effect for expectancy. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and the mediating factor of attention in placebo and support goal-oriented models of placebo.

  10. Effects of Different Teaching Styles on the Teacher Behaviours that Influence Motivational Climate and Pupils' Motivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kevin; Kingston, Kieran; Sproule, John

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different teaching styles on the teaching behaviours that influence motivational climate and pupils' cognitive and affective responses in physical education. Four (two male, two female) initial teacher education (ITE) students and 92 pupils (47 boys, 45 girls), from two schools in the UK, participated in the…

  11. Factors influencing hospital employee motivation: a diagnostic instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpander, G G

    1985-01-01

    This article presents a diagnostic instrument which identifies the most salient elements of employee motivation in hospitals. Application of this instrument in medium-sized U.S. hospitals indicates that recognition is the primary motivating factor. The results are greatly different in other countries.

  12. How Motivation Influences Student Engagement: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sitwat; Zyngier, David

    2012-01-01

    The authors use Ryan and Deci's (2000) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to better understand how student motivation and engagement are linked combined with Schlechty's Student Engagement Continuum to analyse the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on students' different engagement types. The study seeks to understand which type of…

  13. Teacher Professionalization: Motivational Factors and the Influence of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Susan A.; Eom, Minhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines motivational factors of teachers who have achieved a national standard of professionalization. Data were collected from National Board certified teachers in the United States (N = 453) using a two-part, web-based survey. Exploratory factor analysis found five motivators: improved teaching, financial gain, collaborative…

  14. Factors influencing hospital employee motivation: a diagnostic instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpander, G G

    1985-01-01

    This article presents a diagnostic instrument which identifies the most salient elements of employee motivation in hospitals. Application of this instrument in medium-sized U.S. hospitals indicates that recognition is the primary motivating factor. The results are greatly different in other countries. PMID:10270713

  15. The Influence of Motivational Orientation on Comprehension Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Callman, Joshua L.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated that relationship between motivational orientation and comprehension monitoring while studying. It was hypothesized that relatively learning-oriented students would exhibit better comprehension monitoring than relatively performance-oriented students. Data was also collected on several other factors that might be related to both comprehension monitoring and motivation, such as comprehension, self­ concept, and general ability. It was found that comprehension monitorin...

  16. Beyond self-esteem: influence of multiple motives on identity construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoles, Vivian L; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Golledge, Jen; Scabini, Eugenia

    2006-02-01

    Diverse theories suggest that people are motivated to maintain or enhance feelings of self-esteem, continuity, distinctiveness, belonging, efficacy, and meaning in their identities. Four studies tested the influence of these motives on identity construction, by using a multilevel regression design. Participants perceived as more central those identity elements that provided a greater sense of self-esteem, continuity, distinctiveness, and meaning; this was found for individual, relational, and group levels of identity, among various populations, and by using a prospective design. Motives for belonging and efficacy influenced identity definition indirectly through their direct influences on identity enactment and through their contributions to self-esteem. Participants were happiest about those identity elements that best satisfied motives for self-esteem and efficacy. These findings point to the need for an integrated theory of identity motivation.

  17. Contextual influences on health worker motivation in district hospitals in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaauw Duane

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational factors are considered to be an important influence on health workers' uptake of interventions that improve their practices. These are additionally influenced by factors operating at individual and broader health system levels. We sought to explore contextual influences on worker motivation, a factor that may modify the effect of an intervention aimed at changing clinical practices in Kenyan hospitals. Methods Franco LM, et al's (Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework. Soc Sci Med. 2002, 54: 1255–66 model of motivational influences was used to frame the study Qualitative methods including individual in-depth interviews, small-group interviews and focus group discussions were used to gather data from 185 health workers during one-week visits to each of eight district hospitals. Data were collected prior to a planned intervention aiming to implement new practice guidelines and improve quality of care. Additionally, on-site observations of routine health worker behaviour in the study sites were used to inform analyses. Results Study settings are likely to have important influences on worker motivation. Effective management at hospital level may create an enabling working environment modifying the impact of resource shortfalls. Supportive leadership may foster good working relationships between cadres, improve motivation through provision of local incentives and appropriately handle workers' expectations in terms of promotions, performance appraisal processes, and good communication. Such organisational attributes may counteract de-motivating factors at a national level, such as poor schemes of service, and enhance personally motivating factors such as the desire to maintain professional standards. Conclusion Motivation is likely to influence powerfully any attempts to change or improve health worker and hospital practices. Some factors influencing motivation may

  18. Case Study of the Influence of Motivation in School Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María Jiménez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This reflective paper born of the need to recognize the factors that are promoting student motivation in the learning environment in nowadays. Therefore, it was intended to interpret the relationship between the motivational patterns and learning strategies. To achieve the qualitative research was conducted using the method of ethnography by the technique of participant observation to recognize the motivational patterns and learning strategies used by teachers. This allowed the researcher could see and interact with their subject matter. Revealing that this relationship occurs when the student can choose the strategy, then he feels included in the process to make sense of the activities, contrary to when the teacher proposes the strategy because the student feels it is an imposition. Similarly, it attracted attention the fact that teachers use learning strategies of processing and less metacognitive strategies. It was also noted that some teachers use guidelines as individualized motivational explanation, give value to the question and the answer. However, the life project of students is not related to the objectives of the class, in the same way, there is not a feedback about a correct answer or a mistake. In conclusion, it must be more flexible the use of learning strategies by students and it is also necessary to integrate motivational patterns in the classroom according to their constructivist pedagogical model.

  19. The Factors Influencing the Motivational Strategy Use of Non-Native English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem; Bayar, Adem

    2014-01-01

    Motivation can be considered one of the most important factors determining success in language classroom. Therefore, this research aims to determine the variables influencing the motivational strategies used by non-native English teachers in Turkish context. 122 non-native English teachers teaching English at a state-run university prep school…

  20. Exploring the Influences of Elementary School Students' Learning Motivation on Web-Based Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Fei, Huang; Chia-Ju, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the influences of students' learning motivation on Web-based collaborative learning. This study conducted learning materials of Web pages about science and collaborative learning, a motivation questionnaire and interviews were used for data collection. Eighty Grade 5 students and a science teacher were…

  1. Motivation in the workplace and its influence on the effectiveness of work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Avbar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question(RQ:How can we motivate efficiency of the work, which is managed by the individual or the group? Different ways of motivating an individual in an organization? Purpose: The purpose of the research is to determine positive ways of motivation which would allow individuals in different organizations how to improve the efficiency of the work they perform. The aim of the research is the actual use of motivational tools in practice. Method: The article is transparent and theoretical. It is based primarily on an analysis of available domestic and foreign literature and Internet sources on the issues addressed. Results: In this study, it was found that the motivation and efficiency is directly related. Factors are also interdependent, which means that in the case of lack of motivation of employees in an organization there is significant reduced of efficiency. Motivational motives may be monetary (financial rewards and non-monetary (progression in nature. Society: The survey can point to the importance of motivation in the workplace. Originality: Originality of research is reflected in the examination of the importance of motivation in the workplace and their influence on these positive results and performance at work. Limitations/Future Research: A further education of managers and leaders in organizations, to realize that with the help of motivated collective we can achieve better excellence and results.

  2. The implicit Power Motive and Adolescents' Salivary Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress and Exercise in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Scheuermann, Katharina S; Machado, Sergio; Budde, Henning

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined the moderating effect of the power motive on salivary cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress and exercise in adolescents. Fifty-seven high school students aged M = 14.8 years participated in the study. The Operant Motive Test was applied to measure the implicit power motive and the Personality Research Form was used to measure the explicit power motive. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed before and after the stress stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. An exercise group ran 15 minutes at a defined heart rate of 65-75% HRmax. A psychosocial stress group worked on a standard intelligence test for the same amount of time under the assumption, that their test scores will be made public in class after the test. The control group participated in a regular class session. The implicit power motive was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels in the psychosocial stress group. The explicit power motive was not associated with cortisol responses. Findings suggest that the implicit power motive moderates the cortisol responses to acute stress in an adolescent age group with higher responses to psychosocial stress in comparison to exercise or control conditions.

  3. Learning to Program with Personal Robots: Influences on Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of using robots in introductory programming courses is to increase motivation among learners. There have been several types of robots that have been used extensively in the classroom to teach a variety of computer science concepts. A more recently introduced robot designed to teach programming to novice students is the Institute…

  4. Task-based and questionnaire measures of inhibitory control are differentially affected by acute food restriction and by motivationally salient food stimuli in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savani Bartholdy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger and the ability to control one’s own behavior (inhibitory control. Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a need state (hunger together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight and blood glucose obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards, and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may

  5. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  6. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C; O'Daly, Owen G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a "need" state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide some

  7. Task-Based and Questionnaire Measures of Inhibitory Control Are Differentially Affected by Acute Food Restriction and by Motivationally Salient Food Stimuli in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Cheng, Jiumu; Schmidt, Ulrike; Campbell, Iain C.; O'Daly, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective. The present study explored the impact of promoting a “need” state (hunger) together with motivationally salient distracting stimuli (food/non-food images) on inhibitory control in 46 healthy adults. Participants attended two study sessions, once after eating breakfast as usual and once after acute food restriction on the morning of the session. In each session, participants completed questionnaires on hunger, mood and inhibitory control, and undertook task-based measures of inhibitory control, and had physiological measurements (height, weight, and blood glucose) obtained by a researcher. Acute food restriction influenced task-based assessments but not questionnaire measures of inhibitory control, suggesting that hunger affects observable behavioral control but not self-reported inhibitory control. After acute food restriction, participants showed greater temporal discounting (devaluation of future rewards), and subjective hunger and these were inversely correlated with stop accuracy on the stop signal task. Finally, participants generally responded faster when food-related distractor images were presented, compared to non-food images, independent of state. This suggests that although food stimuli motivate approach behavior, stimulus relevance does not impact inhibitory control in healthy individuals, nor interact with motivational state. These findings may provide

  8. Influence of motivation on control hierarchy in the human frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Aarts, Esther; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-02-18

    The frontal cortex mediates cognitive control and motivation to shape human behavior. It is generally observed that medial frontal areas are involved in motivational aspects of behavior, whereas lateral frontal regions are involved in cognitive control. Recent models of cognitive control suggest a rostro-caudal gradient in lateral frontal regions, such that progressively more rostral (anterior) regions process more complex aspects of cognitive control. How motivation influences such a control hierarchy is still under debate. Although some researchers argue that both systems work in parallel, others argue in favor of an interaction between motivation and cognitive control. In the latter case it is yet unclear how motivation would affect the different levels of the control hierarchy. This was investigated in the present functional MRI study applying different levels of cognitive control under different motivational states (low vs high reward anticipation). Three levels of cognitive control were tested by varying rule complexity: stimulus-response mapping (low-level), flexible task updating (mid-level), and sustained cue-task associations (high-level). We found an interaction between levels of cognitive control and motivation in medial and lateral frontal subregions. Specifically, flexible updating (mid-level of control) showed the strongest beneficial effect of reward and only this level exhibited functional coupling between dopamine-rich midbrain regions and the lateral frontal cortex. These findings suggest that motivation differentially affects the levels of a control hierarchy, influencing recruitment of frontal cortical control regions depending on specific task demands.

  9. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    visual perception, colour vision, vigilance as well as the psychomotor functions. However, the influence on the performance tests was not seen in all studies. Variations in the air concentration of toluene with peaks op to 300 ppm causes fluctuation in the alveolar concentrations, but no acute effect...

  10. Approach motivation and cognitive resources combine to influence memory for positive emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Adrienne; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the elaborated intrusion theory of desire, the current research tested the hypothesis that persons higher in trait approach motivation process positive stimuli deeply, which enhances memory for them. Ninety-four undergraduates completed a measure of trait approach motivation, viewed positive or negative image slideshows in the presence or absence of a cognitive load, and one week later completed an image memory test. Higher trait approach motivation predicted better memory for the positive slideshow, but this memory boost disappeared under cognitive load. Approach motivation did not influence memory for the negative slideshow. The current findings support the idea that individuals higher in approach motivation spontaneously devote limited resources to processing positive stimuli.

  11. Students' Perceptions of Family Influences on their Academic Motivation: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdan, Tim; Solek, Monica; Schoenfelder, Erin

    2007-01-01

    Research examining family influences on student motivation and achievement in school has generally focused on parental influences and has often been limited to one or two variables (e.g., parental expectations or aspirations, parental involvement in schoolwork). In the present study we interviewed high school seniors to examine whether and how…

  12. The Influence of Positive Attitudes and Motivation on Successful L2 learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈影

    2015-01-01

    As the development of the second language learning(L2),it becomes more significant to study the factors that influence the success in L2 learning.Positive attitudes and motivation definitely play vital role in L2 learning process. This paper briefly analyses how these two factors influence L2 learning.

  13. The Influence of Positive Attitudes and Motivation on Successful L2 learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈影

    2015-01-01

    As the development of the second language learning(L2),it becomes more significant to study the factors that influence the success in L2 learning.Positive attitudes and motivation definitely play vital role in L2 learning process.This paper briefly analyses how these two factors influence L2learning.

  14. Motivating and demotivating forces in teams: cross-level influences of empowering leadership and relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gilad; Sharma, Payal Nangia; Edinger, Suzanne K; Shapiro, Debra L; Farh, Jiing-Lih

    2011-05-01

    Using cross-cultural laboratory and field studies with samples of leaders, employees, and students from the United States and the People's Republic of China, we examined how team-level stimuli, including empowering leadership and relationship conflict, combine to influence individual members' motivational states of psychological empowerment and affective commitment. As predicted, we found that these motivational states are individually and jointly influenced by teams' level of empowering leadership and relationship conflict and that these motivational states mediate the relationships between team stimuli and team members' innovative and teamwork behaviors and turnover intentions. In addition, results held despite controlling for team members' nationality and collectivism. We discuss contributions of our study to the team motivation, conflict, and stress literatures.

  15. Transformational Leadership and Change: How Leaders Influence Their Followers' Motivation Through Organizational Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Carl; Rinfret, Natalie; Lagacé, Marie Claude; Privé, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the reform of Québec's healthcare establishments has resulted in a reduction in the number of institutions through mergers and closures. In this report, we investigate the consequences of reform by looking at managers' motivations and related mitigating factors. We examine the influence that transformational leaders have on their employees' motivation through organizational justice. Using a survey of 253 healthcare managers, we describe how the positive impact of transformational leadership on motivation is fully mediated via different aspects of organizational justice. The results indicate that while transformational leaders influence each type of organizational justice, followers' motivation is affected primarily by procedural and interpersonal justice and little by distributive justice. PMID:27356446

  16. Dissociable influences of reward motivation and positive emotion on cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Kimberly S; Braver, Todd S

    2014-06-01

    It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective and/or motivational influences contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behavior. An unresolved question is whether emotional manipulations (i.e., direct induction of affectively valenced subjective experience) and motivational manipulations (e.g., delivery of performance-contingent rewards and punishments) have similar or distinct effects on cognitive control. Prior work has suggested that reward motivation can reliably enhance a proactive mode of cognitive control, whereas other evidence is suggestive that positive emotion improves cognitive flexibility, but reduces proactive control. However, a limitation of the prior research is that reward motivation and positive emotion have largely been studied independently. Here, we directly compared the effects of positive emotion and reward motivation on cognitive control with a tightly matched, within-subjects design, using the AX-continuous performance task paradigm, which allows for relative measurement of proactive versus reactive cognitive control. High-resolution pupillometry was employed as a secondary measure of cognitive dynamics during task performance. Robust increases in behavioral and pupillometric indices of proactive control were observed with reward motivation. The effects of positive emotion were much weaker, but if anything, also reflected enhancement of proactive control, a pattern that diverges from some prior findings. These results indicate that reward motivation has robust influences on cognitive control, while also highlighting the complexity and heterogeneity of positive-emotion effects. The findings are discussed in terms of potential neurobiological mechanisms.

  17. The Influence of Perceived Disgust on Students' Motivation and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Hummel, Eberhard; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter

    2013-11-01

    There are a wide range of student emotions in academic settings, but apart from emotions such as interest and well-being, disgust is a negative emotion which might be relevant in biology education, for instance, during dissection or when encountering living animals. This paper addresses the issue of situational disgust during a course at the university using living animals and prepared mounts. The course covers a wide range of organisms from protists (e.g. Paramecium) through invertebrates to vertebrates and uses many methods (e.g. microscopy, dissection, and behavioral observations) and specific content (anatomy, structure, and behavior). The dissection of the trout was rated as most disgusting, followed by working with living woodlice, living earthworms, and living snails. The least disgusting lessons were those dealing with microscopy, mammalian skulls, honeybee dance, and bird flight. Based on animals, macro-invertebrates were rated as most disgusting and mammals as least disgusting. Concerning methods, observing through a microscope was perceived as being least disgusting, followed by experiments without animals, then followed by experiments with living animals and, most disgusting, dissection. Disgust was correlated negatively with interest, well-being, and competence but positively with pressure and boredom. Thus, low disgust is related to high interest, well-being, and competence, while higher disgust is related to higher pressure and boredom. The results show a need for measuring situational disgust in addition to survey studies. They also suggest that perceived disgust negatively affects intrinsic motivation. This has implications for biology teaching, because carrying out dissections or experiencing living animals in the classroom may have a detrimental effect on motivation.

  18. Pharmaceutical Sponsorship Bias Influences Thrombolytic Literature in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Radecki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke remains controversial in Emergency Medicine and has not been fully endorsed by either the American College of Emergency Physicians or the American Academy of emergency medicine. A growing recognition exists of the influence of pharmaceutical sponsorship on the reported findings of published clinical trials. Sponsorship bias has been suggested as a potential criticism of the literature and guidelines favoring thrombolytic therapy. Objective: The objective of this study is to review the most influential literature regarding thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke and document the presence or absence of pharmaceutical sponsorship. Methods: A publication-citation analysis was performed to identify the most frequently cited articles pertaining to thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Identified articles were reviewed for disclosures of pharmaceutical funding. Results: Of the 20 most-cited articles pertaining to thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke, 17 (85% disclosed pharmaceutical sponsorship. These disclosures range from general sponsorship to direct employment of authors by pharmaceutical companies. Conclusion: An overwhelming predominance of the most influential literature regarding thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke is susceptible to sponsorship bias. This potential bias may provide a basis for physician concern regarding the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy. Further, large, independent, placebo-controlled studies may be required to guide therapy and professional guidelines definitively for acute ischemic stroke. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:435–441.

  19. Decreased Incentive Motivation Following Knockout or Acute Blockade of the Serotonin Transporter: Role of the 5-HT2C Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Caleb J; Fletcher, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    Acute pharmacological elevation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) activity decreases operant responding for primary reinforcers, suggesting that 5-HT reduces incentive motivation. The mechanism by which 5-HT alters incentive motivation is unknown, but parallel evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists also reduce responding for primary reinforcers implicates this receptor as a potential candidate. These experiments examined whether chronic and acute disruptions of serotonin transporter (SERT) activity altered incentive motivation, and whether the 5-HT2C receptor mediated the effects of elevated 5-HT on behavior. To assess incentive motivation, we measured responding for three different reinforcers: a primary reinforcer (saccharin), a conditioned reinforcer (CRf), and an unconditioned sensory reinforcer (USRf). In the chronic condition, responding was compared between SERT knockout (SERT-KO) mice and their wild-type littermates. In the acute condition, responding was examined in wild-type mice following treatment with 10 or 20 mg/kg citalopram, or its vehicle. The ability of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242084 to prevent the effects of SERT-KO and citalopram on responding was subsequently examined. Both SERT-KO and citalopram reduced responding for saccharin, a CRf, and a USRf. Treatment with SB 242084 enhanced responding for a CRf and a USRf in SERT-KO mice and blocked the effects of citalopram on CRf and USRf responding. However, SB 242084 was unable to prevent the effects of SERT-KO or citalopram on responding for saccharin. These results support a powerful inhibitory function for 5-HT in the control of incentive motivation, and indicate that the 5-HT2C receptor mediates these effects of 5-HT in a reinforcer-dependent manner. PMID:27125304

  20. Autonomy, Affiliation, and Ability: Relative Salience of Factors that Influence Online Learner Motivation and Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Chung Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy, affiliation, and ability appear as main factors that influence online learners‟ motivation and learning outcomes, however, the relative salience of these three factors remains unclear in the online learning literature. Drawing on Deci and Ryan‟s self-determination theory, this study sought to bridge this gap by investigating the relative salience of perceived autonomy, affiliation, and ability on learner motivation and learning outcomes in two special education online programs (N = 262. This study found that the most salient predictor varied from categories of motivation and learning outcomes, and the number of significant predictors increased by participants‟ level of motivation/self-determination. Results of this study provide implications for online learner support.

  1. A study on the influence of organizational climate on motivation of employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Gök

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The relation between organizational climate and organizational efficiency is frequently pointed out in recent management and labour psychology studies. Organizational climate has positive or negative impacts on performance, job satisfaction, and motivation of employees.In this study, which consists of two parts, the relation between organizational climate and work motivation is examined. The first part of the study contains theoretical framework with regard to the organizational climate and work motivation.In the second part, a field research is presented. 252 employees were interviewed in this study. The data that obtained from interviews were analyzed and subsequently evaluated in terms of statistical outcomes. The statistical results demonstrated that organizational climate has a positive influence on motivation of employees.

  2. Influence of bile flow interruption on acute experimental pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, L; Gafà, M; Lupi, M; Peracchia, A

    1984-01-01

    The influence of bile flow interruption on the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has been evaluated in the rat. The pancreatitis was induced by Pfeffer's technique and the severity of the disease was assessed by a macroscopic examination of the pancreatic damage and the calculation of amylase-to-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) as well. The results showed that the bile reflux into the pancreas made the pancreatic lesions caused by stasis in the gland associated with hyperstimulation of exocrine secretion more severe. On the other hand the bile reflux had no influence when the pancreatitis was due to flowing back of duodenal contents into the pancreas (closed duodenal loop). It was concluded that the bile effect is probably consistent with a pressure mechanism. In addition the reliability of ACCR in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed, and the test was effective in detecting even milder pancreatic damages. PMID:6206023

  3. Motivational factors influencing the homeowners’ decisions between residential heating systems: An empirical analysis for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heating demand accounts for a large fraction of the overall energy demand of private households in Germany. A better understanding of the adoption and diffusion of energy-efficient and renewables-based residential heating systems (RHS) is of high policy relevance, particularly against the background of climate change, security of energy supply and increasing energy prices. In this paper, we explore the multi-dimensionality of the homeowners’ motivation to decide between competing RHS. A questionnaire survey (N=2440) conducted in 2010 among homeowners who had recently installed a RHS provides the empirical foundation. Principal component analysis shows that 25 items capturing different adoption motivations can be grouped around six dimensions: (1) cost aspects, (2) general attitude towards the RHS, (3) government grant, (4) reactions to external threats (i.e., environmental or energy supply security considerations), (5) comfort considerations, and (6) influence of peers. Moreover, a cluster analysis with the identified motivational factors as segmentation variables reveals three adopter types: (1) the convenience-oriented, (2) the consequences-aware, and (3) the multilaterally-motivated RHS adopter. Finally, we show that the influence of the motivational factors on the adoption decision also differs by certain characteristics of the homeowner and features of the home. - Highlights: ► Study of the multi-dimensionality of the motivation to adopt residential heating systems (RHS). ► Principal component and cluster analysis are applied to representative survey data for Germany. ► Motivation has six dimensions, including rational decision-making and emotional factors. ► Adoption motivation differs by certain characteristics of the homeowner and of the home. ► Many adopters are driven by existing habits and perceptions about the convenience of the RHS

  4. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Early Adolescents' Friendship Development: Friendship Selection, Influence, and Prospective Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and…

  5. The Influence of Content on Adult L2 Learners' Task Motivation: An Interest Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupore, Glen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of content-related conditions on adult second language learners' task motivation during interactive tasks. It also aims to identify what is referred to as interestingness conditions within task content, that is, elements that are intrinsically interesting to most individuals. The investigation was conducted…

  6. Implementing an Active Learning Environment to Influence Students' Motivation in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuto, Camila Aparecida Tolentino; Torres, Bayardo Baptista

    2016-01-01

    The Biochemistry: Biomolecules Structure and Metabolism course's goal is to promote meaningful learning through an active learning environment. Thus, study periods (SP) and discussion groups (DG) are used as a substitute for lecture classes. The goal of this study was to evaluate how this learning environment influences students' motivation (n =…

  7. The Influence of Competence, Motivation, and Organisational Culture to High School Teacher Job Satisfaction and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, H. Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to find out and analyze the influence of competence, motivation, and organizational competence to high school teacher job satisfaction and performance in Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia. The study was conducted on 117 respondents of 346 teachers by means of questionnaire. Data is analyzed by SEM analysis method in AMOS program.…

  8. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in early adolescents' friendship development : Friendship selection, influence, and prospective friendship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.; Ojanen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adol

  9. Understanding employees' informal workplace learning: The joint influence of career motivation and self-construal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van Monique Bernadette; Yang, Huadong; Sanders, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the joint influence of employees' career motivation and their self-construal on their engagement in three informal workplace learning activities: keeping up-to-date, asking for feedback from supervisors and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach – D

  10. Motivation to Learn English language: A Survey on Parents’ & Teachers’ Influence on L2 learners in Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Wadho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is, without question, the most complex and challenging issue faced by English language teachers today (Schiedekr & Freeman, 1999. It is a key contributing factor for L2 learning (Cheng & Dornyei, 2007; Gardner, 1985b. It is an established fact that no motivation means no learning. Motivation comes from different sources. Freeman (1999 holds teachers and parents to be influencing forces for learners’ motivation. The present study was conducted at college level in Kambar Shahdadkot and investigates the influence of parents and teachers on L2 learning. The study is quantitative in nature. The survey was conducted and data was collected through questionnaire. The study found that students were heavily influenced by parents and teachers. Most of the learners learn English language due to the respect they owe to their parents and teachers. The parents and teachers have positive attitude towards English language, thus, they influence L2 learners’ motivation and decisions considerably. The study also found that most L2 learners learn English language due to the rewards given to them by their parents. Besides, teachers’ positive relation with learners also motivates them to learn English. It was also found that a lack of feedback from teachers contribute a demotivating factor for the L2 learners. The study suggests that teaching methodology plays crucial role in L2 motivation and brings positive results for the learners.Keywords: Motivational psychology, Motivation, L2 learners, Parents & Teachers: In What way teachers and parents influence on L2 learners motivation

  11. The influence of reading motives on the responses after reading blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shia; Chou, Yu-Jen; Lin, Che-Hung

    2008-06-01

    As the number of blogs increases dramatically, these online forums have become important media people use to share feelings and information. Previous research of blogs focuses on writers (i.e., bloggers), but the influence of blogs also requires investigations from readers' perspectives. This study therefore explores motives for reading blogs and discusses their effects on the responses after reading blogs. According to a factor analysis of 204 respondents in Taiwan, motives for reading blogs consist of affective exchange, information search, entertainment, and getting on the bandwagon. A regression analysis suggests the effects of these motives on three major responses--opinion acceptance, interaction intentions, and word-of-mouth (WOM) intentions--reflect the influence of blogs. Specifically, readers who focus on affective exchanges believe blog messages, interact with bloggers, and spread messages to others. Information search and entertainment motives positively affect opinion acceptance; blog readers who focus on information and those who read for fun both view blogs as trustworthy sources. Getting on the bandwagon also positively influences interaction and WOM intentions; these readers interact with bloggers and transmit messages to others.

  12. Influence of brand differential on motivation to conform and manufacturer versus store brand purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran, E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationships and characteristics that influence consumers’ purchase decision between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings have emerged as an interesting and practical area of research. From a management perspective, understanding the process by which consumers make purchase choices between these brand offerings would lead to both theoretical and practical applications. Therefore, this study attempts to enhance understanding about the factors that influence consumers’ manufacturer versus store brand purchase decisions. A conceptual model is developed to integrate the manner by which a consumer’s motivation to conform to the perceived social norm of purchasing manufacturer brand products influences this purchase decision. The model is tested using survey data. Findings indicate the importance of the intensity of perceived differences between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings in affecting consumers’ purchase intention of these products. The relationship is also mediated by consumers’ motivation to conform to manufacturer brand products in their purchase decision.

  13. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation. PMID:21219719

  14. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation.

  15. The Influence of Affective States Varying in Motivational Intensity on Cognitive Scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie eHarmon-Jones

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We review a program of research that has suggested that affective states high in motivationally intensity (e.g., enthusiasm, disgust narrow cognitive scope, whereas affective states low in motivationally intensity (e.g., joy, sadness broaden cognitive scope. Further supporting this interpretation, indices of brain activations, derived from human electroencephalography, suggest that the motivational intensity of the affective state predicts the narrowing of cognitive scope. Finally, research suggests that the relationship between emotive intensity and cognitive scope is bi-directional, such that manipulated changes in cognitive scope influence early brain activations associated with emotive intensity. In the end, the review highlights how emotion can impair and improve certain cognitive processes.

  16. Physical activity and quality of life: assessing the influence of activity frequency, intensity, volume, and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustyk, M Kathleen B; Widman, Laura; Paschane, Amy A E; Olson, Karen C

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the impact of exercise frequency, intensity, and volume along with exercise motives on quality of life (QOL) reports. The authors assessed exercise habits with the Godin Leisure Time Activity Scale and measured exercise motives with the Reasons for Exercise Inventory. The Quality of Life Inventory assessed satisfaction in 16 domains including health, work, and recreation. High-frequency exercisers reported significantly higher health, helping, and community-related QOL than those who exercised less frequently. The authors noted significantly higher health-related QOL in the heavy volume group compared with the other volume groups. Multiple regression tests revealed that activity intensity and exercise motives significantly predicted QOL reports. The strongest bivariate correlations with QOL existed for mild activity and exercising for fitness and health reasons. Thus, high-frequency activity of mild intensity that produces high kcal utilization and is performed to improve health and fitness has the strongest influence on QOL reports.

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF ORAL HYGIENE STATUS IN CHILDREN INFLUENCED BY MOTIVATION PROGRAMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrinka M. Damyanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing and maintaining proper oral hygiene is related with the control of initiation and progression of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Objective: To accentuate on the application and effectiveness of standardized motivational program for oral hygiene in children with assessment of OHI-S Green-Vermillion. Methods: The study includes 200 children from 3 to 6 years of age. Comparison and evaluation of effectiveness of toothpastes with different fluoride concentrations regarding proper hygiene status in children. Application of OHI-S by Green-Vermillion. Examined children are divided into two groups. The first group consists of 100 children divided into two subgroups. The subgroup of children aged from 3 to 5 years washed their teeth with toothpaste containing 500 ppm F. The subgroup of children at the age of 6 used toothpaste containing 1000 ppm F. Concerning the second, control group of 100 children no specific motivation activities were provided. Results: Among children being influenced by standardized motivation program combined with application of toothpaste with 500 ppm F, 45% show better oral hygiene level. Among children influenced by standardized motivation program and toothpaste of 1000 ppm F, 20% of them are with improved oral hygiene status. Reduction of the OHI-S values in children from 3 to 5 years is established from 1.92 to 1.16. In children at the age of 6 OHI-S is reduced from 1.67 to 1.14. Conclusion: 1. All children improve their oral hygiene status after a period of training and motivation. 2. In children at high decay risk standardized motivation program should be combined with additional prophylactic approaches.

  18. Factors influencing prehospital delay for patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujuan CHENG; Lufen GUO; Juyuan LIU; Xiaoling ZHU; Hongbing YAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors for prehospital delay in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods A total of 807 consecutive patients with AMI who presented to the emergency department of Beijing Anzhen Hospital were analyzed. The influence of several potential risk factors on the prehospital delay time (PDT) was evaluated by comparing patients admitted more than 2 hours after onset of chese pain with those admitted within 2 hours after onset. Results Among 807 patients, 402 came to the hospital within 2 hours while the others arrived at the hospital after 2 hours. The median PDT was 130 min. Among the potential variables, advanced age, history of diabetes mellitus, occurrence of symptom at night and use of emergency medical service significantly affected PDT by multivariate analysis. Conclusion Interventions aimed at reducing the prehospital delay in AMI should primarily focus on the awareness of the risk and help-seeking behavior of patients.

  19. Gifted Students' Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations and Parental Influence on Their Motivation: From the Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhamit, Yahya; Kreishan, Lana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to describe and investigate a sample of school gifted students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and the role of their parents in fostering motivational achievements in Jordan. In the study, 122 gifted students were selected to complete a questionnaire (adapted from Pelletier, Fortier and Vallerand et?al.)…

  20. Scaffolding software: How does it influence student conceptual understanding and motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kyle A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of scaffolding software on student conceptual understanding and motivation. This study also provides insight on how students use the scaffolding features found in Artemis and the extent to which features show a relationship to student conceptual understanding and motivation. A Randomized Solomon Four Group Design was used in this study. As students worked through a project based unit over photosynthesis, the students performed information seeking activities that were based on their own inquiry. For this purpose, the students in the experimental group used an example of scaffolding software called Artemis, while the students in the control group used a search engine of their choice. To measure conceptual understanding, the researcher analyzed student generated concept maps on photosynthesis using three different methods (quantitative, qualitative, hierarchical). To measure motivation, the researcher used a survey that measured motivation on five different indicators: intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy for learning and performance. Finally, the researcher looked at the relationship and influence of the scaffolding features on two student performance scores at the end of the unit. This created a total of ten dependent variables in relationship to the treatment. Overall, the students used the collaborative features 25% of the time, the maintenance features 0.84% of the time, the organizational features 16% of the time, the saving/viewing features 7% of the time and the searching features 51% of the time. There were significant correlations between the saving/viewing features hits and the students' task value (r = .499, p motivation.

  1. The influence of patient's motivation on reported pain during orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio José da Silva Campos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients usually experience pain during orthodontic treatment. This fact can affect cooperation and the development of treatment. Reporting pain during treatment seems to be influenced by emotional aspects such as the patient's motivation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between patient's motivation and the intensity of reported pain during two stages of treatment. METHODS: Twenty males (11-37 years old answered a questionnaire divided into five categories regarding their motivation towards treatment. The subjects were studied for 14 days (7 days with bonded brackets and 7 days with the initial arch inserted and the intensity of pain was evaluated on a daily basis. All the issues, including the intensity of pain, were measured through the visual analog scale (VAS. RESULTS: The VAS-associated questionnaire proved to have good temporal reliability and reasonable internal consistency, being that the "perceived severity" domain had the greatest, although not significant (p = 0.196 correlation with pain intensity. Only the question asking the patients if they thought that their teeth were too uneven showed a positive correlation with pain intensity (p = 0.048. CONCLUSION: The results seem to indicate that the five categories related to treatment motivation cannot be used to predict discomfort during treatment. In addition, patients who think their teeth are too uneven may experience more severe pain due to greater force application after insertion of the initial arch.

  2. A study on the influence of organizational climate on motivation of employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Gök

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The relation between organizational climate and organizational efficiency is frequently pointed out in recent management and labour psychology studies. Organizational climate has positive or negative impacts on performance, job satisfaction, and motivation of employees. In this study, which consists of two parts, the relation between organizational climate and work motivation is examined. The first part of the study contains theoretical framework with regard to the organizational climate and work motivation. In the second part, a field research is presented. 252 employees were interviewed in this study.  The data that obtained from interviews were analyzed and subsequently evaluated in terms of statistical outcomes. The statistical results demonstrated that organizational climate has a positive influence on motivation of employees.

  3. Making Good Choices: How Autonomy Support Influences the Behavior Change and Motivation of Troubled and Troubling Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Autonomy is a basic human need having influence on motivation. Facilitating student autonomy is an essential ingredient of effective programs for maximizing internalized change and increasing motivation in troubled and troubling youth. This article examines the theoretical concepts of autonomy and control related to choices and considers their…

  4. Bridging Strategic Management Tools and Employee Motivation : A qualitative study of how an organization's mission & vision influence the motivation of its employees

    OpenAIRE

    Jans, Bastian; Kienel, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    The mission and vision of companies have been gaining a lot of attention both within the scholarly and business context. A lot of time and money is being invested to develop and implement mission and vision statements and business students all over the world are taught these concepts. However, literature on how mission and vision actually influence employees is limited and inconsistent. Therefore, this thesis explores how mission and vision influence employees’ work motivation. The study foll...

  5. Enriching traditional biology lectures digital concept maps and their influence on cognition and motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Schaal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Higher education deals with complex knowledge and university teaching should focus on conceptual understanding. Adequate knowledge structures are essential and active knowledge construction should be supported for meaningful learning. But traditional lectures mostly are structured by slides which may misleadingly cause linear representations of knowledge. In this study, a framework for digital concept maps was developed to complement lectures in human biology. The course was aimed at student science teachers at the undergraduate level. The work is based on theoretical research on computer-supported learning, on knowledge structures perspectives within learning environments as well as on self-determination theory. Each session was supplemented by a digital, multimedia-enriched concept map. After each single lecture, students had free access to the concept maps to reinforce the latest topics. The objective of the study was to examine if the use of complementary concept maps (i influences achievement and (ii if motivational variables influence the use of the concept maps. In both cases, influences of computer-user self-efficacy were expected (iii. The students’ (N = 171 concept map use was logged, achievement was tested and motivational variables were surveyed (e.g. interest/ enjoyment, perceived competence, effort/ importance, value/usefulness. The logfile-data allowed distinguishing learners according to their concept map use. Results reveal the benefit of additional concept maps for achievement, positive motivational aspects and computer-user self-efficacy as mediating factors showed some influence. The emphasize of further research should be on students’ active engagement in structuring their individual learning by constructing concept maps themselves, especially in science education courses.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON THE USE OF A PROVERB AS AN ARGUMENT (ON THE MATERIAL OF FRENCH LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna ANISIMOVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the conditions for successful use of proverbs during argumentations and critical discussions. All the conclusions and theoretical provisions are based on the paremiological fund of French proverbs (notably French proverbs with negations. The article shows the difference between the notion of the paremiological etymological meaning related to the diachronic aspect, and the notion of the paremiological motivation related to the synchronic and diachronic aspects. The motivation of proverbs is presented as a key aspect, which influences the frequency of their use as an argument. The author analyzes the differences between the definitions of a word’s motivation and a proverb’s motivation. The article contains the author’s definition of the paremiological motivation and author’s classification of proverbs’ motivation degrees (examples of motivation, partial motivation and demotivation in proverbs and their influence on the use of proverbs as an argument. The author highlights the interdependence of idiomatic and analytical meanings of proverbs’ components, the influence of demotivation of analytical components on gradual demotivation of idiomatic meaning of proverbs. Proverbs with archaisms and historicisms gradually become inefficient arguments, therefore they are rarely used during critical discussions because they can cause misunderstanding.

  7. Motivational factors influencing small construction and auto repair enterprises to participate in occupational health and safety programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Laura Veng; Hasle, Peter; Christensen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    the processmeaningful. Contextual factors, as experienced by the owner-managers, influenced the motivation foractive participation. These included inter alia general attitude towards authorities and procedures, accessto relevant projects and technical equipment, the characteristics of the manager, and the workplace...... the enterprisesand qualitative data from stakeholders involved in the implementation of the programme. The resultsshowed that the way the programme was introduced through labour inspectors, employer associations,or networks influenced the motivation of the enterprises to engage in the programme. The motivation...... culture.It is concluded that contextual factors can limit the efficacy of programme mechanisms and shouldbe taken into account when designing programmes....

  8. Manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke, frequency and influence on functional outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P M; Jørgensen, H S; Kammersgaard, L P;

    2001-01-01

    To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome.......To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome....

  9. What Kinds of Volunteers become more motivated by Community Currency? : Influence of Perceptions of Reward on Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kurita (Ken-ichi); M. Yoshida (Masayuki); Y. Miyazaki (Yoshihisa)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLocal communities in Japan are struggling to increase the number of participants in volunteer activities in order to revitalize local life. To maintain the enthusiasm of active volunteers and entice new volunteers, a new type of reward to increase motivation is needed. Accordingly, comm

  10. Pancreatic Pseudocysts Following Acute Pancreatitis: Risk Factors Influencing Therapeutic Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sianesi M

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The natural history of pancreatic pseudocysts has become well known in recent years, but the choice of a proper treatment still remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at establishing whether predictive factors influencing therapeutic outcomes exist. SETTING: Patients with pancreatic pseudocysts following an episode of acute pancreatitis treated from January 1980 to December 2001 at the Department of General Surgery and Organ Transplantation of the University of Parma, Italy. PATIENTS: Seventy-four patients were studied: 12 had a spontaneous resolution, 37 patients were treated surgically, 15 were treated endoscopically and in 10, percutaneous drainage was used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Epidemiological, clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with pancreatic pseudocysts were related to morbidity, recurrence rates and hospital stay. RESULTS: At univariate logistic regression, our data reveal a significant increase in morbidity related to age (P=0.013, etiology (alcoholic vs. biliary, P=0.024, Ranson score of previous pancreatitis (P=0.006, nutritional assessment (P=0.001, residual necrosis (P<0.001 and modality of treatment (P=0.009, whereas none of these parameters has been shown to be significantly correlated to recurrence. At multivariate logistic regression, only residual necrosis was significantly related to morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Some factors, such as epidemiological (age, etiology, clinical (severity of previous pancreatitis, malnourishment, pathological (residual necrosis, and therapeutical factors (emergency/urgency treatment are predictive of worse outcomes for invasive treatment of pseudocysts. In particular residual necrosis appeared to be the most important factor influencing invasive treatment outcomes, confirming that this pathological aspect deserves particular attention from surgeons. No risk factors predicting pancreatic pseudocyst recurrence emerged.

  11. Relationship Between Career Aspirations and Measures of Motivation Toward Biology and Physics, and the Influence of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Chantara, Soontornpathai

    2011-12-01

    A student's motivational orientation is considered to be a predictor of a range of related education decisions, from attending classes to choosing a particular course or a profession. This survey study conducted with student volunteers (males = 519; females = 904) enrolled in secondary school science-math academic stream in Thailand investigated the relationship between measures of motivation (achievement goal orientation and physics and biology classroom anxiety) and aspirations for high earning science and math related careers. Results of multiple discriminant analyses showed gender differences in the motivational factors that influence career aspirations. Our interpretation of the findings highlights the significance of cultural beliefs about gender in decision making for careers.

  12. The influence of autonomous and controlling motives on physical activity intentions within the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2002-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine how general motives from self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985) influence intentions to engage in physical activity within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1985). It was hypothesized that the general motives will influence intentions only when mediated by the specific cognitions of attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) from the TPB. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study assessing psychological variables from two theoretical perspectives. METHOD: Self-report questionnaires were administered to 1088 children aged 12-14 years. The children's intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and PBC towards participating in physical activity were assessed using a TPB questionnaire. A modified verson of Ryan and Connell's (1989) perceived locus of causality (PLOC) inventory was used to measure controlling and autonomous motives for participating in physical activity. RESULTS: These data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The resulting well-fitting model demonstrated that attitude and PBC mediated the influence of autonomous motives to perform physical activity on physical activity intentions. The presence of autonomous motives resulted in the effects of the controlling motives being attenuated to zero. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that general autonomous motives to participate in physical activity act as sources of information when childen make their judgments regarding their specific attitudes and PBC. Attitudes and PBC are necessary to translate these general motives from SDT into intentions in the TPB. In terms of targets for intervention, practitioners may positively influence intentions by providing a choice of physical activities to foster increased autonomy in children.

  13. Motivation influencing worker performance in a technical division of Telkom SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F.J. Oosthuizen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the overall motivational level of employees in a technical division of Telkom SA during change periods. Specific reasons for the established levels of motivation are identified. Based on the six motivator factors and ten hygiene factors as presented by Herzberg, it is the conclusion of this study that the solution to motivate employees are based on informed and positively motivated employees who participate continuously in the change process at all levels

  14. INFLUENCE OF ACUTE EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Serdar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative oxidative insult caused by exercise and smoking on biological systems are well documented, however, their cumulative influence needs to be clarified. In order to examine the collective effects of exercise and smoking on oxidant and antioxidant parameters, young male smokers (n=10 and non-smokers (n=10 made to perform a negative slope (10% cycling exercise for 30 minutes at individual load equivalent to 60% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Pre- and post-exercise (post-ex haematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, protein carbonyl formation and non-HDL oxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, serum ceruloplasmin (CER and urinary cotinine concentrations were evaluated. Pre-ex CER and urinary cotinine concentrations of smokers were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively compared to that of non-smokers and pre-ex CER concentrations were significantly correlated with cotinine levels in all subjects (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.01 increases were observed in non-HDL oxidation following the exercise in both groups and the elevations were more pronounced in smokers. Pre-ex SOD and GPX activities were not different between the two groups, however post-ex enzyme activities were significantly reduced in smokers (p<0.05. MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations were not different between the two groups and there were not any significant changes due to exercise.In conclusion, according to the results of the present study, we suggest that erythrocyte antioxidants SOD and GPX and plasma non-HDL are more prone to the possible oxidant damage of acute physical exercise in chronic smokers.

  15. Role of parental autonomy support on self-determination in influencing diet and exercise motivation in older adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison SA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shannon A Morrison, Carol J Dashiff, David E Vance School of Nursing, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Parental influence to promote autonomy and self-determination in their children as they grow up may also motivate them to exercise and eat healthily. Unfortunately, nutritious dietary consumption and physical activity frequency tend to decline during the adolescent years and reaches its lowest level as the adolescent nears adulthood. In this study of 132 freshman and sophomore college students, the influence of parental autonomy support on overall adolescents self-determination was examined to determine whether self-determination influences adolescents' motivation to engage in healthy diet and exercise behaviors. Utilizing hierarchical multiple regression analyses, parental autonomy support was not predictive of older adolescents' motivation for diet and exercise; however, study results did indicate that parental autonomy support remains highly influential in adolescent self-determination (F[2, 130] = 22.21; P = 0.001 during early college years and that in this sample, adolescent self-determination is predictive of motivation for diet (t = 2.21; P < 0.05, but not exercise. Findings suggest that parental autonomy support continues to influence adolescent internalization of attitudes and behaviors during latter adolescence, but may play a lessor role in motivation for specific health-related behaviors as the adolescent nears adulthood. A better understanding of health motivation antecedents of adolescents may facilitate nurses develop new approaches to health-promotion strategies. Keywords: parental autonomy support, self-determination, adolescent health behaviors, motivation

  16. Acute Short-Term Mental Stress Does Not Influence Salivary Flow Rate Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Naumova, Ella A; Sandulescu, Tudor; Al Khatib, Philipp; Thie, Michael; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. Methods: S...

  17. Differential influences of achievement approach goals and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation on help-seeking in e-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance yet paucity of help-seeking in e-learning, the present study investigated the motivational antecedents of help-seeking among online college students. We explored and compared the influences of achievement approach goals from the old and new achievement motivation models (Elliot & McGregor, 2001; Elliot, Murayama, & Pekrun, 2011 on online students’ help-seeking through intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. Path analyses were used to test two models of help-seeking among college students from four online educational psychology classes (N = 93 based on the two models of achievement goals. Our results showed that the new 3 × 2 model was a better fit than the old 2 × 2 model, suggesting that the achievement approach goals of the new model differ from those of the old model conceptually as Elliot, Murayama, and Pekrun (2011 posited. Second, our results revealed both unexpected direct and indirect positive influence of performance- and other-approach goals on online students’ help-seeking behaviour through extrinsic motivation. Third, while mastery-approach goals indirectly predicted help-seeking through intrinsic motivation, self- and task-approach predicted help-seeking in a dramatically different manner. Self-approach goals displayed indirect influence on help-seeking through intrinsic motivation similar to mastery-approach, yet task-approach displayed a negative direct influence on help-seeking. These results suggested the potential positive impact of self-approach and the detrimental influence of task-approach goals on help-seeking in e-learning environment. Conceptual issues and pedagogical implications for online instructions are discussed.

  18. The influence of preliminary motivation on successful realization of the artistic task

    OpenAIRE

    Tancoš, Teja

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of theory of my thesis I present the motivation during the lessons. In this chapter I dealt with both sorts of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic as well as the relation between them. I also focused on the theories of motivation. In the second part of the theory I explored the problem of the preliminary motivation at the subject of art that has a great impact on the execution of the teaching process. I wrote about how to motivate in the preliminary part of the lesson. I...

  19. Using Extrinsic Motivation to Influence Student Attitude and Behavior toward State Assessments at an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to discover the influence of a student achievement program implemented at one large urban high school that employed extrinsic motivation to promote student achievement on state assessments. Using organismic integration theory as the theoretical framework, 19 randomly selected students participated…

  20. Perception Shapes Experience: The Influence of Actual and Perceived Classroom Environment Dimensions on Girls' Motivations for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Juliette; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2013-01-01

    The classroom environment influences students' academic outcomes, but it is often students' perceptions that shape their classroom experiences. Our study examined the extent to which observed classroom environment features shaped perceptions of the classroom, and explained levels of, and changes in, girls' motivation in junior secondary school…

  1. Examination of Gender Differences on Cognitive and Motivational Factors That Influence 8th Graders' Science Achievement in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ömer; Türkmen, Lütfullah; Bilgin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of several students' cognitive and motivational factors on 8th graders' science achievement and also gender differences on factors that significantly contribute to the science achievement model. A total of 99 girls and 83 boys responded all the instruments used in this study. Results showed that girls outperformed boys on…

  2. The influence of teacher perceived administration of self-regulated learning on students' motivation and information-processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, JS; Minnaert, A; Boekaerts, M

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of teacher perceived administration of self-regulated learning on students' motivation and information-processing over time. This was done in the context of the Interactive Learning group System (ILS (R)): a large-scale innovation program in Dutch vocational sch

  3. Work Ethic, Motivation, and Parental Influences in Chinese and North American Children Learning to Play the Piano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Gilles; Huta, Veronika; Liu, YiFei

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 50 Chinese and 100 North American Caucasian children aged 6 to 17 who were learning piano, in terms of their work ethic, motivation, and parental influences. Compared to North American Caucasians, Chinese children and parents believed more strongly that musical ability requires hard work, and Chinese children were more…

  4. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Robert Nicholls; David eMorley; John ePerry

    2016-01-01

    The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012) infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one at...

  5. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, Adam R; Morley, David; Perry, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012) infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one ath...

  6. The influence of motivational involvement in physical activity level improving using formative evaluation procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The current work was planned to build up an original motivational involvement, based on Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory, to improving physical activity in disadvantaged adolescents. The theoretical structure has three main issues: social context (perceived independence, perceived social sustain, input and enjoyment); cognitive mediators (perceived option and self-efficacy); and motivational course (intrinsic motivation, commitment and positive self-concept). ...

  7. Exploring the influence of trust relationships on motivation in the health sector: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Okello, DR; Gilson, L

    2015-01-01

    Background Dedicated and motivated health workers (HWs) play a major role in delivering efficient and effective health services that improve patients’ experience of health care. Growing interest in HW motivation has led to a global focus on pay for performance strategies, but less attention has been paid to nurturing intrinsic motivation. Workplace trust relationships involve fair treatment and respectful interactions between individuals. Such relationships enable cooperation among HWs and th...

  8. The influence of parental and peer attachment on Internet usage motives and addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Soh, Patrick Chin-Hooi; Charlton, John P.; Chew, Kok-Wai

    2014-01-01

    The impact of parental and peer attachment on four Internet usage motives and Internet addiction was compared using path modelling of survey data from 1,577 adolescent Malaysian school students. The model accounted for 31 percent of Internet addiction score variance. Lesser parental attachment was associated with greater Internet addiction risk. Psychological escape motives were more strongly related to Internet addiction than other motives, and had the largest mediating effect upon the paren...

  9. Investigating students' levels of engagement with mathematics: critical events, motivations, and influences on behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grehan, Martin; Bhaird, Ciarán Mac an; O'Shea, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Universities invest significant resources in the provision of mathematics tuition to first year students, through both traditional and non-traditional means. Research has shown that a significant minority of students do not engage with these resources appropriately. This paper presents findings from a study of two groups of students at Maynooth University. Both groups had similar mathematical backgrounds on entry to university. The first group consisted of seven students who had failed first year mathematics and had very low levels of engagement with available supports. The second group consisted of nine students who had passed first year mathematics and had engaged with the supports to a significant extent. It emerged that while both groups initially displayed similar tactics and encountered similar difficulties, their levels of reaction to a number of critical events in their mathematical education were key to their engagement levels and their subsequent progression. Further analysis revealed aspects of the students' behaviour which caused them to approach or avoid difficulties. The reasons behind the different student behaviours were investigated, and the main categories of influence on student behaviour which emerged from the interview data were fear, social factors, and motivation.

  10. Perceived barriers and motivating factors influencing student midwives’ acceptance of rural postings in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Jody R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the mal-distribution of health care workers has focused mainly on physicians and nurses. To meet the Millennium Development Goal Five and the reproductive needs of all women, it is predicted that an additional 334,000 midwives are needed. Despite the on-going efforts to increase this cadre of health workers there are still glaring gaps and inequities in distribution. The objectives of this study are to determine the perceived barriers and motivators influencing final year midwifery students’ acceptance of rural postings in Ghana, West Africa. Methods An exploratory qualitative study using focus group interviews as the data collection strategy was conducted in two of the largest midwifery training schools in Ghana. All final year midwifery students from the two training schools were invited to participate in the focus groups. A purposive sample of 49 final year midwifery students participated in 6 focus groups. All students were women. Average age was 23.2 years. Glaser’s constant comparative method of analysis was used to identify patterns or themes from the data. Results Three themes were identified through a broad inductive process: 1 social amenities; 2 professional life; and 3 further education/career advancement. Together they create the overarching theme, quality of life, we use to describe the influences on midwifery students’ decision to accept a rural posting following graduation. Conclusions In countries where there are too few health workers, deployment of midwives to rural postings is a continuing challenge. Until more midwives are attracted to work in rural, remote areas health inequities will exist and the targeted reduction for maternal mortality will remain elusive.

  11. Parental Influences on the Academic Motivation of Gifted Students: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    The home environment that parents provide their gifted children can have a significant impact on academic motivation, yet limited research has focused on this topic. Self-determination theory, a comprehensive framework of motivation, was used in the current study to explore two research questions: (a) What attitudes do parents of gifted students…

  12. Factors That Influence Student Motivation in the Middle and High School French Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Lack of student motivation is a shared concern by teachers across all content areas, at all educational levels. Unmotivated students exhibit behaviors of being unengaged, distracted, and unwilling to put forth effort. Motivation has been shown to foster a strong sense of self-efficacy, which may lead to personal expectations of successful…

  13. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  14. Fundamental movement skills and motivational factors influencing engagement in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaja, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony

    2010-08-01

    To assess whether subgroups based on children's fundamental movement skills, perceived competence, and self-determined motivation toward physical education vary with current self-reported physical activity, a sample of 316 Finnish Grade 7 students completed fundamental movement skills measures and self-report questionnaires assessing perceived competence, self-determined motivation toward physical education, and current physical activity. Cluster analysis indicated a three-cluster structure: "Low motivation/low skills profile," "High skills/low motivation profile," and "High skills/high motivation profile." Analysis of variance indicated that students in the third cluster engaged in significantly more physical activity than students of clusters one and two. These results provide support for previous claims regarding the importance of the relationship of fundamental movement skills with continuing engagement in physical activity. High fundamental movement skills, however, may represent only one element in maintaining adolescents' engagement in physical activity. PMID:21058593

  15. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Acute Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms: Associations With Mood, Motives, and Use on Planned Drinking Days

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Day, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one’s mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes ...

  16. Introspective responses to cues and motivation to reduce cigarette smoking influence state and behavioral responses to cue exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we aimed to extend smoking cue-reactivity research by evaluating delay discounting as an outcome of cigarette cue exposure. We also separated introspection in response to cues (e.g., self-reporting craving and affect) from cue exposure alone, to determine if introspection changes behavioral responses to cigarette cues. Finally, we included measures of quit motivation and resistance to smoking to assess motivational influences on cue exposure. Smokers were invited to participate in an online cue-reactivity study. Participants were randomly assigned to view smoking images or neutral images, and were randomized to respond to cues with either craving and affect questions (e.g., introspection) or filler questions. Following cue exposure, participants completed a delay discounting task and then reported state affect, craving, and resistance to smoking, as well as an assessment of quit motivation. We found that after controlling for trait impulsivity, participants who introspected on craving and affect showed higher delay discounting, irrespective of cue type, but we found no effect of response condition on subsequent craving (e.g., craving reactivity). We also found that motivation to quit interacted with experimental conditions to predict state craving and state resistance to smoking. Although asking about craving during cue exposure did not increase later craving, it resulted in greater delaying of discounted rewards. Overall, our findings suggest the need to further assess the implications of introspection and motivation on behavioral outcomes of cue exposure. PMID:27115733

  17. Introspective responses to cues and motivation to reduce cigarette smoking influence state and behavioral responses to cue exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we aimed to extend smoking cue-reactivity research by evaluating delay discounting as an outcome of cigarette cue exposure. We also separated introspection in response to cues (e.g., self-reporting craving and affect) from cue exposure alone, to determine if introspection changes behavioral responses to cigarette cues. Finally, we included measures of quit motivation and resistance to smoking to assess motivational influences on cue exposure. Smokers were invited to participate in an online cue-reactivity study. Participants were randomly assigned to view smoking images or neutral images, and were randomized to respond to cues with either craving and affect questions (e.g., introspection) or filler questions. Following cue exposure, participants completed a delay discounting task and then reported state affect, craving, and resistance to smoking, as well as an assessment of quit motivation. We found that after controlling for trait impulsivity, participants who introspected on craving and affect showed higher delay discounting, irrespective of cue type, but we found no effect of response condition on subsequent craving (e.g., craving reactivity). We also found that motivation to quit interacted with experimental conditions to predict state craving and state resistance to smoking. Although asking about craving during cue exposure did not increase later craving, it resulted in greater delaying of discounted rewards. Overall, our findings suggest the need to further assess the implications of introspection and motivation on behavioral outcomes of cue exposure.

  18. Centrally Administered Ghrelin Acutely Influences Food Choice in Rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Schéle

    Full Text Available We sought to determine whether the orexigenic hormone, ghrelin, is involved in the intrinsic regulation of food choice in rats. Ghrelin would seem suited to serve such a role given that it signals hunger information from the stomach to brain areas important for feeding control, including the hypothalamus and reward system (e.g. ventral tegmental area, VTA. Thus, in rats offered a choice of palatable foods (sucrose pellets and lard superimposed on regular chow for 2 weeks, we explored whether acute central delivery of ghrelin (intracerebroventricular (ICV or intra-VTA is able to redirect their dietary choice. The major unexpected finding is that, in rats with high baseline lard intake, acute ICV ghrelin injection increased their chow intake over 3-fold, relative to vehicle-injected controls, measured at both 3 hr and 6 hr after injection. Similar effects were observed when ghrelin was delivered to the VTA, thereby identifying the VTA as a likely contributing neurobiological substrate for these effects. We also explored food choice after an overnight fast, when endogenous ghrelin levels are elevated, and found similar effects of dietary choice to those described for ghrelin. These effects of fasting on food choice were suppressed in models of suppressed ghrelin signaling (i.e. peripheral injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist to rats and ghrelin receptor (GHSR knock-out mice, implicating a role for endogenous ghrelin in the changes in food choice that occur after an overnight fast. Thus, in line with its role as a gut-brain hunger hormone, ghrelin appears to be able to acutely alter food choice, with notable effects to promote "healthy" chow intake, and identify the VTA as a likely contributing neurobiological substrate for these effects.

  19. Influencing factors of pancreatic microcirculatory impairment in acute panceatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Guang Zhou; You-Dai Chen

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic microcirculatory disturbance plays an importantrole in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis, and itinvolves a series of changes including vasoconstriction,ischaemia, increased vascular permeability, impairment ofnutritive tissue perfusion, ischaemia/reperfusion, leukocyteadherence, hemorrheological changes and impairedlymphatic drainage. Ischaemia possibly acts as an initiatingfactor of pancreatic microcirculatory injury in acutepancreatitis, or as an aggravating/continuing mechanism.The end-artery feature of the intralobular arterioles suggeststhat the pancreatic microcirculation is highly susceptible toischaemia. Various vasoactive mediators, as bradykinin,platelet activating factor, endothelin and nitric oxideparticipate in the development of microcirculatory failure.

  20. A Research on Factors Influencing the Clinical Prognosis of Acute Stroke Patie.patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zuming; Li Manli

    2000-01-01

    Object: To search for the factors significantly influencing the clinical prognosis of acute stroke patients. Background: There are lack of prospective multivariate analysis research m acute stroke in the world. Method: We chose 17 factors possibly influencing the prognosis of acute patients, took Barthel′s Index at the end of 2 months after stroke onset and decreased percentage of neurological deficit scores (MESSS) between 72h after hospitalization and 2 months after onset as gold standard, to have a prospective, multivariate analysis research combined with univariate analysis. Results: Multivariate analysis of 106 acute stroke patients combined with univariate analysis showed the factors significantly influencing the clinical prognosis of acute stroke patients were: initial MESSS score、 age、 complication、 mass effect、 stroke location、 time of delay before emergency arrival (BDT). Time of delay after emergency arrival was not found to be a significant prognostic factor. Discussion: Barthel Index at the end of 1 month after stroke onset was strongly related to that at the end of 2 month after onset, as was the same with MESSS score. It showed there was no significant difference between 1 month and 2 months after stroke onset when we choose time interval in evaluating prognosis of acute stroke patients.Conclusion: BDT、 initial MESSS score、 age、 stroke location、 mass effect、 complication were important factors of acute stroke patients. Avoid the delay before emergency arrival after onset, prevent and treat complications after stroke, more carefully treat acute stroke patients with advanced age, advanced age, high initial MESSS scores and those with mass effect reported by CT, we can improve the outcome of stroke patients.

  1. Pharmacogenetics Influence Treatment Efficacy in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devidsen, M.L.; Dalhoff, K.; Schmiegelow, K.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics covers the genetic variation affecting pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. and their influence on drug-response phenotypes. The genetic variation includes an estimated 15 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and is a key determinator for the interindividual difference...

  2. Influence of Motivational Interviewing on Explicit and Implicit Alcohol-Related Cognition and Alcohol Use in At-Risk Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Thush, Carolien; Wiers, Reinout W.; Moerbeek, Mirjam; Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Sussman, Steve; Stacy, Alan W.

    2009-01-01

    Both implicit and explicit cognitions play an important role in the development of addictive behavior. This study investigated the influence of a single-session motivational interview (MI) on implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognition and whether this intervention was successful in consequently decreasing alcohol use in at-risk adolescents. Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions were assessed at pretest and one month posttest in 125 Dutch at-risk adolescents ranging in age from...

  3. The more (complex), the better? The influence of epistemic motivation on integrative bargaining in complex negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Schalk, van der, J.; Beersma, B.; Kleef, van, J.; Dreu, de, C.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiating about a larger number of issues is often argued to enhance the potential for integrative bargaining. However, the enhanced complexity may also make negotiators more susceptible to bias, making it less likely for them to reach win-win agreements. We argue that epistemic motivation, the motivation to hold accurate perceptions of the world, provides a key to solve this paradox. In a negotiation experiment we manipulated complexity by having participants negotiate about 6 or 18 issues...

  4. Influence of the motivational climate created by coach in the sport commitment in youth basketball players

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Miguel Leo; Pedro Antonio S\\u00E1nchez; David S\\u00E1nchez; Diana Amado; Tomas Garc\\u00EDa Calvo

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to measure the relationships between motivational climates created by coaches with respect to sport commitment in young participants. The sample was formed by 285 male and female basketball players, ranging in age from 11 to 16 years old that completed questionnaires which assessed motivational climate and sport commitment. Results showed that athletes' commitment is positively associated with players 'perception of a mastery climate created by coaches and negatively relate...

  5. Engineering Design Activity: Understanding How Different Design Activities Influence Students' Motivation in Grades 9-12

    OpenAIRE

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Stewardson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate grade 9-12 students’ motivation while engaged in two different engineering design projects: marble-sorter and bridge designs. The motivation components measured in this study were focused on students’ intrinsic (IGO) and extrinsic (EGO) goal orientations, task value (TV), self-efficacy for learning and performance (SELP), and control belief (CB). After finishing each project, students were asked to complete an Engineering Design Questionnaire (EDQ) ...

  6. A study on the influence of organizational climate on motivation of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Gök

    2009-01-01

    The relation between organizational climate and organizational efficiency is frequently pointed out in recent management and labour psychology studies. Organizational climate has positive or negative impacts on performance, job satisfaction, and motivation of employees. In this study, which consists of two parts, the relation between organizational climate and work motivation is examined. The first part of the study contains theoretical framework with regard to the organizational climate an...

  7. The Influence of Acute Physical Activity on Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zach, Sima; Shalom, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    The effect of three types of physical activity on two types of working memory were investigated. Participants were 20 adult males who trained twice a week in volleyball two hours per session. Procedures included two pre and post intervention tests of working memory: the Digit span and Visual Memory Span subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Interventions included tactical volleyball formation, body-weight resistance exercises, 15 minutes of running, and sub-maximal aerobic activity. Volleyball activity improved memory performance to a greater extent than the other two activities. Results indicate that immediately after acute exercise there is an increase in working memory function, more evident after physical activity in which cognitive functioning is inherent. PMID:27166321

  8. Motivational and emotional influences on cognitive control in depression: A pupillometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Neil P; Siegle, Greg J; Mandell, Darcy

    2015-06-01

    Depressed people perform poorly on cognitive tasks; however, under certain conditions they show intact cognitive performance, with physiological reactivity consistent with needing to recruit additional cognitive control. We hypothesized that this apparent compensation is driven by the presence of affective processes (e.g., state anxiety), which in turn are moderated by the depressed individual's motivational state. Clarifying these processes may help researchers identify targets for treatment that if addressed may improve depressed patients' cognitive functioning. To test this hypothesis, 36 participants with unipolar depression and 36 never-depressed controls completed a problem-solving task that was modified to elicit anxiety. The participants completed measures of motivation, anxiety, sadness, and rumination, while pupillary responses were continuously measured during problem-solving, as an index of cognitive control. Anxiety increased throughout the task for all participants, whereas both sadness and rumination were decreased during the task. In addition, anxiety more strongly affected planning accuracy in depressed participants than in controls, regardless of the participants' levels of motivation. In contrast, differential effects of anxiety on pupillary responses were observed as a function of depressed participants' levels of motivation. Consistent with the behavioral results, less-motivated and anxious depressed participants demonstrated smaller pupillary responses, whereas more highly motivated and anxious depressed participants demonstrated larger pupillary responses than did controls. Strong effects of sadness and rumination on cognitive control in depression were not observed. Thus, we conclude that anxiety inhibits the recruitment of cognitive control in depression and that a depressed individual's motivational state determines, in part, whether he or she is able to compensate by recruiting additional cognitive control. PMID:25280561

  9. Hippocampal Homer1 levels influence motivational behavior in an operant conditioning task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus V Wagner

    Full Text Available Loss of motivation and learning impairments are commonly accepted core symptoms of psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Reward-motivated learning is dependent on the hippocampal formation but the molecular mechanisms that lead to functional incentive motivation in this brain region are still largely unknown. Recent evidence implicates neurotransmission via metabotropic glutamate receptors and Homer1, their interaction partner in the postsynaptic density, in drug addiction and motivational learning. As previous reports mainly focused on the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, we now investigated the role of hippocampal Homer1 in operant reward learning in the present study. We therefore tested either Homer1 knockout mice or mice that overexpress Homer1 in the hippocampus in an operant conditioning paradigm. Our results show that deletion of Homer1 leads to a diverging phenotype that either displays an inability to perform the task or outstanding hyperactivity in both learning and motivational sessions. Due to the apparent bimodal distribution of this phenotype, the overall effect of Homer1 deletion in this paradigm is not significantly altered. Overexpression of hippocampal Homer1 did not lead to a significantly altered learning performance in any stage of the testing paradigm, yet may subtly contribute to emerging motivational deficits. Our results indicate an involvement of Homer1-mediated signaling in the hippocampus in motivation-based learning tasks and encourage further investigations regarding the specific molecular underpinnings of the phenotypes observed in this study. We also suggest to cautiously interpret the results of this and other studies regarding the phenotype following Homer1 manipulations in animals, since their behavioral phenotype appears to be highly diverse. Future studies would benefit from larger group sizes that would allow splitting the experimental groups in responders and non-responders.

  10. Glucose and acute exercise influence factors secreted by circulating angiogenic cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowski, Sarah; Guhanarayan, Gayatri; Burgess, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) influence vascular repair through the secretion of proangiogenic factors and cytokines. While CAC are deficient in patients with diabetes and exercise has a beneficial effect on CACs, the impact of these factors on paracrine secretion from CAC is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the in vitro secretion of selected cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) from CAC is influenced by hyperglycemia and acute exercise. Colony‐forming unit CAC (CFU‐CAC) were c...

  11. The influence of ethical values and food choice motivations on intentions to purchase sustainably sourced foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Kylie; Burke, Karena J

    2013-10-01

    This study examined a three-step adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) applied to the intention of consumers to purchase sustainably sourced food. The sample consisted of 137 participants, of which 109 were female, who were recruited through a farmers market and an organic produce outlet in an Australian capital city. Participants completed an online questionnaire containing the TPB scales of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention; measures of positive moral attitude and ethical self identity; and food choice motives. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the predictive utility of the TPB in isolation (step 1) and the TPB expanded to include the constructs of moral attitude and ethical self-identity (step 2). The results indicated the expansion of the TPB to include these constructs added significantly to the predictive model measuring intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. The third step in the adaptation utilised this expanded TPB model and added a measure of retail channel (where consumers reported buying fresh produce) and 9 food choice motives, in order to assess the predictive utility of the inclusion of choice motivations in this context. Of the 8 food choice motives examined, only health and ethical values significantly predicted intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. However, with the addition of food choice motives, ethical self-identity was no longer a significant predictor of intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. Overall the adapted TPB model explained 76% of the variance in intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. PMID:23770118

  12. The mean electro-motive force, current- and cross-helicity under the influence of rotation, magnetic field and shear

    CERN Document Server

    Pipin, V V

    2006-01-01

    The expressions for the mean electromotive force (MEMF) is derived for the case of the stratified magnetohydrodynamical turbulence that is subjected to the influence of rotation, large-scale magnetic field (LSMF) and shear. The derivations were made in the framework of mean-field magnetohydrodynamics. The effect of turbulent flows and fluctuating magnetic fields on the evolution of the large-scale fields is computed within the so-called "minimal tau-approximation" (MTA). The influence of the large-scale fields such as rotation, LSMF and uniform shear (differential rotation) on the different parts of the MEMF (such as $\\alpha$ - effect, turbulent diffusion, turbulent transport and etc.) is explicitly defined via factors describing the efficiency of rotational and LSMF's influence on the turbulent flows. Whenever it possible we make comparison with results obtained earlier within the second order correlation approximation (SOCA). In computing the mean electro-motive force we take into account the influence of t...

  13. Age-Differences in Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction. The Influence of Age on the Relationships between Work Characteristics and Workers' Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Nicolle P. G.; de Jong, Ad H. J.; Janssen, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age on the relationship between work characteristics and workers' work motivation and job satisfaction. In total, 1036 workers of a Dutch division of a multinational organization participated. Data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Two interaction terms in the regression on work motivation were…

  14. Influence of motivation on academic performance of students undertaking vocational training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier J. Maquilón Sánchez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocational training in Spain is not longer an option for those students who do not reach the right level to attend secondary school, and has turned into a professional alternative of high quality and with high levels of employability. The analysis of the motivations that foster student learning is very useful in order to design intervention proposals which may improve the quality of student learning. This research study is a response to this approach. We present a theoretical review of the basics of motivation and its relationship with learning, followed by an empirical study of considerable length, whose results are striking: both mid-level and higher level vocational course students require supervision and specific training in all aspects related to motivation and learning strategies.

  15. IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depla, Marion; Pelletier, Sandy; Bédard, Nathalie; Brunaud, Camille; Bruneau, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Polymorphisms in the type III interferon IFN‐λ3 and the killer cell immunoglobulin‐like receptor (KIR) genes controlling the activity of natural killer (NK) cells can predict spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism may modulate NK cell function during acute HCV. Methods We monitored the plasma levels of type III IFNs in relation to the phenotype and the function of NK cells in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) during acute HCV infection with different outcomes. Results Early acute HCV was associated with high variability in type III IFNs plasma levels and the favorable IFN‐λ3 CC genotype was associated with higher viral loads. Reduced expression of Natural Killer Group Protein 2A (NKG2A) was associated with lower IFN‐λ3 plasma levels and the CC genotype. IFN‐γ production by NK cells was higher in individuals with the CC genotype during acute infection but this did not prevent viral persistence. IFN‐λ3 plasma levels did not correlate with function of NK cells and IFN‐λ3 prestimulation did not affect NK cell activation and function. Conclusions These results suggest that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV but other factors may act in concert to determine the outcome of the infection. PMID:27621819

  16. Please Pass the Peas: Influence of Emotions on Adult Learning Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha; Holyoke, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand the knowledge of adult motivation in unconventional professional settings. Nine focus group interviews were conducted with child care providers in child care settings from four states in the Western United States: California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. At each focus group interview three to eight…

  17. Influence of dental education in motivational interviewing on the efficacy of interventions for smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schoonheim-Klein; C. Gresnigt; U. van der Velden

    2013-01-01

    Aim To test whether education of dental students in motivational interviewing (MI) for smoking cessation counselling will increase the number of patients and students who quit smoking and will improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards tobacco cessation counselling. Methods Over 2 ye

  18. Motivational interviewing group at inpatient detoxification, its influence in maintaining abstinence and treatment retention after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiller, Diana; Grau-López, Lara; Barral, Carmen; Daigre, Constanza; Alberich, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Valero, Sergi; Casas, Miquel; Roncero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The relapse rate after discharge from inpatient detoxification is high. The objective of this pilot study is to assess the sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic factors associated with maintaining abstinence in patients who participated in a brief motivational interviewing group during admission for detoxification. A total of 46 patients, diagnosed substance dependent according to DSM -IV, and admitted to the Hospital Detoxification Unit, participated in a brief motivational interviewing group. Sociodemographic, clinical, motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment, URICA) and satisfaction with the treatment group (Treatment Perceptions Questionnaire, CPT) data were collected. Abstinence and treatment retention two months after discharge were assessed by weekly telephone calls. A survival analysis was performed. Being male, having more cognitions of the maintenance stage of change at discharge, being satisfied with group therapy and therapist during hospitalization are associated with longer abstinence after discharge. The brief motivational interviewing group approach with patients admitted for detoxification is related to greater likelihood of maintaining abstinence and subsequent treatment retention. PMID:26132300

  19. Multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis of the motivational influencing individuals’ decisions about participating in intramural sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rickel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramural programs provide competition and recreation during the academic year for the diverse college populations of faculty, staff, and currently enrolled students and their spouses/partners who do not participate in other organized sports on campus. Sport psychologists, physical activity leaders, and others have shown an increased interest in the psychological factors that motivate college students to consume sport and physical activity (Rickel, Stoll, &Beller, 2005, 2006; Harkema, Dieser, Lankford, & Scholl, 2006; Yue-de, Wen-hao, & Ying-chun, 2009. Little research has been done with regard to the motivational factors affecting individuals’ decisions about participating specifically in intramural sports such as flag football, basketball, and soccer, etc. The purpose of this study was to independently test the measurement model of the Participant Motivations Questionnaire (PMQ assumed to underlie the motivational factors of the intramural sport participation by male and female college students. In addition, this study also examined whether or not PMQ was valid for the intramural sport participants in a northwestern university of the USA. Based on the results of the CFA, the one-factor model does fit both male and female college students. However, the factor loadings are not equivalent across the two groups. In summary, it is noted that the regenerated 24-item PMQ for the intramural sport participants is unequally valid for the current subjects of male and female college students.

  20. Do Accountability Policy Sanctions Influence Teacher Motivation? Lessons from Chicago's Low-Performing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, Kara S.; Gross, Betheny

    2007-01-01

    The federal No Child Left Behind Act and previous performance-based accountability policies are based on a theoretical assumption that sanctions will motivate school staff to perform at higher levels and focus attention on student outcomes. Using data from Chicago, this article draws on expectancy and incentive theories to examine whether…

  1. The Influence of Extrinsic Motivation on Student Performance on Large-Scale Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Carl Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this mixed method study were to examine the relationship between student motivation and performance on large-scale, low- and high-stakes examinations and identify the types of incentive programs used by principals to promote test performance among high school students. The study took take place in California's Southern San Joaquin…

  2. Think, Feel, Act: Motivational and Emotional Influences on Military Students' Online Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    This study employed a social-cognitive view of self-regulated learning to examine how several personal factors relate to academic success in an online course. Service academy undergraduates (N = 481) completed a survey that assessed their motivational beliefs (self-efficacy and task value); negative achievement emotions (boredom and frustration);…

  3. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing in influencing smoking cessation in pregnant and postpartum disadvantaged women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Catherine B

    2013-05-01

    Systematic assessments of Motivational Interviewing (MI) in smoking behavior have been rare to date. This study aimed to determine whether an integrated approach, involving staff training in MI techniques, was sufficient to affect change in smoking status or intensity in low-income pregnant and postpartum women.

  4. Influence of Songs in Primary School Students' Motivation for Learning English in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Diego; Bustinza, Daisy; Garvich, Mijail

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that using music and songs while learning a new language can be of great benefit to students in aspects such as grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. However, the use of songs in class as motivation to learn English is a subject that has not been explored thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to explore how the use of…

  5. A literature review on how need-supportive behavior influences motivation in students with sensory loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haakma, Ineke; Janssen, Marleen; Minnaert, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the literature on the effects of need-supportive teaching on motivation, engagement, and educational outcomes of students with visual or hearing impairments or deafblindness. We searched literature for evidence relating to dimensions of need-supportive teaching, namely providing

  6. Visual Perception and Regulatory Conflict: Motivation and Physiology Influence Distance Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Shana; Balcetis, Emily; Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory conflict can emerge when people experience a strong motivation to act on goals but a conflicting inclination to withhold action because physical resources available, or "physiological potentials", are low. This study demonstrated that distance perception is biased in ways that theory suggests assists in managing this conflict.…

  7. The Influence of Physical Activity, Sport and Exercise Motives among UK-Based University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…

  8. The influence of rhythm and personality in the endurance response to motivational asynchronous music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crust, Lee; Clough, Peter J

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we examined participants' responses to motivational asynchronous music by isolating rhythmical properties and exploring personality correlates. Fifty-eight physically active participants (41 men and 17 women) aged 22.3 +/- 6.4 years performed an isometric weight-holding task on three occasions while being randomly exposed to no music, rhythm and motivational music. The rhythm and music conditions were edited portions of the same musical selection and had identical fast tempi, although the rhythm condition contained no melody, harmonies or lyrics. Participants each completed a copy of Cattell's 16PF following the third and final trial. A repeated-measures analysis of variance found the participants held the weight suspended for significantly longer when listening to motivational music in comparison to rhythm or no music. When listening to rhythm, participants endured the task for significantly longer than when listening to no music. The response to music was found to be significantly related to liveliness, while sensitivity correlated with responses to music factors (harmony, melody, lyrics, etc.) not present in the rhythm condition. These results suggest that responses to motivational music are subtle in nature and are determined by both musical factors and individual characteristics, and potentially an interaction between the two.

  9. Exploration of Factors Influencing the Customers’ Motivation in Buyer-supplier Relationships on Industrial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Markus Zunk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To gain a competitive advantage on industrial markets, suppliers need to understand what motivates their customers to collaborate in long-term buyer-supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper presents (i a literature-based model of a 12-part industrial customers’ motivation profile, and (ii empirical findings from an explorative survey of 118 decision makers in the purchasing departments of firms in the technology sector. The results indicate that, “the optimum value for money”, “the holistic problem-solving capability of the suppliers and their high degree of performance” and “the good assistance in economically hard times in the past, which has led to a feeling of gratefulness” are all of great importance to industrial customers for building and maintaining relationships.

  10. Predicting visual attention to nutrition information on food products: the influence of motivation and ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Monique Mitchell; Skubisz, Christine; Pandya, Sejal Patel; Silverman, Meryl; Austin, Lucinda L

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is linked to numerous diseases including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. To address this issue, food and beverage manufacturers as well as health organizations have developed nutrition symbols and logos to be placed on the front of food packages to guide consumers to more healthful food choices. In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requested information on the extent to which consumers notice, use, and understand front-of-package nutrition symbols. In response, this study used eye-tracking technology to explore the degree to which people pay visual attention to the information contained in food nutrition labels and front-of-package nutrition symbols. Results indicate that people with motivation to shop for healthful foods spent significantly more time looking at all available nutrition information compared to people with motivation to shop for products on the basis of taste. Implications of these results for message design, food labeling, and public policy are discussed. PMID:24555542

  11. Mood, motivation, and misinformation: aging and affective state influences on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; Popham, Lauren E; Emery, Lisa; Elliott, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Normative age differences in memory have typically been attributed to declines in basic cognitive and cortical mechanisms. The present study examined the degree to which dominant everyday affect might also be associated with age-related memory errors using the misinformation paradigm. Younger and older adults viewed a positive and a negative event, and then were exposed to misinformation about each event. Older adults exhibited a higher likelihood than young adults of falsely identifying misinformation as having occurred in the events. Consistent with expectations, strength of the misinformation effect was positively associated with dominant mood, and controlling for mood eliminated any age effects. Also, motivation to engage in complex cognitive activity was negatively associated with susceptibility to misinformation, and susceptibility was stronger for negative than for positive events. We argue that motivational processes underlie all of the observed effects, and that such processes are useful in understanding age differences in memory performance.

  12. Influence of motivation on academic performance of students undertaking vocational training

    OpenAIRE

    Javier J. Maquilón Sánchez; Fuensanta Hernández Pina

    2011-01-01

    Vocational training in Spain is not longer an option for those students who do not reach the right level to attend secondary school, and has turned into a professional alternative of high quality and with high levels of employability. The analysis of the motivations that foster student learning is very useful in order to design intervention proposals which may improve the quality of student learning. This research study is a response to this approach. We present a theoretical review of the ba...

  13. Influence of cross – age peer tutoring on reading and reading motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Slabe, Špela

    2015-01-01

    Reading is an activity that accompanies us throughout life and affects the individual all-round development. The basic dimensions of the reading process are word recognition (decoding), reading fluency and reading comprehension. Students with reading difficulties need more practice to acquire these skills. This is a challenging task for them, as their motivation for reading is lower due to their problems with reading. The most common cause of long-term reading difficulties is dyslexia, howeve...

  14. Effects of Motivational Interviewing for Incarcerated Adolescents on Driving Under the Influence after Release

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, L. A. R.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.; MONTI, PETER M.; Golembeske, Charles; Lebeau-Craven, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) to reduce alcohol and marijuana-related driving events among incarcerated adolescents was evaluated. Adolescents were randomly assigned to receive MI or Relaxation Training. Follow-up assessment showed that, as compared to RT, adolescents who received MI had lower rates of drinking and driving, and being a passenger in a car with someone who had been drinking. Effects were moderated by levels of depression. At low levels of depression, MI evidenced lower rates o...

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF ORAL HYGIENE STATUS IN CHILDREN INFLUENCED BY MOTIVATION PROGRAMS.

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrinka M. Damyanova; Vladimir E. Panov; Sirma T. Angelova

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing and maintaining proper oral hygiene is related with the control of initiation and progression of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Objective: To accentuate on the application and effectiveness of standardized motivational program for oral hygiene in children with assessment of OHI-S Green-Vermillion. Methods: The study includes 200 children from 3 to 6 years of age. Comparison and evaluation of effectiveness of toothpastes with different fluoride concentrat...

  16. Acute short-term mental stress does not influence salivary flow rate dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella A Naumova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. METHODS: Saliva of male subjects was collected for five minutes before, immediately, 10, 30 and 120 min after toothbrushing. Before toothbrushing, the subjects were exposed to acute stress in the form of a 2 min public speech. Salivary flow rate and total protein was measured. The physiological stress marker cortisol was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the subjects' psychological stress reaction, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory State questionnaire (STAI data were obtained. The subjects were divided into stress subgroup (S1 (psychological reactivity, stress subgroup (S2 (psychological and physiological reactivity and a control group. The area under the curve for salivarycortisol concentration and STAI-State scores were calculated. All data underwent statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Immediately after stress exposure, all participants exhibited a psychological stress reaction. Stress exposure did not change the salivary flow rate. Only 69% of the subjects continued to display a physiological stress reaction 20 minutes after the public talk. There was no significant change in the salivary flow rate during the psychological and the physiological stress reaction phases relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress has no impact on the salivary flow rate; however, there may be other responses through salivary proteins that are increased with the acute stress stimuli. Future studies are needed to examine

  17. The Influence of 16-year-old Students' Gender, Mental Abilities, and Motivation on their Reading and Drawing Submicrorepresentations Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devetak, Iztok; Aleksij Glažar, Saša

    2010-08-01

    Submicrorepresentations (SMRs) are a powerful tool for identifying misconceptions of chemical concepts and for generating proper mental models of chemical phenomena in students' long-term memory during chemical education. The main purpose of the study was to determine which independent variables (gender, formal reasoning abilities, visualization abilities, and intrinsic motivation for learning chemistry) have the maximum influence on students' reading and drawing SMRs. A total of 386 secondary school students (aged 16.3 years) participated in the study. The instruments used in the study were: test of Chemical Knowledge, Test of Logical Thinking, two tests of visualization abilities Patterns and Rotations, and questionnaire on Intrinsic Motivation for Learning Science. The results show moderate, but statistically significant correlations between students' intrinsic motivation, formal reasoning abilities and chemical knowledge at submicroscopic level based on reading and drawing SMRs. Visualization abilities are not statistically significantly correlated with students' success on items that comprise reading or drawing SMRs. It can be also concluded that there is a statistically significant difference between male and female students in solving problems that include reading or drawing SMRs. Based on these statistical results and content analysis of the sample problems, several educational strategies can be implemented for students to develop adequate mental models of chemical concepts on all three levels of representations.

  18. The form of a conditioned stimulus can influence the degree to which it acquires incentive motivational properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Meyer

    Full Text Available There is considerable individual variation in the extent to which food- and drug-associated cues (conditioned stimuli, CSs acquire incentive salience, as indicated by whether they elicit approach towards them, and/or act as conditioned reinforcers. Here we asked whether this variation is influenced by properties of the CS itself. In rats, we assessed both the attractiveness and conditioned reinforcing properties of two CSs: a manipulable lever CS versus an auditory (tone CS. There was considerable individual variation in the extent to which a lever CS acquired incentive motivational properties, as indicated by whether it became attractive (evoked a sign-tracking or goal-tracking conditioned response or acted as a conditioned reinforcer. However, with a tone CS all rats learned a goal-tracking response, and the tone CS was an equally effective conditioned reinforcer in sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Even when presented in compound (a lever-tone CS, the two elements of the compound differentially acquired motivational properties. In contrast, amphetamine and stress potentiated the conditioned reinforcing properties of both visual and auditory CSs similarly in rats that primarily sign-tracked or goal-tracked. We conclude that variation in the to the ability of CSs to acquire incentive salience, and thus their ability to act as incentive stimuli capable of motivating behavior, is determined in part by properties of the CS itself.

  19. The form of a conditioned stimulus can influence the degree to which it acquires incentive motivational properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Paul J; Cogan, Elizabeth S; Robinson, Terry E

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable individual variation in the extent to which food- and drug-associated cues (conditioned stimuli, CSs) acquire incentive salience, as indicated by whether they elicit approach towards them, and/or act as conditioned reinforcers. Here we asked whether this variation is influenced by properties of the CS itself. In rats, we assessed both the attractiveness and conditioned reinforcing properties of two CSs: a manipulable lever CS versus an auditory (tone) CS. There was considerable individual variation in the extent to which a lever CS acquired incentive motivational properties, as indicated by whether it became attractive (evoked a sign-tracking or goal-tracking conditioned response) or acted as a conditioned reinforcer. However, with a tone CS all rats learned a goal-tracking response, and the tone CS was an equally effective conditioned reinforcer in sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Even when presented in compound (a lever-tone CS), the two elements of the compound differentially acquired motivational properties. In contrast, amphetamine and stress potentiated the conditioned reinforcing properties of both visual and auditory CSs similarly in rats that primarily sign-tracked or goal-tracked. We conclude that variation in the to the ability of CSs to acquire incentive salience, and thus their ability to act as incentive stimuli capable of motivating behavior, is determined in part by properties of the CS itself. PMID:24905195

  20. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Robert Nicholls

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012 infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes’ scores in these constructs.

  1. Nicotine interactions with low-dose alcohol: pharmacological influences on smoking and drinking motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Blank, Melissa D; Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; MacQueen, David A; Brandon, Thomas H; Drobes, David J

    2013-11-01

    An extensive literature documents a close association between cigarette and alcohol use. The joint pharmacological effects of alcohol and nicotine on smoking and drinking motivation may help explain this relationship. This experiment was designed to test the separate and combined pharmacological effects of nicotine and a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 1-2 standard drinks) on substance use motivation using a double-blind and fully crossed within-subjects design. Participants (N = 87) with a wide range of smoking and drinking patterns completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions during which they consumed an alcohol (male: 0.3g/kg; female: 0.27g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoked a nicotine (.6 mg) or placebo cigarette. Outcome measures assessed the impact of drug administration (alcohol or nicotine) on craving to smoke, craving to drink, affect, and liking of the beverage and cigarette. Results indicated that combined administration produced higher cravings to smoke for the entire sample, as well as higher cravings to drink among women and lighter drinkers. Heavier users of either alcohol or cigarettes also exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the effects of either drug in isolation. Separate, but not interactive, effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood were observed as well as both same-drug and cross-drug effects on beverage and cigarette liking. Together, these findings support the notion that the interactive pharmacological effects of nicotine and low doses of alcohol play an important role in motivating contemporaneous use and suggest roles for cross-reinforcement and cross-tolerance in the development and maintenance of alcohol and nicotine use and dependence.

  2. The influence of students' cognitive and motivational variables in respect of cognitive conflict and conceptual change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sukjin; Scharmann, Lawrence C.; Noh, Taehee; Koh, Hanjoong

    2005-09-01

    In this study, the relationships among students’ cognitive/motivational variables, cognitive conflict, and conceptual change were investigated. Subjects were 159 seventh graders in Korea. Tests regarding logical thinking ability, field dependence/independence (FDI), meaningful learning approach, failure tolerance, mastery goal orientation, and self-efficacy were administered to examine students’ cognitive/motivational characteristics. A preconception test and a test of responses to discrepant event were also conducted to examine the degree of students’ cognitive conflict induced by a discrepant event. Computer-assisted instruction, designed to change an undifferentiated weight-density concept into a scientific density concept, was then provided to students as a conceptual change intervention. A conception test was administered as a post-test. The results indicated that FDI was the only statistically significant variable correlated with the degree of cognitive conflict. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that logical thinking ability, FDI, and failure tolerance were statistically significant predictors of the conception test scores. Educational implications are discussed.

  3. Toward an understanding of motivational influences on prospective memory using value-added intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Gabriel I; Rummel, Jan; Dummel, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined value-added intentions by manipulating the cognitive frame associated with monetary contingencies for detecting prospective memory (PM) cues. We associated a loss-frame with a monetary punishment for failing to respond to cues and a gain-frame with a monetary reward for remembering to respond to cues and compared those frames to a no-frame control condition with no contingency linked to performance. Across two experiments, we find increased PM performance for participants in the loss-frame (Experiments 1 and 2) and in the gain-frame (Experiment 2) conditions relative to the no-frame condition. This value-related improvement in PM was not accompanied by a significant increase in cue monitoring as measured by intention-induced interference to an ongoing task and recognition memory for ongoing-task items. The few previous studies investigating motivational PM showed mixed results regarding whether PM improves due to incentives or not. Our results provide further evidence that, under some experimental conditions, PM improves with rewards and that the benefit generalizes to penalizing performance. The results have both practical implications and theoretical implications for motivation models of PM. PMID:26042017

  4. Toward an Understanding of Motivational Influences on Prospective Memory Using Value-Added Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel I Cook

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined value-added intentions by manipulating the cognitive frame associated with monetary contingencies for detecting prospective memory cues. We associated a loss-frame with a monetary punishment for failing to respond to cues and a gain-frame with a monetary reward for remembering to respond to cues and compared those frames to a no-frame control condition with no contingency linked to performance. Across two experiments, we find increased prospective memory performance for participants in the loss-frame (Experiments 1 and 2 and in the gain-frame (Experiment 2 conditions relative to the no-frame condition. This value-related improvement in prospective memory was not accompanied by a significant increase in cue monitoring as measured by intention induced interference to an ongoing task and recognition memory for ongoing task items. The few previous studies investigating motivational prospective memory showed mixed results regarding whether prospective memory improves due to incentives or not. Our results provide further evidence that, under some experimental conditions, prospective memory improves with rewards and that the benefit generalizes to penalizing performance. The results have both practical implications and theoretical implications for motivation models of prospective memory.

  5. Parsing the hedonic and motivational influences of nociceptin on feeding using licking microstructure analysis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Ian A; Maidment, Nigel T; Murphy, Niall P

    2016-09-01

    Opioid peptides are implicated in processes related to reward and aversion; however, how specific opioid peptides are involved remains unclear. We investigated the role of nociceptin (NOC) in voluntary licking for palatable and aversive tastants by studying the effect of intracerebroventricularly administered NOC on licking microstructure in wild-type and NOC receptor knockout (NOP KO) mice. Compared with the wild-type mice, NOP KO mice emitted fewer bouts of licking when training to lick for a 20% sucrose solution. Correspondingly, intracerebroventricular administration of NOC increased the number of licking bouts for sucrose and sucralose in wild-type, but not in NOP KO mice. The ability of NOC to initiate new bouts of licking for sweet solutions suggests that NOC may drive motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Conversely, adulterating a sucrose solution with the aversive tastant quinine reduced licking bout lengths in wild-type and NOP KOs, suggesting that NOC signaling is not involved in driving voluntary consumption of semiaversive tastants. Interestingly, when consuming sucrose following 20 h of food deprivation, NOP KO mice emitted longer bouts of licking than wild types, suggesting that under hungry conditions, NOC may also contribute toward hedonic aspects of feeding. Together, these results suggest differential roles for NOC in the motivational and hedonic aspects of feeding. PMID:27100061

  6. Metabolism of biogenic amines in acute cerebral ischemia: Influence of systemic hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are biogenic amines which are transmitters of the central nervous system. The effects of ischemia on the brain parenchyma depends on many factors, such is the mechanism of blood flow interruption, velocity of the occurring blood flow interruption, duration of an ischemic episode, organization of anatomical structures of the brain blood vessels etc., which all influence the final outcome. During interruption of the brain circulation in experimental or clinical conditions, neurotransmitter metabolism, primarily of biogenic amines, is disturbed. Many researches with various experimental models of complete ischemia reported a decrease in the content of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the CNS tissue. It was proven that hyperglycemia can drastically increase cerebral injury followed by short-term cerebral ischemia. Considering the fact that biogenic amines (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin influence the size of neurologic damage, as well as the fact that in hyperglycemic conditions infarct size (from the morphological aspect is larger relative to normoglycemic status, the intention was to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in occurrence of damage in conditions of hyperglycemia, i.e. in the case of brain apoplexia in diabetics. Analysis of biogenic amines metabolism in states of acute hyperglycemia, as well as analysis of the effects of reversible and irreversible brain ischemia on metabolism of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine, showed that acute hyperglycemia slows down serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine metabolism in the cerebral cortex and n. caudatus. Brain ischemia in normoglycemic animals by itself has no influence on biogenic amines metabolism, but the effect of ischemia becomes apparent during reperfusion. In recirculation, which corresponds to the occurrences in penumbra, release of biogenic amines is uncontrolled and increased. Brain ischemia in acute hyperglycemic animals

  7. Glucose and acute exercise influence factors secreted by circulating angiogenic cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Sarah; Guhanarayan, Gayatri; Burgess, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) influence vascular repair through the secretion of proangiogenic factors and cytokines. While CAC are deficient in patients with diabetes and exercise has a beneficial effect on CACs, the impact of these factors on paracrine secretion from CAC is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the in vitro secretion of selected cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) from CAC is influenced by hyperglycemia and acute exercise. Colony-forming unit CAC (CFU-CAC) were cultured from young active men (n = 9, 24 ± 2 years) at rest and after exercise under normal (5 mmol/L) and elevated (15 mmol/L) glucose. Preliminary relative multiplex cytokine analysis revealed that CAC conditioned culture media contained three of six measured cytokines: transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGFβ1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Single quantitative cytokine analysis was used to determine the concentration of each cytokine from the four conditions. NO was measured via Griess assay. There was a significant effect of CAC exposure to in vivo exercise on in vitro TGFβ1 secretion (P = 0.024) that was independent of glucose concentration. There was no effect of glucose or acute exercise on TNFα or MCP-1 concentration (both P > 0.05). The concentration of NO from CFU-CAC cultured in elevated glucose was lower following acute exercise (P = 0.002) suggesting that exercise did not maintain NO secretion under hyperglycemic conditions. Our results identify paracrine signaling factors that may be responsible for the proangiogenic function of CFU-CAC and an influence of acute exercise and elevated glucose on CFU-CAC soluble factor secretion. PMID:26847726

  8. Measuring more than we know? An examination of the motivational and situational influences in science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydel, Angela Michelle

    The purpose of this dissertation was to advance theoretical understanding about fit between the personal resources of individuals and the characteristics of science achievement tasks. Testing continues to be pervasive in schools, yet we know little about how students perceive tests and what they think and feel while they are actually working on test items. This study focused on both the personal (cognitive and motivational) and situational factors that may contribute to individual differences in achievement-related outcomes. 387 eighth grade students first completed a survey including measures of science achievement goals, capability beliefs, efficacy related to multiple-choice items and performance assessments, validity beliefs about multiple-choice items and performance assessments, and other perceptions of these item formats. Students then completed science achievement tests including multiple-choice items and two performance assessments. A sample of students was asked to verbalize both thoughts and feelings as they worked through the test items. These think-alouds were transcribed and coded for evidence of cognitive, metacognitive and motivational engagement. Following each test, all students completed measures of effort, mood, energy level and strategy use during testing. Students reported that performance assessments were more challenging, authentic, interesting and valid than multiple-choice tests. They also believed that comparisons between students were easier using multiple-choice items. Overall, students tried harder, felt better, had higher levels of energy and used more strategies while working on performance assessments. Findings suggested that performance assessments might be more congruent with a mastery achievement goal orientation, while multiple-choice tests might be more congruent with a performance achievement goal orientation. A variable-centered analytic approach including regression analyses provided information about how students, on

  9. Dimensions of Motivation to Transfer: A Longitudinal Analysis of Their Influence on Retention, Transfer, and Attitude Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the multidimensionality of motivation to transfer training. Based on self-determination theory, expectancy theory, and the theory of planned behaviour, motivation to transfer was conceptualized in three dimensions: autonomous motivation to transfer, controlled motivation to transfer, and intention to transfer.…

  10. Influence of Zinc Supplementation in Acute Diarrhea Differs by the Isolated Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana B. Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation is recommended in all acute diarrheas in children from developing countries. We aimed to assess whether zinc supplementation would be equally effective against all the common organisms associated with acute diarrheas. We used data on 801 children with acute diarrhea recruited in a randomized, double blind controlled trial (ISRCTN85071383 of zinc and copper supplementation. Using prespecified subgroup analyses, multidimensionality reduction analyses, tests of heterogeneity, and stepwise logistic regression for tests of interactions, we found that the influence of zinc on the risk of diarrhea for more than 3 days depended on the isolated organism—beneficial in Klebsiella, neutral in Esherichia coli and parasitic infections, and detrimental in rotavirus coinfections. Although we found similar results for the outcome of high stool volume, the results did not reach statistical significance. Our findings suggest that the current strategy of zinc supplementation in all cases of acute diarrheas in children may need appropriate fine tuning to optimize the therapeutic benefit based on the causative organism, but further studies need to confirm and extend our findings.

  11. Destination Culture and Its Influence on Tourist Motivation and Tourist Satisfaction of Homestay Visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang VINH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advantage of culture and historical tourism resource, Hanoi has to finalize its tourism development strategy for the long term. This study aims to help tourism planners and marketers to get an understanding that may provide a foundation for their strategic marketing decision in homestay tourism service. The empirical analysis used data from 150 international visitors who have experience in using homestay service in Duonglam old village. To test the hypotheses among tourist motivation, satisfaction with destination loyalty, regression is adopted. This study result show that climate conditions, the destination can be easily reached, the quality of the accommodation, beauty of the scenery and cleanliness are ranked most important attribute for tourist satisfaction with Duonglam village. Another hand the result also indicates negative image about tourist service and culture events of Duonglam old village. Implications of the findings for tourism marketers and research limitation are also discussed.

  12. Factors influencing acute high-grade restenosis in emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Kusachi, Shozo; Iwasaki,Kohichirou; Nishiyama, Osamu; Ueda, Minoru; Kita, Toshimasa; Hata,Takato; Taniguchi, Gyou; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Hina, Kazuyoshi; Saito, Daiji; Tsuji, Takao; Haraoka,Shoichi

    1989-01-01

    We studied the factors which may induce acute high grade restenosis in emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). PTCA was attempted in 50 patients with acute myocardial infarction, and the balloon catheter passed successfully across the occlusion site in 47 (94%) of the patients. These 47 patients were analyzed. "Acute restenosis" was defined as a lesion which was revascularized to less than 50% luminal reduction narrowed again to more than 75% luminal reduction...

  13. Learner motivation and interest

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...

  14. Motivation in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate medical students’ motivation, particularly the importance of quality of motivation, factors influencing and outcomes and to explore how these can be applied to ...

  15. Predicting Intra-Individual Academic Achievement Trajectories of Adolescents Nested in Class Environment: Influence of motivation, implicit theory of intelligence, self-esteem and parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Roskam

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In a longitudinal study conducted on 1130 adolescents (557 male and 573 female in the 1st-6th grades from Belgian secondary schools, we tested the influence of individual factors (motivational constructs, implicit theory of intelligence and self-esteem and environmental determinants (parenting and class environment of academic achievement (grades in mathematics, language arts and GPA at three points in time. Using hierarchical linear models, we observed a decrease of grade over the course of the study, reciprocal relations between motivational constructs, self-esteem and academic achievement, a strong positive impact of supportive parenting and a moderate influence of class environment.

  16. Influence of delays on perforation risk in adults with acute appendicitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, D

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This study analyzed whether prehospital or in-hospital delay was the more significant influence on perforation rates for acute appendicitis and whether any clinical feature designated patients requiring higher surgical priority. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted over one year at a tertiary referral hospital without a dedicated emergency surgical theater. Admission notes, theater logbook, and the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry system were reviewed to identify the characteristics and clinical course of patients aged greater than 16 years who were operated upon for histologically confirmed acute appendicitis. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen patients were studied. The overall perforation rate was 17 percent. The mean duration of symptoms prior to hospital presentation was 38.1 hours with the mean in-hospital waiting time prior to operation being 23.4 hours. Although body temperature on presentation was significantly greater in patients found to have perforated appendicitis (P < 0.05), only patient heart rate at presentation and overall duration of symptoms, but not in-hospital waiting time, independently predicted perforation by stepwise linear regression modeling. CONCLUSION: In-hospital delay was not an independent predictor of perforation in adults with acute appendicitis although delays may contribute if patients are left to wait unduly. Tachycardia at presentation may be a quantifiable feature of those more likely to have perforation and who should be given higher surgical priority.

  17. Motivational influences on impression formation: outcome dependency, accuracy-driven attention, and individuating processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, S L; Fiske, S T

    1987-09-01

    How might being outcome dependent on another person influence the processes that one uses to form impressions of that person? We designed three experiments to investigate this question with respect to short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency. In all three experiments, subjects expected to interact with a young man formerly hospitalized as a schizophrenic, and they received information about the person's attributes in either written profiles or videotapes. In Experiment 1, short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency led subjects to use relatively individuating processes (i.e., to base their impressions of the patient on his particular attributes), even under conditions that typically lead subjects to use relatively category-based processes (i.e., to base their impressions on the patient's schizophrenic label). Moreover, in the conditions that elicited individuating processes, subjects spent more time attending to the patient's particular attribute information. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the attention effects in Experiment 1 were not merely a function of impression positivity and that outcome dependency did not influence the impression formation process when attribute information in addition to category-level information was unavailable. Finally, Experiment 3 manipulated not outcome dependency but the attentional goal of forming an accurate impression. We found that accuracy-driven attention to attribute information also led to individuating processes. The results of the three experiments indicate that there are important influences of outcome dependency on impression formation. These results are consistent with a model in which the tendency for short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency to facilitate individuating impression formation processes is mediated by an increase in accuracy-driven attention to attribute information.

  18. Motivational influences on impression formation: outcome dependency, accuracy-driven attention, and individuating processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, S L; Fiske, S T

    1987-09-01

    How might being outcome dependent on another person influence the processes that one uses to form impressions of that person? We designed three experiments to investigate this question with respect to short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency. In all three experiments, subjects expected to interact with a young man formerly hospitalized as a schizophrenic, and they received information about the person's attributes in either written profiles or videotapes. In Experiment 1, short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency led subjects to use relatively individuating processes (i.e., to base their impressions of the patient on his particular attributes), even under conditions that typically lead subjects to use relatively category-based processes (i.e., to base their impressions on the patient's schizophrenic label). Moreover, in the conditions that elicited individuating processes, subjects spent more time attending to the patient's particular attribute information. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the attention effects in Experiment 1 were not merely a function of impression positivity and that outcome dependency did not influence the impression formation process when attribute information in addition to category-level information was unavailable. Finally, Experiment 3 manipulated not outcome dependency but the attentional goal of forming an accurate impression. We found that accuracy-driven attention to attribute information also led to individuating processes. The results of the three experiments indicate that there are important influences of outcome dependency on impression formation. These results are consistent with a model in which the tendency for short-term, task-oriented outcome dependency to facilitate individuating impression formation processes is mediated by an increase in accuracy-driven attention to attribute information. PMID:3656080

  19. Does the Duration of Abdominal Pain Prior to Admission Influence the Severity of Acute Pancreatitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Kapoor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context In a prior report involving patients with hemoconcentration at admission, those with necrotizing pancreatitis presented significantly earlier than those with interstitial disease suggesting that duration of abdominal pain prior to presentation may have prognostic significance in acute pancreatitis. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine whether the duration of abdominal pain prior to admission influences the severity of acute pancreatitis. Methods During a five-year period, all patients presenting directly to our hospital with their first episode of acute pancreatitis were enrolled in a cohort study. We analyzed data obtained from records of all such patients and performed a separate analysis on those with hemoconcentration (hematocrit equal to, or greater than, 44% at presentation to determine whether duration of abdominal pain prior to presentation was associated with severity of acute pancreatitis. Duration of abdominal pain wascategorized as persisting for either less than 12 h or 12 h or more prior to arrival. Prognostic markers of severity included admission hematocrit and blood urea nitrogen (BUN, as well as the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS during the initial 24 h of hospitalization. Outcome measures included pancreatic necrosis based on contrast-enhanced CT scanning, need for intensive care, length of hospitalization, and death. Radiologic severity of peripancreatic inflammatory changes was assessed within 48 h of admission in accordance with the Balthazar-Ranson scoring system (A-E. Results Among a total of 318 patients, there were 62 (19.5% with hemoconcentration at admission. Among the 318 patients, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of pancreatic necrosis when comparing the less than 12 h group to the 12 h or more group. Among the 62 patients with hemoconcentration, those admitted within 12 h compared to those admitted 12 h or more following the onset of

  20. Influence of operative timing on prognosis of patients with acute subdural hematoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhAO Hong; BAI Xiang-jun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of operative timing on the prognosis of patients with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) in order to provide theoretical basis for clinical treatment.Methods: The clinical data of 202 patients with ASDH undergoing operations were collected, and the mortalities and functional survival rates were analyzed 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after injury.Results: No significant difference was found in mortalities and functional survival rates at different operative timings. However, there was a clear trend that the shorter the operative timing was, the lower the mortality and the higher functional survival rate were. In addition, the mean time from injury to operation of non-survivors was significantly longer than that of survivors.Conclusions: Operative timing has potential influences on the prognosis of patients with ASDH. Surgical evacuation of ASDH should be performed as soon as possible once the operation indication emerges.

  1. The influence of 16‐year‐old students' gender, mental abilities, and motivation on their reading and drawing submicrorepresentations achievements

    OpenAIRE

    Devetak, Iztok; Glažar, Saša Aleksij

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Submicrorepresentations are a powerful tool for identifying misconceptions of chemical concepts and for generating proper mental models of chemical phenomena in students? long term memory during chemical education. The main purpose of the study was to determine which independent variables (gender, formal reasoning abilities, visualization abilities and intrinsic motivation for learning chemistry) have the most influence on students? reading and drawing submicrorepresentati...

  2. Students' Persistence and Academic Success in a First-Year Professional Bachelor Program: The Influence of Students' Learning Strategies and Academic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Vanthournout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores whether students' learning strategies and academic motivation predict persistence and academic success in the first year of higher education. Freshmen students in a professional bachelor program in teacher education were questioned on their learning strategy use and motivation at the start and at the end of the academic year. Students' learning strategies were assessed using the inventory of learning styles-SV. Motivation was measured using scales from the self-regulation questionnaire and the academic motivation scale. Gender and students' prior education were incorporated as control variables. Logistic regression analyses and general linear modelling were applied to predict persistence and academic success, respectively. In each case a stepwise approach in data analysis was used. Results on persistence indicate that lack of regulation and amotivation at the start of the year are significant predictors. For academic success, results showed that relating and structuring, lack of regulation, and lack of motivation at the end of the year are meaningful predictors. Overall, our study demonstrates that learning strategies and motivation have a moderate explanatory value regarding academic success and persistence, and that these effects remain even after controlling for the influence of background variables.

  3. Factors Influencing Facebook Usage and Facebook Addictive Tendency in University Students: The Role of Online Psychological Privacy and Facebook Usage Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Su-Lin

    2016-04-01

    There are few studies analysing the influence of personal traits and motivation factors on Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency as seen in university students. In this study, 225 Taiwanese university students completed a questionnaire to determine their online psychological privacy scale, Facebook usage motivation scale, Facebook usage scale and Facebook addictive tendency scale, in order to evaluate the items that can be conceptualized as the effect of university students' online psychological privacy personal trait and motive factors, and Facebook usage motivation with respect to Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency. The study found that a desire for more online psychological privacy correlates with a stronger motivation to use Facebook and more Facebook usage behaviour among university students who may become high-risk groups for Facebook addictive tendency. The study found that a desire for or an acceptance of a lower online psychological privacy correlates with a stronger motivation to use Facebook among university students who may have more Facebook usage behaviour. This study can help understand university students' Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency and provide feature indicators for those who may become high-risk groups for Facebook addictive tendency. Finally, this study conducts discussion and proposes relevant suggestions for future study.

  4. Motivator-manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2009-01-01

    The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs.

  5. An Examination of the Influence of Consumer Motivation on Salesperson Appraisal and Emotional Response to Salesperson Behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Mallalieu, Lynnea Anne

    2000-01-01

    This research examines the effects of consumer motivation during an interpersonal sales encounter. The research proposes that a consumer's motivational mind-set affects the consumer's cognitive appraisal of the salesperson and the consumer's subsequent emotional response. Of primary interest is the interaction between a consumer's motivation and a salesperson's behavior. A main thesis of this research is that a congruency mechanism operates between the consumer and the salesperson during a...

  6. The influence of cognitive and motivational biases in managerial decision making: empirical evidence from a Brazilian construction company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Barros Feitosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The heuristics and the biases affect the decision making process allowing the manager to take high complexity decisions under simplified conditions with the benefit of time saving. Although they are useful, making the information processing more efficient by directing the managers to relevancies and common urgencies to the decision making process, the use of heuristics can lead to induced inconsistencies by biases or lapses of decisions, which persistent and predictable generate patterns of behavior. Against that, the object of this research consists in diagnose possible cognitive and motivational biases, in special, the confidence excess, the optimism and the anchorage, in managers of a great Brazilian construction company. In order to achieve that objective, a structured questionary with selected tools into the literature on decision process was submitted to 120 managers of a big Brazilian construction company, however, only 84 questionaries were obtained, tabled and analyzed. As from the parametric and non-parametric tests, univariate and bivariate, it was found that the managers of the analyzed company: (1 are excessively confidents in their estimates; (2 seem more optimists than other economic agent groups; (3 are totally influenced by bosses in theirs estimates. The results confirm empirical evidences, emanated from the literature on heuristics and cognitive and emotional biases, particularly with concepts of Prospect Theory, and are opposed to the concepts derived from the literature that addresses the rational model of decision making, more specifically, the Expected Utility Theory.

  7. A Study of Circadian Rhythm and Meteorological Factors Influencing Acute Myocardial Infarction

    CERN Document Server

    Selvam, A M; Mody, S M S

    1998-01-01

    The circadian rhythm in the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was assessed in three hundred and twenty three patients admitted with AMI during the two-year period June 1992 to May 1994. The influence of the following meteorological, solar-geophysical and cosmic parameters in the causation of an infarct was also considered : (1) surface pressure (2) maximum temperature (3) minimum temperature (4) relative humidity (5) cosmic ray index (6) geomagnetic aa index (7) solar flares and (8) sunspot number. A well pronounced diurnal variability in AMI with a peak in the morning hours (6-12 a.m.) was seen. Further analysis of the data by considering one-hour periods revealed the presence of a smaller evening (10 p.m.) increase in incidence, i.e., the existence of a bimodal circadian rhythm. The simultaneous occurrence of the well documented semi-diurnal rhythm in surface pressure and incidence of acute myocardial infarction were evident. This may be one of the factors involved in the causation of the smal...

  8. Mood influences on acute smoking responses are independent of nicotine intake and dose expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Ciccocioppo, Melinda; Conklin, Cynthia A; Milanak, Melissa E; Grottenthaler, Amy; Sayette, Michael A

    2008-02-01

    Acute responses to smoking are influenced by nicotine and by nonpharmacological factors such as nicotine dose expectancy and sensory effects of smoke inhalation. Because negative mood increases smoking reinforcement, the authors examined whether these effects may be altered by mood context. Smokers (n=200) participated in 2 sessions, negative or positive mood induction, and were randomized to 1 of 5 groups. Four groups comprised the 2x2 balanced placebo design, varying actual (0.6 mg vs. 0.05 mg yield) and expected nicotine dose (expected nicotine vs. denicotinized [denic]) of cigarettes. A fifth group was a no-smoking control. Smoking, versus not smoking, attenuated negative affect, as well as withdrawal and craving. Negative mood increased smoking reinforcement. However, neither actual nor expected nicotine dose had much influence on these responses; even those smokers receiving and expecting a denic cigarette reported attenuated negative affect. A follow-up comparison suggested that the sensory effects of smoke inhalation, but not the simple motor effects of smoking behavior, were responsible. Thus, sensory effects of smoke inhalation had a greater influence on relieving negative affect than actual or expected nicotine intake. PMID:18266487

  9. Mood influences on acute smoking responses are independent of nicotine intake and dose expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Ciccocioppo, Melinda; Conklin, Cynthia A; Milanak, Melissa E; Grottenthaler, Amy; Sayette, Michael A

    2008-02-01

    Acute responses to smoking are influenced by nicotine and by nonpharmacological factors such as nicotine dose expectancy and sensory effects of smoke inhalation. Because negative mood increases smoking reinforcement, the authors examined whether these effects may be altered by mood context. Smokers (n=200) participated in 2 sessions, negative or positive mood induction, and were randomized to 1 of 5 groups. Four groups comprised the 2x2 balanced placebo design, varying actual (0.6 mg vs. 0.05 mg yield) and expected nicotine dose (expected nicotine vs. denicotinized [denic]) of cigarettes. A fifth group was a no-smoking control. Smoking, versus not smoking, attenuated negative affect, as well as withdrawal and craving. Negative mood increased smoking reinforcement. However, neither actual nor expected nicotine dose had much influence on these responses; even those smokers receiving and expecting a denic cigarette reported attenuated negative affect. A follow-up comparison suggested that the sensory effects of smoke inhalation, but not the simple motor effects of smoking behavior, were responsible. Thus, sensory effects of smoke inhalation had a greater influence on relieving negative affect than actual or expected nicotine intake.

  10. Influence of Student Learning Experience on Academic Performance: The Mediator and Moderator Effects of Self-Regulation and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Hoi Kwan; Downing, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediator and moderator roles of self-regulation and motivation constructs in the relationship between learning experience and academic success. Self-reported measures of learning experience, self-regulation and motivation were obtained from 384 undergraduate students from a university in Hong Kong. Structural equation…

  11. Exploration of the Independent and Joint Influences of Social Norms and Drinking Motives on Korean College Students' Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jounghwa; Park, Dong-Jin; Noh, Ghee-Young

    2016-06-01

    Understanding what types of social norms are more or less influential and how they operate with respect to other psychological variables can provide valuable insights into the design of effective social norm campaigns. To this end, this study explores the roles of two types of social norms (injunctive norms and descriptive norms) and two types of drinking motives (social motives and conformity motives) in collegiate drinking behavior in South Korea. A survey of Korean college students (N = 569) revealed significant positive effects of injunctive norms, descriptive norms, and social motives on students' drinking frequency and quantity. Conformity motives were positively related to the frequency of drinking but negatively related to the quantity of drinking. Furthermore, the results revealed significant effects of the interactions between descriptive norms and social motives (on both the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption), such that the positive effect of descriptive norms was more pronounced among individuals with stronger social motives. A similar pattern was observed in the interaction between injunctive norms and conformity motives (on frequency). Theoretical and practical implications of the findings for social norm campaigns seeking to curb drinking among college students are discussed. PMID:27187185

  12. Public Service Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Marilena Mihalcioiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.

  13. Social Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroff, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes different types of social motivation that have interested social psychologists within a developmental paradigm. Currently, cognition is a central aspect of motivational psychology. Individuals' motive patterns are seen to change over the life cycle. (Author/AV)

  14. Work motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Hrouda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is focused on an issue of a work motivation. The thesis is divided into two main parts. The first part, a theoretical one, is focused on a general concept of motivation and characteristics of basic terms associated with the work motivation. This part defines a theoretical basis for practical solutions. This part of the thesis was basedon a literature search. The sources of motivation, the terms like a motive, a stimulus, a stimulation or motivational types are listed i...

  15. Factors influencing outcome in acute ischaemic stroke : outcome scales, the role of blood glucose and rtPA treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttenboogaart, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes several aspects that influence outcome in acute ischaemic strok. In the first part, two frequently used outcome scales - the Barthel index and modified Rankin scale - are studied and for both scales, optimal endpoints for stroke trials are proposed. In the second part, the rela

  16. The influence of leader's spiritual values of servant leadership on employee motivational autonomy and eudaemonic well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Chen, Chun-Hsi Vivian; Li, Chun-I

    2013-06-01

    This research examined the role of leader's spiritual values in terms of the "servant leadership" in the process of promoting employee's autonomous motivation and eudaemonic well-being. Sample consists of 265 Chinese supervisor-subordinate dyads recruited from a variety of industries in Taiwan. Spiritual values perceived by the subordinates, as well as the discrepancy between leader-subordinate perceptions, but not the leader's self-perceptions of spiritual values, were found to contribute significantly beyond transactional leadership in predicting subordinate motivational autonomy and eudaemonic well-being, and subordinate autonomous motivations fully mediates the relationship between spiritual values and eudaemonic well-being. PMID:21424861

  17. The influence of leader's spiritual values of servant leadership on employee motivational autonomy and eudaemonic well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Chen, Chun-Hsi Vivian; Li, Chun-I

    2013-06-01

    This research examined the role of leader's spiritual values in terms of the "servant leadership" in the process of promoting employee's autonomous motivation and eudaemonic well-being. Sample consists of 265 Chinese supervisor-subordinate dyads recruited from a variety of industries in Taiwan. Spiritual values perceived by the subordinates, as well as the discrepancy between leader-subordinate perceptions, but not the leader's self-perceptions of spiritual values, were found to contribute significantly beyond transactional leadership in predicting subordinate motivational autonomy and eudaemonic well-being, and subordinate autonomous motivations fully mediates the relationship between spiritual values and eudaemonic well-being.

  18. Motivation in language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骊

    2008-01-01

    Motivation is one of the key affective factors in language learning, which has been highly regarded and widely researched by both linguists and language teachers. It is very necessary for language teachers and learners to be aware of the influence of the motivation.

  19. Student Motivational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Mary; Burross, Heidi Legg

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Student motivation typically has been studied as it relates to extrinsic (e.g., reinforcement) or intrinsic (e.g., personal choice) sources of influence, with scant attention to sociocultural context. This article builds on a previous article in this special issue that (1) addresses the role of opportunity in the motivation of…

  20. Predicting Intra-Individual Academic Achievement Trajectories of Adolescents Nested in Class Environment: Influence of motivation, implicit theory of intelligence, self-esteem and parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Roskam; Frederic Nils

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal study conducted on 1130 adolescents (557 male and 573 female) in the 1st-6th grades from Belgian secondary schools, we tested the influence of individual factors (motivational constructs, implicit theory of intelligence and self-esteem) and environmental determinants (parenting and class environment) of academic achievement (grades in mathematics, language arts and GPA at three points in time). Using hierarchical linear models, we observed a decrease of grade over the course...

  1. Depression, anxiety and influencing factors in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ping; LI Xiao-mei; CHEN Hang-wei; CUI Jun-yu; NIU Li-li; HE Yu-bin; TIAN Xin-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychological distress has been widely studied in many cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, but the condition in acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of depression and anxiety and their influencing factors in APE patients.Methods Sixty consecutive patients with APE were subjected to investigation of depression and anxiety by the Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and 60 community-based subjects were enrolled as controls.APE patients were stratified as high-risk, intermediate-risk and low-risk according to the disease severity. Scores of depression and anxiety were compared by statistical analysis using paired t tests between APE patients and controls,and by analysis of variance within the APE patients with the three risk stratification. Factors influencing depression and anxiety were evaluated.Results The mean age of the patients (38 males and 22 females) was (52+12) years. APE patients displayed higher scores of depression (P=0.04) and anxiety (P=0.001) compared with controls. Patients in the high-risk group displayed higher scores of depression (P=0.004) and anxiety (P=0.001) compared with those in the intermediate- and low-risk groups. Depression scores were highly correlated with anxiety scores (r=0.60, P <0.001). Both depression and anxiety inversely related to risk stratification (P <0.01), age (P <0.05), and arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO2) (P <0.05).Linear regression analysis showed that PaO2 was independently inversely related to both depression (P <0.01) and anxiety (P <0.05); risk stratification and age were independently inversely related to anxiety (P <0.05).Conclusions Patients of APE suffered high levels of depression and anxiety, which were negatively influenced by PaO2,risk stratification and age.

  2. How do impulsivity traits influence problem gambling through gambling motives? The role of perceived gambling risk/benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Griffiths, Mark D; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Santinello, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Although substantial research suggests that motivations have been found to mediate the relationships between impulsivity traits and various forms of substance use, no studies have examined how gambling motives may mediate the relationships between impulsivity traits and problem gambling. The primary purpose of this study was to test an integrative model linking impulsivity traits and gambling problems, evaluating the mediating effects of gambling motives. Participants were 594 students (73% male; age, M = 19.92 years; SD = 2.91) enrolled in public high schools or universities. Young people who tend to act rashly in response to extremely positive moods showed higher enhancement and coping motives, which in turn were positively related to gambling problems. Individuals with higher levels of sensation seeking were more likely to have higher levels of enhancement motives, which in turn were also positively related to gambling problems. The model was examined in several groups, separately for the level of perceived gambling risk/benefits (lower perceived gambling risk, higher perceived gambling risk, lower perceived gambling benefits, and higher perceived gambling benefits). There were significant differences between these groups for this division. These findings suggest that prevention and/or treatment strategies might need to consider the model's variables, including impulsivity traits and gambling motives, in accordance with individual levels of perceived gambling risk/benefits. PMID:25730629

  3. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication — A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wurdak, M.; Wolstein, J; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in ...

  4. The influence of psychosocial factors on recovery following acute whiplash trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Tina Birgitte Wisbech

    2012-12-01

    Persistent pain and disability after whiplash trauma has become an increasingly significant problem in many industrialized countries entailing comprehensive individual as well as social costs. The dissertation includes two areas of research within whiplash trauma. The first part contains two empirical articles focusing on risk factors for poor recovery. The second part contains a systematic review and an empirical article and concerns the influence of coping strategies on recovery with a special emphasis on possible gender differences. All empirical articles in the dissertation are based on self-reported questionnaire data on a patient cohort of whiplash-exposed. Patients are consecutively included in the study within the first ten days of collision recruited from emergency departments and general practitioners in four counties in Denmark from April 2001 to June 2003. One of the empirical articles in the dissertation is supplemented with data from a social register of transfer benefits on the patient cohort as well as on a matched register control cohort in the general population. In this dissertation we wish to answer the following questions: 1) Do self-reported pre-collision health-related and socio-demographic factors affect self-reported work capability and neck pain one year after acute whiplash trauma? 2) Do transfer benefits before the accident predict negative change in future health-related provisional situation and future neck pain? 3) Do persons with acute whiplash trauma experience more negative change in future health-related provisional situation compared to a matched register control group? 4) Does research in the use of coping strategies after whiplash trauma show that these predict poor restitution and is there any research on gender differences in the use of coping strategies in whiplash-exposed? 5) Do gender and coping strategies interact in the prediction of future neck pain following acute whiplash trauma? Self-reported unspecified pain, female

  5. Influence of motivation upon effectiveness of physical culture and sport profile high educational facilities teachers' proffessional-pedagogical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanchenko N.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivation of teachers for professional-pedagogical activity and levels of forming of their pedagogical skills were determined based on the results of self evaluation and evaluation that was performed by the students. Evaluation of teachers' pedagogical skills and self evaluation were compared to dominating motivation for professional activity of teachers. 42 teachers and 78 students took part in this experiment. To determine proffessional-pedagogical activity motivation the tool of K. Zamfir in modification by A. Rean was used. To determine self evaluation of pedagogical skills "Scale of self evaluation of pedagogical activity" and tool of B. Zelentsov "Students about a teacher" were used. It was shown that it is characteristic for teachers to over estimate their pedagogical skills in comparison to the evaluation made by students: high level of forming of pedagogical skills comprise 40,48 % of respondents, while according to the students evaluation this figure is almost twice lower and comprises - 21,43%; average level evaluation, shows only 14,28 %, when students evaluate that 35,71% of teachers have average level of pedagogical skills forming. It was declared that teachers with the most determined internal motives are more objective in their self evaluation. It was proven that teachers whose pedagogical skills are on high level and who are evaluated by the students on the same level the are lead by domination of internal motivation.

  6. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurdak, M.; Wolstein, J.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized contro

  7. Influence of Daily Individual Meteorological Parameters on the Incidence of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Ravljen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A nationwide study was conducted to explore the short term association between daily individual meteorological parameters and the incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS treated with coronary emergency catheter interventions in the Republic of Slovenia, a south-central European country. Method: We linked meteorological data with daily ACS incidence for the entire population of Slovenia, for the population over 65 years of age and for the population under 65 years of age. Data were collected daily for a period of 4 years from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2011. In line with existing studies, we used a main effect generalized linear model with a log-link-function and a Poisson distribution of ACS. Results and Conclusions: Three of the studied meteorological factors (daily average temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity all have relevant and significant influences on ACS incidences for the entire population. However, the ACS incidence for the population over 65 is only affected by daily average temperature, while the ACS incidence for the population under 65 is affected by daily average pressure and humidity. In terms of ambient temperature, the overall findings of our study are in line with the findings of the majority of contemporary European studies, which also note a negative correlation. The results regarding atmospheric pressure and humidity are less in line, due to considerable variations in results. Additionally, the number of available European studies on atmospheric pressure and humidity is relatively low. The fourth studied variable—season—does not influence ACS incidence in a statistically significant way.

  8. Factors influencing pre-hospital delay among patients with acute myocardial infarction in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maryam Momeni; Arsalan Salari; Shora Shafighnia; Atefeh Ghanbari; Fardin Mirbolouk

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of morbidity and disability among Iranian population.Pre-hospital delay is an important cause of increasing early and also late mortality in AMI.Thus the aim of the present study was to identify the factors influencing pre-hospital delay among patients with AMI in Iran.Methods Between August 2010 and May 2011,a cross-sectional and single-center survey was conducted on 162 consecutive patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) admitted to Cardiac Care Unit (CCU) of Dr.Heshmat Hospital,Rasht.All patients were interviewed by the third author within 7 days after admission by using a four-part questionnaire including socio-demographic,clinical,situational and cognitive factors.Data were analyzed by descriptive and Logistic regression model at P < 0.05 using SPSS 16.Results Mean age was (60.11±12.29) years in all patients.Majority of patients (65.4%) were male.The median of pre-hospital delay was 2 hours,with a mean delay of 7.4 hours (±16.25 hours).Regression analysis showed that admission in weekend (P <0.04,OR=1.033,95% Cl=1.187-2.006) and misinterpretation of symptoms as cardiac origin (P <0.002,OR=1.986,95% Cl=1.254-3.155) and perceiving symptoms to not be so serious (P <0.003,OR=3.264,95%Cl=1.492-7.142) were factors influencing pre-hospital delay > 2 hours.Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of cognitive factors on decision-making process and pre-hospital delays.Health care providers can educate the public on AMI to enable them recognize the signs and symptoms of AMI correctly and realize the benefits of early treatment.

  9. Influence of dexamethasone on mesenteric lymph node of rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Ping Zhang; Hong-Miao Xu; Yi-Yu Jiang; Shuo Yu; Yang Cai; Bei Lu; Qi Xie; Tong-Fa Ju

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the influence and mechanisms of dexamethasone on mesenteric lymph node of rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).METHODS: The SAP rats were assigned to model, treated or sham-operated groups. The mortality, pathological changes of mesenteric lymph nodes, expression levels of NF-κB, P-selectin, Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 protein and changes in apoptotic indexes in lymph nodes were observed at 3, 6 and 12 h after operation. The blood levels of endotoxin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in blood were determined.RESULTS: SOD content, expression of Bax protein and apoptotic index were significantly higher in the treated group than in the model group at different time points (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Other blood-detecting indexes and histopathological scores of mesenteric lymph nodes were lower in the treated than in the model group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.01). NF-κB protein expression was negative in all groups. Comparing P-selectin and caspase-3 expression levels among all three groups, there was no marked difference between the model and treated group.CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone can protect mesenteric lymph nodes. The mechanism may be by reducing the content of inflammatory mediators in the blood and inducing lymphocyte apoptosis.

  10. Acute and chronic pretreatment with essential oil of peppermint (Mentha × piperita L., Lamiaceae) influences drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samojlik, Isidora; Petković, Stojan; Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Božin, Biljana

    2012-06-01

    The appearance of common and self-initiative usage of various herbal preparations in everyday practice and life imposes the question of possible interactions with drugs. This survey examined the influence of acute and chronic peppermint oil (PO--Mentha × piperita L., Lamiaceae; prepared as emulsion for oral use) on pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time, analgesic effect of codeine and impairment of motor coordination caused by midazolam in mice. The chemical profile of essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Applied doses of PO were 0.1 and 0.2 mL/kg. Chronic PO intake (in both doses) led to significant decrease of analgesic effect of codeine, while acute intake of PO did not change this effect. Acute PO pretreatment in higher dose caused significant prolongation of pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time, while it was significantly shortened by chronic PO pretreatment at the same dose. Midazolam effect was enhanced and prolonged significantly by chronic PO intake at higher dose, while acute intake of PO did not change this effect. Gut motility was increased only by acute intake of higher PO dose. Regarding the fact that PO produces changes in tested drug effects, the interaction between drugs and phytopreparations containing PO should be additionally followed/confirmed in humans. PMID:22076909

  11. Acute and chronic pretreatment with essential oil of peppermint (Mentha × piperita L., Lamiaceae) influences drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samojlik, Isidora; Petković, Stojan; Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Božin, Biljana

    2012-06-01

    The appearance of common and self-initiative usage of various herbal preparations in everyday practice and life imposes the question of possible interactions with drugs. This survey examined the influence of acute and chronic peppermint oil (PO--Mentha × piperita L., Lamiaceae; prepared as emulsion for oral use) on pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time, analgesic effect of codeine and impairment of motor coordination caused by midazolam in mice. The chemical profile of essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Applied doses of PO were 0.1 and 0.2 mL/kg. Chronic PO intake (in both doses) led to significant decrease of analgesic effect of codeine, while acute intake of PO did not change this effect. Acute PO pretreatment in higher dose caused significant prolongation of pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time, while it was significantly shortened by chronic PO pretreatment at the same dose. Midazolam effect was enhanced and prolonged significantly by chronic PO intake at higher dose, while acute intake of PO did not change this effect. Gut motility was increased only by acute intake of higher PO dose. Regarding the fact that PO produces changes in tested drug effects, the interaction between drugs and phytopreparations containing PO should be additionally followed/confirmed in humans.

  12. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers. PMID:23130386

  13. An Analysis of the Influence of Positive Motivation and Strategies on English Learning%论积极的动机与策略在英语学习中的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白丹

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the topic of SLA(Second Language Acquisition).According to the research and my English learning experience,this article analyzes the influence of positive motivation and strategies on learning English.

  14. The Influence of Motivation and Adaptation on Students' Subjective Well-Being, Meaning in Life and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Thomas Hamilton; Phillips, Lisa J.

    2016-01-01

    High rates of mental illness among students and discontinuation with university studies are regularly reported. The current study sought to explore relationships between motivation, university adaptation and indicators of mental health and well-being and academic performance of 184 first-year university students (73% female, mean age?=?19.3…

  15. The Influence of Racism-Related Stress on the Academic Motivation of Black and Latino/a Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Sneva, Jacob N.; Beehler, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of racism-related stress on the academic and psychological factors affecting the success of 151 Black and Latino/a college students enrolled at several predominantly White universities in the northeastern United States. Institutional racism-related stress was negatively correlated with extrinsic motivation but…

  16. The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors on Academic Performance in General Chemistry Course: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alci, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the predictive and explanatory model in terms of university students' academic performance in "General Chemistry" course and their motivational features. The participants were 169 university students in the 1st grade at university. Of the participants, 132 were female and 37 were male students. Regarding…

  17. Influence of social motives on integrative negotiation: a meta-analytical review and test of two theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; L.R. Weingart; S. Kwon

    2000-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 28 studies examined support for the Theory of Cooperation and Competition (M. Deutsch, 1973) and Dual Concern Theory (D. G. Pruitt & J. Z. Rubin, 1986). Effects of social motive (prosocial vs. egoistic) and resistance to yielding (high vs. low vs. unknown) on contenting, problem s

  18. Investigating the Influences of a LEAPS Model on Preservice Teachers' Problem Solving, Metacognition, and Motivation in an Educational Technology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Ian A.; Ge, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a qualitative study which examined students' problem-solving, metacognition, and motivation in a learning environment designed for teaching educational technology to pre-service teachers. The researchers converted a linear and didactic learning environment into a new open learning environment by contextualizing domain-related…

  19. Enabling employees to work safely: the influence of motivation and ability in the design of safety instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, P.A.; Hoof, van J.J.; Vuuren, van M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: One of the major challenges for modern organizations is to create healthy and safe work environments, as evidenced by the number of occupational deaths (worldwide: four per minute), and an even higher number of injuries. This study explores different levels of motivation and ability, to ide

  20. Investigating the Influences of Core Self-Evaluations, Job Autonomy, and Intrinsic Motivation on In-Role Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Baek-Kyoo; Jeung, Chang-Wook; Yoon, Hea Jun

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of core self-evaluations, job autonomy, and intrinsic motivation on employees' perceptions of their in-role job performance, based on a cross-sectional survey of 283 employees in a Fortune Global 100 company in Korea. The results suggest that employees perceived higher in-role job performance when they had…

  1. The Influence of Organisational Commitment, Job Involvement and Utility Perceptions on Trainees' Motivation to Improve Work through Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Treuer, Kathryn; McHardy, Katherine; Earl, Celisha

    2013-01-01

    Workplace training is a key strategy often used by organisations to optimise performance. Further, trainee motivation is a key determinant of the degree to which the material learned in a training programme will be transferred to the workplace, enhancing the performance of the trainee. This study investigates the relationship between several…

  2. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Corruption Motivation in New Period%新形势下腐败动机影响因素探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童燕军

    2015-01-01

    The most fundamental measure to prevent corruption is to control its source,i.e.analysis of both external and internal causes of subjects.The corruption motivation as the internal impetus for the subjects’corruption exerts direct in-fluence on the malversation.In this sense,it is of great significance to study such motivation for prevention of corruption from source.Through study,the author has found that the corruption motivation of behavioral agents are mainly influenced by earn-ings,cost and chances of corruption and their attitudes toward the malversation.Accordingly,in order to get rid of behavioral agents’corruption motivation,we have to adopt more severe punishment measures,perfect the supervision system of corrup-tion and increase the agents’cognition of such malversation.%腐败预防的根本是加强腐败源头的治理,即对腐败主体进行内因与外因的分析。腐败动机作为腐败主体实施腐败行为的内在动力,直接影响着腐败行为的发生,所以研究腐败动机对从源头上预防腐败的发生具有非常重要的意义。通过研究,行为主体的腐败动机主要受腐败收益、腐败成本、腐败机会及腐败态度的影响,所以要遏制行为主体的腐败动机,还必须加大腐败惩治的力度、健全腐败监督体系以及不断提高行为主体的腐败认知。

  3. Multiple motives and persuasive communication : Creative elaboration as a result of impression motivation and accuracy motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, AE; Manstead, ASR; Spears, R

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of impression motivation (Experiments 1 and 2) and the combined effects of accuracy motivation and impression motivation (Experiment 3) on the elaboration of persuasive messages as reflected in attitude change and cognitive responses. Intermediate levels of impress

  4. Work motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    The main theme of this thesis is the work motivation. The work is divided into two parts. The theoretical part speaks about the basic concepts and the motivation theory. It also deals with the motivation of employees, their evaluation and remuneration. The second, empirical part, is focused on exploration and evaluation of individual preferences affect the performance of employees. The research aim determines how the motivational tools in the work are effective or inefficient and how employee...

  5. Influence of social motives on integrative negotiation: a meta-analytic review and test of two theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, C K; Weingart, L R; Kwon, S

    2000-05-01

    A meta-analysis of 28 studies examined support for the Theory of Cooperation and Competition (M. Deutsch, 1973) and Dual Concern Theory (D. G. Pruitt & J. Z. Rubin, 1986). Effects of social motive (prosocial vs. egoistic) and resistance to yielding (high vs. low vs. unknown) on contenting, problem solving, and joint outcomes were examined. Consistent with Dual Concern Theory, results showed that negotiators were less contentious, engaged in more problem solving, and achieved higher joint outcomes when they had a prosocial rather than egoistic motive, but only when resistance to yielding was high (or unknown) rather than low. The authors also explored the moderating effects of study characteristics and found effects for participation inducement (class exercise, participant pool), for publication status, and for treatment of no-agreement dyads.

  6. The strategy and motivational influences on the beneficial effect of neurostimulation: a tDCS and fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin T; Gözenman, Filiz; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-01-15

    Working memory (WM) capacity falls along a spectrum with some people demonstrating higher and others lower WM capacity. Efforts to improve WM include applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in which small amounts of current modulate the activity of underlying neurons and enhance cognitive function. However, not everyone benefits equally from a given tDCS protocol. Recent findings revealed tDCS-related WM benefits for individuals with higher working memory (WM) capacity. Here, we test two hypotheses regarding those with low WM capacity to see if they too would benefit under more optimal conditions. We tested whether supplying a WM strategy (Experiment 1) or providing greater extrinsic motivation through incentives (Experiment 2) would restore tDCS benefit to the low WM capacity group. We also employed functional near infrared spectroscopy to monitor tDCS-induced changes in neural activity. Experiment 1 demonstrated that supplying a WM strategy improved the high WM capacity participants' accuracy and the amount of oxygenated blood levels following anodal tDCS, but it did not restore tDCS-linked WM benefits to the low WM capacity group. Experiment 2 demonstrated that financial motivation enhanced performance in both low and high WM capacity groups, especially after anodal tDCS. Here, only the low WM capacity participants showed a generalized increase in oxygenated blood flow across both low and high motivation conditions. These results indicate that ensuring that participants' incentives are high may expand cognitive benefits associated with tDCS. This finding is relevant for translational work using tDCS in clinical populations, in which motivation can be a concern. PMID:25462798

  7. Maternal and Newborn Healthcare Providers in Rural Tanzania: In-depth Interviews Exploring Influences on Motivation, Performance and Job Satisfaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Prytherch, H; Kakoko, D. C. V.; Leshabari, M.T.; Sauerborn, R; M. Marx

    2012-01-01

    Major improvements in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) remain elusive in Tanzania. The causes are closely related to the health system and overall human resource policy. Just 35% of the required workforce is actually in place and 43% of available staff consists of lower-level cadres such as auxiliaries. Staff motivation is also a challenge. In rural areas the problems of recruiting and retaining health staff are most pronounced. Yet, it is here that the majority of the population continues ...

  8. The membrane-induced proton motive force influences the metal binding ability of Bacillus subtilis cell walls.

    OpenAIRE

    Urrutia Mera, M; Kemper, M; Doyle, R.; Beveridge, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis 168 is a gram-positive bacterium whose cell wall contains the highly electronegative polymers peptidoglycan (chemotype A1 gamma) and glycerol-based teichoic acid to produce a surface with a net negative charge with high metal binding capacity. During metabolism, a membrane-induced proton motive force continuously pumps protons into the wall fabric. As a result, a competition between protons and metal ions for anionic wall sites occurs, and less metal is bound in living cells...

  9. Influence of reward preferences in attracting, retaining, and motivating knowledge workers in South African information technology companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bussin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The world of work is evolving and the nature of relationships between knowledge workers and their employers has changed distinctly, leading to a change in the type of rewards they prefer. The nature of these preferences in the South African, industry-specific context is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to deepen understanding of the reward preferences of Information technology (IT knowledge workers in South Africa, specifically as these relate to the attraction, retention and motivation of knowledge workers.Design: The research design included a quantitative, empirical and descriptive study of reward preferences, measured with a self-administered survey and analysed using non-parametric tests for variance between dependent and independent groups and non-parametric analysis of variance.Findings: This study found that there are specific reward preferences in knowledge workers in the IT sector in South Africa and that these preferences apply differently when related to the attraction, retention and motivation of employees. It identified the most important reward components in the competition for knowledge workers and also demonstrated that demographic characteristics play a statistically significant role in determining reward preferences.Practical implications: The study’s findings show that a holistic approach to total rewards is required, failing which, companies will find themselves facing increased turnover and jobhopping. Importantly, the study also highlights that different rewards need to form part of knowledge workers’ relationship with their employer in three different scenarios: attraction, retention and motivation.

  10. Factors Influencing Learner Conceptions of Force: Exploring the Interaction among Visuospatial Ability, Motivation, and Conceptions of Newtonian Mechanics in University Undergraduates from an Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallett, David Bruce

    This study examined the relationships among visuospatial ability, motivation to learn science, and learner conceptions of force across commonly measured demographics with university undergraduates with the aim of examining the support for an evolved sense of force and motion. Demographic variables of interest included age, ethnicity, and gender, which served to determine the ubiquity of the effects of the exogenous variables. Participants (n=91) self selected from introductory physics courses at a large public university in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Utilizing a single-group exploratory design, all participants completed a series of anonymous online instruments to assess the variables of interest. Analysis consisted of an ANOVA for significance testing of demographic variables and a single-level structural equation model (SEM) to ascertain the causal influence of visuospatial ability and affect in the form of motivation on learner conceptions of force. Results of the SEM indicated that while motivation had a nonsignificant (p>.05) impact with this sample, visuospatial ability had a strong (.5 unit change in physics achievement per unit of VSA, pcognitive processes and corresponding neural substrates associated with successful Newtonian reasoning.

  11. Standardizing acute toxicity data for use in ecotoxicology models: influence of test type, life stage, and concentration reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Sandy; Vivian, Deborah N; Barron, Mace G

    2009-10-01

    Ecotoxicological models generally have large data requirements and are frequently based on existing information from diverse sources. Standardizing data for toxicological models may be necessary to reduce extraneous variation and to ensure models reflect intrinsic relationships. However, the extent to which data standardization is necessary remains unclear, particularly when data transformations are used in model development. An extensive acute toxicity database was compiled for aquatic species to comprehensively assess the variation associated with acute toxicity test type (e.g., flow-through, static), reporting concentrations as nominal or measured, and organism life stage. Three approaches were used to assess the influence of these factors on log-transformed acute toxicity: toxicity ratios, log-linear models of factor groups, and comparison of interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models developed using either standardized test types or reported concentration type. In general, median ratios were generally less than 2.0, the slopes of log-linear models were approximately one for well-represented comparisons, and ICE models developed using data from standardized test types or reported concentrations did not differ substantially. These results indicate that standardizing test data by acute test type, reported concentration type, or life stage may not be critical for developing ecotoxicological models using large datasets of log-transformed values.

  12. Student and Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors and the Influence of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors on Student Motivation to Learn Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Vania

    The National Assessment on Educational Progress signals that American students are not being adequately prepared to compete globally in an ever changing scientific society. As a result, legislation mandated that all students be assessed and show proficiency in scientific literacy beginning in Grade 4 with the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2002 also known as No Child Left Behind. Research indicates a disturbing decline in the number of U.S. students pursuing more rigorous science courses in high school, majoring in scientific areas in college, and choosing future careers in science. With a need to improve science instruction and enhance science literacy for all students, this study focuses on immediate communication behaviors of the classroom teacher as a deciding factor in the opinions of high school students towards science. The purpose of this study was to reveal high school science student perceptions of teacher communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, and how they influence their motivation to learn science. The researcher utilized a nonexperimental, quantitative research design to guide this study. Teacher and student data were collected using the Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ). The Student Motivation to Learn Instrument (SMLI) across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status survey was used to evaluate student motivation in science. Participants were encouraged to be honest in reporting and sharing information concerning teacher communication behaviors. The data revealed that teacher immediacy behaviors, both verbal and nonverbal, were perceived differently in terms of student gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The results showed that teachers who display positive communication behaviors and use challenging questioning followed with positive responses create pathways to potentially powerful relationships. These relationships between teachers and students can lead to increased student

  13. Factors influencing clinical outcomes of acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yin-hui; ZHUO Shi-tu; CHEN Ya-fang; LI Ming-mei; LIN You-yu; YANG Mei-li; CHEN Zhen-jie

    2013-01-01

    Background Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) has gained international recognition,clinical outcomes following this thrombolytic therapy varied from patient to patient.Factors affecting clinical outcomes have not been well understood yet,so this retrospective case-control study aimed to investigate factors that may influence clinical outcomes of acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous rt-PA.Methods One hundred and one patients with acute ischemic stroke who received intravenous rt-PA thrombolysis within 4.5 hours from disease onset were included.Patients were divided into good or poor outcome group according to modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score,good outcome group:mRS score of 0-1; poor outcome group:mRS of 2-6.Stroke characteristics were compared between the two groups.Factors for stroke outcomes were analyzed via univariate analysis and Logistic regression.Results Of the 101 patients studied,patients in good outcome group (n=55) were significantly younger than patients in poor outcome group (n=46,(62.82±14.25) vs.(68.81±9.85) years,P=0.029).Good outcome group had fewer patients with diabetic history (9.09% vs.28.26%,P=0.012),fewer patients with leukoaraiosis (7.27% vs.28.26%,P=0.005) and presented with lower blood glucose level ((5.72±1.76) vs.(6.72±1.32) mmol/L,P=0.012),lower systolic blood pressure level ((135.45±19.36) vs.(148.78±19.39) mmHg,P=0.003),lower baseline NIHSS score (12.02±5.26 vs.15.78±4.98,P=0.002) and shorter onset-to-treatment time (OTT) ((2.38±1.21) vs.(2.57±1.03) hours,P=0.044) than poor outcome group.Logistic regression analysis showed that absence of diabetic history (odds ratio (OR) 0.968 (95% CI 0.941-0.996)),absence of leukoaraiosis (OR 0.835 (95% CI 0.712-0.980)),lower baseline NIHSS score (OR 0.885 (95% CI 0.793-0.989)),lower pre-thrombolysis systolic blood pressure (OR 0.962 (95% CI 0.929-0.997)),and lower blood glucose level (OR 0.699 (95% CI 0.491-0.994)) before

  14. Performance management, employee motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Korytová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis is devoted to performance management and staff motivation. The goal is to find out how performance and motivation of staff of the Police of the Czech Republic - Territorial Department of Pribram is managed. This work is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. The first chapter focuses on management and leadership in the organization and on its nature, purpose and differences. Furthermore I analyze the influences that determine the management and approaches to management ...

  15. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = - 1.18), binge drinking (d = - 1.61) and drunkenness (d = - 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588). PMID:26844193

  16. Influence of acute normobaric hypoxia on physiological variables and lactate turn point determination in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner, Michael; Wonisch, Manfred; Frei, Mario; Tschakert, Gerhard; Domej, Wolfgang; Kröpfl, Julia M; Hofmann, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the response of physiological variables to acute normobaric hypoxia compared to normoxia and its influence on the lactate turn point determination according to the three-phase model of energy supply (Phase I: metabolically balanced at muscular level; Phase II: metabolically balanced at systemic level; Phase III: not metabolically balanced) during maximal incremental exercise. Ten physically active (VO2max 3.9 [0.49] l·min(-1)), healthy men (mean age [SD]: 25.3 [4.6] yrs.), participated in the study. All participants performed two maximal cycle ergometric exercise tests under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions (FiO2 = 14%). Blood lactate concentration, heart rate, gas exchange data, and power output at maximum and the first and the second lactate turn point (LTP1, LTP2), the heart rate turn point (HRTP) and the first and the second ventilatory turn point (VETP1, VETP2) were determined. Since in normobaric hypoxia absolute power output (P) was reduced at all reference points (max: 314 / 274 W; LTP2: 218 / 184 W; LTP1: 110 / 96 W), as well as VO2max (max: 3.90 / 3.23 l·min(-1); LTP2: 2.90 / 2.43 l·min(-1); LTP1: 1.66 / 1.52 l·min(-1)), percentages of Pmax at LTP1, LTP2, HRTP and VETP1, VETP2 were almost identical for hypoxic as well as normoxic conditions. Heart rate was significantly reduced at Pmax in hypoxia (max: 190 / 185 bpm), but no significant differences were found at submaximal control points. Blood lactate concentration was not different at maximum, and all reference points in both conditions. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) (max: 1.28 / 1.08; LTP2: 1.13 / 0.98) and ventilatory equivalents for O2 (max: 43.4 / 34.0; LTP2: 32.1 / 25.4) and CO2 (max: 34.1 / 31.6; LTP2: 29.1 / 26.1) were significantly higher at some reference points in hypoxia. Significant correlations were found between LTP1 and VETP1 (r = 0.778; p exercise performance in both environments. Key PointsThe lactate turn point concept can be used for

  17. Influence of pH on the acute toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsills siliquoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Erickson, R.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Brunson, E.L.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pH on the toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels. Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity tests were conducted with 10-d-old juvenile mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) at five pH levels ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 in flow-through diluter systems at 20??C. Acute 48-h tests with amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and 96-h tests with oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were conducted concurrently under the same test conditions to determine the sensitivity of mussels relative to these two commonly tested benthic invertebrate species. During the exposure, pH levels were maintained within 0.1 of a pH unit and ammonia concentrations were relatively constant through time (coefficient of variation for ammonia concentrations ranged from 2 to 30% with a median value of 7.9%). The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of total ammonia nitrogen (N) for mussels were at least two to six times lower than the EC50s for amphipods and oligochaetes, and the EC50s for mussels decreased with increasing pH and ranged from 88 mg N/L at pH 6.6 to 0.96 mg N/L at pH 9.0. The EC50s for mussels were at or below the final acute values used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acute water quality criterion (WQC). However, the quantitative relationship between pH and ammonia toxicity to juvenile mussels was similar to the average relationship for other taxa reported in the WQC. These results indicate that including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC would lower the acute criterion but not change the WQC mathematical representation of the relative effect of pH on ammonia toxicity. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  18. 网络成瘾大学生戒瘾动机的影响因素%Motivation alteration influencing factors of internet addiction disorder undergraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨薇; 史杰; 胡利华; 程波; 魏广东

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore motivation alteration influencing factors of internet addiction disorder (IAD) undergraduates.Methods The study sampled randomly 793 undergraduates from China University.According to CIAS-R and Young's internet addiction diagnostic criteria,a total of 37 internet addicts were selected.Internet addiction survey was used to study the motivation alteration influencing factors of IAD undergraduates.Results (1) The negative effect of internet using on academy,personal relationship etc.(damage from internet using) had a significant positive correlation with motivation alteration (r =0.672,0.699,0.658,P < 0.01 ; r =0.653,0.673,0.628,P < 0.01 ; r =0.604,0.681,0.703,P < 0.01).(2) Benefit from psychological satisfactory level of internet using had no significant difference with motivation alteration.(3) Self-efficiency of behavioral control on using internet had a significant negative correlation with motivation alteration (r =-0.397,-0.370,P <0.05).Conclusion The motivation alteration of IAD undergraduates is influenced by the factors of damage from internet using,sense of achievement,self-efficiency of behavioral control on using internet and so on.%目的 探讨网络成瘾大学生戒瘾动机的影响因素.方法 本研究通过整体随机取样方法抽取793名大学生被试,通过中文网络成瘾量表(CIAS-R)测量和Young的网络成瘾诊断标准,检测出网络成瘾大学生37人,再通过“网络使用利弊权衡问卷”、“大学生网络心理满足问卷”、“大学生网络行为控制自我效能问卷”对其戒瘾动机的影响因素进行分析.结果 ①上网受损总分,学业受损、人际受损因子分与戒瘾动机总分、问题认识、矛盾状态显著正相关(r=0.672,0.699,0.658,P<0.01;r=0.653,0.673,0.628,P<0.01;r=0.604,0.681,0.703,P<0.01);上网获益中的成就感因子与戒瘾动机、问题认识显著正相关(r=0.386,r=0.426,P<0.01);上网获益中的获取知识因子

  19. Ultrastructural and tissue restructuring of the rat atrial myocardium under the influence of acute and chronic prenatal hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko K. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are relatively few researches that focused on the study of the influence of hypoxia on atrial myocardium. However the results of previous researches are contradictory and fragmentary, that leades to the further study of this item. Objective. Purpose of the work was to determine the tissue, cellular and ultrastructural changes of the rat atrial myocardium during the stages of cardiogenesis under the conditions of acute and chronic prenatal hypoxia. Methods. Embryo hearts were investigated on 14th, 16th and 18th day of prenatal ontogenesis, newborn rat hearts and the hearts of rats on the 3rd, 14th and 30th day of postnatal ontogenesis. Animals were subdivided into three groups: first experimental group animals were exposed to acute prenatal hypoxia, second experimental group animals were exposed to chronic prenatal hypoxia and control group animals. Hypoxia modeling was conducted on pregnant females by injection of 1% sodium nitrite intraperitonealy in doses that lead to moderate hypoxia. During the work complex of histological, immunohistochemical and morphometric methods was used. Results and conclusion. Effect of acute hypoxia leads to stimulation of proliferative activity of fibroblasts and endothelial cells on the right atrium, which causes to increasing of the relative volume of connective tissue and blood vessels of microvasculature of myocardium. Relative volume of connective tissue of the atrial myocardium exceeds significantly the control level of newborn rats. Ultrastructural changes of the atrial cardiomyocytes in 3 days after the influence of acute prenatal hypoxia reveals on violation of mitochondrial structure, significant inhibition of myofibrils accumulation. Until the birth of most of morphometric parameters renewal and reach control levels, however changes of the degree of myofibrils orientation on the left atrium proves stability of hypoxic damages. Chronic prenatal hypoxia causes a significant increase of

  20. Phasic D1 and tonic D2 dopamine receptor signaling double dissociate the motivational effects of acute nicotine and chronic nicotine withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Grieder, Taryn E; George, Olivier; Tan, Huibing; George, Susan R.; Le Foll, Bernard; Laviolette, Steven R; van der Kooy, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient of tobacco smoke, induces negative motivational symptoms during withdrawal that contribute to relapse in dependent individuals. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying how the brain signals nicotine withdrawal remain poorly understood. Using electrophysiological, genetic, pharmacological, and behavioral methods, we demonstrate that tonic but not phasic activity is reduced during nicotine withdrawal in ventral tegmental area dopamine (DA) neurons, a...

  1. Motivational interviewing and specialty pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bruce A; Bertram, Carl T

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented in substance abuse and health care literature that motivational interviewing is an evidenced-based and effective intervention for influencing patient behaviors and associated positive health outcomes. The introduction of motivational interviewing training in specialty pharmacy has great potential to increase patient and pharmacist satisfaction, maximize adherence rates, and improve health outcomes. This commentary examines the need for effective approaches for improving patient adherence and outcomes and briefly describes the history and efficacy of motivational interviewing. Case studies using traditional approaches to patient care and motivational interviewing are analysed, and real-world experience using motivational interviewing is presented in the form of a specialty pharmacy case study.

  2. How Peer Communication and Engagement Motivations Influence Social Media Shopping Behavior: Evidence from China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Sidharth; Men, Linjuan Rita

    2015-10-01

    Based on consumer socialization theory, this study proposes and tests a conceptual model of social media shopping behavior, which links the antecedents of user motivations of engagement and peer communication about products to shopping behavior through social media. A cross-cultural survey was conducted with social media users in two culturally distinct markets with the largest Internet population: China (n=304) and the United States (n=328). Findings showed that social interaction, information, and remuneration were positive antecedents of peer communication for users from both countries. Peer communication positively impacted social media shopping behavior, and cultural differences were observed, with social interaction being important to Chinese users' shopping behavior, while remuneration was more important to American users. Implications are discussed. PMID:26376370

  3. How Peer Communication and Engagement Motivations Influence Social Media Shopping Behavior: Evidence from China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Sidharth; Men, Linjuan Rita

    2015-10-01

    Based on consumer socialization theory, this study proposes and tests a conceptual model of social media shopping behavior, which links the antecedents of user motivations of engagement and peer communication about products to shopping behavior through social media. A cross-cultural survey was conducted with social media users in two culturally distinct markets with the largest Internet population: China (n=304) and the United States (n=328). Findings showed that social interaction, information, and remuneration were positive antecedents of peer communication for users from both countries. Peer communication positively impacted social media shopping behavior, and cultural differences were observed, with social interaction being important to Chinese users' shopping behavior, while remuneration was more important to American users. Implications are discussed.

  4. Why do early adolescents bully? Exploring the influence of prestige norms on social and psychological motives to bully.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Caravita, Simona C S

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines psychological (e.g., Machiavellianism) and social (i.e., perceived popularity) motives for bullying, exploring the effects that classroom prestige norms for physical and relational aggression may have on these associations. A longitudinal multilevel study design was adopted, which included 978 5th to 7th graders from four Chilean schools. Participants were assessed three times over one year on self reports on bullying and Machiavellianism, and peer reports on popularity. Classroom prestige norms were calculated as the within classroom association between peer perceived coolness and aggression. Both Machiavellianism and perceived popularity were associated with bullying. However, hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that Machiavellianism, but not perceived popularity, predicted bullying after controlling for baseline scores. Classroom prestige norms for relational aggression increased the association between Machiavellianism and bullying. Separate models were tested for boys and girls, showing no differences. Results are discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations. PMID:26584218

  5. The Influence of Acute Arm Vibration on Coordination in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Alparslan

    2015-01-01

    Today, some researchers have focused on the impacts of new and easily applicable non-invasive methods on physical education. The purpose of this study is to examine the vibration-related acute change in rotary pursuit coordination performance soon after arm vibration. In the study, 27 students in School of Physical Education and Sport were divided…

  6. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H;

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...

  7. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Woong Lee

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH.We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128. Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH (n = 642. Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer.In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041, peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001, bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003, alanine aminotransferase (ALT (HR = 1.001, P < 0.001, initial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH (HR = 1.000, P = 0.045 and total cholesterol (HR = 0.978, P < 0.001 were independent factors for s-AH. Serum HAV RNA was detected in 20/20 (100% patients with s-AH and 22/28 (78.6% patients with m-AH. In a multivariate analysis of the 48 patients who were tested for HAV RNA, peak ALT (HR = 1.001, P = 0.004 and HAV RNA titer (HR = 2.076, P = 0.012 were independent factors for s-AH.Clinical factors including age, peak creatinine, bilirubin, ALT, initial LDH and total cholesterol were independent factors for s-AH in a multivariate analysis. In particular, HAV load strongly correlated with the severity of hepatitis A.

  8. Motivation and library management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Likar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.

  9. Genetic influences on the neural and physiological bases of acute threat: A research domain criteria (RDoC) perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Powers, Abigail; Jovanovic, Tanja; Koenen, Karestan C

    2016-01-01

    The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative aims to describe key dimensional constructs underlying mental function across multiple units of analysis-from genes to observable behaviors-in order to better understand psychopathology. The acute threat ("fear") construct of the RDoC Negative Valence System has been studied extensively from a translational perspective, and is highly pertinent to numerous psychiatric conditions, including anxiety and trauma-related disorders. We examined genetic contributions to the construct of acute threat at two units of analysis within the RDoC framework: (1) neural circuits and (2) physiology. Specifically, we focused on genetic influences on activation patterns of frontolimbic neural circuitry and on startle, skin conductance, and heart rate responses. Research on the heritability of activation in threat-related frontolimbic neural circuitry is lacking, but physiological indicators of acute threat have been found to be moderately heritable (35-50%). Genetic studies of the neural circuitry and physiology of acute threat have almost exclusively relied on the candidate gene method and, as in the broader psychiatric genetics literature, most findings have failed to replicate. The most robust support has been demonstrated for associations between variation in the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes with threat-related neural activation and physiological responses. However, unbiased genome-wide approaches using very large samples are needed for gene discovery, and these can be accomplished with collaborative consortium-based research efforts, such as those of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium.

  10. Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dornyei, Zoltan; Otto, Istvan

    1998-01-01

    As part of a long-term project aimed at designing classroom interventions to motivate language learners, we have searched for a motivation model that could serve as a theoretical basis for the methodological applications. We have found that none of the existing models we considered were entirely adequate for our purpose for three reasons: (1) they did not provide a sufficiently comprehensive and detailed summary of all the relevant motivational influences on classroom behaviour; (2) they tend...

  11. The influence of smoking and impaired glucose homoeostasis on the outcome in patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odeberg, Jacob; Freitag, Michael; Forssell, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking, diabetes, male sex, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension are well-established risk factors for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, less is known about their role in influencing the outcome in the event of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of t...... stages of ACS. Thus, on a diagnosis of CAD, the cessation of smoking and management of glucose homoeostasis are of upmost importance to avoid severe subsequent ACS consequences.......OBJECTIVES: Smoking, diabetes, male sex, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension are well-established risk factors for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, less is known about their role in influencing the outcome in the event of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim...... of ACS was excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: MI or UA. RESULTS: Current smoking (OR 2.42 (1.61 to 3.62)), impaired glucose homoeostasis defined as glycated haemoglobin ≥5.5% + blood glucose ≥7.5 mM (OR 1.78 (1.19 to 2.67)) and male sex (OR 1.71 (1.21 to 2.40)) were significant factors predisposing to MI...

  12. The influence of antiobesity media content on intention to eat healthily and exercise: a test of the ordered protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritland, Raeann; Rodriguez, Lulu

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the ordered protection motivation framework to determine whether exposure and attention to antiobesity media content increases people's appraisals of threat and their ability to cope with it. It also assesses whether these cognitive processes, in turn, affected people's intention to abide by the practices recommended to prevent obesity. The results of a national online survey using a nonprobability sample indicate that attention to mediated obesity and related information significantly increased people's intention to exercise as well as their overall coping appraisals (the perceived effectiveness of the recommended behaviors and their ability to perform them). Likewise, increased threat and coping appraisals were both found to significantly influence people's intention to exercise and diet. Coping (rather than threat) appraisals more strongly predicted behavioral intent. Following the attitude-behavior literature, behavioral intention was used as the most proximate predictor of actual behavior (i.e., stronger intentions increase the likelihood of behavior change).

  13. Application of Protection Motivation Theory to Study the Factors that Influence Disaster Recovery Planning: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunnava, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    In today's information intensive and networked world, Disaster Recovery Planning (DRP) is a critical and significant activity. However, DRP does not always receive the attention it deserves. Therefore, it is critical to examine the factors that influence the undertaking of disaster recovery planning. A model on disaster recovery planning was…

  14. Experimental Longitudinal Test of the Influence of Autonomy-Supportive Teaching on Motivation for Participation in Elementary School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptokaridou, Elisavet T.; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of autonomy-supportive teaching during elementary school physical education (PE) in influencing pupils' enjoyment, fear of failure, boredom and effort. A sample of 54 pupils attending fifth and sixth grades comprised the control group (typical instruction; n = 27) and the experimental group…

  15. Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Meier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context, but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes.

  16. An Understanding of How Peer, Genetic, and Environmental Influences Can Motivate Terrorists or Ordinary People to Kill Themselves and Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Perusse, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to find a correlation between peer, genetic, and environmental influences and the behavior and personality development during childhood. This study focuses on the 1999 Columbine High School Massacre to try to explain certain kinds of behavior. The study made on 275 freshmen at Cornell University showed that…

  17. The influence of acute stress on the regulation of conditioned fear

    OpenAIRE

    Raio, Candace M.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Fear learning and regulation is a prominent model for describing the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and stress-related psychopathology. Fear expression can be modulated using a number of regulatory strategies, including extinction, cognitive emotion regulation, avoidance strategies and reconsolidation. In this review, we examine research investigating the effects of acute stress and stress hormones on these regulatory techniques. We focus on what is known about the impact of stress on the ...

  18. PLZF/RARalpha binding partners and their influence on the induction of acute promyelocytic leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Frech, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) accounts for 10% of the adult AML patients. APL patients carry chromosomal translocations involving the rarα gene on chromosome 17. The most frequent translocations lead to the expression of the fusion proteins PML/RARα (98%; t(15;17)) and PLZF/RARα (1%; t(11;17)) (X-RARα). The APL is characterised by a differentiation block at the promyelocytic stage and leads to an increased amount of myel...

  19. The influence of hypertension on in-hospital outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Davor Miličić; Bojan Jelaković; Zrinka Ivanuša; Mario Ivanuša

    2009-01-01

    Aim To examine the differences in the frequency of risk factors,clinical presentations on admission and in-hospital outcome in hypertensiveand normotensive patients treated for acute myocardialinfarction (AMI).Methods In hypertensive and normotensive patients with AMI weretrospectively analyzed risk factors (age, gender, smoking habits,diabetes, blood lipids, history of angina pectoris, previous myocardialinfarction, previous stroke and family history of atherothromboticdisease), admission Ki...

  20. Motivational Leadership: Tips From the Business World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Prabhakar; Bhargava, Puneet

    2016-05-01

    It is an important task for leadership to identify the motivating factors for employees and motivate them to fulfill their individual and organizational goals. Although there are several motivational factors (extrinsic and intrinsic), intrinsic motivational factors such as autonomy, mastery, and purpose are more important for deeper lasting job satisfaction and higher performance. In this article, the authors discuss how an understanding of these factors that influence motivation has the potential to transform an organization.

  1. Job Assignments, Intrinsic Motivation and Explicit Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Nafziger, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the interplay of job assignments with the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of an agent. Job assignments influence the self confidence of the agent, and thereby his intrinsic motivation. Monetary reward allow the principal to complement intrinsic motivation with extrinsic incentives. The main result is that the principal chooses an inefficient job assignment rule to enhance the agent's intrinsic motivation even though she can motivate him with monetary rewards. This show...

  2. Motivational Leadership: Tips From the Business World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Prabhakar; Bhargava, Puneet

    2016-05-01

    It is an important task for leadership to identify the motivating factors for employees and motivate them to fulfill their individual and organizational goals. Although there are several motivational factors (extrinsic and intrinsic), intrinsic motivational factors such as autonomy, mastery, and purpose are more important for deeper lasting job satisfaction and higher performance. In this article, the authors discuss how an understanding of these factors that influence motivation has the potential to transform an organization. PMID:26908031

  3. INFLUENCE OF ACUPUNCTURE ON BRAIN-TAXIS OF TETRAMETHYLPYRAZINE IN ACUTE CEREBRAL INFARCTION RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔荣秀; 陈以国; 谷雨

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the effect of acupuncture on the brain-taxis of tetrarmethylpyrazine (TMP) and toexplore into the underlying mechanisms of combined action of acupuncture and medicine in the treatment of acute cere-bral ischemia. Methods: 37 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n= 10), sham-operationgroup (n= 10), acute cerebral ischemia (ACI) + drug group (model group, n=8)and ACl+drug+acupuncture group(acupuncture group, n=9). Rat ACl model was established by using photochemical method. "Neiguan"(PC 6) and"Shuigou"(GV 26) were punctured and stimulated with both hand manipulation and electroacupuncture, 30 min and16hrs after ACI. TMP was given to the rats of the later 2 groups using gastric perfusion method. High pressure chro-matography (HPLC) was used to detect the target absorption level of TMP in the brain. Results: The content of TMP inthe brain in acupuncture group was significantly higher than that in model group (P<0.01), suggesting that acupunc-ture can strengthen the brain-taxis of TMP in ACl rats, and combined administration of acupuncture and Chinese drugmaybe work better for treatment of acute cerebral infarction. Conclusion: Acupuncture can strengthen the chano-taxisof TMP to the brain in ACl rats.

  4. Influence factors of salt-sensitive hypertension and responses of blood pressure and urinary sodium and potassium excretion to acute oral saline loading among essential hypertensive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘叶舟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence factors of saltsensitive hypertension and to observe changes of blood pressures and urinary sodium and potassium excretion in response to acute oral saline loading among essential hypertensive patients in China.Methods Essential hypertensive patients from Beijing Jinzhan second community were included in this study.Salt-sensitivity was determined via the improved Sullivan’s acute oral saline loading

  5. [The influence of acute hypoxia on motility of rats in the open field test under the conditions of an altered photoperiod].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopova, I Iu

    2014-01-01

    The influence of acute hypoxia on the motility of rats under the conditions of an altered photoperiod in the open field test was studied. Thus, keeping the animals in constant darkness after the modeling of acute hypoxia leads to the depression of locomotive and exploratory components of the behavior. At the same time the animals that were kept under the conditions of constant light show a change in the correlation between the components of motility after the action of hypoxia.

  6. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  7. Designing motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...... are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research...

  8. Influencing risk behavior of sexually transmitted infection clinic visitors: efficacy of a new methodology of motivational preventive counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Lisette; de Wit, John; Heijman, Titia; Fennema, Han; van Bergen, Jan; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2009-06-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted at a Dutch sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic to compare the effects of educational counseling and motivational interviewing (MI)-based HIV/STI counseling on determinants of condom use and partner notification at 6-month follow-up. It also examined the feasibility of MI-based counseling in a busy real-life clinic. The counseling approaches were historically compared: respondents in the control condition were recruited between April and July 2005, those in the experimental condition between September and December 2005. The study involved 428 participants. These were all high-risk clients of the STI clinic. Their mean age was 33.7 years, and 39.6% were female. The study showed that MI-based counseling had a more positive effect on self-efficacy, intentions to use condoms with casual partners, and long-term condom use with steady partners. It had no adversarial outcomes on other social cognitions or behaviors compared to educational counseling. Furthermore, MI-based counseling is experienced as a more respectful and structured way of counseling. MI-based counseling was relatively easily implemented into the current clinic procedures. In addition to the implementation of the training, neither specialized staff nor additional or longer client visits were needed. However, some nurses indicated that the new method required more personal investment and effort. Limitations of the current study are the low response rates, the high educational level of most participants, and the small sample size regarding partner notification. Nonetheless, we conclude that MI-based counseling was a more effective approach to preventive counseling compared to educational counseling and feasible in the busy real-life setting.

  9. Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Brian P Meier; Paul R D'Agostino; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.; Wilkowski, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments....

  10. Work motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Přikrylová, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This thesis called "Work Motivation" is divided into five basic parts. The introduction describes the reason why this topic was chosen and its motivational meaning in people´s life. The second part is the core of this thesis targeting the work and methodology used in the practical part. The third part contains a literature research, which is composed by a couple of topics, which are basic for understanding ways to resolve issues. The theoretical part defines basic terms related to th...

  11. Motivating students through positive learning experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Coto Chotto, Mayela; Jantzen, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Based on the assumption that wellbeing, positive emotions and engagement influence motivation for learning, the aim of this paper is to provide insight into students’ emotional responses to and engagement in different learning designs. By comparing students’ reports on the experiential qualities...... of three different learning designs, their respective influence on students’ motivation for learning is discussed with the purpose of exploring the relationship between positive emotions, engagement and intrinsic motivation for learning. Our study thus aims at evaluating the motivational elements...

  12. Teachers' Job Characteristics and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabe, Clermont; Burns, Mildred

    1994-01-01

    To test the Job Characteristics Model of Motivation, 247 Quebec teachers completed the Job Diagnostic Survey. Results demonstrated the utility of the model and the instrument for the teaching profession. Psychological states influenced the relationship between job characteristics and motivation/satisfaction outcomes. (SK)

  13. Motivational Issues in Knowledge Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BOGDAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the place of emotions in modern theories of motivation, and the influence of the knowledge-oriented paradigm on redefining motivation and rethinking ways of rendering work, knowledge work, in particular, more efficient, in a society in which human participation and deployment of intellectual capital become key factors of success, replacing traditional, tangible-focused, factors of production.

  14. The purpose of this research is to find out whether there is an influence of leadership, internal communication, and work motivation to the Department of Women's Empowerment, Child Protection and Family Planning in Central Java either simultaneously or pa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Dwi Ardilla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find out whether there is an influence of leadership, internal communication, and work motivation to the Department of Women's Empowerment, Child Protection and Family Planning in Central Java either simultaneously or partially. The population in this research are 87 employees in the Department of Women's Empowerment, Child Protection and Family Planning in Central Java. The research methods used in this study were interview, questionnaire and documentation. The analysis data used in this study were descriptive analysis percentage and multiple linear regression analysis with SPSS for Windows release 16. The results of the regression equation: Y = -0448 + 0.320X1 + 0.518X2 + 0.242X3 with Y (employee performance, X1 (leadership, X2 (internal communication, and X3 (work motivation. The results of this study that there is influence between leadership, internal communication and work motivation to employee performance was 51,4%. Partially, the influence of leadership (X1 on Y by 0.320 with a value by 10.63% partial relations at the significance level of 0.002, while the influence of internal communication (X2 to Y of 0.518 with 10.17% for partial relations at the significance level of 0.003, and the influence of work motivation (X3 to Y with values of 0.242 relations partially by 10.17% at the significance level of 0.003.

  15. Acute Auditory Stimulation with Different Styles of Music Influences Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Ap. F. da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: No clear evidence is available in the literature regarding the acute effect of different styles of music on cardiac autonomic control. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the acute effects of classical baroque and heavy metal musical auditory stimulation on Heart Rate Variability (HRV in healthy men. Patients and Methods: In this study, HRV was analyzed regarding time (SDNN, RMSSD, NN50, and pNN50 and frequency domain (LF, HF, and LF / HF in 12 healthy men. HRV was recorded at seated rest for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the participants were exposed to classical baroque or heavy metal music for five minutes through an earphone at seated rest. After exposure to the first song, they remained at rest for five minutes and they were again exposed to classical baroque or heavy metal music. The music sequence was random for each individual. Standard statistical methods were used for calculation of means and standard deviations. Besides, ANOVA and Friedman test were used for parametric and non-parametric distributions, respectively. Results: While listening to heavy metal music, SDNN was reduced compared to the baseline (P = 0.023. In addition, the LF index (ms2 and nu was reduced during exposure to both heavy metal and classical baroque musical auditory stimulation compared to the control condition (P = 0.010 and P = 0.048, respectively. However, the HF index (ms2 was reduced only during auditory stimulation with music heavy metal (P = 0.01. The LF/HF ratio on the other hand decreased during auditory stimulation with classical baroque music (P = 0.019. Conclusions: Acute auditory stimulation with the selected heavy metal musical auditory stimulation decreased the sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation on the heart, while exposure to a selected classical baroque music reduced sympathetic regulation on the heart.

  16. Influence of motive activity on forming of proof skills of healthy way of life of students of higher educational establishments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trotsenko V.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation and the analysis of impellent activity of students is considered. The importance of impellent activity in forming a healthy way of life of students is shown. In research the data of questionnaire of students are used. sports priorities of students are revealed should to undertake in attention by development of the program of physical training. The wide spectrum of the reasons which interfere with exercises is revealed. These reasons should be considered during individual work with each student. It is proved, that impellent activity influences forming of proof skills of a healthy way of life of students.

  17. Influence of Acute High Glucose on Protein Abundance Changes in Murine Glomerular Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T. Barati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute exposure to high glucose levels as experienced by glomerular mesangial cells in postprandial conditions and states such as in prediabetes were investigated using proteomic methods. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods were used to identify protein expression patterns in immortalized rat mesangial cells altered by 2 h high glucose (HG growth conditions as compared to isoosmotic/normal glucose control (NG⁎ conditions. Unique protein expression changes at 2 h HG treatment were measured for 51 protein spots. These proteins could be broadly grouped into two categories: (1 proteins involved in cell survival/cell signaling and (2 proteins involved in stress response. Immunoblot experiments for a protein belonging to both categories, prohibitin (PHB, supported a trend for increased total expression as well as significant increases in an acidic PHB isoform. Additional studies confirmed the regulation of proteasomal subunit alpha-type 2 and the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone and oxidoreductase PDI (protein disulfide isomerase, suggesting altered ER protein folding capacity and proteasomal function in response to acute HG. We conclude that short term high glucose induces subtle changes in protein abundances suggesting posttranslational modifications and regulation of pathways involved in proteostasis.

  18. Acute Superoxide Radical Scavenging Reduces Blood Pressure but Does Not Influence Kidney Function in Hypertensive Rats with Postischemic Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Miloradović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in hypertensive surroundings. We investigated superoxide radical molecules influence on systemic haemodynamic and kidney function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with induced postischemic AKI. Experiment was performed in anesthetized adult male SHR. The right kidney was removed, and left renal artery was subjected to ischemia by clamping for 40 minutes. The treated group received synthetic superoxide dismutase mimetic TEMPOL in the femoral vein 5 minutes before, during, and 175 minutes after the period of reperfusion, while the control AKI group received the vehicle via the same route. All parameters were measured 24 h after renal reperfusion. TEMPOL treatment significantly decreased mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance P<0.05 compared to AKI control. It also increased cardiac output and catalase activity P<0.05. Lipid peroxidation and renal vascular resistance were decreased in TEMPOL P<0.05. Plasma creatinine and kidney morphological parameters were unchanged among TEMPOL treated and control groups. Our study shows that superoxide radicals participate in haemodynamic control, but acute superoxide scavenging is ineffective in glomerular and tubular improvement, probably due to hypertension-induced strong endothelial dysfunction which neutralizes beneficial effects of O2− scavenging.

  19. Some factors influencing susceptibility of rainbow trout to the acute toxicity of an ethyl mercury phosphate formulation (Timsan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Donald F.; Yasutake, William T.; Morgan, Reginald

    1969-01-01

    This study determined the influence of water temperature (55–68° F), dissolved oxygen (4–12 ppm), water hardness as CaCO3 (20–256 ppm), and chloride ions (to 2 mM) on the susceptibility of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to the acute toxicity of ethyl mercury phosphate (EMP). The fish were exposed for one hour to 0.125 ppm EMP, the active ingredient of Timsan, a commercial EMP formulation. The death rate because of the exposure to EMP increased with an increase in water temperature, a decrease in dissolved oxygen, and an increase in chloride ions; calcium appeared to have no effect. The effect of water temperature and dissolved oxygen was ascribed to changes in the respiration rate of the fish, and a chemical explanation is presented for the effect of chloride ions.

  20. Influence of acute pancreatitis on the in vitro responsiveness of rat mesenteric and pulmonary arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Edson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by local tissue injury and systemic inflammatory response leading to massive nitric oxide (NO production and haemodynamic disturbances. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the vascular reactivity of pulmonary and mesenteric artery rings from rats submitted to experimental pancreatitis. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: saline (SAL; tauracholate (TAU and phospholipase A2 (PLA2. Pancreatitis was induced by administration of TAU or PLA2 from Naja mocambique mocambique into the common bile duct of rats, and after 4 h of duct injection the animals were sacrificed. Concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh, sodium nitroprusside (SNP and phenylephrine (PHE in isolated mesenteric and pulmonary arteries were obtained. Potency (pEC50 and maximal responses (EMAX were determined. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Results In mesenteric rings, the potency for ACh was significantly decreased from animals treated with TAU (about 4.2-fold or PLA2 (about 6.9-fold compared to saline group without changes in the maximal responses. Neither pEC50 nor EMAX values for Ach were altered in pulmonary rings in any group. Similarly, the pEC50 and the EMAX values for SNP were not changed in both preparations in any group. The potency for PHE was significantly decreased in rat mesenteric and pulmonary rings from TAU group compared to SAL group (about 2.2- and 2.69-fold, for mesenteric and pulmonary rings, respectively. No changes were seen in the EMAX for PHE. The nitrite/nitrate (NOx- levels were markedly increased in animals submitted to acute pancreatitis as compared to SAL group, approximately 76 and 68% in TAU and PLA2 protocol, respectively. Conclusion Acute pancreatitis provoked deleterious effects in endothelium-dependent relaxing response for ACh in mesenteric rings that were strongly associated with high plasma NOx- levels as

  1. Does 48 hours' bed rest influence the outcome of acute low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M J

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Bed rest is a traditional treatment for back pain, yet only in recent years has the therapeutic benefit of this been questioned. AIM. The aim of this pilot study was to ascertain whether or not 48 hours' bed rest had an effect on the outcome of acute low back pain. METHOD. The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial to compare a prescription of 48 hours' strict bed rest with controls; the control subjects were encouraged to remain mobile and to have no daytime rest. Nine general practitioners from practices in the West Midlands recruited patients in the age range 16-60 years who presented with low back pain of less than seven days' duration, with or without pain radiation. The outcome measures assessed were: change in straight leg raise and lumbar flexion after seven days, Oswestry and Roland-Morris disability scores after seven days and 28 days, and time taken from work. RESULTS. Forty two patients were recruited: 20 were allocated to bed rest and 22 as controls. Compared with the bed rest group the control group had statistically better Roland-Morris scores at day seven (P < 0.05) but not at day 28. At day seven, there were no statistically significant differences between groups in straight leg raise or lumbar flexion measurements although the control group had a better mean lumbar flexion than the bed rest group. The improvement in disability scores at day seven compared with day one was similar for the two groups but more of the control group had fully recovered (defined as scores of one or zero on the Roland-Morris disability scale and five or less on the Oswestry disability scale) by day seven. Remaining mobile did not appear to cause any adverse effects. The number of days lost from work in both groups was equal. A large number of self-remedies and physical therapies were recorded by subjects from both groups. CONCLUSION. The results of this pilot study did not indicate whether bed rest or remaining mobile was superior for the

  2. Factors Influencing Pre-hospital Patient Delay in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    La Xie; Su-Fang Huang∗; You-Zhen Hu

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction ( AMI) is a dangerous disease with a high mortality rate. For AMI patients, the outcome of the patients depends on time to beginning of effective treatment in addition to other factors such as severity of disease and involved vessels etc. The key is whether reperfusion therapy is started early enough after the onset of symptoms, and the benefit of reperfu-sion therapy depends on the time, too. The delay of AMI treatment is divided into pre-hospital de-lay and in-hospital delay. In-hospital delay, Door-to-Balloon Time, has been well controlled. Pre-hospital delay, accounting for 75% of the total delay time, is the most important factor affect-ing AMI treatment. Patient delay ( PD) time for AMI patients is summarised in this study.

  3. Bone Marrow Cells in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Create a Proinflammatory Microenvironment Influencing Normal Hematopoietic Differentiation Fates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Vilchis-Ordoñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL is a serious public health problem in the pediatric population worldwide, contributing to 85% of deaths from childhood cancers. Understanding the biology of the disease is crucial for its clinical management and the development of therapeutic strategies. In line with that observed in other malignancies, chronic inflammation may contribute to a tumor microenvironment resulting in the damage of normal processes, concomitant to development and maintenance of neoplastic cells. We report here that hematopoietic cells from bone marrow B-ALL have the ability to produce proinflammatory and growth factors, including TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, and GM-CSF that stimulate proliferation and differentiation of normal stem and progenitor cells. Our findings suggest an apparently distinct CD13+CD33+ population of leukemic cells contributing to a proinflammatory microenvironment that may be detrimental to long-term normal hematopoiesis within B-ALL bone marrow.

  4. Influence of Chemotherapy on the Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Sanaat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic agents used in patients with cancer cause to generate the enormous amounts of free radicals associated with cell injury. In this study we assess the effects of chemotherapy regimen on oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML. 38 newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia were recruited in this study. All patients received cytarabine and daunorubicin as chemotherapy regimen. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant status (TAS, and the levels of erythrocyte activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were determined before chemotherapy and 14 days after chemotherapy with cytarabine and daunorubicin. Plasma MDA concentrations increased significantly (from 2.68±0.89 nmol/L to 3.14±1.29 nmol/L during the 14days post-chemotherapy period (P=0.04. Plasma TAS concentrations changed with chemotherapy from 1.09±0.15 mmol/L to 1.02±0.14 mmol/L with P=0.005. Erythrocyte SOD and GPX activity decreased overtime from 1157.24±543.61 U/g Hb to 984.01±419.09 U/g Hb (P=0.04 and 46.96±13.70 U/g Hb to 41.40±6.44 U/g Hb (P=0.02 respectively. We report here that there is an increase in malondialdehyde levels and a decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant status. This suggests that chemotherapy causes these changes as a result of enormous production of reactive oxygen species in the patients with AML. Antioxidant supplementation must be approached with caution because of the probability of reduction the therapeutic efficacy of these cytotoxic drugs.

  5. Differences between left- and right-handers in approach/avoidance motivation: influence of consistency of handedness measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Hardie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hand preference is often viewed as a troublesome variable in psychological research, with left-handers routinely excluded from studies. Contrary to this, a body of evidence has shown hand preference to be a useful variable when examining human behaviour. A recent review argues that the most effective way of using handedness as a variable, is a comparison between individuals who use their dominant hand for virtually all manual activities (consistent handers versus those who use their other hand for at least one activity (inconsistent handers. The authors contend that researchers should only focus on degree of handedness rather than direction of preference (left versus right. However, we argue that the field suffers from a number of methodological and empirical issues. These include a lack of consensus in choice of cut-off point to divide consistent and inconsistent categories and importantly a paucity of data from left-handers. Consequentially, researchers predominantly compare inconsistent versus consistent right-handers, largely linked to memory, cognition and language. Other research on response style and personality measures shows robust direction of handedness effects. The present study examines both strength and direction of handedness on self-reported Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS and Activation System (BAS scores, using evidence from a large (N=689 dataset including more than 200 left-handers. There were degree of handedness effects on BIS and BAS-Fun Seeking, but effects are largely driven by differences between consistent left-handers and other groups. Choice of cut-off point substantively influenced results, and suggests that unless a suitable sample of left-handers is included, researchers clarify that their degree of handedness effects are applicable only to right-handers. We concur that strength of hand preference is an important variable but caution that differences related to consistency may not be identical in right and left-handers.

  6. Employee Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Charles H.

    1971-01-01

    Motivation is an area which has received some systematic psychological study only in the past seventy years. It is the purpose of this article to explore and examine some of the knowledge that has been acquired and to see how this knowledge may be applied. (24 references) (Author/NH)

  7. Influence of Tirofiban maintenance duration on patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by percutaneous coronary intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Guo Ji; Hong-Bin Liu; Zhi-Hong Liu; Guo-Ping Ma; Li-Qiang Qin; Wei Dong; Li-Ya Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and short term prognosis of Tirofiban in different treatment duration in patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) combined with intracoronary injection. Methods: A total of 125 patients with acute STEMI were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n ¼ 61) and Tirofiban group (n ¼ 64). The Tirofiban was used by intracoronary and intravenous administration in Tirofiban group which was randomly divided into three sub-groups according to the duration of Tirofiban by persistent intravenous injection for 12 hours, 24 hours or 36 hours. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow and myocardial perfusion grades were recorded immediately after PCI. The adverse cardiac events and cardiac death within 180 days of PCI, and the adverse effects (hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia) were compared between the two groups and within Tirofiban sub-groups. Results: Grade 3 in myocardial perfusion was significantly better in Tirofiban group than control group (85.94% vs. 72.13%, P ¼ 0.03) after PCI. There was one cardiac death in control group in 180 days after PCI. The adverse cardiac event rates between two groups was significant difference (16 patients in control group and only 8 in Tirofiban group, P ¼ 0.047). There was no significant difference in incidence of hemorrhage complications and platelet counts between two groups. Nevertheless, hemorrhage complications in the 12-and 24-hour subgroups were less than 36-hour subgroup (P ¼ 0.01). Conclusions: Intravenous Tirofiban treatment reduced the adverse cardiac events and improved short term prognosis without increasing the adverse reactions of the drugs in patients undergoing PCI. The less rate of hemorrhage complication can be achieved in short-duration of Tirofiban by intravenous injection after PCI. Copyright © 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production. Production and

  8. Influence of acute hyperglycemia in human sepsis on inflammatory cytokine and counterregulatory hormone concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Kui Yu; Wei-Qin Li; Ning Li; Jie-Shou Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: In human sepsis, a prominent component of the hypermetabolite is impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and hyperglycemia. Elevations in plasma glucose concentration impair immune function by altering cytokine production from macrophages. We assessed the role of glucose in the regulation of circulating levels of insulin, glucagon, cortisol,IL-6 and TNF-α in human sepsis with normal or impaired glucose tolerance.METHODS: According to the results of intravenous glucose tolerance test, forty patients were classified into two groups: control group (n=20) and IGT group (n=20).Plasma glucose levels were acutely raised in two groups and maintained at 15 mmol/L for 3 hours. Plasma insulin,glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were detected by ELISA.RESULTS: In IGT group, the fasting concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, IL-6 and TNFα levels were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). During clamp, the control group had a higher average amount of dextrose infusion than the IGT group (P<0.01). In control group, plasma insulin levels rose from a basal value to a peak at an hour (P<0.05) and maintained at high levels. Plasma glucagon levels descended from a basal value to the lowest level within an hour (P<0.01)and low levels were maintained throughout the clamp. In IGT group, plasma insulin was more significantly elevated (P<0.01), and plasma glucagon levels were not significantly declined. Plasma cortisol levels were not significantly changed in two groups. In control group, plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels rose (P<0.01) within 2 hours of the clamp and returned to basal values at 3 hours. In IGT group, increased levels of plasma cytokine lasted longer than in control group (3 hours vs. 2 hours, P<0.05), and the cytokine peaks of IGT group were higher (P<0.05) than those of control group.CONCLUSION: Acute hyperglycemia pricks up hyperinsulinemia and increases

  9. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis during maintenance therapy influences methotrexate/6-mercaptopurine dosing but not event-free survival for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Mette; Shabaneh, Diana; Bohnstedt, Cathrine;

    2012-01-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is used in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). We explored to which extent TMP/SMX influenced methotrexate (MTX)/6-mercaptopurine (6MP) dosage, myelosuppression, and event-free survival (EFS) during...

  10. Students' Persistence and Academic Success in a First-Year Professional Bachelor Program: The Influence of Students' Learning Strategies and Academic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Gert Vanthournout; David Gijbels; Liesje Coertjens; Vincent Donche; Peter Van Petegem

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores whether students' learning strategies and academic motivation predict persistence and academic success in the first year of higher education. Freshmen students in a professional bachelor program in teacher education were questioned on their learning strategy use and motivation at the start and at the end of the academic year. Students' learning strategies were assessed using the inventory of learning styles-SV. Motivation was measured using scales from the self-regu...

  11. Exploring Japanese University EFL Teacher Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Current studies show that it is becoming clear that language teachers give significant importance to learners' motivation level, interest levels, and attitudes toward their learning. Motivated teachers can have a powerful influence on students' career directions, and positively impact learners' motivations and interests. However,…

  12. Acute ureterolithiasis: Incidence of secondary signs on unenhanced helical CT and influence on patient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of secondary signs associated with ureteral stones on unenhanced helical computed tomography (CT) of patients with acute renal colic, and to correlate these with patient management and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with ureterolithiasis were evaluated prospectively for the secondary signs of obstruction on unenhanced helical CT. Our attention was focused primarily on the presence or absence of seven secondary signs on unenhanced helical CT, including hydronephrosis, unilateral renal enlargement, perinephric oedema, unilateral absence of the white pyramid, hydroureter, periureteral oedema and lateroconal fascial thickening. RESULTS: Of the 110 patients, 91 (82.7%) had hydroureter, 88 (80%) had hydronephrosis, 65 (59%) had periureteric oedema and 63 (57.2%) had unilateral renal enlargement. Ninety stones passed spontaneously and 21 required intervention. CONCLUSION: Secondary signs of urinary tract obstruction are useful and supportive findings in interpretation of the CT examination. In our experience, the most reliable signs indicating ureteral obstruction are hydroureter, hydronephrosis, periureteral oedema and unilateral renal enlargement, respectively. In addition, stones larger than 6 mm, located within the proximal two thirds of the ureter, and seen associated with five or more the secondary signs of obstruction, are more likely to require endoscopic removal and/or lithotripsy

  13. Relation between acute and long-term cognitive decline after surgery: Influence of metabolic syndrome☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambús, P.L; Trocóniz, I.F.; Feng, X.; Gimenez-Milá, M.; Mellado, R.; Degos, V.; Vacas, S.; Maze, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The relationship between persistent postoperative cognitive decline and the more common acute variety remains unknown; using data acquired in preclinical studies of postoperative cognitive decline we attempted to characterize this relationship. Methods Low capacity runner (LCR) rats, which have all the features of the metabolic syndrome, were compared postoperatively with high capacity runner (HCR) rats for memory, assessed by trace fear conditioning (TFC) on the 7th postoperative day, and learning and memory (probe trial [PT]) assessed by the Morris water-maze (MWM) at three months postoperatively. Rate of learning (AL) data from the MWM test, were estimated by non-linear mixed effects modeling. The individual rat's TFC result at postoperative day (POD) 7 was correlated with its AL and PT from the MWM data sets at postoperative day POD 90. Results A single exponential decay model best described AL in the MWM with LCR and surgery (LCR–SURG) being the only significant covariates; first order AL rate constant was 0.07 s−1 in LCR–SURG and 0.16 s−1 in the remaining groups (p<0.05). TFC was significantly correlated with both AL (R = 0.74; p < 0.0001) and PT (R = 0.49; p < 0.01). Conclusion Severity of memory decline at 1 week after surgery presaged long-lasting deteriorations in learning and memory. PMID:26164200

  14. Influence of ambulance use on early reperfusion therapies for acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li; HU Da-yi; YAN Hong-bing; YANG Jin-gang; SUN Yi-hong; LI Chao; LIU Shu-shan; WU Dong; FENG Qi

    2008-01-01

    Background Ambulance use expedites the definitive treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ambulance use on the administration of early reperfusion therapies for patients with AMI in Beijing, China.Methods Data were prospectively collected from 498 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who were admitted within 12 hours of symptom onset to 19 hospitals in Beijing between November 1,2005 and December 31, 2006. The baseline characteristics of and the initial management of the ambulance users and the non-ambulance users were compared.Results Only 186 (37.3%) patients used an ambulance as transportation to the hospital. Ambulance users were, on average, older and at relatively higher risk on presentation than the non-ambulance users. After adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics, ambulance use was associated with a greater early reperfusion rate, mainly because of a greater incidence of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. In addition, ambulance users had a significantly shorter median door-to-balloon (120 compared with 145 minutes, P<0.001) and symptom onset-to-balloon (223 compared with 300 minutes, P<0.001) time than non-ambulance users.Conclusions Ambulances are underused by AMI patients in Beijing. Ambulance use may lead to more frequent and faster receipt of early reperfusion therapies. New public health strategies should be developed to facilitate an increased use of ambulances by AMI patients.

  15. Acute ureterolithiasis: Incidence of secondary signs on unenhanced helical CT and influence on patient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ege, G. E-mail: gurkanege@yahoo.com; Akman, H.; Kuzucu, K.; Yildiz, S

    2003-12-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of secondary signs associated with ureteral stones on unenhanced helical computed tomography (CT) of patients with acute renal colic, and to correlate these with patient management and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with ureterolithiasis were evaluated prospectively for the secondary signs of obstruction on unenhanced helical CT. Our attention was focused primarily on the presence or absence of seven secondary signs on unenhanced helical CT, including hydronephrosis, unilateral renal enlargement, perinephric oedema, unilateral absence of the white pyramid, hydroureter, periureteral oedema and lateroconal fascial thickening. RESULTS: Of the 110 patients, 91 (82.7%) had hydroureter, 88 (80%) had hydronephrosis, 65 (59%) had periureteric oedema and 63 (57.2%) had unilateral renal enlargement. Ninety stones passed spontaneously and 21 required intervention. CONCLUSION: Secondary signs of urinary tract obstruction are useful and supportive findings in interpretation of the CT examination. In our experience, the most reliable signs indicating ureteral obstruction are hydroureter, hydronephrosis, periureteral oedema and unilateral renal enlargement, respectively. In addition, stones larger than 6 mm, located within the proximal two thirds of the ureter, and seen associated with five or more the secondary signs of obstruction, are more likely to require endoscopic removal and/or lithotripsy.

  16. Maternal agency influences the prevalence of diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections among young Indonesian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, Rina; Shankar, Anita V; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Achadi, Endang L; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2015-05-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of mother's caretaking, practice and individual agency on acute diarrhea and respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) of Indonesian children. Using population-based household data from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys for 2002-2003 (n = 9,151 children) and 2007 (n = 9,714 children), we selected 28 indicators related to mother' caretaking, and applied principal component analysis to derive indices for access to care, practice and experience, and agency. The association between index quartiles (level 1-4) and the prevalence of diarrhea and ARTIs in the youngest child family size, child's age and sex, immunization status and received vitamin A supplementation. Moderate levels (level 3) of practice and experience were associated with decreased diarrheal risk (adjusted OR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.75-0.98), but not for ARTIs. Children of mothers with higher levels (level 4) of agency were protected against both diarrhea (adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.60-0.77) and ARTIs (adjusted OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.91). Stratified analyses with child's age and mother's education, and tests of interaction, showed that agency had a stronger effect on diarrhea and ARTIs prevalence in children child health. PMID:25108503

  17. Influencing factors for the disappearance of hemispatial neglect in patients during acute stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaobin Long

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some researches are proved that early sitting balance and body motor control performed on patients with stroke and hemiplegia is related to functional prognosis. For patients with hemispatial neglect (HSN) during acute stroke, whether HSN disappearance is related to those trainings or not should be further studied.OBJ ECTIVE: To analyze the correlation between HSN disappearance and related intervention of patients during acute stroke.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 21 patients with stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from May 2005 to March 2006. Diagnosis criteria: ① Stroke was diagnosed by CT and MRI; ② Diagnosis was coincidence with HSN evaluation criteria; ③ All cases were consent. Exclusion criteria: Patients who had poly-focus, conscious disturbance, severe amentia and hard communication combined with aphasia were excluded. A total of 12 males and 9 females were included, and the mean age was (68±10) years. Among them, 14 patients had cerebral infarction and 7 had cerebral hemorrhage.METHODS: Disappearance and existence of HSN were analyzed with HSN evaluation criteria: body agnosia, left and right agnosia, maintenance of supine position, place of things, sitting up straight, center of line measured by eyes, and cutting 30 lines with paring method. Items mentioned below belonged to HSN disappearance: ① without body agnosia; ② without left and right agnosia; ③ be able to maintain supine position; ④ knowing place of things; ⑤ sitting up straight by one's own; ⑥ be able to measure the center of line by eyes; ⑦ be able to cut 30 lines with paring method. However, only one item belonged to HSN remnant; but only one item belonged to HSN remnant. Numbers of patients who were of body agnosia, left and right agnosia and difficult maintenance of supine

  18. Metabolism of biogenic amines in acute cerebral ischemia: Influence of systemic hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović Aleksandar; Milovanović J.; Milovanović Anđela; Konstatinović Ljubica; Petrović M.; Kekuš Divna; Petronijević-Vrzić Svetlana; Artiko Vera

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are biogenic amines which are transmitters of the central nervous system. The effects of ischemia on the brain parenchyma depends on many factors, such is the mechanism of blood flow interruption, velocity of the occurring blood flow interruption, duration of an ischemic episode, organization of anatomical structures of the brain blood vessels etc., which all influence the final outcome. During interruption of the brai...

  19. Influence of zinc sulfate intake on acute ethanol-induced liver injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sema Bolkent; Pelin Arda-Pirincci; Sehnaz Bolkent; Refiye Yanardag; Sevim Tunali; Sukriye Yildirim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of metallothionein and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) on the morphological and biochemical effects of zinc sulfate in ethanol-induced liver injury.METHODS: Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I; intact rats, group Ⅱ; control rats given only zinc, group Ⅲ; animals given absolute ethanol, group Ⅳ; rats given zinc and absolute ethanol.Ethanol-induced injury was produced by the 1 mL of absolute ethanol, administrated by gavage technique to each rat. Animals received 100 mg/kg per day zinc sulfate for 3 d 2 h prior to the administration of absolute ethanol.RESULTS: Increases in metallothionein immunoreactivity in control rats given only zinc and rats given zinc and ethanol were observed. PCNA immunohistochemistry showed that the number of PCNA-positive hepatocytes was increased significantly in the livers of rats administered ethanol + zinc sulfate. Acute ethanol exposure caused degenerative morphological changes in the liver. Blood glutathione levels decreased, serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase activities increased in the ethanol group when compared to the control group. Liver glutathione levels were reduced, but lipid peroxidation increased in the livers of the group administered ethanol as compared to the other groups. Administration of zinc sulfate in the ethanol group caused a significant decrease in degenerative changes, lipid peroxidation, and alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase activities, but an increase in liver glutathione.CONCLUSION: Zinc sulfate has a protective effect on ethanol-induced liver injury. In addition, cell proliferation may be related to the increase in metallothionein immunoreactivity in the livers of rats administered ethanol + zinc sulfate.

  20. Maternal agency influences the prevalence of diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections among young Indonesian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, Rina; Shankar, Anita V; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Achadi, Endang L; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2015-05-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of mother's caretaking, practice and individual agency on acute diarrhea and respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) of Indonesian children. Using population-based household data from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys for 2002-2003 (n = 9,151 children) and 2007 (n = 9,714 children), we selected 28 indicators related to mother' caretaking, and applied principal component analysis to derive indices for access to care, practice and experience, and agency. The association between index quartiles (level 1-4) and the prevalence of diarrhea and ARTIs in the youngest child <5 years of age was assessed with multivariate logistic regression adjusting for socioeconomic status, residence type, mother's age and education, family size, child's age and sex, immunization status and received vitamin A supplementation. Moderate levels (level 3) of practice and experience were associated with decreased diarrheal risk (adjusted OR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.75-0.98), but not for ARTIs. Children of mothers with higher levels (level 4) of agency were protected against both diarrhea (adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.60-0.77) and ARTIs (adjusted OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.91). Stratified analyses with child's age and mother's education, and tests of interaction, showed that agency had a stronger effect on diarrhea and ARTIs prevalence in children <2 years of age. Maternal caretaking, especially agency, is strongly associated with lower prevalence of diarrhea and ARTIs in younger children. Interventions specifically designed to promote maternal autonomy and decision-making may lead to improved child health.

  1. The influence of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cortical contributions to motor preparation and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Jonathan S; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E; Staines, W Richard

    2014-10-01

    Increasing evidence supports the use of physical activity for modifying brain activity and overall neurological health. Specifically, aerobic exercise appears to have a positive effect on cognitive function, which some have suggested to be a result of increasing levels of arousal. However, the role of aerobic exercise on movement-related cortical activity is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that (1) an acute bout of exercise modulates excitability within motor areas and (2) transient effects would be sustained as long as sympathetic drive remained elevated (indicated by heart rate). In experiment 1, participants performed unimanual self-paced wrist extension movements before and after a 20-min, moderate intensity aerobic exercise intervention on a recumbent cycle ergometer. After the cessation of exercise, Bereitschaftspotentials (BP), representative cortical markers for motor preparation, were recorded immediately postexercise (Post) and following a return to baseline heart rate (Post[Rest]). Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to measure the BP time-locked to onset of muscle activity and separated into three main components: early, late and reafferent potentials. In experiment 2, two additional time points postexercise were added to the original protocol following the Post[Rest] condition. Early BP but not late BP was influenced by aerobic exercise, evidenced by an earlier onset, indicative of a regionally selective effect across BP generators. Moreover, this effect was sustained for up to an hour following exercise cessation and this effect was following a return to baseline heart rate. These data demonstrate that acute aerobic exercise may alter and possibly enhance the cortical substrates required for the preparation of movement. PMID:25355852

  2. Influence of perinatal trans fat on behavioral responses and brain oxidative status of adolescent rats acutely exposed to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, C S; Roversi, Kr; Trevizol, F; Roversi, K; Kuhn, F T; Schuster, A J; Vey, L T; Dias, V T; Barcelos, R C S; Piccolo, J; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E

    2013-09-01

    Because consumption of processed foods has increased in the last decades and so far its potential influence on emotionality and susceptibility to stress is unknown, we studied the influence of different fatty acids (FA) on behavioral and biochemical parameters after acute restrain stress (AS) exposure. Two sequential generations of female rats were supplemented with soybean oil (control group; C-SO), fish oil (FO) and hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) from pregnancy and during lactation. At 41days of age, half the animals of each supplemented group were exposed to AS and observed in open field and elevated plus maze task, followed by euthanasia for biochemical assessments. The HVF-supplemented group showed higher anxiety-like symptoms per se, while the C-SO and FO groups did not show these behaviors. Among groups exposed to AS, HVF showed locomotor restlessness in the open field, while both C-SO and HVF groups showed anxiety-like symptoms in the elevated plus maze, but this was not observed in the FO group. Biochemical evaluations showed higher lipoperoxidation levels and lower cell viability in cortex in the HVF group. In addition, HVF-treated rats showed reduced catalase activity in striatum and hippocampus, as well as increased generation of reactive species in striatum, while FO was associated with increased cell viability in the hippocampus. Among groups exposed to AS, HVF increased reactive species generation in the brain, decreased cell viability in the cortex and striatum, and decreased catalase activity in the striatum and hippocampus. Taken together, our findings show that the type of FA provided during development and growth over two generations is able to modify the brain oxidative status, which was particularly adversely affected by trans fat. In addition, the harmful influence of chronic consumption of trans fats as observed in this study can enhance emotionality and anxiety parameters resulting from stressful situations of everyday life, which can

  3. Individualistic and social motives for justice judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem

    2013-09-01

    Justice judgments are subjective by nature, and are influenced substantially by motivational processes. In the present contribution, two motives underlying justice judgments are examined: individualistic motives to evaluate solutions to social problems that benefit the self in material or immaterial ways as fair versus social motives to conceptualize justice in terms of the well-being of others, such as a desire for equality, adherence to in-group norms, and a concern for the collective interest. A review of relevant research reveals evidence for both motivations when people make evaluations of justice. Moreover, which motive is most dominant in the justice judgment process depends on perceptual salience: whereas individualistic motives are activated when a perceiver's own needs and goals are perceptually salient, social motives are activated when others' needs and goals are perceptually salient. It is concluded that both individualistic and social motives contribute in predictable ways to justice judgments.

  4. LEARNER MOTIVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Zheng Min(Maggie):Initiation of the discus-sion topicDear Mr.Ma,I’m very sorry for this late initia-tion of discussion topics.Just come from one countyof Inner Mongolia near the city of Chi Feng.There isreally a lack of competent teachers of English in ruralareas,and in astonishment I saw many who barelyspeak English teaches English in middle schools.Asfor the topic of discussion,I’d like to focus on learn-er’s motivation,which is a vital factor in successfullearning.It is well known that motivation is classi-fied by Gardner & Lambert(1972)into"integrative"and"instrumental"ones.Other categorization in-

  5. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.;

    2013-01-01

    . This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...... with regard to the functional dimension. Beer and spirits are the alcoholic drinks and tea, water, and juice the non-alcoholic drinks that are related to high scores on the self-expression dimension. Water and juice are the drinks scoring highest on functionality, being mainly related to health, availability......, and quenching one’s thirst. The non-alcoholic products scoring low on functionality are coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks. Analysis of socio-demographic differences resulted in only a few effects. Men, lower education groups, and lower income groups are more likely to drink alcohol for reasons other...

  6. IMPORTANCE OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION IN SPORTS PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti A Upadhye; N Chandrappa

    2014-01-01

    The present article defines the psychological construct of Achievement motivation and its influence on Sportsman to achieve their goals and to improve their performance level. Achievement Motivation is a mindset that leads people to set for themselves realistic but challenging goals. In Achievement Motivation can calculate mathematically by taking a person's desire to succeed and subtracting their fear of failure. When a student is motivated, he is inspired to pursue greater a...

  7. Does the electrocardiographic presence of Q waves influence the survival of patients with acute myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, J; Brendorp, B; Torp-Pedersen, C;

    2001-01-01

    , electrocardiographic diagnosis of Q wave and non-Q wave myocardial infarction, echocardiographic estimation of left ventricular systolic function determined as wall motion index, infarct complications, and survival were documented. The factors influencing the postmyocardial infarction outcome of these patients were.......9-1.1)]. The result was the same in univariate and multivariate analyses. Subgroup analysis defined by age, sex, wall motion index, presence of congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, subsequent myocardial infarctions and use of thrombolytic therapy did not disclose importance of Q waves...

  8. Ethical Judgment of Enterprise and Construction of Moral Concern Influenced by the Economic Motivation and Moral Motivation%经济和道德动机下的企业伦理判断与道德关怀构筑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑜

    2015-01-01

    In general ,the realization of the profit maximization is not only the significance and value of the enterprise ,but also the sole consideration from economic motivation .How to make the enterprise take more social responsibility and reflect more moral concern is the current government and enterprises must consider the problem .This article begins to study the root of economic motivation .Identify the existence of reasonable economic self -interest motivation and explores the moral aspirations of the economic behavior . To seeking the unity of economic rationality and moral rationality in the differences of economic motivation and moral motivation .And comb out the relationship between moral care and entrepreneurs and enterpri‐ses ,analyzes the problems in the construction of business ethic .%一般认为,实现利润最大化是企业存在的意义和价值所在,也是其出于经济动机的单一考量。如何让企业承担更多的社会责任,体现更多的道德关怀,是当前政府和企业都必须考虑的问题。本文从经济动机的根源出发,找出自利性经济动机存在的合理性,并探讨了其中的道德诉求。在经济动机与道德动机的差异中,寻求二者的统一,并梳理出道德关怀与企业家和企业的关系,分析了构建企业伦理精神中存在的诸多问题。

  9. Influence of socioeconomic status on acute myocardial infarction in the Chinese population: the INTERHEART China study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin; LI Wei; WANG Yang; CHEN Tao; Koon Teo; LIU Li-sheng; Salim Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Background Many researches report that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).This study aimed to determine whether levels of education,family income,and other SES were associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Chinese population,and to compare the difference in this association between northern and southern regions in China.Methods We conducted a case-control study.Cases were first AMI (n=2909).Controls (n=2947) were randomly selected and frequency matched to cases on age and sex.SES was measured using education,family income,possessions in the household,and occupation.Results Low levels of education (8 years) were more common in cases compared to controls (53.4% and 44.1%;P=0.0001).After adjusting all risk factors,the level of education was associated with AMI risk in the Chinese population (P=0.0005).The odds ratio (OR) associated with education of 8 years or less,compared with more than 12 years (trade school/college/university) was 1.33 (95% CI 1.12-1.59),and for education of 9-12 years 1.04 (95% CI 0.88-1.33).The proportion of higher income population was more in controls than cases (39.4% and 35.3%).Number of possessions and non-professional occupation were only weakly or not at all independently related to AMI.The adjusted OR associated with the lower education was 2.38 (95% CI 1.67-3.39) in women,and 1.18 (95% CI 0.99-1.42) in men (P=0.0001,for heterogeneity).The interaction between levels of education and different regions was significant (P=0.0206,for interaction).Conclusion Several socioeconomic factors including levels of education and income were closely associated with increase of AMI risk in China,most markedly in northeast and southern area.The effect of education was stronger towards AMI in women than men.

  10. Is the outcome in acute aortic dissection type A influenced by of femoral versus central cannulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsky, Bence S.; Richardt, Doreen; Petersen, Michael; Sievers, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the single-center experience in initial femoral versus central cannulation of the extracorporeal circulation for acute aortic dissection type A (AADA). Methods Between January 2003 and December 2015, 235 patients underwent repair of AADA. All patients were evaluated for the type of arterial cannulation (femoral vs. central) for initial bypass. Demographic data and outcome parameters were accessed. Results One hundred and twenty seven (54.0%) were initially cannulated in the central aortic vessels (ascending aorta or subclavian/axillary artery) and 108 (46.0%) in the femoral artery. Patients were comparable between age (62.4±14.4 vs. 62.9±14.4 years, P=0.805), gender (male, 62.2 vs. 69.4%, P=0.152) and previous sternotomy (15.7 vs. 16.7%, P=0.861) between both cannulation groups; while EuroSCORE I (11.5±4.0 vs. 12.7±4.2, P=0.031) and ASA Score (3.5±0.81 vs. 3.8±0.57, P=0.011) were significantly higher in the femoral artery cannulation group. Bypass (249±102 vs. 240±81 min, P=0.474), X-clamp (166±85 vs. 157±67 min, P=0.418) and circulatory arrest time (51.6±28.7 vs. 48.3±21.7 min, P=0.365) were similar between the groups as were lowest temperature (18.1±2.0 vs. 18.1±2.2, P=0.775). Postoperative neurologic deficit and 30-day mortality were comparable between both cannulation groups (11.7 vs. 7.2%, P=0.449 and 20.2 vs. 16.9%, P=0.699, central vs. peripheral cannulation). Multivariate analysis revealed only EuroScore I above 13 as single preoperative predictor for mortality. Conclusions AADA can be operated with both femoral and central cannulation with similar results. Risk for early mortality was driven by the preoperative clinical and hemodynamic status before operation rather than the cannulation technique.

  11. Does Viral Co-Infection Influence the Severity of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. Objectives To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Methods We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011–2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value < 0.001) and longer hospital length of stay (OR: 1.468; P-value < 0.001). In addition, pneumococcal vaccination was found to be a protective factor in terms of degree of respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role. PMID:27096199

  12. A Study on Influence of English Learning Motivation upon Undergraduates' Autonomous Learning%学习动机对大学生英语自主学习影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋香; 徐霜雪

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the effects of motivation modes upon autonomous learning based on questionnaires to 300 second-year non-English majors in Taiyuan Institute of Technology. The statistic analysis shows that seven motivations exert different influences on four dimensions of autonomous learning:motivations of intrinsic interests and immediate achievement have positive effects;motivations of learning situation and going abroad have negative influences; though social responsibility motivation has a significantly positive relationship with identifying teaching objectives, formulating learning goals and monitoring learning process, it has an insignificant effect on learning strategies;motivations of individual development and information medium have zero impacts.%通过对太原工业学院300名本科生进行问卷调查,以探究不同学习动机类型对非英语专业大学生英语自主学习的影响. 分析数据后发现7种学习动机类型对自主性4个维度产生不同的影响:内在兴趣动机和成绩动机为正向性影响;学习情境动机和出国动机为反向性影响;社会责任动机对自主性维度中明晰教师教学目的与要求、制订与规划学习目标、调控与评价学习过程产生正向性影响,但对有效使用学习策略这一维度未见显著影响;而个人发展动机和信息媒介动机同自主性英语学习呈零相关影响.

  13. 行为动机差异与我国手机网游市场发展影响研究%Difference of Behavior Motivation and Its Influence on China Mobile Phone Net work Market Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施巍巍

    2012-01-01

      Based on questionnaire data and through structural model, this paper defines clearly three different kinds of behavior motivation of mobile phone network game player, as well as the status of that market. The findings show that for the influence of behavior motivation on mobile phone network game market development, interwoven characteristic of player motivation is already very apparent. Compared with exploration motivation, interactive and communication motivation, and achievement motivation have even more apparent influence on market; findings also indicate that the market is still at a very low level and at“see-saw” stage.%  运用结构方程,实证检验了手机网络游戏玩家行为动机对该市场发展的影响。结论表明,手机网游玩家行为动机已经表现出了多重交织的特点;相对探索体验性动机,玩家互动沟通性动机和成就性动机更显著构成了影响我国手机网络游戏市场发展的因素;基于动机影响下的市场分析也表明,该市场发展仍然还处于低层次“拉锯”阶段。要:基于问卷调查数据,研究通过明确界定三种典型手机网游玩家行为动机类型以及该市场发展状

  14. 整体自尊对女大学生锻炼动机的影响%The Influence of Overall Self -esteem on Physical Exercise Motivation of Female Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敐

    2015-01-01

    In order to verify the influence of overall self -esteem on physical exercise motivation of female students,the paper makes investigation on 433 female students by using Rosenberg’s self -esteem scale (RSES) and Ryan's measuring physical activity motivation -revised (MPAM-R).Results indicate that female students’ overall self -esteem and physical exercise motivation are in dire need of attention and promotion;the two (including every dimension)are obviously positively correlated with each other;among them,overall self -esteem is more closely related with appearance motivation and pleasure motivation;overall self -esteem has significant predicted effect on physical exercise motivation (including every dimension);among them,the predictive power of overall self -esteem on appearance motivation and pleasure motivation is quite strong;structural equation model confirms the positive impact of overall self -esteem on physical exercise motivation. This research conclusion provides important practical implications for formulating decisions on inciting female students’physical exercise motivation.%为考察女大学生整体自尊对锻炼动机的影响。采用 Rosenberg 自尊量表和 Ryan 身体活动动机量表对433名女大学生进行调查。结果显示:女大学生的整体自尊和锻炼动机亟待关注与改善;整体自尊和锻炼动机(包括各维度)显著正相关,其中,整体自尊与外貌动机、乐趣动机的相关性较密切;整体自尊对锻炼动机(包括各维度)预测效应显著,其中,整体自尊对外貌动机、乐趣动机的预测力较强;结构方程模型验证了,女大学生整体自尊对锻炼动机的积极影响。研究为制定女大学生锻炼动机激励决策提供重要的实践启示。

  15. Motivation of employees as a tool for performance management

    OpenAIRE

    Volkova, Polina

    2014-01-01

    The Bachelor thesis „Motivation of employees as a tool for performance management“ is focused on employee motivation. The main objective is to motivate employees to achieve better performance across the enterprise. The work consists of two parts. The first part is theoretical and includes an explanation of the basic concepts related motivation, exploring selected theories of motivation and the influence of motivation on work performance. The second part presents practical research on the ...

  16. 择业动机与工作动机对幼儿园教师专业认同的影响%On Influence of Job Choosing Motives and Work Motives upon Preschool Teacher's Professional Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦奕

    2011-01-01

    A study on 604 preschool teachers reveals that (1) the co-working of job choosing motives and work motives significantly affects preschool teachers' professional identification. (2) job choosing motives prominently affect the dimensions of devotion and co%对604名幼儿园教师所作的相关调查发现:(1)择业动机与工作动机共同作用显著影响幼儿园教师的专业认同水平。(2)择业动机显著影响幼儿园教师专业认同的投入意愿和持续承诺维度。(3)不同的工作动机与不同的择业动机共同作用对幼儿园教师专业认同的影响存在差异。

  17. Motivation and Influencing Factor of Enterprise's Patent Application%企业专利申请动机及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯媛媛; 刘云; 谭龙

    2012-01-01

    Based on the literature review,this paper summarizes the motivation of enterprise's patent application and its influencing factors,and studies the effect of innovation subject behavior on patent application growth from the micro level.Then taking Huawei as the research example,it analyzes the incentive factors of its patent application.Finally it draws the conclusion that intellectual property system,RD input,reward mechanism,performance appraisal system,intellectual property management and intellectual property strategy are the important incentive factors of affecting patent application growth.%针对多年来我国企业专利申请量持续增长的现象,在对现有文献和相关政策系统梳理的基础上,归纳总结了企业专利申请的动机———市场化动机、非市场化动机和战略性动机。以华为技术有限公司为案例,研究了该公司专利申请的内部激励因素。研究结果表明:知识产权制度、研发投入、奖励机制、绩效考评体系、知识产权管理体系、知识产权战略等是企业申请专利的主要激励因素。

  18. Acute and chronic wound fluids inversely influence adipose-derived stem cell function: molecular insights into impaired wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Paola; Spanholtz, Timo A; Maegele, Marc; Stürmer, Ewa; Brockamp, Thomas; Neugebauer, Edmund; Thamm, Oliver C

    2015-02-01

    Wound healing is a complex biological process that requires a well-orchestrated interaction of mediators as well as resident and infiltrating cells. In this context, mesenchymal stem cells play a crucial role as they are attracted to the wound site and influence tissue regeneration by various mechanisms. In chronic wounds, these processes are disturbed. In a comparative approach, adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) were treated with acute and chronic wound fluids (AWF and CWF, respectively). Proliferation and migration were investigated using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and transwell migration assay. Gene expression changes were analysed using quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction. AWF had a significantly stronger chemotactic impact on ASC than CWF (77·5% versus 59·8% migrated cells). While proliferation was stimulated by AWF up to 136·3%, CWF had a negative effect on proliferation over time (80·3%). Expression of b-FGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was strongly induced by CWF compared with a mild induction by AWF. These results give an insight into impaired ASC function in chronic wounds. The detected effect of CWF on proliferation and migration of ASC might be one reason for an insufficient healing process in chronic wounds.

  19. Does acute lead (Pb) contamination influence membrane fatty acid composition and freeze tolerance in intertidal blue mussels in arctic Greenland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Juhl, Bodil Klein; Holmstrup, Martin; Blicher, Martin E; Sejr, Mikael K

    2015-11-01

    In their natural habitats, organisms are exposed to multiple stressors. Heavy metal contamination stresses the cell membrane due to increased peroxidation of lipids. Likewise, sub-zero air temperatures potentially reduce membrane functionality in ectothermal animals. We tested if acute lead (Pb) exposure for 7 days would influence survival in intertidal blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) after exposure to realistic sub-zero air temperatures. A full factorial experiment with five tissue Pb concentrations between 0 and 3500 μg Pb/g and six sub-zero temperatures from 0 to -17 °C were used to test the hypothesis that sub-lethal effects of Pb may increase the lethality caused by freezing in blue mussels exposed to temperatures simulating Greenland winter conditions. We found a significant effect of temperature on mortality. However, the short-term exposure to Pb did not result in any effects of Pb, nor did we find interactions between Pb and temperature. We analysed the relative abundance of major phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in the gill tissue, but we found no significant effect of Pb tissue concentration on PLFA composition. Results suggest that Pb accumulation has limited effects on freeze tolerance and does not induce membrane damage in terms of persistent lipid peroxidation.

  20. Motivation,Attitude and Teaching Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹琪雯

    2014-01-01

    Motivation and attitude are two important factors that influence the students' foreign language learning. This paper focuses on the diverse influences from the different types of motivation and attitude that the students have. At the same time, it provides some suggestions for the language teachers and hopes that it may be helpful for their language teaching.

  1. Influences of acute ethanol exposure on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae under different illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ning; Lin, Jia; Peng, Xiaolan; Chen, Haojun; Zhang, Yinglan; Liu, Xiuyun; Li, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Larval zebrafish present unique opportunities to study the behavioral responses of a model organism to environmental challenges during early developmental stages. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the locomotor activities of AB strain zebrafish larvae at 5 and 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) in response to light changes under the influence of ethanol, and to explore potential neurological mechanisms that are involved in ethanol intoxication. AB strain zebrafish larvae at both 5 and 7 dpf were treated with ethanol at 0% (control), 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (v/v%). The locomotor activities of the larvae during alternating light-dark challenges, as well as the locomotor responses immediately following the light transitions, were investigated. The levels of various neurotransmitters were also measured in selected ethanol-treated groups. The larvae at 5 and 7 dpf demonstrated similar patterns of locomotor responses to ethanol treatment. Ethanol treatment at 1% increased the swimming distances of the zebrafish larvae in the dark periods, but had no effect on the swimming distances in the light periods. In contrast, ethanol treatment at 2% increased the swimming distances in the light periods, but did not potentiate the swimming activity in the dark periods, compared to controls. Differences in the levels of neurotransmitters that are involved in norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin pathways were also observed in groups with different ethanol treatments. These results indicated the behavioral studies concerning the ethanol effects on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae could be carried out as early as 5 dpf. The 1% and 2% ethanol-treated zebrafish larvae modeled ethanol effects at different intoxication states, and the differences in neurotransmitter levels suggested the involvement of various neurotransmitter pathways in different ethanol intoxication states.

  2. The Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation on Employee Engagement : A qualitative study of the perceptions of managers in public and private sector organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Emma; Garcia Martinez, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Whereas motivation has portrayed a significant managerial issue for decades, employee engagement has relatively recently been identified as a topic of growing popularity in the world of business and management research. Current research that connects the concepts of employee motivation and engagement has had a focus on quantitative analysis and the employee perspective, investigating what factors are of importance to employees in their engagement at work. As there were no studies exploring th...

  3. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...... is a motivational paradox....

  4. Determinants of International Students' Adaptation: Examining Effects of Integrative Motivation, Instrumental Motivation and Second Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Baohua; Downing, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of integrative motivation, instrumental motivation and second language (L2) proficiency on socio-cultural/academic adaptation in a sample of two groups of international students studying Chinese in China. Results revealed that the non-Asian student group reported higher levels of integrative motivation,…

  5. Twenty Strategies to Increase Student Motivation. Information Capsule. Volume 0907

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Keeping students interested in school and motivating them to succeed are challenges that even the most experienced teachers face every year. A host of student variables can lead to low levels of motivation, but research indicates that educational settings also influence motivation levels. Some studies have found that motivation is a stronger…

  6. The influence of psychological state and motivation on brain-computer interface performance in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Femke; Birbaumer, Niels; Kübler, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of psychological well-being measured as quality of life (QoL), depression, current mood and motivation on brain-computer interface (BCI) performance in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Six participants with most advanced ALS were trained either for a block of 20 sessions with a BCI based on sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) or a block of 10 sessions with a BCI based on event-related potentials, or both. Questionnaires assessed QoL and severity of depressive symptoms before each training block and mood and motivation before each training session. The SMR-BCI required more training than the P300-BCI. The information transfer rate was higher with the P300-BCI (3.25 bits/min) than with the SMR-BCI (1.16 bits/min). Mood and motivation were related to the number of BCI sessions. Motivational factors, specifically challenge and mastery confidence, were positively related to BCI performance (controlled for the number of sessions) in tow participants, while incompetence fear was negatively related with performance in one participant. BCI performance was not related to motivational factors in three other participants nor to mood in any of the six participants. We conclude that motivational factors may be related to BCI performance in individual subjects and suggest that motivational factors and well-being should be assessed in standard BCI protocols. We also recommend using P300-based BCI as first choice in severely paralyzed patients who present with a P300 evoked potential.

  7. Employee's Motivation : How to improve employees’ motivation in order to increase work performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Oanh

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the state of employee’s job satisfaction and motivation at language school KTDC Group that is located in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study deals with the major factors that influence teachers’ motivation at the target school. Employee motivation is extremely crucial for the company as it has a great impact on employee’s job performance and responsibility. Especially for companies that are operating in services and education industry, motivated employees are vital. Ther...

  8. Influence of Transplantation of Allogenic Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on the Left Ventricular Remodeling of Rat after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To probe into the influence of transplantation of allogenic bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) on the left ventricular remodeling of rat after acute myocardial infarction (AMD,60 male Wistar rats were evenly divided into three groups at random: control group 1, control group 2and transplantation group. In control group 1, chest was opened without ligation of coronary artery;in control group 2 and transplantation group, the left anterior descending branch of coronary artery was ligated to establish AMI model. Prepared culture medium and allogenic BM-MNCs suspension were respectively implanted the surrounding area of infracted cardiac muscle via epicardium of control group 2 and transplantation group. Four weeks after the operation, the osteopontin gene (OPN mRNA, P<0.01), type Ⅰ collagen (P<0.01) and angiotensin Ⅱ (AngⅡ, P<0.01) content in the left ventricular non-infracted myocardium, and the Ang Ⅱ density in blood plasma (P<0.05) of transplantation group and control group 2 were all significantly higher than that of control group 1. In the transplantation group, the myocardial OPN mRNA, type Ⅰ collagen and Ang Ⅱ content of non-infracted zone in left ventricle, and the Ang Ⅱ concentration in blood plasma were all significantly lower than those of control group 2 (P<0.05 for all). It is concluded that allogenic BM-MNCs transplantation may ease left ventricular remodeling after AMI by inhibiting the synthesis of type Ⅰ collagen in the cardiac muscle and down-regulating the expression of Ang Ⅱ and OPN gene.

  9. Influence of detection of pretreatment cytogenetic abnormalities on first complete remission and survival in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgieva Velizarova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adults focuses on the initial assessment of the prognostic relevant cytogenetic features as well as a response-guided therapy based on molecular data. We examined the importance of molecular-cytogenetic abnormalities for complete remission (CR rates and the overall survival (OS in adult ALLs.Materials and Methods: Conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed on bone marrow cells from 33 newly-diagnosed ALL adults. Two karyotype categories [standard- risk group- normal karyotype, hyperdiplody and other structural aberrations, and high-risk group-t(11q23/MLL, t(9;22/bcr-abl, t(1;19, t(8;14, C-MYC and complex karyotype] and the biologically and clinically relevant ALL ploidy subgroups were prospectively defined.Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 52% of the cases with a high rate of poor-risk translocations - t(9;22, t(8q24, t(11q23, t(1;19. The total CR rate was 67% and the median time for achievement 2.33 months. Male sex, an age below 35 years and the absence of high risk translocations might have contributed to the high CR rates. Female patients, hyperdiplody, low white blood cells (WBC, and random cytogenetic aberrations had the longest OS. OS, 3- and 5-years survival periods were significantly shorter for poor-risk than standard risk group (p=.015, p=.001 and p=.005, respectively.Conclusion: This study emphasizes the lack of influence of cytogenetic aberrations on the CR and the time to achieve CR. However, our observations show that these aberrations are an independent prognostic factor in adult ALL - they allow predicting therapy resistance and the OS time after intensetreatment.

  10. Influence of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of copper and zinc to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyne, Ross V; Pablo, Fleur; Julli, Moreno; Markich, Scott J

    2005-07-01

    This study determined the influence of key water chemistry parameters (pH, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], and hardness) on the aqueous speciation of copper and zinc and its relationship to the acute toxicity of these metals to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf dubia. Immobilization tests were performed for 48-h in synthetic or natural waters buffered at various pH values from 5.5 to 8.4 (other chemical parameters held constant). The toxicity of copper to C. cf dubia decreased fivefold with increasing pH, whereas the toxicity of zinc increased fivefold with increasing pH. The effect of DOC on copper and zinc toxicity to C. cf dubia was determined using natural fulvic acid in the synthetic water. Increasing DOC was found to decrease linearly the toxicity of copper, with the mean effect concentration of copper that immobilized 50% of the cladocerans (EC50) value 45 times higher at 10 mg/L, relative to 0.1 mg/L DOC at pH 6.5. In contrast, the addition of 10 mg/L DOC only resulted in a very small (1.3-fold) reduction in the toxicity of zinc to C. cf dubia. Copper toxicity to C. cf dubia generally did not vary as a function of hardness, whereas zinc toxicity was reduced by a factor of only two, with an increase in water hardness from 44 to 374 mg CaCO3/L. Increasing bicarbonate alkalinity of synthetic waters (30-125 mg/L as CaCO3) decreased the toxicity of copper up to fivefold, which mainly could be attributed to the formation of copper-carbonate complexes, in addition to a pH effect. The toxicity of copper added to a range of natural waters with varying DOC content, pH, and hardness was consistent with the toxicity predicted using the data obtained from the synthetic waters.

  11. Influence of melanocytes in the ex-vivo reconstructed epidermal melanin unit following an acute UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of melanocytes in skin pigmentation is well documented, however its photo-protective role has given rise to controversy. The role of melanocytes have been investigated on reconstructed epidermis with 100 % of keratinocytes or 95 % of keratinocytes and 5 % of melanocytes. In a first time, the effect of an acute UVB dose has been studied on both reconstructed epidermis, next we have investigated UVA and UVA+B effects on these epidermis. Following irradiation, the presence of melanocytes in reconstructed epidermis protects against apoptosis without protecting significantly against DNA damage formation (CPD, 6-4PP) and protects against UV-induced unbalance of the SOD/catalase ratio (antioxidants enzymes). On the contrary, the presence of melanocytes in reconstructed epidermis amplifies lipids and proteins oxidations but seems to protect against DNA oxidations. Melanocytes differ from keratinocytes by their melanin content and their more important concentration in polyunsaturated fatty acids. To evaluate what is the part of melanin and the part of polyunsaturated fatty acids in epidermal UV responses, reconstructed epidermis with keratinocytes have been supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acid. This study indicates that polyunsaturated fatty acids are responsible for lipids and proteins oxidations and that melanin protect against DNA oxidation induced by lipid peroxidation. All these studies demonstrate that, model of reconstructed epidermis and epidermis in-vivo have the same behaviour following UV irradiation. In the last part, sunscreens and antioxidants have been tested on reconstructed epidermis and have demonstrated that model of reconstructed epidermis is suitable for photo-protective molecules screening. (author)

  12. Long-term effects of autologous bone marrow stem cell treatment in acute myocardial infarction: factors that may influence outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Clifford

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate whether there are important sources of heterogeneity between the findings of different clinical trials which administer autologous stem cell treatment for acute myocardial infarction (AMI and to evaluate what factors may influence the long-term effects of this treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: MEDLINE (1950-January 2011, EMBASE (1974-January 2011, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 1, CINAHL (1982-January 2011, and ongoing trials registers were searched for randomised trials of bone marrow stem cells as treatment for AMI. Hand-searching was used to screen recent, relevant conference proceedings (2005-2010/11. Meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models and heterogeneity between subgroups was assessed using chi-squared tests. Planned analyses included length of follow-up, timing of cell infusion and dose, patient selection, small trial size effect, methodological quality, loss of follow-up and date of publication. Thirty-three trials with a total of 1,765 participants were included. There was no evidence of bias due to publication or time-lag, methodological quality of included studies, participant drop-out, duration of follow-up or date of the first disclosure of results. However, in long-term follow-ups the treatment seemed more effective when administered at doses greater than 10(8 cells and to patients with more severe heart dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of heterogeneity between trials has not identified significant sources of bias in this study. However, clinical differences between trials are likely to exist which should be considered when undertaking future trials.

  13. The influences of reproductive status and acute stress on the levels of phosphorylated mu opioid receptor immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith L. Gonzales

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Opioids play a critical role in hippocampally dependent behavior and plasticity. In the hippocampal formation, mu opioid receptors (MOR are prominent in parvalbumin (PARV containing interneurons. Previously we found that gonadal hormones modulate the trafficking of MORs in PARV interneurons. Although sex differences in response to stress are well documented, the point at which opioids, sex and stress interact to influence hippocampal function remains elusive. Thus, we used quantitative immunocytochemistry in combination with light and electron microscopy for the phosphorylated MOR at the SER375 carboxy-terminal residue (pMOR in male and female rats to assess these interactions. In both sexes, pMOR-immunoreactivity (ir was prominent in axons and terminals and in a few neuronal somata and dendrites, some of which contained PARV in the mossy fiber pathway region of the dentate gyrus (DG hilus and CA3 stratum lucidum. In unstressed rats, the levels of pMOR-ir in the DG or CA3 were not affected by sex or estrous cycle stage. However, immediately following 30 minutes of acute immobilization stress (AIS, males had higher levels of pMOR-ir whereas females at proestrus and estrus (high estrogen stages had lower levels of pMOR-ir within the DG. In contrast, the number and types of neuronal profiles with pMOR-ir were not altered by AIS in either males or proestrus females. These data demonstrate that although gonadal steroids do not affect pMOR levels at resting conditions, they are differentially activated both pre- and post-synaptic MORs following stress. These interactions may contribute to the reported sex differences in hippocampally dependent behaviors in stressed animals.

  14. Selenium Pretreatment for Mitigation of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Cardiovascular Surgery: Influence on Acute Organ Damage and Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrenner, Holger; Bilgic, Esra; Pinto, Antonio; Engels, Melanie; Wollschläger, Lena; Döhrn, Laura; Kellermann, Kristine; Boeken, Udo; Akhyari, Payam; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2016-08-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) contributes to morbidity and mortality after cardiovascular surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Multi-organ damage is associated with substantial decreases of blood selenium (Se) levels in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. We compared the influence of a dietary surplus of Se and pretreatment with ebselen, a mimic of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase, on IRI-induced tissue damage and inflammation. Male Wistar rats were fed either a Se-adequate diet containing 0.3 ppm Se or supplemented with 1 ppm Se (as sodium selenite) for 5 weeks. Two other groups of Se-adequate rats received intraperitoneal injection of ebselen (30 mg/kg) or DMSO (solvent control) before surgery. The animals were connected to a heart-lung-machine and underwent 45 min of global ischemia during circulatory arrest at 16 °C, followed by re-warming and reperfusion. Selenite and ebselen suppressed IRI-induced leukocytosis and the increase in plasma levels of tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, LDH, troponin) during surgery but did not prevent the induction of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). Both Se compounds affected phosphorylation and expression of proteins related to stress response and inflammation: Ebselen increased phosphorylation of STAT3 transcription factor in the heart and decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases in the lungs. Selenite decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and HSP-70 expression in the heart. Pretreatment with selenite or ebselen protected against acute IRI-induced tissue damage during CPB and DHCA. Potential implications of their different actions with regard to molecular stress markers on the recovery after surgery represent promising targets for further investigation. PMID:27192987

  15. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2008-01-01

    opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between......In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...

  16. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2007-01-01

    with a commodity team's objective of creating opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviors, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members......In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities consistent...

  17. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2008-01-01

    opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between......In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...

  18. 金融垄断资本全球扩张的动因和影响%Motives and Influences of Financial Monopoly Capital's Global Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧秀玲; 杨帆

    2014-01-01

    金融垄断资本的迅猛扩张既是资本主义内在矛盾发展的结果,也是资本主义试图不断革新、发掘其制度潜力的结果。资本主义生产过剩,资本需要找到新的积累途径是金融垄断资本全球扩张的根本动力;一体化的世界市场拓展了金融垄断资本的活动空间;跨国公司是金融垄断资本全球扩张的载体和有力工具;信息化和因特网的发展是金融垄断资本扩张的技术支撑;新自由主义是金融垄断资本扩张的理论和政策基础;美国主导的世界经济秩序特别是国际货币金融体系是金融资本扩张的制度环境。金融垄断资本的全球扩张改变了资本的形态和运作方式,使金融资本相对独立膨胀,资本主义经济中的资本积累方式、收入分配和消费模式、劳资关系以及世界经济体系等发生了重大且影响深远的变化,使当代资本主义的发展进入一个新阶段---金融垄断资本主义阶段,也给世界经济政治带来巨大的影响和灾难。%Since the 1980s ,the financial monopoly capital of developed countries ,backed by strong economic power and hegemony ,has violently expanded worldwide and shows more influence or control force on global economy . The fast expansion is the inevitable result of the deepening of inherent capitalist contradictions as well as the attempting of constant capitalist renovation . Especially ,due to overproduction ,capital needs to find new ways of accumulation ,which is the fundamental motive of financial monopoly capital's global expansion ;the integrated world market amplifies room for financial monopoly capital's moving ;transnational corporations act as carriers and effective tools of the global expansion ;neo-liberalism is the theory and policy basis of the expansion ;the world economic order especially the international monetary and financial system led by the US provides a system environment for the expansion . In fact

  19. Development of the Exercise Motives and Gains Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömmer, Sofia T.; Ingledew, David K.; Markland, David

    2015-01-01

    There are existing measures of exercise motives (what people want from exercise), but corresponding measures of gains (what people get) are needed, because motives and gains could influence each other and together influence other variables. An exercise motives and gains inventory (EMGI) was developed by creating gains scales to complement existing…

  20. Sentiment de liberté et influence dans la décision d’orientation scolaire : effets sur la motivation scolaire des élèves en classe de première

    OpenAIRE

    Brasselet, Célénie; Guerrien, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Cette recherche vise à étudier l’impact que peut avoir une décision d’orientation scolaire sur la motivation ultérieure des élèves en classe de première. Nous avons cherché à montrer qu’une orientation non choisie, ou influencée par les parents et professeurs, tendait à nuire à la motivation scolaire, concept appréhendé selon la théorie de l’autodétermination (Deci et Ryan, 1985, 2002). 105 élèves du Nord-Pas-de-Calais ont participé à cette recherche. Les résultats confirment l’hypothèse qu’u...

  1. Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Acute Otitis Media with Severe Middle Ear Inflammation: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Hirotoshi; Tsumura, Shigeru; Kunimoto, Masaru; Noda, Masuhiro; Chikuie, Daisuke; Noda, Chieko; Yamashita, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hidemasa; Tashiro, Toru; Iwata, Kazuhiro; Kono, Takashi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Sumiya, Takahiro; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for acute otitis media in children recommend classifying acute otitis media by age, manifestations and local findings, and also recommend myringotomy for moderate-grade cases with severe local findings, severe-grade cases, and treatment-resistant cases. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was released in Japan in February 2010. In Hiroshima City, public funding allowing free inoculation with this vaccine was initiated from January 2011, and the number of vaccinated individuals has since increased dramatically. This study investigated changes in the number of myringotomies performed to treat acute otitis media during the 5-year period from January 2008 to December 2012 at two hospitals and five clinics in the Asa Area of Hiroshima City, Japan. A total of 3,165 myringotomies for acute otitis media were performed. The rate of procedures per child-year performed in acute otitis media in 1-year-old infants decreased significantly in the 2 years after the introduction of public funding for heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to all years before introduction (pacute otitis media in reducing the financial burden of myringotomy. In addition, this vaccine may help prevent acute otitis media with severe middle ear inflammation in 1-year-old infants.

  2. The influence of psychological state and motivation on Brain–computer interface performance in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis – a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Femke; Birbaumer, Niels; Kübler, Andrea; Pfurtscheller, G

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of psychological well-being measured as quality of life, depression, current mood and motivation on brain-computer interface (BCI) performance in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Six participants with most advanced ALS were trained either for a block of

  3. Investigating the Influence of Motivation on Students' Conceptual Learning Outcomes in Web-Based vs. Classroom-Based Science Teaching Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hung-Chih; Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Liao, Chi-Hung

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate students' conceptual learning outcomes and the effect of motivation on students' conceptual learning outcomes in two different contexts: a Web-based and a classroom-based instruction, which incorporated the Dual Situation Learning Model (DSLM). Nine classes of Grade eight students (N = 190) were…

  4. Investigating the Influence of Motivational Factors on Conceptual Change in a Digital Learning Context Using the Dual-Situated Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chung-Hsien; Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Chin, Chi-Chin

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between the learning motivation and conceptual change of 127 eighth graders, after they have learned the acid, base, and salt concept in a digital learning context, designed according to the dual-situated learning model (DSLM). Two instruments-the students' motivation towards science learning (SMTSL) questionnaire and the acid-base-salt concept diagnostic test (CDT)-were used in the study. The questionnaire and the test were given to students in pre-test, post-test, and delayed post-test. Based on their motivation questionnaire scores, 18 students were selected from various scoring ranges for semi-structural interviews. Results showed that, after experiencing DSLM digital learning, students' post-CDT and delay-CDT scores were significantly higher than pre-CDT scores (p learning strategy (ALS), science learning value (SLV), achievement goal (AG), and learning environment stimulation (LES) (p < 0.05). Interviews also supported students' motivational correlation to ΔCDT, particularly for SE, ALS, and AG.

  5. Formation of Patent Motive and It's Influence on Decision Mode of Commercialization%专利动机演化对商业化决策模式的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朝晖; 朱雪忠

    2012-01-01

    This paper starts from the phenomenon of commercialization deviation) discusses the content and the type with the characteristics of patent motives (protective motive, economic motive and strategic motive)via the relations between assumption about human nature and patent value. After analyzing the evolution process of patent motive, patent decision- making models were compared under different patent motive modes, and the influence of strategic motive upon patent behavior was found. It concludes that strategic value has been important benchmarking of patent value, and the pursuit of strategic value has become the major aim of the patent strategic in some enterprises. It is worthwhile to pay more attention to the important role of strategic patent playing in the process of obtaining enterprise competitive advantages on the base of patent monopolization.%从“商业化背离”现象入手,通过对人性假设与专利价值之间的关系分析,研究了专利动机(保护动机、经济动机与战略动机)的内容、类型与特点,并结合“契约人”假设,解释专利动机的形成机理.之后,通过对专利动机演化过程的剖析,指出了战略动机对专利行为的影响,提出了不同专利动机驱动的专利决策模式.研究发现:战略价值已经成为衡量专利价值的重要标准,对战略价值的追求也已成为一些企业实施专利战略的主要目标,战略专利对企业构建基于专利垄断性的竞争优势起着关键作用.

  6. On the Learning Motivation of the Distance Learners and Its Influence Factors%远程学习者学习动机及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕菲

    2015-01-01

    通过问卷调查法探究远程学习者的动机水平及其影响因素,结果发现:远程学习者学习动机多样且总体状况良好,"提升学历"是其主要动机;不同远程学习者的学习动机在性别、年龄、从业年限、学历层次和婚姻状况上有显著差异;远程学习者的学习动机与网络学习条件及学习策略呈正相关;对远程学习者学习动机影响最大的因素是学习策略. 针对存在问题,我们应提升学生的内部动机水平;根据不同学习者的学习动机差异进行远程学习支持服务;通过实例加强多种学习策略的教学、训练及应用;完善以学生为中心的全方位的网络学习条件支持.%A questionnaire survey is conducted to explore the motivations of distance learners and its influence factors .The result shows that the motivations of distance learners are varied and in good condition , and the main motivation is to upgrade educational background;there are significant differences among the different genders , ages, working years, education levels and marital sta-tus.The learning motivation and online learning conditions and learning strategies are positively correlated ; learning strategies have the most impact on learning motivations .Based on the above , we should enhance students'internal motivation level;provide distance learning support services in terms of different motivation of learners;strengthen the teaching , training, and application of a variety of learning strategies by case teaching; improve the support of student-centered comprehensive online learning condi-tions.

  7. Motivation: The Manager's Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiernan, Donald F.

    1981-01-01

    Drawing from management models of several researchers in behavioral sciences, conclusions about how to motivate employees are presented. Some insight into the factors affecting motivation and managerial action to improve staff motivation are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  8. Employee motivation and its effects on job performance

    OpenAIRE

    Siira, Heidi Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Individuals’ motivation is influenced by biological, intellectual, social and emotional factors. People have different kinds of activities, events, people, and goals in their lives that they find motivating enough to work for. Therefore motivation will show in each person´s consciousness and actions. There are four approaches to motivation: physiological, behavioral, cognitive and social. When we look at employee motivation we see that it’s a driver that keeps employees working towards a r...

  9. Important motivators for buying green products

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyar Kianpour; Roya Anvari; Ahmad Jusoh; Muhammed Fauzi Othman

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products. Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products and...

  10. Important motivators for buying green products

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyar Kianpour; Roya Anvari; Ahmad Jusoh; Muhammed Fauzi Othman

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products.   Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products a...

  11. Contemporary foreign studies in preschoolers’ motivation development

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarenko V.V.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the review of contemporary foreign studies related to the problem of motivation development in preschoolers. The bigger part of these publications is focused on the study of achievement motivation in terms of preschoolers’ learning and their readiness for school education. The data analyzed in the article indicates the influence of child motivation on his/her academic achievement. The results of the studies demonstrate that the practice of preschool education centered on ...

  12. The influence of genotype on vascular endothelial growth factor and regulation of myocardial collateral blood flow in patients with acute and chronic coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, R.S.; Jorgensen, E.; Baldazzi, F.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that mutations in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene are associated with plasma concentration of VEGF and subsequently the ability to influence coronary collateral arteries in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Blood samples from...... patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (n=53) and acute coronary syndrome (n=61) were analysed. Coronary collaterals were scored from diagnostic biplane coronary angiograms. RESULTS: The plasma concentration of VEGF was increased in patients with acute compared to chronic CHD (p=0.01). The genotype......-1154 and coronary collateral size (p=0.03) and a significant association between the VEGF plasma concentration and the collateral size (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: VEGF plasma concentration seems related to coronary collateral function in patients with CHD. The results did not support the hypothesis...

  13. Methotrexate/6-mercaptopurine maintenance therapy influences the risk of a second malignant neoplasm after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the NOPHO ALL-92 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Al-Modhwahi, Ibrahim; Andersen, Mette Klarskov;

    2009-01-01

    acute myeloid leukemias or myelodysplastic syndromes had monosomy 7 (n = 7) or 7q deletions (n = 2). In Cox multivariate analysis, longer duration of oral 6-mercaptopurine (6MP)/methotrexate (MTX) maintenance therapy (P = .02; longest for standard-risk patients) and presence of high hyperdiploidy (P......). This study indicates that the duration and intensity of 6MP/MTX maintenance therapy of childhood ALL may influence the risk of SMNs in childhood ALL.......Among 1614 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with the Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL-92 protocol, 20 patients developed a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) with a cumulative risk of 1.6% at 12 years from the diagnosis of ALL. Nine of the 16...

  14. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2007-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing the motivation and performance of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Several challenges are related to the classical dilemma of matrix organization, but with particular implications in this specific context of purchasing. We report on a reward...

  15. Review of research on teacher's work motivation and job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    山下, 顕史

    2010-01-01

    In this text, the theory was arranged concerning the teacher's job satisfaction and work motivation. The job satisfaction and the work motivation are especially receiving a big influence from the organizational culture. Moreover, when the organization was managed, there are necessities of the payment of special attention to job satisfaction and work motivation. The teacher's job satisfaction and work motivation of are influenced from not only the factor in the school organization but also the...

  16. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Svatošová Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the ...

  17. The Intersection of Culture and Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, Elise; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    Achievement motivation is something that all members of the school community want to support in students, however few may recognize that it is influenced by culture. The very meaning of "achievement" is culturally variable, and the motives that students have for achieving may be quite different, depending upon their cultural background. The…

  18. Motivational Implications of Faculty Performance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.

    2012-01-01

    Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their…

  19. Motivation as Ethical Self-Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Matthew; Hennig, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is a concept more frequently found in venues concerned with educational psychology than in ones concerned with educational philosophy. Under the influence of psychology, and its typically dualistic way of making sense of the world, motivation in education has tended to be viewed in dichotomous terms, for example, as intrinsic or…

  20. Motivational Issues of Faculty in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Cader, Akram

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that faculty motivation influences profitability of academic programs. The problem researched in this mixed method study was the motivational factors that reduce faculty member effectiveness in improving the profitability of their universities' academic programs. Based on Maslow's theory of needs, the purpose of the…

  1. The Influence Of Knowledge And Economic Motive On The Use Of Formaline And Borax In Fast Food (Meatballs)By Its Seller In Medan Denai And Medan Tuntungan Subdistrict In 2011

    OpenAIRE

    SR, Lambok Oktavia

    2012-01-01

    Misuse of formalin and borax in meatballs by its sellers still found in Medan. The data of 2010 obtained from the food security surveillance of Indonesian food and drugs inspection agency revealed that the misuse of formalin was 4.89% and borax 8.80%. The purpose of this analytical study with cross-sectional design was to analyze the influence of knowledge and economic motive on the use of formalin and borax in meatballs in Medan Denai and Medan Tuntungan Subdistrict. The population o...

  2. The influence of chronotype and intelligence on academic achievement in primary school is mediated by conscientiousness, midpoint of sleep and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Talat; Vollmer, Christian; Dörfler, Tobias; Randler, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Individuals differ in their timing of sleep (bed times, rise times) and in their preference for morning or evening hours. Previous work focused on the relationship between academic achievement and these variables in secondary school students. The main aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between chronotype and academic achievement in 10-year-old children (n = 1125) attending 4th grade of primary school. They filled a cognitive test (Culture Fair Intelligence Test, CFT 20-R) and questions about rise times and bed times, academic achievement, conscientiousness and motivation. We used the "scales for the assessment of learning and performance motivation" (SELLMO; Skalen zur Erfassung der Lern- und Leistungsmotivation for motivation), the short version of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory Children (FFPI-C) to measure conscientiousness, and the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) to assess morningness-eveningness. Mean CSM score was 37.84 ± 6.66, midpoint of sleep was 1:36 ± 00:25 and average sleep duration (time in bed) was 10:15 ± 0:48. Morningness orientation was positively related to intelligence, conscientiousness and learning objectives. Eveningness orientation was related to avoidance performance objectives and work avoidance. Early midpoint of sleep, conscientiousness and intelligence were associated with better grades. The multivariate model showed that intelligence was the strongest predictor of good grades. Conscientiousness, motivation, younger age and an earlier midpoint of sleep were positively related to good grades. This is the first study in primary school pupils, and it shows that the relationship between evening orientation and academic achievement is already prevalent at this age even when controlling for important predictors of achievement.

  3. The influence of chronotype and intelligence on academic achievement in primary school is mediated by conscientiousness, midpoint of sleep and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Talat; Vollmer, Christian; Dörfler, Tobias; Randler, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Individuals differ in their timing of sleep (bed times, rise times) and in their preference for morning or evening hours. Previous work focused on the relationship between academic achievement and these variables in secondary school students. The main aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between chronotype and academic achievement in 10-year-old children (n = 1125) attending 4th grade of primary school. They filled a cognitive test (Culture Fair Intelligence Test, CFT 20-R) and questions about rise times and bed times, academic achievement, conscientiousness and motivation. We used the "scales for the assessment of learning and performance motivation" (SELLMO; Skalen zur Erfassung der Lern- und Leistungsmotivation for motivation), the short version of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory Children (FFPI-C) to measure conscientiousness, and the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) to assess morningness-eveningness. Mean CSM score was 37.84 ± 6.66, midpoint of sleep was 1:36 ± 00:25 and average sleep duration (time in bed) was 10:15 ± 0:48. Morningness orientation was positively related to intelligence, conscientiousness and learning objectives. Eveningness orientation was related to avoidance performance objectives and work avoidance. Early midpoint of sleep, conscientiousness and intelligence were associated with better grades. The multivariate model showed that intelligence was the strongest predictor of good grades. Conscientiousness, motivation, younger age and an earlier midpoint of sleep were positively related to good grades. This is the first study in primary school pupils, and it shows that the relationship between evening orientation and academic achievement is already prevalent at this age even when controlling for important predictors of achievement. PMID:25392281

  4. Extrinsic Motivation of Part time Advisors and the Influencing Factors%高校兼职辅导员激励效果及影响因素探究--以中国人民大学为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关一

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of management science,this paper examines questionnaire surveys and interviews the extrinsic motivation of part time advisors from Renmin University of China and the in-fluencing factors in the hope of finding the relationships between the various motivators and the advi-sors'psychological expectations so universities can better manage and motivate part time advisors.%文章从管理学角度,通过问卷调查和访谈法,分析了中国人民大学兼职班级辅导员的激励效果现状及影响因素,找出影响大学生兼职辅导员激励效果的各类要素和辅导员心理期望之间的关系,对高校兼职辅导员的管理、激励提出建议。

  5. Empirical Study on the Influence of Team Conflict and Epistemic Motivation on Decision-making Quality%团队冲突和求知动机对决策质量影响的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴佩华

    2014-01-01

    鉴于求知动机可以提升团队成员对信息的的专注度和需求度,有可能在任务冲突和决策质量之间起到一个有益的调节作用,在研究中引入求知动机作为“团队冲突—决策质量”的调节变量,通过行为实验方法模拟团队决策过程,以任务冲突为研究起点,探寻求知动机在决策过程中对团队冲突的影响,以及求知动机和任务冲突的交互作用对决策质量的影响。结果发现,求知动机可以对任务冲突和决策质量的关系起到非常显著的正向调节作用;并且可以有效地缓解任务冲突向关系冲突的转化。这两种作用使得在高求知动机状态下,任务冲突与决策质量之间呈现出正相关关系。%Epistemic motivation can improve the team members’attention and demand for information,so it may play a positive role in mediating the task conflict and decision-making quality.Therefore,this thesis uses the behavioral experi-ments to simulate the team decision making,regards the task conflict as the research starting point,and explores the influ-ence of epistemic motivation on team conflicts and the influence of the interaction of epistemic motivation and conflicts on decision-making quality.The results state that epistemic motivation can play a remarkable positive role in mediating task conflict and decision-making quality,and can effectively prevent task conflict from transforming into relationship conflict. Therefore under the condition of high epistemic motivation,the relationship between task conflict and decision -making quality is positive.

  6. Influence of distance from home to invasive centre on invasive treatment after acute coronary syndrome: a nationwide study of 24 910 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Anders; Galatius, Søren; Madsen, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether distance from a patient's home to the nearest invasive centre influenced the invasive treatment strategy in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods This was an observational cohort study using nationwide registries involving 24¿910 patients admitted with ACS (median age 67......, range 30–90 years). All persons were grouped in tertiles according to the distance from their residence to the invasive centre. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the differences in coronary angiography and revascularisation rate within 60 days of admission according to the distance...

  7. An Empirical Study of the Influence of Level-based College English Teaching Model on Learning Motives%大学英语分级教学下学习者动机的变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兰

    2013-01-01

      受不合理的分级教学的影响,动机在不同水平的学生群体中表现出的不同的特征和变化趋势为主要研究问题。通过调查高、中、低三个级别的动机水平变化,运用SPSS软件对数据进行分析发现,兴趣动机和情景动机从好班到差班逐渐减弱,而成绩动机在每个级别都明显偏高,差班更是显著。究其原因,与教材难度、教师教学、测试和学生心理相关,对教学改进和分级改革有参考意义。%Influenced by unreasonable Level-based College English Teaching Model, motives for learning show different charac⁃teristics and variation among students at different English levels, which is the researching focus. Methods:investigating the varia⁃tion of motivation level in three different groups and analyzing the data with SPSS. Results:While the levels of interesting moti⁃vation and situational motivation are becoming weak the level of achievement motivation maintains strong in all groups and be⁃coming stronger from the low-level group to the high-level group. Reasons for such variation include difficult teaching con⁃tents, teacher’s methods, test and learners’other psychological factors. The result can be a reference for teaching and level-based streaming .

  8. Influence of disease process and duration on acute phase proteins in serum and peritoneal fluid of horses with colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina; Scheepers, E.; Sanz, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: The acute phase proteins (APP) serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, and fibrinogen are valuable blood bi-omarkers in equine inflammatory diseases, but knowledge of factors influencing their concentrations in blood and peritonealfluid (PF) of horses with colic is needed. Objectives...

  9. In-Hospital Mortality among Rural Medicare Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: The Influence of Demographics, Transfer, and Health Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Knudson, Alana D.; Klug, Marilyn G.; Wynne, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Context/Purpose: Most rural hospitals can provide medical care to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, but a need for advanced cardiac care requires timely transfer to a tertiary hospital. There is little information on AMI in-hospital mortality predictors among rural transfer patients. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective analyses on…

  10. Inherited coding variants at the CDKN2A locus influence susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Heng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Wenjian;

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence from genome-wide association studies for a strong inherited genetic basis of susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children, yet the effects of protein-coding variants on ALL risk have not been systematically evaluated. Here we show a missense varia...

  11. Influence of functional polymorphisms of the MDR1 gene on vincristine pharmacokinetics in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plasschaert, S.L.A.; Groninger, E.; Boezen, M.; Kema, I.P.; Vries, E.G.F. de; Uges, D.R.A.; Veerman, A.J.P.; Kamps, W.A.; Vellenga, E.; Graaf, S.S.N. de; Bont, E.S. de

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P-glycoprotein MDR1 gene on vincristine pharmacokinetics and side effects in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS: From 52 of 70 children who participated in a previous study on vincris

  12. Tourist Motivation 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria; Jacobsen, Jens Kr. Steen

    evidence is presented of who, when, how and why create and share travel experiences on social media. The paper discusses motivation schemes for knowledge and experience-sharing and it critically analyses technological mediation through electronic word-of-mouth and involvement factors related to virtual...... dissemination of travel experiences. Results provide insights on different motivational factors such as personal benefits, community related benefits and social capital that influence the sharing of user generated content in tourism. Moreover, the paper discusses technology adoption, transformations of tourism...

  13. Trends in management of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Influence of insurance based healthcare and treatment compliance on the outcome of adolescents and adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Sankar Arigela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we attempted to analyze the impact of insurance based health care system and treatment compliance on the outcome of adolescent and adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent treatment for ALL during the period 2003-2011 were enrolled into this retrospective study. Patients on supportive or palliative care only and patients with age <10 years were excluded. The hospital records and tumor registry records were studied. Patients were stratified into two groups, Group A (prior to the introduction of state health insurance [SHI], 2003-2007 and Group B (after the introduction of SHI, 2008-2011. Overall survival (OS was calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 420 patients with suspected or confirmed ALL visited our center during the study period and 179 patients (87 in Group A and 92 in Group B were considered for inclusion. The median age in years (range was 18 (10-57 and 18 (10-58 respectively in Groups A and B with males more than females. Median OS (95% CI was 9 (6.7-11.2 and 12 (7.3-16.7 months in the Groups A and B respectively (P = 0.265. Poor treatment compliance in both groups was high (36% in Group A and 41% in Group B, [P = 0.107] with lower default rates in Group B (P = 0.019. Patients with good compliance in the total study population and the individual study groups had significantly better OS. Conclusions: Insurance based health care has improved outcomes in the present study but not compliance to treatment. Significantly better OS was observed in patients with good compliance.

  14. Work motivation at company

    OpenAIRE

    Skřivánková, Martina

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor work deals with work motivation of the employees at company Jindřich Valenta – ELKO Valenta. The aim of the bachelor work was to describe an existing motivation program, figure out which motivation factors are the most important for the employees and also find out satisfaction or dissatisfaction of employees with actual motivation factors in the company. Eventually propose improvement in motivation program. Questionnaire method was chosen as research technique. It appears from ...

  15. Motivation in tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo, Miguel; Reid, Machar M

    2007-01-01

    Motivation underpins successful tennis performance, representing one of the game's foremost psychological skills. This paper elaborates on its role in tennis play, and takes an overview of the current state of motivation research applied to tennis. First, the importance of motivation in player and coach performance is explored. The body of evidence pertaining to players' motives for participation and the relevance of goal achievement motivation in tennis is then examined. Finally, the efficac...

  16. Motivation as a ledership

    OpenAIRE

    Fuxová, Klára

    2011-01-01

    My bachelor thesis has been focused on the motivation as a way of management and leadership. The main objective of the first part is to gain theoretical knowledge in the HR area. First the term management is analysed: it´s origin, development, structuring and managers as people being involved. Other terms such as motive, motivation and major motivation theories follow. Further the terms stimulus and stimulation are described, the differences between stimulus and motive, subsequently between ...

  17. Motivational factors, gender and engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne Schioldann;

    2013-01-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students1 reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find...... that women are significantly more influenced by mentors than men, while men tend to be more motivated by intrinsic and financial factors, and by the social importance of the engineering profession. Parental influence is low across all programmes and by differentiating between specific clusters of engineering...... programmes, we further show that these overall gender differences are subtle and that motivational factors are unequally important across the different educational programmes. The findings from this study clearly indicate that intrinsic and social motivations are the most important motivational factors...

  18. Motivational factors, gender and engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne; Egelund Holgaard, Jette

    2013-06-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students1 reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find that women are significantly more influenced by mentors than men, while men tend to be more motivated by intrinsic and financial factors, and by the social importance of the engineering profession. Parental influence is low across all programmes and by differentiating between specific clusters of engineering programmes, we further show that these overall gender differences are subtle and that motivational factors are unequally important across the different educational programmes. The findings from this study clearly indicate that intrinsic and social motivations are the most important motivational factors; however, gender and programme differentiation needs to be taken into account, and points towards diverse future strategies for attracting students to engineering education.

  19. Can implicit motivation be measured?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Alexandra; Scholderer, Joachim

    According to recent neurobiological models, food choices are influenced by two separate reward systems: motivational wanting (incentive salience of the reward) and affective liking (hedonic pleasure associated with the reward). Both are assumed to have conscious and unconscious components. Applying...... of evaluation could be applied. However, no comparable procedures have been developed for the motivational wanting component; generally accepted “low-tech” measures are therefore still lacking! Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and test implicit measures of wanting that can be used as dependent...... the relative strength of the associations between two opposing motivational tendencies (approach, avoidance) and two target products (liquorice, wine gum), each represented by a series of verbal and visual stimuli. Reaction time was recorded as the dependent variable. The difference between the three paradigms...

  20. The Influence of Age of Onset and Acute Anabolic Steroid Exposure on Cognitive Performance, Impulsivity, and Aggression in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Langenbucher, James W.; Flores, Adrianne; Harty, Seth; Berlin, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    A growing translational literature suggests that adolescent exposure to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) leads to increased aggression and impulsivity. However, little is known about the cognitive effects of AASs among AAS users or the differences between adolescent and adult onset users. This study provides a test of the effects of acute naturalistic AAS use and age of onset (adolescent vs. adult) on measures of inhibitory control, planning and attention, and decision makin...

  1. Neuropeptide Y influences acute food intake and energy status affects NPY immunoreactivity in the female musk shrew (Suncus murinus) 1

    OpenAIRE

    Bojkowska, Karolina; Hamczyk, Magdalena M.; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Riggan, Anna; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2007-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates feeding, depresses sexual behavior, and its expression in the brain is modulated by energetic status. We examined the role of NPY in female musk shrews, a species with high energetic and reproductive demands; they store little fat, and small changes in energy can rapidly diminish or enhance sexual receptivity. Intracerebroventricular infusion of NPY enhanced acute food intake in shrews, however, NPY had little affect on sexual receptivity. The distribution of N...

  2. The influence of supplemental chromium and vaccines on the acute phase response of newly arrived feeder calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, A. J.; Mallard, B A; Mowat, D N

    1995-01-01

    The acute phase response as indicated by serum haptoglobin and total haemolytic complement activity (CH50) was measured in 72 cross-bred steer calves purchased at sales in Ontario. During the 28 day (d) trial, 18 steers were randomly assigned to each of the following groups: 1) control; 2) vaccinated (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis, Parainfluenza-3, Bovine Viral Diarrhea, Bovine Respiratory Synctial Virus vaccine plus Pasteurella haemolytica vaccine); 3) supplemental chelated Cr (0.14 mg/k...

  3. The influence of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cortical contributions to motor preparation and execution

    OpenAIRE

    Thacker, Jonathan S.; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E.; Staines, W. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increasing evidence supports the use of physical activity for modifying brain activity and overall neurological health. Specifically, aerobic exercise appears to have a positive effect on cognitive function, which some have suggested to be a result of increasing levels of arousal. However, the role of aerobic exercise on movement‐related cortical activity is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that (1) an acute bout of exercise modulates excitability within motor areas and (2) trans...

  4. Investigation and Analysis of Motivational Factors Influencing Biology Study in the High School%新课程背景下生物学习动机因素的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦永燕; 赵溪; 姚沁涛

    2012-01-01

    Based on the questionnaire survey in the high school from Changzhi City,this essay analyzes the motivation factors on the impact of biological study by statistical method(SPSS11.5).The results showed that: 1.the motivation level of studying biology is high,with a mean of 4.12.The major students want to join in the biology study,so that the motivation is positive;2.the main factors influencing on biological study are individual needs,examination,graduation and employment,and academic characteristic of biology,correlation coefficients with these factors and learning motivation was higher than 0.9.In a contrary,negative factors and learning motivation were negative correlation,with a correlation coefficient of-0.0555.As a result,teacher should pay attention to the individual needs,guide them to the goal of establishing the correct structure,and to encourage their correct attribution about their result in biology teaching.In addition,teachers should use flexible teaching methods according to teaching materials,active classroom atmosphere and stimulate their interest in learning biology.%文章采用问卷调查法,在长治市范围内,对影响中学生生物学习的动机因素进行了调查。结果表明:(1)高中生物学习的动机水平较高,平均值为4.12,多属融入型动机。(2)影响高中生物学习动机的主要因素是个人需要、升学就业和学科特点,这些因素与学习动机的相关系数最高,均高于0.9,而消极归因与学习动机呈负相关,相关系数为-0.0555。

  5. Influence of Vitamin C Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Neutrophil Inflammatory Response in Acute and Regular Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana M. Popovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induces a multitude of physiological and biochemical changes in blood affecting its redox status. Tissue damage resulting from exercise induces activation of inflammatory cells followed by the increased activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO in circulation. Vitamin C readily scavenges free radicals and may thereby prevent oxidative damage of important biological macromolecules. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative stress and neutrophil inflammatory response induced by acute and regular exercise. Experiment was conducted on acute exercise group (performing Bruce Treadmill Protocol (BTP and regular training group. Markers of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA, MPO activity, and vitamin C status were estimated at rest and after BTP (acute exercise group and before and after vitamin C supplementation in both groups. Our results showed increased postexercise Asc in serum independently of vitamin supplementation. They also showed that vitamin C can significantly decrease postexercise MDA level in both experimental groups. Increased postexercise MPO activity has been found in both groups and was not affected by vitamin C supplementation. We concluded that vitamin C supplementation can suppress lipid peroxidation process during exercise but cannot affect neutrophil inflammatory response in either exercise group.

  6. Command and motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....

  7. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H;

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  8. 学习动机对公外学生英语水平磨蚀的影响%A Study on the Influence of Learning Motivation to the Attrition of English Proficiency for Non-English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶譞

    2014-01-01

    Based on the learning motivation scale designed by Wen Qiufang as questionnaire and the CET4 score, coupled with the method of interview, the influence of learning motivation to the attrition of English proficiency for non-English majors is studied. As is discovered in matched sample T-test, all participants and high-score group have significant improvement in English proficiency while low-score group have significant attrition.High-score and low score group are similar in most items of extrinsic motivation but the influences of endeavor and metacognitive strategy determine whether their English will go through attrition or not. Due to a pessimistic attitide to English learning and the belief that English learning is valueless as well as the reluctance to learn English after passing CET4 and to use English as a tool for academic study, the low-score group have a low intensity of intrinsic motivation, which results in attrition in English proficiency.%!!!!!!!!!!!!押以文秋芳制作的学习动机量表和两次四级成绩为测量工具,通过问卷调查、访谈的方式,研究了学习动机对公外学生英语水平磨蚀的影响。配对样本T检验发现:全体受试对象、高分组受试对象英语水平有显著提高,低分组有显著磨蚀。高、低分组大多数表层动机强度相似,但努力程度和元认知策略影响他们英语水平是否磨蚀。低分组学生由于对英语学习持悲观态度且认为英语学习没有价值,在通过四级后不会继续学习,加之不会将英语作为交流工具及用于学术研究而造成深层动机强度较低,从而磨蚀英语水平。

  9. Motivation of the nursing staff in and a framework of realistic motives in a public hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Yannis Markovits; Sofia Monastiridou

    2011-01-01

    The motivation of human resources and in particular of the nursing staff is a crucial issue that influences their job satisfaction, as well as patients' satisfaction from the health services offered. Aim: The presentation of selected motivation theories through literature review and the development of a framework of realistic motives applied to the nursing staff of a public hospital. Material-Method: The Greek and international bibliography has been reviewed, and in particular papers on the m...

  10. Motivational Themes and Academic Success of At-Risk Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambach, Cathrine A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of motivational factors influencing 19 first-year students who made the dean's list their first quarter in college, despite a poor academic performance in high school. Applies Weiner's attributional theory of motivation. Most students attributed their prior academic performance to a lack of motivation/effort. (DMM)

  11. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatošová Veronika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the current trends. The article uses the basic terminology of this subject and current bibliography as well as other resources. Theoretical knowledge is based on historic directions of Maslow’s theory of motivation where it is possible to find the basis for a buyer behavior analysis. The article is also based on the formerly carried out questionnaire survey which examines the motives and experience of the respondents with online shopping. By means of the independence test it is verified whether there is a relation between the age of respondents and motivation for online shopping. Subsequently, the survey carried out in person is compared with other relevant research solutions.

  12. Self-esteem, Motivation, and Emotional Intelligence: Three Factors that influence the Successful Design of a Life Project of Middle-school Young Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Magdalena Lomelí-Parga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research study is to depict the factors that allow young people to effectively carry out their life projects by planning short, mid, and long term goals. The population sample participating in this study was comprised of middle and high school students. This research was executed using mixed methods in order to identify the determining factors for young people who plan to have success in facing the daily life challenges, as well as today’s society demands, through a solid construction of their private vision of the future. The results of this project determine that the features which allow the conclusion of students’ life projects are closely related with a high self-esteem and motivation, as well as some emotional intelligence that allow students to visualize a successful personal and professional future.

  13. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  14. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  15. What Motivates Trainees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Debra J.

    1990-01-01

    A study of five organizations examined employee motivation regarding the pretraining environment. Findings support the assumption that employees will be more motivated of supervisors are supportive and if they view attendance as voluntary. (JOW)

  16. Improving temporal cognition by enhancing motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avlar, Billur; Kahn, Julia B; Jensen, Greg; Kandel, Eric R; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Increasing motivation can positively impact cognitive performance. Here we employed a cognitive timing task that allows us to detect changes in cognitive performance that are not influenced by general activity or arousal factors such as the speed or persistence of responding. This approach allowed us to manipulate motivation using three different methods; molecular/genetic, behavioral and pharmacological. Increased striatal D2Rs resulted in deficits in temporal discrimination. Switching off the transgene improved motivation in earlier studies, and here partially rescued the temporal discrimination deficit. To manipulate motivation behaviorally, we altered reward magnitude and found that increasing reward magnitude improved timing in control mice and partially rescued timing in the transgenic mice. Lastly, we manipulated motivation pharmacologically using a functionally selective 5-HT2C receptor ligand, SB242084, which we previously found to increase incentive motivation. SB242084 improved temporal discrimination in both control and transgenic mice. Thus, while there is a general intuitive belief that motivation can affect cognition, we here provide a direct demonstration that enhancing motivation, in a variety of ways, can be an effective strategy for enhancing temporal cognition. Understanding the interaction of motivation and cognition is of clinical significance since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by deficits in both domains.

  17. The motivation of English language teachers in Greek secondary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Gheralis-Roussos, Eleni

    2003-01-01

    This thesis addresses a largely uncharted area within language motivation research, which is the motivation of teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL). A qualitative research approach was employed to identify and document different motivational influences affecting EFL teacher motivation. The method of analysis employed in our dataset, which consisted of a series of in-depth qualitative interviews with Greek state EFL and non-EFL teachers, followed the principles of grounded theory. M...

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF PERSONNEL MOTIVATION IN THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    NASTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2015-01-01

    General research area of this article is the motivation of personnel, essential tool in the management process, and also a component derived from human resource management. In economic activity, personnel motivation should be regarded as an internal process, not as an imperative that can be imposed from outside the economic entity. Managers of economic entities must, first, understand personnel motivation strategies, how they influence positively or negatively the internal motivations of empl...

  19. Developing an instrument to assess information technology staff motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Belfo, Fernando Paulo; Sousa, Rui Dinis

    2011-01-01

    Motivation is a key factor that influences individual effort, which, in turn, affects individual and organizational performance. Nevertheless, motivation at work depends on the organizational rewards and incentives, according to individual goals. This paper reports on the development of an instrument designed to measure the motivation of Information Technology people at their workplace. Psychology theories and work addressing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation have been studied. Some motivati...

  20. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS OF HOSPITAL EMPLOYEES: EVIDENCE FROM NORTH CYPRUS

    OpenAIRE

    Oladotun, Kolawole Julius; Öztüren, Ali

    2013-01-01

    It is important for a service oriented organization to know and understand the motivating needs of its employees since employee motivation is a significant element of health systems‟ performance. Providing a motivating environment for employees becomes more important in the health-care system in our world today. This quantitative study helps to increase our awareness and knowledge of the influencing motivational attributes of a major private hospital staff in North Cyprus. It helps to examine...

  1. Motivation as a leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Maturkanič, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis named Motivation as a leadership is focused on methods and possibilities of employee motivation leading to their development and well-being. Managers controls human resources using managerial functions ensuring compilance of business objectives. First part describes main theoretical definition such as management and manager. Managerial functions, motivation, motivation strategy and other terms are described in next chapters. The practical part includes acquired knowl...

  2. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  3. Unges motivation i udskolingen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi; Hjort-Madsen, Peder;

    Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen......Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen...

  4. Leadership and motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Yarovaya, Anastasiya

    2013-01-01

    The given bachelor thesis focuses on leadership and motivation. It consists of theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical part delineates the conception of leadership and motivation of employees. It is also consists information about major theories of leadership and motivation. The main goal of the practical part is to analyze real situation of particular working group, their satisfaction with leadership and motivation. The research was conducted in the jewelry company Lapis Diamond s....

  5. 浙江省中小物流企业激励机制影响因素调查研究%Study on Influence Factors of Motivational Mechanism of SMS Logistics Enterprises in Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣玲玲

    2013-01-01

    人力资源是中小物流企业构建核心竞争能力的重要因素,激励机制是人力资源管理的重要内容,有效的激励措施是最大限度地实现人力资本收益的可靠保证.对浙江省中小物流企业激励机制的主要影响因素进行了调查分析,并根据其结果提出针对不同类型员工,在设计激励机制时应有不同的策略.%In this paper,through surveying and analyzing the main factors influencing the motivational mechanism of the small-and-medium-sized logistics enterprises in Zhejiang and then according to the finding we took differentiated strategies in designing the motivational mechanism for different employee groups.

  6. Physician motivation, satisfaction and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimberg, S E; Clement, D G

    1997-01-01

    Physicians are working harder today and enjoying it less. What has happened to create such dissatisfaction among those in one of the most autonomous professions? What can be done to address the anger, fear and unhappiness? This article is an analysis of the factors influencing human motivation. Maslow's hierarchy of needs--physiological, safety/security, social/affiliation, esteem and self-actualization--is used to suggest ways physicians can satisfy their needs in turbulent financial and professional times.

  7. Influence of live combined bifidobacterium, lactobacillus and enterococcus capsules inflammation factors and intestinal mucosal barrier function of severe acute pancreatitis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Ping Shi; Ling-Yun Wu; Jian-Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of inflammation factors and intestinal mucosal barrier function on severe acute pancreatitis patients treated with bifidobacterium triple viable capsules.Methods:88 cases severe acute pancreatitis patients were divided into observation group and control group according to admission order, 44 cases in each group, all patients were given conventional treatment, on this base, patients in observation group were treated by oral bifidobacterium triple viable capsules, they were treated for one week, detected the serum inflammatory factors: the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and intestinal mucosal barrier function index: endotoxin, diamine oxidase (DAO), D-lactic acid, urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) in the two groups before and after treatment.Results:The levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP in two groups after treatment were significantly reduced than before treatment, and after treatment the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP in observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group, all the difference was statistically significant; The levels of endotoxin, DA, D-lactic acid, L/M in two groups after treatment were significantly reduced than before treatment, and the levels of endotoxin, DA, D-lactic acid,L/M after treatment in observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group, the difference was statistically significant.Conclusion: Based on conventional treatment combined bifidobacterium triple viable capsules can significantly reduce inflammation in patients with severe acute pancreatitis, it can protect the intestinal mucosal barrier function, and has important clinical significance.

  8. The influence of supplemental chromium and vaccines on the acute phase response of newly arrived feeder calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A J; Mallard, B A; Mowat, D N

    1995-01-01

    The acute phase response as indicated by serum haptoglobin and total haemolytic complement activity (CH50) was measured in 72 cross-bred steer calves purchased at sales in Ontario. During the 28 day (d) trial, 18 steers were randomly assigned to each of the following groups: 1) control; 2) vaccinated (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis, Parainfluenza-3, Bovine Viral Diarrhea, Bovine Respiratory Synctial Virus vaccine plus Pasteurella haemolytica vaccine); 3) supplemental chelated Cr (0.14 mg/kg); and 4) Cr plus vaccines. Haptoglobin concentrations were low at arrival, increased (P 0.05) by day 14. Supplemental Cr reduced (P 0.05) than in healthy calves. Complement activity was lowest on day 7 (P 0.10). Complement activity did not increase on day 14 (P > 0.05) with Cr supplementation as in other treatments. Morbid calves had lower (P < 0.05) CH50 activity than healthy calves on day 14. Following antibiotic treatment, the Cr-supplemented group had higher (P < 0.05) CH50 than during morbidity. In general, chromium supplementation reduced the acute phase response in newly arrived feeder calves. PMID:8548694

  9. Influence of renal dysfunction on clinical outcomes in patients with congestive heart failure complicating acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Seong; Kim, Min Jee; Kang, Yong Un; Choi, Joon Seok; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Ahn, Young-Keun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Soo Wan

    2013-01-01

    The clinical course and medical treatment of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not well established, especially in patients with concomitant renal dysfunction. We performed a retrospective analysis of the prospective Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry to assess the medical treatments and clinical outcomes of patients with CHF (Killip classes II or III) complicated by AMI, in the presence or absence of renal dysfunction. Of 13,498 patients with AMI, 2769 (20.5%) had CHF on admission. Compared to CHF patients with preserved renal function, in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiac events were increased both at 1 month and at 1 year after discharge in patients with renal dysfunction (1154; 41.7%). Postdischarge use of aspirin, betablockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor blockers and statins significantly reduced the 1-year mortality rate for CHF patients with renal dysfunction; such reduction was not observed for those without renal dysfunction, except in the case of aspirin. Patients with CHF complicating AMI, which is accompanied by renal dysfunction, are at higher risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes than patients without renal dysfunction. However, they receive fewer medications proven to reduce mortality rates.

  10. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  11. Understanding Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…

  12. Motivation, Management, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Joseph A.

    There is an increasing interest today in the ways in which human motivation contributes to the productivity and performance of personnel. This early study of motivation management emphasizes that the organizational environment is a principal determinant of the quality of employee motivation. Concrete considerations in the management of motivation…

  13. Personlighed og motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    2016-01-01

    ses som forskelle i deres personlighed og i deres motivation. Kapitlet er opbygget således, at ganske kort præciseres først de to begreber, personlighed og motivation, hvorefter udvalgte teoretiske perspektiver på personlighed og motivation tages op. Til sammen vil disse bidrage til at besvare...

  14. Motivation, démotivation et transmotivation

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Verstraeten

    2012-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous partons des trois facteurs qui construisent la motivation selon Vroom : la valence, l’instrumentalité et l’expectation de soi. Nous décrivons à l’aide d’exemples concrets comment les carences d’un des trois facteurs neutralisent la motivation. En enrichissant quelque peu le modèle, nous développons dans un deuxième temps plusieurs scénarios d’intervention qui permettent d’agir sur la motivation d’un individu à accomplir une action précise. Nous décrivons enfin comment l...

  15. The Role of Motivational Strategies in English Language Learning: An Investigation into the Relationship between the Student Language Achievement Level at Jilin University and Their Motivational Stra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YouZiyuan

    2004-01-01

    To motivate students to learn English requires teachers to utilise more motivational strategies in order to improve students' achievements. Thus, the aims of this article are to discuss whether motivational strategies affect students' achievements in respect of the scores and focus on which motivational strategies influenced students' achievements at

  16. The Influence of Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation on Matrix Metalloproteinases in Patients Treated for Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Bredal Furenes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, regulated by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-9 (TIMP-1 and the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN, contributes to plaque instability. Autologous stem cells from bone marrow (mBMC treatment are suggested to reduce myocardial damage; however, limited data exists on the influence of mBMC on MMPs. Aim. We investigated the influence of mBMC on circulating levels of MMP-9, TIMP-1, and EMMPRIN at different time points in patients included in the randomized Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation in Acute Myocardial Infarction (ASTAMI trial (n=100. Gene expression analyses were additionally performed. Results. After 2-3 weeks we observed a more pronounced increase in MMP-9 levels in the mBMC group, compared to controls (P=0.030, whereas EMMPRIN levels were reduced from baseline to 2-3 weeks and 3 months in both groups (P<0.0001. Gene expression of both MMP-9 and EMMPRIN was reduced from baseline to 3 months. MMP-9 and EMMPRIN were significantly correlated to myocardial injury (CK: P=0.005 and P<0.001, resp. and infarct size (SPECT: P=0.018 and P=0.008, resp.. Conclusion. The results indicate that the regulation of metalloproteinases is important during AMI, however, limited influenced by mBMC.

  17. Influence of a history of arterial hypertension and pretreatment blood pressure on the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition after acute myocardial infarction. Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, F; Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of a history of arterial hypertension and the level of pretreatment blood pressure on the efficacy of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor trandolapril on mortality and morbidity in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and left....... Follow up time was 24-50 months (mean 26 months). RESULTS: Four hundred patients (23%) had a history of arterial hypertension. A total of 173 (43%) patients with a history of hypertension died during follow up versus 500 (37%) patients in the normotensive group. Treatment with trandolapril...... for a broad spectrum of potential confounders. Also, benefit from ACE inhibition increased with increasing blood pressure at the time of randomization. Significant interactions between benefit from ACE inhibition and hypertension history, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were found. CONCLUSION: ACE...

  18. Knowledge of Nativelike Selections in a L2. The Influence of Exposure, Memory, Age of Onset, and Motivation in Foreign Language and Immersion Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Pauline; Bolibaugh, Cylcia; Kotula, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that part of native speaker competence resides in knowledge of conventionalized word combinations, or nativelike selections (NLSs). This article reports an investigation into the receptive NLS knowledge of second language (L2) users of English in both the United Kingdom and Poland and the influence of a variety of…

  19. Maintaining Learners’Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Zi-han

    2015-01-01

    Foreign language learning is a complex process and its success is determined by a variety of factors. The prime one of them is motivation ,which, as everyone knows, could be controlled by external forces so as to be taken advantage of. Motivation could prompt the learner to have his own learning goals and let him finish his learning task autonomously. All of that shows the im⁃portance of maintaining learners’motivation. This paper will demonstrate not only the definition and the types of motivation, but al⁃so the methods that could be used to stimulate and maintain the motivation.

  20. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Dartagnan P; Netto, Jose Evaristo S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young Brazilian athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 1,517 participants (714 girls, 803 boys) ages 12 to 18 years were included in the study. The Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sport participation. The most important motives were Skill Development and Fitness, whereas the least important were Fun and Achievement/Status. Sex, age, type of sport, onset of training, duration of training, training volume, and competitive experience significantly influenced the motives for sport participation reported by the athletes. These results will contribute to establish intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young athletes.

  1. RESEARCH ON HUMAN RESOURCES MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan-Bela FARKAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies on the human resources performance of the educational system have proved that pupils/students’ educational success depends, to a high degree, on the level of human resource motivation, as well as on their degree of professional satisfaction. Teachers’ who show a high level of motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic, invest more into their activity, are more creative and more efficient in problem solving. The paper debates the results of an empirical study regarding the influence of pre-university teachers’ motivation and satisfaction regarding the general work conditions on their work performance by measuring the present motivation and satisfaction level. Furthermore, the determinant factors of their satisfaction with the work place are determined and analyzed. Finally, based on the statistical data process we will conclude and debate on the research hypothesis validation and the empirical model related to motivation – satisfaction – performance interdependences.

  2. Motivation and job satisfaction as a key element of successful business management.

    OpenAIRE

    Kazachok, Alina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is motivation and job satisfaction of employees. The theoretical part deals with basic terms in the field of motivation and job satisfaction, motivation principles, factors that influence motivation and job satisfaction. Also the theoretical part gives consideration to the methods of measuring job satisfaction, manager's role in the sphere of motivation and job satisfaction. The part contains the description of the major motivational theories. The second part is dev...

  3. Motivation of the nursing staff in and a framework of realistic motives in a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Markovits

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of human resources and in particular of the nursing staff is a crucial issue that influences their job satisfaction, as well as patients' satisfaction from the health services offered. Aim: The presentation of selected motivation theories through literature review and the development of a framework of realistic motives applied to the nursing staff of a public hospital. Material-Method: The Greek and international bibliography has been reviewed, and in particular papers on the motivation theories of human resources in hospitals (the hierarchy of human needs theory, the two-factor theory of motivation, the achievement theory of motivation, and the expectancy theory published during the last ten years via PubMed and Science Direct. Results: A series of motives could be developed that by themselves are not the solution to the problem of employee performance and effectiveness, and their application could be a combination of different models or examined case by case, depending on the functional department of the public hospital. The economic motives and the negative motives cannot, by and large, be applied by management, thus, motives having to do with training, organization and coordination of human resources, communication and fair treatment are the most realistic and applicable ones, for this particular workplace. Conclusions: The motives presented in the current paper are not the panacea for the work performance and effectiveness and they are not a complete record of all potential motives. The application of motives could be combinational or could be contingently examined for the department of the public hospital applied, as well as the nursing staff employed, i.e., specificities related to knowledge, experience, abilities. Furthermore, the duties performed by the nursing staff and the policy implemented by management towards the human resources affect the offered motives.

  4. Influence of body habitus and use of oral contrast on reader confidence in patients with suspected acute appendicitis using 64 MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stephan W; Rhea, James T; Milch, Holly N; Ozonoff, Al; Lucey, Brian C; Soto, Jorge A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate how body habitus affects reader confidence in diagnosing acute appendicitis and appendiceal visualization using 64 MDCT technology with and without oral contrast. We conducted a HIPAA compliant, IRB approved study of adult patients presenting to the Emergency Department with nontraumatic abdominal pain. Subjects were randomized to two groups: 64 MDCT scans performed with oral and intravenous contrast or scans performed solely with intravenous contrast. Three radiologists established their confidence about the presence of appendicitis as well as recording whether the appendix was visualized. Reader confidence in diagnosing acute appendicitis was compared between the two groups for the three readers. The impact of patient BMI and estimated intra-abdominal fat on reader confidence in diagnosing appendicitis was determined. Finally, a comparison of the effect of BMI and intra-abdominal fat on appendiceal visualization between the two groups was carried out. Three hundred three patients were enrolled in this study. There was a statistically significant difference in confidence based on BMI for reader 2, group 1 in diagnosing appendicitis. No further statistically significant differences in reader confidence for diagnosing appendicitis based on BMI or intra-abdominal fat were identified. There was no influence of BMI or intra-abdominal fat on appendiceal visualization. Increasing BMI was seen to improve reader confidence for one of three readers in patients that received both oral and intravenous contrast. No further effects of BMI or intra-abdominal fat on confidence in diagnosing or excluding appendicitis were seen. Neither BMI nor intra-abdominal fat were seen to influence appendiceal visualization.

  5. Influence of lesion ratio on diagnostic performance of in-phase/opposed-phase imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient for differentiating acute benign vertebral fractures and metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Fan; LEI Yi; LI Yang-bin

    2009-01-01

    Background The usefulness of in-phase/opposed-phase imaging and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating benign and neoplastic vertebral fractures has been described. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of the severity of vertebral damage on the diagnostic performance of these two technologies.Methods Totally 59 patients with 68 acute benign vertebral fractures and 43 patients with 79 vertebral metastases were included in this study. The MR protocol included DWls and sagittal in-phase/opposed-phase gradient recalled sequence.The severity of vertebral damage was expressed by lesion ratio (LR, the ratio of lesion area to vertebral area on the slices of largest abnormal signal area in the T1-weighted sequence). Quantitative (signal intensity ratio (SIR) defined as signal intensity (SI) on opposed-phase gradient recalled echo (GRE) images divided by SI on in-phase; apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value derived from DWI analysis was performed, the relationships between LR and the measurements of these two technologies were analyzed using linear regression. The covariate-specific receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were also fitted to evaluate the influence of LR on the diagnostic performance of ADC and SIR. Results The difference in both SIR and ADC for vertebral metastasis and acute benign vertebral fractures was significant (P 0.05). More severe cases were associated with increased AUC for SIR.Conclusions LR is capable of affecting the diagnostic performances of chemical shift imaging. Thus, when applying these tests to make diagnoses on vertebral fractures, the severity of the vertebral damage should be taken into account.The covariate-specific ROC model is recommended because it substantially improves the ability to avoid bias when evaluating tests.

  6. Influence of gender on short- and long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C; Ottesen, M;

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in short- and long-term mortality between male and female patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study population consisted of 6,676 consecutive patients admitted alive with an enzyme-confirmed AMI to 27 Danish hospitals from 1990...... was the same for men and women. Women received thrombolytic therapy less often. The 1-year mortality for female patients was 28 +/- 1% and for men 21 +/- 1% (p ... increased mortality in women in the short-term (6 and 30 days), with a risk ratio in men of 0.58 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.81) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.99), respectively. From day 30 onward there was an increased mortality in men with a risk ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.31, p = 0.01). Thus, women admitted...

  7. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Barg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.

  8. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...

  9. Motivating students through positive learning experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Coto Chotto, Mayela; Jantzen, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Based on the assumption that wellbeing, positive emotions and engagement influence motivation for learning, the aim of this paper is to provide insight into students’ emotional responses to and engagement in different learning designs. By comparing students’ reports on the experiential qualities...... of three different learning designs, their respective influence on students’ motivation for learning is discussed with the purpose of exploring the relationship between positive emotions, engagement and intrinsic motivation for learning. Our study thus aims at evaluating the motivational elements...... Robots. Three different studies were used for collecting data on the students’ experiences and feelings: 1. A questionnaire survey with 229 students from groups exposed to the three different learning designs; 2. Six qualitative walk-alongs collecting data from these groups by informal interviews...

  10. The Influence of Motivational Factors on the Romanian Passenger Car Consumer Behavior after the Start of the Current Economic Crisis – an Explorative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina ARITON (BALAU)

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management in Albania has received little attention in the recent literature. Many companies now realize that actions taken by one member of the chain can influence the profitability of all others in the chain. Companies are increasingly thinking in terms of competing as part of a supply chain against other supply chains, rather than as a single firm against other individual firms. The aim of the paper is to investigate the current situation of supply chain management in Albania ...

  11. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  12. Student Motivation to Study Abroad and Their Intercultural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Philip H.; Hubbard, Ann; Lawton, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    To date, student motivation for electing to study abroad has not been incorporated into study abroad research as a potential factor influencing intercultural development. The authors of this study hypothesize that a student's motivation for studying abroad plays an important role in influencing the program a student selects and in determining what…

  13. Motivation to Teach: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husny Arar, Khalid; Massry-Herzllah, Asmahan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to identify factors influencing teachers' motivation in the Arab education system. In-depth interviews with 10 school principals, 15 teachers and 3 counsellors, yielded three themes influencing Arab teachers' motivation: (1) Arab culture, (2) the school climate and (3) government policies. Arab teachers try to meet…

  14. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  15. How do Epistemological Beliefs Affect Training Motivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Molan; Eva Boštjančič

    2014-01-01

    Studies show that human resources development through workplace training is one of the major investments in the workforce in today’s globalized and challenging market. As training motivation influences employees’ preparation for the workplace training, their respond to the programme, their learning outcome, their performance levels, and use of acquired knowledge and skills in their workplace it seems logical to investigate and determine antecedents of training motivation. The aim of this stud...

  16. Important motivators for buying green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Kianpour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products.   Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products and most importantly motivational factors were identified by T test. Findings: Results show that 1 Environmental Concern, Perceived Consumer Effectiveness, Consumer Knowledge 2 Laws and regulation and 3 Promotional Tools’ were the most important of motivators. Practical implications: The results could help companies, authorities, governments, producers, sellers to know what motivate customers to buy green products and persuade the customers for buying them. Social implications: Furthermore this research will indirectly contribute to increase the customers and public intention for buying green products which in turn will help to solve some of environmental issues and make less environmental side effect caused by products. It is notable that motivated consumers for buying green product will finally expect to have healthy life and clean environment which leads to a healthy and clean society. Originality/value: This article contributes to the literature on the customers’ intention for buying green products by filling the gap in the concrete issues of the customers’ motivation.

  17. The influence of meteorological and geomagnetic factors on acute myocardial infarction and brain stroke in Moscow, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhnikov, Dmitry; Revich, Boris; Gurfinkel, Yuri; Naumova, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Evidence of the impact of air temperature and pressure on cardiovascular morbidity is still quite limited and controversial, and even less is known about the potential influence of geomagnetic activity. The objective of this study was to assess impacts of air temperature, barometric pressure and geomagnetic activity on hospitalizations with myocardial infarctions and brain strokes. We studied 2,833 myocardial infarctions and 1,096 brain strokes registered in two Moscow hospitals between 1992 and 2005. Daily event rates were linked with meteorological and geomagnetic conditions, using generalized linear model with controls for day of the week, seasonal and long-term trends. The number of myocardial infarctions decreased with temperature, displayed a U-shaped relationship with pressure and variations in pressure, and increased with geomagnetic activity. The number of strokes increased with temperature, daily temperature range and geomagnetic activity. Detrimental effects on strokes of low pressure and falling pressure were observed. Relative risks of infarctions and strokes during geomagnetic storms were 1.29 (95 % CI 1.19-1.40) and 1.25 (1.10-1.42), respectively. The number of strokes doubled during cold spells. The influence of barometric pressure on hospitalizations was relatively greater than the influence of geomagnetic activity, and the influence of temperature was greater than the influence of pressure. Brain strokes were more sensitive to inclement weather than myocardial infarctions. This paper provides quantitative estimates of the expected increases in hospital admissions on the worst days and can help to develop preventive health plans for cardiovascular diseases.

  18. 早期康复介入对急性脑卒中重度偏瘫患者运动功能恢复的影响%Influence of early rehabilitation intervention on motor function of acute stroke patients with severe hemiplegia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树德; 石海成

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe influence of early rehabilitation intervention on motor function of acute stroke patients with severe hemiplegia.Method We evaluate 58 cases of acute stroke with severe hemiplegia with FMA method and Barthel index,observe influence of early rehabilitation intervention on recovery of motor function.Result Motor function after treatment was promoted apparently compared with control group(P< 0.05).Conclusion Early rehabilitation intervention can promote motor function recovery of acute stroke patients with severe hemiplegia.

  19. How to Motivate Employees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kušar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to motivate employees and keep them motivated? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what motivates employees and what motivates employees for work. Method: The results of the questionnaire are graphically presented and described. Random sampling was utilized that included participants from various professional areas and demographic characteristics. The results showed a relationship between individual motivational factors related to education, age and type of employment. All of the questions were closed - type questions except for the last question, which was an open question, in which the respondents answered in their own words. Questions were analyzed using frequency analysis of individual responses. Pearson's Chi - squared test, Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher’s Exact test was made using R Commander. Results: The research findings showed which motivational factors motivate employees the most. These are especially non - material motivational factors, such as good relationships, jobs with challenges, advancement opportunities, clear instructions, good work conditions, company reputation, etc. Organization: The study will help managers understand their role in motivating employees as well as the types of motivational factors. Society: The research shows how individuals are motivated. Originality: Certain motivators in the study are ranked differently than was found in previous literature. Most probably the reason is that the respondents in this study favored intangible motivators (good relations with leadership and their colleagues, good working conditions, etc.. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was that the sample included employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. To enhance the study and to find similar results as in previous literature, more questions should have been asked as well as increasing the sample size.

  20. Factors of influence on acute skin toxicity of breast cancer patients treated with standard three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after breast conserving surgery (BCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard 3D-CRT after BCS may cause skin toxicity with a wide range of intensity including acute effects like erythema or late effects. In order to reduce these side effects it is mandatory to identify potential factors of influence in breast cancer patients undergoing standard three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of the breast and modern systemic therapy. Between 2006 and 2010 a total of 211 breast cancer patients (median age 52,4 years, range 24–77) after BCS consecutively treated in our institution with 3D-CRT (50 Gy whole breast photon radiotherapy followed by 16 Gy electron boost to the tumorbed) were evaluated with special focus on documented skin toxicity at the end of the 50 Gy-course. Standardized photodocumentation of the treated breast was done in each patient lying on the linac table with arms elevated. Skin toxicity was documented according to the common toxicity criteria (CTC)-score. Potential influencing factors were classified in three groups: patient-specific (smoking, age, breast size, body mass index = BMI, allergies), tumor-specific (tumorsize) and treatment-specific factors (antihormonal therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, chemotherapy). Uni- and multivariate statistical analyses were done using IBM SPSS version 19. After 50 Gy 3D-CRT to the whole breast 28.9% of all 211 patients had no erythema, 62.2% showed erythema grade 1 (G1) and 8.5% erythema grade 2. None of the patients had grade 3/4 (G3/4) erythema. In univariate analyses a significant influence or trend on the development of acute skin toxicities (erythema G0 versus G1 versus G2) was observed for larger breast volumes (p=0,004), smoking during radiation therapy (p=0,064) and absence of allergies (p=0,014) as well as larger tumorsize (p=0,009) and antihormonal therapy (p=0.005). Neither patient age, BMI nor choice of chemotherapy showed any significant effect on higher grade toxicity. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with higher grade

  1. Motivation and will

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Maris Vásquez

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the relationship between motivation and volitional processes as described by current motivation theories. The root of the separation between both moments of behavioris traced back to Tetens and Kant’s threefold view of the mind. Sensory perception is reduced to feeling and the will to energy without a proper object. The history of this conception isoutlined. Nuttin’s motivation theory is presented as an alternative to the limitations of other contemporary theories. Some edu...

  2. Motivation hos ledige

    OpenAIRE

    Schytte, Frederik J.J; Knudsen, Rasmus Kristoffer; Kappel, Kevin Bossen; Walander-Andersen, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motivation of the unemployed. Émile Durkheim and Abraham Maslow’s theories are used to describe the motivation of the unemployed along with reforms dating from 1994 to 2013. In the second part of the study, it tries to analyze the motivation of the unemployed by using Durkheim and Maslows’ theories while combining them with the aforementioned reforms. The third part of the study discusses the intentions of the danish government for implementing new reforms about unempl...

  3. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  4. Performance management, motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Lichý, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor work deals with the question of worker motivation and its effect on the labour performance of employees. This work is divided into two parts – the literature research and the proper work. The literature research is based on studying of the scientific literature and my own knowledge and it presents basic terms as the human resource management, the labour performance and efficiency, motivation, stimulation, stimulation factors and motivational programme. The caracteristic of m...

  5. Motivation and remuneration

    OpenAIRE

    SOUKUP, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor work is analysis of remuneration and motivation in travel agencies and companies, where is established performance pay system for self-employed. Work consists of literature review and practical part. Literature review contains information about motivation and remuneration. Practical part includes information about analyzed companies, analysis remuneration and motivation, evaluation analyzed companies and conceiving performance pay system, in which are participants sel...

  6. Work motivation in organization

    OpenAIRE

    Lenártová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation deals with work motivation in the studied organization. The main objective of this thesis is to examine the level of existing incentive program at ZZN Pelhřimov a.s., including a proposal for its improvement. Questionnaire survey technique was used to determine the level of motivation in the company. The theoretical background of motivation and basic concepts associated with it are based on professional literature in the first part of this work. Individual theories of mot...

  7. Employee motivation and performance

    OpenAIRE

    akah, ndang william

    2010-01-01

    The subject matter of this research; employee motivation and performance seeks to look at how best employees can be motivated in order to achieve high performance within a company or organization. Managers and entrepreneurs must ensure that companies or organizations have a competent personnel that is capable to handle this task. This takes us to the problem question of this research “why is not a sufficient motivation for high performance?” This therefore establishes the fact that money is f...

  8. Motivation as a leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Lundáková, Sára

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis concerns about motivation as the most efficient way of leadership given that a manager has a possibility to achieve a company's goals through its employees. A manager needs to have knowledge about employees, their attitudes, interests and by the use of motivational tools incite employees to perform better. The aim of this thesis is to find out to what extent are managers concerned about the motivation of their subordinates and what kinds of incentives they use the most...

  9. Second Language Learning Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Alvyda Liuolienė; Regina Metiūnienė

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the peculiarities of ESP learning motivation. The meaning of motivation and three main approaches to motivational psychology: expectancy-value theory, goal-directed theory and the self-determination theory are presented, two distinct orientations for learning a language: integrative and instrumental are described in the paper. The importance of needs analysis to ESP learning is stressed and the main conditions (interest in the topic and activity; relevance to the students...

  10. PROBLEMS OF PERSONAL MOTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Pakdel, Elnaz

    2013-01-01

    The concept of motivation is always considered in human societies especially for researchers and experts of education. Especially, in recent decades, many theorists and researchers in Educational Psychology have been put validity and particular role for motivational and psychological patterns on educational behaviors. So, at this article, we explain historical process of concept of motivation; compare it to goal and then providing the process of social, psychological and educational motivatio...

  11. Motives for SMS Use

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Oscar; Almekinders, Johan; Buren, van, Anne; Snippers, Roy; Wessels, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to identify, from a uses-and-gratifications point of view, the motives that young people in the age of 12 to 25 have for using SMS. The study also aimed to assess whether these SMS motives are related to age, gender, current education, mobile phone experience, SMS experience and SMS use. We located four types of motives for using SMS: entertainment, social interaction, immediate access, and efficiency (in time). Immediate access and social interaction were most salient...

  12. Motivation as a leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Holeček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with the motivation as a manner of leadership of people. I chose this topic because I have worked in a company which employs workers with trade certificate for 8 years. This form of employment shows certain differences against the ordinary employment from the perspective of motivation. The aim of this work is to find out which importance the managers give to the motivational stimulus in the process of leadership of people. For the purposes of evaluation the guided interview w...

  13. Do monetary rewards crowd out intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano Fiorillo

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the determinants of regular volunteering departing from previous literature on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. It contributes to the literature investigating the role of monetary rewards to influence intrinsic motivation. Using a simple framework that allows me to study the effect of monetary rewards on intrinsic motivation, the paper shows, controlling for endogenous bias, that monetary rewards crowd-out intrinsic motivation.

  14. Motivating the Student: Sport Education Can Be a Framework for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana

    2014-01-01

    The focus on student motivation is an ever evolving and interesting area within physical education. Although motivation can be important, teachers today face students who are less motivated, and often implement teaching approaches or instructional models that do not positively influence student motivation. A model of instruction that has been…

  15. Control system of motivation of personal based on gradient approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doliatovskii Valerii Anastasievich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of management by motivation of workers on the basis of definition of sensitivity of results of work to influence various motives is proved. There by the object of management is identified by a set of indicators of sensitivity which are the limiting sizes defining reaction of workers on motives. By averaging of the given questionnaires the matrix of identification of system of motivation is received. On its basis the decision of direct and return problems of management is possible. Experimental data about results of application are led to a choice of system of motivation based on gradient the approach.

  16. The Role of Client Motivation in Workplace Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mabin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation has been recognised as an essential component in managing medical issues, adjusting to physical disability, cognitive impairment, returning to work, and improving psychosocial functioning (Wagner & McMahon, 2004.  This research explores the role of client motivation in workplace rehabilitation and demonstrates the implications for rehabilitation counselling practice. The research focuses on understanding the concept of motivation, reasons for its presence or absence, and why motivation is important to the workplace rehabilitation process. This study also explores significant influencing factors that may be utilised to increase motivation and promote more successful return to work outcomes, as well as considering the implications for rehabilitation practice and research.

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF PERSONNEL MOTIVATION IN THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the motivation of personnel, essential tool in the management process, and also a component derived from human resource management. In economic activity, personnel motivation should be regarded as an internal process, not as an imperative that can be imposed from outside the economic entity. Managers of economic entities must, first, understand personnel motivation strategies, how they influence positively or negatively the internal motivations of employees. Personnel motivation by itself attracts an end, just as profitable and moral, individual and social welfare making.

  18. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive....... Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector......, monetary incentives are found to cause different crowding effects for these different types of intrinsic motivation. The results call for more theoretical work on the drivers of motivation crowding effects and for practitioners to pay more attention to what type of intrinsic motivation is at stake, when...

  19. Influence of dietary patterns on the risk of acute myocardial infarction in China population: the INTERHEART China study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin; LI Wei; WANG Yang; CHEN Tao; Koon Teo; LIU Li-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Some dietary patterns are risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Chinese traditional food and habits vary from other cultures.The present study determined whether different dietary patterns were associated with AMI in Chinese people.Methods We conducted a case-control study.There were 1312 cases of first AMI and 2235 control subjects who did not have previous angina,diabetes mellitus,hypertension or stroke.Controls were matched to cases on age and gender.Diet was measured with a validated,19 item food frequency questionnaire.We identified three major dietary patterns using factor analysis:vitamin and microelement pattern (high intake of vegetables,fruits and tofu),carbohydrate pattern (high in grain),and fat and protein pattern (high in meat,fish,eggs and fried foods).Results After adjusting for all risk factors,the vitamin and microelement pattern was inversely associated with AMI risk (global P value,0.0001).Compared with the first quartile,the adjusted ORs of AMI were 0.81 (95% CI:0.66-1.00) for the second quartile,0.67 (95% CI:0.54-0.82) for the third,and 0.70 (95% CI:0.56-0.88) for the fourth.Several dietary frequencies (serves per week) including vegetables,fruits and tofu were closely associated with decrease of AMI risk.Carbohydrate pattern showed weak relationship with AMI.We observed a U-shaped association between frequencies of fat and protein pattern and AMI risk.Excessive fat intake increased the AMI risk.The adjusted OR of AMI associated with the higher level of green vegetables was 0.37 (95% CI:0.24-0.57) in women and 0.65 (95% CI:0.51-0.82) in men (P value for heterogeneity,0.0140).Conclusions Unhealthy dietary intake can increase the AMI risk.Improving intake of vegetables,fruits and tofu have the potential to partially prevent the rising epidemic of cardiovascular disease in China.

  20. FORMS AND MOTIVATIONS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Ramona SÂRBU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the identification of forms of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and analyzes factors influencing FDI motivation. Designing a coherent program to encourage foreign direct investment is based on knowledge of the factors that determine international companies to resort to this type of development: these companies resort to foreign direct investment if they have ownership advantages and internationalization, while another country has locational advantages to the company's home country. Thus, identifying the factors that influence the motivation of FDI is important both at the microeconomic level, local, local authorities and macroeconomic, national, government to develop measures for multiplying FDI .

  1. STAFFS MOTIVATIONAL IN KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saide

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous have highlighted knowledge transfer behaviour (KTB for an increase organization performance, however an obstacle from the perspective among staffs still exists. The problem is still difficult because staffs will not share their knowledge as they thinking their knowledge is important. This paper investigated factors of staffs motivational that influence KTB among staffs in Riau Province of Indonesia. The survey 400 respondents were used, 325 were returned, and 75 were not returned. Likert and smart PLS to confirmation the conceptual model. This paper conclude factors that reward, trust, and an enjoyment helping colleagues of staffs motivation are factors which influencing the KTB. The results and conclusions are discussed.

  2. Self-reported assessment of disability and performance-based assessment of disability are influenced by different patient characteristics in acute low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiffelle, Lara A.; O’Connell, Neil Edward; McAuley, James Henry; DeSouza, Lorraine Hilary

    2009-01-01

    For an individual, the functional consequences of an episode of low back pain is a key measure of their clinical status. Self-reported disability measures are commonly used to capture this component of the back pain experience. In non-acute low back pain there is some uncertainty of the validity of this approach. It appears that self-reported assessment of disability and direct measurements of functional status are only moderately related. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated this relationship in a sample of 94 acute low back pain patients. Both self-reported disability and a performance-based assessment of disability were assessed, along with extensive profiling of patient characteristics. Scale consistency of the performance-based assessment was investigated using Cronbach’s alpha, the relationship between self-reported and performance-based assessment of disability was investigated using Pearson’s correlation. The relationship between clinical profile and each of the disability measures were examined using Pearson’s correlations and multivariate linear regression. Our results demonstrate that the battery of tests used are internally reliable (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86). We found only moderate correlations between the two disability measures (r = 0.471, p < 0.001). Self-reported disability was significantly correlated with symptom distribution, medication use, physical well-being, pain intensity, depression, somatic distress and anxiety. The only significant correlations with the performance-based measure were symptom distribution, physical well-being and pain intensity. In the multivariate analyses no psychological measure made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of the performance-based measure, whereas depression made a unique contribution to the prediction of the self-reported measure. Our results suggest that self-reported and performance-based assessments of disability are influenced by different patient characteristics

  3. Guided Reading and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  4. Motivating University Researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.; Alves de Sousa, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation into how universities approach the need and means for motivating university researchers through their management practices. The role of work motivation for this group deserves attention because pressures from outside and within the universities are said

  5. Motivating University Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Paul; Sousa, Celio

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation into how universities approach the need and means for motivating university researchers through their management practices. The role of work motivation for this group deserves attention because pressures from outside and within the universities are said to have made university research less of a…

  6. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  7. Motivated Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Maher, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    Motivated learning is a research field in artificial intelligence and cognitive modelling. This book describes how motivated reinforcement learning agents can be used in computer games for the design of non-player characters that can adapt their behaviour in response to unexpected changes in their environment

  8. Measuring Adolescent Science Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ("Gymnasium") completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one…

  9. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  10. Motivation and Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spithill, Alma C.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student motivation in the foreign language classroom. Suggests that although most foreign language teachers are well trained in methods and materials, the psychological principles related to motivation and reinforcement are more elusive than those related to learning activities. (NCR)

  11. Motives for SMS Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Oscar; Almekinders, Johan; Buren, van Ruud; Snippers, Roy; Wessels, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to identify, from a uses-and-gratifications point of view, the motives that young people in the age of 12 to 25 have for using SMS. The study also aimed to assess whether these SMS motives are related to age, gender, current education, mobile phone experience, SMS experience

  12. Motivation techniques for supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N. D.

    1974-01-01

    Guide has been published which deals with various aspects of employee motivation. Training methods are designed to improve communication between supervisors and subordinates, to create feeling of achievement and recognition for every employee, and to retain personnel confidence in spite of some negative motivators. End result of training is reduction or prevention of errors.

  13. Mange unge mangler motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutters, Camilla; Katznelson, Noemi

    2012-01-01

    Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring.......Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring....

  14. Motivation in medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis wer

  15. 人口统计特征对酒店员工内在动机的影响--基于长沙市高星级酒店调查数据分析%Influence of Demographic Characteristics on Intrinsic Motivation of Hotel Employees---Based on the Analysis of High Stars Hotel Survey in Changsha City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽艳; 周美芳; 周应兰

    2015-01-01

    Through 366 questionnaires answered by high star hotel employees in Changsha city,it tries to explore the reliability and validity of intrinsic motivation scale,and discusses the influence of demographic characteristic on intrinsic motivation by optimal scaling regression analysis.The results show that demographic characteristic has an important impact on the intrinsic motivation of hotel employees.Intrinsic motivation is most related to seniority, age and level of education,but gender has no significant influence on the intrinsic motivation.%通过对长沙市部分高星级酒店实施问卷调查获得的366份调查表,进行内在动机量表的信度与效度以及内在动机的最优尺度回归分析,得知人口统计特征变量对内在动机影响的相对重要性,在人口统计特征中,工龄对内在动机的影响最大,其次是年龄和受教育程度,性别对内在动机并无显著影响。

  16. Analysis of situation and influencing factors in learning motivation of continuing education in clinical nurses%临床护士继续教育学习动机现状及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常燕; 周文琦; 刘晓霞; 高泽宇

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查影响临床护士学习的动机因素,为临床护理管理者制定培养策略提供依据,促进护理人员自主学习.方法 采用“临床护士学习动机调查问卷”对469名临床护士进行学习动机问卷调查,并分析其影响因素.结果 共发放问卷469份,回收有效问卷428份,回收有效率为91.2%.临床护士学习动机6个维度的得分由高到低的排序依次为:职业发展、利他服务、认知兴趣、外界期望、社会接触、社会刺激,总分为(114.34±20.95)分;学习动机排在前3位的条目分别是为晋升奠定基础(4.01±0.97)分,更加胜任自己的工作(3.95±0.95)分,获取知识(3.92±1.02)分.多元回归分析显示职称和工作年限为临床护士学习动机的影响因素,差异有统计学意义(t分别为-2.949,-2.037;P<0.05).结论 继续教育管理部门需加强对社会刺激方面的管理,对不同职称和工作年限的护士进行针对性的干预,提高护士参与继续教育的主动性.%Objective To investigate the effects of clinical nurses learning motivation factors,provide the basis for the formulation of strategies for cultivating clinical nurses,promote autonomous learning in nursing staff.Methods Four hundreds and sixty-nine clinical nurses were surveyed by the "clinical nurses learning motivation questionnaire".The influencing factors in learning motivation of continuing education in clinical nurses were analyzed by the SPSS 16.0 software package,including descriptive statistics,multiple regression analysis.Results Tatals of 469 questionnaires were sent out,and 428 were recycled,the effective responsive rate was 91.2%.The scores of six dimensions of learning motivation of continuing education in clinical nurses were from high to low in order occupation development,altruistic service,cognitive interests,expectations from outside,social contact and social stimuli.The occupation development motivation got the highest score (3.68 ± 0

  17. Motivating the Stakeholders, a Feature of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Raluca ROBU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation, in a narrow meaning, based on a classical vision on the organisation and management, aims only at the employees or staff of the organization. This optics still predominates both in theory and in the worldwide managerial practice. Motivation, in a broad meaning, contoured in recent years, based on a modern vision on the organization and management is centred on the stakeholders, namely on those people, categories of staff and organisms who have major interests in developing the activity and performances of the organisation. In order to understand motivation, the managers must first understand the reasons why the individuals behave in a certain way and for which they have certain reactions under threatening situations or by which influencing is attempted. Motivation is an internal process, not an imperative one which can be compelled from the outside. Managers must understand the motivation strategies, the way in which they succeed or fail on the grounds of the way in which they succeed in influencing the inner motivations of the employees.

  18. 影响应用型高校大学生英语学习动力因素的调查与思考%The Investigation and Reflection of Factors Influencing Students’English Learning Motivation in Application-oriented Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海红; 谢君

    2016-01-01

    为了找出影响应用型高校大学生英语学习动力的因素,以达到激发应用型高校大学生英语学习动力的目的,文章基于Gardner.Lanmert-AMTB(Attitude/Motivation Test Battery)设计了大学英语学习动力因素问卷调查表,对武汉两所应用型高校的534名学生进行了问卷调查,对调查的数据进行了研究和分析,找出了影响应用型高校学生英语学习动力最主要的因素,并在此基础上给出了激发应用型高校大学生英语学习动力的方法和途径。%In order to explore the factors which influence students’English learning motivation in independent colleges and to motivate students’English learning motivation in application-oriented colleges, 534 students’questionnaires from two applica-tion-oriented colleges in Wuhan are conducted in this paper and the questionnaire is designed on the basis of Gardner.Lanmert-AMTB(Attitude/Motivation Test Battery). The data from the questionnaires are studied and analyzed, by which the most promi-nent factors influencing students’English learning motivation in application-oriented colleges have found out. Some sugges-tions are put forward on how to activate students’English learning motivation in application-oriented colleges.

  19. How do Epistemological Beliefs Affect Training Motivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Molan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that human resources development through workplace training is one of the major investments in the workforce in today’s globalized and challenging market. As training motivation influences employees’ preparation for the workplace training, their respond to the programme, their learning outcome, their performance levels, and use of acquired knowledge and skills in their workplace it seems logical to investigate and determine antecedents of training motivation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the concepts of epistemological beliefs, training motivation and the actual participation in the workplace training. We predicted that epistemological beliefs would have an effect on training motivation and actual participation on the workplace training and that there would be a positive relationship between the concepts, meaning that the more sophisticated epistemological beliefs would lead to higher motivation and participation. To test the epistemological beliefs, the Epistemic Belief Inventory (Schraw, Bendixen & Dunkle, 2002 was used and adjusted to the workplace setting. Then the results were compared to employees’ training motivation, which was measured with a questionnaire made by authors of the present study, and employees’ actual number of training hours annually. The results confirmed the relationship between the concepts as well as a significant predicting value of epistemological beliefs on motivation and actual participation. Epistemic Belief Inventory did not yield expected results reported by the authors of the instrument therefore the limitations, possible other interpretations and suggested further exploration are discussed.

  20. Enkele perspektiewe op Motivering

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    A. J. Van Wyk

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available Different motivational theories in the literature seem to claim unique explanations of motivational behaviour. When these theories are evaluated against basic concepts and the process of motivation, it becomes clear that theory building in motivational terms really focuses on the same basic phenomenon. The implications and practical applications of the more job related contemporary theories of motivation are discussed. OpsommingDie indruk wat verskillende motiveringsteorieë in die literatuur skep, is dat elke teorie 'n unieke verklaring gee van gemotiveerde gedrag. Indien die basisbegrippe en die motiveringsproses egter as ankers gebruik word om teorieë te ontleed is dit moontlik om aan te toon dat teoriebou in die motiveringsliteratuur, niks anders is as beligtingsaspekte van dieselfde fenomeen nie. Die beligtingskant van kontemporêre teorieë is weliswaar meer werksverwant en die implikasies en toepassing daarvan word aangetoon.