In this thesis, I would like to draw attention to the impact of long-term illness and prolonged hospitalization on the life of the ill child and his family. The effects of the illness are often overlooked and people do not receive the assistance they need to deal with it. In the theoretical part of the thesis, I define the term »long-term« illness and I pay attention to different strategies to cope with it. I indicate signs that show the presence of consequences of the long-term illness and p...
Margolis, Rachel; Ludi, Erica; Pao, Maryland; Wiener, Lori
Despite the increasing trend of travel for medical purposes, little is known about the experience of parents and other caregivers who come to the United States specifically to obtain medical treatment for their seriously ill child. In this exploratory, descriptive qualitative study, we used a semi-structured narrative guide to conduct in-depth interviews with 22 Spanish- or English-speaking caregivers about the challenges encountered and adaptation required when entering a new medical and cultural environment. Caregivers identified the language barrier and transnational parenting as challenges while reporting hospital staff and their own families as major sources of support. Using the results of the study as a guide, clinical and program implications are provided and recommendations for social work practice discussed.
Washington, Lacey; Khan, Arfa; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien; Batra, Poonam V; Gurney, Jud W; Haramati, Linda B; Jeudy, Jean; Macmahon, Heber; Rozenshtein, Anna; Vydareny, Kay H; Kaiser, Larry; Raoof, Suhail
In a patient with acute respiratory illness (cough, sputum production, chest pain, and/or dyspnea), the need for chest imaging depends on the severity of illness, age of the patient, clinical history, physical and laboratory findings, and other risk factors. Chest radiographs seem warranted when one or more of the following are present: age > or = 40; dementia; a positive physical examination; hemoptysis; associated abnormalities (leukocytosis, hypoxemia); or other risk factors, including coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or drug-induced acute respiratory failure. Chest CT may be warranted in complicated cases of severe pneumonia and in febrile neutropenic patients with normal or nonspecific chest radiographic findings. Literature on the indications and usefulness of radiologic studies for acute respiratory illness in different clinical settings is reviewed.
Ronis, Sarah D; McConnochie, Kenneth M; Wang, Hongyue; Wood, Nancy E
Children with care for acute illness available through the Health-e-Access telemedicine model at childcare and schools were previously found to have 22% less emergency department (ED) use than counterparts without this service, but they also had 24% greater acute care use overall. We assessed the hypothesis that increased utilization reflected improved access among impoverished inner-city children to a level experienced by more affluent suburban children. This observational study compared utilization among children without and with telemedicine access, beginning in 1993, ending in 2007, and based on 84,287 child-months of billing claims-based observation. Health-e-Access Telemedicine was initiated in stepwise manner over 187 study-months among 74 access sites (childcare, schools, community centers), beginning in month 105. Children dwelled in inner city, rest-of-city Rochester, NY, or in surrounding suburbs. Rate of total acute care visits (office, ED, telemedicine) was measured as visits per 100 child-years. Observed utilization rates were adjusted in multivariate analysis for age, sex, insurance type, and season of year. When both suburban and inner-city children lacked telemedicine access, overall acute illness visits were 75% greater among suburban than inner-city children (suburban:inner-city rate ratio 1.75, p Health-e-Access Telemedicine redressed socioeconomic disparities in acute care access in the Rochester area, thus contributing to a more equitable community.
Sonney, Jennifer T; Gerald, Lynn B; Insel, Kathleen C
The purpose of this article is to synthesize the current literature on parent and child asthma illness representations and their consequent impact on parent-child asthma shared management. This systematic review was conducted in concordance with the PRISMA statement. An electronic search of five computerized databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE) was conducted using the following key words: asthma, illness representation, and child. Due to the limited number of articles identified, the search was broadened to include illness perceptions as well. Studies were included if they were specific to asthma and included parent and/or child asthma illness representations or perception, were published after 2000, and available in English. Fifteen articles were selected for inclusion. All of the articles are descriptive studies that used cross-sectional designs. Seven of the studies used parent and child participants, eight used parents only, and none used only child participants. None of the selected studies describe child asthma illness representations, and only three describe parental asthma illness representations. Domains of illness representations, including symptoms, timeline, consequences, cause, and controllability were described in the remaining articles. Symptoms and controllability appear to have the most influence on parental asthma management practices. Parents prefer symptomatic or intermittent asthma management and frequently cite concerns regarding daily controller medication use. Parents also primarily rely on their own objective symptom observations rather than the child's report of symptoms. Asthma illness representations are an important area of future study to better understand parent-child shared asthma management.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To measure energy expenditure of acutely ill elderly patients in hospital and following discharge in the community. Design Sixty-three consecutive hospitalised acutely ill elderly patients were recruited. Eight patients were studied to assess the reliability of the Delta Tract Machine as a measure of energy expenditure; 35 patients had their energy expenditure studied in hospital on two occasions and 20 patients had their energy expenditure measured in hospital and at 6 weeks in the community Results Men had higher basal energy expenditure (BMR values compared to women however the difference was not statistically significant [Men, mean (SD 1405 (321 Kcal, women 1238 (322 kcal; mean difference (95% CI 166 kcal (-17 to 531, p = 0.075]. After adjusting for age, gender and body mass index both medication and C-reactive protein (CRP, concentrations showed significant correlation with measured energy expenditure in hospital, (r = -0.36, "p Conclusion Tissue inflammation and medications were associated with change in measured energy expenditure in acutely ill patients.
Paterson, Rebecca S; Kenardy, Justin A; De Young, Alexandra C; Dow, Belinda L; Long, Debbie A
Delirium is a common and serious neuropsychiatric complication in critically ill patients of all ages. In the context of critical illness, delirium may emerge as a result of a cascade of underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms and signals organ failure of the brain. Awareness of the clinical importance of delirium in adults is growing as emerging research demonstrates that delirium represents a serious medical problem with significant sequelae. However, our understanding of delirium in children lags significantly behind the adult literature. In particular, our knowledge of how to assess delirium is complicated by challenges in recognizing symptoms of delirium in pediatric patients especially in critical and intensive care settings, and our understanding of its impact on acute and long-term functioning remains in its infancy. This paper focuses on (a) the challenges associated with assessing delirium in critically ill children, (b) the current literature on the outcomes of delirium including morbidity following discharge from PICU, and care-giver well-being, and (c) the importance of assessment in determining impact of delirium on outcome. Current evidence suggests that delirium is a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and may play a detrimental role in a child's recovery after discharge from the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Recommendations are proposed for how our knowledge and assessment of delirium in children could be improved.
Leverve, Xavier M; Cano, Noël J M
There are now powerful compensatory therapies to counteract kidney deficiency and the prognosis of patients with acute renal failure is mainly related to the severity of the initial disease. Renal failure is accompanied by an increase in both severity and duration of the catabolic phase leading to stronger catabolic consequences. The specificity of the metabolic and nutritional disorders in the most severely ill patients is the consequence of three additive phenomena: (1) the metabolic response to stress and to organ dysfunction, (2) the lack of normal kidney function and (3) the interference with the renal treatment (hemodialysis, hemofiltration or both, continuous or intermittent, lactate or bicarbonate buffer, etc.). As in many other diseases of similar severity, adequate nutritional support in acutely ill patients with ARF is of great interest in clinical practice, although the real improvement as a result of this support is still difficult to assess in terms of morbidity or mortality.
Sint Nicolaas, Simone M.; Schepers, Sasja A.; van den Bergh, Esther M. M.; Evers, Andrea W. M.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Verhaak, Christianne M.
Illness cognitions are an important mediator between disease and psychological adjustment. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire (ICQ), adjusted for the parents of an ill child. Participants were recruited from two multicenter studies: sample 1
Sint Nicolaas, S.M.; Schepers, S.A.; Bergh, E.M. van den; Evers, A.W.M.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Verhaak, C.M.
PURPOSE: Illness cognitions are an important mediator between disease and psychological adjustment. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire (ICQ), adjusted for the parents of an ill child. METHODS: Participants were recruited from two multicenter
Skillman, Heather E; Mehta, Nilesh M
Malnutrition and obesity are prevalent in children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Nutritional deterioration secondary to suboptimal nutrient delivery can adversely affect outcomes during pediatric critical illness. This review highlights the recent investigations of nutrition assessment, energy balance, indirect calorimetry, nutrition therapy, barriers to nutrient delivery, monitoring during enteral feeding, and the role of nutrition guidelines in critically ill children. Critically ill children are at high risk for energy and protein imbalance. Indirect calorimetry remains the only accurate method to assess energy requirements in this population. Intensive insulin therapy to achieve glycemic control may reduce morbidity and mortality in adults, but risks hypoglycemia in critically ill children. Early enteral nutrition improves nutrition outcomes and adherence to nutrition guidelines can overcome barriers to optimal nutrition therapy. Timely and adequate nutrition therapy is essential to improve nutrition outcomes in critically ill children. Further research is required to determine clinical outcome benefits with indirect calorimetry and enteral nutrition guidelines, and to identify optimal glucose targets.
12. Clothiapine for acute psychotic illness: a meta-analysis. Introduction. Acute psychosis requires psychological and pharmacological treatment and, when a risk of self-harm or harm to others is present, the need for treatment can become urgent. Ideally, the drug(s) used in urgent treatment of acute psychosis should have.
Johansson, Pär Ingemar; Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye
One quarter of patients suffering from acute critical illness such as severe trauma, sepsis, myocardial infarction (MI) or post cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) develop severe hemostatic aberrations and coagulopathy, which are associated with excess mortality. Despite the different types of injurious...... "hit", acutely critically ill patients share several phenotypic features that may be driven by the shock. This response, mounted by the body to various life-threatening conditions, is relatively homogenous and most likely evolutionarily adapted. We propose that shock-induced sympatho......-adrenal hyperactivation is a critical driver of endothelial cell and glycocalyx damage (endotheliopathy) in acute critical illness, with the overall aim of ensuring organ perfusion through an injured microvasculature. We have investigated more than 3000 patients suffering from different types of acute critical illness...
Neill, Sarah J; Jones, Caroline H D; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian T; Thompson, Matthew J
Uncertainty and anxiety surround parents' decisions to seek medical help for an acutely ill child. Consultation rates for children are rising, yet little is known about factors that influence parents' help-seeking behaviours. We used focus groups and interviews to examine how 27 parents of children under five years, from a range of socioeconomic groups in the East Midlands of England, use information to make decisions during acute childhood illness at home. This article reports findings elucidating factors that influence help-seeking behaviours. Parents reported that decision-making during acute childhood illness was influenced by a range of personal, social and health service factors. Principal among these was parents' concern to do the right thing for their child. Their ability to assess the severity of the illness was influenced by knowledge and experience of childhood illness. When parents were unable to access their general practitioner (GP), feared criticism from or had lost trust in their GP, some parents reported using services elsewhere such as Accident and Emergency. These findings contribute to explanatory theory concerning parents' help-seeking behaviours. Professional and political solutions have not reduced demand; therefore, collaborative approaches involving the public and professionals are now needed to improve parents' access to information. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ilse M. López Bravo
Full Text Available To help assess the causes and frequency of acute respiratory illnesses (ARI during the first 18 months of life in Chile, a cohort of 437 children born in good health between May 1991 and April 1992 was followed at an urban health clinic in northern Santiago. Information was obtained from medical checkups performed at the clinic, from emergency health care services, from private physicians, and from interviews with each child's mother when the child was enrolled in the study and when it was 6, 12, and 18 months old. Followup was completed for 379 (87% of the children. ARI accounted for 67% of all 3762 episodes of illness recorded for these children in the 18-month study period, 1384 (55% of the ARI episodes affecting the upper respiratory tract and the remaining 1144 (45% affecting the lower. The overall rate of ARI observed was 33 episodes per 100 child-months of observation. The incidences of upper, lower, and total ARI episodes decreased significantly in the third six months of life. A statistically significant association was found between upper ARI ( > or = 2 episodes and maternal smoking ( > or = 5 cigarettes per day, but no significant associations were found with any of the other risk factors studied. However, lower ARI ( > or = 2 episodes was significantly associated with maternal schooling ( or = 4 episodes was significantly associated with these factors and also with the existence of one or more siblings, birth in a cold season, limited breast-feeding (<4 months, and low socioeconomic status. Significant associations were found between obstructive bronchitis episodes and most of the risk factors studied (gender, siblings, season of birth, duration of breast-feeding, maternal schooling, smoking, use of polluting fuels in the home, and a family history of atopic allergy; similarly, significant associations were found between the occurrence of pneumonia and many risk factors (including siblings, season of birth, duration of breast
Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is an acute febrile illness that follows a self-limiting course. However, some patients suffer from complications, including myocarditis, due to the involvement of other organs. A child presented at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, in June 2013 with a high-grade fever, malaise and epigastric pain radiating to the chest. Positive DF antigen and immunoglobulin M assays confirmed the diagnosis of DF. Persistent bradycardia with low blood pressure led to further cardiac investigations which showed a decreased ejection fraction and raised serum cardiac enzymes, indicating myocardial damage. With supportive care and use of inotropes, the spontaneous normalisation of cardiac enzyme levels and ejection fraction was observed. The child was discharged five days after admission. This case highlights the importance of identifying myocarditis in DF patients suffering from cardiac symptoms that are not explained by other potential aetiologies. Awareness, early suspicion and supportive care are essential to ensure favourable outcomes.
This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.
dengue , West Nile, yellow fever , Rift Valley fever , chikungunya, Ebola, and Marburg viruses but not to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic ...patients have acute diseases of unknown origin. To investigate what other ar- thropod-borne and hemorrhagic fever viral diseases might cause serious...ELISAs, we evaluated samples for antibodies to arthropod-borne and other hemorrhagic fever viruses. Approximately 25% of LASV-negative
Cohen, Alexander T.; Spiro, Theodore E.; Büller, Harry R.; Haskell, Lloyd; Hu, Dayi; Hull, Russell; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Merli, Geno; Schellong, Sebastian; Spyropoulos, Alex C.; Tapson, Victor; Cohen, A. T.; Haskell, L.; Hu, D.; Hull, R.; Mebazaa, A.; Merli, G.; Schellong, S.; Spiro, T.; Spyropoulos, A. C.; Tapson, V.; Francis, C.; Kobayashi, S.; Leizorovicz, A.; Lowe, G.; Roberts, R.; Brandges, D.; Kolbach, D.; Limburg, M. L.; Mac Gillavry, M. R.; Otten, H. M.; Peters, R. G. J.; Prins, M. [=Martin H.; Robben, S.; Voorend, M.; Hemmrich, M.; Li, L.; Meng, I.; Mühlhofer, E.; Beckmann, H.; Desanctis, Y.; Duszczyszyn, A.; Fielding, L.; Twomey, T.; Müller, K.; Byra, W.; Nessel, C.; Atkinson, Sarah; Bottaro, F. J.; Caberlotto, O.; Grand, B.; Hendler, H.; Hojman, M.; Mykietiuk, A.; Salerno, R.; Baker, R.; Carroll, P.; Chong, B.; Colquhoun, D.; Gan, E.; Hall, S.; Jackson, D.; Leyden, M.; Salem, H.; Serisier, D.; Balcke, P.; Bauer, B.; Bauer, N. C.; Erlacher, L.; Fortunat, W.; Grafl, E.; Keil, F.; Kirchmair, P.; Pilger, E.; Schönherr, H.-R.; Siostrzonek, P.; Weidinger, F.; Weltermann, A.; Wenisch, C.; Blockmans, D.; Delobbe, A.; Hendrickx, K.; Jacquy, C.; Soupart, A.; Striekwold, H.; van Hoof, M.-E.; Vanden Abeele, A.; van Roey, G.; van Zandweghe, L.; Bizzacchi, J. M. A.; Cavalheiro, C.; Chamone, D.; Fiss, E.; Garicochea, B.; Lopes, A. C.; Rocha Moreira, R. C.; van Bellen, B.; Dimov, D.; Ivanov, Y.; Lyubenov, L.; Milanov, S.; Mincheva, V.; Nenkova, S.; Popov, D.; Taseva, M.; Bergeron, C.; Boulanger, J.-M.; Buck, B.; Daneault, N.; Desai, H.; Dube, F.; Kutsogiannis, D. J.; Miron, M.-J.; Moddel, G.; Shuaib, A.; Silver, F.; Stotts, G.; Verreault, S.; Bugedo, G.; Torres, H.; Chen, K.-N.; Chen, P.; Chen, R. C.; Chen, Y.; Gai, L.; Gao, Q.; Guo, S.; Hu, T.; Hua, Q.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li, W.; Li, Y.-S.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, Y.; Qi, G.; Qin, X.; Shen, C.; Sun, S.; Sun, Y.; Wan, Q.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wu, C.; Wu, J.; Wu, S.; Xian, S.; Xiu, Q.; Xu, B.; Yan, X.; Yang, K.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, D. P.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhou, Y.; Botero, R.; Cedano, J. E.; Fajardo, D.; Gómez, L. F.; Jaramillo, C. F.; Rada, R.; Uribe, L. G.; Velásquez, J. C.; Bergovec, M.; Hajnsek, S.; Knezevic, A.; Samarzija, M.; Steiner, R.; Zupancic-Salek, S.; Fiksa, J.; Gorican, K.; Linhart, A.; Macel, I.; Mayer, O.; Prochazka, V.; Sedlacek, J.; Avnstrøm, S.; Nielsen, H.; Nielsen, T.; Østergaard, O. V.; Tuxen, C.; Kolbassova, O.; Lember, M.; Marandi, T.; Uuetoa, T.; Karmakoski, J.; Lassila, R.; Aquilanti, S.; Bergmann, J.-F.; Brisot, D.; Debourdeau, P.; Duchemin, A.; Farge-Bancel, D.; Fournier, C.; Galinier, M.; Lacroix, P.; Lambert, M.; Le Jeunne, C.; Lorcerie, B.; Mahe, I.; Marquette, C.-H.; Mismetti, P.; Mottier, D.; Proust, A.; Quere, I.; Rihani, R.; Schmidt, J.; Stephan, D.; Vital-Durand, D.; Barth, J.; Beyer-Westendorf, J.; Borst, M.; Dormann, A.; Drouven, F.-M.; Espinola-Klein, C.; Heintges, T.; Hindahl, H.; Klotz, T.; Lawall, H.; Leschke, M.; Milstrey, H.-R.; Möbius-Winkler, S.; Mühlbauer, B.; Niederau, C.; Petermann, W.; Pohl, C.; Ringe, J.-D.; Sanner, B.; Scharrer, I.; Schmidt-Lucke, J. A.; Schöffauer, I.; Stoelben, E.; Theelen, W.; Veltkamp, R.; vom Dahl, J.; Apsokardos, S.; Babalis, D.; Bassaris, H.; Karafoulidou, A.; Katsivas, A.; Panoutsopoulos, G.; Patsilinakos, S.; Skoutelis, A.; Toubis, M.; Vlastos, F.; Wong, L. K. S.; Wong, R. S. M.; Frankfurter, Z.; Nagy, F.; Jakab, G.; Kondakor, I.; Nikl, J.; Nyirati, G.; Szakacs, Z.; Szegedi, N.; Avvaru, G.; Bhairappa, S.; Cheviri, A. N.; Gadkari, M.; Grant, P.; Kuchimanchi, K.; Kumar, K. P.; Mahajan, A.; Naik, A.; Oomman, A.; Raghu, C.; Ramanathan, R. M. P. L.; Talwar, D.; Whig, J.; Kalim, H.; Machfoed, M. H.; Tambunan, K. L.; Elias, M.; Elias, N.; Hayek, T.; Lishner, M.; Oren, S.; Osamah, H.; Sthoeger, Z.; Telman, G.; Zeltser, D.; Zimlichman, R.; Ageno, W.; Agnelli, G.; Berrettini, M.; Bondi, M.; Buzzoni, R.; Castaman, G.; de Blasio, A.; de Gaudenzi, E.; Falanga, A.; Fontanella, A.; Giorgi Pierfranceschi, M.; Landolfi, R.; Lodigiani, C.; Morra, E.; Parise, P.; Pini, M.; Pizzini, A.; Poggio, R.; Quintavalla, R.; Siragusa, S.; Violi, F.; Ando, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Fukui, K.; Funada, J.; Hataji, O.; Ibata, H.; Ichinose, T.; Ikefuji, H.; Imai, S.; Ito, K.; Kani, H.; Kato, M.; Momiyama, Y.; Nishi, S.; Mekaru, S.; Mio, T.; Nagaoka, M.; Nakagawa, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Okazaki, O.; Oshiro, K.; Ozawa, T.; Saito, T.; Sakagami, S.; Shimizu, A.; Shiohira, Y.; Tanaka, E.; Uchiyama, T.; Utsugisawa, K.; Tsuji, T.; Wada, A.; Yamada, N.; Bang, S.-M.; Chung, C.-S.; Kang, D. W.; Kim, Y.-K.; Lee, Y.-S.; YeunOh, D.; Yoon, B.-W.; Aizsilniece, I.; Krievins, D.; Kupcs, U.; Pontaga, N.; Rozitis, V.; Stukena, I.; Alekniene, B.; Bagdonas, A.; Basijokiene, V.; Butkiene, Z.; Griskeviciene, V.; Gumbrevicius, G.; Norviliene, R.; Petrauskiene, R.; Stonkus, S.; Vitkauskas, A.; Muller, P.; Rauh, S.; Chin, S. P.; Sim, K. H.; Wan Azman, B. W. A.; Cardoza Amador, J. I.; Gallegos Martínez, J.; Gómez Lara, M.; González Garza, J.; Hernández Gaeta, D. E.; Herver Cabrera, M. J.; Nares Ochoa, F.; Perea Sánchez, R. A.; Romero López, C.; Tanaka Chávez, A.; Vázquez López, M. Á; Velasco Rodríguez, V. M.; Dees, A.; de Kreuk, A. M.; Fijnheer, R.; ten Cate, H.; Jackson, S.; Ockelford, P.; Simpson, D.; Ghanima, W. K.; Schjesvold, F. H.; Stokstad, I.; Torp, R.; Aziz, Z.; Rizvi, N.; Tayyab, G. N.; Arrieta Días, F.; Castillo Leon, R.; Cotrina, R.; Moncada Vilela, Z.; Salas Pérez, M.; Salazar Candiotti, O. C.; Ulloa Pérez, V. R.; Biedrzycka, M.; Bojarska-Los, M.; Goch, A.; Gorska, M.; Gutowska-Jablonska, M.; Jahnz-Rozyk, K.; Krysiak, W.; Mirek-Bryniarska, E.; Ogorek, M.; Sydor, A.; Szczeklik, A.; Walasek, L.; Wrzesinski, K.; Zechowicz, T.; Bettencourt, P.; Ducla Soares, J.; Ferreira, A.; Ferreira, F.; Gomes, F.; Martins, A.; Mello e Silva, A.; Providência, L.; Rodrigues, T.; Santos, F.; Aroutynov, G.; Ershova, O.; Fedorova, T.; Glezer, M. G.; Khatkova, S.; Moiseev, V.; Shilkina, N.; Sotnikov, A.; Chua, G.; Gan, H. W.; Ng, A. W. K.; Ong, T. H.; Tan, R. S.; Tang, O. T.; Gaspar, L.; Kovar, F.; Spisak, V.; Stevlik, J.; Szentivanyi, M.; Flezar, M.; Gorjup, V.; Jereb, M.; Sok, M.; Tratar, G.; Zvan, B.; Adler, D.; Bloy, B.; Dreosti, L. M.; Engelbrecht, J. M.; Janse van Rensburg, H.; Koegelenberg, C. F. N.; Nortje, H.; Quinton, S.; Rabie, W. J.; Rapoport, B. L.; Roodt, A.; Smith, C.; Steenkamp, F. W. F. J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, E.; van Zyl, L.; Bisbe, J.; Castro, A.; Cereto Castro, F.; Conget, F.; Guil, M.; Monreal, M.; Nieto Rodríguez, J.-A.; Tirado Miranda, R.; Tolosa, C.; Trujillo Santos, J.; Villalta, J.; Bertholds, E.; Cwikiel, M.; Laska, A.-C.; Östergren, J.; Själander, A.; Svensson, P.; Timberg, I.; Torstensson, I.; Wiklund, P. G.; Banyai, M.; Baumgartner, I.; Imhof, A.; Jeanneret, C.; Nussbaumer, P.; Schifferli, J. A.; Chuang, K. Y.-C.; Guo, B.-F.; Lee, J. T.; Lin, Y.-H.; Shyu, K.-G.; Permpikul, C.; Pothirat, C.; Wattanathum, A.; Goker, E.; Ilerigelen, B.; Kucukoglu, S.; Nalbantgil, S.; Sirin, H.; Yilmaz, U.; Genyk, S.; Goncharova, Y.; Karpenko, O.; Korzh, O.; Koval, V.; Legkonogov, O.; Perepeliuk, M.; Polyakov, A.; Ryabichenko, T.; Skrebkov, V.; Sorkin, V.; Svyshchenko, Y.; Tseluyko, V.; Vakaliuk, I.; Vatutin, M.; Voronkov, L.; Cohen, A.; Durairaj, R.; Elliott, M.; Kesteven, P.; Luckit, J. K.; Rafferty, P.; Scully, M.; Albrecht, C. R.; Anderson, S.; Benninghoff, M.; Bidair, M.; Birch, T. A.; Brensilver, J.; Chastain, S.; Chen, D.; Comerota, A. J.; Concha, M.; Conrad, S. A.; Cox, M. J.; Daboul, N. Y.; Dexter, J.; Dietrich, D. W.; Fei, R. H.; Fontes, M. L.; French, W. J.; Gonzales, E.; Hazelrigg, M. R.; Heller, B. N.; Heyder, A. M.; Hill, G. T.; Jaffer, A. K.; Jetty, P.; Johnson, G.; Kaatz, S.; Kazimir, M.; Lavender, R. C.; Lawton, C. B.; Lerner, R.; Light, R. W.; Ling, T. G.; Mahal, S.; Manos, P.; Masson, J.; Maynor, K.; McLafferty, R. B.; Mehra, P.; Merli, G. J.; Minkowitz, H. S.; Murray, R. M.; Nadar, V.; Nathanson, A.; Patton, W. F.; Peberdy, M.; Plautz, M.; Pokharel, P.; Quintana, O. E.; Rajamani, K.; Rastogi, P.; Reiter, W. M.; Reyes, J. A.; Schuller, D.; Seibert, A.; Sharma, A.; Simmons, J.; Soff, G. A.; Stein, R. W.; Stoltz, S.; Suen, J.; Thurm, C.; Toe, W.; Updegrove, J. D.; Ward, J. A.; Waxman, K.; Welker, J.; Whittier, F. C.; Wright, P. E.; Wun, T.; Yusen, R. D.; Ziedalski, T. M.
Background The clinically appropriate duration of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with acute medical illnesses is unknown. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral rivaroxaban administered for an extended period, as compared with
A substantial proportion of South Africa (SA)'s population lives at high altitude (>1 500 m), and many travel to very high altitudes (>3 500 m) for tourism, business, recreation or religious pilgrimages every year. Despite this, knowledge of acute altitude illnesses is poor among SA doctors. At altitude, the decreasing ambient ...
Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill children presenting in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. ... The factors associated with malnutrition included early introduction of complementary diets, number of children in the home, maternal illiteracy and lower socioeconomic status of the parents. Female children ...
Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique
Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750
Mullins, Larry L; Cushing, Christopher C; Suorsa, Kristina I; Tackett, Alayna P; Molzon, Elizabeth S; Mayes, Sunnye; McNall-Knapp, Rene; Mullins, Alexandria J; Gamwell, Kaitlyn L; Chaney, John M
Psychosocial distress is a salient construct experienced by families of children with newly diagnosed cancer, but little is known about parental appraisal of the child's illness and the subsequent impact this may have on child and parent functioning. The goal of the present study was to examine the interrelationships among multiple parent illness appraisals, parent adjustment outcomes, and parent-reported child quality of life in parents of children diagnosed with cancer. Parents completed measures of illness appraisal (illness uncertainty and attitude toward illness), parent adjustment (general distress, posttraumatic stress, parenting stress), and child quality of life (general and cancer-related). Path analysis revealed direct effects for parent illness uncertainty and illness attitudes on all 3 measures of parent adjustment. Illness uncertainty, but not illness attitudes, demonstrated a direct effect on parent-reported child general quality of life; parenting stress had direct effects on general and cancer-related quality of life. Exploratory analyses indicated that parent illness uncertainty and illness attitudes conferred indirect effects on parent-reported general and cancer-related quality of life through parenting stress. Negative parent illness appraisals appear to have adverse impacts on parents' psychosocial functioning and have implications for the well-being of their child with cancer.
Woolf, Claudia; Muscara, Frank; Anderson, Vicki A; McCarthy, Maria C
A systematic review of the literature investigating the early traumatic stress responses in parents of children diagnosed with a serious illness/injury. A literature review was conducted (September 2013) using Medline, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. Twenty-four studies related to parents of children hospitalized due to diagnosis of cancer, type 1 diabetes, meningococcal disease, trauma or serious injury, preterm birth and other serious illnesses requiring admission to intensive care were included. Parents were assessed for early traumatic stress symptoms within 3 months of their child's diagnosis/hospitalization. Prevalence rates of acute stress disorder in parents ranged from 12 to 63%. Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder ranged from 8 to 68%. Variability was related to methodological factors including differences in study design, timing of assessments, measurement tools, and scoring protocols. Psychosocial factors rather than medical factors predicted parent distress. This review integrates and compares early traumatic reactions in parents with children suffering a range of serious illnesses. Findings suggest a high prevalence of acute and posttraumatic stress symptoms in parents. Methodological inconsistencies made comparison of early traumatic stress prevalence rates difficult. Risk factors associated with traumatic stress symptoms were identified.
Tsalik, Ephraim L; Henao, Ricardo; Nichols, Marshall; Burke, Thomas; Ko, Emily R; McClain, Micah T; Hudson, Lori L; Mazur, Anna; Freeman, Debra H; Veldman, Tim; Langley, Raymond J; Quackenbush, Eugenia B; Glickman, Seth W; Cairns, Charles B; Jaehne, Anja K; Rivers, Emanuel P; Otero, Ronny M; Zaas, Aimee K; Kingsmore, Stephen F; Lucas, Joseph; Fowler, Vance G; Carin, Lawrence; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Woods, Christopher W
Acute respiratory infections caused by bacterial or viral pathogens are among the most common reasons for seeking medical care. Despite improvements in pathogen-based diagnostics, most patients receive inappropriate antibiotics. Host response biomarkers offer an alternative diagnostic approach to direct antimicrobial use. This observational cohort study determined whether host gene expression patterns discriminate noninfectious from infectious illness and bacterial from viral causes of acute respiratory infection in the acute care setting. Peripheral whole blood gene expression from 273 subjects with community-onset acute respiratory infection (ARI) or noninfectious illness, as well as 44 healthy controls, was measured using microarrays. Sparse logistic regression was used to develop classifiers for bacterial ARI (71 probes), viral ARI (33 probes), or a noninfectious cause of illness (26 probes). Overall accuracy was 87% (238 of 273 concordant with clinical adjudication), which was more accurate than procalcitonin (78%, P diagnostic platforms to combat inappropriate antibiotic use and emerging antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Danziger, John; Chen, Ken P; Lee, Joon; Feng, Mengling; Mark, Roger G; Celi, Leo Anthony; Mukamal, Kenneth J
Although obesity is associated with risk for chronic kidney disease and improved survival, less is known about the associations of obesity with risk of acute kidney injury and post acute kidney injury mortality. In a single-center inception cohort of almost 15,000 critically ill patients, we evaluated the association of obesity with acute kidney injury and acute kidney injury severity, as well as in-hospital and 1-year survival. Acute kidney injury was defined using the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative criteria. The acute kidney injury prevalence rates for normal, overweight, class I, II, and III obesity were 18.6%, 20.6%, 22.5%, 24.3%, and 24.0%, respectively, and the adjusted odds ratios of acute kidney injury were 1.18 (95% CI, 1.06-1.31), 1.35 (1.19-1.53), 1.47 (1.25-1.73), and 1.59 (1.31-1.87) when compared with normal weight, respectively. Each 5-kg/m² increase in body mass index was associated with a 10% risk (95% CI, 1.06-1.24; p Obesity is a risk factor for acute kidney injury, which is associated with increased short- and long-term mortality.
Crisp, Cheryl L
When a child has a life-limiting illness, parents' goals and strategies for their child's life may need to be drastically altered, especially if early death looms. This article reviews literature and research about how families employ faith, hope, spirituality, and biblical perspectives as their child becomes critically ill and faces death. Suggestions are made for best caring practices for families and children encountering this difficult journey.
... address your child's fears. Be specific. Tell your child what kind of cancer you have. If you just say you are ... anyone who gets sick will die. Let your child know you cannot catch cancer from someone else. Your child does not have ...
Piagnerelli, M; Van Nuffelen, M; Maetens, Y; Lheureux, P; Vincent, J L
Our 850-bed, academic, tertiary care hospital uses a four-bed dedicated 'shock room' situated between the Departments of Emergency Medicine and Intensive Care to stabilise all acutely ill patients from outside or inside the hospital before transfer to the intensive care unit or other department. Admitted patients stay a maximum of four hours in the shock room. In this article we describe our experiences using this shock room by detailing the demographic data, including time and source of admission, diagnosis and outcome, for the 2514 patients admitted to the shock room in 2006. The most common reasons for admission were cardiac (33%) and neurological (21%) diagnoses. After diagnosis and initial treatment, 54% of patients were transferred to an intensive care unit or a coronary care unit; 2.5% of patients died in the shock room. The shock room provides a useful area of collaboration between emergency department and intensive care unit staff and enables acutely ill patients to be assessed and treated rapidly to optimise outcomes.
Jain, Ajay K; Sircar, Shohini; Jain, Mayank; Adkar, Sagar; Waghmare, Chandrashekhar; Chahwala, Fatema
The aim of this study was to look at the aetiological factors presenting as acute febrile illness in cirrhotic patients. The study group included all cirrhotic patients admitted as inpatients between January and December 2011 with a history of fever of less than seven days duration. Detailed history, clinical examination and investigations, as required, were noted. The data collected were analysed. A total of 42 patients formed the study group. The male-to-female ratio was 9.5:1. The mean age at presentation was 45.09 years (24-77 years). The aetiological factors for fever were: spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (20), lower respiratory tract infection (8), urinary tract infection (6), lower limb cellulitis (4), acute cholecystitis (2) and malaria (2). The mean MELD (model for end-stage liver disease) score at presentation was 20.4. Three patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and a mean MELD score of 31 died during the hospital admission. Febrile illness in cirrhosis is attributable to multiple causes. Outcome is dependent on the severity of underlying liver disease.
This article reports the implementation and impact of a standardized systematic evidence-based predictive score for the initial assessment of acutely ill medical patients. The Simple Clinical Score (SCS) was introduced in the A&E department and the medical floor of the authors\\' hospital between June 2007 and July 2008. The SCS was well received by the staff - 67% felt it greatly improved patient assessment and was very valuable for ensuring appropriate placement of the patient after admission and improved the quality of care. This article describes the change process, the pilot evaluation and the training programme undertaken during the implementation of the SCS. It is hoped that this experience will be of value to other project teams who are undertaking similar initiatives.
This article reports the implementation and impact of a standardized systematic evidence-based predictive score for the initial assessment of acutely ill medical patients. The Simple Clinical Score (SCS) was introduced in the A&E department and the medical floor of the authors\\' hospital between June 2007 and July 2008. The SCS was well received by the staff - 67% felt it greatly improved patient assessment and was very valuable for ensuring appropriate placement of the patient after admission and improved the quality of care. This article describes the change process, the pilot evaluation and the training programme undertaken during the implementation of the SCS. It is hoped that this experience will be of value to other project teams who are undertaking similar initiatives.
Neill, Sarah J; Jones, Caroline H D; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian T; Thompson, Matthew J
Acute illness is a universal experience in early childhood. Parents find it difficult to determine whether or not their child requires medical care and seek information to inform their decision making. Little is known about parents' information seeking behaviour and what helps or hinders their decision making. This study aimed to explore parents' use of information resources during decision making in acute childhood illness at home. This exploratory qualitative study used focus groups and interviews to collect data from parents of children under 5 years of age. Twenty-seven parents were recruited in the East Midlands, UK, in South Asian and Gypsy/Travelling communities, a Children's Centre and a private sector day nursery. Parents' pre-consultation information seeking was dominated by the internet, albeit with limited success. Parents liked easy to access, professionally validated and simple messages with access to more detailed information. Some parents always sought information through personal contact, whilst others did so when independent information seeking failed. When consulting a healthcare professional, parents liked to be given information to refer to later, although the information received varied. Importantly, neither hard copy nor the internet was accessible for parents with low levels of literacy. Although there is a wealth of information parents can access independently, our findings indicate a need for easy access to clearly signposted, professionally validated resources and available in a range of formats provided through different delivery systems. One size does not fit all. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini
Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three
Full Text Available Roberto Gordillo,1 Tania Ahluwalia,2 Robert Woroniecki3 1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, IL, USA; 3Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Stony Brook Children’s Hospital, Stony Brook, NY, USA Background: Hyperglycemia and acute kidney injury (AKI are common in critically ill children and have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The incidence of AKI in children is difficult to estimate because of the lack of a standard definition for AKI. The pediatric RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage kidney disease criteria can be used to define AKI in children. Various biomarkers in urine and blood have been studied to detect AKI in critically ill children. However, it is not clear whether hyperglycemia is associated with AKI. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of hyperglycemia on kidney function and its effect on neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL in children. Methods: We studied retrospective and prospective cohorts of pediatric critically ill subjects admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU. We analyzed data from admission that included estimated glomerular filtration rate, plasma and urine NGAL, serum glucose and peak glycemia (highest glycemia during PICU admission, and length of hospital and PICU stay from two different institutions. Results: We found that the prevalence of hyperglycemia was 89% in the retrospective cohort and 86% in the prospective cohort, P=0.99. AKI was associated with peak glycemia, P=0.03. There was a statistically significant correlation between peak glycemia and hospital and PICU stays, P=<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively. Urine NGAL and plasma NGAL were not statistically different in subjects with and without hyperglycemia, P=0.99 and P=0.85, respectively. Subjects on vasopressors had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher
Verbakel, Jan Y; Lemiengre, Marieke B; De Burghgraeve, Tine; De Sutter, An; Aertgeerts, Bert; Bullens, Dominique M A; Shinkins, Bethany; Van den Bruel, Ann; Buntinx, Frank
Acute infection is the most common presentation of children in primary care with only few having a serious infection (eg, sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia). To avoid complications or death, early recognition and adequate referral are essential. Clinical prediction rules have the potential to improve diagnostic decision-making for rare but serious conditions. In this study, we aimed to validate a recently developed decision tree in a new but similar population. Diagnostic accuracy study validating a clinical prediction rule. Acutely ill children presenting to ambulatory care in Flanders, Belgium, consisting of general practice and paediatric assessment in outpatient clinics or the emergency department. Physicians were asked to score the decision tree in every child. The outcome of interest was hospital admission for at least 24 h with a serious infection within 5 days after initial presentation. We report the diagnostic accuracy of the decision tree in sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and predictive values. In total, 8962 acute illness episodes were included, of which 283 lead to admission to hospital with a serious infection. Sensitivity of the decision tree was 100% (95% CI 71.5% to 100%) at a specificity of 83.6% (95% CI 82.3% to 84.9%) in the general practitioner setting with 17% of children testing positive. In the paediatric outpatient and emergency department setting, sensitivities were below 92%, with specificities below 44.8%. In an independent validation cohort, this clinical prediction rule has shown to be extremely sensitive to identify children at risk of hospital admission for a serious infection in general practice, making it suitable for ruling out. NCT02024282. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Ertmann, Ruth Kirk; Reventlow, Susanne; Söderström, Margareta
for improvements in the medical encounter. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Twenty strategically selected families with a child from a birth cohort in Frederiksborg County, Denmark were interviewed. RESULTS: Parents wanted to consult their GP at the right time, i.e. neither too early nor...... to be acknowledged as competent collaborators. The GP's failure to acknowledge the parents' knowledge of their child's current illness, and the parents' attempt to identify what is wrong with the child and make the child feel better before the encounter may have consequences for the GP's credibility. It is therefore...
Mink, Jonathan W
A common problem faced by neurologists is the existence of disorders that present with neurological symptoms but do not have identifiable neurological bases. Conversion disorder is the most common of these disorders. In some situations, members of a cohesive social group will develop the same or similar symptoms. This review discusses conversion disorder in children, with an emphasis on function movement disorders. It also reviews a recent occurrence of mass psychogenic illness in New York State with discussion of the key features of mass psychogenic illness. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Conclusions: A considerable proportion of children with an acute enterovirus infection in Guangdong Province, China during 2009–2012 presented no exanthema, and the absence of exanthema was found to be related to death and illness severity for these acute enterovirus infections. Clinicians in China should consider enterovirus as the possible pathogen when treating children with an acute pathogen infection without exanthema.
Background: In most developing countries, the health of the children is strongly dependant on maternal healthcare behaviour. The study describes the prevalence of illness among preschool children in a rural sugarcane growing community and the mother's health seeking behavior. Objectives: To document the presence of ...
The aim of this study was to examine the health care-seeking behaviour of mothers when their children under five years suffer from common childhood illnesses such as diarrhoea, fever, cough and worms. The study was conducted in a rural community in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The sample consisted of 100 ...
Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether the inferior vena cava (IVC measurement by bedside ultrasound (US-IVC predicts improvement in renal function in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI. Design. Prospective observational study. Setting. Medical intensive care unit. Patients. 33 patients with AKI were included. Intervention. US-IVC was done on admission. The patients’ management was done by the primary teams, who were unaware of the US-IVC findings. Two groups of patients were identified. Group 1 included patients who were managed in concordance with their US-IVC (potential volume responders who had a positive fluid balance at 48 h after admission and potential volume nonresponders who had an even or negative fluid balance at 48 hours after admission. Group 2 included patients in whom the fluid management was discordant with their US-IVC. Measurements and Main Results. At 48 hours, Group 1 patients had a greater improvement in creatinine [85% versus 31%, p=0.0002], creatinine clearance (78±93% versus 8±64%, p=0.002, and urine output (0.86±0.54 versus 0.45±0.36 ml/Kg/h, p=0.03. Conclusion. In critically ill patients with AKI, concurrence of fluid therapy with IVC predicted fluid management, as assessed by bedside ultrasound, was associated with improved renal function at 48 hours. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02064244.
Full Text Available The child’s illness, suffering and death provoke many emotions in the family. The ill child and its family both experience grief which is an emotional reaction to the danger of losing health or life. Support offered by home hospices for children aims at overcoming the destructive influence of illness. A hospice counsellor’s task is to improve the ill child and its family’s quality of life. He is helping the family overcome grief and prepare for the child’s death. The hospice team supports the family members who experience anticipatory and later, actual mourning. Preventing pathological effects of grief is a basic challenge for people who offer help.
... sure that the facility has clear procedures and staff who have training to give medication. Ask what they do to ... is used by other children Before and after staff members ... child understands good hygiene and the importance of hand washing after using the toilet and ...
Broger, Brenda; Zeni, Mary Beth
The presence of a father has been positively associated with outcomes in several aspects of a child's life. This descriptive study investigated coping methods used by fathers of chronically ill children, fathers' perceived severity of the child's illness, and demographic differences related to coping mechanisms. A sample of 54 fathers of chronically ill children completed measurements of demographics, coping processes, and severity levels of their child's chronic condition. Data were analyzed with SPSS 14.0 using parametric and nonparametric tests to examine relationships and coping behaviors used by fathers in northwest Florida. A majority of fathers used an emotion-focused coping process with a religious dimension. No association was found between perceived level of severity of their child's illness and eight subscales used to measure coping methods; however, statistical significance was found between the age and marital status of fathers with seven of the subscales. Married and older fathers more often used "positive" coping mechanisms than did younger, unmarried fathers. The findings emphasize the need for practitioners, clinicians, and educators to assess, support, and provide appropriate resources to fathers in order to promote positive effective coping and increase the level of involvement in the child's life. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cyranowski, Jill M; Swartz, Holly A; Hofkens, Tara L; Frank, Ellen
Impairment in maternal interpersonal function represents a risk factor for poor psychiatric outcomes among children of depressed mothers. However, the mechanisms by which this effect occurs have yet to be fully elucidated. Elevated levels of emotional or physiological reactivity to interpersonal stress may impact depressed mothers' ability to effectively negotiate child-focused conflicts. This effect may become particularly pronounced when depressed mothers are parenting a psychiatrically ill child. The current feasibility study evaluated mothers' emotional and cardiovascular reactivity in response to an acute, child-focused stress task. Twenty-two depressed mothers of psychiatrically ill children were recruited from a larger clinical trial; half were randomly assigned to receive an adapted form of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-MOMS), while the other half received treatment as usual (TAU). For comparison purposes, a matched sample of 22 nondepressed mothers of psychiatrically healthy children was also evaluated. Depressed mothers receiving minimal-treatment TAU displayed the greatest increases in depressed mood, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure in response to the child-focused stress task, and significantly differed from the relatively low levels of reactivity observed among nondepressed mothers of healthy children. In contrast, depressed mothers receiving IPT-MOMS displayed patterns of reactivity that fell between these extreme groups. Maternal stress reactivity was associated not only with maternal psychiatric symptoms, but also with levels of chronic parental stress and maternal history of childhood emotional abuse. Future, more definitive research is needed to evaluate depressed mothers' interpersonal stress reactivity, its amenability to treatment, and its long-term impact on child psychiatric outcomes. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
The patient was a child aged 5 years who had been diagnosed to have acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Chemotherapy was given with wysolone, vincristine, daunomycin, l-asparaginase, and intrathecal methotrexate. In addition he was given fluconazole and co-trimoxazole to cover infections during the induction period ...
Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) resulting from pathogens directly entering the piping of drinking water distribution systems is insufficiently understood. Here, we estimate AGI incidence attributable to virus intrusions into non-disinfecting municipal distribution systems. Viruses were enumerat...
gpg.gov.za. Clinical profile of acutely ill psychiatric patients admitted to a general hospital psychiatric unit. ABR Janse van Rensburg. Division of Psychiatry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Abstract.
López, Jorge; Botrán, Marta; García, Ana; González, Rafael; Solana, María J; Urbano, Javier; Fernández, Sarah N; Sánchez, César; López-Herce, Jesús
To analyze the incidence and factors associated with constipation in critically ill children. We performed a prospective observational study that included children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit for more than 3 days. Constipation was defined as more than 3 days without a bowel movement. Relationships between constipation and demographic data; clinical severity score; use of mechanical ventilation, use of vasoconstrictors, sedatives, and muscle relaxants; nutritional data; electrolyte disturbances; and clinical course were analyzed. Constipation developed in 46.7% of the 150 patients studied (mean age, 34.3 ± 7.1 months). It was most common in postoperative, older, and higher-body-weight patients, and in those with fecal continence (P constipation, patients with constipation had higher severity scores and more frequently received midazolam, fentanyl, muscle relaxants, and inotropic support (P constipation also started nutrition later and with a lower volume of nutrition (P constipation were body weight (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13), Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 score (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09), admission after surgery (OR, 7.64; 95% CI, 2.56-22.81), and treatment with vasoconstrictors (OR, 10.28; 95% CI, 3.53-29.93). Constipation is common in critically ill children. Body weight, Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 clinical severity score, admission after surgery, and the need for vasoconstrictor therapy are major independent risk factors associated with constipation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
High, Kevin P; Trader, Melissa; Pahor, Marco; Loeb, Mark
To determine the intraindividual variability and effect of acute illness on two markers of immune senescence. Cohort study with repeated measures. Clinical research center and emergency department at two academic medical centers. Seventy-three subjects aged 65 and older enrolled in three groups: chronic underlying conditions but no acute illness, acutely ill with infection (community-acquired pneumonia), and acutely ill without infection. CD16 density on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and the proportion of CD8+ T cells that express CD28 determined twice in the nonacutely ill group and three times (Days 0, 30, and 60) in the acute illness groups. In the nonacutely ill group, PMN CD16 density demonstrated wide intraindividual variation, but there was a strong correlation for repeated measures of the percentage of CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 (correlation coefficient (r)=0.77, PDay 0 versus Day 30 for either immune marker. In contrast, a strong correlation existed between Day 30 and Day 60 values, particularly for CD8+/CD28+ percentage (r=0.58-0.86; P=.006 to days of convalescence appears adequate for it to return to baseline.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to prevention and treatment of acute respiratory diseases children of megapolises who fall ill frequently. The authors prove the thesis that children falling ill frequently and residing in mega cities, and not only in Russia, have a similar immune status, according to which not only therapeutic but also preventive immunomodulatory treatment courses must be administered to them.Key words: frequently ill children, bacterial immunomodulation, cytokinic status.
Jul 8, 2013 ... Abstract. Optimal nutritional management of critically ill patients who present with acute kidney injury (AKI) is paramount. The management of this ... feeding or total parenteral nutrition (TPN), and usually dialysis or haemofiltration to limit waste ..... critically ill cancer patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 ...
Brown, Ana N; Gonzalez, Gioia R; Wiester, Rebecca T; Kelley, Maureen C; Feldman, Kenneth W
Three recently diagnosed cases of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child at Seattle Children's Hospital shed light on a new manifestation of their caretakers' attention seeking. The patients' mothers were actively blogging about their children's reputed illnesses. Although it is not uncommon for parents of chronically ill children to blog about their child's medical course, specific themes in these blogs of parents suspected of medically abusing their children were noted. In particular, gross distortions of the information parents had received from medical providers were presented online, describing an escalation of the severity of their children's illnesses. The mothers reported contacting palliative care teams and Wish organizations, independently from their medical providers' recommendations. They sought on-line donations for their children's health needs. We believe these blogs provide additional direct evidence of the suspected caregivers' fabrications. Although we have not performed formal content analysis, blogs might also provide insight into the caretakers' motivations. Protective Services and/or police investigators could consider querying the internet for blogs related to children at risk for caregiver-fabricated illness in a child. These blogs, if viewed in parallel with the children's medical records, could assist medical diagnosis and legal documentation of medical fabrication and assist in protective planning for the affected children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Geerlings, S. E.; Rommes, J. H.; van Toorn, D. W.; Bakker, J.
A 19-year-old male patient developed thrombocytopenia and leukopenia due to acute folate deficiency while recovering from a multiple organ failure syndrome. Risk factors for acute folate deficiency are extensive tissue damage due to sepsis, trauma or surgery and acute renal failure requiring renal
Mullins, Larry L; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Pai, Ahna L Hoff; Carpentier, Melissa Y; Gillaspy, Stephen; Cheek, Jeff; Page, Melanie
To examine the relationship of parent-reported overprotection (OP), perceived child vulnerability (PCV), and parenting stress (PS) to youth-reported illness uncertainty, and to explore potential developmental differences. Eighty-two children and 82 adolescents (n = 164) diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) or asthma, completed a measure of illness uncertainty, while their parents completed measures of OP, PCV, and PS. After controlling for demographic and illness parameters, both PCV and PS significantly predicted youth illness uncertainty in the combined sample. Within the child group, only PS significantly predicted illness uncertainty, whereas only PCV significantly predicted uncertainty for adolescents. Specific parenting variables are associated with youth-reported illness uncertainty; however, their relationship varies according to developmental level. Although OP has been identified as a predictor of child psychological outcomes in other studies, it does not appear to be associated with illness uncertainty in youth with DM1 or asthma.
Brady, Geraldine; Lowe, Pam; Olin Lauritzen, Sonja
In the last decades we have seen a growing interest in research into children's own experiences and understandings of health and illness. This development, we would argue, is much stimulated by the sociology of childhood which has drawn our attention to how children as a social group are placed and perceived within the structure of society, and within inter-generational relations, as well as how children are social agents and co-constructors of their social world. Drawing on this tradition, we here address some cross-cutting themes that we think are important to further the study of child health: situating children within health policy, drawing attention to practices around children's health and well-being and a focus on children as health actors. The paper contributes to a critical analysis of child health policy and notions of child health and normality, pointing to theoretical and empirical research potential for the sociology of children's health and illness. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Friedrich, Elizabeth; Jawad, Abbas F.; Miller, Victoria A.
Families impacted by pediatric chronic illness must navigate treatment regimens that can present multiple problems and decisions to be addressed on a daily basis. The extent to which parents and children are able to solve such problems is likely to have implications for health behaviors and outcomes. The aims of this study were to examine correlates of problem resolution in families of children with a chronic illness. Participants were 167 children (ages 8-16) with type 1 diabetes or cystic fibrosis and a parent. Parent-child dyads recounted a recent discussion they had related to illness management and completed questionnaires. The research team coded the discussions for topic and outcome (i.e., did the dyad come up with a plan to address the problem). The results indicated that the majority of dyads in both illness groups came up with a plan during their discussions. Lack of problem resolution during the discussion was associated with higher parent coercion, more child resistance to the regimen, and worse adherence. Parent coercion and child resistance could be the targets of interventions to enhance problem solving and improve adherence. PMID:28133408
Vellinga, Namkje A. R.; Boerma, E. Christiaan; Koopmans, Matty; Donati, Abele; Dubin, Arnaldo; Shapiro, Nathan I.; Pearse, Rupert M.; Machado, Flavia R.; Fries, Michael; Akarsu-Ayazoglu, Tulin; Pranskunas, Andrius; Hollenberg, Steven; Balestra, Gianmarco; van Iterson, Mat; van der Voort, Peter H. J.; Sadaka, Farid; Minto, Gary; Aypar, Ulku; Hurtado, F. Javier; Martinelli, Giampaolo; Payen, Didier; van Haren, Frank; Holley, Anthony; Pattnaik, Rajyabardhan; Gomez, Hernando; Mehta, Ravindra L.; Rodriguez, Alejandro H.; Ruiz, Carolina; Canales, Héctor S.; Duranteau, Jacques; Spronk, Peter E.; Jhanji, Shaman; Hubble, Sheena; Chierego, Marialuisa; Jung, Christian; Martin, Daniel; Sorbara, Carlo; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Bakker, Jan; Ince, Can; Koopmans, M.; van Iterson, M.; van der Voort, P. H. J.; Bakker, J.; van Bommel, J.; Ruiz, C.; Hernandez, G.; Machado, F. R.; Bafi, A. T.; Dubin, A.; Kanoore Edul, V. S.; Canales, H. S.; Hurtado, F. J.; Lacuesta, G.; Baz, M.; Hollenberg, S. M.; Patel, U.; Shapiro, N. I.; Gomez, H.; Simon, P.; Pinsky, M.; Sadaka, F. G.; Krause, K.; Mehta, R.; Jung, C.; Fries, M.; Pearse, R. M.; Smith, A.; Martin, D. S.; Meale, P.; Jhanji, S.; Minto, G.; Lai, C.; Ferguson, C.; McMillan, H.; Quintrell, T.; Sair, M.; Martinelli, G.; Lombrano, M.; Hubble, S. M. A.; Thorn, C.; Rodriguez, A. H.; Martin-Loeches, I.; van Haren, F. M. P.; Pranskunas, A.; Pilvinis, V.; Donati, A.; Sorbara, C.; Forti, A.; Comin, A.; Chierego, M. L.; Pellis, T.; Holley, A.; Paratz, J.; Duranteau, J.; Harrois, A.; Payen, D.; Legrand, M.; Bucher, E.; Pattnaik, R.; Dondorp, A. M.; Herdman, M. T.; Aypar, U.; Ayhan, B.; Ayazoglu-Akarsu, T.
Microcirculatory alterations are associated with adverse outcome in subsets of critically ill patients. The prevalence and significance of microcirculatory alterations in the general ICU population are unknown. We studied the prevalence of microcirculatory alterations in a heterogeneous ICU
Full Text Available This study used a qualitative methodology to analyze the discourse of mothers from Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, whose infant children had died from what were considered avoidable causes (diarrhea, malnutrition, and pneumonia, seeking to elucidate the factors associated with utilization of health care services. Identification of the illness by the mother was related to perception of specific alterations in the child's state of health. Analysis of the alterations helped identify the principal characteristics ascribed to each alteration and their relationship to the search for treatment. The authors also studied the mother's assessment of treatment received at health care facilities; 43.0% of the cases involved problems related to the structure of health care services or the attending health care professionals. In 46.0% of the cases, mothers associated the child's death with flaws in the health care service. The study group showed a variety of interpretations of illness, often distinct from the corresponding biomedical concepts. The fact that attending health care personnel overlooked or underrated the mother's perception of the illness and the lack of communications between health care personnel and the child's family had an influence on the child's evolution and subsequent death.
Carrillo, J M; Jiménez, E; Jiménez, R
One hundred and twenty-five febrile episodes in 82 children with acute leukemia were studied; 46% of the patients were from urban and 54% from rural areas. The origin of the fever was identified in 91% of the episodes, prevailing pneumonia, septicemia, chickenpox and herpes zoster. The etiological agent was identified in 46% of the cases. A viral predominance was evident, and among them varicela-zoster, following in importance gram-negative bacteria. Histoplasma capsulatum and Pneumocystis carinii were isolated in two occassions each. Sepsis was found more frequently in children with active leukemia than in those in remission (p less than 0.001). Forty-four febrile episodes occurred in patients with less than 1,000 neutrophils/ul. The daily-risk rate of infection was higher in children fom rural than in those from urban areas (p less than 0.001). After clinical and laboratory studies, methicillin and gentamicin were used, in addition to carbenicillin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is selected cases. This treatment was effective in 86% of the cases. Twelve (15%) children died, 6 of whom were in remission at that moment.
Mitchell, A E; Morawska, A; Fraser, J A; Sillar, K
Children with atopic dermatitis are at increased risk of both general behaviour problems, and those specific to the condition and its treatment. This can hamper the ability of parents to carry out treatment and manage the condition effectively. To date, there is no published instrument available to assess child behaviour difficulties in the context of atopic dermatitis management. Our aim was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess atopic dermatitis-specific child behaviour problems, and parents' self-efficacy (confidence) for managing these behaviours. The Eczema Behaviour Checklist (EBC) was developed as a 25-item questionnaire to measure (i) extent of behaviour problems (EBC Extent scale), and (ii) parents' self-efficacy for managing behaviour problems (EBC Confidence scale), in the context of child atopic dermatitis management. A community-based sample of 292 parents completed the EBC, measures of general behaviour difficulties, self-efficacy with atopic dermatitis management and use of dysfunctional parenting strategies. There was satisfactory internal consistency and construct validity for EBC Extent and Confidence scales. There was a negative correlation between atopic dermatitis-specific behaviour problems and parents' self-efficacy for dealing with behaviours (r = -.53, p behaviours; (ii) symptom-related behaviours; and (iii) behaviours related to impact of the illness. Variation in parents' self-efficacy for managing their child's atopic dermatitis was explained by intensity of illness-specific child behaviour problems and parents' self-efficacy for dealing with the behaviours. The new measure of atopic dermatitis-specific child behaviour problems was a stronger predictor of parents' self-efficacy for managing their child's condition than was the measure of general child behaviour difficulties. Results provide preliminary evidence of reliability and validity of the EBC, which has potential for use in clinical and research settings, and
Objectives: To estimate the effects of clothiapine, a dibenzothiazepine neuroleptic, for the management of acute psychosis. Methods: Six databases were searched, reference lists were inspected and relevant industry and authors contacted. Randomised clinical trials involving clothiapine for acute psychosis were identified ...
Tom, Dina M; Aquino, Christian; Arredondo, Anthony R; Foster, Byron A
The goal of this study was to examine preferences for shared decision-making (SDM) in parents of acutely ill versus chronically ill children in the inpatient setting. Additionally, we explored the effect of parental perception of illness severity and uncertainty in illness on decision-making preference. In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed parents of children admitted to pediatric inpatient units at an academic, tertiary-care hospital. Surveys were administered in person and used validated tools to assess SDM preferences and uncertainty in illness. Descriptive statistics evaluated associations stratified by acute versus chronic illness, and multivariable analyses were performed. Of the 200 parents who participated, the majority were women (78%), Hispanic (81.5%), English speaking (73%), between 30 and 39 years old (37.5%), and had an education achievement of less than a college degree (77%). The mean age of hospitalized children was 8.1 years, and half reported a chronic illness. Most parents preferred an active (43%) or collaborative (40%) role in SDM. There was no association with SDM preference by demographics, number of previous hospitalizations, perception of illness severity, or uncertainty. However, parents of chronically ill children significantly preferred a passive role in SDM when they perceived a high level of uncertainty in illness. Most parents of hospitalized children prefer to take an active or collaborative role in SDM. However, parents of chronically ill children who perceive high levels of uncertainty surrounding their children's illness prefer a passive role, thus illustrating the complexity in decision-making among this parent population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Hullmann, Stephanie E; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Ryan, Jamie L; Fedele, David A; Rambo, Philip L; Chaney, John M; Mullins, Larry L
The current study sought to investigate differences in parenting capacity variables across four disease groups. Parents (N = 425), the majority of whom were mothers, of children with either cancer, asthma, Type 1 diabetes, or cystic fibrosis, completed measures of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress. After controlling for significant demographic variables, parents of children with cystic fibrosis and asthma reported higher perceived child vulnerability than parents of children with either diabetes or cancer, while parents of children with asthma and diabetes reported higher parenting stress than parents of children with cancer or cystic fibrosis. No differences between disease groups were found for parental overprotection. The current study provides support for an illness-specific approach to understanding parenting capacity variables in the context of childhood chronic illnesses.
Slezáčková, Alena; Jamrichová, J.; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Kepák, T.
Roč. 26, č. 2 (2011), s. 59-60 ISSN 0887-0446. [European Health Psychology Conference: Engaging with Other Health Professions: Challenges and Perspectives /25./. 20.09.2011-24.09.2011, Hersonissos, Kréta] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : oncologically ill children * parent-child interactions * family functioning Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Itenov, Theis S; Berthelsen, Rasmus Ehrenfried; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik
these patients. DESIGN: Observational study with development and validation of a risk prediction model. SETTING: Nine academic ICUs in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Development cohort of critically ill patients with AKI at ICU admission from the Procalcitonin and Survival Study cohort (n = 568), validation cohort...
Julian, Timothy R; Pickering, Amy J; Leckie, James O; Boehm, Alexandria B
Surface-mediated transmission is a potential route for respiratory disease in child care centers, but evidence of its importance relative to other routes (eg, airborne) is limited. We tracked respiratory disease and monitored bacteria contamination on hands and fomites over 4 months during 64 visits at 2 child care centers. Staff monitored health daily by recording respiratory symptoms. We measured concentrations of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp, and fecal coliform in hand rinses and on select fomites. We demonstrated that symptomatic respiratory illness was positively associated with microbial contamination on hands and fomites, as measured using Enterococcus spp. Enterococcus spp were 0.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.08-0.48)-log10 (colony-forming units per 2 hands) higher when an individual had symptomatic respiratory illness. Susceptible individuals were 1.62 (95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.46) times more likely to develop respiratory illness within 4 days with every log10 increase of Enterococcus spp on hands. The findings imply that hand contamination as measured using Enterococcus spp is a risk factor for onset of respiratory illness and highlight the utility of fecal indicator bacteria as a metric for hand and fomite contamination. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Little research has focused on the economic hardship among the insured with severe illnesses and high treatment costs, in particular, the consequence of poorer insurance coverage for high-cost illnesses. Therefore, we presented the case for identifying the experiences of insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses. This study identified a qualitative understanding of the economic impact of severe chronic and acute illnesses and household strategies to deal with high treatment costs. Design: Interviews were conducted with 19 insured households of three different health insurance programs with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic or acute illnesses in either Banyumas or Margono Sukarjo hospitals in Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia. A thematic analysis was applied to guide the interpretation of the data. Results: Insured households with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic and acute illnesses were greatly affected by the high treatment costs. Four major issues emerged from this qualitative study: insured patients are still burdened with high out-of-pocket payments, households adopt various strategies to cope with the high cost of treatments, households experience financial hardships, and positive and negative perceptions of the insured regarding their health insurance coverage for acute and chronic illnesses. Conclusions: Askes and Jamsostek patients faced financial burdens from high cost sharing for hospital amenities, non-covered drugs, and treatments and other indirect costs. Meanwhile, Jamkesmas beneficiaries faced no financial burden for related medical services but were rather burdened with indirect costs for the carers. Households relied on internal resources to cover hospital bills as the first strategy, which included the mobilization of savings, sale of assets, and borrowing of money. External support was tapped secondarily and included financial support from
Rosenfeld, A A; Wenegrat, A O; Haavik, D K; Wenegrat, B G; Smith, C R
Prior research on whether parents and children ever share a bed is scanty. Some experts have written that if parents take their frightened child into bed with them, there will be "devil to pay." Using a questionnaire, we surveyed 415 upper-middle-class parents of 576 children. We asked if, when their child awoke ill or frightened, they took the child into their bed. They commonly did. We question whether explanations that ascribe the cause of psychopathologic disorders to specific events may not be too simplistic. To date, too much attention may have been paid to the events, such as parents and children sharing a bed, are not enough has been devoted to the context, motivation, and setting in which these events occur.
Csikai, Ellen L.; Herrin, Charlotte; Tang, Maggie; Church, Wesley T., II
A mailed survey of child welfare workers in one southern state assessed various aspects of encounters with end-of-life situations in practice. Findings revealed that child deaths, children with life-threatening or life-limiting illnesses, and parental deaths were most commonly encountered and that coworkers were relied on for support. Many had no…
Mogensen, T; Hjortsø, N C
A case of acute postoperative hypothyroidism in a 62-year old woman is presented. One month before emergency admission because of a perforated gastric ulcer the patient had normal thyroid function, despite removal of a thyroid adenoma 20 years earlier. Following surgery the patient developed...
Full Text Available We present an infant with acute fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia, coming from an endemic region for tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and hantavirus infection. The primary human herpesvirus 6 infection was diagnosed by seroconversion of specific IgM and IgG and by identification of viral DNA in the acute patient’s serum. The patient did not show skin rash suggestive of exanthema subitum during the course of illness.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal illness is an important global public health issue, even in developed countries, where the morbidity and economic impact are significant. Our objective was to evaluate the demographic determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness in Canadians. Methods We used data from two population-based studies conducted in select communities between 2001 and 2003. Together, the studies comprised 8,108 randomly selected respondents; proxies were used for all respondents under 12 years and for respondents under 19 years at the discretion of the parent or guardian. Using univariate and multivariate logistic regression, we evaluated the following demographic determinants: age, gender, cultural group, and urban/rural status of the respondent, highest education level of the respondent or proxy, number of people in the household, and total annual household income. Two-way interaction terms were included in the multivariate analyses. The final multivariate model included income, age, gender, and the interaction between income and gender. Results After adjusting for income, gender, and their interaction, children under 10 years had the highest risk of acute gastrointestinal illness, followed by young adults aged 20 to 24 years. For males, the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was similar across all income levels, but for females the risk was much higher in the lowest income category. Specifically, in those with total annual household incomes of less than $20,000, the odds of acute gastrointestinal illness were 2.46 times higher in females than in males. Conclusion Understanding the demographic determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness is essential in order to identify vulnerable groups to which intervention and prevention efforts can be targeted.
Rodan, Lance H; Aldubayan, Saud H; Berry, Gerard T; Levy, Harvey L
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are genetic disorders that disrupt enzyme activity, cellular transport, or energy production. They are individually rare but collectively have an incidence of 1:1000. Most patients with IEMs are followed up by a physician with expertise in biochemical genetics (metabolism), but may present outside this setting. Because IEMs can present acutely with life-threatening crises that require specific interventions, it is critical for the emergency medicine physician, pediatrician, internist, and critical care physician as well as the biochemical geneticist to have information on the initial assessment and management of patients with these disorders. Appropriate early care can be lifesaving. This protocol is not designed to replace the expert consultation of a biochemical geneticist, but rather to improve early care and increase the level of comfort of the acute care physician with initial management of maple syrup urine disease until specialty consultation is obtained.
Mogensen, T; Hjortsø, N C
A case of acute postoperative hypothyroidism in a 62-year old woman is presented. One month before emergency admission because of a perforated gastric ulcer the patient had normal thyroid function, despite removal of a thyroid adenoma 20 years earlier. Following surgery the patient developed...... circulatory instability, renal insufficiency, hypothermia and immeasurable concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Treatment with triiodothyronine was commenced but the patient died following an episode of severe hypotension....
... serious illness. 5 6 The palliative care team works with you, your child, and your care team. Together with your child’s health care providers, palliative care professionals will work with you and your child to make a care plan that is right ...
Uchino, Shigehiko; Kellum, John A.; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Doig, Gordon S.; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Morgera, Stanislao; Schetz, Miet; Tan, Ian; Bouman, Catherine; Macedo, Ettiene; Gibney, Noel; Tolwani, Ashita; Ronco, Claudio
Although acute renal failure (ARF) is believed to be common in the setting of critical illness and is associated with a high risk of death, little is known about its epidemiology and outcome or how these vary in different regions of the world. To determine the period prevalence of ARF in intensive
Pattern of self-medication for acute febrile illness in the outpatient clinic of an urban tertiary hospital in Jos. ... cross-sectional study at the GOPD of BHUTH, Jos from October 2012 to February 2013. The participants were drawn from all patients with fever or history of fever of not more than two weeks duration at presentation.
Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Chassande, Olivier; Fliers, Eric
Acute illness in mice profoundly affects thyroid hormone metabolism in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It remains unknown whether the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-beta is involved in these changes. In the present study, we investigated central thyroid hormone metabolism during
Kasper, Matthew R; Blair, Patrick J; Touch, Sok; Sokhal, Buth; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Williams, Maya; Richards, Allen L; Burgess, Timothy H; Wierzba, Thomas F; Putnam, Shannon D
The agents of human febrile illness can vary by region and country suggesting that diagnosis, treatment, and control programs need to be based on a methodical evaluation of area-specific etiologies. From December 2006 to December 2009, 9,997 individuals presenting with acute febrile illness at nine health care clinics in south-central Cambodia were enrolled in a study to elucidate the etiologies. Upon enrollment, respiratory specimens, whole blood, and serum were collected. Testing was performed for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. Etiologies were identified in 38.0% of patients. Influenza was the most frequent pathogen, followed by dengue, malaria, and bacterial pathogens isolated from blood culture. In addition, 3.5% of enrolled patients were infected with more than one pathogen. Our data provide the first systematic assessment of the etiologies of acute febrile illness in south-central Cambodia. Data from syndromic-based surveillance studies can help guide public health responses in developing nations.
Hartl, Wolfgang H; Wolf, Hilde; Schneider, Christian P; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jauch, Karl-Walter
Various cohort studies have shown that acute (short-term) mortality rates in unselected critically ill patients may have improved during the past 15 years. Whether these benefits also affect acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill patients is unclear, as are determinants relevant to prognosis. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from March 1993 to February 2005. A cohort of 390 consecutive surgical patients requiring intensive care therapy for more than 28 days was analyzed. The intensive care unit (ICU) survival rate was 53.6%. Survival rates at one, three and five years were 61.8%, 44.7% and 37.0% among ICU survivors. After adjustment for relevant covariates, acute and long-term survival rates did not differ significantly between 1993 to 1999 and 1999 to 2005 intervals. Acute prognosis was determined by disease severity during ICU stay and by primary diagnosis. However, only the latter was independently associated with long-term prognosis. Advanced age was an independent prognostic determinant of poor short-term and long-term survival. Acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill surgical patients has remained unchanged throughout the past 12 years. After successful surgical intervention and intensive care, long-term outcome is reasonably good and is mainly determined by age and underlying disease.
Arnold, Benjamin F; Schiff, Kenneth C; Ercumen, Ayse; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Steele, Joshua A; Griffith, John F; Steinberg, Steven J; Smith, Paul; McGee, Charles D; Wilson, Richard; Nelsen, Chad; Weisberg, Stephen B; Colford, John M
Rainstorms increase levels of fecal indicator bacteria in urban coastal waters, but it is unknown whether exposure to seawater after rainstorms increases rates of acute illness. Our objective was to provide the first estimates of rates of acute illness after seawater exposure during both dry- and wet-weather periods and to determine the relationship between levels of indicator bacteria and illness among surfers, a population with a high potential for exposure after rain. We enrolled 654 surfers in San Diego, California, and followed them longitudinally during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winters (33,377 days of observation, 10,081 surf sessions). We measured daily surf activities and illness symptoms (gastrointestinal illness, sinus infections, ear infections, infected wounds). Compared with no exposure, exposure to seawater during dry weather increased incidence rates of all outcomes (e.g., for earache or infection, adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27, 2.71; for infected wounds, IRR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.54, 5.98); exposure during wet weather further increased rates (e.g., for earache or infection, IRR = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.95, 5.51; for infected wounds, IRR = 4.96, 95% CI: 2.18, 11.29). Fecal indicator bacteria measured in seawater (Enterococcus species, fecal coliforms, total coliforms) were strongly associated with incident illness only during wet weather. Urban coastal seawater exposure increases the incidence rates of many acute illnesses among surfers, with higher incidence rates after rainstorms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Girard, Timothy D; Brummel, Nathan E; Saunders, Christina T; Blume, Jeffrey D; Clark, Amanda J; Vincz, Andrew J; Ely, E Wesley; Jackson, James C; Bell, Susan P; Archer, Kristin R; Ikizler, T Alp; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Siew, Edward D
Acute kidney injury frequently complicates critical illness and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Frailty is common in critical illness survivors, but little is known about the impact of acute kidney injury. We examined the association of acute kidney injury and frailty within a year of hospital discharge in survivors of critical illness. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. Medical/surgical ICU of a U.S. tertiary care medical center. Three hundred seventeen participants with respiratory failure and/or shock. None. Acute kidney injury was determined using Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes stages. Clinical frailty status was determined using the Clinical Frailty Scale at 3 and 12 months following discharge. Covariates included mean ICU Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score as well as baseline comorbidity (i.e., Charlson Comorbidity Index), kidney function, and Clinical Frailty Scale score. Of 317 patients, 243 (77%) had acute kidney injury and one in four patients with acute kidney injury was frail at baseline. In adjusted models, acute kidney injury stages 1, 2, and 3 were associated with higher frailty scores at 3 months (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.14-3.24; odds ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.31-4.42; and odds ratio, 4.41; 95% CI, 2.20-8.82, respectively). At 12 months, a similar association of acute kidney injury stages 1, 2, and 3 and higher Clinical Frailty Scale score was noted (odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.11-3.14; odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.94-3.48; and odds ratio, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.34-5.66, respectively). In supplemental and sensitivity analyses, analogous patterns of association were observed. Acute kidney injury in survivors of critical illness predicted worse frailty status 3 and 12 months postdischarge. These findings have important implications on clinical decision making among acute kidney injury survivors and underscore the need to understand the drivers of
Baird, J Scott; Ravindranath, Thyyar M
An 11-year-old male with autism became less responsive and was hospitalized with hepatomegaly and liver dysfunction, as well as severe lactic acidosis. His diet for several years was self-limited exclusively to a single "fast food"-a particular type of fried chicken-and was deficient in multiple micronutrients, including the B vitamins thiamine and pyridoxine. Lactic acidosis improved rapidly with thiamine; 2 weeks later, status epilepticus-with low serum pyridoxine-resolved rapidly with pyridoxine. Dietary B vitamin deficiencies complicated the care of this critically ill autistic child and should be considered in this setting. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Riddle, Mark S; Martin, Gregory J; Murray, Clinton K; Burgess, Timothy H; Connor, Patrick; Mancuso, James D; Schnaubelt, Elizabeth R; Ballard, Timothy P; Fraser, Jamie; Tribble, David R
Acute diarrheal illness during deployment causes significant morbidity and loss of duty days. Effective and timely treatment is needed to reduce individual, unit, and health system performance impacts. This critical appraisal of the literature, as part of the development of expert consensus guidelines, asked several key questions related to self-care and healthcare-seeking behavior, antibiotics for self-treatment of travelers' diarrhea, what antibiotics/regimens should be considered for treatment of acute watery diarrhea and febrile diarrhea and/or dysentery, and when and what laboratory diagnostics should be used to support management of deployment-related travelers' diarrhea. Studies of acute diarrhea management in military and other travelers were assessed for relevance and quality. On the basis of this critical appraisal, guideline recommendations were developed and graded by the Expert Panel using good standards in clinical guideline development methodology. New definitions for defining the severity of diarrhea during deployment were established. A total of 13 graded recommendations on the topics of prophylaxis, therapy and diagnosis, and follow-up were developed. In addition, four non-graded consensus-based statements were adopted. Successful management of acute diarrheal illness during deployment requires action at the provider, population, and commander levels. Strong evidence supports that single-dose antimicrobial therapy is effective in most cases of moderate to severe acute diarrheal illness during deployment. Further studies are needed to address gaps in available knowledge regarding optimal therapies for treatment, prevention, and laboratory testing of acute diarrheal illness. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
De Rosa, Silvia; Samoni, Sara; Villa, Gianluca; Ronco, Claudio
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for developing critical illness and for admission to intensive care units (ICU). 'Critically ill CKD patients' frequently develop an acute worsening of renal function (i.e. acute-on-chronic, AoC) that contributes to long-term kidney dysfunction, potentially leading to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). An integrated multidisciplinary effort is thus necessary to adequately manage the multi-organ damage of those kidney patients and contemporaneously reduce the progression of kidney dysfunction when they are critically ill. The aim of this review is to describe (1) the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of AoC kidney dysfunction and its role in the progression toward ESKD; (2) the most common clinical presentations of critical illness among CKD/ESKD patients; and (3) the continuum of care for CKD/ESKD patients from maintenance hemodialysis/peritoneal dialysis to acute renal replacement therapy performed in ICU and, vice-versa, for AoC patients who develop ESKD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Becker, Elisabeth; Kuo, Caroline; Operario, Don; Moshabela, Mosa; Cluver, Lucie
This study assessed children's awareness for adult HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses using a verbal assessment tool by analysing inter-rater reliability between adult-child dyads. This study also evaluated sociodemographic and household characteristics associated with child awareness of adult symptomatic HIV. A cross-sectional survey using a representative community sample of adult-child dyads (N=2477 dyads) was conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Analyses focused on a subsample (n=673 adult-child dyads) who completed verbal assessment interviews for symptomatic HIV. We used an existing validated verbal autopsy approach, originally designed to determine AIDS-related deaths by adult proxy reporters. We adapted this approach for use by child proxy reporters for reporting on HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses among living adults. Analyses assessed whether children could reliably report on adult HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses and adult provisional HIV status. Adult-child pairs concurred above the 65th percentile for 9 of the 10 HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses with sensitivities ranging from 10% to 100% and specificities ranging from 20% to 100%. Concordant reporting between adult-child dyads for the adult's provisional HIV status was 72% (sensitivity=68%, specificity=73%). Children were more likely to reliably match adult's reports of provisional HIV status when they lived in households with more household members, and households with more robust socioeconomic indicators including access to potable water, food security and television. Children demonstrate awareness of HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses experienced by adults in their household. Children in households with greater socioeconomic resources and more household members were more likely to reliably report on the adult's provisional HIV status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
McEwan, Miranda; Friedman, Susan Hatters
Psychiatrists are mandated to report suspicions of child abuse in America. Potential for harm to children should be considered when one is treating parents who are at risk. Although it is the commonly held wisdom that mental illness itself is a major risk factor for child abuse, there are methodologic issues with studies purporting to demonstrate this. Rather, the risk from an individual parent must be considered. Substance abuse and personality disorder pose a separate risk than serious mental illness. Violence risk from mental illness is dynamic, rather than static. When severe mental illness is well-treated, the risk is decreased. However, these families are in need of social support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Petrie, Joshua G; Cheng, Caroline; Malosh, Ryan E; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Flannery, Brendan; Zimmerman, Richard K; Gaglani, Manjusha; Jackson, Michael L; King, Jennifer P; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Benoit, Joyce; Robertson, Anne; Thaker, Swathi N; Monto, Arnold S; Ohmit, Suzanne E
Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality, with considerable economic costs, including lost work productivity. Influenza vaccines may reduce the economic burden through primary prevention of influenza and reduction in illness severity. We examined illness severity and work productivity loss among working adults with medically attended acute respiratory illnesses and compared outcomes for subjects with and without laboratory-confirmed influenza and by influenza vaccination status among subjects with influenza during the 2012-2013 influenza season. Illnesses laboratory-confirmed as influenza (ie, cases) were subjectively assessed as more severe than illnesses not caused by influenza (ie, noncases) based on multiple measures, including current health status at study enrollment (≤7 days from illness onset) and current activity and sleep quality status relative to usual. Influenza cases reported missing 45% more work hours (20.5 vs 15.0; P productivity as impeded to a greater degree (6.0 vs 5.4; P productivity loss were noted for vaccinated subjects. Influenza illnesses were more severe and resulted in more missed work hours and productivity loss than illnesses not confirmed as influenza. Modest reductions in illness severity for vaccinated cases were observed. These findings highlight the burden of influenza illnesses and illustrate the importance of laboratory confirmation of influenza outcomes in evaluations of vaccine effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail email@example.com.
Bakker, A.; Van Loey, N.E.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073087998; Van Son, M.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068440340
Objective This multicenter study examines acute stress reactions in couples following a burn event to their preschool child. Methods Participants were 182 mothers and 154 fathers, including 143 couples, of 193 children (0–4 years) with acute burns. Parents’ self-reported acute stress reactions and
Fortenberry, Gamola Z.; Beckman, John; Schwartz, Abby; Prado, Joanne Bonnar; Graham, Lucia S.; Higgins, Sheila; Lackovic, Michelle; Mulay, Prakash; Bojes, Heidi; Waltz, Justin; Mitchell, Yvette; Leinenkugel, Kathy; Oriel, Michel S.; Evans, Elizabeth; Calvert, Geoffrey M.
Background Paraquat and diquat are among the most commonly used herbicides in the world. Objectives Determine the magnitude, characteristics, and root causes for acute paraquat- and diquat-related illnesses in the US Methods Illnesses associated with paraquat or diquat exposure occurring from 1998 through 2011 were identified from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides Program, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) Pesticide Illness Surveillance Program (PISP), and the Incident Data System (IDS). Cases identified by the National Poison Data System (NPDS) were reviewed for the years 1998–2003 and 2006–2013. Results A total of 300 paraquat- and 144 diquat-related acute illnesses were identified by SENSOR, PISP, and IDS. NPDS identified 693 paraquat- and 2128 diquat-related acute illnesses. In SENSOR/PISP/IDS, illnesses were commonly low severity (paraquat=41%; diquat=81%); however, SENSOR/PISP/IDS identified 24 deaths caused by paraquat and 5 deaths associated with diquat. Nineteen paraquat-related deaths were due to ingestion, seven of which were unintentional, often due to improper storage in beverage bottles. In SENSOR/PISP/IDS, paraquat and diquat-related acute illnesses were work-related in 68% (n=203) and 29% (n=42) of cases, respectively. When herbicide application site was known, the vast majority of acute paraquat-related illnesses (81%) arose from agricultural applications. Common root causes of illness were failure to use adequate personal protective equipment (PPE), application equipment failure, and spill/splash of herbicide. Conclusions Although the magnitude of acute paraquat/diquat-related illnesses was relatively low, several fatalities were identified. Many illnesses could be prevented through stricter compliance with label requirements (e.g. ensuring proper herbicide storage and PPE use), and through enhanced training of certified applicators. PMID:26775000
Siew, Edward D; Fissell, William H; Tripp, Christina M; Blume, Jeffrey D; Wilson, Matthew D; Clark, Amanda J; Vincz, Andrew J; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Girard, Timothy D
Acute kidney injury may contribute to distant organ dysfunction. Few studies have examined kidney injury as a risk factor for delirium and coma. To examine whether acute kidney injury is associated with delirium and coma in critically ill adults. In a prospective cohort study of intensive care unit patients with respiratory failure and/or shock, we examined the association between acute kidney injury and daily mental status using multinomial transition models adjusting for demographics, nonrenal organ failure, sepsis, prior mental status, and sedative exposure. Acute kidney injury was characterized daily using the difference between baseline and peak serum creatinine and staged according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Mental status (normal vs. delirium vs. coma) was assessed daily with the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale. Among 466 patients, stage 2 acute kidney injury was a risk factor for delirium (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.26) and coma (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.25-3.34) as was stage 3 injury (OR for delirium, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.57-4.16) (OR for coma, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.85-6.03). Daily peak serum creatinine (adjusted for baseline) values were also associated with delirium (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.55) and coma (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.20-1.74). Renal replacement therapy modified the association between stage 3 acute kidney injury and daily peak serum creatinine and both delirium and coma. Acute kidney injury is a risk factor for delirium and coma during critical illness.
Richey, Laura; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Buck, Hollin M.; Deak, Terrence
Exposure to an immunogen results in a constellation of behavioral changes collectively referred to as “sickness behaviors,” with alterations in cytokine expression previously shown to contribute to this sickness response. Since behaviors observed during ethanol withdrawal are strikingly similar to sickness behaviors, we hypothesized that behavioral manifestations of ethanol withdrawal might be an expression of sickness behaviors induced by ethanol-related changes in peripheral and/or central cytokine expression. Accordingly, behaviors exhibited during a modified social investigation test were first characterized in male rats following an acute injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg). Subsequently, behavioral changes after either a high (4-g/kg; Experiment 2) or low dose (0.5 g/kg; Experiment 3) of ethanol were also examined in the same social investigation test, as well as in the forced-swim test (FST; Experiment 4). Results from these experiments demonstrated similar reductions in both exploration and social investigatory behavior during acute illness and ethanol withdrawal, while a seemingly paradoxical decrease in immobility was observed in the FST during acute ethanol withdrawal. In follow-up studies, neither indomethacin (Experiment 5) nor interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Experiment 6) pre-exposure reversed the ethanol withdrawal-induced behavioral changes observed in this social investigation test. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that the behavioral sequelae of acute illness and ethanol withdrawal are similar in nature, while antagonist studies suggest that these behavioral alterations are not reversed by blockade of IL-1 receptors or inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Though a direct mechanistic link between cytokines and the expression of acute ethanol withdrawal-related behaviors has yet to be found, future studies examining the involvement of brain cytokines as potential mediators of ethanol effects are greatly needed. PMID
The present meta-analysis compared the quality of the parent-child relationship as well as parenting behaviors and styles of families with a child with chronic physical illness with families of healthy children or test norms. Empirical studies were identified with the help of electronic databases and cross-referencing. Based on 325 included studies, random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Although most effect sizes were small or very small, the parent-child relationship tended to be less positive if a child had a chronic physical illness (g = -.16 standard deviation units). In addition, lower levels of parental responsiveness (emotional warmth; g = -.22) as well as higher levels of demandingness (control, monitoring; g = .18) and overprotection (g = .39) were observed in these families. However, effect sizes were heterogeneous and only significant for a limited number of diseases. There was also some evidence for higher levels of authoritarian (g = .24) and neglectful parenting (g = .51) as well as lower levels of authoritative parenting compared with families with healthy children (g = -.13). Effect sizes varied, in part, by length of illness, child age, rater, assessment method, and target of comparison. We conclude that most families with a child with chronic physical illness adapt well with regard to the parent-child relationship and parenting behaviors/styles. Nonetheless, some families of children with specific diseases-such as epilepsy, hearing impairment, and asthma-may have difficulties finding appropriate levels of protective behaviors, control, and parental warmth and building positive mutual relationships between parents and children.
Lee, Insook; Lee, Eun-Ok; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Park, Young Sook; Song, Misoon; Park, Youn Hwan
To clarify and delineate the concept of family resilience in the context of the chronic illness of a child. This study also investigated the concept of family resilience in relation to family functioning in order to compare and contrast family resilience and family functioning. Three phases of the hybrid model of concept development were applied: theoretical, fieldwork and final analytical. In the theoretical phase, a working definition of family resilience was developed by a literature review. The fieldwork phase comprised in-depth interviews with 11 parents with a chronically ill child, in the paediatric oncology unit of a university hospital in South Korea. The qualitative data obtained from the interviews were analysed to find attributes of family resilience. The final analytical phase compared and interpreted the findings from the theoretical and fieldwork phases in order to clarify and refine the concept of resilience. The definition of family resilience was of an enduring force that leads a family to change its functioning dynamics in order to solve problems encountered. Twenty-one conceptual attributes of family resilience emerging from this study were differentiated into four dimensions: (i) intrinsic family characteristics, (ii) family member orientation related to family characteristics, (iii) responsiveness to stress and (iv) external orientation. Family resilience is an enduring force that leads a family to change its dynamics of functioning in order to solve problems associated with stresses encountered. This conceptualization led to the development of a model of family coping that incorporates both family resilience and family functioning, as the property and as the process of change, respectively. In order to build a family that functions better under stress, it is necessary for nurses to focus more attention on family resilience, especially in terms of the development of intervention strategies to strengthen family resilience.
Masanja, Honorati; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; de Savigny, Don; Mshinda, Hassan; Victora, Cesar G
We examined the impact of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy on the equality of health outcomes and access across socioeconomic gradients in rural Tanzania, by comparing changes in inequities between 1999 and 2002 in two districts with IMCI (Morogoro Rural and Rufiji) and two without (Kilombero and Ulanga). Equity differentials for six child health indicators (underweight, stunting, measles immunization, access to treated and untreated nets, treatment of fever with antimalarial) improved significantly in IMCI districts compared with comparison districts (p<0.05), while four indicators (wasting, DPT coverage, caretakers' knowledge of danger signs and appropriate careseeking) improved significantly in comparison districts compared with IMCI districts (p<0.05). The largest improvements were observed for stunting among children between 24-59 months of age. The concentration index improved from -0.102 in 1999 to -0.032 in 2002 for IMCI, while it remained almost unchanged -0.122 to -0.133 in comparison districts. IMCI was associated with improved equity for measles vaccine coverage, whereas the opposite was observed for DPT antigens. This study has shown how equity assessments can be incorporated in impact evaluation at relatively little additional cost, and how this may point to specific interventions that need to be reinforced. The introduction of IMCI led to improvements in child health that did not occur at the expense of equity.
Ekvall, Shirley M.; Wheby, Elizabeth A.
The following papers were presented at a symposium on clinical nutrition for the child who is chronically ill or handicapped: (1) "Food Allergy"; (2) "Anemia and the Chronically Ill or Handicapped Child"; (3) "Nutrition and Neurotransmitters--Clinical Implications"; (4) "The Importance of Lipid Type in the Diet after Burn Injury"; (5) "Advances of…
Mnatzaganian, Christina Louise; Pellegrin, Karen L; Miyamura, Jill; Valencia, Diana; Pang, Lorrin
Sugar cane harvesting by burning on Maui island is an environmental health issue due to respiratory effects of smoke. Volcanic smog ("vog") from an active volcano on a neighboring island periodically blankets Maui and could confound a study of cane smoke's effects since cane burning is not allowed on vog days. This study examines the association between cane burning and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital admissions, and prescription fills for acute respiratory illnesses. This retrospective study controlled for confounders that could increase respiratory distress on non-burn days by matching each burn day with a non-burn day and then comparing the ratio of patients with respiratory distress residing in the path of sugar burn smoke to those residing elsewhere on Maui on burn versus non-burn days. Patients with acute respiratory distress were defined as those with one or more acute respiratory diagnoses at one of the hospitals or emergency departments on Maui. Separately, patients with acute respiratory illness were identified through prescription records from four community pharmacies, specifically defined as those who filled prescriptions for acute respiratory distress. There were 1,256 reports of respiratory distress prescriptions and 686 hospital/ED diagnoses of acute respiratory illness. The ratio of cases within to outside of smoke exposure was higher on burn days for both the ED/hospital data and the pharmacy, though not statistically significant. In post-hoc analyses of the pharmacy data based on the number of acres burned as a proxy for volume of smoke, there was a dose response trend for acreage burned such that the highest quartile showed a statistically significant higher proportion of acute respiratory distress in the exposed versus non-exposed regions (P = 0.015, OR 2.4, 95% CI [1.2-4.8]). After adjusting for confounders on non-burn days, there was a significantly higher incidence of respiratory distress in smoke-exposed regions when greater
Gordon, Leigh; Schwellnus, Martin; Swanevelder, Sonja; Jordaan, Esme; Derman, Wayne
There are limited data on the negative effects of exercise in athletes with acute infective illness. The aim of this study was to determine whether a recently diagnosed prerace acute illness in runners affects the ability to finish a race. Runners were prospectively evaluated in the 3 days before the race for acute infective illness and then received participation advice using clinical criteria based on systemic or localised symptoms/signs. We compared the did-not-start and the did-not-finish frequencies of ill runners (Ill=172: localised=58.7%; systemic=41.3%) with that of a control group of runners (Con=53 734). Runners with a systemic illness were 10.4% more likely not to start compared with controls (29.6% vs 19.2%) (p=0.0073). The risk difference of not starting the race in runners who were advised not to run the race compared with controls was 37.3% (56.5% vs 19.2%, prisk (any illness (5.2% vs 1.6%), systemic illness (8.0% vs 1.6%), illness risk (prevalence risk ratio) (any illness=3.4, systemic illness=4.9, systemic illness systemic illness, and particularly those diagnosed <24 hours before race day, are less likely to finish the race, indicating a reduction in race performance. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Abstract Background For older adults, hospitalization frequently results in deterioration of mobility and function. Nevertheless, there are little data about how older adults exercise in the hospital and definitive studies are not yet available to determine what type of physical activity will prevent hospital related decline. Strengthening exercise may prevent deconditioning and Pilates exercise, which focuses on proper body mechanics and posture, may promote safety. Methods A hospital-based resistance exercise program, which incorporates principles of resistance training and Pilates exercise, was developed and administered to intervention subjects to determine whether acutely-ill older patients can perform resistance exercise while in the hospital. Exercises were designed to be reproducible and easily performed in bed. The primary outcome measures were adherence and participation. Results Thirty-nine ill patients, recently admitted to an acute care hospital, who were over age 70 [mean age of 82.0 (SD= 7.3] and ambulatory prior to admission, were randomized to the resistance exercise group (19 or passive range of motion (ROM group (20. For the resistance exercise group, participation was 71% (p = 0.004 and adherence was 63% (p = 0.020. Participation and adherence for ROM exercises was 96% and 95%, respectively. Conclusion Using a standardized and simple exercise regimen, selected, ill, older adults in the hospital are able to comply with resistance exercise. Further studies are needed to determine if resistance exercise can prevent or treat hospital-related deterioration in mobility and function.
Perrin, C; Savy, N; Lang, M; Caron, N; Labbé, A
Lactic acidosis is a recognized event in adult patients with acute severe asthma (ASA). Only a few cases have been reported in children. Hereinafter is reported the case of a 2-year-old girl hospitalized in the pediatric intensive care unit for ASA, which was treated with high-flow oxygen therapy and intravenous methylprednisolone and salbutamol. During hospitalization, she had metabolic acidosis with a 7.29 pH, a 26mmHg hypocapnia, and a decrease in bicarbonates to 12 mmol/L. The anion gap was increased to 20 mmol/L and lactates to 8 mmol/L. The work-up for a congenital metabolic disease was normal. Progression was propitious with spontaneous improvement of lactic acidosis, and the child was discharged from the intensive care unit after 72 h. The origin of lactic acidosis during ASA seems to be multifactorial. Although its recovery can be spontaneous, it is important to know how to identify it because it can worsen respiratory symptoms and can lead to incongruous therapeutic escalation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the association between passive smoking and the severity of acute lower respiratory illnesses (ALRI among 351 children aged 3–27 months admitted to hospital. A total of 297 children provided hair samples, which were analysed for hair nicotine levels as an indicator of passive smoking. A severity of illness grading system was developed by using clinical and management criteria used by the medical staff at hospital. The OR for children with more severe illness being exposed to higher nicotine levels was 1.2, 95% CI: 0.57–2.58 when using dichotomised respiratory severity levels and upper versus lower nicotine quartile levels. In an ordinal logistic regression model, the OR of more severe illness being associated with higher nicotine levels was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.92–1.25. When analysis was limited to the more severe cases, the OR of the least severe category compared to the most severe category, in relation to nicotine levels in hair, was 1.79 (95% CI: 0.5–6.30. The ordinal logistic regression of this group of severely-ill children (OR 1.1 (95% CI: 0.94–1.29 was not substantially different from the overall study subjects. Conclusion In general, children with more severe illness tended to have higher levels of nicotine in their hair, although the results were within the limit of chance. Possible explanations of our results include environmental tobacco smoke (ETS being an initiator of ALRI rather than a risk to severity, exposure levels of ETS were too low to demonstrate an effect on severity, or the power of this study was not high enough to detect an association.
Megan E Reller
Full Text Available Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Suspected dengue, especially in children in Nicaragua's heavily-urbanized capital of Managua, has been well documented, but unsuspected dengue among children and adults with undifferentitated fever has not.To prospectively study dengue in semi-urban and rural western Nicaragua, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data as well as acute and convalescent sera (2 to 4 weeks after onset of illness from a convenience sample (enrollment Monday to Saturday daytime to early evening of consecutively enrolled patients (n = 740 aged ≥ 1 years presenting with acute febrile illness. We tested paired sera for dengue IgG and IgM and serotyped dengue virus using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Among 740 febrile patients enrolled, 90% had paired sera. We found 470 (63.5% were seropositive for dengue at enrollment. The dengue seroprevalance increased with age and reached >90% in people over the age of 20 years. We identified acute dengue (serotypes 1 and 2 in 38 (5.1% patients. Only 8.1% (3/37 of confirmed cases were suspected clinically.Dengue is an important and largely unrecognized cause of fever in rural western Nicaragua. Since Zika virus is transmitted by the same vector and has been associated with severe congenital infections, the population we studied is at particular risk for being devastated by the Zika epidemic that has now reached Central America.
Gallagher, Paul F
INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug events (ADEs) are associated with inappropriate prescribing (IP) and result in increased morbidity, mortality and resource utilisation. We used Beers\\' Criteria to determine the three-month prevalence of IP in a non-selected community-dwelling population of acutely ill older people requiring hospitalisation. METHODS: A prospective, observational study of 597 consecutive acute admissions was performed. Diagnoses and concurrent medications were recorded before hospital physician intervention, and Beers\\' Criteria applied. RESULTS: Mean patient age (SD) was 77 (7) years. Median number of medications was 5, range 0-13. IP occurred in 32% of patients (n = 191), with 24%, 6% and 2% taking 1, 2 and 3 inappropriate medications respectively. Patients taking >5 medications were 3.3 times more likely to receive an inappropriate medication than those taking < or =5 medications (OR 3.34: 95%, CI 2.37-4.79; P<0.001). Forty-nine per cent of patients with inappropriate prescriptions were admitted with adverse effects of the inappropriate medications. Sixteen per cent of all admissions were associated with such adverse effects. CONCLUSION: IP is highly prevalent in acutely ill older patients and is associated with polypharmacy and hospitalisation. However, Beers\\' Criteria cannot be used as a gold standard as they do not comprehensively address all aspects of IP in older people.
Jacobs, Brian R; Nadkarni, Vinay; Goldstein, Brahm; Checchia, Paul; Ayad, Onsy; Bean, Judy; DeMichele, Stephen
Respiratory failure caused by acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with significant morbidity in children. Enteral nutrition enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid and antioxidants (eicosapentaenoic acid + γ-linolenic acid) can safely modulate plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles, reduce inflammation, and improve clinical outcomes in adults. There is little information regarding the use of enteral eicosapentaenoic acid + γ-linolenic acid to modulate plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles in children. We sought to determine if continuous feeding of enteral nutrition containing eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and antioxidants was feasible in critically ill children with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. We further evaluated the impact of such an approach on the alteration of plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentrations. Prospective, blinded, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial. PICU. Twenty-six critically ill children (age 6.2 ± 0.9 yr, PaO2/FIO2 185 ± 15) with the diagnosis of acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanically ventilated children received either eicosapentaenoic acid + γ-linolenic acid or a standard pediatric enteral formula. Clinical, biochemical, plasma fatty acid, and safety data were assessed at baseline, study days 4 and 7. At baseline, there were no significant differences in the two study groups. Both groups met enteral feeding goals within 30 hrs and had similar caloric delivery. There were no differences in formula tolerance as measured by serum chemistries, liver and renal function, and hematology studies after 7 days of feeding either eicosapentaenoic acid + γ-linolenic acid or pediatric enteral formula. On study day 4 and 7, plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles in the eicosapentaenoic acid + γ-linolenic acid group showed a significant increase in anti-inflammatory circulating markers. Providing enteral nutrition
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP, also referred to as intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH, affects organ function in critically ill patients. The prevalence of IAH is between 32% - 65% in intensive care units. Normal IAP is ≈ 5–7 mmHg. According to WSACS definition, IAH = IAP ≥12 mmHg and is divided into 4 grades. They are Grade I (12-15 mmHg, Grade II (16-20 mmHg, Grade III (21-25 mmHg, Grade IV (>25 mmHg. Transvesical measurement of IAP currently is the most popular technique. Several systems with or without the need for electronic equipment are available that allow IAP measurement. The aim is to study the incidence of IAH in critically ill patients, to assess the risk factors for development of IAH, to study the role of IAH as a risk factor for Acute Kidney Injury (AKI, to assess the role of IAH as a risk factor for increased (Intensive Care Unit ICU mortality. SUBJECTS AND METHODS This is a prospective observational study. Study period was six months. The study included 52 patients admitted to Medical ICU in Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION There was a very high incidence of intra-abdominal hypertension in critically ill patients. IAH was significantly associated with risk factors like sepsis, mechanical ventilation, pancreatitis, capillary leak, ascites, cumulative fluid balance and cirrhosis. IAH is an independent risk factor for development of acute kidney injury. IAH is an independent predictor of mortality in critically ill patients.
Laoprasopwattana, Kamolwish; Kaewjungwad, Lamy; Jarumanokul, Roongrueng; Geater, Alan
Clinical manifestations of chikungunya (CHIK) are similar to those of dengue. It would be useful to be able to identify clinical manifestations that could reliably help to differentiate CHIK from dengue and other acute febrile illnesses during a CHIK outbreak in a dengue-endemic area. A prospective cohort study was conducted between April and July 2009 in children aged 1 month to 15 years who lived in a CHIK outbreak area in southern Thailand and who had fever <7 days with arthralgia/arthritis, myalgia or rash. CHIK was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction or the indirect immunofluorescence test. Fifty patients were suspected of having CHIK, of whom 32 were confirmed, 1 had coinfection with dengue viral infection (DVI), 10 had dengue alone and 7 had an acute febrile illness. The specificity and positive predictive value of fever and arthralgia together to diagnose CHIK were 47.1% and 74.2%, and the corresponding values of the standard clinical triad (fever, arthralgia, rash) were 70.6% and 83.3%, respectively. Fever ≤ 2 days, skin rash during fever and white blood cell count ≥ 5000 cells/mm(3) were independently and significantly associated with CHIK in comparison with DVI and acute febrile illnesses, with relative risk ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 10.4 (0.9-116) and 13.7 (1.3-145), 13.8 (1.2-164) and 14.8 (1.6-168), and 18.3 (1.7-194) and 1.8 (0.1-20.6), respectively. During a CHIK outbreak in a DVI-endemic area, overdiagnosis of CHIK was common. Skin rash during fever and white blood cell count ≥ 5000 cells/mm(3) or specific antigen testing (if available) can be helpful in differentiating CHIK from DVI.
Warrick, Catherine; Patel, Poonam; Hyer, Warren; Neale, Graham; Sevdalis, Nick; Inwald, David
To determine incidence and aetiology of diagnostic errors in children presenting with acute medical illness to a community hospital. A three-stage study was conducted. Stage 1: retrospective case note review, comparing admission to discharge diagnoses of children admitted to hospital, to determine incidence of diagnostic error. Stage 2: cases of suspected misdiagnosis were examined in detail by two reviewers. Stage 3: structured interviews were conducted with clinicians involved in these cases to identify contributory factors. UK community (District General) hospital. All medical patients admitted to the paediatric ward and patients transferred from the Emergency Department to a different facility over a 90-day period were included. Incidence of diagnostic error, type of diagnostic error and content analysis of the structured interviews to determine frequency of emerging themes. Incidence of misdiagnosis in children presenting with acute illness was 5.0% (19/378, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-7.2%). Diagnostic errors were multi-factorial in origin, commonly involving cognitive factors. Reviewers 1 and 2 identified a median of three and four errors per case, respectively. In 14 cases, structured interviews were possible; clinicians believed system-related errors (organizational flaws, e.g. inadequate policies, staffing or equipment) contributed more commonly to misdiagnoses, whereas reviewers found cognitive factors contributed more commonly to diagnostic error. Misdiagnoses occurred in 5% of children presenting with acute illness and were multi-factorial in aetiology. Multi-site longitudinal studies further exploring aetiology of errors and effect of educational interventions are required to generalize these findings and determine strategies for mitigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.
Jonathan E McDunn
Full Text Available Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness.A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent intratracheal injections of live P. aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa endotoxin, live S. pneumoniae, or normal saline. At 24 hours after injury, GeneChip microarray analysis of circulating buffy coat RNA identified 219 genes that distinguished between the pulmonary insults and differences in 7-day mortality. Similarly, buffy coat microarray expression profiles were generated from 27 mechanically ventilated patients every two days for up to three weeks. Significant heterogeneity of VAP microarray profiles was observed secondary to patient ethnicity, age, and gender, yet 85 genes were identified with consistent changes in abundance during the seven days bracketing the diagnosis of VAP. Principal components analysis of these 85 genes appeared to differentiate between the responses of subjects who did versus those who did not develop VAP, as defined by a general trajectory (riboleukogram for the onset and resolution of VAP. As patients recovered from critical illness complicated by acute infection, the riboleukograms converged, consistent with an immune attractor.Here we present the culmination of a mouse pneumonia study, demonstrating for the first time that disease trajectories derived from microarray expression profiles can be used to quantitatively track the clinical course of acute disease and identify a state of immune recovery. These data suggest that the onset of an infection-specific transcriptional program may precede the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia in patients. Moreover, riboleukograms may help explain variance in the host response due to differences in ethnic background, gender, and pathogen. Prospective clinical trials are indicated
Salagre, Kaustubh Dilip; Sahay, Ravindra Nath; Pazare, Amar R; Dubey, Abhishek; Marathe, Kunal K
The objective of this study was to describe clinico-laboratory profile and outcome of complicated acute febrile illnesses among inpatients in a tertiary care hospital during monsoon. This was an observational, prospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India. Between July 2016 to October 2016, adult patients admitted to the hospital with complicated acute febrile illness were included. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected and analyzed for each patient. Associations were sought between death and organ specific complications. Out of 276 patients enrolled male gender 187(67.8%) and age group of below 35 years comprised the larger proportion of the cases with total 115(63.2%) dengue,37(80.4%) leptospirosis, 25(69.4%) malaria cases. The most common symptoms reported amongst the enrolled patients included generalized body ache (85.9%), headache (77.4%), vomiting (73.4%), abdominal pain (50%), high coloured urine (34.2%), and breathlessness (32.1%), loose motion (25.1%) and altered Sensorium (8.8%). Clinical signs seen and significantly associated were pedal edema 14.5% (P=0.001), icterus 20.7%(P=0.0001) and tachypnoea 19.4%(P =0.001). Most common complication of dengue was shock (70.9%) followed by hepatic (66.5%) and haematological (65%) derangements, that of malaria was CNS involvement (29.4%), and for leptospirosis it was renal failure (45.9%) followed by respiratory distress (22.3%). Overall mortality in Dengue was 7(3.8%), malaria 2(5.6%), leptospirosis 15(32.6%), Hepatitis E 2(50%). The similarity in clinical presentation and diversity of etiological agents demonstrates the complexity of diagnosis and treatment of acute febrile illness. This study of clinico-laboratory profile of complicated febrile monsoon illnesses will be helpful to reduce mortality associated with monsoon illnesses by early referral and prompt treatment. Dengue and leptospirosis remain the commonest etiologies and major killer due to respiratory and
Jeltema, Hanne-Rinck; Kuijlen, Jos M. A.; Hoving, Eelco W.
We present a 2.5-year-old child suffering from acute hydrocephalus. First, the child was diagnosed with aseptic viral meningitis. The PCR of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for enterovirus. Subsequently, MRI revealed that the hydrocephalus was caused by a cyst in the third ventricle.
Pedersen, Peter Bank; Hrobjartsson, Asbjorn; Nielsen, Daniel Lykke
undifferentiated patients, at arrival to hospital. The result of the review will assist physicians working in an ED, when assessing patients' risk of organ failure and their associated prognosis. METHODS: The information sources used are electronic databases, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and CINAHL...... and analyze studies of prevalence and prognosis of acutely ill patients, with organ failure at arrival to hospital, assist ED physicians assessing the risk of organ failure in unselected patients, and guide recommendations for further research. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017060871....
Suneja, Upma; Castillo, Carlos; Disla, Abiezer; Buyukgoz, Cihangir; Burdea, Liliana; Sitnitskaya, Yekaterina; Agyare, Samuel; Gold, Menachem; Prokhorov, Sergey
The incidence of acute flaccid paralysis has been on a declining trend with the global efforts on eradication of polio virus. A few scattered clusters of acute flaccid paralysis associated with pathogens like enterovirus other than polio virus and flaviviruses have recently come to limelight. This is a case of acute onset flaccid paralysis of left upper extremity in a fully immunized 5 year old child in New York. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dziadzko, Volha; Dziadzko, Mikhail A; Johnson, Margaret M; Gajic, Ognjen; Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V
Post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which encompasses profound psychological morbidity, affects many survivors of critical illness. We hypothesize that acute psychological stress during the intensive care unit (ICU) confinement likely contributes to PICS. In order to develop strategies that mitigate PICS associated psychological morbidity, it is paramount to first characterize acute ICU psychological stress and begin to understand its causative and protective factors. A structured interview study was administered to adult critical illness survivors who received ≥48h of mechanical ventilation in medical and surgical ICUs of a tertiary care center, and their families. Fifty patients and 44 family members were interviewed following ICU discharge. Patients reported a high level of psychological distress. The families' perception of patient's stress level correlated with the patient's self-estimated stress level both in daily life (rho=0.59; ppsychological stress during an ICU stay; the presence of family, and physician's attention are categorized as important mitigating factors. Patients and families identified several practical recommendations which may help assuage the psychological burden of the ICU stay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gargano, J W; Freeland, A L; Morrison, M A; Stevens, K; Zajac, L; Wolkon, A; Hightower, A; Miller, M D; Brunkard, J M
The drinking water infrastructure in the United States is ageing; extreme weather events place additional stress on water systems that can lead to interruptions in the delivery of safe drinking water. We investigated the association between household exposures to water service problems and acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) and acute respiratory illness (ARI) in Alabama communities that experienced a freeze-related community-wide water emergency. Following the water emergency, investigators conducted a household survey. Logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for self-reported AGI and ARI by water exposures. AGI was higher in households that lost water service for ⩾7 days (aPR 2·4, 95% CI 1·1-5·2) and experienced low water pressure for ⩾7 days (aPR 3·6, 95% CI 1·4-9·0) compared to households that experienced normal service and pressure; prevalence of AGI increased with increasing duration of water service interruptions. Investments in the ageing drinking water infrastructure are needed to prevent future low-pressure events and to maintain uninterrupted access to the fundamental public health protection provided by safe water supplies. Households and communities need to increase their awareness of and preparedness for water emergencies to mitigate adverse health impacts.
Rivera, Aidsa; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Rivera, Irma; Sanabria, Dario; Blau, Dianna M.; Galloway, Renee; Torres, Jose; Rodriguez, Rosa; Serrano, Javier; Chávez, Carlos; Dávila, Francisco; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Ellis, Esther M.; Caballero, Gladys; Wright, Laura; Zaki, Sherif R.; Deseda, Carmen; Rodriguez, Edda; Margolis, Harold S.
Background Dengue is a leading cause of morbidity throughout the tropics; however, accurate population-based estimates of mortality rates are not available. Methods/Principal Findings We established the Enhanced Fatal Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance System (EFASS) to estimate dengue mortality rates in Puerto Rico. Healthcare professionals submitted serum and tissue specimens from patients who died from a dengue-like acute febrile illness, and death certificates were reviewed to identify additional cases. Specimens were tested for markers of dengue virus (DENV) infection by molecular, immunologic, and immunohistochemical methods, and were also tested for West Nile virus, Leptospira spp., and other pathogens based on histopathologic findings. Medical records were reviewed and clinical data abstracted. A total of 311 deaths were identified, of which 58 (19%) were DENV laboratory-positive. Dengue mortality rates were 1.05 per 100,000 population in 2010, 0.16 in 2011 and 0.36 in 2012. Dengue mortality was highest among adults 19–64 years and seniors ≥65 years (1.17 and 1.66 deaths per 100,000, respectively). Other pathogens identified included 34 Leptospira spp. cases and one case of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Neisseria meningitidis. Conclusions/Significance EFASS showed that dengue mortality rates among adults were higher than reported for influenza, and identified a leptospirosis outbreak and index cases of melioidosis and meningitis. PMID:27727271
Boelen, A; Kwakkel, J; Chassande, O; Fliers, E
Acute illness in mice profoundly affects thyroid hormone metabolism in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It remains unknown whether the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-β is involved in these changes. In the present study, we investigated central thyroid hormone metabolism during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced illness in TRβ(-/-) mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We administered a sublethal dose of LPS or saline to TRβ(-/-) and WT mice. TRβ(-/-) mice displayed higher basal levels of serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) compared to WT, reflecting thyroid hormone resistance. In the periventricular area of the hypothalamus, we observed a marked decrease in thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) mRNA expression in TRβ(-/-) and WT mice at t = 4 h, coinciding with the peak in plasma corticosterone. The decrease in TRH mRNA persisted in WT, but not in TRβ(-/-) mice at t = 24 h. By contrast, the increase of type 2 deiodinase (D2) mRNA already present at 4 h after LPS remained significant at 24 h in TRβ(-/-), but not in WT mice. LPS decreased pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone β mRNA expression in WT at 24 h but not in TRβ(-/-) mice. The peak in pituitary D2 expression at t = 4 h in WT was absent in TRβ(-/-) mice. The relative decrease in plasma T(3) and T(4) upon LPS treatment was similar in both strains, although, at t = 24 h, plasma T(3) tended to be restored in TRβ(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that TRβ is involved in suppression of the central component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in acute illness.
Simms, Jane; McCormack, Vinny; Anderson, Richard; Mulholland, Ciaran
This study compared acutely ill patients with schizophrenia with a history of self-harm (N=17) to those without a history of self-harm (N=16) on measures of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and demographic and psychiatric variables. A subgroup of these patients who experience auditory hallucinations, with and without a history of self-harm, were selected and compared on measures of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation and beliefs about voices. Employing a cross-sectional design, in-patients of two local psychiatric hospital, who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia and who were in an acute phase of the illness, were selected. Each patient was assessed using the Beck Depressions Inventory (BDI), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and the Beck Suicide Scale (BSS). Patients who experienced auditory verbal hallucinations completed the Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire Revised (BAVQ-R). Patients with a history of self-harm completed the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (BSI). Patients with a history of self-harm (N=17) had significantly greater symptoms of depression, greater suicidal thoughts, increased number of hospital admissions, greater duration of illness and were more likely to be married, compared to patients without a history of self-harm (N=16). Among the subgroup of patients who experience auditory hallucinations, those with a history of self-harm (N=9), believed their voice to be more malevolent, had a tendency to resist their voice and experienced significantly greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness compared to those without a history of self-harm (N=6). These findings highlight the importance for screening by clinicians during inpatient hospital stays and for monitoring to be ongoing following discharge. For the subgroup of patients who experience auditory hallucinations, future research should seek to explore the relationship between self-harm and beliefs about voices.
Sebergsen, Karina; Norberg, Astrid; Talseth, Anne-Grethe
It is important that mental health nurses meet the safety, security and care needs of persons suffering from psychotic illness to enhance these persons' likelihood of feeling better during their time in acute psychiatric wards. Certain persons in care describe nurses' mental health care as positive, whereas others report negative experiences and express a desire for improvements. There is limited research on how persons with psychotic illness experience nurses' mental health care acts and how such acts help these persons feel better. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore, describe and understand how the mental health nurses in acute psychiatric wards provide care that helps persons who experienced psychotic illness to feel better, as narrated by these persons. This study had a qualitative design; 12 persons participated in qualitative interviews. The interviews were transcribed, content analysed and interpreted using Martin Buber's concept of confirmation. The results of this study show three categories of confirming mental health care that describe what helped the participants to feel better step-by-step: first, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of endurance; second, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of decreased psychotic symptoms; and third, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of support in daily life. The underlying meaning of the categories and of subcategories were interpreted and formulated as the theme; confirming mental health care to persons experiencing psychotic illness. Confirming mental health care acts seem to help persons to feel better in a step-wise manner during psychotic illness. Nurses' openness and sensitivity to the changing care needs of persons who suffer from psychotic illness create moments of confirmation within caring acts that concretely help the persons to feel better and that may enhance their health. The results show the
Jones, Alexander H; Ampofo, William; Akuffo, Richard; Doman, Brooke; Duplessis, Christopher; Amankwa, Joseph A; Sarpong, Charity; Sagoe, Ken; Agbenohevi, Prince; Puplampu, Naiki; Armah, George; Koram, Kwadwo A; Nyarko, Edward O; Bel-Nono, Samuel; Dueger, Erica L
Influenza epidemiology in Africa is generally not well understood. Using syndrome definitions to screen patients for laboratory confirmation of infection is an established means to effectively conduct influenza surveillance. To compare influenza-related epidemiologic data, from October 2010 through March 2013, we enrolled hospitalized severe acute respiratory infection (SARI; fever with respiratory symptoms) and acute febrile illness (AFI; fever without respiratory or other localizing symptoms) patients from three referral hospitals in Ghana. Demographic and epidemiologic data were obtained from enrolled patients after which nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected, and processed by molecular methods for the presence of influenza viruses. Of 730 SARI patients, 59 (8%) were influenza positive; of 543 AFI patients, 34 (6%) were positive for influenza. Both SARI and AFI surveillance yielded influenza A(H3N2) (3% versus 1%), A(H1N1)pdm09 (2% versus 1%), and influenza B (3% versus 4%) in similar proportions. Data from both syndromes show year-round influenza transmission but with increased caseloads associated with the rainy seasons. As an appreciable percentage of influenza cases (37%) presented without defined respiratory symptoms, and thus met the AFI but not the SARI definition, it is important to consider broader screening criteria (i.e., AFI) to identify all laboratory-confirmed influenza. The identified influenza transmission seasonality has important implications for the timing of related public health interventions. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
van Sambeeck, S J L; Janssen, E J M; Hundscheid, T; Martens, S J L; Vos, G D
To gain insight into how the acute care of critically ill children at general hospitals is organised, whether staff is sufficiently trained and whether the necessary materials and medications are present. Questionnaire combined with a site visit. Questionnaires were sent to all primarily involved specialists (emergency room specialists and paediatricians), and to the auxiliary anaesthetists and intensivists involved, at the nine general hospitals in Southeast Netherlands. Two researchers performed standardised interviews with the lead paediatricians on site and checked for materials and medication present in the emergency and paediatric departments. Of the 195 questionnaires sent, 97 (49.7%) were deemed suitable for analysis. The response from the primary specialists involved (77.6%) was more than twice that of the auxiliary specialists (31.9%). At 7 hospitals, verbal agreements on the organisation of acute care were maintained, 1 hospital had a written protocol, and 2 hospitals had a task force addressing this topic. One out of 5 respondents was unaware of the verbal agreements and 1 out of 3 mistakenly assumed that a protocol existed. Two out of 3 primary specialists involved were certified for Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS); 1 out of 13 of the auxiliary specialists had such a certificate. Scenario training was being conducted at 8 hospitals. A paediatric resuscitation cart was available at both the emergency and paediatric departments of 8 hospitals, 3 of which were fully stocked at both departments. Laryngeal mask airways and PEEP-valves (Positive End Expiratory Pressure) were lacking at 6 of the 9 hospitals. The medication stock was complete at all the hospitals. The organisation of and training for the acute care of critically ill children and presence of materials - the aspects we investigated - need attention at all general hospitals evaluated. It appeared that many specialists are not APLS certified and written protocols concerning organisation
Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Moyes, Jocelyn; Cohen, Adam L.; von Mollendorf, Claire; Treurnicht, Florette K.; Venter, Marietjie; Pretorius, Marthi; Hellferscee, Orienka; Mtshali, Senzo; Seleka, Mpho; Tshangela, Akhona; Nguweneza, Athermon; McAnerney, Johanna M.; Wolter, Nicole
Abstract Background. Data on risk factors for influenza-associated hospitalizations in low- and middle-income countries are limited. Methods. We conducted active syndromic surveillance for hospitalized severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) in 2 provinces of South Africa during 2012?2015. We compared the characteristics of influenza-positive patients with SARI to those with ILI to identify factors associated with severe disease requiring hospitaliz...
Esposito, Susanna; Chidini, Giovanna; Cinnante, Claudia; Napolitano, Luisa; Giannini, Alberto; Terranova, Leonardo; Niesters, Hubert; Principi, Nicola; Calderini, Edoardo
Reporting new cases of enterovirus (EV)-D68-associated acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is essential to understand how the virus causes neurological damage and to characterize EV-D68 strains associated with AFM. A previously healthy 4-year-old boy presented with sudden weakness and limited mobility in his left arm. Two days earlier, he had an upper respiratory illness with mild fever. At admission, his physical examination showed that the child was febrile (38.5 °C) and alert but had a stiff neck and weakness in his left arm, which was hypotonic and areflexic. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed a mild increase in white blood cell count (80/mm 3 , 41% neutrophils) and a slightly elevated protein concentration (76 gm/dL). Bacterial culture and molecular biology tests for detecting viral infection in CSF were negative. The patient was then treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and acyclovir. Despite therapy, within 24 h, the muscle weakness extended to all four limbs, which exhibited greatly reduced mobility. Due to his worsening clinical prognosis, the child was transferred to our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit; at admission he was diagnosed with acute flaccid paralysis of all four limbs. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was negative, except for a focal signal alteration in the dorsal portion of the medulla oblongata, also involving the pontine tegmentum, whereas spine MRI showed an extensive signal alteration of the cervical and dorsal spinal cord reported as myelitis. Signal alteration was mainly localized in the central grey matter, most likely in the anterior horns. Molecular biology tests performed on nasopharyngeal aspirate and on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were negative for bacteria but positive for EV-D68 clade B3. Plasmapheresis was performed and corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins were administered. After 4 weeks of treatment, the signs and symptoms of AFM were significantly reduced, although some weakness and tingling remained
reassortment swine-origin influenza A virus which is the agent associated with the WHO declared influenza pan- demic . Influenza viruses are...of a novel swine- origin influenza A ( H1N1 ) virus in humans. The New England journal of medicine 2009, 360(25):2605-2615. 5. Dilantika C, Sedyaningsih...RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Evaluation of an influenza -like illness case definition in the diagnosis of influenza among patients with acute febrile
Adams, Troy B; Wharton, Christopher M; Quilter, Lyndsay; Hirsch, Tiffany
Poor mental health is associated with physical illness, but this association is poorly characterized among college students. Using American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment data, the authors characterized poor mental health (depression, anxiety, negative affect) and examined the relationship between poor mental health and acute infectious illnesses (bronchitis, ear infection, sinusitis, strep throat) among 47,202 US college students. The authors used frequency and cross-tabulation analyses to characterize mental health and determine univariate associations among variables. They used binary logistic regression to determine the association between poor mental health and acute infectious illness, controlling for research-derived covariates. The prevalence of acute infectious illness ranged from 8% to 29%. The prevalence of anxiety and depression ranged from 12% to 20%, respectively. Depression, anxiety, and exhaustion were associated with acute infectious illness across all dependent measures, with odds ratios ranging from .56 to .91. Poor mental health is associated with acute infectious illness among college students.
Forshey, Brett M.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Cespedes, Manuel; Vargas, Jorge; Gianella, Alberto; Vallejo, Efrain; Madrid, César; Aguayo, Nicolas; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Suarez, Victor; Morales, Ana Maria; Beingolea, Luis; Reyes, Nora; Perez, Juan; Negrete, Monica; Rocha, Claudio; Morrison, Amy C.; Russell, Kevin L.; J. Blair, Patrick; Olson, James G.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.
Background Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are among the most common agents of human febrile illness worldwide and the most important emerging pathogens, causing multiple notable epidemics of human disease over recent decades. Despite the public health relevance, little is know about the geographic distribution, relative impact, and risk factors for arbovirus infection in many regions of the world. Our objectives were to describe the arboviruses associated with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in participating clinics in four countries in South America and to provide detailed epidemiological analysis of arbovirus infection in Iquitos, Peru, where more extensive monitoring was conducted. Methodology/Findings A clinic-based syndromic surveillance system was implemented in 13 locations in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. Serum samples and demographic information were collected from febrile participants reporting to local health clinics or hospitals. Acute-phase sera were tested for viral infection by immunofluorescence assay or RT-PCR, while acute- and convalescent-phase sera were tested for pathogen-specific IgM by ELISA. Between May 2000 and December 2007, 20,880 participants were included in the study, with evidence for recent arbovirus infection detected for 6,793 (32.5%). Dengue viruses (Flavivirus) were the most common arbovirus infections, totaling 26.0% of febrile episodes, with DENV-3 as the most common serotype. Alphavirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV] and Mayaro virus [MAYV]) and Orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus [OROV], Group C viruses, and Guaroa virus) infections were both observed in approximately 3% of febrile episodes. In Iquitos, risk factors for VEEV and MAYV infection included being male and reporting to a rural (vs urban) clinic. In contrast, OROV infection was similar between sexes and type of clinic. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide a better understanding of the geographic range of arboviruses in South
Sulaimon T Adedokun
Full Text Available To examine the independent contribution of individual, community and state-level factors to health care service utilization for children with acute childhood illnesses in Nigeria.The study was based on secondary analyses of cross-sectional population-based data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to the data on 6,427 under-five children who used or did not use health care service when they were sick (level 1, nested within 896 communities (level 2 from 37 states (level 3.About one-quarter of the mothers were between 15 and 24 years old and almost half of them did not have formal education (47%. While only 30% of the children utilized health service when they were sick, close to 67% lived in the rural area. In the fully adjusted model, mothers with higher education attainment (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.63; 95% credible interval [CrI] = 1.31-2.03, from rich households (aOR = 1.76; 95% CrI = 1.35-2.25, with access to media (radio, television or magazine (aOR = 1.18; 95% CrI = 1.08-1.29, and engaging in employment (aOR = 1.18; 95% CrI = 1.02-1.37 were significantly more likely to have used healthcare services for acute childhood illnesses. On the other hand, women who experienced difficulty getting to health facilities (aOR = 0.87; 95% CrI = 0.75-0.99 were less likely to have used health service for their children.Our findings highlight that utilization of healthcare service for acute childhood illnesses was influenced by not only maternal factors but also community-level factors, suggesting that public health strategies should recognise this complex web of individual composition and contextual composition factors to guide provision of healthcare services. Such interventions could include: increase in female school enrolment, provision of interest-free loans for small and medium scale enterprises, introduction of mobile clinics and establishment of more primary health care
Prescott, Hallie C; Chang, Virginia W
Obesity has been associated with improved short-term mortality following common acute illness, but its relationship with longer-term mortality is unknown. Observational study of U.S. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) participants with federal health insurance (fee-for-service Medicare) coverage, hospitalized with congestive heart failure (N = 4287), pneumonia (N = 4182), or acute myocardial infarction (N = 2001), 1996-2012. Using cox proportional hazards models, we examined the association between overweight or obese BMI (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 ) and mortality to 5 years after hospital admission, adjusted for potential confounders measured at the same time as BMI, including age, race, sex, education, partnership status, income, wealth, and smoking status. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight collected at the HRS survey prior to hospitalization (a median 1.1 year prior to hospitalization). The referent group was patients with a normal BMI (18.5 to BMI was associated with lower mortality at 1 year after hospitalization for congestive heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction-with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.79), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.64-0.84), and 0.65 (95%CI: 0.53-0.80), respectively. Among participants who lived to one year, however, subsequent survival was similar between patients with normal versus overweight/obese BMI. In older Americans, overweight or obese BMI was associated with improved survival following hospitalization for congestive heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction. This association, however, is limited to the shorter-term. Conditional on surviving to one year, we did not observe a survival advantage associated with excess weight.
Levine, David M; Ouchi, Kei; Blanchfield, Bonnie; Diamond, Keren; Licurse, Adam; Pu, Charles T; Schnipper, Jeffrey L
Hospitals are standard of care for acute illness, but hospitals can be unsafe, uncomfortable, and expensive. Providing substitutive hospital-level care in a patient's home potentially reduces cost while maintaining or improving quality, safety, and patient experience, although evidence from randomized controlled trials in the US is lacking. Determine if home hospital care reduces cost while maintaining quality, safety, and patient experience. Randomized controlled trial. Adults admitted via the emergency department with any infection or exacerbation of heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or asthma. Home hospital care, including nurse and physician home visits, intravenous medications, continuous monitoring, video communication, and point-of-care testing. Primary outcome was direct cost of the acute care episode. Secondary outcomes included utilization, 30-day cost, physical activity, and patient experience. Nine patients were randomized to home, 11 to usual care. Median direct cost of the acute care episode for home patients was 52% (IQR, 28%; p = 0.05) lower than for control patients. During the care episode, home patients had fewer laboratory orders (median per admission: 6 vs. 19; p Home patients were more physically active (median minutes, 209 vs. 78; p home patients, one occurred in control patients. Median direct cost for the acute care plus 30-day post-discharge period for home patients was 67% (IQR, 77%; p home-care services (22% vs. 55%; p = 0.08) and fewer readmissions (11% vs. 36%; p = 0.32). Patient experience was similar in both groups. The use of substitutive home-hospitalization compared to in-hospital usual care reduced cost and utilization and improved physical activity. No significant differences in quality, safety, and patient experience were noted, with more definitive results awaiting a larger trial. Trial Registration NCT02864420.
Monk, Jennifer M; Makinen, Kimberley; Shrum, Bradly; Woodward, Bill
Acute (i.e., wasting) pediatric malnutrition consistently elevates blood glucocorticoid levels, but neither the magnitude of the rise in concentration nor its kinetics is clear. Male and female C57BL/6J mice, initially 19 days old, and CBA/J mice, initially 23 days old, consumed a complete purified diet either ad libitum (age-matched control) or in restricted daily quantities (mimicking marasmus), or they consumed a purified isocaloric low-protein diet ad libitum (mimicking incipient kwashiorkor). Serum levels of corticosterone were assessed by double antibody radioimmunoassay after 3, 6, and 14 days (C57BL/6J strain) or after 6 and 14 days in the genetically distant CBA/J strain. Age-matched control groups of both strains exhibited mean corticosterone levels of 5-30 ng/ml, whereas the acutely malnourished groups exhibited mean levels of this hormone that were elevated by more than an order of magnitude as early as 3 days after initiation of weight loss. This outcome was confirmed in a second experiment in which the serum corticosterone level of C57BL/6J weanlings was examined by competitive binding enzyme immunoassay 3 and 14 days after initiation of the dietary protocols. Therefore, deficits of protein and/or energy in weanling murine systems relevant to acute pediatric malnutrition elicit early elevations in blood glucocorticoid levels to a magnitude reminiscent of critical illness and multiple trauma. The key to this novel finding was an exsanguination method that permitted accurate assessment of the blood corticosterone level of the healthy, quiescent mouse. Overall, the results of this investigation provide a new perspective on the glucocorticoids as part of the early hormonal response to acute weanling malnutrition coincident with the shift toward catabolic metabolism and the initiation of depression in cellular immune competence.
Basic D; Hartwell TJ
David Basic,1 Tabitha J Hartwell2 1Department of Geriatric Medicine, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Geriatric Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shoalhaven District Memorial Hospital, Nowra, NSW, Australia Purpose: To examine the association between falls in hospital and new placement in a nursing home among older people hospitalized with acute illness.Materials and methods: This prospective cohort study of 2,945 consecutive patients discharged alive from an acute geri...
Gariballa, Salah; Alessa, Awad
Background Although Low muscle strength is an important predictor of functional decline in older people, however information on its impact on clinical and service outcomes in acute care settings is still lacking. The aim of this study is to measure the impact of low muscle strength on clinical and service outcomes in older adults during both acute illness and recovery. Methods Randomly selected 432 hospitalised older patients had their clinical characteristics and nutritional status assessed ...
Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chang, Ming-Yang; Tian, Ya-Chung; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Yung-Chang
Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and also often part of a multiple organ failure syndrome. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an excellent tool for assessing the extent of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome prediction ability of SOFA and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score in ICU patients with AKI. Methods A tot...
Enserink, Remko; Lugnér, Anna; Suijkerbuijk, Anita; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; Smit, Henriette A; van Pelt, Wilfrid
Gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases are major causes of morbidity for young children, particularly for those children attending child day care centers (DCCs). Although both diseases are presumed to cause considerable societal costs for care and treatment of illness, the extent of these costs, and the difference of these costs between children that do and do not attend such centers, is largely unknown. Estimate the societal costs for care and treatment of episodes of gastroenteritis (GE) and influenza-like illness (ILI) experienced by Dutch children that attend a DCC, compared to children that do not attend a DCC. A web-based monthly survey was conducted among households with children aged 0-48 months from October 2012 to October 2013. Households filled-in a questionnaire on the incidence of GE and ILI episodes experienced by their child during the past 4 weeks, on the costs related to care and treatment of these episodes, and on DCC arrangements. Costs and incidence were adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics including education level, nationality and monthly income of parents, number of children in the household, gender and age of the child and month of survey conduct. Children attending a DCC experienced higher rates of GE (aIRR 1.4 [95%CI: 1.2-1.9]) and ILI (aIRR: 1.4 [95%CI: 1.2-1.6]) compared to children not attending a DCC. The societal costs for care and treatment of an episode of GE and ILI experienced by a DCC-attending child were estimated at €215.45 [€115.69-€315.02] and €196.32 [€161.58-€232.74] respectively, twice as high as for a non-DCC-attending child. The DCC-attributable economic burden of GE and ILI for the Netherlands was estimated at €25 million and €72 million per year. Although children attending a DCC experience only slightly higher rates of GE and ILI compared to children not attending a DCC, the costs involved per episode are substantially higher.
Le Cong, Minh; Gynther, Bruce; Hunter, Ernest; Schuller, Peter
Aeromedical retrieval services face the difficult problem of appropriate levels of sedation for transport of acutely agitated patients to definitive care. This paper describes a technique using ketamine, which is titratable and avoids problems associated with airway management. A 3-year review of a new technique of ketamine sedation by aeromedical retrieval teams from the Cairns base of the Queensland section of the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia. Clinical records were systematically reviewed for ketamine administration and signs of adverse events during transport and in the subsequent 72 h. 18 patients were sedated during retrieval with intravenous ketamine. Effective sedation was achieved in all cases, with no significant adverse events noted during retrieval or 72 h afterwards. Ketamine sedation is effective and safe in agitated patients with a psychiatric illness in the aeromedical setting and does not lead to worsening agitation in the subsequent 72-h period.
Afzal, Zeeshan; Kallumadanda, Sunand; Wang, Feng; Hemmige, Vagish; Musher, Daniel
Murine typhus occurs relatively commonly in southern Texas, as well as in California. We reviewed records of 90 adults and children in whom murine typhus was diagnosed during a 3-year period in 2 hospitals in southern Texas, USA. Most patients lacked notable comorbidities; all were immunocompetent. Initial signs and symptoms included fever (99%), malaise (82%), headache (77%), fatigue (70%), myalgias (68%), and rash (39%). Complications, often severe, in 28% of patients included bronchiolitis, pneumonia, meningitis, septic shock, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, myositis, and rhabdomyolysis; the last 3 are previously unreported in murine typhus. Low serum albumin and elevated procalcitonin, consistent with bacterial sepsis, were observed in >70% of cases. Rash was more common in children; thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia, elevated hepatic transaminases, and complications were more frequent in adults. Murine typhus should be considered as a diagnostic possibility in cases of acute febrile illness in southern and even in more northern US states.
Kim, Gun-Ha; Kim, Kyoung Min; Suh, Sang-Il; Ki, Chang-Seok; Eun, Baik-Lin
X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX1) is a clinically heterogeneous hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with X-linked transmission. Common clinical manifestations of CMTX1 disease, as in other forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, are distal muscle wasting and weakness, hyporeflexia, distal sensory disturbance, and foot deformities. Mutations in the connexin-32 gene (gap junction protein β1 [GJB1]) are responsible for CMTX1 disease. In this report, we describe a patient with CMTX1 disease presenting with recurrent attacks of transient and episodic acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like symptoms without previous signs of lower extremity weakness or foot deformities; the patient, as well as his asymptomatic mother, exhibited a novel GJB1 mutation (p.Met1Ile). Differential diagnosis of recurrent and transient ADEM-like illness, if unexplained, should include the possibility of CMTX1 disease. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Reller, Megan E; Chikeka, Ijeuru; Miles, Jeremy J; Dumler, J Stephen; Woods, Christopher W; Mayorga, Orlando; Matute, Armando J
Rickettsial infections and Q fever present similarly to other acute febrile illnesses, but are infrequently diagnosed because of limited diagnostic tools. Despite sporadic reports, rickettsial infections and Q fever have not been prospectively studied in Central America. We enrolled consecutive patients presenting with undifferentiated fever in western Nicaragua and collected epidemiologic and clinical data and acute and convalescent sera. We used ELISA for screening and paired sera to confirm acute (≥4-fold rise in titer) spotted fever and typhus group rickettsial infections and Q fever as well as past (stable titer) infections. Characteristics associated with both acute and past infection were assessed. We enrolled 825 patients and identified acute rickettsial infections and acute Q fever in 0.9% and 1.3%, respectively. Clinical features were non-specific and neither rickettsial infections nor Q fever were considered or treated. Further study is warranted to define the burden of these infections in Central America.
Vos, Rimke Cathelijne; Kasteleyn, Marise Jeannine; Heijmans, Monique Johanna; de Leeuw, Elke; Schellevis, François Georges; Rijken, Mieke; Rutten, Guy Emile
Chronically ill patients such as people with type 2 diabetes develop perceptions of their illness, which will influence their coping behaviour. Perceptions are formed once a health threat has been recognised. Many people with type 2 diabetes suffer from multimorbidity, for example the combination with cardiovascular disease. Perceptions of one illness may influence perceptions of the other condition. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of an intervention in type 2 diabetes patients with a first acute coronary event on change in illness perceptions and whether this mediates the intervention effect on health status. The current study is a secondary data analysis of a RCT. Two hundred one participants were randomised (1:1 ratio) to the intervention (n = 101, three home visits) or control group (n = 100). Outcome variables were diabetes and acute coronary event perceptions, assessed with the two separate Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaires (BIPQs); and health status (Euroqol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS)). The intervention effect was analysed using ANCOVA. Linear regression analyses were used to assess whether illness perceptions mediated the intervention effect on health status. A positive intervention effect was found on the BIPQ diabetes items coherence and treatment control (F = 8.19, p = 0.005; F = 14.01, p event, a positive intervention effect on treatment control was found (F = 7.81, p = 0.006). No intervention effect was found on the other items of the acute coronary event BIPQ. Better diabetes coherence was associated with improved health status, whereas perceiving more treatment control was not. The mediating effect of the diabetes perception 'coherence' on health status was not significant. Targeting illness perceptions of people with diabetes after an acute coronary event has no effect on most domains, but can improve the perceived understanding of their diabetes. Discussing perceptions prevents people
Zhao, Sophie R; Griffin, Marie R; Patterson, Barron L; Mace, Rachel L; Wyatt, Dayna; Zhu, Yuwei; Talbot, H Keipp
Antibiotics for acute respiratory illness (ARI) constitute most pediatric medication use and contribute to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated antibiotic prescription risk factors for ARI in pediatric clinics and clinical follow-up in individuals prescribed and not prescribed antibiotics. In this observational study, we enrolled children ages 2 to 17 years old presenting with ARI with fever to two academic pediatric primary care outpatient clinics during influenza season 2013-2014. We collected information on demographics, initial symptoms, medical conditions, laboratory tests, discharge diagnoses, treatments, and 30 days of follow-up medical encounters. Factors associated with antibiotic prescription receipt were evaluated using logistic regression. Of 206 consented and enrolled children, 59 (29%) were prescribed antibiotics, 51 of 59 (86%) for indicated diagnoses: 34 for streptococcal pharyngitis, 15 for acute otitis media (AOM), and 2 for pneumonia. Discharge diagnoses were the only factors independently associated with an antibiotic prescription. Of children prescribed/not prescribed an antibiotic, 17%/17% received follow-up telephone calls and 27%/17% had follow-up visits related to ARI within 30 days. Two children with AOM were prescribed a second antibiotic during follow-up, and one developed Clostridium difficile colitis. Eighteen of 206 (9%) additional children were prescribed antibiotics within 30 days for ARI symptoms, 17 for streptococcal pharyngitis, AOM, pneumonia, or sinusitis; one was prescribed antibiotics for influenza-like illness. Among study children 2 to 17 years old with outpatient ARI, 29% were prescribed antibiotics at the initial visit and another 9% were prescribed antibiotics during the 30-day follow-up (most were for appropriate indications). Further decreasing antibiotic use in similar settings will likely require wider implementation of watchful waiting for AOM, a change in guidelines for pharyngitis management
Hisam, A.; Rahman, M.; Kadir, E.; Ezam, N.; Khan, M.B.
To find out the frequency of co-existence of malaria and dengue fever in patients presenting with acute febrile illness. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Military Hospital Rawalpindi from June to November 2012. A total of 500 patients with complaint of acute febrile illness were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Preliminary data was collected on a pretested proforma. Blood samples of patients were tested for dengue serology and malaria parasite. Results were entered in respective proforma. Co-existence was considered present when a patient had both dengue serology and malaria parasite slide positive. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Result: Of the total, 349 (69.8%) were males and 151 (30.2%) females. Dengue serology was positive in 16 (3.2%); 81(16.2%) had malaria parasite slide positive; 403 (80.4%) had none of the two findings. Co-existence of both dengue and malaria was nil among the whole sample. In males, 67 (13.4%) had malaria, while 11 (2.2%) had dengue. In females, 14 (2.8%) had malaria, while 5 (1%) suffered from dengue fever. Conclusion: Co-existence of dengue and malaria was zero per cent in 500 patients visiting Military Hospital Rawalpindi. More studies shall be conducted to find out whether the reason of having zero per cent co-existence is that dengue or/and malaria epidemic did not occur in 2012 or whether there are some other factors involved. (author)
Touza Pol, P; Rey Galán, C; Medina Villanueva, J A; Martinez-Camblor, P; López-Herce, J
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe complication in critically ill children. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of AKI, as well as to analyse the prognostic factors for mortality and renal replacement therapy (RRT) in children admitted to Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) in Spain. Prospective observational multicentre study including children from 7 days to 16 years old who were admitted to a PICU. A univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of the risk factors for mortality and renal replacement therapy at PICU discharge were performed. A total of 139 cases of AKI were analysed. RRT was necessary in 60.1% of cases. Mortality rate was 32.6%. At PICU discharge RRT was necessary in 15% of survivors. Thrombopenia and low creatinine clearance values were prognostic markers of RRT at PICU discharge. High values of platelets, serum creatinine and weight were associated with higher survival. Critically ill children with AKI had a high mortality and morbidity rate. Platelet values and creatinine clearance are markers of RRT at PICU discharge, whereas number of platelets, serum creatinine and weight were associated with mortality. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is common in intensive care unit (ICU and carries a high mortality rate. Reliable and comparable data about the clinical spectrum of AKI is necessary for optimizing management. The study was conducted to describe epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics and outcome of AKI in critically ill patients without pre-existing renal disease, diagnosed using RIFLE criteria. We retrospectively analyzed data of 500 adult patients admitted to ICU with AKI or who developed AKI in ICU. Patients with pre-existing renal disease, renal transplant recipients were excluded. AKI was predominantly encountered in older males. Diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease were the most commonly prevalent comorbidities. Sepsis was the most common cause of AKI, accounting for 38.6% of patients. 24.4% belonged to risk class, 37.0% to injury class, 35.0% to failure class, 3% to loss and 0.6% to ESRD class of the RIFLE criteria. Renal replacement therapy (RRT was required in 37.2% (n = 186 of patients. About 60% recovered complete renal function. Chronic kidney disease (CKD was a sequel in 2.4% (n = 12 of patients. Average duration of ICU stay was 5.6 days. Crude mortality rate was 37.6% (n = 188. In critically ill patients without pre-existing renal disease, elderly age, male sex, type 2 diabetes along with a primary diagnosis of sepsis were most commonly associated with AKI. Majority of the patients′ recovered complete renal function.
Nusshag, Christian; Weigand, Markus A.; Zeier, Martin; Morath, Christian; Brenner, Thorsten
Acute kidney injury (AKI) has a high incidence on intensive care units around the world and is a major complication in critically ill patients suffering from sepsis or septic shock. The short- and long-term complications are thereby devastating and impair the quality of life. Especially in terms of AKI staging, the determination of kidney function and the timing of dialytic AKI management outside of life-threatening indications are ongoing matters of debate. Despite several studies, a major problem remains in distinguishing between beneficial and unnecessary “early” or even harmful renal replacement therapy (RRT). The latter might prolong disease course and renal recovery. AKI scores, however, provide an insufficient outcome-predicting ability and the related estimation of kidney function via serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/urea is not reliable in AKI and critical illness. Kidney independent alterations of creatinine- and BUN/urea-levels further complicate the situation. This review critically assesses the current AKI staging, issues and pitfalls of the determination of kidney function and RRT timing, as well as the potential harm reflected by unnecessary RRT. A better understanding is mandatory to improve future study designs and avoid unnecessary RRT for higher patient safety and lower health care costs. PMID:28657585
Potentially inappropriate prescribing is common in older people presenting to hospital with acute illness in Ireland. The aim of this study was to determine if this phenomenon is unique to Ireland or whether it is a more widespread problem in hospitals across Europe.
Two provider-based traveler-focused networks allowed for the detection of a large outbreak of acute muscular sarcocystosis (AMS). Clinicians evaluating travelers returning ill from Malaysia with fever and myalgia noted the biphasic aspect of the disease, the later onset of elevated CPK and eosinophi...
Huson, Michaëla A. M.; Kalkman, Rachel; Stolp, Sebastiaan M.; Janssen, Saskia; Alabi, Abraham S.; Beyeme, Justin O.; van der Poll, Tom; Grobusch, Martin P.
HIV, bacterial sepsis, malaria, and tuberculosis are important causes of disease in Africa. We aimed to determine the impact of HIV on the presentation, causes and outcome of bacterial sepsis and other acute febrile illnesses in Gabon, Central Africa. We performed a prospective observational study
Full Text Available This paper is about sinus balloon dilatation in treatment of acute left sphenoid sinusitis with left impaired vision in a child. Balloon catheter dilatation (BCD of the sinus ostia is a new technique. It has been shown to be a minimally invasive technique to manage chronic sinusitis. However, this method is rarely used in the treatment of acute sinusitis. So far, we know of no reported cases of sinus balloon dilatation in treatment of this case, especially for children.
We describe a case of acute functional deterioration in a 13-year-old girl with severe spastic diplegia (GMFCS III) and a new diagnosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). She presented with acute deterioration in mobility and motor function over 1 month, which was associated with dysarthria, dysphagia and behavioural change. Her mother had noticed subtle functional deterioration over the 2 months prior to this. Her physiotherapist who was concerned about her acute functional deterioration referred her for emergency review. Neurological imaging revealed a diffuse pontine lesion consistent with DIPG. She was subsequently referred to oncology. She deteriorated further, clinically, over the next few days and following discussion with the team; her family opted for palliative treatment, given the poor prognosis associated with DIPG.
Full Text Available A terminally ill child is the focus of attention of its close ones. The family wants to minimise the child’s suffering. Support is also offered by helping organisations. The concentration on the ill child can lead to the situation where the needs of the healthy siblings are neglected. „The total pain” of the ill child includes its family members, therefore, supporting the ill child’s healthy siblings is one of the main goals of children’s hospices. Hospice assistance is based on a family systems theory so the scope of hospice activities is very wide. Although helping the ill child is the priority, the hospices also protect the family from the destructive influence of illness. One of the forms of support offered to the healthy siblings has a psycho-pedagogical dimension. It aims at minimising the negative effects of the child’s illness and helping the siblings to go back to normal life after the child’s death. The interdisciplinary nature of hospice assistance is the chance for successful implementation of these assumptions.
Background: Ebstein anomaly (atrialisation of the right ventricle ) alone constitutes 0.5 -1% of congenital heart disease and usually presents as an isolated lesion. Association with mitral valve stenosis has been reported previously. We however present a case of Ebstein's anomaly with recurrent acute rheumatic fever (ARF) ...
L. A. Kharitonova
Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the impact of incorporation of cycloferon into a therapy regimen on the efficiency of treatment for acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in frequently ill children. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 117 children divided into three groups according to the therapy regimen. Thus, symptomatic and local antiviral therapies (interferon nasal ointment and viferon suppositories were prescribed to all the children; furthermore, Group 1 (control used antibiotic therapy; Group 2 (Comparison Group 1 took antibiotics and cycloferon (tablets, and Group 3 (Comparison Group 2 had Cycloferon. Results: At the beginning of treatment, there was a reduction in interferon-a and interferon-y values with preserved serum interferon levels, suggesting the diminished compensatory responses ensuring antiviral protection. Analysis of the immune status revealed that virtually half of the children exhibited activation of compensatory mechanisms (stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ production and an increase in NST test activity, one third displayed a disturbance (decreases in CD4+, CDlfrf, IgA, and NST test activity. After treatment, interferonogenesis was recovered in the majority (86,7% of the patients taking Cycloferon, in 74,1% of those who had a treatment regimen containing cycloferon and antibiotics, and only in 47,1 % of those who received antibiotics. Comparison of the immunological indicators during therapy with antibiotics alone or in combination with cycloferon demonstrated a more noticeable and balanced response to the latter: the normalized CD4+ and CD8+ values in the patients on antibiotic therapy was 8,9 and 5,8%, respectively, and 11,1 % in those who received antibiotics and cycloferon. Conclusion. Incorporation of cycloferon into ARVI treatment regimens for frequently ill patients has the positive effect on immunological indicators, which shows itself as recovery of initially diminished interferonogenesis
Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is common in critically ill patients. Diuretics are used without any evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on renal function. The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of AKI in an intensive care unit (ICU and if there is an association between the use of furosemide and the development of AKI. The study involved a hospital cohort in which 344 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2011. A total of 132 patients (75 females and 57 males, average age 64 years remained for analysis. Most exclusions were related to ICU discharge in the first 24 h. Laboratory, sociodemographic and clinical data were collected until the development of AKI, medical discharge or patient death. The incidence of AKI was 55% (95%CI = 46-64. The predictors of AKI found by univariate analysis were septic shock: OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 1.36-7.14; use of furosemide: OR = 3.27, 95%CI = 1.57-6.80, and age: OR = 1.02 (95%CI = 1.00-1.04. Analysis of the subgroup of patients with septic shock showed that the odds ratio of furosemide was 5.5 (95%CI = 1.16-26.02 for development of AKI. Age, use of furosemide, and septic shock were predictors of AKI in critically ill patients. Use of furosemide in the subgroup of patients with sepsis/septic shock increased (68.4% the chance of development of AKI when compared to the sample as a whole (43.9%.
De Roos, Anneclaire J; Gurian, Patrick L; Robinson, Lucy F; Rai, Arjita; Zakeri, Issa; Kondo, Michelle C
Turbidity has been used as an indicator of microbiological contamination of drinking water in time-series studies attempting to discern the presence of waterborne gastrointestinal illness; however, the utility of turbidity as a proxy exposure measure has been questioned. We conducted a review of epidemiological studies of the association between turbidity of drinking-water supplies and incidence of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI), including a synthesis of the overall weight of evidence. Our goal was to evaluate the potential for causal inference from the studies. We identified 14 studies on the topic (distinct by region, time period and/or population). We evaluated each study with regard to modeling approaches, potential biases, and the strength of evidence. We also considered consistencies and differences in the collective results. Positive associations between drinking-water turbidity and AGI incidence were found in different cities and time periods, and with both unfiltered and filtered supplies. There was some evidence for a stronger association at higher turbidity levels. The studies appeared to adequately adjust for confounding. There was fair consistency in the notable lags between turbidity measurement and AGI identification, which fell between 6 and 10 d in many studies. The observed associations suggest a detectable incidence of waterborne AGI from drinking water in the systems and time periods studied. However, some discrepant results indicate that the association may be context specific. Combining turbidity with seasonal and climatic factors, additional water quality measures, and treatment data may enhance predictive modeling in future studies. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1090.
Irma Lestari Paramastuty
Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI often associated with a high hospital morbi-mortality rate in the intensive care unit patients. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, has many characteristics of ideal biomarker for kidney injury. The aim of this study was to compared the temporal pattern of elevation urinary KIM-1 level following critically ill children with SCr as standart biomarker of AKI. Prospective analytic observational study was conducted during October to March 2014 in the Saiful Anwar General Hospital and Physiology Laboratory Brawijaya University. There were 13 critically ill as subjects. SCr and KIM-1 levels from all subjects were measured three times ( at admission, after 1st and 6th hour. Subjects were devided into AKI - non-AKI groups by SCr level and survivor - non survivor group at the and of the observations. Results showed that there were significantly increased levels of KIM-1 in the AKI and non-AKI and survivor-non survivor group at time point. However, we found that delta KIM-1 at time point increased significant in non AKI group and survivor group. KIM-1 at admission can diagnosed AKI in critically ill children. We conclude that urinary KIM-1 is a sensitive non-invasive biomarker to diagnosed acute kidney injury in critically ill children. Increase level of KIM-1 by time shows protective and good outcome in critically ill children.
Nixon, Abigail F; Cunningham, Sandra J; Cohen, Hillel W; Crain, Ellen F
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the probiotic Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in reducing the duration of acute infectious diarrhea in the pediatric emergency department. We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of children 6 months to 6 years presenting to the pediatric emergency department with a complaint of diarrhea. Patients were randomized to receive either placebo or LGG powder twice daily for 5 days. With each dose, parents recorded the stool history in a home diary and were followed up daily by a blinded researcher. Groups were compared in terms of time to normal stool and number of diarrheal stools. Of 155 patients enrolled, 129 completed the study: 63 in the LGG group and 66 in the placebo group. There was no significant difference in the median (interquartile range) time to normal stool (LGG: 60 hours [37-111] vs placebo: 74 hours [43-120]; P = 0.37) or the number of diarrheal stools (LGG: 5.0 [1-10] vs placebo: 6.5 [2-14]; P = 0.19). Among children who presented with more than 2 days of diarrhea, the LGG group returned to normal stool earlier (LGG: 51 hours [32-78] vs placebo: 74 hours [45-120]; P = 0.02), had fewer episodes of diarrheal stools (LGG: 3.5 [1.0-7.5] vs placebo: 7 [3.0-16.3]; P = 0.02), and were 2.2 times more likely to return to normal stool (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.9; P = 0.01) compared with children in the placebo group. Lactobacillus GG may reduce the duration of acute diarrheal illness among children presenting with more than 2 days of symptoms.
Full Text Available Metoclopramide is a benzamide that is a dopamine receptor, often preferred as a prokinetic agent to accelerate gastrointestinal passage in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease; itis also used as an antiemetic agent in many diseases that progress with nausea-vomiting. It is effective on the digestive system both centrally and peripherally. It easily overcomes the blood-brain barrier and may create side effects pertaining to the extrapyramidal system. Acute dystonic reaction is rare among these side effects; it is, however, a condition that needs to be treated urgently. This paper presents a 5-month-old infant patient who developed acute dystonic reaction secondary to the use of Metpamid at a high dose. The diagnosis in this case was made based onpatient history. The patient%u2019s symptoms rapidly disappeared thanks to treatment with diphenhydramine. It should be remembered that metoclopramide may cause side effects in patients presenting to the emergency service with acute dystonia, soa complete history of drugs should definitely be taken for such patients.
Vasey, Jackie; Smith, Joanna; Kirshbaum, Marilynne; Chirema, Kathleen
Theme: Parenting/parenthood. Family-centred care (FCC) is widely acknowledged as underpinning children's nursing. Delivering FCC requires nurses to advocate for family involvement, particularly in areas where evidence suggest the child's needs are not being met, such as pain care. To explore parental involvement in their child's acute pain care. A qualitative ethnographical approach was adopted, with non-participant observation and follow-up interviews. The framework approach underpinned data analysis. Partnership between nurses and parents is not overtly evident in relation to pain care. Involvement is often 'unspoken', indicating that neither the nurse nor parent are clear about the extent to which parents can, or are, involved in care. Parents want greater involvement in their child's pain care and often initiate involvement by advocating for their child, with or without support from nurses. The 'Pillars of Partnership in Pain Care' model offers an alternative approach to involving parents.
Omer, Saad B; Phadke, Varun K; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Chamberlain, Allison T; Brosseau, Jennifer L; Orenstein, Walter A
Statins have antiinflammatory effects that may impact vaccine-induced immune responses. We investigated the impact of statin therapy on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI). We conducted a retrospective cohort study over nine influenza seasons using research databases of a large managed care organization in the United States. Influenza vaccination and statin prescription statuses of cohort members and MAARI cases were ascertained on a per-season basis. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of MAARI were estimated using Poisson regression and stratified by statin use. Using a ratio of ratios approach, we compared IRRs from periods during to IRRs from periods before influenza circulation and then used relative IRRs to compute VE. After adjustment for multiple prespecified covariates, the influenza VE against MAARI was lower among statin users than nonusers during periods of local (14.1% vs 22.9%; mean difference, 11.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.7% to 26.1%) and widespread (12.6% vs 26.2%; mean difference, 18.4%; 95% CI, 2.9%-36.2%) influenza circulation. In this study, statin therapy was associated with reduced influenza VE against MAARI. Since many cases of MAARI are not caused by influenza, studies of the impact of statins on influenza VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Qasmieh, Saba; Mounts, Anthony Wayne; Alexander, Burmaa; Besselaar, Terry; Briand, Sylvie; Brown, Caroline; Clark, Seth; Dueger, Erica; Gross, Diane; Hauge, Siri; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Jorgensen, Pernille; Katz, Mark A; Mafi, Ali; Malik, Mamunur; McCarron, Margaret; Meerhoff, Tamara; Mori, Yuichiro; Mott, Joshua; Olivera, Maria Teresa da Costa; Ortiz, Justin R; Palekar, Rakhee; Rebelo-de-Andrade, Helena; Soetens, Loes; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Zhang, Wenqing; Vandemaele, Katelijn
Abstract The formulation of accurate clinical case definitions is an integral part of an effective process of public health surveillance. Although such definitions should, ideally, be based on a standardized and fixed collection of defining criteria, they often require revision to reflect new knowledge of the condition involved and improvements in diagnostic testing. Optimal case definitions also need to have a balance of sensitivity and specificity that reflects their intended use. After the 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a technical consultation on global influenza surveillance. This prompted improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of the case definition for influenza – i.e. a respiratory disease that lacks uniquely defining symptomology. The revision process not only modified the definition of influenza-like illness, to include a simplified list of the criteria shown to be most predictive of influenza infection, but also clarified the language used for the definition, to enhance interpretability. To capture severe cases of influenza that required hospitalization, a new case definition was also developed for severe acute respiratory infection in all age groups. The new definitions have been found to capture more cases without compromising specificity. Despite the challenge still posed in the clinical separation of influenza from other respiratory infections, the global use of the new WHO case definitions should help determine global trends in the characteristics and transmission of influenza viruses and the associated disease burden. PMID:29403115
Gorelick, M H; McLellan, S L; Wagner, D; Klein, J
We examined the association between water exposures and acute diarrhoeal illness (ADI) in children under non-outbreak conditions in a major US metropolitan area. We used a nested case-control study of children seen in an urban/suburban emergency department. Cases were those seen for a complaint of diarrhoea, while controls were age-matched children with a non-gastrointestinal complaint. Parents of subjects completed a validated water-use survey. Stratum-specific adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated for the three main water effects: water source [surface vs. ground (well)], drinking-water type (tap vs. bottled), and use of water filters. Of 2472 subjects, 45% drank mostly or only bottled water. Well-water use was associated with increased odds of ADI compared to surface water [aOR 1·38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·01-1·87]. Use of bottled water did not affect the odds of ADI in well-water users, but increased the odds of ADI for surface-water users (aOR 1·27, 95% CI 1·02-1·57). We conclude that well-water use and bottled-water use are associated with increased odds of ADI in children.
Kanach, Frances A; Pastva, Amy M; Hall, Katherine S; Pavon, Juliessa M; Morey, Miriam C
This review examined effects of structured exercise (aerobic walking, with or without complementary modes of exercise) on cardiorespiratory measures, mobility, functional status, healthcare utilization, and Quality of Life in older adults (≥60 years) hospitalized for acute medical illness. Inclusion required exercise protocol, at least one patient-level or utilization outcome, and at least one physical assessment point during hospitalization or within 1 month of intervention. MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched for studies published from 2000 to March 2015. Qualitative synthesis of 12 articles, reporting on 11 randomized controlled (RCT) and quasi-experimental studies described a heterogeneous set of exercise programs and reported mixed results across outcome categories. Methodological quality was independently assessed by 2 reviewers using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias tool. Larger, well-designed RCTs are needed, incorporating measurement of pre-morbid function, randomization with intention-to-treat analysis, examination of a targeted intervention with pre-defined intensity, and reported adherence and attrition.
Daumas, R P; Brasil, P; Bressan, C S; Oliveira, R V C; Carvalho, B B G; Carneiro, D V; Passos, S R L
To assess the interobserver agreement on clinical history and physical examination when using a semi-structured questionnaire to evaluate patients with an acute febrile illness (AFI). A cross-sectional study was conducted with outpatients aged 12 years and over, presenting with an AFI defined as fever up to 7 days and no evident focus of infection. Clinical data were collected independently by two physicians using a semi-structured questionnaire. Interobserver agreement was estimated using kappa coefficients with a 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 140 patients (age range 13-73 years; 56.4% females) were enrolled. All symptoms showed weighted kappa values significantly greater than 0.6, indicating an at least substantial agreement. As most physical signs were infrequent and of mild intensity, they were recoded and analyzed as absent/present. Of the signs with prevalence ≥15%, exanthema, pallor, lymph node enlargement, and eye congestion showed agreements significantly greater than 0.6, while kappa confidence limits for pharyngeal erythema and dehydration included values classified as regular. High agreement was observed for most of the clinical data assessed, and symptom grading was feasible. Some physical findings were rare and their inclusion in a structured form may not be justified in this setting. The questionnaire application showed good reliability for the most frequent signs and symptoms and may prove to be useful at gathering data for surveillance and research at sentinel sites.
Perez, Enrique; Majowicz, Shannon E.; Reid-Smith, Richard; Albil, Silvia; Monteverde, Marcos; McEwen, Scott A.
This study evaluated the magnitude and distribution of acute gastrointestinal illness (GI) in Gálvez, Argentina, and assessed the outcome of a seven-day versus 30-day recall period in survey methodology. A cross-sectional population survey, with either a seven-day or a 30-day retrospective recall period, was conducted through door-to-door visits to randomly-selected residents during the ‘high’ and the ‘low’ seasons of GI in the community. Comparisons were made between the annual incidence rates obtained using the seven-day and the 30-day recall period. Using the 30-day recall period, the mean annual incidence rates was 0.43 (low season of GI) and 0.49 (high season of GI) episodes per person-year. Using the seven-day recall period, the mean annual incidence rate was 0.76 (low season of GI) and 2.66 (high season of GI) episodes per person-year. This study highlights the significant burden of GI in a South American community and confirms the importance of seasonality when investigating GI in the population. The findings suggest that a longer recall period may underestimate the burden of GI in retrospective population surveys of GI. PMID:20411678
Wu, S-I; Kao, K-L; Chen, S-C; Juang, J J M; Lin, C-J; Fang, C-K; Wu, C-S; Dewey, M; Prince, M J; Stewart, R
To investigate the association between acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and recent exposure to antipsychotic agents in people with serious mental illness (SMI), and modifying influences. A case-crossover design was applied using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to compare the exposure frequency of antipsychotic agents within individuals of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder between 60-day case and control periods prior to their first AMI episode during 1996-2007. A sample of 834 patients with incident AMI was analysed. AMI was significantly associated with more recent antipsychotic exposure in schizophrenia after adjustment (OR 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.15-3.03) bipolar disorder (OR 1.06, 0.51-2.21). This association in schizophrenia was significantly stronger in men and in patients without previous diagnoses of cardiovascular risk factors. These findings are consistent with a short-term risk effect of antipsychotic exposure on risk of AMI and identify potentially vulnerable groups. Further research is required to clarify underlying biological mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Conclusion: A total of 66% KD cases had positive contact with ill household members prior to their disease onset and 92% of families had clusters of infectious illness, so KD is strongly associated with infections.
Acute non-traumatic scrotal pain in children, commonly due to a torted testicular appendage (hydatid of Morgagni) or torted epididymal appendage is well described. These vestigial embryonal duct remnants are of Müllerian and Wolffian duct origin respectively. Very rarely, the other infrequently encountered Wolffian duct remnants known as the paradidymis or organ of Giraldés and the superior and inferior aberrant ducts known as the organs of Haller can become torted. We describe the presentation, management and diagnosis of a torted embryonal remnant arising from the distal spermatic cord.
Li, Jiong; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Precht, Dorthe Hansen
Background The loss of a child is considered one of the most stressful events in the life of a parent. We hypothesized that parental bereavement increases the risk of hospital admission for a psychiatric disorder, especially for affective disorders. Methods We studied a cohort of 1,082,503 persons...... identified from national registers in Denmark who were born between 1952 and 1999 and had at least one child under 18 years of age during the follow-up period, from 1970 to 1999. Parents who lost a child during follow-up were categorized as “bereaved” from the date of death of the child. Results As compared...... with parents who did not lose a child, parents who lost a child had an overall relative risk of a first psychiatric hospitalization for any disorder of 1.67 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.53 to 1.83). Bereaved mothers had a higher relative risk of being hospitalized for any psychiatric disorder than...
concentrations in young patients with BN, with a focus on the stage of the disorder, comparing acutely ill and recovered patients with BN with healthy controls.Methods: Serum Zn concentrations were obtained from healthy controls and from acutely ill and remitted young patients with BN. Mean duration of remission was 4.0±3.5 years.Results: Remitted patients showed elevated serum Zn concentrations when compared to controls (Cohen’s d=2.022, but concentrations were still in the normal range. Acutely ill patients also had higher serum Zn levels when compared to controls (all values still being within the reference range, Cohen’s d=0.882. There was no difference between acutely ill and remitted patients with BN in serum Zn concentrations. Of note, remitted patients had a significantly higher body weight when compared to the other two groups. Overall, there were no significant differences in dietary preferences with regard to Zn containing foods between the groups.Conclusion: The present study provides preliminary evidence that the underlying factors for changes in Zn serum concentrations in young patients with BN do not vary with regard to the stage of illness (acute versus remitted BN. Further prospective research is needed in order to disentangle the possible interplay between serum Zn status and bulimic eating behaviors. Keywords: bulimia nervosa, zinc, serum concentrations, remission, eating disorders
Niagolova, S.; Karapasheva, V.; Nikolova, M.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered the most common demyelinating process involving the CNS. Although usually considered an adult disease multiple sclerosis can begin to manifest during childhood. The clinical presentation of the disease in early childhood can range from paraesthesias to dramatic presentations, suggesting diffuse encephalopathy with cerebral oedema, meningismus and impaired consciousness. Multiple sclerosis is usually characterized by a typical relapsing-remitting clinical course. But there are acute, clinically fulminant forms with atypical. neurologic symptoms and death in months. MRI has become increasingly relevant in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in the past years. Yet, the specificity is limited. Atypical forms of MS and other diseases of CNS may show similar patterns on MRI. We report a case of 7 years old boy with clinically fulminant Marburg type of multiple sclerosis that ended with death in two months. The patient was a diagnostic problem despite the certain degree of clinical and radiological suspicion. The postmortem diagnosis is based on pathomorphologic changes (gross pathologic and microscopic features) in CNS.The present case is of clinical, radiological and pathomorphologic interest because of its early onset in childhood, unusual clinical course and acute progression. Awareness of the MRI features of multiple sclerosis and MS-variants (subtypes) may help in such atypical presentations in childhood. (authors)
Morshedi, R Grant; Bettis, Daniel I; Moshirfar, Majid; Vitale, Albert T
To describe two cases of bilateral acute iris transillumination following systemic administration of moxifloxacin and review the literature. Review of clinical records, and review of the literature using the PubMed database. A 75 year-old man and 33 year-old woman presented with bilateral conjunctival injection, photophobia, and atonic, distorted pupils. The symptoms began acutely following a respiratory illness, for which both were treated with moxifloxacin. Both patients demonstrated profound iris transillumination, sectoral posterior bowing of the iris, corneal endothelial pigment dusting, and trabecular meshwork hyperpigmentation. One patient had a cotton-wool spot. A literature review identified 59 previous reports in 5 publications, including 17 patients with no antecedent fluoroquinolone use. Increased awareness of this recently described clinical entity should lead to a decrease in unnecessary diagnostic evaluations. It is currently unclear whether this disease represents an adverse effect of fluoroquinolone use or a sequela of a systemic illness.
During September 7-11, 2000, CDC was notified by the Idaho Department of Health, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, and the GeoSentinel Global Surveillance Network of at least 20 cases of acute febrile illness in three countries; all ill patients had participated in the Eco-Challenge-Sabah 2000 multisport expedition race in Borneo, Malaysia, during August 21-September 3, 2000. Participants included athletes from 29 U.S. states and 26 countries. This report updates the ongoing investigation of this outbreak through December 2, which suggests that Leptospira were the cause of illness and that water from the Segama River was the primary source of infection. Participants in adventure sports and exotic tourism should be aware of potential exposure to unusual and emerging infectious agents.
Wooley, Jennifer A; Btaiche, Imad F; Good, Kelley L
Acute renal failure (ARF) is rarely an isolated process but is often a complication of underlying conditions such as sepsis, trauma, and multiple-organ failure in critically ill patients. As such, concomitant clinical conditions significantly affect patient outcome. Poor nutritional status is a major factor in increasing patients' morbidity and mortality. Malnutrition in ARF patients is caused by hypercatabolism and hypermetabolism that parallel the severity of illness. When dialytic intervention is indicated, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a commonly used alternative to intermittent hemodialysis because it is well tolerated by hemodynamically unstable patients. This paper reviews the metabolic and nutritional alterations associated with ARF and provides recommendations regarding the nutritional, fluid, electrolyte, micronutrient, and acid-base management of these patients. The basic principles of CRRT are addressed, along with their nutritional implications in critically ill patients. A patient case is presented to illustrate the clinical application of topics covered within the paper.
An, Gary; Hunt, C Anthony; Clermont, Gilles; Neugebauer, Edmund; Vodovotz, Yoram
Translational systems biology approaches can be distinguished from mainstream systems biology in that their goal is to drive novel therapies and streamline clinical trials in critical illness. One systems biology approach, dynamic mathematical modeling (DMM), is increasingly used in dealing with the complexity of the inflammatory response and organ dysfunction. The use of DMM often requires a broadening of research methods and a multidisciplinary team approach that includes bioscientists, mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists. However, the development of these groups must overcome domain-specific barriers to communication and understanding. We present 4 case studies of successful translational, interdisciplinary systems biology efforts, which differ by organizational level from an individual to an entire research community. Case 1 is a single investigator involved in DMM of the acute inflammatory response at Cook County Hospital, in which extensive translational progress was made using agent-based models of inflammation and organ damage. Case 2 is a community-level effort from the University of Witten-Herdecke in Cologne, whose efforts have led to the formation of the Society for Complexity in Acute Illness. Case 3 is an institution-based group, the Biosystems Group at the University of California, San Francisco, whose work has included a focus on a common lexicon for DMM. Case 4 is an institution-based, transdisciplinary research group (the Center for Inflammation and Regenerative Modeling at the University of Pittsburgh), whose modeling work has led to internal education efforts, grant support, and commercialization. A transdisciplinary approach, which involves team interaction in an iterative fashion to address ambiguity and is supported by educational initiatives, is likely to be necessary for DMM in acute illness. Communitywide organizations such as the Society of Complexity in Acute Illness must strive to facilitate the implementation of DMM in
Costa e Silva, Verônica Torres; Liaño, Fernando; Muriel, Alfonso; Díez, Rafael; de Castro, Isac; Yu, Luis
Background Delayed nephrology consultation (NC) seems to be associated with worse prognosis in critically ill acute kidney injury (AKI) patients. Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements The aims of this study were to analyze factors related with timing of NC and its relation with AKI patients' outcome in intensive care units of a tertiary hospital. AKI was defined as an increase ≥50% in baseline serum creatinine (SCr). Early NC and delayed NC were defined as NC performed before and two days after AKI diagnosis day. Multivariable logistic regression and propensity scores (PS) were used to adjust for confounding and selection biases. Hospital mortality and dialysis dependence on hospital discharge were the primary outcomes. Results A total of 366 AKI patients were analyzed and NCs were carried out in 53.6% of the patients. Hospital mortality was 67.8% and dialysis required in 31.4% patients (115/366). Delayed NCs (34%) occurred two days after AKI diagnosis day. This group presented higher mortality (OR: 4.04/CI: 1.60–10.17) and increased dialysis dependence (OR: 3.00/CI: 1.43–6.29) on hospital discharge. Four variables were retained in the PS model for delayed NC: diuresis (1000 ml/24 h - OR: 1.92/CI: 1.27–2.90), SCr (OR: 0.49/CI: 0.32–0.75), surgical AKI (OR: 3.67/CI: 1.65–8.15), and mechanical ventilation (OR: 2.82/CI: 1.06–7.44). After correction by PS, delayed NC was still associated with higher mortality (OR: 3.39/CI: 1.24–9.29) and increased dialysis dependence (OR: 3.25/CI: 1.41–7.51). Delayed NC was associated with increased mortality either in dialyzed patients (OR: 1.54/CI: 1.35–1.78) or non-dialyzed patients (OR: 2.89/CI: 1.00–8.35). Conclusion Delayed NC was associated with higher mortality and increased dialysis dependence rates in critically ill AKI patients at hospital discharge. Further studies are necessary to ascertain whether this effect is due to delayed nephrology intervention or residual confounding factors. PMID
Cadell, Susan; Kennedy, Kimberly; Hemsworth, David
Pediatric palliative care is an evolving field of practice in social work. As such, research plays a critical role in informing best social work practices in this area. For parents, caring for a child with a life-limiting illness (LLI) is a stressful experience that compounds the usual challenges of parenting. The negative aspects of caring for a child with an LLI are well documented. In the face of such adversity, parent caregivers can also experience positive changes caring for children with even the most serious conditions. This article presents results from a research study of posttraumatic growth in parents who are caring for a child with a LLI. Using mixed methods, two overarching themes were prominent in both the quantitative and qualitative data. The first describes stress related to financial burden associated with caregiving. The second theme concerns the posttraumatic growth experienced by the parent caregivers. The quantitative and qualitative data have been woven together to underscore issues and parental perspectives related to these two themes. This provides a unique and important platform for parent caregivers' experiences that can inform the work of social workers and other pediatric palliative care professionals.
Full Text Available Isovaleric acidemia is a rare branched-chain organic acidemia. The authors describe a 3.5-year-old girl with isovaleric acidemia and acute abdominal pain associated with bilious emesis. Elevated serum amylase and abdominal ultrasonography demonstrating an enlarged and edematous pancreas, along with the presence of peripancreatic exudates, confirmed the presence of acute pancreatitis. The patient recovered quickly with intravenous hydration, pancreatic rest, and administration of intravenous L-carnitine. Pancreatitis should be ruled out in the context of vomiting in any patient with isovaleric acidemia. Conversely, branched-chain organic acidemias should be included in the differential diagnosis of any child with pancreatitis of unknown origin.
Mueller, Tara C.; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J.; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier
In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects. PMID:24755844
Galate, Lata Baswanna; Agrawal, Sachee R; Shastri, Jayanthi S; Londhey, Vikram
Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is an arboviral disease. Dengue fever (DENG) and CHIK are indistinguishable clinically and need to be differentiated by laboratory investigations. This study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of CHIK mono-infection and CHIK and DENG dual infection in suspected patients. We also analyzed the age, sex distribution, joint involvement, and relation of joint movement restriction with visual analog scale (VAS). Two hundred patients clinically suspected with DENG and CHIK were enrolled from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai from April 2012 to October 2013. The detailed history and examination findings were recorded. Serum samples were subjected to DENG and CHIK immunoglobulin G (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The seroprevalence of CHIK was 12.5%. Mono-infection of CHIK was 3%, and CHIK and DENG dual infection was 9.5%. Most affected age group in CHIK cases was 46-60 years wherein female preponderance was seen. All 6 patients with CHIK mono-infection had fever and joint involvement; knee and elbow were the most commonly affected joints. All CHIK patients had VAS score of 6-10 with restricted joint movement. Of the patients with dual infection, the majorities were from 31 to 45 years with male preponderance; all had fever and joint pain mainly affecting knee and elbow. Of patients who had VAS score 6-10 in patients with dual infection, only 5.26% had restricted joint movement. IgM ELISA for Chikungunya infection should be included in the routine laboratory tests for acute febrile illness.
Chen, Samuel L; Kuo, Isabella J; Kabutey, Nii-Kabu; Fujitani, Roy M
Certain critically ill patients with advanced acute limb ischemia with a nonviable extremity may be unsuitable for transport to the operating room to undergo definitive amputation. In these unstable patients, rapid regional cryotherapy allows for prompt infectious source control and correction of hemodynamic and metabolic abnormalities, thereby lessening the risk associated with definitive surgical amputation. We describe our refined technique for lower extremity physiologic cryoamputation and review our institutional experience. After adequate analgesia is administered to the patient, a heating pad is secured circumferentially at the proximal amputation margin and the affected extremity is placed in a customized Styrofoam cooler. A circumferential seal is secured at the proximal chill zone without use of a tourniquet and dry ice is placed into the cooler to surround the entire affected leg. Delayed definitive lower extremity amputation is later performed when hemodynamic and metabolic derangements are corrected. We reviewed 5 patients who underwent lower extremity cryoamputation with this technique identified at our institution between 2005 and 2015. Age ranged from 31 to 79 years old. All presented with severe foot infection and septic shock requiring vasopressor support. All 5 patients stabilized hemodynamically following the initial cryoamputation and later underwent definitive lower extremity amputation, with a median time of 3 days following initial cryoamputation. Lower extremity physiologic cryoamputation is an effective, immediate bedside procedure that can provide local source control and the opportunity for correction of metabolic derangements in initially unstable patients to lessen the risk for definitive major lower extremity amputation. Refinement of the cryoamputation technique, as described in this report, allows for a predictable and reproducible physiologic amputation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Borchardt, Mark A; Spencer, Susan K; Kieke, Burney A; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Loge, Frank J
Groundwater supplies for drinking water are frequently contaminated with low levels of human enteric virus genomes, yet evidence for waterborne disease transmission is lacking. We related quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-measured enteric viruses in the tap water of 14 Wisconsin communities supplied by nondisinfected groundwater to acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) incidence. AGI incidence was estimated from health diaries completed weekly by households within each study community during four 12-week periods. Water samples were collected monthly from five to eight households per community. Viruses were measured by qPCR, and infectivity assessed by cell culture. AGI incidence was related to virus measures using Poisson regression with random effects. Communities and time periods with the highest virus measures had correspondingly high AGI incidence. This association was particularly strong for norovirus genogroup I (NoV-GI) and between adult AGI and enteroviruses when echovirus serotypes predominated. At mean concentrations of 1 and 0.8 genomic copies/L of NoV-GI and enteroviruses, respectively, the AGI incidence rate ratios (i.e., relative risk) increased by 30%. Adenoviruses were common, but tap-water concentrations were low and not positively associated with AGI. The estimated fraction of AGI attributable to tap-water-borne viruses was between 6% and 22%, depending on the virus exposure-AGI incidence model selected, and could have been as high as 63% among children water. The majority of groundwater-source public water systems in the United States produce water without disinfection, and our findings suggest that populations served by such systems may be exposed to waterborne viruses and consequent health risks.
Edward B Breitschwerdt
Full Text Available Case series summary At different time points spanning 6 months, three adopted feral flea-infested cats, residing in the household of a veterinary technician, became acutely anorexic, lethargic and febrile. Enrichment blood culture/PCR using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM confirmed initial infection with the same Bartonella henselae genotype in all three cases. With the exception of anemia and neutropenia, complete blood counts, serum biochemical profiles and urinalysis results were within reference intervals. Also, tests for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Toxoplasma gondii and feline coronavirus antibodies were negative. Serial daily temperature monitoring in one case confirmed a cyclic, relapsing febrile temperature pattern during 1 month, with resolution during and after treatment with azithromycin. Bartonella henselae Western immunoblot (WB results did not consistently correlate with BAPGM enrichment blood culture/PCR results or B henselae indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA titers, and WB titration results were not informative for establishing antibiotic treatment failure. During the respective follow-up periods, no illnesses or additional febrile episodes were reported, despite repeat documentation of B henselae bacteremia in two cats available for follow-up (one with the same genotype and the other with a different B henselae genotype; one cat was, unfortunately, killed by dogs before follow-up testing. Relevance and novel information We conclude that microbiological diagnosis and treatment of B henselae infection in cats can be challenging, that antibody titration results and resolution of clinical abnormalities may not correlate with a therapeutic cure, and that fever and potentially neutropenia should be differential diagnostic considerations for young cats with suspected bartonellosis.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early recognition and treatment of febrile children with serious infections (SI improves prognosis, however, early detection can be difficult. We aimed to validate the predictive rule-in value of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE most severe alarming signs or symptoms to identify SI in children. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The 16 most severe ("red" features of the NICE traffic light system were validated in seven different primary care and emergency department settings, including 6,260 children presenting with acute illness. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We focussed on the individual predictive value of single red features for SI and their combinations. Results were presented as positive likelihood ratios, sensitivities and specificities. We categorised "general" and "disease-specific" red features. Changes in pre-test probability versus post-test probability for SI were visualised in Fagan nomograms. RESULTS: Almost all red features had rule-in value for SI, but only four individual red features substantially raised the probability of SI in more than one dataset: "does not wake/stay awake", "reduced skin turgor", "non-blanching rash", and "focal neurological signs". The presence of ≥ 3 red features improved prediction of SI but still lacked strong rule-in value as likelihood ratios were below 5. CONCLUSIONS: The rule-in value of the most severe alarming signs or symptoms of the NICE traffic light system for identifying children with SI was limited, even when multiple red features were present. Our study highlights the importance of assessing the predictive value of alarming signs in clinical guidelines prior to widespread implementation in routine practice.
Mølbak, K; Aaby, P; Ingholt, L
An investigation of child mortality in a semi-urban community, Bandim II, in the capital of Guinea Bissau was carried out from April 1987 to March 1990. 153 deaths were recorded among 1426 live-born children who were followed for 2753 child-years. The under-five mortality risk was 215 per 1000...... children (95% confidence interval [CI] 176-264), infant mortality 94 per 1000 (95% CI 73-115), and perinatal mortality 52 per 1000 (95% CI 41-63). By prospective registration of morbidity, post-mortem interviews, and examination of available hospital records, a presumptive cause of death was established...... in 86% of the deaths. Persistent and acute diarrhoea were the most frequent causes of death, accounting for 43 and 31 deaths per 1000 children, respectively. Fever deaths (possibly malaria), neonatal deaths, acute respiratory infections, and measles were other frequent causes. The access to health...
Apr 11, 2007 ... weight well enough. The only objective way of assessing a child's weight gain is to take repeated measurements on a reliable (or at least the same) scale. Just recording ... illness or acute starvation, and catch-up can occur equally readily. Therefore a .... weight loss or failure to thrive, the child should be ...
Li, Jiong; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Precht, Dorthe Hansen
Background The loss of a child is considered one of the most stressful events in the life of a parent. We hypothesized that parental bereavement increases the risk of hospital admission for a psychiatric disorder, especially for affective disorders. Methods We studied a cohort of 1,082,503 person...
Durand, Hannah; Birnie, Kathryn A; Noel, Melanie; Vervoort, Tine; Goubert, Liesbet; Boerner, Katelynn E; Chambers, Christine T; Caes, Line
Pain catastrophizing has emerged as one of the most robust predictors of child pain outcomes. Although assessments of state (ie, situation-specific) pain catastrophizing in children and parents are often used, their psychometric properties are unknown. This study aimed to assess factor structure, reliability, and predictive validity of state versions of Pain Catastrophizing Scales for children and parents relative to corresponding trait versions for child and parental pain-related outcomes. Data were pooled from 8 experimental pain studies in which child and/or parent state catastrophizing (measured immediately before application of a pain stimulus) and trait catastrophizing were assessed in community-based samples of children aged 8 to 18 years (N = 689) and their parents (N = 888) in Dutch or English. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted to examine the underlying factor structure of the state versions of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale for parents/children, revealing a single factor solution that explained 55.53% of the variance for children and 49.72% for parents. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to examine relative influence of state versus trait catastrophizing on child and parent pain-related outcomes. Child and parent state catastrophizing were significantly associated with child pain intensity, child state anxiety and parental distress. State catastrophizing scores showed stronger associations than trait scores for most outcomes. This article presents the psychometric properties of state pain catastrophizing measures for children and parents. Findings underscore the importance of assessing state pain catastrophizing about acute pain experiences in parents and children, and provide a basis for robust and valid measurement of state pain catastrophizing about child pain. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barwise, Amelia; Garcia-Arguello, Lisbeth; Dong, Yue; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Vukoja, Marija; Schultz, Marcus J.; Adhikari, Neill K. J.; Bonneton, Benjamin; Kilickaya, Oguz; Kashyap, Rahul; Gajic, Ognjen; Schmickl, Christopher N.
The Checklist for Early Recognition and Treatment of Acute Illness (CERTAIN) is an international collaborative project with the overall objective of standardizing the approach to the evaluation and treatment of critically ill patients world-wide, in accordance with best-practice principles. One of
Richardson, Rita C.
This paper reviews various discipline models and applies them to obtaining cooperation and compliance with medical treatment of children with chronic and acute medical conditions, especially End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). The definition of Other Health Impairments in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is cited and related to the…
Christova, Iva; Younan, Rasha; Taseva, Evgenia; Gladnishka, Teodora; Trifonova, Iva; Ivanova, Vladislava; Spik, Kristin; Schmaljohn, Connie; Mohareb, Emad
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) are the 2 widespread viral hemorrhagic fevers occurring in Europe. HFRS is distributed throughout Europe, and CCHF has been reported mainly on the Balkan Peninsula and Russia. Both hemorrhagic fevers are endemic in Bulgaria. We investigated to what extent acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Bulgaria could be due to hantaviruses or to CCHF virus. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), we tested serum samples from 527 patients with acute febrile illness for antibodies against hantaviruses and CCHF virus. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against hantaviruses were detected in 15 (2.8%) of the patients. Of the 15 hantavirus-positive patients, 8 (1.5%) were positive for Dobrava virus (DOBV), 5 (0.9%) were positive for Puumala virus (PUUV), and the remaining 2 were positive for both hantaviruses. A plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) confirmed 4 of the 10 DOBV-positive samples. PRNT was negative for all PUUV-positive samples. Serologic evidence of recent CCHF virus infection was found in 13 (2.5%) of the patients. Interestingly, HFRS and CCHF were not only detected in well-known endemic areas of Bulgaria but also in nonendemic regions. Our results suggested that in endemic countries, CCHF and/or HFRS might appear as a nonspecific febrile illness in a certain proportion of patients. Physicians must be aware of possible viral hemorrhagic fever cases, even if hemorrhages or renal impairment are not manifested.
Thackeray, Jonathan D; Hornor, Gail; Benzinger, Elizabeth A; Scribano, Philip V
To describe forensic evidence findings and reevaluate previous recommendations with respect to timing of evidence collection in acute child sexual assault and to identify factors associated with yield of DNA. This was a retrospective review of medical and legal records of patients aged 0 to 20 years who required forensic evidence collection. Ninety-seven of 388 (25%) processed evidence-collection kits were positive and 63 (65%) of them produced identifiable DNA. There were 20 positive samples obtained from children younger than 10 years; 17 of these samples were obtained from children seen within 24 hours of the assault. Three children had positive body samples beyond 24 hours after the assault, including 1 child positive for salivary amylase in the underwear and on the thighs 54 hours after the assault. DNA was found in 11 children aged younger than 10 years, including the child seen 54 hours after the assault. Collection of evidence within 24 hours of the assault was identified as an independent predictor of DNA detection. Identifiable DNA was collected from a child's body despite cases in which: evidence collection was performed >24 hours beyond the assault; the child had a normal/nonacute anogenital examination; there was no reported history of ejaculation; and the victim had bathed and/or changed clothes before evidence collection. Failure to conduct evidence collection on prepubertal children beyond 24 hours after the assault will result in rare missed opportunities to identify forensic evidence, including identification of DNA.
Full Text Available Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS is a rare genetic disease caused by deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4. It is characterized by typical fascial features and a varying degree of intellectual disabilities and multiple systemic involvement. Epidemiological studies confirmed the association of acute pancreatitis with the development of diabetes. However, this association has not been reported in WHS. We report an 18-year-old girl with WHS who presented acutely with nonketotic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Status (HHS in association with severe acute pancreatitis. Her presentation was preceded by febrile illness with preauricular abscess. She was treated with fluids and insulin infusion and remained on insulin 18 months after presentation. Her parents are cousins and the mother was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. She had negative autoantibodies and no signs of insulin resistance and her monogenic diabetes genetic testing was negative. Microarray study using WHS probe confirmed deletion of 4p chromosome. Acute pancreatitis is uncommon in children and development of diabetes following pancreatitis has not been reported in WHS. HHS is considerably less frequent than diabetes ketoacidosis in children. We highlight the complex presentation with HHS and acute pancreatitis leading to diabetes that required long term of insulin treatment.
Ethgen, Olivier; Schneider, Antoine G; Bagshaw, Sean M; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Kellum, John A
The obective of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing intermittent with continuous renal replacement therapy (IRRT versus CRRT) as initial therapy for acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Assuming some patients would potentially be eligible for either modality, we modeled life year gained, the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and healthcare costs for a cohort of 1000 IRRT patients and a cohort of 1000 CRRT patients. We used a 1-year, 5-year and a lifetime horizon. A Markov model with two health states for AKI survivors was designed: dialysis dependence and dialysis independence. We applied Weibull regression from published estimates to fit survival curves for CRRT and IRRT patients and to fit the proportion of dialysis dependence among CRRT and IRRT survivors. We then applied a risk ratio reported in a large retrospective cohort study to the fitted CRRT estimates in order to determine the proportion of dialysis dependence for IRRT survivors. We conducted sensitivity analyses based on a range of differences for daily implementation cost between CRRT and IRRT (base case: CRRT day $632 more expensive than IRRT day; range from $200 to $1000) and a range of risk ratios for dialysis dependence for CRRT as compared with IRRT (from 0.65 to 0.95; base case: 0.80). Continuous renal replacement therapy was associated with a marginally greater gain in QALY as compared with IRRT (1.093 versus 1.078). Despite higher upfront costs for CRRT in the ICU ($4046 for CRRT versus $1423 for IRRT in average), the 5-year total cost including the cost of dialysis dependence was lower for CRRT ($37 780 for CRRT versus $39 448 for IRRT on average). The base case incremental cost-effectiveness analysis showed that CRRT dominated IRRT. This dominance was confirmed by extensive sensitivity analysis. Initial CRRT is cost-effective compared with initial IRRT by reducing the rate of long-term dialysis dependence among critically ill AKI
Malcolm, E; Arruda, E; Hayden, F G; Kaiser, L
Several reports in selected populations suggest that human rhinovirus (HRV) may be responsible for lower respiratory tract infections or pneumonia. We describe clinical features of all patients with rhinovirus cultured from their bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) during a 10-yr period in a tertiary care center. Results for viral culture of all lower respiratory specimens performed during a 10-year period at the University of Virginia Health Sciences Center were reviewed. A case was defined as any patient with a positive culture for HRV in a BAL specimen. A comprehensive review of the patients' medical records was performed. In one case, in situ hybridization (ISH) was performed in order to identify whether rhinoviral RNA was present in bronchial biopsy specimens. During the 10-year study period viruses were identified in 431 lower respiratory tract specimens, and were most frequently cytomegalovirus or herpes simplex virus. Twenty patients (ages, 2.5-86 year) had a bronchoalveolar specimen culture positive for HRV. All had an abnormal chest radiograph, 60% were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 25% expired during their hospitalization. In 18 patients (90%) various severe underlying conditions were identified including solid organ transplants in seven, malignancies in four and AIDS in two. An immunosuppressive disease or condition requiring immunosuppressive therapy was present in all cases. In addition to HRV, one or more potential pathogens were identified in respiratory specimens from 14 patients (70%). Histopathological abnormalities, ranging from fibropurulent debris in alveoli to diffuse alveolar damage, were present in 6 of 13 bronchial biopsies. In two cases without any other significant pathogens than HRV, acute inflammations with fibropurulent debris in alveoli were observed. One lung transplant patient showed intermittent recovery of HRV in her respiratory specimens during a 15-week time period, but ISH did not show HRV RNA in bronchial epithelial cells
Niang, Makhtar; Thiam, Laty Gaye; Sow, Abdourahmane; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Bob, Ndeye Sakha; Diop, Fode; Diouf, Babacar; Niass, Oumy; Mansourou, Annick; Varela, Marie Louise; Perraut, Ronald; Sall, Amadou A; Toure-Balde, Aissatou
Control efforts towards malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum significantly decreased the incidence of the disease in many endemic countries including Senegal. Surprisingly, in Kedougou (southeastern Senegal) P. falciparum malaria remains highly prevalent and the relative contribution of other Plasmodium species to the global malaria burden is very poorly documented, partly due to the low sensitivity of routine diagnostic tools. Molecular methods offer better estimate of circulating Plasmodium species in a given area. A molecular survey was carried out to document circulating malaria parasites in Kedougou region. A total of 263 long-term stored sera obtained from patients presenting with acute febrile illness in Kedougou between July 2009 and July 2013 were used for malaria parasite determination. Sera were withdrawn from a collection established as part of a surveillance programme of arboviruses infections in the region. Plasmodium species were characterized by a nested PCR-based approach targeting the 18S small sub-unit ribosomal RNA genes of Plasmodium spp. Of the 263 sera screened in this study, Plasmodium genomic DNA was amplifiable by nested PCR from 62.35% (164/263) of samples. P. falciparum accounted for the majority of infections either as single in 85.97% (141/164) of Plasmodium-positive samples or mixed with Plasmodium ovale (11.58%, 19/164) or Plasmodium vivax (1.21%, 2/164). All 19 (11.58%) P. ovale-infected patients were mixed with P. falciparum, while no Plasmodium malariae was detected in this survey. Four patients (2.43%) were found to be infected by P. vivax, two of whom were mixed with P. falciparum. P. vivax infections originated from Bandafassi and Ninefesha villages and concerned patients aged 4, 9, 10, and 15 years old, respectively. DNA sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that sequences from Kedougou corresponded to P. vivax, therefore confirming the presence of P. vivax infections in Senegal. The results confirm the
Uy, Jamie; White, Douglas B; Mohan, Deepika; Arnold, Robert M; Barnato, Amber E
There is substantial variation in use of life sustaining technologies in patients near the end of life but little is known about variation in physicians' initial ICU admission and intubation decision making processes. Our objective is to describe variation in hospital-based physicians' communication behaviors and decision-making roles for ICU admission and intubation decisions for an acutely unstable critically and terminally ill patient. We conducted a secondary analysis of transcribed simulation encounters from a multi-center observational study of physician decision making. The simulation depicted a 78-year-old man with metastatic gastric cancer and life threatening hypoxia. He has stable underlying preferences against ICU admission and intubation that he or his wife will report if asked. We coded encounters for communication behaviors (providing medical information, eliciting preferences/values, engaging the patient/surrogate in deliberation, and providing treatment recommendations) and used a previously-developed framework to classify subject physicians into four -mutually-exclusive decision-making roles: informative (providing medical information only), facilitative (information + eliciting preferences/values + guiding surrogate to apply preferences/values), collaborative (information + eliciting + guiding + making a recommendation) and directive (making an independent treatment decision). Simulation centers at 3 US academic medical centers. Twenty-four emergency physicians, 37 hospitalists, and 37 intensivists. Subject physicians average 12.4 years (SD 9.0) since graduation from medical school. Of 98 physicians (39%), 38 physicians sent the patient to the ICU, and 9 of 98 (9%) ultimately decided to intubate. Most (93 of 98 [95%]) provided at least some medical information, but few explained the short-term prognosis with (26 of 98 [27%]) or without intubation (37 of 98 [38%]). Many (80 of 98 [82%]) elicited the patient's intubation preferences, but few (35 of
Full Text Available Data on the burden and risk groups for influenza-associated mortality from Africa are limited. We aimed to estimate the incidence and risk-factors for in-hospital influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI deaths.Hospitalised patients with SARI were enrolled prospectively in four provinces of South Africa from 2009-2013. Using polymerase chain reaction, respiratory samples were tested for ten respiratory viruses and blood for pneumococcal DNA. The incidence of influenza-associated SARI deaths was estimated at one urban hospital with a defined catchment population.We enrolled 1376 patients with influenza-associated SARI and 3% (41 of 1358 with available outcome data died. In patients with available HIV-status, the case-fatality proportion (CFP was higher in HIV-infected (5%, 22/419 than HIV-uninfected individuals (2%, 13/620; p = 0.006. CFPs varied by age group, and generally increased with increasing age amongst individuals >5 years (p<0.001. On multivariable analysis, factors associated with death were age-group 45-64 years (odds ratio (OR 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.01-16.3 and ≥65 years (OR 6.5, 95%CI 1.2-34.3 compared to 1-4 year age-group who had the lowest CFP, HIV-infection (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.1-7.8, underlying medical conditions other than HIV (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.2-7.3 and pneumococcal co-infection (OR 4.1, 95%CI 1.5-11.2. The estimated incidence of influenza-associated SARI deaths per 100,000 population was highest in children <1 year (20.1, 95%CI 12.1-31.3 and adults aged 45-64 years (10.4, 95%CI 8.4-12.9. Adjusting for age, the rate of death was 20-fold (95%CI 15.0-27.8 higher in HIV-infected individuals than HIV-uninfected individuals.Influenza causes substantial mortality in urban South Africa, particularly in infants aged <1 year and HIV-infected individuals. More widespread access to antiretroviral treatment and influenza vaccination may reduce this burden.
Soares, Douglas de Sousa; Reis, André da Fonte; Silva Junior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Leite, Tacyano Tavares; Parente Filho, Sérgio Luiz Arruda; Rocha, Carina Vieira de Oliveira; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco
This study aims to investigate renal toxicities of Polymyxin B and Vancomycin among critically ill patients and risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital in Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: those who used association of Polymyxin B + Vancomycin (Group I) and those who used only Polymyxin B (Group II). Risk factors for AKI were also analyzed. A total of 115 patients were included. Mean age was 59.2 ± 16.1 years, and 52.2% were males. Group I presented higher GFR (117.1 ± 70.5 vs. 91.5 ± 50 ml/min/1.73 m², p = 0.02) as well as lower creatinine (0.9 ± 0.82 vs. 1.0 ± 0.59 mg/dL, p = 0.014) and urea (51.8 ± 23.7 vs. 94.5 ± 4.9 mg/dL, p = 0.006) than group II on admission. Group I also manifested significantly higher incidence of AKI than group II (62.7% vs. 28.5%, p = 0.005), even when stratified according to RIFLE criteria ('Risk' 33.9% vs. 10.7%; 'Injury' 10.2% vs. 8.9%; 'Failure' 18.6% vs. 8.9%; p = 0.03). Accumulated Polymyxin B dose > 10 million IU was an independent predictor for AKI (OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.13-6.51, p = 0.024). Although patients who received Polymyxin B plus vancomycin had more favorable clinical profile and higher previous GFR, they presented a higher AKI incidence than those patients who received Polymyxin B alone. Cumulative Polymyxin B dose > 10 million IU was independently associated to AKI.
Albers, Patricia Nicole; Wright, Caradee Y; Voyi, Kuku V V; Mathee, Angela
This cross-sectional study examined respiratory health outcomes and associated risk factors in children living in a part of South Africa characterised by high levels of air pollution. A questionnaire was used to collect self-reported respiratory health and risk factor data from the parents/guardians of children between the ages of 9 and 11 years attending primary schools in the study area. Six government schools were selected based on their location, class size and willingness to participate. Univariate and bivariate analyses as well as logistic regression analysis were performed on the data, using a p-value of 0.25 and biological plausibility. The overall prevalence of respiratory ill-health symptoms was 34.1%. The prevalence of respiratory ill-health conditions was significantly elevated among children from households using non-electrical fuels v. electricity for cooking (43.9% v. 31.6%; adjusted p-value 0.005). The same was noted among those using non-electrical fuels for heating (37.8% v. 29.0%). The elevated prevalence of some respiratory health outcomes among schoolchildren, especially in conjunction with domestic fossil fuel burning, is of concern. The data collected in this study may be used to complement or form a basis for future policy regarding indoor or ambient air quality in the area.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing home residents are at high risk for developing acute illnesses. Compared with community dwelling adults, nursing home residents are often more frail, prone to multiple medical problems and symptoms, and are at higher risk for adverse outcomes from acute illnesses. In addition, because of polypharmacy and the high burden of chronic disease, nursing home residents are particularly vulnerable to disruptions in transitions of care such as medication interruptions in the setting of acute illness. In order to better estimate the effect of acute illness on nursing home residents, we have initiated a prospective cohort which will allow us to observe patterns of acute illnesses and the consequence of acute illnesses, including symptoms and function, among nursing home residents. We also aim to examine the patterns of medication interruption, and identify patient, provider and environmental factors that influence continuity of medication prescribing at different points of care transition. Methods This is a prospective cohort of nursing home residents residing in two nursing homes in a metropolitan area. Baseline characteristics including age, gender, race, and comorbid conditions are recorded. Participants are followed longitudinally for a planned period of 3 years. We record acute illness incidence and characteristics, and measure symptoms including depression, pain, withdrawal symptoms, and function using standardized scales. Results 76 nursing home residents have been followed for a median of 666 days to date. At baseline, mean age of residents was 74.4 (± 11.9; 32% were female; 59% were white. The most common chronic conditions were dementia (41%, depression (38%, congestive heart failure (25% and chronic obstructive lung disease (27%. Mean pain score was 4.7 (± 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10; Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 score was 5.2 (± 4.4. During follow up, 138 acute illness episodes were identified, for an
Ramanuj, Parashar P; Carvalho, Carlos F A; Harland, Robert; Garety, Philippa A; Craig, Tom K J; Byrne, Nicola
To return the patients to primary care is arguably the desired service outcome for community mental health teams (CMHTs). To assess acute mental health service use (hospitalisation or Home Treatment Team) by people with severe mental illness following discharge to primary care. Retrospective cohort study comparing receipt and duration of acute care by 98 patients in the two years following discharge to primary care from CMHT, with a cohort of 92 patients transferred to another CMHT. The discharged group was significantly more stable on clinical measures. Fifty-seven (58.2%) patients were re-referred after median 39 weeks, with 35 (60.3%) in crisis. The difference in acute service use between discharged patients (27.9 days/patient) and transferred patients (31.7 days/patient) was not significant. Hospitalisation in the two years prior to discharge or transfer increased the odds of re-referral (OR 3.93, 95% CI 1.44-14.55), subsequent acute service use (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03) and duration of input (0.45 extra days/patient, 95% CI 0.22-0.68). The majority of the discharged patients were re-referred to mental health services. Although these were more stable, there was no difference from the transferred group on acute service use. Further support may be required in primary care to maintain stability.
This study compared the accuracy of noninvasively measuring hemoglobin using spectrophotometry (SpHb) with a pulse CO-oximeter and laboratory hemoglobin (Hb) measurements. A total of 345 critically ill children were included prospectively. Age, sex, and factors influencing the reliabilityof SpHb such as SpO2, heart rate, perfusion index (PI), and vasoactive inotropic score were recorded. SpHb measurements were recorded during the blood draw and compared with the Hb measurement. Thirteen patients (low PI in 9 patients and no available Hb in 4 patients) were excluded and 332 children were eligible for final analysis. The mean Hb was 8.71±1.49 g/dL (range, 5.9 to 12 g/dL) and the mean SpHb level was 9.55±1.53 g/dL (range, 6 to 14.2 g/dL). The SpHb bias was 0.84±0.86,with the limits of agreement ranging from -2.5 to 0.9 g/dL. The difference between Hb and SpHb was >1.5 g/dL for only 47 patients. Of these, 24 patients had laboratory Hb levels <7 g/dL. There was a weak positive correlation between differences and PI (r=0.349; P= 0.032). The pulse CO-oximeter is a promising tool for measuring SpHb and monitoring critically ill children. However, PI may affect these results. Additional studies investigating the reliability of the trend of continuous SpHb values compared with simultaneously measured laboratory Hb values in the same patient are warranted.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the influence of the type of child-care on the occurrence of acute diarrhea with special emphasis on the effect of children grouping during care. METHODS: From October 1998 to January 1999 292 children, aged 24 to 36 months, recruited using a previously assembled cohort of newborns, were evaluated. Information on the type of care and occurrence of diarrhea in the previous year was obtained from parents by telephone interview. The X² and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare proportions and quantitative variables, respectively. The risk of diarrhea was estimated through the calculation of incident odds ratios (OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI, crude and adjusted by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Using as reference category children cared individually at home, the adjusted ORs for diarrhea occurrence were 3.18, 95% CI [1.49, 6.77] for children cared in group at home, 2.28, 95% CI [0.92, 5.67] for children cared in group in day-care homes and 2.54, 95% CI [1.21, 5.33] for children cared in day-care centers. Children that changed from any other type of child-care setting to child-care centers in the year preceding the study showed a risk even higher (OR 7.65, 95% CI [3.25, 18.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Group care increases the risk of acute diarrhea whatsoever the specific setting.
Iheanacho, Theddeus; Kapadia, Daniel; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O; Osuji, Alice A; Ogidi, Amaka G; Ike, Anulika; Patel, Dina; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert; Obiefune, Michael; Ezeanolue, Echezona E
Common mental disorders are prevalent in Nigeria. Due to stigma and a limited number of trained specialists, only 10% of adults with mental illness in Nigeria receive any care. The Healthy Beginning Initiative is a community-based maternal/child health program that includes screening for perinatal depression and was implemented by lay, volunteer, church-based health advisors (CHAs). The aim of the study was to assess the beliefs and attitudes about mental illness among the CHAs. The study used a cross-sectional survey of 57 CHAs, who completed a 43-item, self-administered questionnaire that assessed their beliefs and attitudes about mental illness. The response rate was 71%. Respondents were mostly female (79%), married (83%) and aged 40-49 years ( M = 41.16 SD = 10.48). Most endorsed possession by evil spirits (84%), traumatic events (81%) and witchcraft (60%) as causes of mental illness. A majority (69%) believed that people with mental illness were a nuisance, and less than half (46%) believed that mental disorders were illnesses like any other illness. It is concluded that stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about mental illness are common among the CHAs. Training for lay health workers in Nigeria should include education on the known bio-psycho-social basis of mental disorders and the role of social inclusion in recovery.
Karvellas, Constantine J; Farhat, Maha R; Sajjad, Imran
Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the impact of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis were used in this study. PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web.......72). There was significant heterogeneity among the 15 pooled studies (I2 = 78%). In subgroup analyses, stratifying by patient population (surgical, n = 8 vs. mixed, n = 7) or study design (prospective, n = 10 vs. retrospective, n = 5), there was no impact on the overall summary estimate for mortality. Meta-regression...
Lee, Michael J; Sperry, Jason L; Rosengart, Matthew Randall
The diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia among intensive care unit (ICU) patients continues to be difficult and carries high mortality, and yet, it is essential that it be made expeditiously such that lifesaving operative intervention can be offered. A recent study suggested that computed tomography (CT) scan delays operative intervention. Thus, we hypothesized that diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL), a rapidly performed bedside procedure of established high sensitivity, is associated with reduced operative intervention, time to operative intervention, and mortality. We performed a single-institution, retrospective study of 120 patients admitted to an ICU at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center's Presbyterian Hospital between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2010, who were diagnosed with acute mesenteric ischemia. We defined a DPL of greater than 500 cells per cubic millimeter as diagnostic of intra-abdominal pathology. CT scan results were categorized as (1) diagnostic of mesenteric ischemia, (2) abnormal, or (3) normal. We performed multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for difference in case mix, to determine whether DPL is associated with the outcomes of mortality and operative intervention. The cohort was severely ill, with a mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score of 21.7 (range, 0-48), and 51 patients (42.5%) died. The distribution of preoperative evaluation is as follows: CT, 67; DPL, 11; both modalities, 18; and no preoperative evaluation, 24. Those undergoing DPL were more severely ill, as evidenced by significantly higher APACHE II scores. By comparison with CT, DPL was associated with a reduced risk for operation intervention (adjusted odds ratio, 0.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.32; p = 0.002) and mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.62; p = 0.02). DPL is associated with reduced operative intervention yet improved survival, when compared with patients evaluated with
Schmickl, Christopher N; Shahjehan, Khurram; Li, Guangxi; Dhokarh, Rajanigandha; Kashyap, Rahul; Janish, Christopher; Alsara, Anas; Jaffe, Allan S; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Gajic, Ognjen
At the onset of acute hypoxic respiratory failure, critically ill patients with acute lung injury (ALI) may be difficult to distinguish from those with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE). No single clinical parameter provides satisfying prediction. We hypothesized that a combination of those will facilitate early differential diagnosis. In a population-based retrospective development cohort, validated electronic surveillance identified critically ill adult patients with acute pulmonary edema. Recursive partitioning and logistic regression were used to develop a decision support tool based on routine clinical information to differentiate ALI from CPE. Performance of the score was validated in an independent cohort of referral patients. Blinded post hoc expert review served as gold standard. Of 332 patients in a development cohort, expert reviewers (κ, 0.86) classified 156 as having ALI and 176 as having CPE. The validation cohort had 161 patients (ALI = 113, CPE = 48). The score was based on risk factors for ALI and CPE, age, alcohol abuse, chemotherapy, and peripheral oxygen saturation/Fio(2) ratio. It demonstrated good discrimination (area under curve [AUC] = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow [HL] P = .16). Similar performance was obtained in the validation cohort (AUC = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72-0.88; HL P = .13). A simple decision support tool accurately classifies acute pulmonary edema, reserving advanced testing for a subset of patients in whom satisfying prediction cannot be made. This novel tool may facilitate early inclusion of patients with ALI and CPE into research studies as well as improve and rationalize clinical management and resource use.
Basic, David; Hartwell, Tabitha J
To examine the association between falls in hospital and new placement in a nursing home among older people hospitalized with acute illness. This prospective cohort study of 2,945 consecutive patients discharged alive from an acute geriatric medicine service used multivariate logistic regression to model the association between one or more falls and nursing home placement (primary analysis). Secondary analyses stratified falls by injury and occurrence of multiple falls. Demographic, medical, and frailty measures were considered in adjusted models. The mean age of all patients was 82.8±7.6 years and 94% were admitted through the emergency department. During a median length of stay (LOS) of 11 days, 257 (8.7%) patients had a fall. Of these, 66 (25.7%) sustained an injury and 53 (20.6%) had two or more falls. Compared with nonfallers, fallers were more likely to be placed in a nursing home (odds ratio [OR]: 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37-3.00), after adjustment for age, sex, frailty, and selected medical variables (including dementia and delirium). Patients without injury (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.17-2.85) and those with injury (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.15-4.77) were also more likely to be placed. Patients who fell had a longer LOS (median 19 days vs 10 days; Polder people in acute care shows that falls in the hospital are significantly associated with new placement in a nursing home. Given the predominantly negative experiences and the financial costs associated with placement in a nursing home, fall prevention should be a high priority in older people hospitalized with acute illness.
Boitor, Madalina; Gélinas, Céline; Richard-Lalonde, Melissa; Thombs, Brett D
Critical care practice guidelines identify a lack of clear evidence on the effectiveness of massage for pain control. To assess the effect of massage on acute pain in critically and acutely ill adults post-thoracic surgery. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of massage compared to attention control/sham massage or standard care alone on acute pain intensity post-thoracic surgery. Twelve RCTs were included. Of these, nine evaluated massage in addition to standard analgesia, including 2 that compared massage to attention control/sham massage in the intensive care unit (ICU), 6 that compared massage to standard analgesia alone early post-ICU discharge, and 1 that compared massage to both attention control and standard care in the ICU. Patients receiving massage with analgesia reported less pain (0-10 scale) compared to attention control/sham massage (3 RCTs; N = 462; mean difference -0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.25 to -0.35; p Massage, in addition to pharmacological analgesia, reduces acute post-cardiac surgery pain intensity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A.J.M. Zwiers (Alexandra)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Acute kidney injury (AKI) (previously called acute renal failure) is characterized by the abrupt inability of the kidneys to adequately excrete waste products and regulate fl uid and electrolyte homeostasis appropriately. This results in an at least partially
McDermott, Brett M; Cobham, Vanessa E; Berry, Helen; Stallman, Helen M
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether parent report of family resilience predicted children's disaster-induced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general emotional symptoms, independent of a broad range of variables including event-related factors, previous child mental illness and social connectedness. A total of 568 children (mean age = 10.2 years, SD = 1.3) who attended public primary schools, were screened 3 months after Cyclone Larry devastated the Innisfail region of North Queensland. Measures included parent report on the Family Resilience Measure and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)-emotional subscale and child report on the PTSD Reaction Index, measures of event exposure and social connectedness. Sixty-four students (11.3%) were in the severe-very severe PTSD category and 53 families (28.6%) scored in the poor family resilience range. A lower family resilience score was associated with child emotional problems on the SDQ and longer duration of previous child mental health difficulties, but not disaster-induced child PTSD or child threat perception on either bivariate analysis, or as a main or moderator variable on multivariate analysis (main effect: adjusted odds ratio (OR(adj)) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.13-2.44). Similarly, previous mental illness was not a significant predictor of child PTSD in the multivariate model (OR(adj) = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.16-3.61). In this post-disaster sample children with existing mental health problems and those of low-resilience families were not at elevated risk of PTSD. The possibility that the aetiological model of disaster-induced child PTSD may differ from usual child and adolescent conceptualizations is discussed.
Full Text Available Meningitis is a common evolution in progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in children, and is asymptomatic in many cases. In leukemia, the impaired of the T cells function can predispose to the disseminated form. The attributed mortality rate in this case is 20%-40% and the relapse rate is as high as 50%; therefore, prolonged treatment may be emphasized. We have described a child with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, that developed skin lesions and asymptomatic chronic meningitis, with a good evolution after prolonged treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate followed by fluconazole.
Maria Rosario Capeding
Full Text Available Common causes of acute febrile illness in tropical countries have similar symptoms, which often mimic those of dengue. Accurate clinical diagnosis can be difficult without laboratory confirmation and disease burden is generally under-reported. Accurate, population-based, laboratory-confirmed incidence data on dengue and other causes of acute fever in dengue-endemic Asian countries are needed.This prospective, multicenter, active fever surveillance, cohort study was conducted in selected centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam to determine the incidence density of acute febrile episodes (≥ 38 °C for ≥ 2 days in 1,500 healthy children aged 2-14 years, followed for a mean 237 days. Causes of fever were assessed by testing acute and convalescent sera from febrile participants for dengue, chikungunya, hepatitis A, influenza A, leptospirosis, rickettsia, and Salmonella Typhi. Overall, 289 participants had acute fever, an incidence density of 33.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 30.0; 37.8; 57% were IgM-positive for at least one of these diseases. The most common causes of fever by IgM ELISA were chikungunya (in 35.0% of in febrile participants and S. Typhi (in 29.4%. The overall incidence density of dengue per 100 person-years was 3.4 by nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 antigen positivity (95% CI: 2.4; 4.8 and 7.3 (95% CI: 5.7; 9.2 by serology. Dengue was diagnosed in 11.4% (95% CI: 8.0; 15.7 and 23.9% (95% CI: 19.1; 29.2 of febrile participants by NS1 positivity and serology, respectively. Of the febrile episodes not clinically diagnosed as dengue, 5.3% were dengue-positive by NS1 antigen testing and 16.0% were dengue-positive by serology.During the study period, the most common identified causes of pediatric acute febrile illness among the seven tested for were chikungunya, S. Typhi and dengue. Not all dengue cases were clinically diagnosed; laboratory confirmation is essential to refine disease burden estimates.
Bagshaw, Sean M; Wald, Ron
Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is increasingly utilized to support critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI). The question of whether and when to start RRT for a critically ill patient with AKI has long troubled clinicians. When severe complications of AKI develop, the need to commence RRT is unambiguous. In the absence of such complications but in the presence of severe AKI, the optimal time and thresholds for starting RRT are uncertain. The majority of existing data have largely been derived from observational studies. These have been limited due to confounding by indication, considerable heterogeneity in case mix and illness severity, and variably applied definitions for both AKI and for how "timing" was anchored relative to starting RRT. It is unclear whether a preemptive or earlier strategy of RRT initiation aimed largely at avoiding complications related to AKI or a more conservative strategy where RRT is started in response to developing complications leads to better patient-centered outcomes and health services use. This question has been the focus of 2 recently completed randomized trials. In this review, we provide an appraisal of available evidence, discuss existing knowledge gaps, and provide perspective on future research that will better inform the optimal timing of RRT initiation in AKI. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Glassford, Neil J; Skene, Alison; Guardiola, Maria B; Chan, Matthew J; Bagshaw, Sean M; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Solez, Kim
The renal histopathology of critically ill patients dying with acute kidney injury (AKI) in intensive care units of high income countries remains uncertain. Retrospective observational assessment of interobserver agreement in the reporting of renal post mortem histopathology, and the ability of pathologists blinded to the clinical context to independently identify the presence of pre-mortem AKI from digital images of histological sections from 34 critically ill patients dying in teaching hospitals in Australia and Canada. We identified a heterogeneous cohort with a median age of 65 years (interquartile range [IQR], 56.5-77), APACHE II score of 27 (IQR, 19-33), and sepsis as the most common admission diagnosis (12/34; 35%). The most common proximate causes of death were cardiovascular (19/34; 56%) and respiratory (7/34; 21%) failure. AKI was common, with 23 patients (68%) developing RIFLE-F AKI, and 21 patients (62%) receiving renal replacement therapy. Structured reporting for tubular inflammation showed excellent agreement (kappa = 1), but no other subdomain demonstrated better than moderate agreement (kappa histopathology in critically ill patients is neither robust nor reproducible; independent pathologists agree poorly on the diagnosis of ATN, and their structural assessment appears dissociated from ante-mortem renal function.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human bocavirus (HBoV is a newly discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI and gastrointestinal illness. Our study is the first to analyze the characteristics of HBoV-positive samples from ARTI patients with a wide age distribution from Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Throat swabs (n=2811 were collected and analyzed from children and adults with ARTI over a 13-month period. The HBoV complete genome from a 60 year-old female patient isolate was also determined. Results HBoV DNA was detected in 65/2811 (2.3% samples, of which 61/1797 were from children (Mycoplasma pneumoniae had the highest frequency of 16.9% (11/65. Upper and lower respiratory tract illness were common symptoms, with 19/65 (29.2% patients diagnosed with pneumonia by chest radiography. All four adult patients had systemic influenza-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome revealed a close relationship with other HBoVs, and a more distant relationship with HBoV2 and HBoV3. Conclusions HBoV was detected from children and adults with ARTI from Guangzhou, southern China. Elderly people were also susceptive to HBoV. A single lineage of HBoV was detected among a wide age distribution of patients with ARTI.
resistance and unnecessary mor- bidity and mortality. There are limited data on the epidemiology of other febrile illnesses in Papua. Scrub typhus...to commonly prescribed, first-line antibiotics in Indonesia, e.g., chloramphenicol, ampicillin, amoxicillin , and cotrimoxazole. 21 All S...aureus isolates were methicillin sensitive. No multidrug- resistant E . coli and K . pneumoniae were isolated. All patients were treated with
Perencevich Eli N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate antibiotic use promotes resistance. Antibiotics are generally not indicated for upper respiratory infections (URIs. Our objectives were to describe patterns of URI treatment and to identify patient and provider factors associated with antibiotic use for URIs. Methods This study was a cross-sectional analysis of medical and pharmacy claims data from the Pennsylvania Medicaid fee-for-service program database. We identified Pennsylvania Medicaid recipients with a URI office visit over a one-year period. Our outcome variable was antibiotic use within seven days after the URI visit. Study variables included URI type and presence of concurrent acute illnesses and chronic conditions. We considered the associations of each study variable with antibiotic use in a logistic regression model, stratifying by age group and adjusting for confounders. Results Among 69,936 recipients with URI, 35,786 (51.2% received an antibiotic. In all age groups, acute sinusitis, chronic sinusitis, otitis, URI type and season were associated with antibiotic use. Except for the oldest group, physician specialty and streptococcal pharyngitis were associated with antibiotic use. History of chronic conditions was not associated with antibiotic use in any age group. In all age groups, concurrent acute illnesses and history of chronic conditions had only had fair to poor ability to distinguish patients who received an antibiotic from patients who did not. Conclusion Antibiotic prevalence for URIs was high, indicating that potentially inappropriate antibiotic utilization is occurring. Our data suggest that demographic and clinical factors are associated with antibiotic use, but additional reasons remain unexplained. Insight regarding reasons for antibiotic prescribing is needed to develop interventions to address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.
Gariballa, Salah; Alessa, Awad
Although Low muscle strength is an important predictor of functional decline in older people, however information on its impact on clinical and service outcomes in acute care settings is still lacking. The aim of this study is to measure the impact of low muscle strength on clinical and service outcomes in older adults during both acute illness and recovery. Randomly selected 432 hospitalised older patients had their clinical characteristics and nutritional status assessed within 72 h of admission, at 6 weeks and at 6 months. Low muscle strength-hand grip was defined using the European Working Group criteria. Health outcome measures including nutritional status, length of hospital stay, disability, discharge destination, readmission and mortality were also measured. Among the 432 patients recruited, 308 (79%) had low muscle strength at baseline. Corresponding figures at 6 weeks and at 6 months were 140 (73%) and 158 (75%). Patients with poor muscle strength were significantly older, increasingly disabled, malnourished and stayed longer in hospital compared with those with normal muscle strength. A significantly higher number of patients with normal muscle strength discharged home independently compared with those with poor muscle strength (p poor muscle strength 52(15%), however, results were not statistically significant after adjusting for other poor prognostic indicators [adjusted hazard ratio 0.74 (95% CI: 0.14-3.87), p = 0.722]. Poor muscle strength in older people is associated with poor clinical service outcomes during both acute illness and recovery.
Van den Bruel, Ann; Jones, Caroline; Thompson, Matthew; Mant, David
Point-of-care C-reactive protein (CRP) testing of adults with acute respiratory infection in primary care reduces antibiotic prescribing by 22%. The acceptability and impact of CRP testing in children is unknown To determine the acceptability and impact of CRP testing in acutely ill children. Mixed methods study comprising an observational cohort with a nested randomised controlled trial and embedded qualitative study. Children presenting with an acute illness to general practice out-of-hours services; children with a temperature ≥38°C were randomised in the nested trial; parents and clinical staff were invited to the qualitative study. Informed consent rates; parental and staff views on testing. Consent to involvement in the study was obtained for 200/297 children (67.3%, 95% CI 61.7% to 72.6%); the finger-prick test might have been a contributory factor for 63 of the 97 children declining participation but it was cited as a definite factor in only 10 cases. None of the parents or staff raised concerns about the acceptability of testing, describing the pain caused as minor and transient. General practitioner views on the utility of the CRP test were inconsistent. CRP point-of-care testing in children is feasible in primary care and is likely to be acceptable. However, it will not reduce antibiotic prescribing and hospital referrals until general practitioners accept its diagnostic value in children. ISRCTN 69736109. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
This chapter examined the experiences of families of children with a variety of specialized needs, families who, as pioneers in family-centered, community-based care, are defining the future of services. It also looked at the services that are supposed to support the families in their efforts. On one hand, we have exposed the reader to the tension between traditional approaches to services for children with special needs and the expressed needs of families for coherence and empowerment. On the other hand, the data testify to the development of a new definition of the parent-professional relationship as individual professionals and select service systems around the country strive to work out what it means to support families. When the testimony of these families is carefully read, we are left with an impression of a schizophrenic system of public and private supports for home care for children with severe disabilities and specialized health care needs. The official rhetoric affirms the primacy of the family, and yet the experience of these families is otherwise. Again and again, the families told of benefits managers, case managers, discharge planners, social workers, program administrators, special educators, and the like who implied that parents were out to "milk the system." This attitude was conveyed even in dealing with entitlements and plans to which the parents had long contributed. Families were treated as beneficiaries of benevolent charity for which they should be grateful. Families, already struggling to come to terms with their child's impairment and the care demands associated with it, find themselves stigmatized, impoverished, and degraded. In a society of rugged individualists they are forced to ask for help. That in itself is more than some of the parents can deal with. It should be clear that these parents are not asking for charity. No one here is out to "milk the system." They are simply seeking support to meet some of the extraordinary demands
Christopher J. Kirwan
Full Text Available Introduction. RIFLE and AKIN provide a standardised classification of acute kidney injury (AKI, but their categorical rather than continuous nature restricts their use to a research tool. A more accurate real-time description of renal function in AKI is needed, and some published data suggest that equations based on serum creatinine that estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR can provide this. In addition, incorporating serum cystatin C concentration into estimates of GFR may improve their accuracy, but no eGFR equations are validated in critically ill patients with AKI. Aim. This study tests whether creatinine or cystatin-C-based eGFR equations, used in patients with CKD, offer an accurate representation of 4-hour creatinine clearance (4CrCl in critically ill patients with AKI. Methods. Fifty-one critically ill patients with AKI were recruited. Thirty-seven met inclusion criteria, and the performance of eGFR equations was compared to 4CrCl. Results. eGFR equations were better than creatinine alone at predicting 4CrCl. Adding cystatin C to estimates did not improve the bias or add accuracy. The MDRD 7 eGFR had the best combination of correlation, bias, percentage error and accuracy. None were near acceptable standards quoted in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Conclusions. eGFR equations are not sufficiently accurate for use in critically ill patients with AKI. Incorporating serum cystatin C does not improve estimates. eGFR should not be used to describe renal function in patients with AKI. Standards of accuracy for validating eGFR need to be set.
Full Text Available Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease.
Krag, Mette; Perner, Anders; Wetterslev, Jørn
replacement therapy (6.9, 2.7-17.5), co-existing coagulopathy (5.2, 2.3-11.8), acute coagulopathy (4.2, 1.7-10.2), use of acid suppressants (3.6, 1.3-10.2) and higher organ failure score (1.4, 1.2-1.5). In ICU, 73 % (71-76 %) of patients received acid suppressants; most received proton pump inhibitors....... In patients with clinically important GI bleeding, crude and adjusted odds for mortality were 3.7 (1.7-8.0) and 1.7 (0.7-4.3), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In ICU patients clinically important GI bleeding is rare, and acid suppressants are frequently used. Co-existing diseases, liver failure, coagulopathy......PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of, risk factors for, and prognostic importance of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and use of acid suppressants in acutely ill adult intensive care patients. METHODS: We included adults without GI bleeding who were acutely admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU...
Kline, Andrea M
Pediatric obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Significant obesity-related comorbidities are being noted at earlier ages and often have implications for the acute and critically ill child. This article will review the latest in epidemiologic trends of pediatric obesity and examine how it affects multisystem body organs. The latest data evaluating the specific effects of obesity on acute and critically ill children will be reviewed. Available nonpharmacologic, pharmacologic, and surgical strategies to combat pediatric obesity will be discussed.
Olson, Daniel; Lamb, Molly; Lopez, Maria Renee; Colborn, Kathryn; Paniagua-Avila, Alejandra; Zacarias, Alma; Zambrano-Perilla, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Castro, Sergio Ricardo; Cordon-Rosales, Celia; Asturias, Edwin Jose
With their increasing availability in resource-limited settings, mobile phones may provide an important tool for participatory syndromic surveillance, in which users provide symptom data directly into a centralized database. We studied the performance of a mobile phone app-based participatory syndromic surveillance system for collecting syndromic data (acute febrile illness and acute gastroenteritis) to detect dengue virus and norovirus on a cohort of children living in a low-resource and rural area of Guatemala. Randomized households were provided with a mobile phone and asked to submit weekly reports using a symptom diary app (Vigilant-e). Participants reporting acute febrile illness or acute gastroenteritis answered additional questions using a decision-tree algorithm and were subsequently visited at home by a study nurse who performed a second interview and collected samples for dengue virus if confirmed acute febrile illness and norovirus if acute gastroenteritis. We analyzed risk factors associated with decreased self-reporting of syndromic data using the Vigilant-e app and evaluated strategies to improve self-reporting. We also assessed agreement between self-report and nurse-collected data obtained during home visits. From April 2015 to June 2016, 469 children in 207 households provided 471 person-years of observation. Mean weekly symptom reporting rate was 78% (range 58%-89%). Households with a poor (first 25 weeks of observation (n=57) had a greater number of children (mean 2.8, SD 1.5 vs mean 2.5, SD 1.3; risk ratio [RR] 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4), were less likely to have used mobile phones for text messaging at study enrollment (61%, 35/57 vs 76.7%, 115/150; RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9), and were less likely to access care at the local public clinic (35%, 20/57 vs 67.3%, 101/150; RR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6). Parents of female enrolled participants were more likely to have low response rate (57.1%, 84/147 vs 43.8%, 141/322; RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Several external
M Trent Herdman
Full Text Available Delays in seeking appropriate healthcare can increase the case fatality of acute febrile illnesses, and circuitous routes of care-seeking can have a catastrophic financial impact upon patients in low-income settings. To investigate the relationship between poverty and pre-hospital delays for patients with acute febrile illnesses, we recruited a cross-sectional, convenience sample of 527 acutely ill adults and children aged over 6 months, with a documented fever ≥38.0 °C and symptoms of up to 14 days' duration, presenting to a tertiary referral hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh, over the course of one year from September 2011 to September 2012. Participants were classified according to the socioeconomic status of their households, defined by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative's multidimensional poverty index (MPI. 51% of participants were classified as multidimensionally poor (MPI>0.33. Median time from onset of any symptoms to arrival at hospital was 22 hours longer for MPI poor adults compared to non-poor adults (123 vs. 101 hours rising to a difference of 26 hours with adjustment in a multivariate regression model (95% confidence interval 7 to 46 hours; P = 0.009. There was no difference in delays for children from poor and non-poor households (97 vs. 119 hours; P = 0.394. Case fatality was 5.9% vs. 0.8% in poor and non-poor individuals respectively (P = 0.001-5.1% vs. 0.0% for poor and non-poor adults (P = 0.010 and 6.4% vs. 1.8% for poor and non-poor children (P = 0.083. Deaths were attributed to central nervous system infection (11, malaria (3, urinary tract infection (2, gastrointestinal infection (1 and undifferentiated sepsis (1. Both poor and non-poor households relied predominantly upon the (often informal private sector for medical advice before reaching the referral hospital, but MPI poor participants were less likely to have consulted a qualified doctor. Poor participants were more likely to attribute delays in
Clark, Tristan W; Medina, Marie-jo; Batham, Sally; Curran, Martin D; Parmar, Surendra; Nicholson, Karl G
Many adult patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness have viruses detected but the overall importance of viral infection compared to bacterial infection is unclear. Patients were recruited from two acute hospital sites in Leicester (UK) over 3 successive winters. Samples were taken for viral and bacterial testing. Of the 780 patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness 345 (44%) had a respiratory virus detected. Picornaviruses were the most commonly isolated viruses (detected in 23% of all patients). Virus detection rates exceeded 50% in patients with exacerbation of asthma (58%), acute bronchitis and Influenza-like-illness (64%), and ranged from 30 to 50% in patients with an exacerbation of COPD (38%), community acquired pneumonia (36%) and congestive cardiac failure (31%). Bacterial detection was relatively frequent in patients with exacerbation of COPD and pneumonia (25% and 33% respectively) but was uncommon in all other groups. Antibiotic use was high across all clinical groups (76% overall) and only 21% of all antibiotic use occurred in patients with detectable bacteria. Respiratory viruses are the predominant detectable aetiological agents in most hospitalised adults with acute respiratory illness. Antibiotic usage in hospital remains excessive including in clinical conditions associated with low rates of bacterial detection. Efforts at reducing excess antibiotic use should focus on these groups as a priority. Registered International Standard Controlled Trial Number: 21521552. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Uchino, S.; Bellomo, R.; Kellum, J. A.; Morimatsu, H.; Morgera, S.; Schetz, M. R.; Tan, I.; Bouman, C.; Macedo, E.; Gibney, N.; Tolwani, A.; Oudemans-van Straaten, H. M.; Ronco, C.
Using a large, international cohort, we sought to determine the effect of initial technique of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on the outcome of acute renal failure (ARF) in the intensive care unit (ICU). We enrolled 1218 patients treated with continuous RRT (CRRT) or intermittent RRT (IRRT) for ARF
Peters, Esther; Heemskerk, Suzanne; Masereeuw, R.; Pickkers, Peter
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disease in the intensive care unit and accounts for high morbidity and mortality. Sepsis, the predominant cause of AKI in this setting, involves a complex pathogenesis in which renal inflammation and hypoxia are believed to play an important role. A new therapy
Full Text Available David Basic,1 Tabitha J Hartwell2 1Department of Geriatric Medicine, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Geriatric Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shoalhaven District Memorial Hospital, Nowra, NSW, Australia Purpose: To examine the association between falls in hospital and new placement in a nursing home among older people hospitalized with acute illness.Materials and methods: This prospective cohort study of 2,945 consecutive patients discharged alive from an acute geriatric medicine service used multivariate logistic regression to model the association between one or more falls and nursing home placement (primary analysis. Secondary analyses stratified falls by injury and occurrence of multiple falls. Demographic, medical, and frailty measures were considered in adjusted models.Results: The mean age of all patients was 82.8±7.6 years and 94% were admitted through the emergency department. During a median length of stay (LOS of 11 days, 257 (8.7% patients had a fall. Of these, 66 (25.7% sustained an injury and 53 (20.6% had two or more falls. Compared with nonfallers, fallers were more likely to be placed in a nursing home (odds ratio [OR]: 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37–3.00, after adjustment for age, sex, frailty, and selected medical variables (including dementia and delirium. Patients without injury (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.17–2.85 and those with injury (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.15–4.77 were also more likely to be placed. Patients who fell had a longer LOS (median 19 days vs 10 days; P<0.001.Conclusion: This study of older people in acute care shows that falls in the hospital are significantly associated with new placement in a nursing home. Given the predominantly negative experiences and the financial costs associated with placement in a nursing home, fall prevention should be a high priority in older people hospitalized with acute illness. Keywords: aged, inpatients, falls, nursing homes
Huson, Michaëla A M; Kalkman, Rachel; Stolp, Sebastiaan M; Janssen, Saskia; Alabi, Abraham S; Beyeme, Justin O; van der Poll, Tom; Grobusch, Martin P
HIV, bacterial sepsis, malaria, and tuberculosis are important causes of disease in Africa. We aimed to determine the impact of HIV on the presentation, causes and outcome of bacterial sepsis and other acute febrile illnesses in Gabon, Central Africa. We performed a prospective observational study in new adult admissions with fever or hypothermia (≥ 38 or Sepsis was also common (n = 107, 28%), including 29 (7.6%) patients with culture confirmed bacterial bloodstream infection. Bacterial bloodstream infections were more frequent in HIV patients, in particular with S. pneumoniae. Tuberculosis was observed in 29 (7.6%) patients, and was also more common in HIV patients. The majority of HIV patients was newly diagnosed, and only 15 (19.5%) were using combination antiretroviral therapy. Our findings illustrate the impact of HIV co-infection on the burden of sepsis, malaria and tuberculosis in Gabon, as well as the need to scale up HIV counseling, testing and treatment.
Robinson, Sian; Larsen, Ulla L.; Zincuk, Aleksander
Background: It is unknown whether the dose of enoxaparin can be optimised, without increasing the risk of bleeding, in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is associated with AKI, and the subsequent need for continuous renal...... replacement therapy (CRRT). The predictive value of plasma and urine NGAL for renal recovery is not established. Methods: A double-blinded randomized trial was conducted in medico-surgical intensive care units across Denmark to establish markers of renal recovery, and to determine whether a dose of 1 mg...... the dialysis -free interval, plasma NGAL levels were higher in non-renal recovery (1074 [± 694] ng/mL) compared to renal recovery patients (296[± 197] ng/mL; P = 0.01), and urine NGAL levels were higher in non-renal recovery (3885 [± 2722] ng/mL) compared to renal recovery patients (597 [± 565] ng/mL; P = 0...
Butler, Ashleigh E; Copnell, Beverley; Hall, Helen
Entering the paediatric intensive care unit with a critically ill child is a stressful experience for parents. In addition to fearing for their child's well-being, parents must navigate both a challenging environment and numerous new relationships with healthcare staff. How parents form relationships with staff and how they perceive both their own and the healthcare providers' roles in this early stage of their paediatric intensive care journey is currently unknown. This paper explores bereaved parents' perceptions of their role and their relationships with healthcare providers when their child is admitted to the intensive care unit, as part of a larger study exploring their experiences when their child dies in intensive care. A constructivist grounded theory approach was utilised to recruit 26 bereaved parents from 4 Australian intensive care units. Parents participated in audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews lasting 90-150min. All data were analysed using the constant comparative analysis processes, supported by theoretical memos. Upon admission, parents viewed healthcare providers as experts, both of their child's medical care and of the hospital system. This expertise was welcomed, with the parent-healthcare provider relationship developing around the child's need for medical care. Parents engaged in 2 key behaviours in their relationships with staff: prioritising survival, and learning 'the system'. Within each of these behaviours are several subcategories, including 'Stepping back', 'Accepting restrictions' and 'Deferring to medical advice'. The relationships between parents and staff shift and change across the child's admission and subsequent death in the paediatric intensive care unit. However, upon admission, this relationship centres around the child's potential survival and their need for medical care, and the parent's recognition of the healthcare staff as experts of both the child's care and the hospital system. Copyright © 2017 Australian
Bryony W Soltis
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Historically, respiratory infections have had a significant impact on U.S. military missions. Deployed troops are particularly at high risk due to close living conditions, stressful work environments and increased exposure to pathogens. To date, there are limited data available on acute respiratory illness (ARI among troops deployed in support of ongoing military operations, specifically Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF. METHODS: Using self-report data from two sources collected from troops deployed to Iraq, Afghanistan and the surrounding region, we analyzed incidence and risk factors for ARI. Military personnel on mid-deployment Rest & Recuperation (R&R or during redeployment were eligible to participate in the voluntary self-report survey. RESULTS: Overall, 39.5% reported having at least one ARI. Of these, 18.5% sought medical care and 33.8% reported having decreased job performance. The rate of self-reported ARI was 15 episodes per 100 person-months among those taking the voluntary survey, and 24.7 episodes per 100 person-months among those taking the clinic health questionnaire. Negative binomial regression analysis found female sex, Navy branch of service and lack of flush toilets to be independently associated with increased rates of ARI. Deployment to OIF, increasing age and higher rank were also positively associated with ARI risk. CONCLUSIONS: The overall percentage of deployed military personnel reporting at least one acute respiratory illness decreased since earlier parts of OIF/OEF. However, the reported effect on job performance increased tremendously. The most important factors associated with increased respiratory infection are female sex, Navy branch of service, lack of improved latrine facilities, deployment to OIF, increasing age and higher rank.
Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common and serious complication in intensive care unit (ICU patients and also often part of a multiple organ failure syndrome. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score is an excellent tool for assessing the extent of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome prediction ability of SOFA and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE III score in ICU patients with AKI.A total of 543 critically ill patients were admitted to the medical ICU of a tertiary-care hospital from July 2007 to June 2008. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were prospectively recorded for post hoc analysis as predictors of survival on the first day of ICU admission.One hundred and eighty-seven (34.4% patients presented with AKI on the first day of ICU admission based on the risk of renal failure, injury to kidney, failure of kidney function, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure (RIFLE classification. Major causes of the ICU admissions involved respiratory failure (58%. Overall in-ICU mortality was 37.9% and the hospital mortality was 44.7%. The predictive accuracy for ICU mortality of SOFA (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves: 0.815±0.032 was as good as APACHE III in the AKI group. However, cumulative survival rates at 6-month follow-up following hospital discharge differed significantly (p<0.001 for SOFA score ≤10 vs. ≥11 in these ICU patients with AKI.For patients coexisting with AKI admitted to ICU, this work recommends application of SOFA by physicians to assess ICU mortality because of its practicality and low cost. A SOFA score of ≥ "11" on ICU day 1 should be considered an indicator of negative short-term outcome.
Fink, Ericka L; Kochanek, Patrick M; Tasker, Robert C; Beca, John; Bell, Michael J; Clark, Robert S B; Hutchison, Jamie; Vavilala, Monica S; Fabio, Anthony; Angus, Derek C; Watson, R Scott
The international scope of critical neurologic insults in children is unknown. Our objective was to assess the prevalence and outcomes of children admitted to PICUs with acute neurologic insults. Prospective study. Multicenter (n = 107 PICUs) and multinational (23 countries, 79% in North America and Europe). Children 7 days to 17 years old admitted to the ICU with new traumatic brain injury, stroke, cardiac arrest, CNS infection or inflammation, status epilepticus, spinal cord injury, hydrocephalus, or brain mass. None. We evaluated the prevalence and outcomes of children with predetermined acute neurologic insults. Child and center characteristics were recorded. Unfavorable outcome was defined as change in pre-post insult Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score greater than or equal to 2 or death at hospital discharge or 3 months, whichever came first. Screening data yielded overall prevalence of 16.2%. Of 924 children with acute neurologic insults, cardiac arrest (23%) and traumatic brain injury (19%) were the most common. All-cause mortality at hospital discharge was 12%. Cardiac arrest subjects had highest mortality (24%), and traumatic brain injury subjects had the most unfavorable outcomes (49%). The most common neurologic insult was infection/inflammation in South America, Asia, and the single African site but cardiac arrest in the remaining regions. Neurologic insults are a significant pediatric international health issue. They are frequent and contribute substantial morbidity and mortality. These data suggest a need for an increased focus on acute critical neurologic diseases in infants and children including additional research, enhanced availability of clinical resources, and the development of new therapies.
Versión española del perfil de salud infantil, cuestionario para padres y madres: Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition Parent Report Form (CHIP-CE/PRF Spanish version of the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition Parent Report Form [CHIP-CE/PRF
Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la fiabilidad y validez de las dimensiones del Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition Parent Report Form (CHIP-CE/PRF incluidas en la Encuesta de Salud de Barcelona 2000 (ESB-2000 y obtener sus valores de referencia poblacional. Métodos: Los datos del estudio provienen de las entrevistas a los informadores indirectos de los menores de 5-14 años de edad (n = 836 participantes en la ESB-2000. Se analizaron 4 subdimensiones de la versión para padres del cuestionario CHIP-PRF: «satisfacción con la salud», y bienestar físico, bienestar emocional y limitación de actividad, que constituyen la dimensión de «bienestar». Se analizó la consistencia interna a partir del coeficiente α de Cronbach. Se realizσ un anαlisis factorial exploratorio y se compararon las puntuaciones medias mediante análisis de la covarianza para evaluar la validez de constructo de las subdimensiones. Resultados: El coeficiente alfa fue mayor de 0,70 en todas las subdimensiones analizadas (rango, 0,76-0,98. En el análisis factorial, casi todos los ítems (31/35 presentaron la carga más elevada en su subdimensión correspondiente. Se comprobó la mayoría de las diferencias estadísticas esperadas en las puntuaciones medias entre grupos. Las niñas de 10-14 años de edad presentaron las puntuaciones más bajas tanto en «satisfacción con la salud» (48,93; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC del 95%], 47,40-50,47 como en «bienestar» (48,87; IC del 95%, 47,51-50,22. No se encontraron diferencias según la clase social de la persona cabeza de familia. Conclusiones: El estudio permite disponer de una medida de salud percibida útil en las encuestas de salud infantil.Objectives: To analyze the reliability and validity of the domains of the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition Parent Report Form (CHIP-CE/PRF included in the Barcelona Health Survey conducted in 2000 and to obtain population-based reference values. Methods: Data were
Haahr-Raunkjær, C.; Meyhoff, C. S.; SÃ¸rensen, H. B.D.
complications.Several wireless systems are being developed for monitoring vital parameters, but many of these are not yet validated for critically ill patients. The ultimate goal with patient monitoring and detect of events is to prevent postoperative complications, death and costs in the health care system....... A few studies indicate that monitoring systems detect deteriorating patients earlier than the nurses, and this was associated with less clinical instability.An important caveat of future devices is to assess their effect in relevant patient populations and not only in healthy test...
Patel, Ankur; Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep
To determine the incidence and risk factors of acute renal failure (ARF) in hospitalized critically ill neonates and analyze outcome of all neonates with renal failure in relation to risk factors. In this prospective observational study 815 infants were enrolled. Renal profile (blood urea and serum creatinine) was done after 12 h of life (or at the time of admission for outborn babies) and then every 12 hourly. Daily 24 h urine output was evaluated. Incidence of renal failure in critically ill neonates was 10.67%. Out of 87 ARF neonates 52 (60%) expired. Mortality in the renal failure group was significantly higher in comparison to control group (p renal failure was more common than oliguric renal failure, but mortality in the oliguric renal failure group was more. Neonatal sepsis was the most common cause of ARF. Eight neonates underwent peritoneal dialysis (PD) out of which there were seven neonatal deaths. Prognosis of neonates with ARF requiring PD was very poor. It can thus be concluded that the health care personal should do rapid diagnosis of ARF in neonates with potential risk factors and also goal at an early and effective treatment of these risk factors in neonates with ARF.
Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Imnadze, Paata; Chokheli, Maiko; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Endeladze, Marina; Mshvidobadze, Ketevan; Clark, Danielle V.; Bautista, Christian T.; Fadeel, Moustafa Abdel; Pimentel, Guillermo; House, Brent; Hepburn, Matthew J.; Wölfel, Silke; Wölfel, Roman; Rivard, Robert G.
Minimal information is available on the incidence of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus and hantavirus infections in Georgia. From 2008 to 2011, 537 patients with fever ≥ 38°C for ≥ 48 hours without a diagnosis were enrolled into a sentinel surveillance study to investigate the incidence of nine pathogens, including CCHF virus and hantavirus. Of 14 patients with a hemorrhagic fever syndrome, 3 patients tested positive for CCHF virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Two of the patients enrolled in the study had acute renal failure. These 2 of 537 enrolled patients were the only patients in the study positive for hantavirus IgM antibodies. These results suggest that CCHF virus and hantavirus are contributing causes of acute febrile syndromes of infectious origin in Georgia. These findings support introduction of critical diagnostic approaches and confirm the need for additional surveillance in Georgia. PMID:24891463
Aldubayan, Saud H; Rodan, Lance H; Berry, Gerard T; Levy, Harvey L
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are genetic disorders that disrupt enzyme activity, cellular transport, or energy production. They are individually rare, but collectively have an incidence of 1:1000. Most patients with IEMs are followed by a physician with expertise in Biochemical Genetics (Metabolism), but may present outside of this setting. Because IEMs can present acutely with life-threatening crises that require specific interventions, it is critical for the emergency medicine physicians, pediatricians, internists, and critical care physicians as well as biochemical geneticists to be familiar with the initial assessment and management of patients with these disorders. Appropriate early care can be lifesaving. This protocol is not designed to replace the expert consultation of a biochemical geneticist but rather to improve early care and increase the level of comfort of the acute care physician with initial management of organic acidemias until specialty consultation is obtained.
Teeninga, Nynke; Willemze, Annemieke J; Emonts, Marieke; Appel, Inge M
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection can cause temporary acquired protein S or C deficiency via cross reacting antibodies and consequently inducing a hypercoagulable state. A 6-year-old girl with a history of congenital cardiac disease was seen at an Emergency Department with acute chest pain, dyspnoea and fever, seven days after developing chicken pox. Diagnostic tests revealed massive infarction of the spleen, and a protein S and C deficiency. In addition, blood cultures revealed a Lancefield group A β-haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS). The patient recovered fully after treatment with low molecular weight heparin and antibiotics. In this patient, septic emboli caused splenic infarction. Thromboembolic complications should be suspected in children with VZV who present with acute symptoms, in particular if bacterial superinfection is found.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the extent to which health shocks play a role in black-white wealth inequality. Deploying data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we implement a first-differences identification strategy in estimating the effects of acute health events on changes in wealth for couples across waves of data from 1999 to 2011. We find that although such shocks affect both white and black families, they make black families more vulnerable financially as family heads near retirement. In comparison with their white counterparts, black families that experience an acute health shock are more likely to rely on social safety nets, such as food stamps and Social Security Disability Insurance. Findings hold implications across multiple policy arenas, including health-care and labor law.
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by rapidly decreasing glomerular filtration rate, which results in disturbances in electrolyte- and acid-base homeostasis, derangement of extracellular fluid volume, and retention of nitrogenous waste products, and is often associated with decreased urine output. ARF affects about 5-25% of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), and is linked to high mortality and morbidity rates. In this thesis outcome of criticall...
Full Text Available Update in new clinic complications related to infectious diseases reveals emergent, at present, the thromboembolic risk. Clinicians must examine carefully thromboembolism related to prolonged reduced motility during acute invalidating infectious diseases because it represents major risk during clinical conditions involving enzimatic procoagulant activity, fibronectine production, procoagulant autoimmunitary damage. Recent experimental data show that pathogenesis of thromboembolic lesions involves clinical risk factors, vascular anatomic features and bacterial genetic properties.
Weingarten, Kaethe; Worthen, Miranda
"Take care of yourself" may be one of the most ubiquitous phrases spoken to people who are ill or to their caretakers. Yet few people who offer it as a balm consider what the self experience is of the person to whom the injunction is offered. We unravel some of the paradoxes inherent in the phrase, illustrating complexities that arise in the context of a life-threatening diagnosis. To illustrate the relational nature of the self, we analyze a partial transcript of an interview conducted in 1988 with the authors-a family therapist mother who had recently undergone surgery for breast cancer and her then 9-year-old daughter. We also examine the role of time in the interview. We propose that unlike PTSD when the past invades the present, in life-threatening illness the future is foreclosed, leading to distortions in current perception and behavior. The second author presents a follow-up to the interview and relates it to her current experience as a mother with chronic health issues. We close with suggestions for clinicians. © 2018 Family Process Institute.
Full Text Available Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP, is a rare cutaneous rash characterized by widespread sterile non-follicular pustules. AGEP is a rare disease in childhood and it is often due to drugs. Antibiotics, sulphanamides and antipyretic-analgesics are the main reasons of this drug reaction . Cetirizine is a second generation antihistamine is often used in the treatment of angioedema, atopic dermatitis and urticaria in children. Cetirizine induced AGEP was not reported in the literature. In this case a twelve year old child was admitted with urticarial plaques located on her trunk. She developed maculopapular lesions and pustular eruption with Cetirizine (once a day treatment. Cetirizine was stopped and the nonfollicular pustules cleared with a desquamation. The result of the oral challenge test was positive. We present this rare case to show that the antihistamines (cetirizine may cause AGEP in childhood.
Full Text Available Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP, is a rare cutaneous rash characterized by widespread sterile non-follicular pustules. AGEP is a rare disease in childhood and it is often due to drugs. Antibiotics, sulphanamides and antipyretic-analgesics are the main reasons of this drug reaction . Cetirizine is a second generation antihistamine is often used in the treatment of angioedema, atopic dermatitis and urticaria in children. Cetirizine induced AGEP was not reported in the literature. In this case a twelve year old child was admitted with urticarial plaques located on her trunk. She developed maculopapular lesions and pustular eruption with Cetirizine (once a day treatment. Cetirizine was stopped and the nonfollicular pustules cleared with a desquamation. The result of the oral challenge test was positive. We present this rare case to show that the antihistamines (cetirizine may cause AGEP in childhood.
Mark V. Koning
Full Text Available Background/Aims: In view of ongoing controversy, we wished to study whether patient characteristics and/or continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH characteristics contribute to the outcome of non-septic critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI. Methods: We retrospectively studied 102 consecutive patients in the intensive care unit (ICU with non-septic AKI needing CVVH. Patient and CVVH characteristics were evaluated. Primary outcome was mortality up to day 28 after CVVH initiation. Results: Forty-four patients (43% died during the 28-day period after the start of CVVH. In univariate analyses, non-survivors had more often a cardiovascular reason for ICU admission, greater disease acuity/severity and organ failure, lower initial creatinine levels, less use of heparin and more use of bicarbonate-based substitution fluid. The latter two can be attributed to high lactate levels and bleeding tendency in non-survivors necessitating withholding lactate-buffered fluid and heparin, respectively, according to our clinical protocol. In multivariate analyses, mortality was predicted by disease severity, use of bicarbonate-based fluids and lack of heparin, while initial creatinine and CVVH dose did not contribute. Conclusion: The outcome of non-septic AKI in need of CVVH is more likely to be determined by underlying or concurrent, acute and severe disease rather than by CVVH characteristics, including timing and dose.
Hallegraeff, Joannes M.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Krijnen, Wim P.; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.
Background: The eight-item Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire is used as a screening instrument in physical therapy to assess mental defeat in patients with acute low back pain, besides patient perception might determine the course and risk for chronic low back pain. However, the psychometric
Opio, Martin Otyek; Kellett, John
quality audit carried out as part of a larger ongoing prospective observational trial. The radial pulse rates recorded by 2 research nurses were compared with the electrocardiogram (ECG) heart rates measured on acutely ill medical patients during their admission to a resource-poor hospital in sub...
OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Matthews, Ellyn E; Neu, Madalynn; Cook, Paul F; King, Nancy
To compare the sleep of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during maintenance treatment with controls and to measure the effect on maternal sleep. Comparative, descriptive. Pediatric oncology clinic and communities in Colorado. 26 dyads of mothers and children with ALL and matched controls. Mothers completed insomnia severity, mood, and stress questionnaires and wore a wrist actigraph, and mothers and children completed a seven-day sleep diary. Mother and child sleep parameters (e.g., total sleep time, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, awakenings); maternal insomnia severity, mood, and stress; child sleep habits. Mothers of children with ALL reported greater insomnia compared to controls, which was correlated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and stress. Maternal groups did not differ on diary- and actigraph-measured sleep outcomes; both groups experienced sleep fragmentation. Children with ALL took longer to fall asleep and had more variable sleep patterns. Actigraph and sleep diary data indicated adequate maternal sleep duration and sleep latency. Self-reported insomnia severity in mothers of children with ALL suggested sleep fragmentation that may be undetected by these measures. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to identify sleep problems in mothers and children with ALL, which may lead to recommendations for improved sleep and referrals for treatment.
Joaquín Jesús Blanca Gutiérrez
Full Text Available Introducción: Si revisamos la literatura enfermera publicada sobre el Síndrome Coronario Agudo, cuatro son los grandes temas que han definido a nuestros estudios: los protocolos de actuación, las vías clínicas, los casos clínicos y la metodología del proceso enfermero. Casi siempre ha sido la propia enfermedad y no tanto el padecimiento del paciente la auténtica protagonista de nuestros escritos. Con nuestro presente trabajo pretendemos adentrarnos en aquellas dimensiones más subjetivas de la enfermedad, es decir, en el padecimiento y en el "sickness". Metodología: Se trata de un estudio cualitativo de tipo descriptivo en el que presentamos algunos de los datos más significativos de los relatos de nuestros pacientes con Síndrome Coronario Agudo. Resultados: los hemos agrupado en siete categorías temáticas: dolor, miedo, impacto en la familia, impacto en la actividad laboral, impacto en las actividades recreativas, impacto en el rol de cuidador y posibles causas. Discusión: Se comparan los resultados con los de otros trabajos que han estudiado también el Síndrome Coronario Agudo desde diversas perspectivas: la sexualidad, los descriptores verbales, el dolor, y los testimonios de mujeres mexicanas que han pasado por esta misma situación.Introduction. The revision of the nursing literature published about the Acute Coronary Syndrome shows that four are the big themes that have defined to our studies: the performance protocols, the clinical roads, the clinical cases and the methodology of the nursing process. The disease and not so much the patient’s illness has been the authentic main character of our writings. With our present work we seek to go into in those more subjective dimensions of the pain, the illness and the sickness. Methodology. It is a qualitative study of descriptive type, in that we present some of the most significant data in the stories of our patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome. Results. We have
Maben, Jill; Adams, Mary; Peccei, Riccardo; Murrells, Trevor; Robert, Glenn
Few empirical studies have directly examined the relationship between staff experiences of providing healthcare and patient experience. Present concerns over the care of older people in UK acute hospitals - and the reported attitudes of staff in such settings - highlight an important area of study. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. To examine the links between staff experience of work and patient experience of care in a 'Medicine for Older People' (MfOP) service in England. A mixed methods case study undertaken over 8 months incorporating a 149-item staff survey (66/192 - 34% response rate), a 48-item patient survey (26/111 - 23%), 18 staff interviews, 18 patient and carer interviews and 41 hours of non-participant observation. Variation in patient experience is significantly influenced by staff work experiences. A high-demand/low-control work environment, poor staffing, ward leadership and co-worker relationships can each add to the inherent difficulties staff face when caring for acutely ill older people. Staff seek to alleviate the impact of such difficulties by finding personal satisfaction from caring for 'the poppets'; those patients they enjoy caring for and for whom they feel able to 'make a difference'. Other patients - noting dehumanising aspects of their care - felt like 'parcels'. Patients are aware of being seen by staff as 'difficult' or 'demanding' and seek to manage their relationships with nursing staff accordingly. The work experiences of staff in a MfOP service impacted directly on patient care experience. Poor ward and patient care climates often lead staff to seek job satisfaction through caring for 'poppets', leaving less favoured - and often more complex patients - to receive less personalised care. Implications for practice. Investment in staff well-being and ward climate is essential for the consistent delivery of high-quality care for older people in acute settings. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction. Perforation of the sigmoid colon is rare in children and its descriptions in medical literature are infrequent. Case Outline. In a 13-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a ten-month course of chemotherapy was accompanied by many complications: parasitic infestation (Enterobius vermicularis, lung candidiasis, esophageal candidiasis, steroid diabetes, anaphylactoid reaction to L-asparaginase, febrile neutropenia, mucositis, anemia, thrombocytopenia, enterocolitis, and respiratory distress syndrome. During reinduction treatment, consisting of dexamethasone, vincristine, doxorubicin, and crisantaspase, he complained of abdominal pain and, upon radiographic examination, was found to have pneumoperitoneum. Because of suspicion of abdominal hollow organ perforation, he was subjected to explorative laparotomy, which yielded the diagnosis of perforation of the sigmoid colon. Conclusion. After an extensive review of the published reports on sigmoid perforation, all associated conditions that could possibly induce perforation – such as Hirschsprung’s disease or foreign body – were systematically excluded in our patient. Although typhlitis was the first diagnostic hypothesis, this was excluded by intraoperative findings, histopathology, and perforation site. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a spontaneous perforation of the sigmoid colon in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Full Text Available The introduction of measles vaccination programs and broad coverage worldwide has meant this infection a rare encounter for pediatricians. In Oman, with almost 100% measles vaccination coverage for children, this infection disappeared from the list of fever and rash differential diagnoses. Encephalitis is a well-known complication of measles infection and sometimes can be the only manifestation especially in adults. We report a seven-year-old Syrian immigrant who was admitted to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, with acute encephalitis secondary to wild measles infection. Although she had a classical presentation of measle infection, the diagnosis was missed in the private and regional hospital she attended before getting referred to Royal Hospital. She was later identified to be exposed to an outbreak of the infection in an unvaccinated population. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal intensity of both basal ganglia suggestive of measles encephalitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of measles virus from her urine and blood, and a throat swab. The isolated measles virus was D8 serotype, which was prevalent in Syria around the same time. The child was treated with steroids and vitamin A. She achieved full recovery despite her severe presentation. A high degree of suspicion for measles infection should be maintained in unvaccinated children with a compatible presentation of the infection or its complications. There might be a role for steroid use in cases of acute measles encephalitis.
Kushwaha, Suman; Gupta, Ashutosh; Agarwal, Neha; Chaturvedi, Sujata; Jha, Deepak
A young child with catastrophic neurological illness diagnosed as a rare variant of acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM). She succumbed to her illness despite of aggressive and appropriate management. Malignant demyelinating encephalomyelitis should be considered in children who are refractory to the treatment of ADEM.
clínicos, a fim de melhor orientar esta terapia.OBJECTIVE: To examine electrolyte-free water requirements that should be considered when administering maintenance fluids in a critically ill child. We examine some of the difficulties in estimating these requirements, and discuss the controversies with respect to the traditional recommendations. SOURCES: MEDLINE (1966-2007, Embase (1980-2007, and the Cochrane Library, using the terms: “fluid therapy”, “hypotonic”, “isotonic solution”, and synonyms or related terms. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The ideal maintenance solution and fluid regimen remains a topic of heated debate in pediatrics. The traditional recommendations for maintenance fluids are increasingly criticized as they do not consistently apply in acute illness, where energy expenditure and electrolyte requirements deviate significantly from the original estimates. A physiologically based framework for prescribing maintenance fluids is presented, with the objective of maintaining tonicity balance, and infusing the minimum volume of maintenance fluid required to maintain hemodynamics. Indications for isotonic and hypotonic solutions are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance fluid prescriptions should be individualized. No single intravenous solution is ideal for every child during all phases of illness, but there is evidence to suggest that the safest empirical choice is an isotonic solution. Hypotonic solutions should only be considered if the goal is to achieve a positive free-water balance. Critically ill children may require a reduction by as much as 40-50% of the currently recommended maintenance volumes. All patients receiving intravenous fluids should be monitored closely with daily weights, fluid balances, biochemical and clinical parameters in order to best guide this therapy.
Hallegraeff, Joannes M; van der Schans, Cees P; Krijnen, Wim P; de Greef, Mathieu H G
The eight-item Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire is used as a screening instrument in physical therapy to assess mental defeat in patients with acute low back pain, besides patient perception might determine the course and risk for chronic low back pain. However, the psychometric properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in common musculoskeletal disorders like acute low back pain have not been adequately studied. Patients' perceptions vary across different populations and affect coping styles. Thus, our aim was to determine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability and validity of the Dutch language version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in acute non-specific low back pain patients in primary care physical therapy. A non-experimental cross-sectional study with two measurements was performed. Eighty-four acute low back pain patients, in multidisciplinary health care center in Dutch primary care with a sample mean (SD) age of 42 (12) years, participated in the study. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) and test-retest procedures (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients and limits of agreement) were evaluated at a one-week interval. The concurrent validity of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire was examined by using the Mental Health Component of the Short Form 36 Health Survey. The Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.67 - 0.83); and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient test-retest reliability was acceptable: 0.72 (95% CI, 0.53 - 0.82), however, the limits of agreement were large. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient measuring concurrent validity 0.65 (95% CI, 0.46 - 0.80). The Dutch version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire is an appropriate instrument for measuring patients' perceptions in acute low back pain patients, showing acceptable internal consistency and reliability. Concurrent validity is adequate, however, the instrument may be unsuitable for detecting changes in low
Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the influence of physicochemical parameters on survival in metabolic acidosis (MA and acute kidney injury (AKI patients. Materials and Methods. Seventy-eight MA patients were collected and assigned to AKI or non-AKI group. We analyzed the physiochemical parameters on survival at 24 h, 72 h, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after AKI. Results. Mortality rate was higher in the AKI group. AKI group had higher anion gap (AG, strong ion gap (SIG, and apparent strong ion difference (SIDa values than non-AKI group. SIG value was higher in the AKI survivors than nonsurvivors and this value was correlated serum creatinine, phosphate, albumin, and chloride levels. SIG and serum albumin are negatively correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV scores. AG was associated with mortality at 1 and 3 months post-AKI, whereas SIG value was associated with mortality at 24 h, 72 h, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months post-AKI. Conclusions. Whether high or low SIG values correlate with mortality in MA patients with AKI depends on its correlation with serum creatinine, chloride, albumin, and phosphate (P levels. AG predicts short-term mortality and SIG value predicts both short- and long-term mortality among MA patients with AKI.
Full Text Available Patients with chronic known or unknown interstitial lung disease (ILD may present with severe respiratory flares that require intensive management. Outcome data in these patients are scarce.Clinical and radiological features were collected in 83 patients with ILD-associated acute respiratory failure (ARF. Determinants of hospital mortality and response to corticosteroid therapy were identified by logistic regression.Hospital and 1-year mortality rates were 41% and 54% respectively. Pulmonary hypertension, computed tomography (CT fibrosis and acute kidney injury were independently associated with mortality (odds ratio (OR 4.55; 95% confidence interval (95%CI (1.20-17.33; OR, 7.68; (1.78-33.22 and OR 10.60; (2.25-49.97 respectively. Response to steroids was higher in patients with shorter time from hospital admission to corticosteroid therapy. Patients with fibrosis on CT had lower response to steroids (OR, 0.03; (0.005-0.21. In mechanically ventilated patients, overdistension induced by high PEEP settings was associated with CT fibrosis and hospital mortality.Mortality is high in ILD-associated ARF. CT and echocardiography are valuable prognostic tools. Prompt corticosteroid therapy may improve survival.
Menna, Pierantonio; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Mattei, Alessia; Cappiello, Dario; Minotti, Giorgio; Carassiti, Massimiliano
Colistin is a last resort antibiotic to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria infections. Colistin is administered intravenously in the form of its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS). For patients with acute kidney impairment and continuous renal replacement therapy high extracorporeal clearance may cause a substantial removal of active colistin from the bloodstream, eventually decreasing its antibacterial efficacy. Currently recommended doses of CMS may therefore be inadequate for these patients. We report on the potential value of a modified regimen that adopts a loading dose of CMS (bolus of 9 MU vs. conventional 3 MU every 8 h), followed by maintenance (3 MU every 8 h). Preliminary pharmacokinetic evidence for the feasibility and efficacy of this regimen is described for 2 patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Itenov, Theis S; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Ostrowski, Sisse R
samples at admission available for biomarker analysis. We defined AKI by the "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" guidelines and recovery of prior kidney function as alive for five consecutive days after admission with no need for renal replacement therapy and creatinine levels consistently below...... insult on the kidney, can predict recovery of acute kidney injury. METHODS: From the "Procalcitonin And Survival Study" multicenter intensive care unit cohort, followed for 28 days after admission, we included patients without chronic kidney disease, who survived >24 h after admission and with plasma......-up. Endothelial damage on admission, measured by Soluble Thrombomodulin (sTM), was the strongest predictor of a reduced chance of recovery of prior kidney function (sTM in the highest vs. three lower quartiles hazard ratio 0.39; 95% confidence interval 0.21-0.73, P = 0.003). In contrast, the degree of the initial...
Neyra, Javier A; Li, Xilong; Yessayan, Lenar; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Yee, Jerry; Toto, Robert D
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of sepsis, a pro-inflammatory state that alters tubular handling of filtered albumin. We hypothesized that dipstick albuminuria (DA) is associated with a lower rate of AKI recovery in septic patients. This was a single-centre, retrospective cohort study of adults with sepsis-associated AKI in an urban academic intensive care unit (ICU). Patients with unknown baseline serum creatinine (SCr), absent urinalysis, and those with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) albuminuria ≥30 mg/dL is independently associated with lower rate of AKI recovery at 30 days post-discharge. Our findings emphasize the potential utility of a simple routine test of DA in the risk-stratification of AKI recovery in ICU septic patients. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
Xing, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Hai-Jun; Huang, Chu-Lin; Yang, Quan-Hui; Qu, Shi-Ning; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Hao; Gao, Yong; Xiao, Qing-Ling; Sun, Ke-Lin
Several risk scoures have been used in predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) of patients undergoing general or specific operations such as cardiac surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the use of two AKI risk scores in patients who underwent non-cardiac surgery but required intensive care. The clinical data of patients who had been admitted to ICU during the first 24 hours of ICU stay between September 2009 and August 2010 at the Cancer Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College were retrospectively collected and analyzed. AKI was diagnosed based on the acute kidney injury network (AKIN) criteria. Two AKI risk scores were calculated: Kheterpal and Abelha factors. The incidence of AKI was 10.3%. Patients who developed AKI had a increased ICU mortality of 10.9% vs. 1.0% and an in-hospital mortality of 13.0 vs. 1.5%, compared with those without AKI. There was a significant difference between the classification of Kheterpal's AKI risk scores and the occurrence of AKI (PAbelha's AKI risk scores and the occurrence of AKI (P=0.499). Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.655±0.043 (P=0.001, 95% confidence interval: 0.571-0.739) for Kheterpal's AKI risk score and 0.507±0.044 (P=0.879, 95% confidence interval: 0.422-0.592) for Abelha's AKI risk score. Kheterpal's AKI risk scores are more accurate than Abelha's AKI risk scores in predicting the occurrence of AKI in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery with moderate predictive capability.
Hoste, Eric A J; Bagshaw, Sean M; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cely, Cynthia M; Colman, Roos; Cruz, Dinna N; Edipidis, Kyriakos; Forni, Lui G; Gomersall, Charles D; Govil, Deepak; Honoré, Patrick M; Joannes-Boyau, Olivier; Joannidis, Michael; Korhonen, Anna-Maija; Lavrentieva, Athina; Mehta, Ravindra L; Palevsky, Paul; Roessler, Eric; Ronco, Claudio; Uchino, Shigehiko; Vazquez, Jorge A; Vidal Andrade, Erick; Webb, Steve; Kellum, John A
Current reports on acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU) show wide variation in occurrence rate and are limited by study biases such as use of incomplete AKI definition, selected cohorts, or retrospective design. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the occurrence and outcomes of AKI in ICU patients. The Acute Kidney Injury-Epidemiologic Prospective Investigation (AKI-EPI) study was an international cross-sectional study performed in 97 centers on patients during the first week of ICU admission. We measured AKI by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria, and outcomes at hospital discharge. A total of 1032 ICU patients out of 1802 [57.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 55.0-59.6] had AKI. Increasing AKI severity was associated with hospital mortality when adjusted for other variables; odds ratio of stage 1 = 1.679 (95% CI 0.890-3.169; p = 0.109), stage 2 = 2.945 (95% CI 1.382-6.276; p = 0.005), and stage 3 = 6.884 (95% CI 3.876-12.228; p < 0.001). Risk-adjusted rates of AKI and mortality were similar across the world. Patients developing AKI had worse kidney function at hospital discharge with estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in 47.7% (95% CI 43.6-51.7) versus 14.8% (95% CI 11.9-18.2) in those without AKI, p < 0.001. This is the first multinational cross-sectional study on the epidemiology of AKI in ICU patients using the complete KDIGO criteria. We found that AKI occurred in more than half of ICU patients. Increasing AKI severity was associated with increased mortality, and AKI patients had worse renal function at the time of hospital discharge. Adjusted risks for AKI and mortality were similar across different continents and regions.
Emptaz, A.; Prevot, N.; Dubois, F.; Mahul, P.; Mariat, G.; Jospe, R.; Auboyer, C.; Cuilleron, M.
Introduction: Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a serious disease, difficult to diagnose in critically ill patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic performances of abdominal ultrasonography (US) and morphine-augmented cholescintigraphy (MC) and to improve diagnostic strategy in patients of intensive care unit (ICU) with suspected AA C. Methods: We retrospectively studied 82 consecutive ICU patients with suspected AA C. US was positive if the triad of gallbladder distension, gallbladder wall thickening and sludge was found. MC was positive if the gallbladder remained non-visualized after morphine injection. In a second time, other scintigraphic criteria of interpretation were tested, according to the visualization of the gallbladder before or after morphine administration. Treatment was decided on the basis of clinical, laboratory and imaging data. Results: The diagnosis of AAC was retained in 34 patients. US and MC had respectively for the diagnosis of AAC a sensitivity of 20.6 and 70.6%, and a specificity of 95.8 and 100%. Interpreting the MC as positive if the gallbladder remains non-visualized after morphine, as negative if it appears before, and as non-conclusive if visualized after, makes it possible to define respectively patients with high probability (100%), with low probability (7.5%) or with intermediate probability (39%) of AAC. Conclusions: MC is better than US for diagnosing AAC in critically ill patients, having in particular excellent specificity using the classical criteria of interpretation. MC must be thus performed in patients at risk for AAC, determined with clinical, laboratory and eventually echographic findings. To decrease false negative rate of MC, a probability categorical classification is proposed to improve patients' care. (author)
Esposito, Douglas H.; Stich, August; Epelboin, Loïc; Malvy, Denis; Han, Pauline V.; Bottieau, Emmanuel; da Silva, Alexandre; Zanger, Philipp; Slesak, Günther; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Rosenthal, Benjamin M.; Cramer, Jakob P.; Visser, Leo G.; Muñoz, José; Drew, Clifton P.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Steiner, Florian; Wagner, Noémie; Grobusch, Martin P.; Plier, D. Adam; Tappe, Dennis; Sotir, Mark J.; Brown, Clive; Brunette, Gary W.; Fayer, Ronald; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Neumayr, Andreas; Kozarsky, Phyllis E.
Background Through 2 international traveler-focused surveillance networks (GeoSentinel and TropNet), we identified and investigated a large outbreak of acute muscular sarcocystosis (AMS), a rarely reported zoonosis caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Sarcocystis, associated with travel to Tioman Island, Malaysia, during 2011–2012. Methods Clinicians reporting patients with suspected AMS to GeoSentinel submitted demographic, clinical, itinerary, and exposure data. We defined a probable case as travel to Tioman Island after 1 March 2011, eosinophilia (>5%), clinical or laboratory-supported myositis, and negative trichinellosis serology. Case confirmation required histologic observation of sarcocysts or isolation of Sarcocystis species DNA from muscle biopsy. Results Sixty-eight patients met the case definition (62 probable and 6 confirmed). All but 2 resided in Europe; all were tourists and traveled mostly during the summer months. The most frequent symptoms reported were myalgia (100%), fatigue (91%), fever (82%), headache (59%), and arthralgia (29%); onset clustered during 2 distinct periods: “early” during the second and “late” during the sixth week after departure from the island. Blood eosinophilia and elevated serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels were observed beginning during the fifth week after departure. Sarcocystis nesbitti DNA was recovered from 1 muscle biopsy. Conclusions Clinicians evaluating travelers returning ill from Malaysia with myalgia, with or without fever, should consider AMS, noting the apparent biphasic aspect of the disease, the later onset of elevated CPK and eosinophilia, and the possibility for relapses. The exact source of infection among travelers to Tioman Island remains unclear but needs to be determined to prevent future illnesses. PMID:25091309
Esposito, Douglas H; Stich, August; Epelboin, Loïc; Malvy, Denis; Han, Pauline V; Bottieau, Emmanuel; da Silva, Alexandre; Zanger, Philipp; Slesak, Günther; van Genderen, Perry J J; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Cramer, Jakob P; Visser, Leo G; Muñoz, José; Drew, Clifton P; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Steiner, Florian; Wagner, Noémie; Grobusch, Martin P; Plier, D Adam; Tappe, Dennis; Sotir, Mark J; Brown, Clive; Brunette, Gary W; Fayer, Ronald; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Neumayr, Andreas; Kozarsky, Phyllis E
Through 2 international traveler-focused surveillance networks (GeoSentinel and TropNet), we identified and investigated a large outbreak of acute muscular sarcocystosis (AMS), a rarely reported zoonosis caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Sarcocystis, associated with travel to Tioman Island, Malaysia, during 2011-2012. Clinicians reporting patients with suspected AMS to GeoSentinel submitted demographic, clinical, itinerary, and exposure data. We defined a probable case as travel to Tioman Island after 1 March 2011, eosinophilia (>5%), clinical or laboratory-supported myositis, and negative trichinellosis serology. Case confirmation required histologic observation of sarcocysts or isolation of Sarcocystis species DNA from muscle biopsy. Sixty-eight patients met the case definition (62 probable and 6 confirmed). All but 2 resided in Europe; all were tourists and traveled mostly during the summer months. The most frequent symptoms reported were myalgia (100%), fatigue (91%), fever (82%), headache (59%), and arthralgia (29%); onset clustered during 2 distinct periods: "early" during the second and "late" during the sixth week after departure from the island. Blood eosinophilia and elevated serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels were observed beginning during the fifth week after departure. Sarcocystis nesbitti DNA was recovered from 1 muscle biopsy. Clinicians evaluating travelers returning ill from Malaysia with myalgia, with or without fever, should consider AMS, noting the apparent biphasic aspect of the disease, the later onset of elevated CPK and eosinophilia, and the possibility for relapses. The exact source of infection among travelers to Tioman Island remains unclear but needs to be determined to prevent future illnesses. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
In sub-Saharan Africa, many children die from diarrhea, acute respiratory illness and malaria, despite the fact that there are well recognized, inexpensive and highly effective treatments for these ailments. Healthy Child Uganda (HCU), a Ugandan-Canadian partnership, has been operating a village health volunteer program ...
Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A; Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Winston, Flaura K; Kassam-Adams, Nancy
Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children's coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six-month assessment. Children used an average of five to six coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children's acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping.
Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI necessitating renal replacement therapy (RRT is associated with high mortality and increased risk for end stage renal disease. However, it is unknown if this applies to patients with a preliminary unremarkable medical history. The purpose of this study was to describe overall and renal survival in critically ill patients with AKI necessitating RRT stratified by the presence of comorbidity.A retrospective cohort study was performed, between 1994 and 2010, including all adult critically ill patients with AKI necessitating RRT, stratified by the presence of comorbidity. Logistic regression, survival curve and cox proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate overall and renal survival. Standardized mortality rate (SMR analysis was performed to compare long-term survival to the predicted survival in the Dutch population.Of the 1067 patients included only 96(9.0% had no comorbidity. Hospital mortality was 56.6% versus 43.8% in patients with and without comorbidity, respectively. In those who survived hospitalization 10-year survival was 45.0% and 86.0%, respectively. Adjusted for age, sex and year of treatment, absence of comorbidity was not associated with hospital mortality (OR=0.74, 95%-CI=0.47-1.15, while absence of comorbidity was associated with better long-term survival (adjusted HR=0.28, 95%-CI = 0.14-0.58. Compared to the Dutch population, patients without comorbidity had a similar mortality risk (SMR=1.6, 95%-CI=0.7-3.2, while this was increased in patients with comorbidity (SMR=4.8, 95%-CI=4.1-5.5. Regarding chronic dialysis dependency, 10-year renal survival rates were 76.0% and 92.9% in patients with and without comorbidity, respectively. Absence of comorbidity was associated with better renal survival (adjusted HR=0.24, 95%-CI=0.07-0.76.While hospital mortality remains excessively high, the absence of comorbidity in critically ill patients with RRT-requiring AKI is associated with a relative good long
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar los resultados de 26 meses de actividad (enero de 1996 a febrero de 1998 del Servicio de Internación Domiciliaria Diferenciada de Agudos. Este servicio funcionó para 20 camas domiciliarias con dos equipos, cada uno formado por un médico y una enfermera, con una modalidad de atención similar a la de una sala de internación hospitalaria. Se evaluaron las características de la población internada, sus trastornos, las vías de administración de medicamentos, la satisfacción del grupo cuidador, los índices de rendimiento y los costos del sistema. Un total de 1 789 pacientes tuvieron internación domiciliaria en ese período, con una estancia mediana de 4 días. El 76,5% ingresaron desde la internación hospitalaria. Los trastornos cardiorrespiratorios fueron los más frecuentes (45,5% y el porcentaje de pacientes con enfermedad en fase terminal alcanzó 14,2%. La vía de administración de medicamentos fue oral en 74% de los pacientes y parenteral en 26%. La satisfacción de los pacientes fue muy buena y el costo de la internación se redujo a 70% del costo de la internación hospitalaria. La participación familiar fue fundamental en esta modalidad de atención.This study presents the results of 26 months of work, from January 1996 through February 1998, of the Distinct Home Hospitalization Service for Acute Patients. This service managed 20 home beds with two teams, each with a physician and a nurse, with a care approach similar to that for a room in a hospital. Among the items evaluated were the attributes of the admitted population, their illnesses, the form of administering drugs, the satisfaction of the caregivers, the indices of performance, and the costs with this approach. A total of 1 789 patients had home hospitalizations over the period, with a median stay of 4 days. Of the patients, 76.5% were admitted from in-hospital care. The most frequent illnesses were cardiorespiratory ones (45
Full Text Available Respiratory Diseases are public health concern worldwide. The diseases have been associated with air pollution especially indoor air pollution from biomass fuel burning in developing countries. However, researches on pollution levels and on association of respiratory diseases with biomass fuel pollution are limited. A study was therefore undertaken to characterize the levels of pollutants in biomass fuel using homes and examine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI disease in Nianjema village in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Pollution was assessed by measuring PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations in kitchen, living room and outdoors. ARI prevalence was assessed by use of questionnaire which gathered health information for all family members under the study. Results showed that PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations were highest in the kitchen and lowest outdoors. Kitchen concentrations were highest in the kitchen located in the living room for all pollutants except CO. Family size didnÃ¢Â€Â™t have effect on the levels measured in kitchens. Overall ARI prevalence for cooks and children under age 5 making up the exposed group was 54.67% with odds ratio (OR of 5.5; 95% CI 3.6 to 8.5 when compared with unexposed men and non-regular women cooks. Results of this study suggest an association between respiratory diseases and exposure to domestic biomass fuel smoke, but further studies with improved design are needed to confirm the association.
Zapatero, A; Dot, I; Diaz, Y; Gracia, M P; Pérez-Terán, P; Climent, C; Masclans, J R; Nolla, J
To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill patients upon admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and its prognostic implications. A single-center, prospective observational study was carried out from January to November 2015. Patients were followed-up on until death or hospital discharge. The department of Critical Care Medicine of a university hospital. All adults admitted to the ICU during the study period, without known factors capable of altering serum 25(OH)D concentration. Determination of serum 25(OH)D levels within the first 24h following admission to the ICU. Prevalence and mortality at 28 days. The study included 135 patients, of which 74% presented deficient serum 25(OH)D levels upon admission to the ICU. Non-survivors showed significantly lower levels than survivors (8.14ng/ml [6.17-11.53] vs. 12ng/ml [7.1-20.30]; P=.04], and the serum 25(OH)D levels were independently associated to mortality (OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.05-7.86; P=.04]. The area under the ROC curve was 0.61 (95% CI 0.51-0.75), and the best cut-off point for predicting mortality was 10.9ng/ml. Patients with serum 25(OH)D<10.9ng/ml also showed higher acute kidney injury rates (13 vs. 29%; P=.02). Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent upon admission to the ICU. Severe Vitamin D deficiency (25[OH]D<10.9ng/ml) upon admission to the ICU is associated to acute kidney injury and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Zarbock, Alexander; Gerß, Joachim; Van Aken, Hugo; Boanta, Andreea; Kellum, John A; Meersch, Melanie
Acute kidney injury remains a common complication in critically ill patients and despite multiple trials and observational studies, the optimal timing for initiation of renal replacement therapy is still unclear. The early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (ELAIN) study is a randomized, single-center, prospective, two-arm, parallel group trial to reduce mortality in patients with severe acute kidney injury. We describe the study design and discuss aspects of the need for a trial in this patient cohort. Our plan is to randomize critically ill patients with acute kidney injury to 'early' or 'late' initiation of renal replacement therapy according to stage 2 and 3 of the KDIGO classification using a specific trial protocol. We plan to guide data collection and analysis using pre-existing definitions and testing. The primary endpoint is overall survival in a 90-day follow-up period. Secondary endpoints include 28-day, 60-day, 90-day and 1-year all-cause mortality, recovery of renal function, ICU and hospital length-of-stay. The primary analysis will be an intention-to-treat analysis; secondary analyses include treated analyses. We will also specify rules for handling data and determining outcome. Several challenges for study design and execution can be seen in our trial, and it should generate results that will inform and influence the practice of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00004367 ( www.germanctr.de ); 28 May 2013.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is responsible for major epidemics worldwide. Autochthonous cases were recently reported in several European countries. Acute infection is thought to be monophasic. However reports on chronic pain related to CHIKV infection have been made. In particular, the fact that many of these patients do not respond well to usual analgesics suggests that the nature of chronic pain may be not only nociceptive but also neuropathic. Neuropathic pain syndromes require specific treatment and the identification of neuropathic characteristics (NC in a pain syndrome is a major step towards pain control. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study at the end of the major two-wave outbreak lasting 17 months in Réunion Island. We assessed pain in 106 patients seeking general practitioners with confirmed infection with the CHIK virus, and evaluated its impact on quality of life (QoL. Results The mean intensity of pain on the visual-analogical scale (VAS was 5.8 ± 2.1, and its mean duration was 89 ± 2 days. Fifty-six patients fulfilled the definition of chronic pain. Pain had NC in 18.9% according to the DN4 questionnaire. Conversely, about two thirds (65% of patients with NC had chronic pain. The average pain intensity was similar between patients with or without NC (6.0 ± 1.7 vs 6.1 ± 2.0. However, the total score of the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ(15.5 ± 5.2 vs 11.6 ± 5.2; p Conclusions There exists a specific chronic pain condition associated to CHIKV. Pain with NC seems to be associated with more aggressive clinical picture, more intense impact in QoL and more challenging pharmacological treatment.
Stewart, Ian J; Faulk, Tarra I; Sosnov, Jonathan A; Clemens, Michael S; Elterman, Joel; Ross, James D; Howard, Jeffrey T; Fang, Raymond; Zonies, David H; Chung, Kevin K
Rhabdomyolysis has been associated with poor outcomes in patients with traumatic injury, especially in the setting of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, rhabdomyolysis has not been systematically examined in a large cohort of combat casualties injured in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. We conducted a retrospective study of casualties injured during combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan who were initially admitted to the intensive care unit from February 1, 2002, to February 1, 2011. Information on age, sex, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, Injury Severity Score (ISS), mechanism of injury, shock index, creatine kinase, and serum creatinine were collected. These variables were examined via multivariate logistic and Cox regression analyses to determine factors independently associated with rhabdomyolysis, AKI, and death. Of 6,011 admissions identified, a total of 2,109 patients met inclusion criteria and were included for analysis. Rhabdomyolysis, defined as creatine kinase greater than 5,000 U/L, was present in 656 subjects (31.1%). Risk factors for rhabdomyolysis identified on multivariable analysis included injuries to the abdomen and extremities, increased ISS, male sex, explosive mechanism of injury, and shock index greater than 0.9. After adjustment, patients with rhabdomyolysis had a greater than twofold increase in the odds of AKI. In the analysis for mortality, rhabdomyolysis was significantly associated with death until AKI was added, at which point it lost statistical significance. We found that rhabdomyolysis is associated with the development of AKI in combat casualties. While rhabdomyolysis was strongly associated with mortality on the univariate model and in conjunction with both ISS and age, it was not associated with mortality after the inclusion of AKI. This suggests that the effect of rhabdomyolysis on mortality may be mediated by AKI. Prognostic and epidemiologic study, level III.
While, A E; Heery, E; Sheehan, A M; Coyne, I
The numbers of children with long-term illnesses surviving into adulthood and transferring from child to adult services has increased dramatically in the last 30 years. This study aimed to examine health-related quality of life pre- and post-transfer from child to adult healthcare for young people with three long-term illnesses. A total of 217 young people with cystic fibrosis, congenital heart defects or diabetes attending child and adult hospital services in Dublin, Ireland completed a questionnaire survey. Multiple linear regression was used to identify predictors of five dimensions of health-related quality of life pre- and post-transfer. Post-transfer young people with congenital heart disease and diabetes reported significantly lower physical well-being than their pre-transfer counterparts. Pre-transfer young people with cystic fibrosis reported significantly lower physical well-being than those with diabetes, but there was no significant difference post-transfer. Pre-transfer females reported lower scores than males on the Psychological Well-being and Autonomy and Parent Relation dimensions; however, these differences disappeared post-transfer. Higher maternal overprotection scores were associated with significantly lower scores on the Psychological Well-being, Autonomy and Parent Relation, and Social Support and Peers dimensions, regardless of transfer status. Disease group, gender and maternal overprotection were predictors of health-related quality of life pre- and post-transfer from child to adult healthcare. Transition programmes should promote self-management and discourage parental overprotection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shewade, Hemant D; Aggarwal, Arun K; Bharti, Bhavneet
To assess the skills (diagnostic/counseling) of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) trained workers; and to assess the degree of agreement between the physician and the IMNCI trained workers of Raipurrani block, district Panchkula, India, to classify sick under-five children in field. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Raipurrani in the outpatient departments of the community health centre and one primary health centre in 2010. Workers from health department and Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) were assessed in this study. They received IMNCI training in 2006, with 1 day refresher training in 2009. Investigator noted his observations using a skill assessment checklist. Under-five child observations were the unit of study. Sixteen IMNCI trained workers made 128 child observations. Considering color-coded categorization under IMNCI, agreement with investigator (Kappa) was intermediate; red and yellow categorizations had poor agreement. Morbidity-wise agreement (Kappa) was poor for possible serious bacterial infection, feeding problem, respiratory problem and anemia. Considering final diagnosis, investigator and IMNCI trained worker completely agreed in 45 % child observations. All symptoms were asked only in 15 %. Skills were poor overall for young infants. For children between 2 mo to 5 y, danger signs, neck stiffness, edema, wasting and pallor were checked in <40 % observations. Immunization card was asked for in 20 % observations. IMNCI trained workers performed well in all aspects of counseling, except follow up. Training without effective implementation plans will not result in long term skill retention.
Full Text Available Between 2007 and 2013, there were 685 events with evidence of a relationship between pesticide exposure and acute illness/injury among persons less than 18 years old in North Carolina (United States. Median age of children affected was 4.3 years (range: 0.2–17.9. Distribution by gender was similar across all age groups. One fatality and four high severity events were observed. The greatest proportion (42% of events had ocular exposures, followed by dermal (25% and inhalation (18% exposures. When more than one route of exposure occurred, dermal and ocular routes were the most common (46%. Almost all events took place indoors and 32 events involved contact with pets. Insecticides (53% and insect repellants (31% were the most frequent agents contributing to these events. Manual application of pesticides contributed to the greatest number of events (25%, while application through a pressurized can and use of a trigger pump were involved in 21% and 15% of events, respectively. Additional contributors were due to inappropriate storage of pesticides and improper use of the pesticide. These contributing factors can be removed or minimized if pesticides are stored outside the residence or out of the reach of children and pets, and adequate ventilation is ensured whenever pesticides are applied.
Full Text Available The problem of acute tonsillitis remains relevant in clinical pediatrics. A special role in its etiology belongs to group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes, which is found in every fourth child with acute bacterial tonsillitis. In this article there is presented an analysis of the clinical case of streptococcal tonsillitis in children and the pathogen, epidemiology and prognosis of the disease are described. The authors reviewed the current diagnosis criteria and international treatment approaches. There has been grounded the use of cefuroxime axetil for eradication of Streptococcus pyogenes.
Full Text Available Harout Yacoub,1 Leen Khoury,1 Youssef El Douaihy,1 Chadi Salmane,1 Jeanne Kamal,1 Marc Saad,2 Patricia Nasr,1 Jared Radbel,3 Elie El-Charabaty,1 Suzanne El-Sayegh1 1Department of Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY, USA; 2Division of Renal Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA Abstract: Critically ill patients receive a significant amount of fluids leading to a positive fluid balance; this dilutes serum creatinine resulting in an overestimated glomerular filtration rate. The goal of our study is to identify undiagnosed or underestimated acute kidney injury (AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU. It will also identify the morbidity and mortality associated with an underestimated AKI. We reviewed records of patients admitted to our institution (Staten Island University Hospital between 2012 and 2013 for more than 2 days. Patients with end stage renal disease were excluded. AKI was defined using the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. The following formula was used to identify and restage patients with AKI: adjusted creatinine = serum creatinine × [(hospital admission weight (kg 0.6 + Σ (daily cumulative fluid balance (L / hospital admission weight × 0.6]. The primary outcome identified newly diagnosed AKI and those who were restaged. The secondary outcome identified associated morbidities. Seven-hundred and thirty-three out of 1,982 ICU records reviewed, were used. Two-hundred and fifty-seven (mean age 69.8±14.9 had AKI, out of which 15.9% were restaged using the equation. Comparison of mean by Student’s t-test showed no difference between patients who were restaged. Similarly, chi-square revealed no differences between both arms, except mean admission weight (lower in patients who were restaged, fluid balance on days 1, 2, and 3 (higher in the restaged arm, and the presence of congestive
Elfving, Kristina; Shakely, Deler; Andersson, Maria; Baltzell, Kimberly; Ali, Abdullah S; Bachelard, Marc; Falk, Kerstin I; Ljung, Annika; Msellem, Mwinyi I; Omar, Rahila S; Parola, Philippe; Xu, Weiping; Petzold, Max; Trollfors, Birger; Björkman, Anders; Lindh, Magnus; Mårtensson, Andreas
Despite the fact that a large proportion of children with fever in Africa present at primary health care facilities, few studies have been designed to specifically study the causes of uncomplicated childhood febrile illness at this level of care, especially in areas like Zanzibar that has recently undergone a dramatic change from high to low malaria transmission. We prospectively studied the aetiology of febrile illness in 677 children aged 2-59 months with acute uncomplicated fever managed by IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) guidelines in Zanzibar, using point-of-care tests, urine culture, blood-PCR, chest X-ray (CXR) of IMCI-pneumonia classified patients, and multiple quantitative (q)PCR investigations of nasopharyngeal (NPH) (all patients) and rectal (GE) swabs (diarrhoea patients). For comparison, we also performed NPH and GE qPCR analyses in 167 healthy community controls. Final fever diagnoses were retrospectively established based on all clinical and laboratory data. Clinical outcome was assessed during a 14-day follow-up. The utility of IMCI for identifying infections presumed to require antibiotics was evaluated. NPH-qPCR and GE-qPCR detected ≥1 pathogen in 657/672 (98%) and 153/164 (93%) of patients and 158/166 (95%) and 144/165 (87%) of controls, respectively. Overall, 57% (387/677) had IMCI-pneumonia, but only 12% (42/342) had CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Two patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Respiratory syncytial virus (24.5%), influenza A/B (22.3%), rhinovirus (10.5%) and group-A streptococci (6.4%), CXR-confirmed pneumonia (6.2%), Shigella (4.3%) were the most common viral and bacterial fever diagnoses, respectively. Blood-PCR conducted in a sub-group of patients (n = 83) without defined fever diagnosis was negative for rickettsiae, chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever and West Nile viruses. Antibiotics were prescribed to 500 (74%) patients, but only 152 (22%) had an infection retrospectively considered to require
Full Text Available Despite the fact that a large proportion of children with fever in Africa present at primary health care facilities, few studies have been designed to specifically study the causes of uncomplicated childhood febrile illness at this level of care, especially in areas like Zanzibar that has recently undergone a dramatic change from high to low malaria transmission.We prospectively studied the aetiology of febrile illness in 677 children aged 2-59 months with acute uncomplicated fever managed by IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines in Zanzibar, using point-of-care tests, urine culture, blood-PCR, chest X-ray (CXR of IMCI-pneumonia classified patients, and multiple quantitative (qPCR investigations of nasopharyngeal (NPH (all patients and rectal (GE swabs (diarrhoea patients. For comparison, we also performed NPH and GE qPCR analyses in 167 healthy community controls. Final fever diagnoses were retrospectively established based on all clinical and laboratory data. Clinical outcome was assessed during a 14-day follow-up. The utility of IMCI for identifying infections presumed to require antibiotics was evaluated.NPH-qPCR and GE-qPCR detected ≥1 pathogen in 657/672 (98% and 153/164 (93% of patients and 158/166 (95% and 144/165 (87% of controls, respectively. Overall, 57% (387/677 had IMCI-pneumonia, but only 12% (42/342 had CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Two patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Respiratory syncytial virus (24.5%, influenza A/B (22.3%, rhinovirus (10.5% and group-A streptococci (6.4%, CXR-confirmed pneumonia (6.2%, Shigella (4.3% were the most common viral and bacterial fever diagnoses, respectively. Blood-PCR conducted in a sub-group of patients (n = 83 without defined fever diagnosis was negative for rickettsiae, chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever and West Nile viruses. Antibiotics were prescribed to 500 (74% patients, but only 152 (22% had an infection retrospectively considered to require
Full Text Available Abstract Background Astroviruses infect a variety of mammals and birds and are causative agents of diarrhea in humans and other animal hosts. We have previously described the identification of several sequence fragments with limited sequence identity to known astroviruses in a stool specimen obtained from a child with acute diarrhea, suggesting that a novel virus was present. Results In this study, the complete genome of this novel virus isolate was sequenced and analyzed. The overall genome organization of this virus paralleled that of known astroviruses, with 3 open reading frames identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the ORFs indicated that this virus is highly divergent from all previously described animal and human astroviruses. Molecular features that are highly conserved in human serotypes 1–8, such as a 3'NTR stem-loop structure and conserved nucleotide motifs present in the 5'NTR and ORF1b/2 junction, were either absent or only partially conserved in this novel virus. Conclusion Based on the analyses described herein, we propose that this newly discovered virus represents a novel species in the family Astroviridae. It has tentatively been named Astrovirus MLB1.
Kirkwood Carl D
Full Text Available Abstract Diarrhea, the third leading infectious cause of death worldwide, causes approximately 2 million deaths a year. Approximately 40% of these cases are of unknown etiology. We previously developed a metagenomic strategy for identification of novel viruses from diarrhea samples. By applying mass sequencing to a stool sample collected in Melbourne, Australia from a child with acute diarrhea, one 395 bp sequence read was identified that possessed only limited identity to known picornaviruses. This initial fragment shared only 55% amino acid identity to its top BLAST hit, the VP3 protein of Theiler's-like virus, suggesting that a novel picornavirus might be present in this sample. By using a combination of mass sequencing, RT-PCR, 5' RACE and 3' RACE, 6562 bp of the viral genome was sequenced, which includes the entire putative polyprotein. The overall genomic organization of this virus was similar to known picornaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein demonstrated that the virus was divergent from previously described picornaviruses and appears to belong to the newly proposed picornavirus genus, Cosavirus. Based on the analysis discussed here, we propose that this virus represents a new species in the Cosavirus genus, and it has tentatively been named Human Cosavirus E1 (HCoSV-E1.
Sinclair, Amber Hughes; Edgerton, Eric S; Wyzga, Ron; Tolsma, Dennis
Concentrations of numerous ambient air pollutants have declined in recent years across the United States. Although it can be expected that reductions in air pollutants are associated with reductions in health effects, it is unclear whether this is actually the case. The purpose of this analysis was to compare the levels of and relationships between air pollutants and acute respiratory outpatient visits for two consecutive time periods totaling 53 mo. Air pollution data were collected at a centrally located monitor in Atlanta, GA, and include 24-hr averages of particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and its components; coarse PM (PM10-2.5); PM less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10); oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs); 8-hr maximum ozone (O3); and 1-hr maximum nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In addition, several metals and fractions of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were investigated. Daily outpatient visit data were obtained from the electronic data warehouse of the Atlanta-based region of a nonprofit managed care organization. Poisson general linear modeling determined associations between daily levels of acute visits for four diagnosis groups (adult and child asthma, upper and lower respiratory infection) and air pollution measurements. Overall declining trends were observed in air pollutants and acute visits over the study period. Childhood asthma had the greatest number of significant associations with air pollutants, namely zinc and EC. The significant lag time between pollutant measurement and visit occurrence changed from 3-5 days in the first time period to 6-8 days in the later time period, but there was general consistency in several childhood asthma and pollutant associations over both time periods. The greatest evidence for a reduction in pollution being associated with an improvement in health response was for lower respiratory disease
McCarthy, Rose; Nuttall, Janet; Smith, Joyce; Hollins Martin, Caroline J
The most recent Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CMACE, 2011) identified human errors, specifically those of midwives and obstetricians/doctors as a fundamental component in contributing to maternal death in the U.K. This paper discusses these findings and outlines a project to provide training in Maternal-Acute Illness Management (M-AIM) to final year student midwives. Contents of the program are designed to educate and simulate AIM skills and increase confidence and clinical ability in early recognition, management and referral of the acutely ill woman. An outline of the Maternal-AIM program delivered at the University of Salford (Greater Manchester, UK) is presented to illustrate how this particular institution has responded to a perceived need voiced by local midwifery leaders. It is proposed that developing this area of expertise in the education system will better prepare student midwives for contemporary midwifery practice. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hensel, Jennifer M; Taylor, Valerie H; Fung, Kinwah; Yang, Rebecca; Vigod, Simone N
The role of mental illness and addiction in acute care use for chronic medical conditions that are sensitive to ambulatory care management requires focussed attention. This study examines how mental illness or addiction affects risk for repeat hospitalization and/or emergency department use for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) among high-cost users of medical care. A retrospective, population-based cohort study using data from Ontario, Canada. Among the top 10% of medical care users ranked by cost, we determined rates of any and repeat care use (hospitalizations and emergency department [ED] visits) between April 1, 2011, and March 31, 2012, for 14 consensus established ACSCs and compared them between those with and without diagnosed mental illness or addiction during the 2 years prior. Risk ratios were adjusted (aRR) for age, sex, residence, and income quintile. Among 314,936 high-cost users, 35.9% had a mental illness or addiction. Compared to those without, individuals with mental illness or addiction were more likely to have an ED visit or hospitalization for any ACSC (22.8% vs. 19.6%; aRR, 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.23). They were also more likely to have repeat ED visits or hospitalizations for the same ACSC (6.2% vs. 4.4% of those without; aRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.44-1.53). These associations were stronger in stratifications by mental illness diagnostic subgroup, particularly for those with a major mental illness. The presence of mental illness and addiction among high-cost users of medical services may represent an unmet need for quality ambulatory and primary care.
Sonali Rajesh Saraf
Conclusion: As NHL present with nonspecific symptoms, these tumours may not be detected in early stages and hence may not be treated appropriately. These patients have weakened immunity and hence are prone to infection and sepsis which can be a major cause of mortality. This autopsy study experience has shown that NHL can masquerade as acute febrile illness which if not detected early and treated adequately can turn fatal.
Feikin, Daniel R; Njenga, M Kariuki; Bigogo, Godfrey; Aura, Barrack; Aol, George; Audi, Allan; Jagero, Geoffrey; Muluare, Peter O; Gikunju, Stella; Nderitu, Leonard; Winchell, Jonas M; Schneider, Eileen; Erdman, Dean D; Oberste, M Steven; Katz, Mark A; Breiman, Robert F
Few comprehensive data exist on the etiology of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) among African children. From March 1, 2007 to February 28, 2010, we collected blood for culture and nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 10 viruses and 3 atypical bacteria among children aged causes and pneumococcus the most likely bacterial cause. Contemporaneous controls are important for interpreting upper respiratory tract specimens.
Wright, Carlee J; Sargeant, Jan M; Edge, Victoria L; Ford, James D; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow; Shiwak, Inez; Flowers, Charlie; Harper, Sherilee L
One of the highest self-reported incidence rates of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in the global peer-reviewed literature occurs in Inuit communities in the Canadian Arctic. This high incidence of illness could be due, in part, to the consumption of contaminated water, as many northern communities face challenges related to the quality of municipal drinking water. Furthermore, many Inuit store drinking water in containers in the home, which could increase the risk of contamination between source and point-of-use (i.e., water recontamination during storage). To examine this risk, this research characterized drinking water collection and storage practices, identified potential risk factors for water contamination between source and point-of-use, and examined possible associations between drinking water contamination and self-reported AGI in the Inuit community of Rigolet, Canada. The study included a cross-sectional census survey that captured data on types of drinking water used, household practices related to drinking water (e.g., how it was collected and stored), physical characteristics of water storage containers, and self-reported AGI. Additionally, water samples were collected from all identified drinking water containers in homes and analyzed for presence of Escherichia coli and total coliforms. Despite municipally treated tap water being available in all homes, 77.6% of households had alternative sources of drinking water stored in containers, and of these containers, 25.2% tested positive for total coliforms. The use of transfer devices and water dippers (i.e., smaller bowls or measuring cups) for the collection and retrieval of water from containers were both significantly associated with increased odds of total coliform presence in stored water (OR transfer device = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-11.7; OR dipper = 13.4, 95% CI 3.8-47.1). Twenty-eight-day period prevalence of self-reported AGI during the month before the survey was 17.2% (95% CI 13
Full Text Available Hyperglycemia is a common condition in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU. These patients represent an inhomogeneous collective and hyperglycemia might need different evaluation depending on the underlying disorder. To elucidate this, we investigated and compared associations of severe hyperglycemia (>200 mg/dL and mortality in patients admitted to an ICU for acute myocardial infarction (AMI or sepsis as the two most frequent admission diagnoses. From 2006 to 2009, 2551 patients 69 (58–77 years; 1544 male; 337 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2DM who were admitted because of either AMI or sepsis to an ICU in a tertiary care hospital were investigated retrospectively. Follow-up of patients was performed between May 2013 and November 2013. In a Cox regression analysis, maximum glucose concentration at the day of admission was associated with mortality in the overall cohort (HR = 1.006, 95% CI: 1.004–1.009; p < 0.001 and in patients suffering from myocardial infarction (HR = 1.101, 95% CI: 1.075–1.127; p < 0.001 but only in trend in patients admitted to an ICU for sepsis (HR = 1.030, 95% CI: 0.998–1.062; p = 0.07. Severe hyperglycemia was associated with adverse intra-ICU mortality in the overall cohort (23% vs. 13%; p < 0.001 and patients admitted for AMI (15% vs. 5%; p < 0.001 but not for septic patients (39% vs. 40%; p = 0.48. A medical history of type 2 diabetes (n = 337; 13% was not associated with increased intra-ICU mortality (15% vs. 15%; p = 0.93 but in patients with severe hyperglycemia and/or a known medical history of type 2 diabetes considered in combination, an increased mortality in AMI patients (intra-ICU 5% vs. 13%; p < 0.001 but not in septic patients (intra-ICU 38% vs. 41%; p = 0.53 could be evidenced. The presence of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients has differential impact within the different etiological groups. Hyperglycemia in AMI patients might identify a sicker patient
Muscara, F; McCarthy, M C; Woolf, C; Hearps, S J C; Burke, K; Anderson, V A
Parents of children with life threatening illness or injuries are at elevated risk of distress reactions, involving symptoms of acute stress disorder, depression and anxiety. Currently, the impact of child illness factors is unclear, and to date research systematically examining the prevalence of these psychological reactions across different illness groups with an acute life threat is sparse. This is important to explore given that studies show that parent functioning impacts on the psychological adjustment and recovery of the ill child. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: At four weeks following a child's diagnosis of a serious illness, 49-54% of parents met DSM-IV criteria for acute stress disorder, across a number of illness groups, whereas 15-27% of parents were in the moderate/severe range for depression and anxiety, and 25-31% for stress. Results from this study demonstrate that rates and severity of these psychological reactions in parents of seriously ill children do not vary according to illness type. A life threatening childhood illness/injury can lead to significant distress reactions in parents, with independent studies finding such reactions in several different illness groups. To date, there is limited research systematically comparing the prevalence of adverse parental psychological reactions across different childhood illness groups with an acute life threat. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and severity of symptoms of acute traumatic stress, depression, anxiety and general stress in parents, following admission of their child to hospital for a life threatening illness. The study also aimed to explore the relationship between these symptoms, and to determine whether they differ according to illness/injury. Cross-sectional data from a prospective, longitudinal study are reported. Participants were 194 parents of 145 children (49 couples), admitted to cardiology (n=53), oncology (n=40) and pediatric intensive care units (n=52), for serious
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a long history of certain medical conditions being associated with stigma, stereotypes, and negative attitudes. Research has shown that such attitudes can have a detrimental effect on patients presenting with stigmatised medical conditions and can even flow on to impact their family. The objective of this study was to measure the attitudes of undergraduate students enrolled in six different health-related courses at Monash University toward patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness. Methods A convenience sample of undergraduate students enrolled in six health-related courses in first, second and third years at Monash University were surveyed. The Medical Condition Regard Scale - a valid and reliable, self-report measure of attitudes - was administered to students along with a brief demographic form. Mean scores, t-tests, and ANOVA were used to analyse student attitudes. Ethics approval was granted. Results 548 students participated. Statistically significant differences were found between the courses (p = 0.05, year of the course (p = 0.09, and gender (p = 0.04 for the medical condition of intellectual disability. There was no statistically significant difference between the courses, year of the course, gender, and age group for substance abuse or acute mental illness conditions. Conclusion The findings suggest that students in undergraduate health-related courses, as a group, have a strong regard for patients with intellectual disability and some regard for patients with acute mental illness, but not for patients presenting with substance abuse problems.
Boyle, Malcolm J; Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Molloy, Andrew; McKenna, Lisa; Molloy, Elizabeth; Lewis, Belinda
There is a long history of certain medical conditions being associated with stigma, stereotypes, and negative attitudes. Research has shown that such attitudes can have a detrimental effect on patients presenting with stigmatised medical conditions and can even flow on to impact their family. The objective of this study was to measure the attitudes of undergraduate students enrolled in six different health-related courses at Monash University toward patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness. A convenience sample of undergraduate students enrolled in six health-related courses in first, second and third years at Monash University were surveyed. The Medical Condition Regard Scale--a valid and reliable, self-report measure of attitudes--was administered to students along with a brief demographic form. Mean scores, t-tests, and ANOVA were used to analyse student attitudes. Ethics approval was granted. 548 students participated. Statistically significant differences were found between the courses (p = 0.05), year of the course (p = 0.09), and gender (p = 0.04) for the medical condition of intellectual disability. There was no statistically significant difference between the courses, year of the course, gender, and age group for substance abuse or acute mental illness conditions. The findings suggest that students in undergraduate health-related courses, as a group, have a strong regard for patients with intellectual disability and some regard for patients with acute mental illness, but not for patients presenting with substance abuse problems.
Sundararajan, Krishnaswamy; Schoeman, Tom; Hughes, Lara; Edwards, Suzanne; Reddi, Benjamin
To provide a current review of the clinical characteristics, predictors and outcomes in critically ill patients presenting to the ED with acute pancreatitis and subsequently admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary referral centre in Australia. A retrospective single-centre study of adult patients admitted with pancreatitis. Severe acute pancreatitis defined by Bedside Index of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) score ≥2. Eighty-seven patients fulfilled criteria for inclusion during the study period, representing 0.9% of all ICU admissions. The median age of patients was 54. Survival was independent of patients' age, sex, aetiology and comorbidities. Mortality was 30.8% for both inpatient referrals to the ICU and for direct referrals via the ED. Higher mortality was identified among patients requiring mechanical ventilation (74.2 vs 24.6% in survivors; P Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Examination (APACHE) II scores in discriminating between survivors and non-survivors among unselected patients with acute pancreatitis admitted to ICU, whereas APACHE II discriminates better in the cohort admitted from ED. Severe acute pancreatitis is associated with high mortality. Aetiology and comorbidity did not predict adverse outcomes in this population. BISAP score is non-inferior to APACHE II score as a prognostic tool in critically ill patients with acute pancreatitis and could be used to triage admission. Evidence of persistent organ dysfunction and requirements for organ support reliably identify patients at high-risk of death. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Elise A. Slim
Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of acute hydrops in a 10-year-old child with advanced keratoconus. Case Presentation. A ten-year-old boy diagnosed as having right eye (RE infectious keratitis, not responding to antimicrobial therapy, was referred to our hospital. The diagnosis of infectious keratitis was established one month prior to his presentation following an episode of acute corneal whitening, pain, and drop in visual acuity. Topical fortified antibiotics followed by topical antiviral therapy were used with no improvement. Slit lamp examination showed significant corneal protrusion with edema surrounding a rupture in Descemet’s membrane in the RE. The diagnosis of acute corneal hydrops from advanced keratoconus was highly suspected and confirmed with corneal topography. Conclusion. Although a relatively rare disease at the age of 10 years, keratoconus can be rapidly progressive in the pediatric group. Keratoconus should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive vision loss in this age group.
Rodríguez, A; Reyes, L F; Monclou, J; Suberviola, B; Bodí, M; Sirgo, G; Solé-Violán, J; Guardiola, J; Barahona, D; Díaz, E; Martín-Loeches, I; Restrepo, M I
Serum procalcitonin (PCT) concentration could be increased in patients with renal dysfunction in the absence of bacterial infection. To determine the interactions among serum renal biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) and serum PCT concentration, in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to lung influenza infection. Secondary analysis of a prospective multicentre observational study. 148 Spanish ICUs. ICU patients admitted with influenza infection without bacterial co-infection. Clinical, laboratory and hemodynamic variables were recorded. AKI was classified as AKI I or II based on creatinine (Cr) concentrations (≥1.60-2.50mg/dL and Cr≥2.51-3.99mg/dL, respectively). Patients with chronic renal disease, receiving renal replacement treatment or with Cr>4mg/dL were excluded. Spearman's correlation, simple and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. None. Out of 663 patients included in the study, 52 (8.2%) and 10 (1.6%) developed AKI I and II, respectively. Patients with AKI were significantly older, had more comorbid conditions and were more severally ill. PCT concentrations were higher in patients with AKI (2.62 [0.60-10.0]ng/mL vs. 0.40 [0.13-1.20]ng/mL, p=0.002). Weak correlations between Cr/PCT (rho=0.18) and Urea (U)/PCT (rho=0.19) were identified. Simple linear regression showed poor interaction between Cr/U and PCT concentrations (Cr R 2 =0.03 and U R 2 =0.018). Similar results were observed during multiple linear regression analysis (Cr R 2 =0.046 and U R 2 =0.013). Although PCT concentrations were slightly higher in patients with AKI, high PCT concentrations are not explained by AKI and could be warning sign of a potential bacterial infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Delgado, M; Zavala, E; Tomás, R; Fernandez, R
Proportional assist ventilation plus (PAV+) applies pressure depending on the patient's inspiratory effort, automatically adjusting flow and volume assist to changes in respiratory mechanics. We aimed to assess the clinical factors associated with the success of PAV+ as first-line support in the acute phase of critical illness. A prospective cohort study was carried out. Mechanically ventilated patients>24h were switched from assist-control ventilation to PAV+ as soon as they regained spontaneous breathing activity. PAV+ was set to deliver the highest assistance. We compared patients in whom PAV+ succeeded versus those in whom it failed. PAV+ succeeded in 12 (63%) patients, but failed in 7 (37%) due to tachypnea (n=4), hypercapnia (n=2), and metabolic acidosis (n=1), but without statistical significance. Both groups had similar clinical parameters. On the day of inclusion, total work of breathing per breath was lower in the successful PAV+ group (WOBTOT: 0.95 [0.8-1.35] vs. 1.6 [1.4-1.8] J/L; P<.007). The area under the ROC curve was 0.89 ± 0.08 for WOBTOT. The best cut-off for predicting PAV+ success was WOBTOT<1.4 J/L (sensitivity: 1 [0.7-1], specificity: 0.6 [0.4-0.6], PPV: 0.7 [0.5-0.7], and NPV: 1 [0.6-1]). PAV+ proved feasible as first-line ventilatory support in 63% of the patients, mostly in individuals without extreme derangements in WOBTOT. Tachypnea and hypercapnia were the clinical factors associated with failure, though statistical significance was not reached. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Hallegraeff Joannes M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The eight-item Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire is used as a screening instrument in physical therapy to assess mental defeat in patients with acute low back pain, besides patient perception might determine the course and risk for chronic low back pain. However, the psychometric properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in common musculoskeletal disorders like acute low back pain have not been adequately studied. Patients’ perceptions vary across different populations and affect coping styles. Thus, our aim was to determine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability and validity of the Dutch language version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in acute non-specific low back pain patients in primary care physical therapy. Methods A non-experimental cross-sectional study with two measurements was performed. Eighty-four acute low back pain patients, in multidisciplinary health care center in Dutch primary care with a sample mean (SD age of 42 (12 years, participated in the study. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α and test-retest procedures (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients and limits of agreement were evaluated at a one-week interval. The concurrent validity of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire was examined by using the Mental Health Component of the Short Form 36 Health Survey. Results The Cronbach’s α for internal consistency was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.67 – 0.83; and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient test-retest reliability was acceptable: 0.72 (95% CI, 0.53 – 0.82, however, the limits of agreement were large. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient measuring concurrent validity 0.65 (95% CI, 0.46 – 0.80. Conclusion The Dutch version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire is an appropriate instrument for measuring patients’ perceptions in acute low back pain patients, showing acceptable internal consistency and reliability. Concurrent validity is adequate
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of the study were to assess the reliability, and the content, construct, and convergent validity of the Spanish version of the CHIP-CE/PRF, to analyze parent-child agreement, and compare the results with those of the original U.S. version. Methods Parents from a representative sample of children aged 6-12 years were selected from 9 primary schools in Barcelona. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a convenience subsample of parents from 2 schools. Parents completed the Spanish version of the CHIP-CE/PRF. The Achenbach Child Behavioural Checklist (CBCL was administered to a convenience subsample. Results The overall response rate was 67% (n = 871. There was no floor effect. A ceiling effect was found in 4 subdomains. Reliability was acceptable at the domain level (internal consistency = 0.68-0.86; test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.69-0.85. Younger girls had better scores on Satisfaction and Achievement than older girls. Comfort domain score was lower (worse in children with a probable mental health problem, with high effect size (ES = 1.45. The level of parent-child agreement was low (0.22-0.37. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the parent version of the Spanish CHIP-CE has acceptable psychometric properties although further research is needed to check reliability at sub-domain level. The CHIP-CE parent report form provides a comprehensive, psychometrically sound measure of health for Spanish children 6 to 12 years old. It can be a complementary perspective to the self-reported measure or an alternative when the child is unable to complete the questionnaire. In general, the results are similar to the original U.S. version.
Vos, R.C.; Kasteleyn, M.J.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Leeuw, E. de; Schellevis, F.G.; Rijken, M.; Rutten, G.E.
Background: Chronically ill patients such as people with type 2 diabetes develop perceptions of their illness, which will influence their coping behaviour. Perceptions are formed once a health threat has been recognised. Many people with type 2 diabetes suffer from multimorbidity, for example the
Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Wright, Dorianne B; Fisher, Philip A
Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children's (n = 107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9-10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress-reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure-may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Rupp, Stefan; Bauer, Jürgen; Tonn, Torsten; Schächinger, Volker; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Zeiher, Andreas M; Schranz, Dietmar
DCM is the most common cardiomyopathy in childhood. Effectiveness of anticongestive therapy is limited in most cases and about one-third of children diagnosed with DCM die or receive heart transplantation within the first year after diagnosis. Cardiac stem cell transplantation has become a promising therapy to treat heart failure in adult patients. Based on these promising results, the cardiac stem cell therapy might also represent a new therapeutic option particularly in young children. The present case documents for the first time intracoronary administration of autologous bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in a critically ill two-yr-old child with severe heart failure caused by DCM. Because of progressive worsening of the clinical condition despite maximal anticongestive treatment, the decision to perform autologous stem cell therapy was made. Cardiac stem cell therapy proved to be technically feasible, was associated with improvement in cardiac function, and might represent an option before heart transplantation in children with severe heart failure.
Kundavaram Paul Prabhakar Abhilash
Full Text Available Background: Acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI may have similar clinical presentation, and the etiology is varied and region specific. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in South India. All adult patients presenting with AUFI of 3-14 days duration were evaluated for etiology, and the differences in presentation and outcome were analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 1258 patients. A microbiological cause was identified in 82.5% of our patients. Scrub typhus was the most common cause of AUFI (35.9% followed by dengue (30.6%, malaria (10.4%, enteric fever (3.7%, and leptospirosis (0.6%. Both scrub typhus and dengue fever peaked during the monsoon season and the cooler months, whereas no seasonality was observed with enteric fever and malaria. The mean time to presentation was longer in enteric fever (9.9 [4.7] days and scrub typhus (8.2 [3.2] days. Bleeding manifestations were seen in 7.7% of patients, mostly associated with dengue (14%, scrub typhus (4.2%, and malaria (4.6%. The requirement of supplemental oxygen, invasive ventilation, and inotropes was higher in scrub typhus, leptospirosis, and malaria. The overall mortality rate was 3.3% and was highest with scrub typhus (4.6% followed by dengue fever (2.3%. Significant clinical predictors of scrub typhus were breathlessness (odds ratio [OR]: 4.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.38-7.3, total whole blood cell count >10,000 cells/mm 3 (OR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.64-3.24, serum albumin <3.5 g % (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.68-3.2. Overt bleeding manifestations (OR: 2.98; 95% CI: 1.84-4.84, and a platelet count of <150,000 cells/mm 3 (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.47-2.98 were independent predictors of dengue fever. Conclusion: The similarity in clinical presentation and diversity of etiological agents demonstrates the complexity of diagnosis and treatment of AUFI in South India. The etiological profile will be of use in the development of
or death for the parents. The back transfer was experienced as joy and despair. The parents had confidence in most nurses, and they were kind, helpful, informative and capable. Less capable and distressed nurses made the parents feel uncomfortale and insecure. Parents need help and support during...... their child's transfer to and from the PICU. Critical care nurses have to discuss the policy of family-centred care....
Study Design of the Microcirculatory Shock Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients (microSOAP: an International Multicenter Observational Study of Sublingual Microcirculatory Alterations in Intensive Care Patients
Namkje A. R. Vellinga
Full Text Available Objective. Sublingual microcirculatory alterations are associated with an adverse prognosis in several critical illness subgroups. Up to now, single-center studies have reported on sublingual microcirculatory alterations in ICU patient subgroups, but an extensive evaluation of the prevalence of these alterations is lacking. We present the study design of an international multicenter observational study to investigate the prevalence of microcirculatory alterations in critically ill: the Microcirculatory Shock Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (microSOAP. Methods. 36 ICU’s worldwide have participated in this study aiming for inclusion of over 500 evaluable patients. To enable communication and data collection, a website, an Open Clinica 3.0 database, and image uploading software have been designed. A one-session assessment of the sublingual microcirculation using Sidestream Dark Field imaging and data collection on patient characteristics has been performed in every ICU patient >18 years, regardless of underlying disease. Statistical analysis will provide insight in the prevalence and severity of sublingual alterations, its relation to systemic hemodynamic variables, disease, therapy, and outcome. Conclusion. This study will be the largest microcirculation study ever performed. It is expected that this study will also establish a basis for future studies related to the microcirculation in critically ill.
Study Design of the Microcirculatory Shock Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients (microSOAP): an International Multicenter Observational Study of Sublingual Microcirculatory Alterations in Intensive Care Patients
Vellinga, Namkje A. R.; Boerma, E. Christiaan; Koopmans, Matty; Donati, Abele; Dubin, Arnaldo; Shapiro, Nathan I.; Pearse, Rupert M.; Bakker, Jan; Ince, Can
Objective. Sublingual microcirculatory alterations are associated with an adverse prognosis in several critical illness subgroups. Up to now, single-center studies have reported on sublingual microcirculatory alterations in ICU patient subgroups, but an extensive evaluation of the prevalence of these alterations is lacking. We present the study design of an international multicenter observational study to investigate the prevalence of microcirculatory alterations in critically ill: the Microcirculatory Shock Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (microSOAP). Methods. 36 ICU's worldwide have participated in this study aiming for inclusion of over 500 evaluable patients. To enable communication and data collection, a website, an Open Clinica 3.0 database, and image uploading software have been designed. A one-session assessment of the sublingual microcirculation using Sidestream Dark Field imaging and data collection on patient characteristics has been performed in every ICU patient >18 years, regardless of underlying disease. Statistical analysis will provide insight in the prevalence and severity of sublingual alterations, its relation to systemic hemodynamic variables, disease, therapy, and outcome. Conclusion. This study will be the largest microcirculation study ever performed. It is expected that this study will also establish a basis for future studies related to the microcirculation in critically ill. PMID:22666566
Mansoor, Ghulam Farooq; Chikvaidze, Paata; Varkey, Sherin; Higgins-Steele, Ariel; Safi, Najibullah; Mubasher, Adela; Yusufi, Khaksar; Alawi, Sayed Alisha
To assess quality of the national Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) program services provided for sick children at primary health facilities in Afghanistan. Mixed methods including cross-sectional study. Thirteen (of thirty-four) provinces in Afghanistan. Observation of case management and re-examination of 177 sick children, exit interviews with caretakers and review of equipment/supplies at 44 health facilities. Introduction and scale up of Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses at primary health care facilities. Care of sick children according to IMCI guidelines, health worker skills and essential health system elements. Thirty-two (71%) of the health workers were trained in IMCI and five (11%) received supervision in clinical case management during the past 6 months. On average, 5.4 out of 10 main assessment tasks were performed during cases observed, the index being higher in children seen by trained providers than untrained (6.3 vs 3.5, 95% CI 5.8-6.8 vs 2.9-4.1). In all, 74% of the 104 children who needed oral antibiotics received prescriptions, while 30% received complete and correct advice and 30% were overprescribed, and more so by untrained providers. Home care counseling was associated with provider training status (41.3% by trained and 24.5% by untrained). Essential oral and pre-referral injectable medicine and equipment/supplies were available in 66%, 23%, and 45% of health facilities, respectively. IMCI training improved assessment, rational use of antibiotics and counseling; further investment in IMCI in Afghanistan, continuing provider capacity building and supportive supervision for improved quality of care and counseling for sick children is needed, especially given high burden treatable childhood illness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the health care-seeking behaviour of mothers when their children under five years suffer from common childhood illnesses such as diarrhoea, fever, cough and worms. Opsomming Die doel van die navorsing was om moeders met siek kinders se gesondheidsgedrag na te vors. Die fokus was op die moeders se pogings om mediese hulp vir hul kinders te bekom. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Murphy, David J; Rubinson, Lewis; Blum, James; Isakov, Alexander; Bhagwanjee, Statish; Cairns, Charles B; Cobb, J Perren; Sevransky, Jonathan E
In developed countries, public health systems have become adept at rapidly identifying the etiology and impact of public health emergencies. However, within the time course of clinical responses, shortfalls in readily analyzable patient-level data limit capabilities to understand clinical course, predict outcomes, ensure resource availability, and evaluate the effectiveness of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for seriously ill and injured patients. To be useful in the timeline of a public health emergency, multi-institutional clinical investigation systems must be in place to rapidly collect, analyze, and disseminate detailed clinical information regarding patients across prehospital, emergency department, and acute care hospital settings, including ICUs. As an initial step to near real-time clinical learning during public health emergencies, we sought to develop an "all-hazards" core dataset to characterize serious illness and injuries and the resource requirements for acute medical response across the care continuum. A multidisciplinary panel of clinicians, public health professionals, and researchers with expertise in public health emergencies. Group consensus process. The consensus process included regularly scheduled conference calls, electronic communications, and an in-person meeting to generate candidate variables. Candidate variables were then reviewed by the group to meet the competing criteria of utility and feasibility resulting in the core dataset. The 40-member panel generated 215 candidate variables for potential dataset inclusion. The final dataset includes 140 patient-level variables in the domains of demographics and anthropometrics (7), prehospital (11), emergency department (13), diagnosis (8), severity of illness (54), medications and interventions (38), and outcomes (9). The resulting all-hazard core dataset for seriously ill and injured persons provides a foundation to facilitate rapid collection, analyses, and dissemination of
Lodise, Thomas P; Fan, Weihong; Griffith, David C; Dudley, Michael N; Sulham, Katherine A
Nonclinical studies have suggested that oxidative damage, caspase-mediated apoptosis, and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels may be involved in the pathogenesis of colistin (CST)-associated acute renal failure. MIN inhibits caspase 1, caspase 3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, leading to the hypothesis that coadministration of CST with MIN (CST-MIN) may reduce the incidence of acute renal failure as well as produce additive or synergistic antimicrobial effects. A multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Premier Research database to examine the impact of CST-MIN on acute renal failure. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age of ≥18 years, intensive care unit admission at CST initiation, primary International Classification of Diseases 9 (ICD-9) diagnosis of pneumonia or sepsis, nondialysis at hospital admission, and discharge between January 2010 and December 2015. ICD-9 code 584.XX or ICD-10 code N17 was used to define acute renal failure. Baseline comparisons, 1:8 propensity score matching, and confirmatory logistic regression analyses were conducted. In total, 4,817 patients received CST and met inclusion criteria; 93 received CST-MIN. Unadjusted frequency of acute renal failure was significantly lower in patients receiving CST-MIN than CST (11.8% versus 23.7%, P = 0.007). Similar results were seen in propensity score matching (12.0% versus 22.3%, P = 0.031) and logistic regression analyses (odds ratio of 0.403, P = 0.006). Mortalities and 30-day readmission rates were similar between groups. The acute renal failure rate was not impacted by prevalence of baseline renal disease. CST-MIN in critically ill patients may reduce CST-associated acute renal failure. Further evaluation of this combination in prospective clinical studies is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Lodise et al.
Barwise, Amelia; Garcia-Arguello, Lisbeth; Dong, Yue; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Vukoja, Marija; Schultz, Marcus J; Adhikari, Neill K J; Bonneton, Benjamin; Kilickaya, Oguz; Kashyap, Rahul; Gajic, Ognjen; Schmickl, Christopher N
The Checklist for Early Recognition and Treatment of Acute Illness (CERTAIN) is an international collaborative project with the overall objective of standardizing the approach to the evaluation and treatment of critically ill patients world-wide, in accordance with best-practice principles. One of CERTAIN's key features is clinical decision support providing point-of-care information about common acute illness syndromes, procedures, and medications in an index card format. This paper describes 1) the process of developing and validating the content for point-of-care decision support, and 2) the content management system that facilitates frequent peer-review and allows rapid updates of content across different platforms (CERTAIN software, mobile apps, pdf-booklet) and different languages. Content was created based on survey results of acute care providers and validated using an open peer-review process. Over a 3 year period, CERTAIN content expanded to include 67 syndrome cards, 30 procedure cards, and 117 medication cards. 127 (59 %) cards have been peer-reviewed so far. Initially MS Word® and Dropbox® were used to create, store, and share content for peer-review. Recently Google Docs® was used to make the peer-review process more efficient. However, neither of these approaches met our security requirements nor has the capacity to instantly update the different CERTAIN platforms. Although we were able to successfully develop and validate a large inventory of clinical decision support cards in a short period of time, commercially available software solutions for content management are suboptimal. Novel custom solutions are necessary for efficient global point of care content system management.
Newberger, Eli H.; And Others
This study examined the underlying common origins of pediatric social illnesses (i.e., child abuse and neglect, failure to thrive, accidents, and poisonings) in children under age 4. Subjects were 560 children admitted to the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Boston. Children admitted with pediatric social diagnoses were matched on the basis…
Marker, Søren; Perner, Anders; Wetterslev, Jørn
or no prophylaxis as control interventions. The participants will be adult hospitalised acutely ill patients with high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. We will systematically search the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS and Epistemonikos for relevant literature. We will follow...... the recommendations by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The risk of systematic errors (bias) and random errors will be assessed, and the overall quality of evidence will be evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment...
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0376 TITLE: Acute Pancreatitis as a Model to Predict Transition of Systemic Inflammation to Organ Failgure in Trauma...COVERED 22 Sep 2016 - 21 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Acute Pancreatitis as a Model to Predict Transition of Systemic...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Trauma, extensive burns, bacterial infections, and acute pancreatitis (AP) are common
Tavenier, Juliette; Haupt, Thomas Huneck; Andersen, Aino L
inflammation in healthy elderly. We hypothesized that nutritional support and resistance training would accelerate the resolution of inflammation in hospitalized elderly patients with SIRS. Acutely admitted patients aged >65 years with SIRS were randomized to an intervention consisting of a high-protein diet......Acute illness and hospitalization in elderly individuals are often accompanied by the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and malnutrition, both associated with wasting and mortality. Nutritional support and resistance training were shown to increase muscle anabolism and reduce...... (1.7 g/kg per day) during hospitalization, and daily protein supplement (18.8 g) and 3 weekly resistance training sessions for 12 weeks after discharge (Intervention, n=14), or to standard-care (Control, n=15). Plasma levels of the inflammatory biomarkers soluble urokinase plasminogen activator...
Group A streptococcal infection is common in children; however, scarlet fever is now considered rare except for isolated outbreaks. One of the rarest complications of scarlet fever is acute cholecystitis – very few cases have been reported in the literature. A 5-year-old boy was admitted with scarlet fever complicated by acute ...
Valette, Xavier; Desmeulles, Isabelle; Savary, Benoit; Masson, Romain; Seguin, Amélie; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Brunet, Jennifer; Verrier, Pierre; Pottier, Véronique; Orabona, Marie; Samba, Désiré; Viquesnel, Gérald; Lermuzeaux, Mathilde; Hazera, Pascal; Dutheil, Jean-Jacques; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; du Cheyron, Damien
To test whether hydration with bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride reduces the risk of contrast-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Prospective, double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled study. Three French ICUs. Critically ill patients with stable renal function (n = 307) who received intravascular contrast media. Hydration with 0.9% sodium chloride or 1.4% sodium bicarbonate administered with the same infusion protocol: 3 mL/kg during 1 hour before and 1 mL/kg/hr during 6 hours after contrast medium exposure. The primary endpoint was the development of contrast-associated acute kidney injury, as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, 72 hours after contrast exposure. Patients randomized to the bicarbonate group (n = 151) showed a higher urinary pH at the end of the infusion than patients randomized to the saline group (n = 156) (6.7 ± 2.1 vs 6.2 ± 1.8, respectively; p bicarbonate group (absolute risk difference, -1.8%; 95% CI [-12.3% to 8.9%]; p = 0.81). The need for renal replacement therapy (five [3.2%] and six [3.9%] patients; p = 0.77), ICU length of stay (24.7 ± 22.9 and 23 ± 23.8 d; p = 0.52), and mortality (25 [16.0%] and 24 [15.9%] patients; p > 0.99) were also similar between the saline and bicarbonate groups, respectively. Except for urinary pH, none of the outcomes differed between the two groups. Among ICU patients with stable renal function, the benefit of using sodium bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride for preventing contrast-associated acute kidney injury is marginal, if any.
Saraf, Sonali Rajesh; Naphade, Nilesh S; Kalgutkar, Alka D
As in any medical disorder, in non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) also, precise analysis of causes of death is needed to focus research efforts and improve morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to review the clinical presentation, mode of death and the immunophenotype of the autopsy cases of NHL. Autopsy cases wherein NHL was diagnosed, were selected for study. Autopsy cases which were diagnosed as NHL, either antemortem or after autopsy during a 7 years period at a tertiary care referral centre were studied and reviewed. Descriptive statistical analysis used. The autopsy findings seen in eight cases of NHL were reviewed. Except one, all cases were above 40 years age. Infective etiology (62%) followed by cardiorespiratory failure (38%) was the cause of death observed in these patients. In three cases, the antemortem diagnosis of NHL was missed as the patients were being treated for acute febrile illness and were referred late to the Tertiary Care Centre. One of these was a case of extra-nodal primary splenic lymphoma. As NHL present with nonspecific symptoms, these tumours may not be detected in early stages and hence may not be treated appropriately. These patients have weakened immunity and hence are prone to infection and sepsis which can be a major cause of mortality. This autopsy study experience has shown that NHL can masquerade as acute febrile illness which if not detected early and treated adequately can turn fatal.
Chekuri, Lakshminarayana; Thapa, Purushottam B; Turturro, Carolyn L; Mittal, Dinesh; Messias, Erick
To describe the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in psychiatric inpatients with serious mental illness. Associated clinical and sociodemographic factors are also explored. Data were collected using a retrospective review of medical records. Eligible subjects were individuals aged ≥ 18 years who were consecutively newly admitted to an adult inpatient teaching unit of a state psychiatric hospital from July 2012 through August 2013. The main outcome measure was prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency in the target population. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a level deficiency. The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency with all the attendant physical and mental health burdens in vulnerable populations such as individuals with serious mental illness requires further large research studies. In the meantime, it seems prudent to institute routine screening for vitamin D deficiency in individuals with mental illness, especially those who are hospitalized.
Pedroso, José Alberto Rodrigues; Paskulin, Diego d'Avila; Dias, Fernando Suparregui; de França, Everaldo; Alho, Clarice Sampaio
Multiple organ failure syndrome and acute renal dysfunction share many of physiologic factors involved in their development. Recent studies correlate the susceptibility to organ dysfunction in critically ill patients with genetic inheritance. Many of them consider ACE gene could be a possible candidate to elucidate a genetic predisposition or a genetic risk factor. We aimed to examine the effects of I/D and -262A > T ACE polymorphisms in the renal function in severely ill southern Brazilians patients. A multi-organic worldwide known failure score, the SOFA (sequential organ failure assessment), was used to determine the basal health state at first day (ICU admission). Considering admission SOFA score and trend of renal function (measured by daily renal SOFA scores, with daily measure of serum creatinine and diuresis), we hypothesize that ACE polymorphisms could influence in the trend of renal function in ICU patients. A total of 153 critically ill adult patients (79 men) were included in this study. We monitored the patients daily during their entire ICU and post-ICU (hospital) stay (measured from the ICU admission day to a maximum of 224 days). We observed progression to renal failure (SOFA scores 3 and 4) in first seven days of ICU stay and need for dialysis. The general genotypic frequencies in our sample were II = 0.17; ID = 0.46; DD = 0.37 and AA = 0.30; AT = 0.55; TT = 0.15, and the allelic frequencies were I = 0.40; D = 0.60 and A = 0.56; T = 0.44. This is the first study to verify the influence of I/D and -262A > T ACE polymorphisms in acute renal dysfunction among critically ill patients. No significant association was found between genotypes or allele frequencies and the trend of the renal function. The I/D and -262A > T ACE polymorphisms have no significant impact on the trend of renal function during the first week of ICU stay, neither any influence in mortality in critically ill patients.
clinical features are exudative pharyngitis, fever and bright red exanthema. Otitis media, pneumonia, septicaemia, osteomyelitis, rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis are the common complications associated with scarlet fever. However, hepatitis and vasculitis are other rare complications described in the literature.
Full Text Available Abstract We present an unusual case of group A streptococcal septicaemia referred to a paediatric surgical unit as acute appendicitis and highlight the importance of remembering this condition as part of a differential diagnosis.
Sergio Santana Porbén
Full Text Available Rationale: Probiotics have been used in the treatment of acute diarrhea occurring in pediatric ages with mixed results. Objective: To assess the impact of a probiotic (CFU per capsule: Lactobacillus rhamnosus G: 2 x 109, Lactobacillus cassei: 1 x 109, Bifidobacterium brevis: 2 x 109 upon the features and duration of acute diarrhea in breastfed children. Study location: Digestive Diseases and Nutrition Service, “Juan Manuel Márquez” Pediatric Teaching Hospital (Marianao, Havana City, Cuba. Study design: Open, quasi-experimental trial. Thirty children with ages 0.05; Improvement of the features of stools: Non-Treated: 93.3% vs. Treated: 96.1% (p > 0.05. Use of probiotics produced an increase of Hemoglobin ( = -0.44; p 0.05 values of indicators of systemic inflammatory response. Conclusions: Inclusion of probiotics within an institutional protocol for treatment of acute diarrhea does not significantly change the stool pattern of the breastfed child, but might reduce the systemic inflammatory tone which, in turn, would result in a better use of body iron.
McLean, Huong Q; Peterson, Siri H; King, Jennifer P; Meece, Jennifer K; Belongia, Edward A
Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are common in school-aged children, but few studies have assessed school absenteeism due to specific respiratory viruses. To evaluate school absenteeism among children with medically attended ARI due to common viruses. We analyzed follow-up surveys from children seeking care for acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the influenza vaccine effectiveness study at Marshfield Clinic during the 2012-2013 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons. Archived influenza-negative respiratory swabs were retested using multiplex RT-PCR to detect 16 respiratory virus targets. Negative binomial and logistic regression models were used to examine the association between school absence and type of respiratory viruses; endpoints included mean days absent from school and prolonged (>2 days) absence. We examined the association between influenza vaccination and school absence among children with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza. Among 1027 children, 2295 days of school were missed due to medically attended ARIs; influenza accounted for 39% of illness episodes and 47% of days missed. Mean days absent were highest for influenza (0.96-1.19) and lowest for coronavirus (0.62). Children with B/Yamagata infection were more likely to report prolonged absence than children with A/H1N1 or A/H3N2 infection [OR (95% CI): 2.1 (1.0, 4.5) and 1.7 (1.0, 2.9), respectively]. Among children with influenza, vaccination status was not associated with prolonged absence. School absenteeism due to medically attended ARIs varies by viral infection. Influenza B infections accounted for the greatest burden of absenteeism. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
were jittery and easily gave way at the knee joint. He had a high stamping gait, with feet in the plantar ... over lower limbs and spine, and had an urgent packed cell volume of 17%. His primary illness ALL had .... usually the primary concern, can be achieved with stiff boots in early stages and external short leg braces in ...
Meniconi, Roberto Luca; Caronna, Roberto; Schiratti, Monica; Casciani, Emanuele; Russillo, Gabriele; Chirletti, Piero
Acute pancreatitis occurs less frequently in children than in adults, although it seems to be more common than has been considered in the past. There are several causes of pancreatitis in childhood: trauma, infections or structural gland anomalies as pancreas divisum. We report a case of non-traumatic severe acute pancreatitis in a 8-year-old girl with pancreas divisum, complicated by a rapid formation of a large infected pseudocyst which required a surgical internal drainage by a Roux-en-Y cystojejunostomy. Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anomaly of the pancreas with an incidence of 3-10% of population, and its role in causing acute or recurrent pancreatitis is still controversial. There are only sporadic observations of acute pancreatitis complicated by pseudocyst in children with pancreatic anomalies and its treatment is not standardized. Three different approaches have been described to treat a pancreatic pseudocyst: percutaneous, endoscopic or surgical drainage. We decided to perform a pseudocyst-jejunostomy because of the disease severity. Even in the non-invasive era, the surgical approach to treat a large complicated pseudocysts in children still represents a safe and feasible approach in emergencies as acute abdomen, bleeding or sepsis. Complications of percutaneous and endoscopic drainages are avoided and long term results are excellent. Acute pancreatitis, Pancreas divisum, Pancreatic pseudocyst.
Tavenier, Juliette; Haupt, Thomas H; Andersen, Aino L; Buhl, Sussi F; Langkilde, Anne; Andersen, Jens R; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Pedersen, Mette M; Petersen, Janne; Andersen, Ove
Acute illness and hospitalization in elderly individuals are often accompanied by the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and malnutrition, both associated with wasting and mortality. Nutritional support and resistance training were shown to increase muscle anabolism and reduce inflammation in healthy elderly. We hypothesized that nutritional support and resistance training would accelerate the resolution of inflammation in hospitalized elderly patients with SIRS. Acutely admitted patients aged >65 years with SIRS were randomized to an intervention consisting of a high-protein diet (1.7 g/kg per day) during hospitalization, and daily protein supplement (18.8 g) and 3 weekly resistance training sessions for 12 weeks after discharge (Intervention, n=14), or to standard-care (Control, n=15). Plasma levels of the inflammatory biomarkers soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), interleukin-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin were measured at admission, discharge, and 4 and 13 weeks after discharge. The Intervention group had an earlier decrease in suPAR levels than the Control group: -15.4% vs. +14.5%, P=.007 during hospitalization, and -2.4% vs. -28.6%, P=.007 between discharge and 4 weeks. There were no significant effects of the intervention on the other biomarkers. All biomarkers improved significantly between admission and 13 weeks, although with different kinetics (suPAR: -22%, interleukin-6: -86%, CRP: -89%, albumin: +11%). Nutritional support during hospitalization was associated with an accelerated decrease in suPAR levels, whereas the combined nutrition and resistance training intervention after discharge did not appear to affect the inflammatory state. Our results indicate that improved nutritional care during hospitalization may accelerate recovery in acutely ill elderly medical patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
José Raimundo Araújo de Azevedo
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the renal outcome in patients submitted to two different regimens of glycemic control, using the RIFLE criteria to define acute kidney injury. INTRODUCTION: The impact of intensive insulin therapy on renal function outcome is controversial. The lack of a criterion for AKI definition may play a role on that. METHODS: Included as the subjects were 228 randomly selected, critically ill patients engaged in intensive insulin therapyor in a carbohydrate-restrictive strategy. Renal outcome was evaluated through the comparison of the last RIFLE score obtained during the ICU stay and the RIFLE score at admission; the outcome was classified as favorable, stable or unfavorable. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable regarding demographic data. AKI developed in 52% of the patients and was associated with a higher mortality (39.4% compared with those who did not have AKI (8.2% (p60, acute kidney injury and hypoglycemia were risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Intensive insulin therapy and a carbohydrate-restrictive strategy were comparable regarding the incidence of acute kidney injury evaluated using RIFLE criteria.
Mølbak, K; Aaby, P; Ingholt, L
in 86% of the deaths. Persistent and acute diarrhoea were the most frequent causes of death, accounting for 43 and 31 deaths per 1000 children, respectively. Fever deaths (possibly malaria), neonatal deaths, acute respiratory infections, and measles were other frequent causes. The access to health...... children (95% confidence interval [CI] 176-264), infant mortality 94 per 1000 (95% CI 73-115), and perinatal mortality 52 per 1000 (95% CI 41-63). By prospective registration of morbidity, post-mortem interviews, and examination of available hospital records, a presumptive cause of death was established...... services was relatively easy: 75% of the children who died had attended for treatment at a hospital or a health centre. It is important to find ways of preventing and managing persistent diarrhoea, the major cause of death, and to improve the control of acute diarrhoea by a targeted approach....
Chana L. Glasser, MD
Full Text Available Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS is a well-known complication of induction therapy for hematologic malignancies. It is characterized by rapid breakdown of malignant white blood cells (WBCs leading to metabolic derangements and serious morbidity if left untreated. Most commonly, TLS is triggered by systemic chemotherapy, however, there have been case reports of TLS following intrathecal (IT chemotherapy, all in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL/lymphoma. Here, we report the first case of a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML who developed TLS following a single dose of IT cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C.
Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine. Here, we presented a case of 12-year-old child who suffered from ADEM three weeks after hepatitis B vaccination. He was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of weakness of limbs, high fever, and alteration of consciousness. Some abnormalities were also found in CSF. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin had significant effect, with marked improvement of the clinical symptoms and the results of CSF. The findings of MRI also detected some abnormal lesions located in both brain and spinal cord. The clinical features, the findings of CSF and MRI, and therapeutic effect may contribute to such diagnosis of ADEM.
Full Text Available The association between severity of illness of children with osteomyelitis caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and genomic variation of the causative organism has not been previously investigated. The purpose of this study is to assess genomic heterogeneity among MRSA isolates from children with osteomyelitis who have diverse severity of illness.Children with osteomyelitis were prospectively studied between 2010 and 2011. Severity of illness of the affected children was determined from clinical and laboratory parameters. MRSA isolates were analyzed with next generation sequencing (NGS and optical mapping. Sequence data was used for multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood (PAML, and identification of virulence genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP relative to reference strains.The twelve children studied demonstrated severity of illness scores ranging from 0 (mild to 9 (severe. All isolates were USA300, ST 8, SCC mec IVa MRSA by MLST. The isolates differed from reference strains by 2 insertions (40 Kb each and 2 deletions (10 and 25 Kb but had no rearrangements or copy number variations. There was a higher occurrence of virulence genes among study isolates when compared to the reference strains (p = 0.0124. There were an average of 11 nonsynonymous SNPs per strain. PAML demonstrated heterogeneity of study isolates from each other and from the reference strains.Genomic heterogeneity exists among MRSA isolates causing osteomyelitis among children in a single community. These variations may play a role in the pathogenesis of variation in clinical severity among these children.
Zielske, Joerg; Bohne, Silvia; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Axer, Hubertus; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando
Dysphagia is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Structured otorhinolaryngological data on dysphagia in ICU survivors with severe sepsis are missing. In a prospective study, 30 ICU patients with severe sepsis and thirty without sepsis as control group were examined using bedside fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing after 14 days in the ICU (T1) and 4 months after onset of critical illness (T2). Swallowing dysfunction was assessed using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). The Functional Oral Intake Scale was applied to evaluate the diet needed. Primary endpoint was the burden of dysphagia defined as PAS score >5. At T1, 19 of 30 severe sepsis patients showed aspiration with a PAS score >5, compared to 7 of 30 in critically ill patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.002). Severe sepsis and tracheostomy were independent risk factors for severe dysphagia with aspiration (PAS > 5) at T1 (p = 0.042 and 0.006, respectively). 4-month mortality (T2) was 57 % in severe sepsis patients compared to 20 % in patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.006). At T2, more severe sepsis survivors were tracheostomy-dependent and needed more often tube or parenteral feeding (p = 0.014 and p = 0.040, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed tracheostomy at T1 as independent risk factor for severe dysphagia at T2 (p = 0.030). Severe sepsis appears to be a relevant risk factor for long-term dysphagia. An otorhinolaryngological evaluation of dysphagia at ICU discharge is mandatory for survivors of severe critical illness to plan specific swallowing rehabilitation programs.
Results: Facial nerve palsy, increasing lower extremities muscle weakness and abnormal gait were noticed 4 weeks into vincristine therapy in a ten year old male on treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). On a suspicion of vincristine neurotoxicity, vincristine was excluded from his chemotherapy regimen.
Stensman, Lars M; Kjeldsen, Eigil; Nersting, Jacob
INTRODUCTION: We describe a patient diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and low activity of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) who developed secondary myelodysplastic syndrome after treatment. OBSERVATION: A 10-year-old boy presented with AML-M2 with t(8;21)(q22;q22) and genotyping...
Esposito, Susanna; Chidini, Giovanna; Cinnante, Claudia; Napolitano, Luisa; Giannini, Alberto; Terranova, Leonardo; Niesters, Hubert; Principi, Nicola; Calderini, Edoardo
Background: Reporting new cases of enterovirus (EV)-D68-associated acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is essential to understand how the virus causes neurological damage and to characterize EV-D68 strains associated with AFM. Case presentation: A previously healthy 4-year-old boy presented with sudden
Full Text Available Malnutrition is a major underlying condition for mortality in children under five years of age in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia. The most important forms of malnutrition in Ethiopia are protein and energy deficiencies. There is no reliable laboratory method at present to assess acute malnutrition. Transthyretin is a homotetrameric serum protein with half-life of two days. The main objective of this study was to assess the estimation of serum transthyretin level as a useful diagnostic method to evaluate nutritional status of children. We used a newly designed transthyretin test kit to evaluate nutritional status of children admitted to our hospital. There is no national reference standard; hence we made a comparative study using anthropometric measurements and measurement of serum albumin level. A total of 102 children (51 controls and 51 study subjects were included in this study. Transthyretin was found to be more sensitive to changes in acute malnutrition than albumin, and its level reflects recent dietary intake compared to overall nutritional status. The method is more sensitive and reliable for detection of acute malnutrition, along with anthropometric methods. Measurement of serum transthyretin level can be used as a valuable diagnostic method for assessment of acute malnutrition among children.
Vaidehi S. Dedania
Full Text Available We report a case of bilateral cytomegalovirus retinitis in a 12 year-old with neutropenic fever after maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ophthalmologic examination for photophobia prompted a diagnosis of cytomegalovirus retinitis. With early diagnosis and prompt treatment, this patient had a favorable visual outcome.
METHODS: A seven-year-old boy presented with four separate episodes of acute compartment syndrome of the legs within three years. The recurrent nature of the illness prompted detail review of the records of the child. RESULTS: There was involvement of each leg twice between the ages of three and seven years ...
This article examines the results of an audit into recovery nurse knowledge and understanding of paediatric care standards. It will critically analyse the availability of current standards for children's services in the recovery room and discuss the need for a national document specifically dedicated to standards of practise for the care of the child in the recovery room providing immediate post operative care. The article will also look at the development of such a document.
G. Fortrie (Gijs); S. Stads (Susanne); A.L.H.J. Aarnoudse (Albert-Jan); R. Zietse (Bob); M.G.H. Betjes (Michiel)
textabstractBackground and Objectives: Acute kidney injury (AKI) necessitating renal replacement therapy (RRT) is associated with high mortality and increased risk for end stage renal disease. However, it is unknown if this applies to patients with a preliminary unremarkable medical history. The
Bagshaw, Sean M.; Uchino, Shigehiko; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Morgera, Stanislao; Schetz, Miet; Tan, Ian; Bouman, Catherine; Macedo, Ettiene; Gibney, Noel; Tolwani, Ashita; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M.; Ronco, Claudio; Kellum, John A.; French, Craig; Mulder, John; Pinder, Mary; Roberts, Brigit; Botha, John; Mudholkar, Pradeen; Holt, Andrew; Hunt, Tamara; Honoré, Patrick Maurice; Clerbaux, Gaetan; Schetz, Miet Maria; Wilmer, Alexander; Yu, Luis; Macedo, Ettiene V.; Laranja, Sandra Maria; Rodrigues, Cassio José; Suassuna, José Hermógenes Rocco; Ruzany, Frederico; Campos, Bruno; Leblanc, Martine; Senécal, Lynne; Gibney, R. T. Noel; Johnston, Curtis; Brindley, Peter; Tan, Ian K. S.; Chen, Hui De; Wan, Li; Rokyta, Richard; Krouzecky, Ales; Neumayer, Hans-Helmut; Detlef, Kindgen-Milles; Mueller, Eckhard; Tsiora, Vicky; Sombolos, Kostas; Mustafa, Iqbal; Suranadi, Iwayan; Bar-Lavie, Yaron; Nakhoul, Farid; Ceriani, Roberto; Bortone, Franco; Zamperetti, Nereo; Pappalardo, Federico; Marino, Giovanni; Calabrese, Prospero; Monaco, Francesco; Liverani, Chiara; Clementi, Stefano; Coltrinari, Rosanna; Marini, Benedetto; Fuke, Nobuo; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Katayama, Hiroshi; Kurasako, Toshiaki; Hirasaw, Hiroyuki; Oda, Shigeto; Tanigawa, Koichi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Oudemans-van Straaten, Helena Maria; de Pont, Anne-Cornelie J. M.; Bugge, Jan Frederik; Riddervold, Fridtjov; Nilsen, Paul Age; Julsrud, Joar; Teixeira e Costa, Fernando; Marcelino, Paulo; Serra, Isabel Maria; Yaroustovsky, Mike; Grigoriyanc, Rachik; Lee, Kang Hoe; Loo, Shi; Singh, Kulgit; Barrachina, Ferran; Llorens, Julio; Sanchez-Izquierdo-Riera, Jose Angel; Toral-Vazquez, Darío; Wizelius, Ivar; Hermansson, Dan; Gaspert, Tomislav; Maggiorini, Marco; Davenport, Andrew; Lombardi, Raúl; Llopart, Teresita; Venkataraman, Ramesh; Kellum, John; Murray, Patrick; Trevino, Sharon; Benjamin, Ernest; Hufanda, Jerry; Paganini, Emil; Warnock, David; Guirguis, Nabil
The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between timing of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in severe acute kidney injury and clinical outcomes. This was a prospective multicenter observational study conducted at 54 intensive care units (ICUs) in 23 countries enrolling 1238 patients.
Esposito, Douglas H.; Stich, August; Epelboin, Loïc; Malvy, Denis; Han, Pauline V.; Bottieau, Emmanuel; da Silva, Alexandre; Zanger, Philipp; Slesak, Günther; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Rosenthal, Benjamin M.; Cramer, Jakob P.; Visser, Leo G.; Muñoz, José; Drew, Clifton P.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Steiner, Florian; Wagner, Noémie; Grobusch, Martin P.; Plier, D. Adam; Tappe, Dennis; Sotir, Mark J.; Brown, Clive; Brunette, Gary W.; Fayer, Ronald; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Neumayr, Andreas; Kozarsky, Phyllis E.; van den Enden, Erwin; van Esbroeck, Marjan; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Nguyen, Duc; Receveur, Marie-Catherine; Peyron, François; Parola, Philippe; Savini, Hélène; Caumes, Eric; Perignon, Alice; Develoux, Michel; Rapp, Christophe; Keller, Christian A.; Haditsch, Martin; Güthoff, Wolfgang; Liebold, Ines; Schäfer, Johannes; Gobbi, Federico; Kortmann, Willemijn; van Twillert, Gitte; Goorhuis, Abraham; van Vugt, Michèle; Stijnis, Kees; Aronica, Eleonora; van Lieshout, Lisette; Roestenberg, Meta; van Wout, Jan; Barkham, Timothy; Lim, Poh Lian; Hatz, Christoph; Brugger, Silvio D.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Chappuis, François; Michel, Yann; Choochumporn, Sanya; Narkwiboonwong, Than; Dryden, Matthew S.; Benedict, Theresa; Handali, Sukwan; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif; Kogelman, Laura; Hatch, Steven
Through 2 international traveler-focused surveillance networks (GeoSentinel and TropNet), we identified and investigated a large outbreak of acute muscular sarcocystosis (AMS), a rarely reported zoonosis caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Sarcocystis, associated with travel to Tioman
Buhl, Sussi F; Andersen, Aino L; Andersen, Jens Rikardt
BACKGROUND & AIM: Stress metabolism is associated with accelerated loss of muscle that has large consequences for the old medical patient. The aim of this study was to investigate if an intervention combining protein and resistance training was more effective in counteracting loss of muscle than...... by the de Morton Mobility Index, the Functional Recovery Score and the New Mobility Score. Changes in outcomes from time of admission to three-months after discharge were analysed by linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat analysis showed no significant effect of the intervention on lean...... differences were found. CONCLUSION: No significant effect on muscle mass was observed in this group of acutely ill old medical patients. High compliance was achieved with the dietary intervention, but resistance training was challenging. Clinical trials identifier NCT02077491....
Full Text Available Venom of Leiurus abdullahbayrami (Scorpiones: Buthidae is an extremely toxic one and it stimulates voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels. In case of a stung by this scorpion; excessive catecholamine release occur and it impairs left ventricle contractility and consequently a heart failure occurs (scorpion sting-related cardiomyopathy. In addition to this cardiac-induced acute pulmonary, edema may occur in severe cases too. An 11-year-old male child who was stung by a scorpion (species: Leiurus abdullahbayrami consulted to the Emergency Room. Even after 7 h of scorpion envenomation he was confused and having hallucinations. Besides he was dyspneic, tachycardic, hypotensive and got worse in overall situation due to cardiogenic pulmonary edema. These clinical findings are concordant with the Level III scorpion envenomation (major systemic manifestations. Positive inotropic agents, diuretics and antiagregant agents used on supportive therapy in his treatment. After 2 weeks he get recovered and discharged from the pediatric intensive care unit. This research is conducted by thinking emergency physicians should learn that Leiurus abdullahbayrami envenomation can cause scorpion-related cardiomyopathy and acute pulmonary edema especially in children. Keywords: Leiurus, Scorpionism, Cardiomyopathy, Pulmonary edema
Huang, Lei; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Jin; Chen, Kai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xiaodong; Tang, Fenyang
Influenza-like illness causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Air pollution has already been linked to many health issues, and increasing evidence in recent years supports an association between air pollution and respiratory infections. It is a pioneer study in China to quantify the effects of air pollution on influenza-like illness. This study used wavelet coherence analysis and generalized additive models to explore the potential association between air pollution (including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≦2.5 μm (PM2.5), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≦10 μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) and influenza-like illness (a total of 59860 cases) in Nanjing, China from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. The average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 were 77.37 μg/m(3), 135.20 μg/m(3) and 55.80 μg/m(3). An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 concentration was associated with a 2.99% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64%, 4.36%) increase in daily influenza-like cases on the same day, while the corresponding increase in NO2 was associated with a 3.77% (95% CI: 2.01%, 5.56%) increase in daily cases. People aged 0-4 were proved to be significantly susceptible to PM10 and NO2; 5-14 ages were significantly susceptible to PM2.5 and PM10; and 15-24 ages were significantly susceptible to all the analyzed air pollutants. Air pollution effects tended to be null or negative for patients aged over 25, which might be due to the small number of influenza-like cases in this age group. This study can be useful for understanding the adverse health effects of air pollution and the cause of influenza-like illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available An open controlled comparative research was conducted on 263 children with acute respiratory infection (ARI in order to evaluate the clinical effectiveness, acceptability and safety of plant based preparation that contains ivy leaf extract. It was established that prescribing the preparation during the first days of disease reduced the duration of dry and inefficient cough, improved sputum rheology and bronchial tree drainage function, reduced bronchial obstruction intensity, reduced the need for prescribing bronchial spasmolitics less necessary and decreased Staybin term. Compared to other antibcough medicines, plant based preparation with ivy leaf extract has quicker effect (effective on the 1st–3rd day.Key words: children, acute respiratory infections, cough, treatment.
Full Text Available Background: Human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19 is the etiologic agent of erythema infectiosum, of transient aplastic crises in individuals with underlying chronic hemolytic disorders, and of chronic pure red cell aplasia in immunocompromised individuals. Case report. We describe a 14-year-old girl with long-standing Evans syndrome, who presented with severe anemia, reticulocytopenia and thromocytopenia. A bone marrow aspirate revealed severe erythroid hypoplasia along with presence of giant pronormoblasts, while serological studies and real-time PCR of whole blood were positive for acute parvovirus B19 infection. The patient was initially managed with corticosteroids, but both cytopenias resolved only after administration of intravenous gamma globulin 0.8g/kg. Conclusion: Acute parvovirus B19 infection should be suspected in patients with immunologic diseases, who present with reticulocytopenic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. In this setting, intravenous gamma globulin is effective for both cytopenias.
Kelloff, Jennifer; Spivey, Maria [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section on Child Abuse and Neglect, St. Louis Children' s Hospital, One Children' s Place, Box 8116, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hulett, Rebecca [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, St. Louis Children' s Hospital, St. Louis, MO (United States)
Rib fractures in infants and children are highly specific for inflicted injury in the absence of a major accidental injury or underlying bone disorder. We present a 9-week-old infant diagnosed with an acute rib fracture by US at the site where physicians palpated chest wall crepitus when no rib fractures had been visualized on the skeletal survey, including oblique views of the ribs. Based on the US diagnosis of the acute rib fracture the infant was taken into protective custody. Follow-up skeletal survey 2 weeks later revealed healing fractures of the left 6th and 7th posterolateral ribs and right 7th, 8th and 9th anterolateral ribs. We were unable to locate previous reports describing the diagnosis of rib fractures in infants by US. (orig.)
Jones, Caroline H D; Neill, Sarah; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian; Singlehurst-Mooney, Hayley; Thompson, Matthew
Objective To explore the views of parents and clinicians regarding the optimal content, format and delivery of safety netting information for acute childhood illness. Design Qualitative study including semistructured focus groups and interviews. Setting First contact care settings, community centres, children's centres and nurseries in the Midlands, UK. Participants 27 parents from a travelling community, Asian British community and white British community. Sixteen clinicians including 10 doctors and 6 nurses from a general practice surgery, an out-of-hours service and two emergency departments (paediatric and combined adult and paediatric). Results Participants described a need for safety netting to contain information on signs and symptoms of serious and common illnesses, illness management and where and when to seek help. Resources should be basic, simple to use and contain simple symbols. A key criterion was professional endorsement of resources. Internet-based information was desired which is reliable, consistent and up-to-date. Participants described a need for different types of information: that which could be delivered during consultations, as well as more general information for parents to access before consulting a healthcare professional. Face-to-face education, written materials and digital media were suggested delivery mechanisms. Audiovisual material was preferred by families with low literacy. Participants commonly suggested internet-based and phone-based resources, but the travelling community was less comfortable with these approaches. Conclusions A multifaceted and tailored approach to safety netting is needed so that effective resources are available for parents with varying information needs, literacy levels and ability to use information technology. We have identified key aspects of content, quality criteria, format and delivery mechanisms for safety netting information from the perspectives of clinicians and parents. Resources should be
Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimization of hemodynamic instability during renal replacement therapy (RRT in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI is often challenging. We examined the relative hemodynamic tolerability of sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT in critically ill patients with AKI. We also compared the feasibility of SLED administration with that of CRRT and intermittent hemodialysis (IHD. Methods This cohort study encompassed four critical care units within a single university-affiliated medical centre. 77 consecutive critically ill patients with AKI who were treated with CRRT (n = 30, SLED (n = 13 or IHD (n = 34 and completed at least two RRT sessions were included in the study. Overall, 223 RRT sessions were analyzed. Hemodynamic instability during a given session was defined as the composite of a > 20% reduction in mean arterial pressure or any escalation in pressor requirements. Treatment feasibility was evaluated based on the fraction of the prescribed therapy time that was delivered. An interrupted session was designated if Results Hemodynamic instability occurred during 22 (56.4% SLED and 43 (50.0% CRRT sessions (p = 0.51. In a multivariable analysis that accounted for clustering of multiple sessions within the same patient, the odds ratio for hemodynamic instability with SLED was 1.20 (95% CI 0.58-2.47, as compared to CRRT. Session interruption occurred in 16 (16.3, 30 (34.9 and 11 (28.2 of IHD, CRRT and SLED therapies, respectively. Conclusions In critically ill patients with AKI, the administration of SLED is feasible and provides comparable hemodynamic control to CRRT.
Menon, Shina; Goldstein, Stuart L; Mottes, Theresa; Fei, Lin; Kaddourah, Ahmad; Terrell, Tara; Arnold, Patricia; Bennett, Michael R; Basu, Rajit K
The inconsistent ability of novel biomarkers to predict acute kidney injury (AKI) across heterogeneous patients and illnesses limits integration into routine practice. We previously retrospectively validated the ability of the renal angina index (RAI) to risk-stratify patients and provide context for confirmatory serum biomarker testing for the prediction of severe AKI. We conducted this first prospective study of renal angina to determine whether the RAI on the day of admission (Day0) risk-stratified critically ill children for 'persistent, severe AKI' on Day 3 (Day3-AKI: KDIGO Stage 2-3) and whether incorporation of urinary biomarkers in the RAI model optimized AKI prediction. A total of 184 consecutive patients (52.7% male) were included. Day0 renal angina was present (RAI ≥8) in 60 (32.6%) patients and was associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.04), higher number of organ failure days (P = 0.003) and increased mortality (P renal angina. Day3-AKI was present in 15/156 (9.6%) patients; 12/15 (80%) fulfilled Day0 renal angina. Incorporation of urinary biomarkers into the RAI model increased the specificity and positive likelihood, and demonstrated net reclassification improvement (P < 0.001) for the prediction of Day3-AKI. Inclusion of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin increased the area under the curve receiver-operating characteristic of RAI for Day3-AKI from 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58, 1.00] to 0.97 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.00). We have now prospectively validated the RAI as a functional risk stratification methodology in a heterogeneous group of critically ill patients, providing context to direct measurement of novel urinary biomarkers and improving the prediction of severe persistent AKI. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
Alves, Sarah Cascaes; Tomasi, Cristiane Damiani; Constantino, Larissa; Giombelli, Vinícius; Candal, Roberta; Bristot, Maria de Lourdes; Topanotti, Maria Fernanda; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Fraga, Cassiana Mazon; Ritter, Cristiane
The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of hypomagnesemia as a risk factor for the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) and non-recovery of renal function in critically ill patients. A cohort study was conducted by collecting data from March to June 2011 in 232 patients who were admitted into an intensive care unit (ICU). Magnesium serum levels were measured daily during ICU stay. Hypomagnesemia was defined as an episode of serum magnesium concentration of ICU stay. The Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria were used to define AKI. Renal function recovery was defined as an absence of AKI by the RIFLE criteria over a 48-h period, or at ICU discharge, in the patients who developed AKI during ICU stay. The presence of hypomagnesemia was similar in patients with or without AKI (47 and 62%, respectively, P = 0.36). The presence of hypomagnesemia was higher in patients who did not recover renal function when compared with patients who recovered renal function (70 versus 31%, P = 0.003). A multivariate analysis identified hypomagnesemia as an independent risk factor for non-recovery of renal function (P = 0.005). Patients with and without hypomagnesemia had similar mortality rates (P = 0.63). Hypomagnesemia was an independent risk factor for non-recovery of renal function in a cohort of critically ill AKI patients.
Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison
While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources.
Kadek Ayu Lestari; Imam Budiman; Sudigdo Sastroasmoro
Background Acute asthma is an asthma attack or worsening of asthma manifestation and pulmonary function. Severe asthma at- tack might be prevented by early recognition of the attack and ap- propriate therapy. Clinical manifestations of asthma in children vary widely, so does the assessment of the attack that is often not accu- rately defined by doctors. This leads to delayed and inadequate treatment of the attack. Objective This study aimed to know the clinical manifestat...
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is characterized by recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis and detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs. This syndrome may be associated with connective tissue disorders, or with malignancies, but it may also appear in isolated form (primary APS. We report on a pediatric patient presenting with acute adrenal failure as the first manifestation of primary APS. Case report A previously healthy 11-year-old boy developed fever, abdominal pain, and vomiting. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed nodular lesions in the adrenal glands. He was referred to our Department and a diagnosis of APS and acute adrenal failure was considered, based on positive aPLs (IgG and IgM, elevated ACTH levels and low cortisol levels. Other features were anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated inflammatory parameters, hypergammaglobulinemia, prolonged partial thromboplastin time, positive antinuclear, anticardiolipin, anti-platelet antibodies, with negative double-stranded DNA antibodies. Lupus anticoagulant and Coomb’s tests were positive. MRI revealed a bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. A treatment with intravenous metylprednisolone, followed by oral prednisone and anticoagulant, was started, resulting in a progressive improvement. After 2 months he also showed hyponatremia and elevated renine levels, indicating a mineralcocorticoid deficiency, requiring fludrocortisones therapy. Conclusion The development of acute adrenal failure from bilateral adrenal haemorrhage in the context of APS is a rare but life-threatening event that should be promptly recognized and treated. Moreover, this case emphasizes the importance of the assessment of aPLs in patients with acute adrenal failure in the context of an autoreaction.
Dunphy, Louise; Clark, Zoe; Raja, Mazhar H
Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency worldwide. However, it can still present a challenging diagnosis especially in the young, elderly and those individuals of reproductive age, thus encompassing a wide spectrum of varied clinical presentations. Parasitic infections of the appendix are a rare cause of acute appendicitis. However, they must be considered in children presenting with abdominal pain. We report a case of Enterobius vermicularis infestation mimicking the features of acute appendicitis in a 10-year-old girl. This case is a cautionary reminder of the importance of considering E. vermicularis infestation in children presenting with abdominal pain, but who do not have a significantly raised white cell count or high Alvarado scores. A history of anal pruritus is the most characteristic symptom, but the parasites can cause severe abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis. Prompt recognition and a high clinical index of suspicion are required to prevent an unnecessary appendicectomy. Caution is advised when performing a laparoscopic appendectomy, as in our case, to prevent contamination of the peritoneum. This infestation is easily treatable with mebendazole. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Moreira-Silva, Sandra Fagundes; Moreno, Linda Marly C; Dazzi, Mariana; Freire, Consuelo Maria Caiafa; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa
Acute cor pulmonale is a clinical syndrome with signs of right-sided heart failure resulting from sudden increase of pulmonary vascular resistance. A five-year-old male, infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), was admitted at the division of infectious diseases of this hospital with cough, tachydyspnea, fever, and breathing difficulty. Computed tomography scan showed ground-glass opacities, cystic lesions, and bronchiectasis. The patient had nasal flaring, intercostal and subcostal retractions, and keeled chest. Abdomen was depressible; liver was 3 cm from the right-costal border, while spleen was 6 cm from the left-costal border. Echocardiogram examinations showed signs of acute cor pulmonale characterized by pulmonary hypertension and increased right-heart chamber dimensions. DIAGNOSTICS OUTCOME: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-B3, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP), and acute cor pulmonale. Regressions of pulmonary hypertension and of right-heart chamber were observed after 30 days of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and chloroquine therapy. AIDS should be considered in children with recurrent pneumonia that is mostly associated with LIP rather than cystic fibrosis.
Blaeuer, Silvana Romerio; Bally, Klaus; Tschudi, Peter; Martina, Benedict; Zeller, Andreas
The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of GPs' initial clinical judgement regarding presence or absence of pneumonia and to assess GPs' strategy for requesting chest X-rays in patients presenting with acute cough. GPs were asked to rate their suspicion of pneumonia based on clinical assessment alone and to protocol their decision to perform chest X-rays in 212 consecutive patients. These judgements were compared to the final diagnosis as determined by chest X-ray or uneventful recovery (four weeks). After history taking and physical examination, GPs are highly accurate in judging which patients presenting with acute cough may have pneumonia (PPV 80% [95% CI 0,66-0,89]) or not (NPV 100% [95% CI 0,97-1,0]), and in which patients chest X-rays are required or not (spearman's rho 0,54, p<0,0001).
house), health practices (smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, quality of sleep and diet), measured personality styles ( self - esteem , personal...Background: Little is known regarding the role of smoking history and aerobic fitness in acute respiratory infection (ARI) risk in military trainees...1.59) was associated with increased ARI. Also, associations tended to be larger among less aerobically fit male and female trainees. Physical stress
Gobat, Nina H; Gal, Micaela; Francis, Nick A; Hood, Kerenza; Watkins, Angela; Turner, Jill; Moore, Ronald; Webb, Steve A R; Butler, Christopher C; Nichol, Alistair
A rigorous research response is required to inform clinical and public health decision-making during an epi/pandemic. However, the ethical conduct of such research, which often involves critically ill patients, may be complicated by the diminished capacity to consent and an imperative to initiate trial therapies within short time frames. Alternative approaches to taking prospective informed consent may therefore be used. We aimed to rapidly review evidence on key stakeholder (patients, their proxy decision-makers, clinicians and regulators) views concerning the acceptability of various approaches for obtaining consent relevant to pandemic-related acute illness research. We conducted a rapid evidence review, using the Internet, database and hand-searching for English language empirical publications from 1996 to 2014 on stakeholder opinions of consent models (prospective informed, third-party, deferred, or waived) used in acute illness research. We excluded research on consent to treatment, screening, or other such procedures, non-emergency research and secondary studies. Papers were categorised, and data summarised using narrative synthesis. We screened 689 citations, reviewed 104 full-text articles and included 52. Just one paper related specifically to pandemic research. In other emergency research contexts potential research participants, clinicians and research staff found third-party, deferred, and waived consent to be acceptable as a means to feasibly conduct such research. Acceptability to potential participants was motivated by altruism, trust in the medical community, and perceived value in medical research and decreased as the perceived risks associated with participation increased. Discrepancies were observed in the acceptability of the concept and application or experience of alternative consent models. Patients accepted clinicians acting as proxy-decision makers, with preference for two decision makers as invasiveness of interventions increased
Full Text Available Fahmida Chowdhury,1 Katharine Sturm-Ramirez,1,2 Abdullah Al Mamun,1 A Danielle Iuliano,2 Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan,1 Mohammod Jobayer Chisti,1 Makhdum Ahmed,1 Sabbir Haider,3 Mahmudur Rahman,3 Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner2 1Infectious Diseases Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh Background: Pharmacies in Bangladesh serve as an important source of health service. A survey in Dhaka reported that 48% of respondents with symptoms of acute respiratory illness (ARI identified local pharmacies as their first point of care. This study explores the factors driving urban customers to seek health care from pharmacies for ARI, their treatment adherence, and outcome.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 selected pharmacies within Dhaka from June to December 2012. Study participants were patients or patients’ relatives aged >18 years seeking care for ARI from pharmacies without prescription. Structured interviews were conducted with customers after they sought health service from drug sellers and again over phone 5 days postinterview to discuss treatment adherence and outcome.Results: We interviewed 302 customers patronizing 76 pharmacies; 186 (62% sought care for themselves and 116 (38% sought care for a sick relative. Most customers (215; 71% were males. The majority (90% of customers sought care from the study pharmacy as their first point of care, while 18 (6% had previously sought care from another pharmacy and 11 (4% from a physician for their illness episodes. The most frequently reported reasons for seeking care from pharmacies were ease of access to pharmacies (86%, lower cost (46%, availability of medicine (33%, knowing the drug seller (20%, and convenient hours of operation (19%. The most commonly recommended drugs were
V B Kute
Full Text Available Patients infected with H1N1 virus may develop pneumonia and acute kidney injury (AKI. To determine the epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, management and out-comes of patients with confirmed H1N1 complicated by pneumonia and AKI and treatment with oseltamivir and to identify the prognostic indicators, we studied all the patients with a confirmed diagnosis of H1N1 infection with pneumonia and AKI, using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, between October 2009 and March 2010. H1N1 infection was confirmed in 20 patients with pneumonia and AKI; the mean age was 42.8 ± 18.2 years and 12 (60% of the patients were males. Eleven patients were between 15 and 50 years of age, and 15 had preexisting medical conditions. All patients had fever, cough, dyspnea or respiratory distress, increased serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, pneumonia and AKI. Fifteen (75% patients required mechanical ventilation and 14 (70% died. None of the health care workers developed influenza-like illness, when they received oseltamivir prophylaxis. Mortality was associated with higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFA, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS, XRChest score, in addition to requirement of inotrope, ventilator support, renal replacement therapy (RRT, and presence of underlying risk factor for severe disease.
Full Text Available The data show respiratory variables in 108 critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+ after at least 36 h on passive mechanical ventilation. PAV+ was continued for 48 h until the patients met pre-defined criteria either for switching to controlled modes or for breathing without ventilator assistance. Data during passive mechanical ventilation and during PAV+ are reported. Data are acquired from the whole population, as well as from patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. The reported variables are tidal volume, driving pressure (ΔP, the difference between static end-inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory airway pressure, respiratory system compliance and resistance, and arterial blood gasses. The data are supplemental to our original research article, which described individual ΔP in these patients and examined how it related to ΔP when the same patients were ventilated with passive mechanical ventilation using the currently accepted lung-protective strategy “Driving pressure during assisted mechanical ventilation. Is it controlled by patient brain?” .
Georgopoulos, Dimitris; Xirouchaki, Nectaria; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Younes, Magdy
The data show respiratory variables in 108 critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+) after at least 36 h on passive mechanical ventilation. PAV+ was continued for 48 h until the patients met pre-defined criteria either for switching to controlled modes or for breathing without ventilator assistance. Data during passive mechanical ventilation and during PAV+ are reported. Data are acquired from the whole population, as well as from patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. The reported variables are tidal volume, driving pressure (ΔP, the difference between static end-inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory airway pressure), respiratory system compliance and resistance, and arterial blood gasses. The data are supplemental to our original research article, which described individual ΔP in these patients and examined how it related to ΔP when the same patients were ventilated with passive mechanical ventilation using the currently accepted lung-protective strategy "Driving pressure during assisted mechanical ventilation. Is it controlled by patient brain?" .
Marsac, Meghan L; Kassam-Adams, Nancy
Millions of children worldwide are exposed to acute potentially traumatic events (PTEs) annually. Many children and their families experience significant emotional distress and/or functional impairment following PTEs. While current research has begun to highlight a role for early appraisals and coping in promoting or preventing full recovery from PTEs, the exact nature of the relationships among appraisals, coping, and traumatic stress reactions as well as how appraisals and coping behaviors are influenced by the child's environment (e.g., parents) remains unclear; assessment tools that reach beyond self-report are needed to improve this understanding. The objective of the current study is to describe the newly created Trauma Ambiguous Situations Tool (TAST; i.e., an observational child-parent interview and discussion task that allows assessment of appraisals, coping, and parent-child processes) and to report on initial feasibility and validation of TAST implemented with child-parent dyads in which children were exposed to a PTE. As part of a larger study on the role of biopsychosocial factors in posttraumatic stress reactions, children (aged 8-13) and parents (n=25 child-parent dyads) completed the TAST during the child's hospitalization for injury. Children and parents engaged well with the TAST. The time to administer the TAST was feasible, even in a peri-trauma context. The TAST solicited a wide array of appraisals (threat and neutral) and coping solutions (proactive and avoidant). Forced-choice and open-ended appraisal assessments provided unique information. The parent-child discussion portion of the TAST allowed for direct observation of parent-child processes and demonstrated parental influence on children's appraisals and coping solutions. The TAST is a promising new research tool, which may help to explicate how parents influence their child's developing appraisals and coping solutions following a PTE. More research should examine the relationships of
Full Text Available Myeloid sarcoma is an extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML. Aims We are reporting a paediatric case presenting with bilateral proptosis, which we were able to diagnose with peripheral blood smear (PBS examination. Methods Case Report Results This case highlights the utility of simple routinely available PBS test in diagnosing this rare disease. Conclusion Our case highlights the importance of haemogram and peripheral blood smear in the initial evaluation of proptosis. Correct diagnosis of this rare entity is vital especially in cases where (myeloid sarcoma MS is the presenting feature of AML.
Ågård, Anne Sophie
ENGLISH SUMMARY The focus of the study was to describe post-ICU recovery as seen from the perspective of ICU survivors and their spouses in a Danish setting. The aims were to describe the trajectories of the participating patients and spouses and generate theoretical accounts of their main concerns...... and ways of resolving them as indi-viduals and couples during the first 12 months after ICU discharge. Critical illness and admission to an ICU radically affect not only the patients but also their relatives during hospitalization and after discharge. Little is known, however, about the long......-term trajectories of ICU survivors and the concrete challenges facing the patients and their partners after ICU discharge, particularly as seen from their own perspectives. In this longitudinal grounded theory study, data were collected from dyad and focus group interviews with 18 previously healthy ICU survivors...
Morales-Asencio, José Miguel; Porcel-Gálvez, Ana María; Oliveros-Valenzuela, Rosa; Rodríguez-Gómez, Susana; Sánchez-Extremera, Lucrecia; Serrano-López, Francisco Andrés; Aranda-Gallardo, Marta; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Barrientos-Trigo, Sergio
The aim of this study was to establish the validity and reliability of an instrument (Inventario del NIvel de Cuidados mediante IndicAdores de clasificación de Resultados de Enfermería) used to assess the dependency level in acutely hospitalised patients. This instrument is novel, and it is based on the Nursing Outcomes Classification. Multiple existing instruments for needs assessment have been poorly validated and based predominately on interventions. Standardised Nursing Languages offer an ideal framework to develop nursing sensitive instruments. A cross-sectional validation study in two acute care hospitals in Spain. This study was implemented in two phases. First, the research team developed the instrument to be validated. In the second phase, the validation process was performed by experts, and the data analysis was conducted to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument. Seven hundred and sixty-one patient ratings performed by nurses were collected during the course of the research study. Data analysis yielded a Cronbach's alpha of 0·91. An exploratory factorial analysis identified three factors (Physiological, Instrumental and Cognitive-behavioural), which explained 74% of the variance. Inventario del NIvel de Cuidados mediante IndicAdores de clasificación de Resultados de Enfermería was demonstrated to be a valid and reliable instrument based on its use in acutely hospitalised patients to assess the level of dependency. Inventario del NIvel de Cuidados mediante IndicAdores de clasificación de Resultados de Enfermería can be used as an assessment tool in hospitalised patients during the nursing process throughout the entire hospitalisation period. It contributes information to support decisions on nursing diagnoses, interventions and outcomes. It also enables data codification in large databases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Delirium is an acute and reversible condition that is common in hospitalised patients. Patients with delirium have extended lengths of stay, double the mortality of matched controls and an increased risk of permanent cognitive decline. We present the case of a patient with severe hypoactive delirium on a background of Alzheimer's dementia with a significant lasting cognitive deficit. This case presents the devastating impact of delirium on the lives of patients and relatives. The need for more awareness of delirium amongst health care professionals, more routine risk assessment and more studies aimed at managing hospitalised patients with delirium is also implicated.
Stephens, Claudester; Francis, Stephen J; Abell, Virginia; DiPersio, Joseph R; Wells, Patricia
Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative, coccobacillus found in water and is a significant nosocomial pathogen in hospitals. This report chronicles the appearance in June 2003 of a multidrug-resistant A baumannii (MDR-AB) strain, its dissemination, and interventions used to control it in an acute care hospital (ACH) and long-term acute care facility (LTAC). Molecular typing using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that 88 of 99 strains (89%) gave an identical banding designated as clone A. Eight additional isolates were variants of clone A, and 3 isolates were unrelated. A baumannii was isolated from 229 patients between January 2003 and December 2004. Of these patients, 151 (66%) were colonized/infected with MDR-AB. Most isolates were resistant to antibiotics except for imipenem and ampicillin/sulbactam. Isolates included 108 (72%) in the respiratory tract, 32 (21%) in wounds, 6 (4%) in blood, and 5 (3%) in urine. Most isolates were found in the LTAC (70 isolates), ICU step-down (27 isolates), and ICU (26 isolates). This epidemiologic history illustrates (1) epidemic clonal spread, (2) target populations, (3) variable monthly prevalence, and (4) intervention outcomes. With intervention, the number of new isolates in the ACH decreased by dedicating an infection control professional to critical care, daily surveillance, isolation of positive MDR-AB patients, universal gloving, and routinely reporting results.
Feyles, Francesca; Mussa, Alessandro; Peiretti, Valentina; Tessaris, Daniele; Santanera, Arianna; Corrias, Andrea; de Sanctis, Luisa; Calvo, Luigi
Pancreatitis due to hypercalcemia is very rare in children, and its pathogenetic role is still debated. The following report describes a case of acute pancreatitis secondary to hypercalcemia in a 6-year-old boy with pseudohypoparathyroidism treated with calcium and vitamin D. Pseudohypoparathyroidism is characterized by parathormone (PTH) resistance, high PTH levels and hypocalcemia which need to be corrected with calcium and vitamin D supplementation. The patient was admitted for severe abdominal pain and vomiting associated with high plasma amylase, lipase and calcium levels. Hypercalcemia due to vitamin D and calcium overtreatment was probably responsible for the acute pancreatitis in this case. High serum calcium levels seem to sensitize patients to pancreatitis, even if the mechanism through which it happens is not completely understood. Moreover, the importance of concomitant predisposing factors, either acquired or especially genetic, needs to be further defined. Even though a rare occurance in childhood, hypercalcemia should be considered as a cause of pancreatitis and it should be examined together with the other etiologies that may contribute to the development of this disease.
Khan, J.A.; Shamsi, F.
Patients with nephrotic syndrome are at risk of developing thrombosis in both veins and arteries. Various manifestations in different organs have been reported. Thrombi in heart seen, associated with multi organ thrombosis have been reported on autopsy earlier, but only once in a living patient with nephrotic syndrome. Here, we report a 13 years old boy with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, who developed an asymptomatic but potentially hazardous large intracardiac thrombus. The child developed nephrotic syndrome at the age of 9 years and had multiple recurrences. At the age of 13 years, he developed myocardial infarction (MI) due to embolism from a large intracardiac thrombus. Later on, he was treated with heparin and warfarin anticoagulation. (author)
Granholm, Anders; Møller, Morten Hylander; Kragh, Mette
PURPOSE: Severity scores including the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score are used in intensive care units (ICUs) to assess disease severity, predict mortality and in research. We aimed to assess the predictive performance of SAPS II...... compared the discrimination of SAPS II and initial SOFA scores, compared the discrimination of SAPS II in our cohort with the original cohort, assessed the calibration of SAPS II customised to our cohort, and compared the discrimination for 90-day mortality vs. in-hospital mortality for both scores....... Discrimination was evaluated using areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROC). Calibration was evaluated using Hosmer-Lemeshow's goodness-of-fit Ĉ-statistic. RESULTS: AUROC for in-hospital mortality was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.83) for SAPS II and 0.73 (95% CI 0...
Lyon, Jane B.; Remigio, Cheryl; Milligan, Thomas; Deline, Carol
Since the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic of novel influenza A H1N1 in June 2009, there has been a sustained rise in the number of cases of this strain of influenza. Although most cases are mild with complete and uneventful recovery, multiple cases of severe infection with complications including death have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, the majority of fatal outcomes in the United States have been related to pulmonary complications. We report a 12-year-old girl infected with influenza A H1N1 whose clinical course was complicated by rapid progressive neurologic deterioration and striking CT and MRI findings consistent with acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE). To our knowledge this has not been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. We hope this case will alert radiologists to this complication and familiarize radiologists with imaging findings that herald ANE. (orig.)
A 3-year-old girl diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia presented with a 1-month history of recurrent nightmares. Symptoms of the disturbance conformed to a clinical picture of slow wave arousal night terrors, or pavor nocturnus. Behavioral treatment aimed at reducing anxiety related to maternal separation and medical procedures, and at reinforcing appropriate sleep patterns was effective in reducing and eventually eliminating the symptoms. Follow-up revealed no return of nightmares or existence of new problems. A brief review of descriptive, etiological and treatment aspects of night terrors is presented and the hypothesis is put forth that such episodes represent a psychological reaction to trauma. The importance of being aware of age variables in the expression of children's anxiety is noted as is the value of careful tabulation of outcome data.
Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, particularly younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...
Torretta, Sara; Marchisio, Paola; Gaffuri, Michele; Capaccio, Pasquale; Esposito, Susanna; Pignataro, Lorenzo
Orbital cellulitis is an infrequent complication of acute ethmoiditis possibly leading to life- or visual-threatening complications. Despite its natural history is well known, its clinical evolution may widely vary among patients, and even in the most favourable cases long-term sequelae may persist. We here provide a step-by-step iconographic description of a periorbital and orbital cellulitis occurring in a child with ipsilateral acute rhinosinusitis. Our report shows that an unusual long-term evolution of periorbital and orbital cellulitis is possible also in apparently favourable cases.
Christopher J Gregory
Full Text Available Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm(3 in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2-7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12% patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections, and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001, 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001. The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue.
Chowdhury, Fahmida; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Iuliano, A Danielle; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Ahmed, Makhdum; Haider, Sabbir; Rahman, Mahmudur; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo
Pharmacies in Bangladesh serve as an important source of health service. A survey in Dhaka reported that 48% of respondents with symptoms of acute respiratory illness (ARI) identified local pharmacies as their first point of care. This study explores the factors driving urban customers to seek health care from pharmacies for ARI, their treatment adherence, and outcome. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 selected pharmacies within Dhaka from June to December 2012. Study participants were patients or patients' relatives aged >18 years seeking care for ARI from pharmacies without prescription. Structured interviews were conducted with customers after they sought health service from drug sellers and again over phone 5 days postinterview to discuss treatment adherence and outcome. We interviewed 302 customers patronizing 76 pharmacies; 186 (62%) sought care for themselves and 116 (38%) sought care for a sick relative. Most customers (215; 71%) were males. The majority (90%) of customers sought care from the study pharmacy as their first point of care, while 18 (6%) had previously sought care from another pharmacy and 11 (4%) from a physician for their illness episodes. The most frequently reported reasons for seeking care from pharmacies were ease of access to pharmacies (86%), lower cost (46%), availability of medicine (33%), knowing the drug seller (20%), and convenient hours of operation (19%). The most commonly recommended drugs were acetaminophen dispensed in 76% (228) of visits, antihistamine in 69% (208), and antibiotics in 42% (126). On follow-up, most (86%) of the customers had recovered and 12% had sought further treatment. People with ARI preferred to seek care at pharmacies rather than clinics because these pharmacies were more accessible and provided prompt treatment and medicine with no service charge. We recommend raising awareness among drug sellers on proper dispensing practices and enforcement of laws and regulations for drug sales.
Abadom, Tochukwu Raphael; Smith, Adrian D; Tempia, Stefano; Madhi, Shabir A; Cohen, Cheryl; Cohen, Adam L
Influenza is a common cause of severe respiratory illness, but risk factors for hospitalisation in low income settings with a high HIV prevalence are not well described. We aimed to assess risk factors associated with influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalisation in South Africa. We conducted a case-population study using data on risk conditions in patients hospitalised with SARI and the national prevalence of these conditions. Data on hospitalised cases were from the national SARI surveillance program while data on the referent population were from the latest national census or health and demographic surveillance surveys. From 2009 to 2012, we identified 3646 (7.9%) of 46,031 enrolled cases of SARI that were associated with influenza infection. Risk factors associated with hospitalisation included previous history of smoking [case-population ratio (CPR) 3.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-4.16], HIV infection (CPR 3.61, 95% CI 3.5-3.71), asthma (CPR 2.45, 95% CI 2.19-2.73), previous history of hospital admission in the past 12months (CPR 2.07, 95% CI 1.92-2.23), and tuberculosis (CPR 1.85, 95% CI 1.68-2.02). When stratified by age, there is increased risk of hospitalisation in those ⩽5yearsof age (CPR 3.07, 95% CI 2.93-3.21) and among those 35yearsof age and above (CPR 1.23, 95% CI 1.28-1.18). Male sex (CPR 0.85, 95% CI 0.82-0.88) and completion of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination schedule in children <5yearsof age (CPR 0.74, 95% CI 0.71-0.77) were associated with decreased risk of hospitalisation. These results identify groups at high-risk for severe influenza who should be considered potential targets for influenza vaccination in South Africa and similar settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Lindsey K; Bracker, Kiko; Price, Lori Lyn
To describe the clinical features and outcomes of critically ill dogs and cats with acute kidney injury (AKI) receiving fenoldopam infusions compared to patients with AKI that did not receive fenoldopam. Retrospective clinical study from May 1, 2008 until June 1, 2012. Private emergency and specialty referral hospital. Client-owned dogs (28) and cats (34) with AKI that received fenoldopam compared with similar patients with AKI (30 dogs and 30 cats) that did not. None. The medical records of 62 critically ill dogs and cats with AKI that received fenoldopam were reviewed. Presenting clinical signs, physical examination findings, and primary and secondary disease processes were identified in all patients. The mean number of days on fenoldopam was 1.5 days (range 0.3-4.0 days) for dogs and 1.9 days (range 1.0-4.0 days) for cats. Eleven of 28 (39%) dogs survived to discharge and 13 of 34 (38%) of the cats survived to discharge. Of the animals in the group receiving fenoldopam that died, the majority (84%) were euthanized. Potential adverse reactions were evaluated, with hypotension being the most commonly encountered adverse effect (7% of fenoldopam group [FG] dogs and 23% of FG cats). When compared with patients with AKI that did not receive fenoldopam, no significant differences were found between the groups with regards to survival, length of hospital stay, adverse effects, or changes in creatinine, BUN, or sodium concentrations except that patients receiving fenoldopam were significantly more likely to have received other renally active medications. In this study of patients with AKI, fenoldopam administration at 0.8 μg/kg/min in dogs and 0.5 μg/kg/min in cats appeared relatively safe but was not associated with improvement in survival to discharge, length of hospital stay, or improvement in renal biochemical parameters when compared to patients with AKI not receiving fenoldopam. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.
Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI is a complication still poorly studied in the setting of obstetric patients, which is associated with increased mortality. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and risk factors of AKI among critically ill obstetric patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with all patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU due to obstetric complications, in Fortaleza, Brazil, in the period between January 2012 and December 2014. AKI was defined according to AKIN criteria. Results: A total of 389 patients were included, aged between 13 and 45 years. The main causes of ICU admission were pregnancy-related hypertensive syndromes (54.5%, hemorrhage and hemorrhagic shock (12.3%, heart diseases (9.0%, respiratory insufficiency (8.2% and sepsis (5.4%. AKI was found in 92 cases (24%, and this was the most frequent complication. General mortality was 7.5%, and mortality due to AKI was 21% (p = 0.0007. In the multivariate analysis, risk factors for AKI were cesarian delivery (95% CI = 0.23-0.85, p = 0.01 and thrombocythopenia (95% CI = 1.50-4.36, p = 0.001. AKI was an independent risk factor for death (OR = 6.64, 95% CI = 3.11-14.15, p < 0.001. Conclusion: AKI was the main complication among critically ill obstetric patients and it was associated with increased mortality. Most cases were associated with pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders, which are complications that can be easily identified and treated during prenatal care.
Smith, Karen E; Keeney, Susan; Zhang, Lifang; Perez-Polo, J Regino; Rassin, David K
The potential negative impact of early blood oxygenation on development of specific cognitive and motor outcomes in children born at very low birth weight (VLBW; 1000-1500g) has not been examined even though these infants are exposed to varying durations and amounts of oxygen as part of their neonatal care. While this is the largest group of preterm infants, they receive much less research attention than extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW<1000g). Although neonatologists are questioning the routine use of oxygen therapy for all neonates, research has focused primarily on the more medically fragile ELBW infants. To date there are no systematic studies available to guide decision making for oxygen supplementation for a large segment of the preterm infant population. The aim of the present study was to determine if there is an association between blood oxygenation in the first 4h of life and specific cognitive and motor skills in preterm infants with acute respiratory disorders but no severe intracranial insult using a selected cohort from a longitudinal study children recruited in 1991 and 1992 designed to examine the role of biological immaturity as defined by gestational age and parenting in development. From this cohort, 55 children had acute respiratory disorders without severe intracranial insult. Of these, 35 children had at least one partial pressure of oxygen obtained from arterial blood (PaO2) during the first 4h of life as part of their clinical care. Higher early PaO2 values were associated with lower impulse control and attention skills in the elementary school age period. Models that were examined for relations between PaO2 values that also included birth weight and parenting quality across the first year of life revealed that higher PaO2 remained associated with impulse control but not attention skills. Birth weight was not associated with any outcomes. These results suggest that hyperoxia may be a risk factor for developmental problems that are
Corral-Terrazas, Martha; Martínez, Homero; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Duque-L, Ma Ximena; Turnbull, Bernardo; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita
To identify the beliefs and knowledge of a group of rural physicians on the dietary management of children under five years of age, with acute diarrhea. Physicians' dietary management was compared with that recommended by the World Health Organization. A cognitive anthropology study was carried out from July to December 1998, on ten physicians that care for the infant population ascribed to Hospital Rural IMSS-Solidaridad of San Juanito Bocoyna, Chihuahua, Mexico. Data were collected through focus groups, case vignettes, free listing, pile sorting, and a semi-structured questionnaire, and then cross-referred. The physicians recognized the negative impact of diarrhea on the nutritional state of the child, but not all of them evaluated this state. Prevailing interventions were antibiotic therapy, fluid management, and feeding recommendations. Among the latter, the most consistent were breastfeeding, delayed feeding, and gradual feeding. The obtained information is in conflict with WHO's recommendations, specially with that of sustained feeding. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.
Yilmaz, D; Karapinar, B; Balkan, C; Ay, Y; Kavakli, K
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a demyelinating disease of the pons often associated with the demyelination of extrapontine areas of the central nervous system. It typically occurs 0.5-7 days after a rapid increment in serum Na level in hyponatremic patients and may lead to death. A 2.5-year-old child with a diagnosis of acute myeloblastic leukemia developed febril neutropenia, diarrhea, gastrointestinal hemorrhage followed by pulmonary aspergillosis. He could not tolerate enteral nutrition. He was given broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungal treatment. Laboratory tests showed electrolyte abnormalities including hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia in a chronic course. Twenty three days after a rapid correction of hyponatremia (16 mEq/L/24 h) he revealed flask quadriparesis, disphagia, mutism, irregular respiratory pattern and loss of cough and gag reflex. Cranial magnetic resonance showed central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis. He required mechanical ventilation and then he regained his neurologic functions. He completed chemotherapy protocol and underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. After 2.5 years of the occurrence of CPM he is in completely normal physical and neurological status. CPM is a very severe but rare disorder in children with underlying disease. In the presence of multiple etiologic factors it may reveal a delayed onset and optimum outcome can be seen even in the severe clinical presentation with adequate intensive support.
Pickham, David; Berte, Nic; Pihulic, Mike; Valdez, Andre; Mayer, Barbara; Desai, Manisha
Though theoretically sound, studies have failed to demonstrate the benefit of routine repositioning of at-risk patients for the prevention of hospital acquired pressure injuries. To assess the clinical effectiveness of a wearable patient sensor to improve care delivery and patient outcomes by increasing the total time with turning compliance and preventing pressure injuries in acutely ill patients. Pragmatic, investigator initiated, open label, single site, randomized clinical trial. Two Intensive Care Units in a large Academic Medical Center in California. Consecutive adult patients admitted to one of two Intensive Care Units between September 2015 to January 2016 were included (n = 1564). Of the eligible patients, 1312 underwent randomization. Patients received either turning care relying on traditional turn reminders and standard practices (control group, n = 653), or optimal turning practices, influenced by real-time data derived from a wearable patient sensor (treatment group, n = 659). The primary and secondary outcomes of interest were occurrence of hospital acquired pressure injury and turning compliance. Sensitivity analysis was performed to compare intention-to-treat and per-protocol effects. The mean age was 60 years (SD, 17 years); 55% were male. We analyzed 103,000 h of monitoring data. Overall the intervention group had significantly fewer Hospital Acquired Pressure Injuries during Intensive Care Unit admission than the control group (5 patients [0.7%] vs. 15 patients [2.3%] (OR = 0.33, 95%CI [0.12, 0.90], p = 0.031). The total time with turning compliance was significantly different in the intervention group vs. control group (67% vs 54%; difference 0.11, 95%CI [0.08, 0.13], p < 0.001). Turning magnitude (21°, p = 0.923) and adequate depressurization time (39%, p = 0.145) were not statistically different between groups. Among acutely ill adult patients requiring Intensive Care Unit admission, the provision of
Cinteza, Eliza; Stoicescu, Claudiu; Butoianu, Niculina; Balgradean, Mihaela; Nicolescu, Alin; Angrés, Matthias
Heart implication in Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually is present in the form of dilated cardiomyopathy, manifested as heart failure and arrhythmias. To delay progression, including heart deterioration, prednisone is recommended as preventive treatment. We report the case of an 11-year-old boy diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy at the age of seven, who was on preventive treatment with oral prednisone (0.75 mg/kg/day) and beta blocker (metoprolol, 1 mg/kg/day). Suddenly, the patient presented acute chest pain, vomiting and sweating. The electrocardiogram showed ST elevation in inferior leads. Troponin T was increased to 30814 pg/ml (normal values <14 pg/mL). The echocardiography revealed reduced contractility of the posteroinferior wall of the left ventricle. After excluding coronary implications by coronary angiography, we increased the oral prednisone to 1.4 mg/kg/day for five days and added enalapril (0.5 mg/kg/day, po). The response was positive, with a rapid decrease of the troponin T value to 3186 pg/mL in five days and gradual recovery of myocardial contractility afterwards.
Rangel, Maria Adriana; Baptista, Carolina; Santos, Fátima; Real, Marta Vila; Campos, Rosa Arménia; Leite, Ana Luísa
Neuropathy is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), increasing with the duration of the disease, poor glycemic control and advanced age. Acute presentation of a neuropathy in the setting of a newly diagnosed type 1 DM is rare and holds a diagnostic challenge. A 10-year-old girl, presented at the emergency service with complaints of polydipsia, polyuria, asthenia and weight lost over the last 15 days, accompanied by difficulties in flexing the right foot, during the previous week. The patient denied any pain, paresthesias, or altered sensibility. There was no fever documented, or recent infectious intercurrence or trauma. On physical examination, she was conscious, collaborative and space and time-orientated, had a diminished strength in the right foot, namely in the dorsiflexion, conditioning a steppage gait ipsilateral. Hyperalgesia was felt in the dorsum of the right feet to the ankle. DM type 1 was diagnosed based on serum glucose of 629 mg/dL and mild ketoacidosis. Investigation for infectious, immune and nutritional aetiologies for the mononeuropathy was negative. Electrophysiological study was suggestive of a lesion of the peroneal nerve on the popliteal cesspit, but was not conclusive. The patient started physiotherapy during her hospital stay and exhibited a slight improvement in the dorsiflexion of the foot. Four months later she was asymptomatic and with good glycaemic control. Diabetic neuropathy is a heterogeneous group that still lacks adequate comprehension. Its approach is empirical and demands exclusion of other etiologies. A definitive diagnosis is not always possible and sometimes is retrospective.
Mukunya, David; Kizito, Samuel; Orach, Tonny; Ndagire, Regina; Tumwakire, Emily; Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Mupere, Ezekiel; Kiguli, Sarah
Childhood undernutrition is a major challenge in Uganda with a prevalence of wasting and stunting at 5% and 33%, respectively. Community and family practices of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (C-IMCI) was introduced in sub-Saharan Africa early after the year 2000. C-IMCI was postulated to address major childhood morbidity and mortality challenges with nutrition as one of the outcomes. The association between knowledge patterns of C-IMCI and undernutrition has not been fully established especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was done to address the prevalence of stunting and wasting and the association with the knowledge and practices of C-IMCI among caretakers in Gulu district, Northern Uganda. This was a community-based cross-sectional study among 442 caretaker-child pairs. A standardized questionnaire was employed to assess the knowledge and practices of the C-IMCI among caretakers including four practices: breastfeeding, immunization, micronutrient supplementation and complementary feeding. Weight and height of children (6-60 months) were recorded. Wasting and stunting were defined as weight-for-height and height-for-age z-score, respectively, with a cut-off reporting Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was used to explore associations using SAS statistical software. The percentage of caretakers who had adequate knowledge on C-IMCI (basic knowledge within each pillar) was 13%. The prevalence of wasting and stunting were 8% and 21%, respectively. Caretakers' lack of knowledge of C-IMCI was associated with both wasting (OR 24.5, 95% CI 4.2-143.3) and stunting (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.3-12.4). Rural residence was also associated with both wasting (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.5-6.5) and stunting (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.7). Children younger than 25 months were more likely to be wasted (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-10.0). We found a low level of overall knowledge of the C-IMCI of 13.3% (n = 59). There is also a high prevalence of childhood
Zumrut Sahbudak Bal
Full Text Available Brevibacterium spp. are catalase-positive, non-spore-forming, non motile, aerobic Gram-positive rods that were considered apathogenic until a few reports of infections in immunocompromised patients had been published. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of B. casei catheter-related bloodstream infection in a child with acute leukemia. We aim to enhance the awareness of pediatric hematology and infectious disease specialists about this pathogen and review of the literature.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While there is much information about the burden of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in North America, little data exist on its burden in South America. METHODS: During April to December 2009, we actively searched for persons with severe acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness (ILI in three sentinel cities. A proportion of case-patients provided swabs for influenza testing. We estimated the number of case-patients that would have tested positive for influenza by multiplying the number of untested case-patients by the proportion who tested positive. We estimated rates by dividing the estimated number of case-patients by the census population after adjusting for the proportion of case-patients with missing illness onset information and ILI case-patients who visited physicians multiple times for one illness event. RESULTS: We estimated that the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 mortality rate per 100,000 person-years (py ranged from 1.5 among persons aged 5-44 years to 5.6 among persons aged ≥ 65 years. A(H1N1pdm09 hospitalization rates per 100,000 py ranged between 26.9 among children aged <5 years to 41.8 among persons aged ≥ 65 years. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 ILI rates per 100 py ranged between 1.6 among children aged <5 to 17.1 among persons aged 45-64 years. While 9 (53% of 17 influenza A(H1N1pdm09 decedents with available data had obesity and 7 (17% of 40 had diabetes, less than 4% of surviving influenza A(H1N1pdm09 case-patients had these pre-existing conditions (p ≤ 0.001. CONCLUSION: Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 caused a similar burden of disease in Argentina as in other countries. Such disease burden suggests the potential value of timely influenza vaccinations.
Conservative fluid management or deresuscitation for patients with sepsis or acute respiratory distress syndrome following the resuscitation phase of critical illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Silversides, Jonathan A; Major, Emmet; Ferguson, Andrew J; Mann, Emma E; McAuley, Daniel F; Marshall, John C; Blackwood, Bronagh; Fan, Eddy
It is unknown whether a conservative approach to fluid administration or deresuscitation (active removal of fluid using diuretics or renal replacement therapy) is beneficial following haemodynamic stabilisation of critically ill patients. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of conservative or deresuscitative fluid strategies in adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the post-resuscitation phase of critical illness. We searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials from 1980 to June 2016, and manually reviewed relevant conference proceedings from 2009 to the present. Two reviewers independently assessed search results for inclusion and undertook data extraction and quality appraisal. We included randomised trials comparing fluid regimens with differing fluid balances between groups, and observational studies investigating the relationship between fluid balance and clinical outcomes. Forty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Marked clinical heterogeneity was evident. In a meta-analysis of 11 randomised trials (2051 patients) using a random-effects model, we found no significant difference in mortality with conservative or deresuscitative strategies compared with a liberal strategy or usual care [pooled risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.82-1.02, I 2 = 0 %]. A conservative or deresuscitative strategy resulted in increased ventilator-free days (mean difference 1.82 days, 95 % CI 0.53-3.10, I 2 = 9 %) and reduced length of ICU stay (mean difference -1.88 days, 95 % CI -0.12 to -3.64, I 2 = 75 %) compared with a liberal strategy or standard care. In adults and children with ARDS, sepsis or SIRS, a conservative or deresuscitative fluid strategy results in an increased number of ventilator-free days and a decreased length of ICU stay compared with a liberal strategy or standard care. The effect on mortality
Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion in critically ill patients and in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review, meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.
Ripollés Melchor, Javier; Casans Francés, Rubén; Espinosa, Ángel; Martínez Hurtado, Eugenio; Navarro Pérez, Rosalía; Abad Gurumeta, Alfredo; Basora, Misericordia; Calvo Vecino, José M
The risks and benefits of transfusing critically ill patients continue to evoke controversy. Specifically, the critically ill patients with active ischemic cardiac disease continue to represent a "gray area" in the literature. Meta-analysis of the effects of lower versus higher hemoglobin thresholds on mortality in critically ill patients was carried out using PRISMA methodology. A systematic research was performed in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (last update, December 2014). Anemic critically ill adult patients admitted to intensive care units and/or anemic patients with acute coronary syndrome in which a restrictive vs. liberal transfusion therapy was compared. mortality. Included studies were subjected to quantifiable analysis, predefined subgroup analysis, trial sequential analysis and predefined sensitivity analysis. Thirty RCT's were initially identified; 6 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 2156. There were no differences in mortality between the restrictive and liberal groups (RR: 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.05 P=0.14), neither in patients with chronic cardiovascular disease subgroup (RR: 1.13, 95% IC 0.88-1.46 P=0.34). However, there is a trend towards decreased mortality in the subgroup critically ill (RR: 0.86, 95% CI 0.73-1.01 P=0.06); while in the subgroup of patients with acute myocardial infarct seems like it might be a non-significant trend towards increased mortality (RR: 3.85, 95% CI 0.82-18.0 P=0.09). Restrictive strategy is at least as effective to liberal strategy in critically ill patients. Nevertheless, there is insufficient evidence to recommend a restrictive strategy for patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Najlaa G. Al-Otaibi
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the 2-year outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI following admission to pediatric critical care units (PICU. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2012 and December 2013. We followed 131 children admitted to PICU, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with a diagnosis of AKI, based on pRIFLE (pediatric risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage renal disease, for 2 years. During the study period, 46 children died and 38 of survivors completed the follow-up. Factors affecting long-term progression to chronic kidney disease were also evaluated. Results: The 2-year mortality was more than 40%. The main determinant of the 2-year mortality was the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM score, which increased the risk of mortality by 6% per each one score (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06: 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.11. By the end of the 2 years, 33% of survivors had reduction in the glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria, and 73% were hypertensive. Patients with more severe renal impairment at admission, based on the pRIFLE criteria, had higher mortality rate. This association, however, was not independent since it was influenced by baseline disease severity (PRISM score. Conclusion: Large proportion of patients admitted to PICU with AKI either died during the first 2 months of follow-up or developed long-term complications. The severity of AKI, however, was not an independent risk factor for mortality.
Introduction: STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons\\' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions) is a new, systems-defined medicine review tool. We compared the performance of STOPP to that of established Beers\\' criteria in detecting potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) and related adverse drug events (ADEs) in older patients presenting for hospital admission. METHODS: we prospectively studied 715 consecutive acute admissions to a university teaching hospital. Diagnoses, reason for admission and concurrent medications were recorded. STOPP and Beers\\' criteria were applied. PIMs with clear causal connection or contribution to the principal reason for admission were determined. RESULTS: median patient age (interquartile range) was 77 (72-82) years. Median number of prescription medicines was 6 (range 0-21). STOPP identified 336 PIMs affecting 247 patients (35%), of whom one-third (n = 82) presented with an associated ADE. Beers\\' criteria identified 226 PIMs affecting 177 patients (25%), of whom 43 presented with an associated ADE. STOPP-related PIMs contributed to 11.5% of all admissions. Beers\\' criteria-related PIMs contributed to significantly fewer admissions (6%). CONCLUSION: STOPP criteria identified a significantly higher proportion of patients requiring hospitalisation as a result of PIM-related adverse events than Beers\\' criteria. This finding has significant implications for hospital geriatric practice.
Shelef, Assaf; Mazeh, Doron; Berger, Uri; Baruch, Yehuda; Barak, Yoram
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for patients with severe mental illness (SMI). Maintenance ECT (M-ECT) is required for many elderly patients experiencing severe recurrent forms of mood disorders, whereas M-ECT for schizophrenia patients is a poorly studied treatment. We report on the outcomes in aged patients with SMI: schizophrenia and severe affective disorders treated by M-ECT of varying duration to prevent relapse after a successful course of acute ECT. The study measured the effectiveness of M-ECT in preventing hospital readmissions and reducing admission days. A retrospective chart review of 42 consecutive patients comparing the number and length of psychiatric admissions before and after the start of M-ECT was used. We analyzed diagnoses, previous ECT treatments, number of ECT treatments, and number and length of psychiatric admissions before and after M-ECT. Mean age in our sample was 71.5 (6.9) years. Twenty-two (52%) patients experienced severe affective disorders and 20 (48%) experienced schizophrenia. Patients were administered 92.8 (85.9) M-ECT treatments. Average duration of the M-ECT course was 34 (29.8) months. There were on average 1.88 admissions before M-ECT and only 0.38 admissions in the M-ECT period (P < 0.001). Duration of mean hospitalization stay decreased from 215.9 to 12.4 days during the M-ECT (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that acute ECT followed by M-ECT is highly effective in selected elderly patients with SMIs.
Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI in animal models of ischemia reperfusion injury and sepsis. There are limited data on markers of endothelial dysfunction in human AKI. We hypothesized that Protein C (PC and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM levels could predict AKI. We conducted a multicenter prospective study in 80 patients to assess the relationship of PC and sTM levels to AKI, defined by the AKIN creatinine (AKI Scr and urine output criteria (AKI UO. We measured marker levels for up to 10 days from intensive care unit admission. We used area under the curve (AUC and time-dependent multivariable Cox proportional hazard model to predict AKI and logistic regression to predict mortality/non-renal recovery. Protein C and sTM were not different in patients with AKI UO only versus no AKI. On intensive care unit admission, as PC levels are usually lower with AKI Scr, the AUC to predict the absence of AKI was 0.63 (95%CI 0.44-0.78. The AUC using log10 sTM levels to predict AKI was 0.77 (95%CI 0.62-0.89, which predicted AKI Scr better than serum and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL and cystatin C, urine kidney injury molecule-1 and liver-fatty acid-binding protein. In multivariable models, PC and urine NGAL levels independently predicted AKI (p=0.04 and 0.02 and PC levels independently predicted mortality/non-renal recovery (p=0.04. In our study, PC and sTM levels can predict AKI Scr but are not modified during AKI UO alone. PC levels could independently predict mortality/non-renal recovery. Additional larger studies are needed to define the relationship between markers of endothelial dysfunction and AKI.
Al-Otaibi, Najlaa G; Zeinelabdin, Maryam; Shalaby, Mohamed A; Khathlan, Norah; Mashat, Ghadi D; Zahrani, Amal A; NoorSaeed, Sundus Mw; Shalabi, Nora M; Alhasan, Khalid A; Sharief, Sara N; Albanna, Amr S; Kari, Jameela A
To determine the 2-year outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) following admission to pediatric critical care units (PICU). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2012 and December 2013. We followed 131 children admitted to PICU, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with a diagnosis of AKI, based on pRIFLE (pediatric risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage renal disease), for 2 years. During the study period, 46 children died and 38 of survivors completed the follow-up. Factors affecting long-term progression to chronic kidney disease were also evaluated. Results: The 2-year mortality was more than 40%. The main determinant of the 2-year mortality was the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score, which increased the risk of mortality by 6% per each one score (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06: 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.11). By the end of the 2 years, 33% of survivors had reduction in the glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria, and 73% were hypertensive. Patients with more severe renal impairment at admission, based on the pRIFLE criteria, had higher mortality rate. This association, however, was not independent since it was influenced by baseline disease severity (PRISM score). Conclusion: Large proportion of patients admitted to PICU with AKI either died during the first 2 months of follow-up or developed long-term complications. The severity of AKI, however, was not an independent risk factor for mortality.
Woolsey, Kristina; Woolsey, Matthew
Emerging digital technologies enable teachers and students to access and manipulate sights and sounds in their school environments. The challenge is to systematically include these new media in academic environments, and to include adults who are ill prepared in technical issues as primary guides in this effort. This article suggests that child's…
Hout, Joseph J; White, Duvel W; Artino, Anthony R; Knapik, Joseph J
Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are among the leading causes for hospital visits in U.S. military training populations and historically peak during U.S. Army Basic Combat Training (BCT) following mandatory exposure to the riot control agent o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS). This observational prospective cohort studied the association between CS exposures and ARI-related health outcomes in 6,723 U.S. Army recruits attending BCT at Fort Jackson, South Carolina from August 1 to September 25, 2012 by capturing and linking the incidence of ARI before and after the mask confidence chamber to CS exposure data. Recruits had a significantly higher risk (risk ratio = 2.44; 95% confidence interval = 1.74, 3.43) of being diagnosed with ARI following exposure to CS compared to the period of training preceding exposure, and incidence of ARI after CS exposure was dependent on the CS exposure concentration (p = 0.03). There was a significant pre-/postexposure ARI difference across all CS concentration levels (p < 0.01), however, no significant differences were detected among these rate ratios (p = 0.72). As CS exposure is positively associated with ARI health outcomes in this population, interventions designed to reduce respiratory exposures could result in decreased hospital burden and lost training time in the U.S. Army BCT population. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Wei, L; Chan, K-H; Ip, D K M; Fang, V J; Fung, R O P; Leung, G M; Peiris, M J S; Cowling, B J
Respiratory viruses cause acute respiratory diseases with a broad and overlapping spectrum of symptoms. We examined the clinical symptoms and explored the patterns of various respiratory viral infections in children in Hong Kong. Among 2090 specimens collected from outpatient care (2007-2010), 1343 (64.3%) were positive for any virus by the xTAG assay, and 81 (3.9%) were positive for co-infection. The most frequently detected viruses among children aged 6-15 years were enterovirus/rhinovirus and influenza virus A, whereas most non-influenza viruses were more frequently detected in younger children. Higher body temperature was more common for illnesses associated with influenza viruses than for those associated with non-influenza viruses, but other symptoms were largely similar across all infections. The seasonality pattern varied among different viruses, with influenza virus A being the predominant virus detected in winter, and enterovirus/rhinovirus being more commonly detected than influenza virus A in the other three seasons, except for 2009. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Najioullah, Fatiha; Combet, Emilie; Paturel, Laure; Martial, Jenny; Koulmann, Laurence; Thomas, Laurent; Hatchuel, Yves; Cabié, André; Cesaire, Raymond
We prospectively evaluated the Bio-Rad nonstructural 1 (NS1) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA) in comparison to an in-place reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for dengue diagnosis. Among 537 consecutive samples from patients with acute febrile disease, 264 (49.2%) tested positive in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 156 (29.1%) in NS1-antigen (Ag) ELISA, and 125 (23.3%) in NS1-Ag LFIA. Compared to the RT-PCR status, the specificity was 100% for the NS1-Ag ELISA and LFIA, but their respective sensitivities were 61.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 55.2-67.2] and 49.4% (95% CI, 43.2-55.6), with nadirs of 37.9% and 24.1% on day 6 of illness. The NS1-Ag ELISA and LFIA were positive, respectively, for 48.0% and 40.7% of the secondary infections versus 85.0% and 66.7% of the primary infections. For patients LFIA reached respective sensitivities of 100% and 90.5%. Reports of results of dengue NS1-Ag assays should specify that negativity does not preclude DENV infection, and require further investigations in the case of severe disease. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barry, P J
-dwelling subjects. The total number of inappropriate prescriptions identified using the Beers\\' criteria (ID) was 148 affecting 121 patients. The Beers\\' criteria (CD) identified 69 inappropriate prescriptions in 60 patients and the IPET identified 112 inappropriate prescriptions in 78 patients. The Beers criteria (ID and CD combined) identified at least one inappropriate prescription in 34% of subjects and the IPET identified one in at least 22% of subjects. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies high rates of use of inappropriate medications in community-dwelling elderly presenting with acute illness to hospital. These are comparable with inappropriate prescribing rates identified in previous studies. The revised Beers\\' criteria (2003) identified more inappropriate prescriptions than the IPET in this population of elders.
de Blic, J; McKelvie, P; Le Bourgeois, M; Blanche, S; Benoist, M R; Scheinmann, P
The diagnostic value of 73 bronchoalveolar lavages was assessed in 67 immunocompromised children (aged 3 months to 16 years) with pulmonary infiltrates. Thirty one children had primary and 19 secondary immune deficiency, 14 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and three AIDS related complex. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed during fibreoptic bronchoscopy, under local anaesthesia in all but two. One or more infective agents was found in eight of 11 patients with severe acute pneumonia and in 26 of 62 patients with interstitial pneumonitis. In interstitial pneumonitis, the most frequently encountered agents were Pneumocystis carinii (12), cytomegalovirus (8), and Aspergillus fumigatus (3). The yield was related to the severity of interstitial pneumonitis. The mean cellular count and cytological profile in lavage returns from patients with varying infective agents or underlying pathological conditions showed no significant difference, except in those children with AIDS and AIDS related complex who had appreciable lymphocytosis (mean percentage of lymphocytes 28 (SD 17]. In children with AIDS and chronic interstitial pneumonitis lymphocytosis without pneumocystis infection was observed in eight of nine bronchoalveolar lavage returns and was suggestive of pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia. Finally, bronchoalveolar lavage produced a specific diagnosis from the microbiological or cytological findings in 44 instances (60%). Transient exacerbation of tachypnoea was observed in the most severely ill children but there was no case of respiratory decompensation attributable to the bronchoscopy. Bronchoalveolar lavage is a safe and rapid examination for the investigation of pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised children. It should be performed as a first line investigation and should reduce the use of open lung biopsy techniques. PMID:2827334
Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Glucksman, Edward; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim
Examining parent-child agreement for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents is essential for informing the assessment of trauma-exposed children, yet no studies have examined this relationship using appropriate statistical techniques. Parent-child agreement for these disorders was examined…
The mortality of acutely ill medical patients for up to 60 days after admission to a resource poor hospital in sub-Saharan Africa compared with patients of similar illness severity admitted to a Danish Regional Teaching Hospital
Nabayigga, Barbara; Kellett, John; Brabrand, Mikkel
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of patients with the same severity of illness in the developed and developing countries have not been compared. Illness severity can now be measured anywhere by the National Early Warning Score (NEWS). METHODS: An exploratory observational study that compared the 7, 30 an...
The Incidence and Short-term Outcomes of Acute Respiratory Illness with Cough in Children from a Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Urban Community in Australia: A Community-Based Prospective Cohort Study
Kerry K. Hall
Full Text Available BackgroundAcute respiratory illnesses with cough (ARIwC are predominant causes of morbidity in Australian Indigenous children; however, data on disease burden in urban communities are scarce. This study aimed to determine the incidence of ARIwC, the predictors of recurrent (≥4 episodes ARIwC, and development of chronic cough following an ARIwC in urban, predominantly Indigenous, children aged <5 years from northern Brisbane, Australia.MethodsProspective cohort study of children aged <5 years registered with a primary healthcare center. ARIwC episodes and outcomes were collected for 12 months. Recurrent ARIwC was defined as ≥4 episodes in 12 months. Chronic cough was defined as cough lasting >4 weeks. Children who developed chronic cough were reviewed by a pediatric pulmonologist. Incidence densities per child-month of observation were calculated and predictors of recurrent ARIwC and chronic cough were evaluated in logistic regression models.ResultsBetween February 2013 and November 2015, 200 children were enrolled; median age of 18.1 months, range (0.7–59.7 months and 90% identified as Indigenous. A total of 1,722 child-months of observation were analyzed (mean/child = 8.58, 95% CI 8.18–9.0. The incidence of ARIwC was 24.8/100 child-months at risk (95% CI 22.3–27.5. Twenty-one children (10.5% experienced recurrent ARIwC. Chronic cough was identified in 70/272 (25.7% episodes of ARIwC. Predictors of recurrent ARIwC were presence of eczema, mold in the house, parent/carer employment status, and having an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mother/non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander father (compared to both parents being Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander. Predictors of chronic cough included being aged <12 months, eczema, childcare attendance, previous history of cough of >4 weeks duration, having an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mother/non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander father (compared to
Kay M Tomashek
Full Text Available Identifying etiologies of acute febrile illnesses (AFI is challenging due to non-specific presentation and limited availability of diagnostics. Prospective AFI studies provide a methodology to describe the syndrome by age and etiology, findings that can be used to develop case definitions and multiplexed diagnostics to optimize management. We conducted a 3-year prospective AFI study in Puerto Rico. Patients with fever ≤7 days were offered enrollment, and clinical data and specimens were collected at enrollment and upon discharge or follow-up. Blood and oro-nasopharyngeal specimens were tested by RT-PCR and immunodiagnostic methods for infection with dengue viruses (DENV 1-4, chikungunya virus (CHIKV, influenza A and B viruses (FLU A/B, 12 other respiratory viruses (ORV, enterovirus, Leptospira spp., and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Clinical presentation and laboratory findings of participants infected with DENV were compared to those infected with CHIKV, FLU A/B, and ORV. Clinical predictors of laboratory-positive dengue compared to all other AFI etiologies were determined by age and day post-illness onset (DPO at presentation. Of 8,996 participants enrolled from May 7, 2012 through May 6, 2015, more than half (54.8%, 4,930 had a pathogen detected. Pathogens most frequently detected were CHIKV (1,635, 18.2%, FLU A/B (1,074, 11.9%, DENV 1-4 (970, 10.8%, and ORV (904, 10.3%. Participants with DENV infection presented later and a higher proportion were hospitalized than those with other diagnoses (46.7% versus 27.3% with ORV, 18.8% with FLU A/B, and 11.2% with CHIKV. Predictors of dengue in participants presenting <3 DPO included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, headache, eye pain, nausea, and dizziness, while negative predictors were irritability and rhinorrhea. Predictors of dengue in participants presenting 3-5 DPO were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, facial/neck erythema, nausea, eye pain, signs of poor circulation, and diarrhea; presence of
Tomashek, Kay M; Lorenzi, Olga D; Andújar-Pérez, Doris A; Torres-Velásquez, Brenda C; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge Luis; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Rivera, Aidsa; Gonzalez-Zeno, Gladys E; Sharp, Tyler M; Galloway, Renee L; Glass Elrod, Mindy; Mathis, Demetrius L; Oberste, M Steven; Nix, W Allan; Henderson, Elizabeth; McQuiston, Jennifer; Singleton, Joseph; Kato, Cecilia; García Gubern, Carlos; Santiago-Rivera, William; Cruz-Correa, Jesús; Muns-Sosa, Robert; Ortiz-Rivera, Juan D; Jiménez, Gerson; Galarza, Ivonne E; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Margolis, Harold S; Alvarado, Luisa I
Identifying etiologies of acute febrile illnesses (AFI) is challenging due to non-specific presentation and limited availability of diagnostics. Prospective AFI studies provide a methodology to describe the syndrome by age and etiology, findings that can be used to develop case definitions and multiplexed diagnostics to optimize management. We conducted a 3-year prospective AFI study in Puerto Rico. Patients with fever ≤7 days were offered enrollment, and clinical data and specimens were collected at enrollment and upon discharge or follow-up. Blood and oro-nasopharyngeal specimens were tested by RT-PCR and immunodiagnostic methods for infection with dengue viruses (DENV) 1-4, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), influenza A and B viruses (FLU A/B), 12 other respiratory viruses (ORV), enterovirus, Leptospira spp., and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Clinical presentation and laboratory findings of participants infected with DENV were compared to those infected with CHIKV, FLU A/B, and ORV. Clinical predictors of laboratory-positive dengue compared to all other AFI etiologies were determined by age and day post-illness onset (DPO) at presentation. Of 8,996 participants enrolled from May 7, 2012 through May 6, 2015, more than half (54.8%, 4,930) had a pathogen detected. Pathogens most frequently detected were CHIKV (1,635, 18.2%), FLU A/B (1,074, 11.9%), DENV 1-4 (970, 10.8%), and ORV (904, 10.3%). Participants with DENV infection presented later and a higher proportion were hospitalized than those with other diagnoses (46.7% versus 27.3% with ORV, 18.8% with FLU A/B, and 11.2% with CHIKV). Predictors of dengue in participants presenting dengue in participants presenting 3-5 DPO were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, facial/neck erythema, nausea, eye pain, signs of poor circulation, and diarrhea; presence of rhinorrhea, cough, and red conjunctiva predicted non-dengue AFI. By enrolling febrile patients at clinical presentation, we identified unbiased predictors of laboratory
Estimating the burden of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne illness caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus by using population-based telephone survey data, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, 2005 to 2006.
Kubota, Kunihiro; Kasuga, Fumiko; Iwasaki, Emiko; Inagaki, Shunichi; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Komatsu, Mayumi; Toyofuku, Hajime; Angulo, Frederick J; Scallan, Elaine; Morikawa, Kaoru
Most cases of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne disease are not ascertained by public health surveillance because the ill person does not always seek medical care and submit a stool sample for testing, and the laboratory does not always test for or identify the causative organism. We estimated the total burden of acute gastroenteritis in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, using data from two 2-week cross-sectional, population-based telephone surveys conducted in 2006 and 2007. To estimate the number of acute gastroenteritis illnesses caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Miyagi Prefecture, we determined the number of cases for each pathogen from active laboratory-based surveillance during 2005 to 2006 and adjusted for seeking of medical care and submission of stool specimens by using data from the population-based telephone surveys. Monte Carlo simulation was used to incorporate uncertainty. The prevalence of acute gastroenteritis in the preceding 4 weeks was 3.3% (70 of 2,126) and 3.5% (74 of 2,121) in the winter and summer months, yielding an estimated 44,200 episodes of acute gastroenteritis each year in this region. Among people with acute gastroenteritis, the physician consultation rate was 32.0%, and 10.9% of persons who sought care submitted a stool sample. The estimated numbers of Campylobacter-, Salmonella-, and V. parahaemolyticus -associated episodes of acute gastroenteritis were 1,512, 209, and 100 per 100,000 population per year, respectively, in this region. These estimates are significantly higher than the number of reported cases in surveillance in this region. Cases ascertained from active surveillance were also underrepresented in the present passive surveillance, suggesting that complementary surveillance systems, such as laboratory-based active surveillance in sentinel sites, are needed to monitor food safety in Japan.
Epidemiology and Outcome of Acute Kidney Injury According to Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Criteria in Critically Ill Children-A Prospective Study.
Volpon, Leila C; Sugo, Edward K; Consulin, Julio C; Tavares, Tabata L G; Aragon, Davi C; Carlotti, Ana P C P
We aimed to investigate the epidemiology, risk factors, and short- and medium-term outcome of acute kidney injury classified according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease, and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria in critically ill children. Prospective observational cohort study. Two eight-bed PICUs of a tertiary-care university hospital. A heterogeneous population of critically ill children. None. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome data were collected on all patients admitted to the PICUs from August 2011 to January 2012, with at least 24 hours of PICU stay. Of the 214 consecutive admissions, 160 were analyzed. The prevalence of acute kidney injury according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria was 49.4% vs. 46.2%, respectively. A larger proportion of acute kidney injury episodes was categorized as Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes stage 3 (50%) compared with pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease F (39.2%). Inotropic score greater than 10 was a risk factor for acute kidney injury severity. About 35% of patients with acute kidney injury who survived were discharged from the PICU with an estimated creatinine clearance less than 75 mL/min/1.73 m and one persisted with altered renal function 6 months after PICU discharge. Age 12 months old or younger was a risk factor for estimated creatinine clearance less than 75 mL/min/1.73 m at PICU discharge. Acute kidney injury and its severity were associated with increased PICU length of stay and longer duration of mechanical ventilation. Eleven patients died; nine had acute kidney injury (p Renal Disease and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria was associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and may lead to long-term renal dysfunction.
Ivana S Varella
Full Text Available Untreated acute toxoplasmosis among pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae among newborns, including neurological impairment and blindness. In Brazil, the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CTox has not been fully evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate trends in acute toxoplasmosis prevalence from 1998-2005, the incidence of CTox and the rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to dentify patients who fit the criteria for acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Exposed newborns were included in a historical cohort, with a median follow-up time of 11 months, to establish definite diagnosis of CTox. Diagnoses for acute infection in pregnancy and CTox were based on European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis criteria. In 41,112 pregnant women, the prevalence of acute toxoplasmosis was 4.8/1,000 women. The birth prevalence of CTox was 0.6/1,000 newborns [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.4-0.9]. During the follow-up study, 12 additional cases were detected, increasing the CTox rate to 0.9/1,000 newborns (95% CI: 0.6-1.3. Among the 200 newborns exposed to Toxoplasma gondii,there were 37 babies presenting diagnostic criteria of CTox, leading to an MTCT rate of 18.5% (95% CI: 13.4-24.6%. The additional cases identified during follow-up reinforce the need for serological monitoring during the first year of life, even in the absence of evidence of congenital infection at birth.
Hutchinson, Anastasia; Rasekaba, Tshepo Mokuedi; Graco, Marnie; Berlowitz, David John; Hawthorne, Graeme; Lim, Wen Kwang
Australia's ageing population means that there is increasing emphasis on developing innovative models of health care delivery for older adults. The assessment of the most appropriate mix of services and measurement of their impact on patient outcomes is challenging. The aim of this evaluation was to describe the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of older adults with complex needs and to explore the relationship between HRQoL, readmission to acute care and survival. The study was conducted in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia; participants were recruited from a cohort of older adults enrolled in a multidisciplinary case management service. HRQoL was measured at enrolment into the case-management service using The Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) instrument. In 2007-2009, participating service clinicians approached their patients and asked for consent to study participation. Administrative databases were used to obtain data on comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index) at enrolment, and follow-up data on acute care readmissions over 12 months and five year mortality. HRQoL was compared to aged-matched norms using Welch's approximate t-tests. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore which patient factors were predictive of readmissions and mortality. There were 210 study participants, mean age 78 years, 67% were female. Participants reported significantly worse HRQoL than age-matched population norms with a mean AQOL of 0.30 (SD 0.27). Seventy-eight (38%) participants were readmitted over 12-months and 5-year mortality was 65 (31%). Multivariate regression found that an AQOL utility score <0.37 (OR 1.95, 95%CI, 1.03 - 3.70), and a Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥6 (OR 4.89, 95%CI 2.37 - 10.09) were predictive of readmission. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age ≥80 years (OR 7.15, 95%CI, 1.83 - 28.02), and Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥6 (OR 6.00, 95%CI, 2.82 - 12.79) were predictive of death. This study confirms
In Great Britain 1-2 million people may be homeless. Most homeless people are men, but about 10-25% are women, of whom about half are accompanied by children. Significant mental illness is present in 30-50% of the homeless: functional psychoses predominate; acute distress and personality dysfunction are also prevalent. Co-morbidity of mental illness and substance abuse occurs in 20%, and physical morbidity rates exceed those of domiciled populations. The homeless mentally ill also have many social needs. Pathways to homelessness are complex; deinstitutionalization may be only one possible cause of the increase in the number of homeless people. There is much recent research estimating the extent of mental illness and the characteristics of selected subgroups of accessible homeless people. The evaluation of potential service solutions has received less attention. This review outlines the research, highlights current views on the definition and classification of homeless populations, and offers some guidelines on avenues which need to be explored.
Full Text Available Background: To investigate the prevalence of antibiotic usage in children aged <5 years with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI in Iran. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from a national health survey conducted in 2010 (Iran′s Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey. Participants of this cross-sectional study were selected by multistage stratified cluster-random sampling from 31 provinces of Iran. Parents of children with <5 years of age responded to questions about the occurrence of any cough during the previous 2 weeks, referral to private/governmental/other health care systems, and utilization of any oral/injection form of antibiotics. Data were analyzed using SPSS software18. The chi-square test was used to determine antibiotic consumption in various gender and residency groups and also a place of residence with the referral health care system. Results: Of the 9345 children under 5 years who participated in the study, 1506 cases (16.2% had ARTI during 2 weeks prior to the interview, in whom 1143 (75.9% were referred to urban or rural health care centers (43.4 vs. 30.4%; P < 0.001. Antibiotics were utilized by 715 (62.6% of affected children. Injection formulations were used for 150 (13.1% patients. The frequency of receiving antibiotics was higher in urban than in rural inhabitants (66.0% vs. 57.7%; P < 0.05. Conclusion: The prevalence of total and injection antibiotics usage in children <5 years with ARTI is alarmingly high in Iran. Therefore, interventions to reduce antibiotic use are urgently needed.
Full Text Available There are few published studies describing severe acute respiratory illness (SARI epidemiology amongst older children and adults from high HIV-prevalence settings. We aimed to describe SARI epidemiology amongst individuals aged ≥5 years in South Africa.We conducted prospective surveillance for individuals with SARI from 2009-2012. Using polymerase chain reaction, respiratory samples were tested for ten viruses, and blood for pneumococcal DNA. Cumulative annual SARI incidence was estimated at one site with population denominators.We enrolled 7193 individuals, 9% (621/7067 tested positive for influenza and 9% (600/6519 for pneumococcus. HIV-prevalence was 74% (4663/6334. Among HIV-infected individuals with available data, 41% of 2629 were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. The annual SARI hospitalisation incidence ranged from 325-617/100,000 population. HIV-infected individuals experienced a 13-19 times greater SARI incidence than HIV-uninfected individuals (p7 days rather than <2 days (OR1.7; 95%CI:1.2-2.2 and had a higher case-fatality ratio (8% vs 5%;OR1.7; 95%CI:1.2-2.3, but were less likely to be infected with influenza (OR 0.6; 95%CI:0.5-0.8. On multivariable analysis, independent risk indicators associated with death included HIV infection (OR 1.8;95%CI:1.3-2.4, increasing age-group, receiving mechanical ventilation (OR 6.5; 95%CI:1.3-32.0 and supplemental-oxygen therapy (OR 2.6; 95%CI:2.1-3.2.The burden of hospitalized SARI amongst individuals aged ≥5 years is high in South Africa. HIV-infected individuals are the most important risk group for SARI hospitalization and mortality in this setting.
Full Text Available Drought and conflict in the Horn of Africa are causing population displacement, increasing risks of child mortality and malnutrition. Humanitarian agencies are trying to mitigate the impact, with limited resources. Data from previous years may help guide decisions. Trends in different populations affected by displacement (1997–2009 were analyzed to investigate: (1 how elevated malnutrition and mortality were among displaced compared to host populations; (2 whether the mortality/malnutrition relation changed through time; and (3 how useful is malnutrition in identifying high mortality situations. Under-five mortality rates (usually from 90-day recall, as deaths/10,000/day: U5MR and global acute malnutrition (wasting prevalences, < −2SDs of references plus edema: GAM were extracted from reports of 1,175 surveys carried out between 1997–2009 in the Horn of Africa; these outcome indicators were analyzed by livelihood (pastoral, agricultural and by displacement status (refugee/internally displaced, local resident/host population, mixed; associations between these indicators were examined, stratifying by status. Patterns of GAM and U5MR plotted over time by country and livelihood clarified trends and showed substantial correspondence. Over the period GAM was steady but U5MR generally fell by nearly half. Average U5MR was similar overall between displaced and local residents. GAM was double on average for pastoralists compared with agriculturalists (17% vs. 8%, but was not different between displaced and local populations. Agricultural populations showed increased U5MR when displaced, in contrast to pastoralist. U5MR rose sharply with increasing GAM, at different GAM thresholds depending on livelihood. Higher GAM cut-points for pastoralists than agriculturalists would better predict elevated U5MR (1/10,000/day or emergency levels (2/10,000/day in the Horn of Africa; cut-points of 20–25% GAM in pastoral populations and 10–15% GAM in
Hatzmann, J.; Maurice-Stam, H.; Heymans, H.S.A.; Grootenhuis, M.A.
BACKGROUND: Parents of chronically ill children are at risk for a lower Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Insight in the dynamics of factors influencing parental HRQoL is necessary for development of interventions. Aim of the present study was to explore the influence of demographic and
The role of influenza, RSV and other common respiratory viruses in severe acute respiratory infections and influenza-like illness in a population with a high HIV sero-prevalence, South Africa 2012-2015.
Pretorius, Marthi A; Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Cohen, Adam L; Moyes, Jocelyn; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Seleka, Mpho; Hellferscee, Orienka; Treurnicht, Florette; Cohen, Cheryl; Venter, Marietjie
Viruses detected in patients with acute respiratory infections may be the cause of illness or asymptomatic shedding. To estimate the attributable fraction (AF) and the detection rate attributable to illness for each of the different respiratory viruses We compared the prevalence of 10 common respiratory viruses (influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza virus 1-3; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); adenovirus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and enterovirus) in both HIV positive and negative patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI), and control subjects who did not report any febrile, respiratory or gastrointestinal illness during 2012-2015 in South Africa. We enrolled 1959 SARI, 3784 ILI and 1793 controls with a HIV sero-prevalence of 26%, 30% and 43%, respectively. Influenza virus (AF: 86.3%; 95%CI: 77.7-91.6%), hMPV (AF: 85.6%; 95%CI: 72.0-92.6%), and RSV (AF: 83.7%; 95%CI: 77.5-88.2%) infections were associated with severe disease., while rhinovirus (AF: 46.9%; 95%CI: 37.6-56.5%) and adenovirus (AF: 36.4%; 95%CI: 20.6-49.0%) were only moderately associated. Influenza, RSV and hMPV can be considered pathogens if detected in ILI and SARI while rhinovirus and adenovirus were commonly identified in controls suggesting that they may cause only a proportion of clinical disease observed in positive patients. Nonetheless, they may be important contributors to disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kossiva, Lydia; Kyriakou, Dimitrios; Mitsioni, Andromachi; Garoufi, Anastasia
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children is usually a benign, self-limiting disorder. An acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection usually causes atypical lymphocytosis and mild decrease in platelets. Severe thrombocytopenia is an extremely rare complication. Anti-D immunoglobulin has been used for treatment of ITP in Rh(D)-positive nonsplenectomized patients. Severe hemolysis and acute renal failure are extremely rare complications that may be aggravated by the presence of an acute EBV infection. It is believed that anti-D immunoglobulin triggers an unusual virus-induced immune response causing hemolysis. We present a 4-year-old girl with ITP caused by an acute EBV infection that developed acute kidney injury following treatment with anti-D immunoglobulin. The patient recovered completely from thrombocytopenia and renal dysfunction. Intravascular hemolysis and acute kidney injury are consistent with anti-D immunoglobulin mechanism of action. Pediatric patients treated with anti-D immunoglobulin for ITP should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of hemolysis that may be aggravated by the presence of EBV infection leading to impaired renal function.
Hadden, Kellie L; LeFort, Sandra; O'Brien, Michelle; Coyte, Peter C; Guerriere, Denise N
The purpose of the current study was to examine the concurrent and discriminant validity of the Child Facial Coding System for children with cerebral palsy. Eighty-five children (mean = 8.35 years, SD = 4.72 years) were videotaped during a passive joint stretch with their physiotherapist and during 3 time segments: baseline, passive joint stretch, and recovery. Children's pain responses were rated from videotape using the Numerical Rating Scale and Child Facial Coding System. Results indicated that Child Facial Coding System scores during the passive joint stretch significantly correlated with Numerical Rating Scale scores (r = .72, P children with cerebral palsy. © The Author(s) 2015.
Rao, A R
Although child survival programs may help to increase the life span of poor children in developing countries such as India, the quality of life will remain unchanged unless the value of involving children in health education efforts is recognized. The primary health care strategy seeks to involve children and communities in making decisions and taking actions to improve their health. Children can be engaged in the learning process through activities such as helping to care for younger siblings, educating children of their own age who are not attending school, and spreading preventive health messages to their homes and communities. Numerous studies have confirmed that children are easily motivated to play such roles and have the desire to transfer their knowledge to others; however, it is essential that health education messages are appropriate for the level of the child. Specific messages with tested effectiveness in child-to-child programs include accident prevention, dental hygiene, neighborhood hygiene, use of oral rehydration in cases of diarrhea, recognition of signs of major illness, care of sick children, use of play and mental stimulation to enhance children's development, and the making of toys and games to aid growth. Children can further be instructed to identify peers with sight and hearing problems as well as those with nutritional deficiencies. In the Malvani Project in Bombay, children are given responsibility for the health care of 3-4 families in their neighborhood. In the NCERT Project in New Delhi, children are organizing artistic exhibitions and plays to convey health messages to their peers who are not in school. Also in New Delhi, the VHAI Project has enlisted children in campaigns to prevent diarrhea and dehydration, smoking, and drug use.
Molecular point-of-care testing for respiratory viruses versus routine clinical care in adults with acute respiratory illness presenting to secondary care: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial protocol (ResPOC).
Brendish, Nathan J; Malachira, Ahalya K; Clark, Tristan W
Respiratory viruses are associated with a huge socio-economic burden and are responsible for a large proportion of acute respiratory illness in hospitalised adults. Laboratory PCR is accurate but takes at least 24 h to generate a result to clinicians and antigen-based point-of-care tests (POCT) lack sensitivity. Rapid molecular platforms, such as the FilmArray Respiratory Panel, have equivalent diagnostic accuracy to laboratory PCR and can generate a result in 1 h making them deployable as POCT. Molecular point-of-care testing for respiratory viruses in hospital has the potential to improve the detection rate of respiratory viruses, improve the use of influenza antivirals and reduce unnecessary antibiotic use, but high quality randomised trials with clinically relevant endpoints are needed. The ResPOC study is a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of molecular point-of-care testing for respiratory viruses in adults with acute respiratory illness presenting to a large teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. Eligible participants are adults presenting with acute respiratory illness to the emergency department or the acute medicine unit. Participants are allocated 1:1 by internet-based randomisation service to either the intervention of a nose and throat swab analysed immediately on the FilmArray Respiratory Panel as a POCT or receive routine clinical care. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients treated with antibiotics. Secondary outcomes include turnaround time, virus detection, neuraminidase inhibitor use, length of hospital stay and side room use. Analysis of the primary outcome will be by intention-to-treat and all enrolled participants will be included in safety analysis. Multiple novel molecular POCT platforms for infections including respiratory viruses have been developed and licensed in the last few years and many more are in development but the evidence base for clinical benefit above standard practice is minimal. This randomised controlled
Economidou, Foteini; Douka, Evangelia; Tzanela, Marinella; Nanas, Serafeim; Kotanidou, Anastasia
The metabolic support of the critically ill patient is a relatively new target of active research and little is as yet known about the effects of critical illness on metabolism. The nonthyroidal illness syndrome, also known as the low T3 syndrome or euthyroid sick syndrome, describes a condition characterized by abnormal thyroid function tests encountered in patients with acute or chronic systemic illnesses. The laboratory parameters of this syndrome include low serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and high levels of reverse T3, with normal or low levels of thyroxine (T4) and normal or low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This condition may affect 60 to 70% of critically ill patients. The changes in serum thyroid hormone levels in the critically ill patient seem to result from alterations in the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones, in TSH regulation, in the binding of thyroid hormone to transport-protein and in receptor binding and intracellular uptake. Medications also have a very important role in these alterations. Hormonal changes can be seen within the first hours of critical illness and, interestingly, these changes correlate with final outcome. Data on the beneficial effect of thyroid hormone treatment on outcome in critically ill patients are so far controversial. Thyroid function generally returns to normal as the acute illness resolves.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing livestock density and animal manure spreading, along with climate factors such as heavy rainfall, may increase the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI. In this study we evaluated the association between farming activities, precipitation and AGI. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey of randomly selected residents (n = 7006 of 54 rural municipalities in Quebec, Canada, was conducted between April 2007 and April 2008. AGI symptoms and several risk factors were investigated using a phone questionnaire. We calculated the monthly prevalence of AGI, and used multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for several demographic and risk factors, to evaluate the associations between AGI and both intensive farming activities and cumulative weekly precipitation. Cumulative precipitation over each week, from the first to sixth week prior to the onset of AGI, was analyzed to account for both the delayed effect of precipitation on AGI, and the incubation period of causal pathogens. Cumulative precipitation was treated as a four-category variable: high (≥90th percentile, moderate (50th to th percentile, low (10th to th percentile, and very low (th percentile precipitation. Results The overall monthly prevalence of AGI was 5.6% (95% CI 5.0%-6.1%, peaking in winter and spring, and in children 0-4 years old. Living in a territory with intensive farming was negatively associated with AGI: adjusted odds ratio (OR = 0.70 (95% CI 0.51-0.96. Compared to low precipitation periods, high precipitation periods in the fall (September, October, November increased the risk of AGI three weeks later (OR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.44 while very low precipitation periods in the summer (June, July, August increased the risk of AGI four weeks later (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.02-4.71. Further analysis supports the role of water source on the risk of AGI. Conclusions AGI poses a significant burden in Quebec rural municipalities with a peak in winter
Garnett, Victoria; Smith, Joanna; Ormandy, Paula
Aim To explore and describe child-parent shared decision making for the management of childhood asthma. Methods A qualitative, descriptive, interview-based study was undertaken. Eight children and nine parents participated. The framework approach underpinned data analysis. Findings A dynamic model of the way children and parents transfer, shift and share asthma management decisions was uncovered. Asthma management decisions between children and parents were non-linear, with responsibility transferring from parent to child under different conditions. Children made a range of decisions about their asthma, often sharing decisions with their parents. However, during acute illness episodes, children often relied on parents to make decisions about their asthma. Conclusion Neither the child nor parent has complete autonomy over asthma management decisions. Decision making is a dynamic, shifting and shared process, dependent on contextual factors and child and parent decision preferences.
Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P
A study of 280 parents with a child age 5-10 years examined the relation between and correlates of parental overprotection (less education, younger child age, being an only child) and parental perception of increased child vulnerability (history of life-threatening illness, child medical condition, first child). One-third of parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective.
Talwar, Milan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Parameswaran, Narayanan; Delhikumar, C G; Haridasan, Satish; Srinivas, Bheemanathi Hanuman
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency leading to acute intravascular haemolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI) is a known clinical presentation. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria in G6PD-deficient individuals, especially children. An 11-year-old south Indian Tamil girl presented with severe anaemia and anuric AKI following a short febrile illness. Investigations demonstrated evidence of intravascular haemolysis and rhabdomyolysis, and on histopathology myoglobin deposits (casts) were detected in the renal tubules. She was successfully managed with repeated sessions of haemodialysis and blood transfusions. Follow-up estimation of G6PD levels after 3 months confirmed severe G6PD deficiency (0.003 nkat/g haemoglobin). Although there are anecdotal reports of myoglobinuria in G6PD-deficient individuals, the occurrence of severe anuric AKI in this clinical setting has not been reported. It can be speculated that myoglobinuria (in addition to haemoglobinuria) can contribute towards jeopardising renal function in G6PD deficiency-related acute haemolytic crisis.
Meghan L. Marsac
Full Text Available Background: Millions of children worldwide are exposed to acute potentially traumatic events (PTEs annually. Many children and their families experience significant emotional distress and/or functional impairment following PTEs. While current research has begun to highlight a role for early appraisals and coping in promoting or preventing full recovery from PTEs, the exact nature of the relationships among appraisals, coping, and traumatic stress reactions as well as how appraisals and coping behaviors are influenced by the child's environment (e.g., parents remains unclear; assessment tools that reach beyond self-report are needed to improve this understanding. Objective: The objective of the current study is to describe the newly created Trauma Ambiguous Situations Tool (TAST; i.e., an observational child–parent interview and discussion task that allows assessment of appraisals, coping, and parent–child processes and to report on initial feasibility and validation of TAST implemented with child–parent dyads in which children were exposed to a PTE. Method: As part of a larger study on the role of biopsychosocial factors in posttraumatic stress reactions, children (aged 8–13 and parents (n=25 child–parent dyads completed the TAST during the child's hospitalization for injury. Results: Children and parents engaged well with the TAST. The time to administer the TAST was feasible, even in a peri-trauma context. The TAST solicited a wide array of appraisals (threat and neutral and coping solutions (proactive and avoidant. Forced-choice and open-ended appraisal assessments provided unique information. The parent–child discussion portion of the TAST allowed for direct observation of parent–child processes and demonstrated parental influence on children's appraisals and coping solutions. Conclusions: The TAST is a promising new research tool, which may help to explicate how parents influence their child's developing appraisals and coping
Thorup, Anne A E; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine
as a reference group. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for offspring diagnosed with a mental disorder by parental mental disorder were calculated. Results: Offspring of parents with SMI showed increased IRR for all diagnoses of child and adolescent mental disorders compared to the reference group. Offspring...... with bipolar disorder the IRR was 2.29 (CI: 2.09-2.50, N = 502), with a father 1.77 (CI: 1.74-1.87, N = 320), whereas the IRR was 2.96 (CI: 2.63-3.34, N = 264) if both parents had unipolar depression. Discussion: Offspring of parents with a SMI have a higher risk of being diagnosed with any child...
Korupolu, Radha; Ngo, Thien; Hack, Nawaz; Escott, Edward; Salles, Sara
A 5-year old female presented with acute tetraparesis and areflexia. Initial imaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were suggestive of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Minimal clinical response with intravenous steroids prompted further work up. Limited nerve conduction studies suggested possible acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy, a rare variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Repeat imaging was compatible with polyradiculopathy indicating concomitance of ADEM and GBS. The patient suffered severe motor deficits and neuropathic pain. Slow but significant functional recovery was noted after intensive inpatient rehabilitation followed by continued rehabilitation via home health services.
Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Dayan-Gazith, Efrat; Borosh, Tali; Golubchik, Pavel
This study compares the levels and predictors of paternal warmth and involvement of 69 fathers with serious mental illness (SMI) and 69 matched non-clinical (NC) fathers in Israel. Findings show that the NC fathers were more involved with their children, whereas the SMI fathers reported more warmth and perceived their children as less difficult. The interactions that were found in the regression analyses highlight the differences between the two groups. Among the SMI fathers, but not the NC fathers, higher paternal self-efficacy was associated with increased father involvement, and lower family support was associated with decreased warmth.
A prospective cohort study of 7031 distance runners shows that 1 in 13 report systemic symptoms of an acute illness in the 8-12 day period before a race, increasing their risk of not finishing the race 1.9 times for those runners who started the race: SAFER study IV.
Van Tonder, Anri; Schwellnus, Martin; Swanevelder, Sonja; Jordaan, Esme; Derman, Wayne; Janse van Rensburg, Dina C
Data on the prevalence of acute illness in the period prior to a distance running race are limited. Currently, the presence of systemic symptoms (failed 'neck check') is used to advise athletes on participation. To determine (1) the period prevalence of pre-race acute illness symptoms before a distance running event, (2) if symptomatic runners receiving educational material on acute illness did not start (DNS) the race and (3) if symptomatic runners who chose to start the race, did not finish (DNF) the race. 7031 runners completed an online pre-race acute illness questionnaire in the 3-5 day period prior to a race. Symptomatic runners received educational information on exercise and acute illness. Runners were followed prospectively to determine DNS and DNF risk. 1338 runners (19.0%) reporting symptoms (7.5% reporting systemic symptoms-failed 'neck check') and receiving educational information had a higher DNS frequency (11.0%) compared to controls (6.6%)(p=0.0002). Symptomatic runners who started the race had a higher DNF frequency (2.1%) compared to controls (1.3%) (p=0.0346), particularly runners with systemic symptoms (2.4%; RR=1.90). In summary, 19% (1 in 5) runners reported pre-race acute illness symptoms, with 7.5% (1 in 13) reporting systemic symptoms. Although runner education reduced the percentage symptomatic race starters, the majority of them still chose to race, resulting in a two times higher risk of not finishing in those with systemic symptoms. Pre-race acute illness symptoms are common; an educational intervention affects an athlete's decision to compete yet most symptomatic runners still competed, and systemic symptoms negatively affect performance, with possible health implications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
In the case of urinary infection of children, a complete clinical and biological picture can be enough to retain the diagnosis of a high attack. However, this possibility is rare. In the contrary cases, a renal scintiscanning with the DMSA must be carried out with the acute phase, to confirm the diagnosis. For the children carrying acute pyelonephritis, a scintigraphic control is necessary to detect the cortical scars.
McCarthy, Logan; Pullen, Lisa M; Savage, Jennifer; Cayce, Jonathan
Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescents in the United States, with suicidal behavior peaking in adolescence. Suicidal and self-harming behavior is often chronic, with an estimated 15-30% of adolescents who attempt suicide having a second suicide attempt within a year. The focus of acute psychiatric hospitalization is on stabilization of these psychiatric symptoms resulting at times in premature discharge. Finding from studies based on high rehospitalization rates among adolescents admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital indicates that adolescents continue to experience crisis upon discharge from an acute psychiatric hospital, leading to the question of whether or not these adolescents are being discharged prematurely. A chart review was performed on 98 adolescent clients admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital to identify risk factors that may increase rehospitalization among adolescents admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital. Clients admitted to the hospital within a 12-month time frame were compared to clients who were not readmitted during that 12-month period. History of self-harming behavior and length of stay greater than 5 days were found to be risk factors for rehospitalization. Adolescent clients who are admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital with a history of self-harming behavior and extended length of stay need to be identified and individualized treatment plans implemented for preventing repeat hospitalizations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... times of illness (of a parent or a child) or stress (a move, for instance, or the birth of a new sibling). These kinds of behavior might include not doing chores, ... well-being of the child, the family members, and others. They may interfere ...
Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in
Pogorelić, Zenon; Katić, Josip; Gudelj, Karla; Mrklić, Ivana; Vilović, Katarina; Perko, Zdravko
Torsion of the omentum is twisting along its long axis and a rare cause of acute abdomen. Depending on associated conditions, it is classified as primary and secondary. It may mimic different pathologies presenting as acute abdomen, most common of them being acute appendicitis. Current choice for management of omental torsion is laparoscopic surgery. We present two cases of omental torsion of two boys who presented with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting and underwent emergency laparoscopy. Omental torsion is very rare, and its diagnosis is usually made only after surgery. At laparoscopy, omental torsion is suspected when the appendix is normal and the symptoms and findings of torsion are present. Laparoscopy is a safe and effective approach for the diagnosis and management of omental torsion, with the advantages of reduced postoperative pain and hospital stay. © The Author(s) 2015.
been first admitted with a psychiatric disorder after 31 December two years earlier was 6.9 (95% CI 3.6 to 13.0), whereas their male counterpart experienced a risk of 3.9 (2.7 to 5.6); p value gender difference = 0.39. Men who had lost their partner by suicide or other causes of death experienced......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe gender specific suicide rates associated with partner's psychiatric disorder, loss of a spouse, or child by suicide or other causes, being a parent, and marital status. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital...... status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 9011 people aged 25-60 years who committed suicide; 180 220 age-gender matched controls; 111 172 marital partners; 174 672 children. MAIN RESULTS: The suicide risk in women whose partner had...
Onset of efficacy with acute long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate treatment in markedly to severely ill patients with schizophrenia: post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background This post hoc analysis (trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00590577 assessed onset of efficacy and tolerability of acute treatment with once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP, a long-acting atypical antipsychotic initiated by day 1 and day 8 injections, in a markedly to severely ill schizophrenia population. Methods Subjects entering the 13-week, double-blind trial were randomized to PP (39, 156, or 234 mg [25, 100, and 150 mg eq of paliperidone, respectively] or placebo. This subgroup analysis included those with a baseline Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S score indicating marked to severe illness. PP subjects received a 234-mg day 1 injection (deltoid, followed by their assigned dose on day 8 and monthly thereafter (deltoid or gluteal. Thus, data for PP groups were pooled for days 4 and 8. Measures included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, CGI-S, Personal and Social Performance (PSP, and adverse events (AEs. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF methodologies, without multiplicity adjustments, were used to assess changes in continuous measures. Onset of efficacy was defined as the first time point a treatment group showed significant PANSS improvement (assessed days 4, 8, 22, 36, 64, and 92 versus placebo, which was maintained through end point. Results A total of 312 subjects met inclusion criterion for this subgroup analysis. After the day 1 injection, mean PANSS total scores improved significantly with PP (all received 234 mg versus placebo at day 4 (P = 0.012 and day 8 (P = 0.007. After the day 8 injection, a significant PANSS improvement persisted at all subsequent time points in the 234-mg group versus placebo (P P P P Conclusions In this markedly to severely ill population, acute treatment with 234 mg PP improved psychotic symptoms compared with placebo by day 4. After subsequent injections, observed improvements are suggestive of a dose
All doctors are haunted by the possibility that a patient they reassured yesterday will return seriously ill tomorrow. We examined changes in the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) the day after admission, factors that might influence these changes and the relationship of these changes to subsequent clinical outcome.
Carcillo, Joseph A; Dean, J Michael; Holubkov, Richard; Berger, John; Meert, Kathleen L; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J; Harrison, Rick; Burr, Jeri; Willson, Douglas F; Nicholson, Carol; Bell, Michael J; Berg, Robert A; Shanley, Thomas P; Heidemann, Sabrina M; Dalton, Heidi; Jenkins, Tammara L; Doctor, Allan; Webster, Angie
Nosocomial infection remains an important health problem in long stay (>3 days) pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. Admission risk factors related to the development of nosocomial infection in long stay immune competent patients in particular are not known. Post-hoc analysis of the previously published Critical Illness Stress induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) prevention trial database, to identify baseline risk factors for nosocomial infection. Because there was no difference between treatment arms of that study in nosocomial infection in the population without known baseline immunocompromise, both arms were combined and the cohort that developed nosocomial infection was compared with the cohort that did not. There were 254 long stay PICU patients without known baseline immunocompromise. Ninety (35%) developed nosocomial infection, and 164 (65%) did not. Admission characteristics associated with increased nosocomial infection risk were increased age, higher Pediatric Risk of Mortality version III score, the diagnoses of trauma or cardiac arrest and lymphopenia (P risk of developing nosocomial infection (P risk factors (P < 0.05); whereas trauma tended to be related to nosocomial infection development (P = 0.07). These data suggest that increasing age, cardiac arrest and lymphopenia predispose long stay PICU patients without known baseline immunocompromise to nosocomial infection. These findings may inform pre-hoc stratification randomization strategies for prospective studies designed to prevent nosocomial infection in this population.
Carcillo, Joseph A; Dean, J Michael; Holubkov, Richard; Berger, John; Meert, Kathleen L; Anand, KJS; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J; Harrison, Rick; Burr, Jeri; Willson, Douglas F.; Nicholson, Carol; Bell, Michael J.; Berg, Robert A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Heidemann, Sabrina M; Dalton, Heidi; Jenkins, Tammara L.; Doctor, Allan; Webster, Angie
Background Nosocomial infection remains an important health problem in long stay (> 3 days) pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. Admission risk factors related to the development of nosocomial infection in long stay immune competent patients in particular are not known. Methods Post-hoc analysis of the previously published Critical Illness Stress induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) prevention trial database, to identify baseline risk factors for nosocomial infection. Because there was no difference between treatment arms of that study in nosocomial infection in the population without known baseline immunocompromise, both arms were combined and the cohort that developed nosocomial infection was compared with the cohort that did not. Results There were 254 long stay PICU patients without known baseline immunocompromise. Ninety (35%) developed nosocomial infection, and 164 (65%) did not. Admission characteristics associated with increased nosocomial infection risk were increased age, higher PRISM III score, the diagnoses of trauma or cardiac arrest, and lymphopenia (p infection at admission was associated with reduced risk of developing nosocomial infection (p nosocomial infection development (p = 0.07). Conclusions These data suggest that increasing age, cardiac arrest, and lymphopenia predispose long stay PICU patients without known baseline immunocompromise to nosocomial infection. These findings may inform pre-hoc stratification randomization strategies for prospective studies designed to prevent nosocomial infection in this population. PMID:27753764
Mpalaris, V; Arsos, G; Iakovou, I; Dalpa, E; Karatzas, N
Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of acute osteomyelitis are of paramount importance in children because they can prevent irreversible bone damage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with its superior spatial resolution and lack of ionizing radiation is routinely preferred over bone scan for this purpose. Increased blood flow, hyperemia and focally increased tracer uptake shown by "three phase" bone scan are the typical scintigraphic findings of acute osteomyelitis. In addition, diffuse uptake along the shaft of long bones and focal "cold" lesions are two special features that may be highly suggestive of infective periostitis, soft tissue sepsis and subperiosteal abscess formation, due to the loose attachment of periosteum to bone during childhood. We present a case of complicated osteomyelitis in a child with inconclusive MRI correctly diagnosed on the basis of these special scintigraphic findings resulting in treatment change from double i.v. Vancomycin--Ceftriaxone scheme to surgical intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.
Beigelman, Avraham; Durrani, Sandy; Guilbert, Theresa W
Traditionally, preschool-aged children with an acute wheezing episode have been treated with oral corticosteroids (OCSs) based on the efficacy of OCSs in older children and adolescents. However, this practice has been recently challenged based on the results of recent studies. The argument supporting the use of OCSs underscores the observation that many children with recurrent preschool wheezing develop atopic disease in early life which predicts both an increased risk to develop asthma in later life and response to OCS therapy. Further, review of the literature demonstrates heterogeneity of study designs, OCS dosage, interventions, study medication adherence, and settings and overall lack of predefined preschool wheezing phenotypes. The heterogeneity of these studies does not allow a definitive recommendation discouraging OCS use. Advocates against the use of OCSs in this population argue that most of studies investigating the efficacy of OCSs in acute episodic wheeze in preschool-aged children have not demonstrated beneficial effects. Moreover, repeated OCS bursts may be associated with adverse effects. Finally, both sides can agree that there is a significant need to conduct efficacy trials evaluating OCS treatment in preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing targeted at phenotypes that would be expected to respond to OCSs. This article presents a summary of recent literature regarding the use of OCSs for acute episodic wheezing in preschool-aged children and a "pro" and "con" debate for such use. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leung, Alexander K C; Wong, Alex H C
Acute otitis media is a common childhood infection. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are very important. To review in depth the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, complications and particularly treatment of acute otitis media in children. A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "acute otitis media". Patents were searched using the key term "acute otitis media" from www.google.com/patents, http://espacenet.com, and www.freepatentsonline.com. Acute otitis media affects over 80% of children before their third birthday and 30 to 45% of these children have suffered two or more episodes. Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most frequently isolated middle-ear pathogens. The diagnosis is based on acute onset of symptoms such as otalgia and fever, middle ear inflammation such as erythema of the tympanic membrane, and middle ear effusion. The choice of treatment method depends on the age of the child, laterality, and the severity of the disease. Recent patents related to the management of acute otitis media are also retrieved and discussed. Antimicrobial treatment is recommended for all children less than two years of age, as well as in children ≥ two years of age who have a temperature ≥ 39oC; are toxic looking; have otalgia > 48 hours; have bilateral otitis media or otorrhea; have craniofacial abnormalities; are immunocompromised; or have uncertain access to follow-up. Amoxicillin is the drug of choice. Observation without antibiotic is an option in immunocompetent children ≥ two years of age who have an acute uncomplicated otitis media and non-severe illness if appropriate follow-up can be arranged. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tewary, Kishor Kumar; Khodaghalian, Bernadette; Narchi, Hassib
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis found in children. It usually affects the small vessels of the skin, joints, gastrointestinal tract and, more rarely, kidneys, brain, lungs and genitalia. Apart from classical presentation with purpuric rashes around buttocks and lower extremities, features such as arthralgia, abdominal pain, haematuria and proteinuria as well as scrotal swelling have been described in the literature. Penile involvement is rare and is not commonly described. We describe a child with HSP who developed penile involvement. We review the literature of all the cases reported in detail, in order to highlight useful clinical presentation, management and prognosis of this rare manifestation. PMID:25858918
Staser, Jonathan A. [Indiana University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Alam, Tariq [Medical College of Ohio, Department of Radiology, Toledo, OH (United States); Applegate, Kimberly [Indiana University Medical Center, Sections of Pediatric Radiology and Health Services Research, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States)
The incidence of pulmonary embolism in children is not clearly known, but is believed to be low. Risk factors for pulmonary thromboembolism include central venous catheter, malignancy, surgery, infection, trauma, and congenital hypercoagulable disorders. Children with sickle cell disease are prothrombotic and are at an increased risk of thromboembolism. The incidence of this event is unknown because these children are often not thoroughly imaged. We report here a case of a calcified pulmonary thromboembolism in a child with sickle cell disease and emphasize the use of multidetector CT in detection of pulmonary thromboembolism in children with sickle cell disease. (orig.)
Staser, Jonathan A.; Alam, Tariq; Applegate, Kimberly
The incidence of pulmonary embolism in children is not clearly known, but is believed to be low. Risk factors for pulmonary thromboembolism include central venous catheter, malignancy, surgery, infection, trauma, and congenital hypercoagulable disorders. Children with sickle cell disease are prothrombotic and are at an increased risk of thromboembolism. The incidence of this event is unknown because these children are often not thoroughly imaged. We report here a case of a calcified pulmonary thromboembolism in a child with sickle cell disease and emphasize the use of multidetector CT in detection of pulmonary thromboembolism in children with sickle cell disease. (orig.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP and critical illness myopathy (CIM are complications causing weakness of respiratory and limb muscles in critically ill patients. As an important differential diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, CIP and CIM should be diagnosed with caution, after a complete clinical and laboratory examination. Although not uncommon in ICU, CIP and CIM as severe complications of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PNL have not been documented in literature. Case presentation A 48-year-old Chinese woman was referred to our hospital, complaining of occasional pain in the right lower back for one month. Lithiasis was diagnosed by ultrasonographical and radiological examinations on the urinary system. PNL was indicated and performed. The patient developed CIP and CIM on the fourth day after PNL. Early recognition and treatment of the severe complications contributed to a satisfactory recovery of the patient. Conclusion This case expands our understanding of the complications of PNL and underscores the importance of differentiating CIP/CIM from GBS in case of such patients developing weakness after the treatment. Clinical characteristics and examination results should be carefully evaluated to make the diagnosis of CIP or CIM. Both anti-septic prophylaxis and control of hyperglycemia might be effective for the prevention of CIP or CIM; aggressive treatment on sepsis and multiple organ failure is considered to be the most effective measure to reduce the incidence of CIP/CIM.
Background Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and critical illness myopathy (CIM) are complications causing weakness of respiratory and limb muscles in critically ill patients. As an important differential diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), CIP and CIM should be diagnosed with caution, after a complete clinical and laboratory examination. Although not uncommon in ICU, CIP and CIM as severe complications of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PNL) have not been documented in literature. Case presentation A 48-year-old Chinese woman was referred to our hospital, complaining of occasional pain in the right lower back for one month. Lithiasis was diagnosed by ultrasonographical and radiological examinations on the urinary system. PNL was indicated and performed. The patient developed CIP and CIM on the fourth day after PNL. Early recognition and treatment of the severe complications contributed to a satisfactory recovery of the patient. Conclusion This case expands our understanding of the complications of PNL and underscores the importance of differentiating CIP/CIM from GBS in case of such patients developing weakness after the treatment. Clinical characteristics and examination results should be carefully evaluated to make the diagnosis of CIP or CIM. Both anti-septic prophylaxis and control of hyperglycemia might be effective for the prevention of CIP or CIM; aggressive treatment on sepsis and multiple organ failure is considered to be the most effective measure to reduce the incidence of CIP/CIM. PMID:23409743
Yegenaga, Itir; Kamis, Fatih; Baydemir, Canan; Erdem, Elizade; Celebi, Koray; Eren, Necmi; Baykara, Nur
Aims The prevention of acute kidney injury can be lifesaving for the intensive care unit patients. However, conventional methods are not sufficient for the prediction of the risk of future acute kidney injury. In this study, the promising biomarker, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, was compared with cystatin C as an indicator for the risk of future acute kidney injury. Methods One hundred and eighty-three adult patients without chronic kidney disease or renal replacement therapy were included in this study. The plasma and urine concentrations of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cystatin C were assessed on the second day after intensive care unit admission and were followed for seven days to monitor the development of acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury diagnosis was based on the risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage renal failure criteria. Results Thirty-four per cent of the patients had acute kidney injury; 17 patients who did not fulfil criteria at the beginning, developed acute kidney injury from days 3 to 7 after admission. The mean serum creatinine on admission did not significantly differ between this and control groups (0.72 ± 0.20 and 0.83 ± 0.21; P = 0.060); however, the serum and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentrations on the second day were significantly different (median: 75.69 [54.18-91.18] and 123.68 [90.89-166.31], P = 0.001; and median: 17.60 [8.56-34.04] and 61.37 [24.59-96.63], P = 0.001). Notably, the 48-h serum cystatin C concentration did not differ. Conclusion Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentrations in the urine and serum on the second day of intensive care unit admission could be used to predict the development of acute kidney injury in the following three to seven days in the intensive care unit; however, the cystatin C concentration did not have predictive value.
Dr. Steve Monroe, director of CDCâs Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, discusses diarrheal illness, its causes, and prevention. Created: 8/30/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 8/31/2011.
Elaine Buchhorn Cintra Damião
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetivou compreender como a família vivencia os períodos de dificuldades impostos pela doença crônica da criança. Utilizou-se como método de pesquisa a Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados e como referencial teórico o Interacionismo Simbólico. Foram entrevistadas famílias de crianças com doença crônica, fibrose cística do pâncreas e diabetes, possibilitando desvelar o processo vivenciado e o significado atribuído pela família a sua experiência. Os dados foram analisados até a fase de categorização dos significados, tendo emergido o fenômeno: "Sendo Difícil Não Ter Controle".This research has focused on the family meaning of having a child with chronic illness. The Grounded Theory and the Symbolic Interactionism were employed as research method and theoretical approach respectively. The interviews involved families with children diagnosed as having a chronic disease, cystic fibrosis and diabetes, aiming to study the way the family copes with this situation, and the meaning giving by the family to this experience. Data were analyzed until the phase of categorizing and the phenomenon disclosed was: "Being hard not to have control".
Jeong, Hee Rok; Namkyung Sook; Kim, Heung Cheol; Hong, Myung Sun [Dept. of Radiology, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)
Spontaneous perforation of common bile duct (CBD) is extremely rare in children, but potentially a fatal disorder that requires an emergency laparotomy. Most of the patients present with insidious symptoms including slowly progressive abdominal distension with accumulation of the ascites, fluctuating mild jaundice, and clay-colored stools. We report a case of surgically confirmed spontaneous perforation of the CBD in a 3-year-old girl who presented with acute abdominal distension with no biliary symptoms or signs, and who showed imaging findings consistent with anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union with a focal stenosis in the CBD.
Jeong, Hee Rok; Namkyung Sook; Kim, Heung Cheol; Hong, Myung Sun
Spontaneous perforation of common bile duct (CBD) is extremely rare in children, but potentially a fatal disorder that requires an emergency laparotomy. Most of the patients present with insidious symptoms including slowly progressive abdominal distension with accumulation of the ascites, fluctuating mild jaundice, and clay-colored stools. We report a case of surgically confirmed spontaneous perforation of the CBD in a 3-year-old girl who presented with acute abdominal distension with no biliary symptoms or signs, and who showed imaging findings consistent with anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union with a focal stenosis in the CBD.
Brown, Janie; Gardner, Jennifer
The role of the pastoral practitioner is embedded in many health care services and organizations. Despite this, there is little evidence to describe the impact of this role on patient outcomes, in particular how visits by a pastoral practitioner influence patient healing and recovery. This paper describes a small study that explored the patient experience of pastoral practitioner visits in an acute care facility.
The Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY): a diagnostic prospective observational study to derive and validate a clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in children presenting to primary care with an acute illness.
Hay, Alastair D; Birnie, Kate; Busby, John; Delaney, Brendan; Downing, Harriet; Dudley, Jan; Durbaba, Stevo; Fletcher, Margaret; Harman, Kim; Hollingworth, William; Hood, Kerenza; Howe, Robin; Lawton, Michael; Lisles, Catherine; Little, Paul; MacGowan, Alasdair; O'Brien, Kathryn; Pickles, Timothy; Rumsby, Kate; Sterne, Jonathan Ac; Thomas-Jones, Emma; van der Voort, Judith; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Whiting, Penny; Wootton, Mandy; Butler, Christopher C
BACKGROUND It is not clear which young children presenting acutely unwell to primary care should be investigated for urinary tract infection (UTI) and whether or not dipstick testing should be used to inform antibiotic treatment. OBJECTIVES To develop algorithms to accurately identify pre-school children in whom urine should be obtained; assess whether or not dipstick urinalysis provides additional diagnostic information; and model algorithm cost-effectiveness. DESIGN Multicentre, prospective diagnostic cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Children < 5 years old presenting to primary care with an acute illness and/or new urinary symptoms. METHODS One hundred and seven clinical characteristics (index tests) were recorded from the child's past medical history, symptoms, physical examination signs and urine dipstick test. Prior to dipstick results clinician opinion of UTI likelihood ('clinical diagnosis') and urine sampling and treatment intentions ('clinical judgement') were recorded. All index tests were measured blind to the reference standard, defined as a pure or predominant uropathogen cultured at ≥ 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml in a single research laboratory. Urine was collected by clean catch (preferred) or nappy pad. Index tests were sequentially evaluated in two groups, stratified by urine collection method: parent-reported symptoms with clinician-reported signs, and urine dipstick results. Diagnostic accuracy was quantified using area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and bootstrap-validated AUROC, and compared with the 'clinician diagnosis' AUROC. Decision-analytic models were used to identify optimal urine sampling strategy compared with 'clinical judgement'. RESULTS A total of 7163 children were recruited, of whom 50% were female and 49% were < 2 years old. Culture results were available for 5017 (70%); 2740 children provided clean-catch samples, 94% of whom were ≥ 2 years old
Chan, Jeffrey C Y
Differences in illness perception about hand injury may partly explain the variation in health behaviours such as adherence to post-operative therapy, coping strategy, emotional response and eventual clinical outcome. This study examined the illness perception of patients with hand injuries in the acute trauma setting.
Tewary, Kishor Kumar; Khodaghalian, Bernadette; Narchi, Hassib
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis found in children. It usually affects the small vessels of the skin, joints, gastrointestinal tract and, more rarely, kidneys, brain, lungs and genitalia. Apart from classical presentation with purpuric rashes around buttocks and lower extremities, features such as arthralgia, abdominal pain, haematuria and proteinuria as well as scrotal swelling have been described in the literature. Penile involvement is rare and is not commonly described. We describe a child with HSP who developed penile involvement. We review the literature of all the cases reported in detail, in order to highlight useful clinical presentation, management and prognosis of this rare manifestation. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Elenice Ferreira Bastos
Full Text Available The prognostic significance of the additional abnormalities to the t(15; 17 remains controversial. We report a case of promyelocytic leukemia (APL in a ten-year-old boy. Classical and molecular cytogenetic (FISH studies of a bone marrow sample obtained at diagnosis revealed the presence of trisomy of chromosome 11 as an additional chromosomal abnormality to the t(15; 17. The presence of the translocation t(15; 17, the cytogenetic marker of APL, is usually associated with good response to treatment with ATRA. In this case, although the patient had risk factors associated with good prognosis, he evolved and died quickly. So it seems that the presence of the trisomy 11 may be associated with disease progression and the poor outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of t(15; 17 associated with trisomy of chromosome 11 in a child with APL.
... Family history of ear infections Not being breastfed Pacifier use Recent ear infection Recent illness of any ... lead to fewer ear infections. DO NOT use pacifiers. Breastfeed -- this makes a child much less prone ...
Zhang, Yong; Wang, Haiyan; Zhu, Shuangli; Li, Yan; Song, Lizhi; Liu, Yao; Liu, Guifang; Nishimura, Yorihiro; Chen, Li; Yan, Dongmei; Wang, Dongyan; An, Hongqiu; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Xu, Aiqiang; Xu, Wenbo
A type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) (strain CHN1025), with a 1.1 % (10/903) difference from Sabin strain in the VP1 coding region, was isolated from a child with poliomyelitis caused by a poliovirus variant infection. The patient was from Shandong Province of China and developed acute flaccid paralysis in 1997. The child was infected with a rare and complicated penta-recombinant poliovirus with the uncommon genomic recombinant organization S2/S3/S1/S3/S1/S3. At least five successive rounds of recombination occurred in the VP1 capsid coding region and in the 2C, 3C (twice) and 3D(pol) non-capsid coding regions, respectively, during virus evolution. Strain CHN1025 had most of the characteristics of the type 2 vaccine strain; it had Sabin-specific epitopes, suggesting that the virus was antigenically indistinguishable from the Sabin 2 reference strain. Typical mutations in the 5'-untranslated region and VP1 associated with reversion to neurovirulence for Sabin 2 poliovirus were found, and the virus showed moderate neurovirulence in transgenic mice. A few nucleotide substitutions were located in the donor sequences, and two donor sequences contained no nucleotide substitutions, suggesting that these sequences were relatively new. The appearance of these mutations within approximately 192 days of at least five successive rounds of recombination events derived from a single ancestral infection illustrates the rapid emergence of new recombinants among VDPVs. This is the first report on the isolation of a type 2/type 3 poliovirus capsid recombinant with one of the five crossover sites located in the VP1 coding region.
Thakkar, Umang G; Vanikar, Aruna V; Trivedi, Hargovind L
Anaphylactoid purpura, also known as Henoch-Schönleinpurpura (HSP), is an IgA-mediated vasculitis that tends to be a benign disease of childhood. Up to 50% of cases are preceded by an upper tract respiratory infection caused by group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcus and present with the common tetrad of abdominal pain, arthritis, purpuric rash, and renal involvement. The majority of patients recover completely. Here we document a rare case of anaphylactoid purpura which manifested with skin lesions in the form of palpable purpura following about of acute gastroenteritis with severe dehydration; it was treated with a short regimen of steroid therapy, which resulted in the complete remission of the disease. We conclude that prompt diagnosis and multidisciplinary intervention will lead to appropriate management-consisting of the installation of early short-course steroid therapy and thus, prevent further complications and the recurrence of the disease.
Matos, R R C; Mkrtchyan, H; Amaral, B A S; Liehr, T; de Souza, M T; Ney-Garcia, D R; Santos, N; Marques-Salles, T J; Ribeiro, R C; Figueiredo, A F; Silva, M L M
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is usually associated with a favorable outcome, but about 10% of patients tend to relapse. The genetic hallmark of APL is a balanced translocation involving chromosomes 15 and 17, and the PML-RARa gene fusion is found in more than 90% of these cases. Other chromosomal abnormalities are commonly found in APL, but their clinical significance has yet to be determined. Here we report a case of childhood APL that was studied by conventional cytogenetics along with molecular cytogenetic techniques. The patient showed a complex karyotype with an unusual cytogenetic rearrangement originating from two different abnormalities in a single chromosome 6. Our case is an exceptional example of a cryptic cytogenetic anomaly in APL and underscores the importance of detailed genetic characterization. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Crowley, Ruth A; Dumas, Helene M; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Dougherty, Donald N; Hull, Ellen M; Hughes, Mary Laurette; Hsaio, Eric
VerbalCare is a mobile software platform for hospital patients and nursing staff to communicate in real-time. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify and evaluate icons for the VerbalCare tablet application and (2) examine use and satisfaction with this tablet application in a paediatric post-acute hospital. Hospital nursing staff were surveyed to identify the most common reasons children use the "nursing call bell". Icons for the VerbalCare tablet application were developed to match the identified call bell requests and be understood by children. Through structured interview, three children provided feedback on the icons. Following staff training, the system was implemented for five patients (8-18 years). Data on frequency of use, types and timing of requests were collected via the internal software. Satisfaction surveys were completed at discharge. The VerbalCare application was used most frequently to communicate the need to use the bathroom (24%) and the need to get something (21%). Request frequency was consistent across morning, afternoon and evening and the tablet was used 40% of available days. These results indicate that children in a paediatric post-acute care hospital were able to use a tablet application for communicating with their nurse and reported satisfaction with the experience. Implications for Rehabilitation The VerbalCare tablet application was developed to allow patients to convey specific messages to nursing staff who are not in the patient's room. Children of varying ages were able to use the VerbalCare tablet application to communicate varying messages to hospital nursing staff and were satisfied with its use.
Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling
Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....
Onset of efficacy with acute long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate treatment in markedly to severely ill patients with schizophrenia: post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial
Background This post hoc analysis (trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00590577) assessed onset of efficacy and tolerability of acute treatment with once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP), a long-acting atypical antipsychotic initiated by day 1 and day 8 injections, in a markedly to severely ill schizophrenia population. Methods Subjects entering the 13-week, double-blind trial were randomized to PP (39, 156, or 234 mg [25, 100, and 150 mg eq of paliperidone, respectively]) or placebo. This subgroup analysis included those with a baseline Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) score indicating marked to severe illness. PP subjects received a 234-mg day 1 injection (deltoid), followed by their assigned dose on day 8 and monthly thereafter (deltoid or gluteal). Thus, data for PP groups were pooled for days 4 and 8. Measures included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), CGI-S, Personal and Social Performance (PSP), and adverse events (AEs). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF) methodologies, without multiplicity adjustments, were used to assess changes in continuous measures. Onset of efficacy was defined as the first time point a treatment group showed significant PANSS improvement (assessed days 4, 8, 22, 36, 64, and 92) versus placebo, which was maintained through end point. Results A total of 312 subjects met inclusion criterion for this subgroup analysis. After the day 1 injection, mean PANSS total scores improved significantly with PP (all received 234 mg) versus placebo at day 4 (P = 0.012) and day 8 (P = 0.007). After the day 8 injection, a significant PANSS improvement persisted at all subsequent time points in the 234-mg group versus placebo (P < 0.05). PANSS improvements were greater from day 36 through end point in the 156-mg group (P < 0.05) and only at end point in the 39-mg group (P < 0.05). CGI-S and PSP scores improved significantly in the 234-mg and 156-mg PP groups versus placebo at end
Giovanni Maria Poggi
Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood. Its presenting signs and symptoms may be highly variable, depending on the location of the primary tumor and its local or metastatic diffusion and, rarely, with paraneoplastic syndrome such as opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome and gastrointestinal disturbances, due to autoantibodies or to aberrant secretion of vasoactive intestinal peptide. Herein we describe a 10-month-old child with neuroblastoma presenting with a complex clinical picture characterized by acute kidney injury manifested by renal insufficiency and signs and symptoms of tubulointerstitial damage, with polyuria, polydipsia, glucosuria, aminoaciduria and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, and of glomerular damage with heavy proteinuria. Imaging study documented a suprarenal mass enveloping the aorta and its abdominal and renal ramifications and bilaterally renal veins. This clinical picture shows some analogies with the hyponatremic-hypertensive syndrome concerning the renovascular disease; however, in absence of systemic arterial hypertension, the heavy proteinuria and the polyuria could be explained by sectional increased intraglomerular pressure, due to local renal blood vessels constriction. Hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis probably developed because of local production of renin, responsible of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, but above all because of chloride loss through sweating. The long lasting dehydration, due to vomiting, sweating and polyuria, caused prolonged prerenal failure evolving in proximal tubular damage manifestations.
Incidence and outcome of contrast-associated acute kidney injury assessed with Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria in critically ill patients of medical and surgical intensive care units: a retrospective study.