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Sample records for acute whole-body irradiation

  1. Acute effects of whole body gamma irradiation on exocrine pancreatic secretion in the pig; Effets aigus d'une irradiation corps entier sur la secretion pancreatique exocrine chez le porc

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    Monti, P.; Scanff, P.; Joubert, C.; Vergnet, M.; Grison, S.; Griffiths, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DPRH/SRBE, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2004-06-01

    Reports on radiation damage to the pancreas deal essentially with long-term morphological changes with few data on pancreatic exocrine function. The aim of this work was to study the acute effects of whole body irradiation on volume and enzyme activities in the pancreatic juice. A whole body gamma irradiation (6 Gy) was investigated in pigs with continuous sampling of pancreatic juice before and after exposure via an indwelling catheter in the pancreatic duct. For each sample collected, total protein concentration and enzyme activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, lipase and amylase were determined. Pancreatic juice volume was monitored during all periods of collection. The volume of pancreatic juice secreted daily decreased one day after irradiation and remained lower than the control values over the experimental period. Total proteins secreted in the pancreatic juice and total activities of pancreatic enzymes were reduced similarly. On the other hand, only specific activities of elastase and lipase were affected by irradiation. Whole body gamma irradiation resulted in a rapid and marked decrease of exocrine pancreatic secretion, in terms of volume as well as secreted enzymes. This may contribute in part to the intestinal manifestations of the acute and/or late radiation syndrome. (author)

  2. Whole-body. gamma. -irradiation in the treatment of hemoblastoses in man

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    Shishkova, T.V.; Danilova, N.B.; Khrushchev, V.G.; Grammatikati, V.S.

    1982-11-01

    An analysis of foreign literature on treatment acute leukoses with irradiation and transplantation of allogenic bone marrow is given. It is shown that whole-body irradiation used to increase treatment efficiency of man hemoblastosis are widely applied nowadays abroad. Bone marrow transplantation including compulsory whole-body irradiation with 10 Gy is the only practicable attempt to eradicate leukosis. Whole-body irradiation unlike chemotherapy provides more durable survival rate without recurrence; it doesn't require hospitalization and continuity of treatment following the general course; it doesn't produce toxic complications.

  3. Development of a new method of whole body irradiation

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    Kishi, Kazushi (Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1989-08-01

    A new method of whole body irradiation was developed using a linear accelerator linked to microprocessor. By this modified arc technique, a total body photon irradiation and a total skin electron irradiation were practical for narrow room. Approximative calculations were deviced for dose distribution. Dosimetric results were consistent with those previosly calculated. Local doses in lungs, neck and other areas were easily adjustable with arrangements of pre-set dose rate. In total skin electron irradation, six predeterminated postures and 'make up' irradiation were necessary to dose homogeneity over 'shady area' such as axillae. Clinically, a large arteriovenous malformation in an arm decreased with normalization of plethysmogram after treatment, and remarkable reductions of mycosis fungoides tumor were observed. This new method of total skin electron irradiation and total body photon therapy will clinically expand with the progress of bone marrow transplantation. (author).

  4. Eight years of whole body irradiation at Verone: clinical and physical experience in 115 patients (june 2000-december 2008); Huit ans d'irradiation corporelle totale a verone: experience clinique et physique chez 115 patients (juin 2000-decembre 2008)

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    Palazzi, M.; Benedetti, F.; Romano, M.; Maluta, S.; Compri, C.; Giri, M.G.; Meliado, G. [Azienda Ospedaliera, Verona (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The multi fractionated whole-body irradiation has today replaced the technique of whole-body irradiation in single dose, that was at the origin of acute and delayed effects, especially pneumonia and cataract. The results and the tolerance of our whole-body irradiation pattern are similar to these ones mentioned in the national register of allogeneic marrow transplants. (N.C.)

  5. Whole body irradiation by high energy electron for mycosis fungoides

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    Koga, Kenji; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Wakuta, Yuhji; Asada, Keiko; Murai, Nobuko; Watanabe, Katsushi; Takada, Takuo

    1985-02-01

    Five patients with mycosis fungoides were treated with whole body irradiation by high energy electron. They were irradiated by a linear accelerator (ML-15MIII, Mitsubishi Company) with the electron of 8 MeV, using the acrylics decelerator at the window to reduce the electron energy. Source skin distance was 150 cm and three beams with a separation of 60 cm were used. The dose distribution at the skin surface was within homogeneity of +-7.5%. The 2 patients have been alive without evidence of disease for 2 years, and 1 year and half after the treatment, respectively. Three patients were dead; two of the dead were associated with pancytopenia, one irradiated 6 times for 2 years and 4 months and the other 3 times for 2 years. The remaining one patient developed the brain metastasis without skin lesions 6 months later. Our results suggest that mycosis fungoides is curable in infiltrative stage, but not in tumorous stage. Some discussion on the problem of this treatment technique and haematological changes caused by the contaminated X-ray as well as high energy electron were made, reviewing the pertinent literatures on the device to reduce the contaminated X-ray. (author).

  6. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

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    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  7. Fluid and sodium loss in whole-body-irradiated rats

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    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Whole-body and organ fluid compartment sizes and plasma sodium concentrations were measured in conventional, GI decontaminated, bile duct ligated, and choledochostomized rats at different times after various doses of gamma radiation. In addition, sodium excretion was measured in rats receiving lethal intestinal radiation injury. After doses which were sublethal for 3-5 day intestinal death, transient decreases occurred in all the fluid compartments measured (i.e., total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume). No recovery of these fluid compartments was observed in rats destined to die from intestinal radiation injury. The magnitude of the decreases in fluid compartment sizes was dose dependent and correlated temporally with the breakdown and recovery of the intestinal mucosa but was independent of the presence or absence of enteric bacteria or bile acids. Associated with the loss of fluid was an excess excretion of 0.83 meq of sodium between 48 and 84 h postirradiation. This represents approximately 60% of the sodium lost from the extracellular fluid space in these animals during this time. The remaining extracellular sodium loss was due to redistribution of sodium to other spaces. It is concluded that radiation-induced breakdown of the intestinal mucosa results in lethal losses of fluid and sodium as evidenced by significant decreases in total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume, and plasma sodium concentration, with hemoconcentration. These changes are sufficient to reduce tissue perfusion leading to irreversible hypovolemic shock and death.

  8. Employment of whole-body. gamma. -irradiation in chronic lymphoid leukemia and malignant lymphomas

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    Danilova, N.B.; Baranov, A.E.; Khrushchev, V.G.; Grammatikati, V.S.; Murav' eva, L.I.; Strashnenko, E.S.

    1982-11-01

    There are presented data showing that whole-body therapeutic ..gamma..-irradiation is an effective method of treatment of chronic lymphoid leukosis and lymphomas. Rapid lymphopenic effect, satisfactory diminution of lymph nodes and spleen sizes testify to the effect. The necessity of further investigation of the treatment method is underlined. It is of interest to trace the fate of lymphocyte subpopulations in the course and after treatment. The urgency of working out a most rational scheme for whole-body therapeutic irradiation and for investigating indications for local irradiation of various groups of lymphatic nodes is indicated.

  9. Effect of bifidobacteria implantation on the survival time of whole-body irradiated mice

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    Yokokura, T.; Onoue, M.; Mutai, M. (Yakult Institute for Microbiological Research)

    1980-01-01

    Letahl dose (2 KR) of gamma-ray was irradiated on the whole bodies of mice. Survival time after irradiation was significantly longer in mice with administration of both Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4008 and transgalactosyl oligosaccharide than in mice with administration of either of the two or nothing.

  10. Acid base balance in the rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation

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    Bassant, M.H.; Touchard, F.; Court, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee)

    1981-07-06

    2 hrs. after whole-body gamma irradiation (doses of 1.5 and 4.5 Gy) a metabolic acidosis developed in curarised rabbits placed under artificial respiration in order to eliminate radiation-induced respiratory effect. The metabolic acidosis was evaluated by measurement of the negative base excess. The results were compared to others obtained under different experimental procedures.

  11. Caffeine protects mice against whole-body lethal dose of {gamma}-irradiation

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    George, K.C.; Hebbar, S.A.; Kale, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C. [Biosciences Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    1999-06-01

    Administration of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a major component of coffee, to Swiss mice at doses of 80 or 100 mg/kg body weight 60 min prior to whole-body lethal dose of {gamma}-irradiation (7.5 Gy) resulted in the survival of 70 and 63% of animals, respectively, at the above doses in contrast to absolutely no survivors (LD-100/25 days) in the group exposed to radiation alone. Pre-treatment with a lower concentration of caffeine (50 mg/kg) did not confer any radioprotection. The protection exerted by caffeine (80 mg/kg), however, was reduced from 70 to 50% if administered 30 min prior to irradiation. The trend statistics reveal that a dose of 80 mg/kg administered 60 min before whole-body exposure to 7.5 Gy is optimal for maximal radioprotection. However, caffeine (80 mg/kg) administered within 3 min after irradiation offered no protection. While there is documentation in the literature that caffeine is an antioxidant and radioprotector against the toxic pathway of radiation damage in a wide range of cells and organisms, this is the first report demonstrating unequivocally its potent radioprotective action in terms of survival of lethally whole-body irradiated mice. (author)

  12. Whole body surface electron irradiation in the treatment of mycosis fungoides

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    Lo, T.C.M.; Salzman, F.A.; Moschella, S.L.; Tolman, E.L.; Wright, K.A.

    1979-02-01

    The records of 200 patients with generalized cutaneous mycosis fungoides treated with whole body surface electron irradiation were reviewed. Type of skin lesion appeared to be the most important factor with respect to both survival and generalized skin disease-free interval. High-dose irradiation did not seem to influence prognosis significantly compared with a relatively conservative dose. The cure rate for the entire group was 7%. For a more homogeneous dose distribution, the eight-field technique is now used instead of the original four-field method. A new formula is proposed to standardize the reporting of doses.

  13. Whole Body Microwave Irradiation for Improved Dacarbazine Therapeutical Action in Cutaneous Melanoma Mouse Model

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    Monica Neagu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cutaneous melanoma mouse model was used to test the efficacy of a new therapeutical approach that uses low doses of cytostatics in conjunction with mild whole body microwave exposure of 2.45 GHz in order to enhance cytostatics antitumoral effect. Materials and Methods. A microwave exposure system for C57BL/6 mouse whole body microwave irradiation was designed; groups of 40 mice (males and females bearing experimental tumours were subjected to a combined therapy comprising low doses of dacarbazine in combination with mild whole body irradiation. Clinical parameters and serum cytokine testing using xMAP technology were performed. Results. The group that was subjected to combined therapy, microwave and cytostatic, had the best clinical evolution in terms of overall survival, tumour volume, and metastatic potential. At day 14 the untreated group had 100% mortality, while in the combined therapy group 40% of mice were surviving. Quantifying serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and KC during tumorigenesis and therapy found that the combined experimental therapy decreases all the inflammatory cytokines, except chemokine MCP-1 that was found increased, suggesting an increase of the anti-tumoral immune response triggered by the combined therapy. The overall metastatic process is decreased in the combined therapy group.

  14. Effect of acute whole-body neutron gamma irradiation on the dopamine neuronal uptake-sites; Effets d`une irradiation globale aigue a preponderance neutron sur le transporteur de capture neuronale de la dopamine

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    Martin, C.; Mahfoudi, H.; Lambert, F.; Burckhart, M.F.; Fatome, M. [Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-12-31

    The effects of (neutron-gamma) irradiation on the dopamine uptake sites distribution were investigated, using quantitative autoradiography. Brain ares examined are striatum, lateral septum, substantia nigra, gyrus dentatus, ventral tegmental area, interfascicular nu and antero-ventral thalamic nu. Three hours after exposure at the dose of 4 Gy, a decrease (- 33 %) of dopamine uptake sites was observed in the gyrus dentatus. (authors)

  15. C-fos protein expression in central nervous system. Effects of acute whole-body irradiation; Expression de la proteine C-fos du systeme nerveux central. Effets de l`irradiation globale aigue

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    Martin, C.; Chollat, S.; Mahfoudi, H.; Lambert, F.; Baille Le Crom, V.; Fatome, M.

    1995-12-31

    Study of c-Fos protein expression in the rat striatum after gamma or (neutron-gamma) irradiation was carried on. c-Fos protein is expressed one hour after gamma exposure at the dose of 15 Gy but specificity of the response must be verified. (author). 7 refs.

  16. Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued, fear following post-training whole body irradiation

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    Reid HJ Olsen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.. To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear-conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation 24 hours later. Animals were given two weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22 days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall.

  17. Impairment in extinction of contextual and cued fear following post-training whole-body irradiation.

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    Olsen, Reid H J; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24 h later. Animals were given 2 weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall.

  18. Effect of ultra-low dose whole-body-irradiation on patients with severe myasthenia gravis

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    Arimori, Shigeru; Koriyama, Kenji (Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    An ultra-low dose whole body irradiation therapy was given to 5 patients with intractable bulbar syndrome, in a dose of 10 rad/fraction, 2 times a week for 5 weeks, with a total of 100 rad; and effects of this therapy on their clinical symptoms and immunological ability were discussed. In 3 of them, bulbar syndrome was improved, and the other one, the first irradiation was effective. The peripheral leukocyte count and lymphocyte count became lowest immediately after completion of the irradiation, and returned to the normal level within 1 to 2 months. The function of T-cells, especially suppressive T-cells, was recovered; and decrease in B-cells, resulted in a decrease in the AChR antibody titer.

  19. Feasibility of intrafraction whole-body motion tracking for total marrow irradiation

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    Sharma, Manju; Santos, Troy Dos; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos P.; Hui, Susanta Kumar

    2011-05-01

    With image-guided tomotherapy, highly targeted total marrow irradiation (TMI) has become a feasible alternative to conventional total body irradiation. The uncertainties in patient localization and intrafraction motion of the whole body during hour-long TMI treatment may pose a risk to the safety and accuracy of targeted radiation treatment. The feasibility of near-infrared markers and optical tracking system (OTS) is accessed along with a megavoltage scanning system of tomotherapy. Three near-infrared markers placed on the face of a rando phantom are used to evaluate the capability of OTS in measuring changes in the markers' positions as the rando is moved in the translational direction. The OTS is also employed to determine breathing motion related changes in the position of 16 markers placed on the chest surface of human volunteers. The maximum uncertainty in locating marker position with the OTS is 1.5 mm. In the case of normal and deep breathing motion, the maximum marker position change is observed in anterior-posterior direction with the respective values of 4 and 12 mm. The OTS is able to measure surface changes due to breathing motion. The OTS may be optimized to monitor whole body motion during TMI to increase the accuracy of treatment delivery and reduce the radiation dose to the lungs.

  20. 2nd Tuebingen radiotherapy symposium: Whole body, large field and whole skin irradiation. Introduction

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    Huebener, K.H.; Frommhold, W.

    1987-04-01

    The symposium which took place on the 11th and 12th April 1986 set itself the task of discussing three different groups of radiotherapy topics. The chief issue was whole-body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplants, in which all the therapy centres in West Germany, Austria, East Germany and German-speaking Switzerland made clinical and radiophysical contributions. The second part of the Symposium consisted mainly of talks and discussions on large-field irradiation, more precisely half-body and sequential partial body irradiation. This topic was chosen because this type of therapy is scarcely practised at all, particularly in West Germany, whereas in the United States, East Germany, Switzerland and a number of other countries it has long since become one of the established methods. The last talk at the Symposium explained clinical and radiophysical aspects of whole-skin irradiation. Here too, one was impressed by the wide diversity of the equipment and methods of irradiation used which, nevertheless, all demonstrated satisfactory practical solutions in their common aim of distributing the dose as homogeneously as possible.

  1. Protective value of piroxicam on the enhanced inflammatory response after whole body irradiation

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    el-Ghazaly, M.; Saleh, S.; Kenawy, S.; Roushdy, H.M.; Khayyal, M.T.

    1986-06-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of piroxicam was assessed after whole body irradiation in rats. Two models of inflammation, the carrageenan-induced edema and the adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats have been utilised. Piroxicam at doses of 1, 5 and 10 mg kg-1 i.p. was effective in inhibiting the paw edema produced in both models of inflammation. The inflammatory response in irradiated was significantly higher than that produced in normal animals and was dependent on the radiation dose level used (0.5-2 Gy). The effect of piroxicam on the late inflammatory response produced by exposure to 2 Gy was studied by measuring the carrageenan-induced edema 4 h after irradiation and on the third and seventh day thereafter. The increase in paw volume was significantly suppressed in animals receiving the drug. Administration of piroxicam (5 mg kg-1) one hour before irradiation of animals at 0.5 Gy, produced inhibition to the exaggerated inflammatory response in irradiated animals. This suggests that piroxicam possibly owes its protective value to prevention of the increase in cellular permeability induced by radiation. Alternatively, the drug may exert this effect by inhibiting PG synthesis, thereby reducing their potentiating influence on the other mediators of inflammation. Furthermore, the inhibition of lysosomal enzyme release possibly induced by the drug may contribute to the probable reduction in the release of inflammatory mediators.

  2. Whole-body proton irradiation causes long-term damage to hematopoietic stem cells in mice.

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    Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Luo, Yi; Allen, Antiño R; Koturbash, Igor; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2015-02-01

    Space flight poses certain health risks to astronauts, including exposure to space radiation, with protons accounting for more than 80% of deep-space radiation. Proton radiation is also now being used with increasing frequency in the clinical setting to treat cancer. For these reasons, there is an urgent need to better understand the biological effects of proton radiation on the body. Such improved understanding could also lead to more accurate assessment of the potential health risks of proton radiation, as well as the development of improved strategies to prevent and mitigate its adverse effects. Previous studies have shown that exposure to low doses of protons is detrimental to mature leukocyte populations in peripheral blood, however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Some of these detriments may be attributable to damage to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that have the ability to self-renew, proliferate and differentiate into different lineages of blood cells through hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). The goal of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of low-dose proton irradiation on HSCs. We exposed C57BL/6J mice to 1.0 Gy whole-body proton irradiation (150 MeV) and then studied the effects of proton radiation on HSCs and HPCs in the bone marrow (BM) 22 weeks after the exposure. The results showed that mice exposed to 1.0 Gy whole-body proton irradiation had a significant and persistent reduction of BM HSCs compared to unirradiated controls. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in BM HPCs after proton irradiation. Furthermore, irradiated HSCs and their progeny exhibited a significant impairment in clonogenic function, as revealed by the cobblestone area-forming cell (CAFC) and colony-forming cell assays, respectively. These long-term effects of proton irradiation on HSCs may be attributable to the induction of chronic oxidative stress in HSCs, because HSCs from irradiated mice exhibited a significant increase in NADPH

  3. Acute effect of whole-body vibration combined with stretching on bridge performance in artistic gymnasts

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    DALLAS GEORGE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of Whole-Body Vibration combined with stretching (WBVS on flexibility of shoulder’s joint in relation to bridge performance. Twelve artistic gymnasts that where dropped out from their competition duties (23,00 ± 2,29 years, 56,91 ± 6,23 kg, 164,08 ± 4,83 cm composed the WBVS, and 12 female students of Department of Physical Education composed the control group (non vibration-stretching group: NVS (20,33 ± 0,78, 58,91 ± 5,18 kg, 165,50 ±4,01 cm. Both groups performed an 1-minute intervention program on a Whole Body Vibration platform that was turn on for WBVS, whereas NVG performed the same intervention program with the device was turn off. The total sample was assessed on bridge performance. Vibration (30Hz, 2mm displacement was applied to two sites, four times for 10 seconds, with 10 sec of rest between times and one minute rest between sites. According to the results both groups improved “bridge performance” after the end of intervention program and remain this improvement for at least 60 minutes. Whoever, WBVS had significant increase flexibility than NVS. Conclusively, Whole-Body Vibration combined with stretching on shoulders joint may greatly influence flexibility in bridge performance.

  4. Blood-brain barrier permeability after gamma whole-body irradiation: an in vivo microdialysis study

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    Diserbo, M.; Agin, A.; Lamproglou, I.; Mauris, J.; Staali, F.; Multon, E.; Amourette, C

    2002-07-01

    The effects of total-body irradiation on the permeability of rat striatal blood-brain barrier (BBB) to [{sup 3}H]{alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid (AIBA) and [{sup 14}C] sucrose were investigated using the microdialysis technique. Seven days, 3 and 6 weeks, and 3, 5, and 8 months after gamma exposure at a dose of 4.5 Gy, no modification of the permeability to both [{sup 3}H]AIBA and [{sup 14}C] sucrose was observed. But, in the course of the initial syndrome, we observed a significant but transient increase in the BBB permeability to the two markers between 3 and 17 h after exposure. A secondary transient 'opening' of the BBB to [{sup 14}C] sucrose was noticed about 28 h following irradiation without the corresponding increase in BBB permeability to [{sup 3}H]AIBA. On the contrary, the transport of [{sup 3}H]AIBA through the BBB was decreased between 33 and 47 h postradiation. In conclusion, our experiments showed early modifications of BBB permeability after a moderate-dose whole-body exposure. Confirmation of these results with other tracers, in another experimental model or in humans, would have clinical applications for designing appropriate pharmacotherapy in radiotherapy and treatment of accidental overexposure. (author)

  5. Stability of the translocation frequency following whole-body irradiation measured in rhesus monkeys

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    Lucas, J. N.; Hill, F. S.; Burk, C. E.; Cox, A. B.; Straume, T.

    1996-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are persistent indicators of prior exposure to ionizing radiation and the development of 'chromosome painting' to efficiently detect translocations has resulted in a powerful biological dosimetry tool for radiation dose reconstruction. However, the actual stability of the translocation frequency with time after exposure must be measured before it can be used reliably to obtain doses for individuals exposed years or decades previously. Human chromosome painting probes were used here to measure reciprocal translocation frequencies in cells from two tissues of 8 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) irradiated almost three decades previously. Six of the monkeys were exposed in 1965 to whole-body (fully penetrating) radiation and two were unexposed controls. The primates were irradiated as juveniles to single doses of 0.56, 1.13, 2.00, or 2.25 Gy. Blood lymphocytes (and skin fibroblasts from one individual) were obtained for cytogenetic analysis in 1993, near the end of the animals' lifespans. Results show identical dose-response relationships 28 y after exposure in vivo and immediately after exposure in vitro. Because chromosome aberrations are induced with identical frequencies in vivo and in vitro, these results demonstrate that the translocation frequencies induced in 1965 have not changed significantly during the almost three decades since exposure. Finally, our emerging biodosimetry data for individual radiation workers are now confirming the utility of reciprocal translocations measured by FISH in radiation dose reconstruction.

  6. Lung autophagic response following exposure of mice to whole body irradiation, with and without amifostine

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    Zois, Christos E. [Department of Radiotherapy - Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece); Giatromanolaki, Alexandra [Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Kainulainen, Heikki [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Botaitis, Sotirios [Department of Experimental Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Torvinen, Sira [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Simopoulos, Constantinos [Department of Experimental Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Kortsaris, Alexandros [Department of Biochemistry, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Sivridis, Efthimios [Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr [Department of Radiotherapy - Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} We investigated the effect 6 Gy of WBI on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. {yields} Irradiation induces dysfunction of the autophagic machinery in normal lung, characterized by decreased transcription of the LC3A/Beclin-1 mRNA and accumulation of the LC3A, and p62 proteins. {yields} The membrane bound LC3A-II protein levels increased in the cytosolic fraction (not in the pellet), contrasting the patterns noted after starvation-induced autophagy. {yields} Administration of amifostine, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings, suggesting protection of the normal autophagic function. -- Abstract: Purpose: The effect of ionizing irradiation on the autophagic response of normal tissues is largely unexplored. Abnormal autophagic function may interfere the protein quality control leading to cell degeneration and dysfunction. This study investigates its effect on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. Methods and materials: Mice were exposed to 6 Gy of whole body {gamma}-radiation and sacrificed at various time points. The expression of MAP1LC3A/LC3A/Atg8, beclin-1, p62/sequestosome-1 and of the Bnip3 proteins was analyzed. Results: Following irradiation, the LC3A-I and LC3A-II protein levels increased significantly at 72 h and 7 days. Strikingly, LC3A-II protein was increased (5.6-fold at 7 days; p < 0.001) only in the cytosolic fraction, but remained unchanged in the membrane fraction. The p62 protein, was significantly increased in both supernatant and pellet fraction (p < 0.001), suggesting an autophagosome turnover deregulation. These findings contrast the patterns of starvation-induced autophagy up-regulation. Beclin-1 levels remained unchanged. The Bnip3 protein was significantly increased at 8 h, but it sharply decreased at 72 h (p < 0.05). Administration of amifostine (200 mg/kg), 30 min before irradiation, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings on blots, suggesting restoration of the normal autophagic function

  7. Dosimetry Formalism and Implementation of a Homogenous Irradiation Protocol to Improve the Accuracy of Small Animal Whole-Body Irradiation Using a 137Cs Irradiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, N Patrik; Chen, Yong; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Guha, Chandan; Tomé, Wolfgang A

    2016-02-01

    Shielded Cs irradiators are routinely used in pre-clinical radiation research to perform in vitro or in vivo investigations. Without appropriate dosimetry and irradiation protocols in place, there can be large uncertainty in the delivered dose of radiation between irradiated subjects that could lead to inaccurate and possibly misleading results. Here, a dosimetric evaluation of the JL Shepard Mark I-68A Cs irradiator and an irradiation technique for whole-body irradiation of small animals that allows one to limit the between subject variation in delivered dose to ±3% are provided. Mathematical simulation techniques and Gafchromic EBT film were used to describe the region within the irradiation cavity with homogeneous dose distribution (100% ± 5%), the dosimetric impact of varying source-to-subject distance, and the variation in attenuation thickness due to turntable rotation. Furthermore, an irradiation protocol and dosimetry formalism that allows calculation of irradiation time for whole-body irradiation of small animals is proposed that is designed to ensure a more consistent dose delivery between irradiated subjects. To compare this protocol with the conventional irradiation protocol suggested by the vendor, high-resolution film dosimetry measurements evaluating the dose difference between irradiation subjects and the dose distribution throughout subjects was performed using phantoms resembling small animals. Based on these results, there can be considerable variation in the delivered dose of > ± 5% using the conventional irradiation protocol for whole-body irradiation doses below 5 Gy. Using the proposed irradiation protocol this variability can be reduced to within ±3% and the dosimetry formalism allows for more accurate calculation of the irradiation time in relation to the intended prescription dose.

  8. Whole Body Irradiation Induces Cutaneous Dendritic Cells Depletion via NF-κB Activation

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    Yanyong Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effect of ionizing radiation on cutaneous dendritic cells (cDC is critical to its influence on immune status of the skin, which plays an important role in the progression and recovery of radiation skin sickness. This study was to study the influence of whole body irradiation (WBI on the cDC. Methods: Density of epidermal and dermal DC was determined with a fluorescent microscopy and the DC numbers in lymph node were measured by flow cytometry. A FITC induced migration assay was also used to study the migration of DC. The expressions of cytokines and chemokines were evaluated by Realtime PCR, and the protein level of was measured by Western blot. Results: WBI caused depletion of cDC in epidermal as well as dermal and augmented FITC-induced migration of DC to the draining lymph node (LN. The number of DC migrated from ear explants to the CCL19-containing medium also increased after exposure to WBI. It was also found that WBI increased mRNA level of CCL19/CCL21 as well as CCR7 in LN and skin tissue. The expressions of TNFa, IL-1a, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in skin tissues were also greatly induced by WBI in a dose dependent manner. Finally, we found that WBI induced translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and that the radiation-induced migration of DC was blocked by NF-κB inhibitor or TLR4 knockout. Conclusion: WBI caused cDC depletion through induction of DC migration to the draining LN, which might result from the activation of NF-κB and the induction of inflammatory microenvironment within the skin.

  9. Evaluation of the analgesic activity and safety of ketorolac in whole body fractionated gamma irradiated animals

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    Sara Aly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic activity and the toxicity of ketorolac in normal and fractionated (1.5 Gy/day/4 days γ-irradiated animals. Determination of brain serotonin content and serum prostaglandin level were also undertaken. The analgesic activity was tested using formalin test, at three dose levels (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg after 1 and 7 days post radiation exposure. LD50 determinations and assessment of liver and kidney function tests were performed. Our results indicated marked analgesic effects on the early and late phases of nociception. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation increased brain serotonin content. The acute LD50 of ketorolac was decreased in irradiated animals as compared to the LD50 of normal animals. Double treatment with ketorolac and irradiation induced an elevation of gastric mucin content, urea and BUN levels on the 1st day post irradiation, whereas, albumin level was lowered and globulin level was elevated after 7 days post irradiation. Depending on this study the dose of ketorolac used for treating cancer patients addressed to radiotherapy should be reduced, however, this requires further clinical confirmation.

  10. A Comparison of Molecular and Histopathological Changes in Mouse Intestinal Tissue Following Whole-Body Proton- or Gamma-Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgason, Ashley; Mangala, Lingegowda; Zhang, Ye; Hamilton, Stanley; Wu, Honglu

    2010-01-01

    There are many consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment which can adversely affect the health of a crew member. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) involving nausea and vomiting, damage to radio-sensitive tissue such as the blood forming organs and gastrointestinal tract, and cancer are some of these negative effects. The space radiation environment is ample with protons and contains gamma rays as well. Little knowledge exists to this point, however, regarding the effects of protons on mammalian systems; conversely several studies have been performed observing the effects of gamma rays on different animal models. For the research presented here, we wish to compare our previous work looking at whole-body exposure to protons using a mouse model to our studies of mice experiencing whole-body exposure to gamma rays as part of the radio-adaptive response. Radio-adaptation is a well-documented phenomenon in which cells exposed to a priming low dose of radiation prior to a higher dose display a reduction in endpoints like chromosomal aberrations, cell death, micronucleus formation, and more when compared to their counterparts receiving high dose-irradiation only. Our group has recently completed a radio-adaptive experiment with C57BL/6 mice. For both this study and the preceding proton research, the gastrointestinal tract of each animal was dissected four hours post-irradiation and the isolated small intestinal tissue was fixed in formalin for histopathological examination or snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen for RNA isolation. Histopathologic observation of the tissue using standard H&E staining methods to screen for morphologic changes showed an increase in apoptotic lesions for even the lowest doses of 0.1 Gy of protons and 0.05 Gy of gamma rays, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased with increasing dose. A smaller percentage of crypts showed 3 or more apoptotic lesions in animals that received 6 Gy of gamma-irradiation compared to mice

  11. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella W. Yeung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively and peak torque production (p = 0.483 measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults.

  12. Erythropoiesis in mice exposed to continuous whole body irradiation of gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshima, Hisamasa; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Matsushita, Satoru; Kashima, Masatoshi

    1988-09-01

    The erythropoietic effects of continuous ..gamma..-irradiation with a daily regime of 0.029, 0.083 and 0.374 Gy were studied in mice. Irradiation was performed with /sup 137/Cs ..gamma..-rays for 22 hr/day. The length of irradiation time varied from 3 to 112 days. Erythropoiesis was investigated on the basis of clearance of /sup 59/Fe from the circulation and of incorporation of /sup 59/Fe into circulating erythrocytes and erythropoietic tissue. A chemical method for the separation of heme and nonheme iron-containing fractions was employed to examine the uptake of /sup 59/Fe into both the heme and nonheme iron fractions. Daily exposure to 0.029 and 0.083 Gy caused no significant changes in erythropoiesis. Daily exposure to 0.374 Gy caused some significant changes in erythropoiesis. On day 7 of continuous irradiation, the amount of /sup 59/Fe incorporated into erythrocytes decreased, but the values returned to normal on day 14 and 28 of continuous irradiation, indicating recovery within erythropoietic tissues at earlier time. On day 56, depressed incorporation of /sup 59/Fe into erythrocytes with normal rate of disappearance of /sup 59/Fe from the circulation and increased heme level of /sup 59/Fe in the femoral marrow were observed. Results observed on day 56 may suggest the possibility of ineffective erythropoiesis during the continuous irradiation. On day 112, some mice showed almost the same changes in erythropoiesis as those mice exposed to acute X-rays radiation.

  13. Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Inhibition in Healthy Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E den Heijer

    Full Text Available Whole Body Vibration (WBV is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition. The present study replicated these findings in healthy children and examined acute effects of WBV treatment on inhibition.Fifty-five healthy children (aged 8-13 participated in this within-subject design study. WBV treatment was applied by having the children sit on a chair mounted to a vibrating platform. After each condition (vibration vs. non-vibration, inhibition was measured by using the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test. Repeated measures analyses were applied in order to explore the effects of WBV treatment on inhibition, and correlations were computed between the treatment effect and participant characteristics in order to explore individual differences in treatment sensitivity.Three-minute WBV treatments had significant beneficial effects on inhibition in this sample of healthy children. Especially the repeated application (three times of WBV treatment appeared beneficial for cognition. Stronger WBV treatment effects were correlated with higher intelligence and younger age, but not with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD.This study demonstrates that especially repeated WBV treatment improves inhibition in healthy children. As this cognitive function is often impaired in children with developmental disorders (e.g. ADHD, future studies should further explore the effects, working mechanism and potential applicability of WBV treatment for this target group.

  14. The relationship between the alkaline phosphatase network and the haematopoiesis in mice subjected to whole-body irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almohamad Khaled M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the alkaline phosphatase (ALP network of the marrow stroma and the haematopoietic regeneration after mice whole-body irradiation. Materials and methods: Three groups of mice were irradiated with a non-lethal ionising radiation dose: the fi rst one received an intraperitoneal injection of Levamisole, ALP inhibitor, 24 h before irradiation; the second one received an intraperitoneal injection of Lisinopril, haematopoiesis inhibitor, 24 h before irradiation; the third was left untreated, but irradiated. The fourth group, untreated and not irradiated, was the control. The total surface occupied by ALP positive processes, revealed by means of ALP cytochemistry in the marrow area, was evaluated semi-quantitively. Nucleated bone marrow cells were also counted. Results: ALP network began to increase 24 h after irradiation to reach a maximum after 72 h, when the bone marrow was almost become completely empty of the haematopoietic cells. This increase advances the haematopoietic recovery. This process was substantially delayed when the mice were injected with Levamisole 24 h before irradiation. On the contrary, ALP network increased strongly since the fi rst day after irradiation when the mice were injected with Lisinopril 24 h before irradiation. Conclusions: These data have indicated that the haematopoietic recovery and repopulation of the bone marrow were advanced by the ALP network recovery.

  15. The acute effect of whole body vibration training on flexibility and explosive strength of young gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of a single bout of whole body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young artistic gymnasts. Thirty-two young competitive gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study, and were allocated to either the vibration group or traditional body weight training according to the vibration protocol. The vibration intervention consisted of a single bout of eccentric and concentric squatting movements on a vibration platform that was turned on (vibration group: VG n = 15), whereas the traditional body weight (no vibration) group performed the same training protocol with the WBV device turned off (NVG: n= 17). Flexibility (sit and reach test) and explosive strength tests [squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), and single leg squat (right leg (RL) and left leg (LL))] were performed initially (pre-test), immediately after the intervention (post-test 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the intervention programme (post-test 15). Four 2x3 ANOVAs were used to examine the interaction between group (VG vs NVG) and time (pre, post 1, and post 15) with respect to examined variables. The results revealed that a significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to SJ (p flexibility, CMJ, RL and LL after the end of the intervention programme (p > 0.05). Further, the percentage improvement of the VG was significantly greater in all examined variables compared to the NVG. This study concluded that WBV training improves flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young trained artistic gymnasts and maintains the initial level of performance for at least 15 minutes after the WBV intervention programme.

  16. Recombinant human MFG-E8 attenuates intestinal injury and mortality in severe whole body irradiation in rats.

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    Michael A Ajakaiye

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI syndrome component of acute radiation syndrome (ARS results from depletion of immature parenchymal stem cells after high dose irradiation and contributes significantly to early mortality. It is associated with severe, irreparable damage in the GI tract and extremely low survival. There is a need for the development of viable mitigators of whole body irradiation (WBI due to the possibility of unexpected high level radiation exposure from nuclear accidents or attacks. We therefore examined the effect of recombinant human milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (rhMFG-E8 in mitigating damage after WBI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10 Gy WBI using Cesium-137 as the radiation source. The animals in the treatment group received rhMFG-E8 (166 µg/kg BW subcutaneously once a day with the first dose given 6 h after WBI. Blood and tissue samples from the ileum were collected after 3 days of treatment. A separate cohort of animals was treated for 7 days and the 21 day mortality rate was determined. Treatment with rhMFG-E8 significantly improved the survival from 31% to 75% over 21 days. Furthermore, rhMFG-E8 treatment resulted in a 36% reduction in the radiation injury intestinal mucosal damage score, corresponding to visible histological changes. MFG-E8 gene expression was significantly decreased in WBI-induced animals as compared to sham controls. Treatment with rhMFG-E8 increased p53 and p21 expression by 207% and 84% compared to untreated controls. This was accompanied by an 80% increase in the expression of anti-apoptotic cell regulator Bcl-2. p53 and p21 levels correlate with improved survival after radiation injury. These cell regulators arrest the cell after DNA damage and enable DNA repair as well as optimize cell survival. Taken together, these results indicate that rhMFG-E8 ameliorates the GI syndrome and improves survival after WBI by minimizing intestinal cell damage and optimizing recovery.

  17. Influence of L-dopa and of thymus fraction on the survival rate of whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, E.; Helmholz, M. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    1982-06-01

    The survival rate of mice with exposure of the whole body (7 Gy) was hardly changed by one dose as well as several doses of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor amantadine and the interferon inductor measles vaccine. However, the survival rates were increased by one administration of L-dopa or by the long-term therapy using L-dopa at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. The survival rates were also increased at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. if the thymus factor was three times applied to the animals after irradiation. The increased survival rates gained by using L-dopa and thymus factor are correlated with the leukocyte values determined.

  18. Comparison of /sup 32/P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, H.; Choi, K.; Sohn, C.; Yaes, R.; Rotman, M.

    1986-06-01

    We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium /sup 32/P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with /sup 32/P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with /sup 32/P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with /sup 32/P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while /sup 32/P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or /sup 32/P treatment.

  19. Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Inhibition in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, Anne E.; Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition). The present study replicated these findings in healthy chil

  20. Effect of whole-body irradiation of mice on the number of background plaque-forming cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R E; Lefkovits, I; Söederberg, A

    1983-08-01

    Mice were exposed in whole-body fashion to several doses of radiation and killed at various times thereafter for a determination of the number of background plaque-forming cells (PFCs) as assayed on either sheep erythrocytes or bromelain-treated autologous mouse erythrocytes. Increased numbers of both types of PFC were found in the irradiated groups. These increases were dependent on radiation dose and time after exposure. They did not appear to be caused by a disruption of normal lymphocyte traffic or a switch in immunoglobulin isotype. An increased number of PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs but not on sheep RBCs were found in irradiated congenitally athymic nude mice. On the basis of this and related observations, background PFCs on bromelain-treated mouse RBCs and on sheep RBCs appear to fall under different forms of homeostatic control.

  1. Differential effects of whole-body {gamma}-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-05-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a {mu}-opioid receptor agonist) and {beta}-endorphin (an {epsilon}-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, {gamma}-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a {delta}-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and {beta}-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or {beta}-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by {beta}-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of {mu}- and {epsilon}-opioid receptors to {gamma}-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  2. Whole-body irradiation technique: physical aspects; Tecnica de irradiacion corporal total: aspectos fisicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venencia, D.; Bustos, S.; Zunino, S. [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia. Obispo Oro 425. Cordoba 5000 (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this work has been to implement a Total body irradiation technique that fulfill the following conditions: simplicity, repeatability, fast and comfortable positioning for the patient, homogeneity of the dose between 10-15 %, short times of treatments and In vivo dosimetric verifications. (Author)

  3. Late effects from whole body irradiation and protection by chemical and biological agents. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maisin, J.R. [Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Gerber, G.B.

    2000-07-01

    This review described studies attempting to reduce damage of exposure to ionizing radiation with an application of chemical or biological agents by illustrating authors' data to point out which possibilities such protectors might hold in future. Authors described their studies on mice exposed to a single or fractionated dose of X-rays at the Belgian Atomic Center at Mol. Mice were irradiated with 250 kV of X-rays at a dose rate of 1 Gy/min or underwent the fractionated irradiation of 1-week intervals with total dose of 2-25 Gy. Before irradiation, some animals were given glutathione, mercaptoethylamine, cystein, serotonine-creatine, 2{beta}-aminoethylisothiuronium, and other agents, alone or as a mixture. Results indicated that radioprotectors reduced many specific late diseases to different degrees together with protection against tumor induction which other investigators had shown. Future prospects were considered for ideal radioprotectors and searches for new radioprotectors and for combination of biological agents (e.g., cytokines with polysaccharides or prostaglandins) were described. (K.H.)

  4. Thyroxine clearance in rats within the first month after the single whole-body {gamma} - irradiation at a dose of 10Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryadko, Kirill A. [Institute of Radiobiology, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus)

    2002-07-01

    The effects of acute whole-body {gamma} -irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy on thyroxine (T{sub 4}) plasma clearance rate (PCR) and thyroidal and blood T4 concentration ([T{sub 4}]) were examined within one month after exposure. The PCR values were measured using the bolus injection, single-compartmental approach. To eliminate the influence of radiation-induced anorexia animals were fasting for two days before the pharmacokinetic experiments. Hormone concentrations in blood and in thyroid tissue were measured by RIA. Throughout the observation period, PCR was elevated in irradiated rats with maximum at day 4 after exposure (0.56{+-}0.04 vs. 0.36{+-}0.03 ml/h100 gbw, P<0.001). [T{sub 4}] in blood was not significantly different from that in control animals. Thyroidal [T{sub 4}] was significantly decreased in irradiated animals 4 days after exposure (151.8{+-}21.7 vs. 258.8{+-}29.9 pmol/mg protein, P<0.01) and gradually increased after day 9. 10 Gy {gamma} -irradiation causes the intensification of T{sub 4} metabolism without the pronounced changes in concentration. Presumably, at early terms the rising local demand in O{sub 4} can not be compensated with the existing level of production. Alterations in the intensity of T{sub 4} metabolism are evident at least one month after exposure but they may not be detected without taking into account kinetic data.

  5. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  6. Effect of whole body proton or gamma irradiation on genetic damage and hematological variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Ji-Young; Ahn, Ji-Yeon; Yi, Jae Youn; Kang, Chang-Mo; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    For the purpose of cancer therapy or spaceflight with mission or simple trip, a considerable concern about the absorbed amount of radiation and its deleterious effect on physiological system, if any, has been increased. Many efforts have been dedicated to estimate the risk, however, there is very little known about the spectrum of radiations during the flight through arctic zone as well as the effects of low-dose radiation. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effect of proton or gamma-irradiation at a recommended dose limit of occupational (20mGy per year) and the standardized radio-therapeutic fraction dose (2Gy) on gastro-intestinal damages, peripheral hematology, and the frequency of micronuclei formation.

  7. Impact of Whole Body Irradiation on the Intestinal Microbiome- Considerations for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Santos, Orlando; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Jones, Jeffrey; Greenberger, Joel S.; Epperly, Michael W.

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems to just name a few. However, to date, radiation exposure is one of the main limiting factors for long duration space exploration missions and especially a mission to Mars. Over the past few years through advances in technology, the characterization of the microbiome has revealed a large and complex community of microorganisms living in symbiosis with the human host. However, heterogeneity of the intestinal microbial spectrum in humans has been associated with a variety of diseases and susceptibility to infectious and toxic agents. Limited information is known about the influence of space environment in general and radiation in particular on the microbiome. Furthermore, multiple spaceflight and simulated microgravity experiments have shown changes in phenotypic microbial characteristics such as microbial growth, morphology, metabolism, genetic transfer, antibiotic and stress susceptibility, and an increase in virulence factors. We now report a study of the bacterial composition of the intestine in C57BL/6NTAC mice and the types of microbes entering the body at two time points after the LD 50/30 dose of total body irradiation using microarray-based assay, G3 PhyloChip 16S rRNA, and bioinformatics methods. Bacteria and archaea taxon richness was determined at the genus level and ranged from 2 to 107 and 0 to 3 respectively. As expected, pre-exposure blood samples exhibited less bacterial and archaeal genus richness compared to all other samples. However, the study shows a significant shift in the mouse gut microbial speciation in several bacterial families, with increases in the Turicibacteraceae and Enterobacteriaceae and decreases in the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families. The findings most relevant to occupational

  8. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J.M.; Feist, G.W.; Varga, Z.M.; Westerfield, M.; Kent, M.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Immunological network activation by low-dose rate irradiation. Analysis of cell populations and cell surface molecules in whole body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ina, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Kazuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Low Dose Radiation Research Center, Komae, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The effects of low-dose rate whole body irradiation on biodefense and immunological systems were investigated using female C57BL/6 (B6) mice. These B6 mice were exposed continuously to {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source in the long-term low-dose rate irradiation facility at CRIEPI for 0 - 12 weeks at a dose rate of 0.95 mGy/hr. In the bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood of the irradiated mice, changes in cell populations and cell surface molecules were examined. The cell surface functional molecules (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD45R/B220, ICAM-1, Fas, NK-1.1, CXCR4, and CCR5), and activation molecules (THAM, CD28, CD40, CD44H, CD70, B7-1, B7-2, OX-40 antigen, CTLA-4, CD30 ligand, and CD40 ligand) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells and cell surface CD8 molecule expressions on the CD8{sup +} T cells increased significantly to 120-130% after 3 weeks of the irradiation, compared to non-irradiated control mice. On the other hand, the percentage of CD45R/B220{sup +} CD40{sup +} B cells, which is one of the immunological markers of inflammation, infection, tumor, and autoimmune disease, decreased significantly to 80-90% between the 3rd to 5th week of irradiation. There was no significant difference in other cell population rates and cell surface molecule expression. Furthermore, abnormal T cells bearing mutated T cell receptors induced by high-dose rate irradiation were not observed throughout this study. These results suggest that low-dose rate irradiation activates the immunological status of the whole body. (author)

  10. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body gamma-irradiation: II. Hematological variables and cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, D. S.; Pecaut, M. J.; Miller, G. M.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of part II of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma-radiation on circulating blood cells, functional characteristics of splenocytes, and cytokine expression after whole-body irradiation at varying total doses and at low- and high-dose-rates (LDR, HDR). Young adult C57BL/6 mice (n = 75) were irradiated with either 1 cGy/min or 80 cGy/min photons from a 60Co source to cumulative doses of 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Gy. The animals were euthanized at 4 days post-exposure for in vitro assays. Significant dose- (but not dose-rate-) dependent decreases were observed in erythrocyte and blood leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced 3H-thymidine incorporation, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion by activated spleen cells when compared to sham-irradiated controls (p < 0.05). Basal proliferation of leukocytes in the blood and spleen increased significantly with increasing dose (p < 0.05). Significant dose rate effects were observed only in thrombocyte counts. Plasma levels of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and splenocyte secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were not affected by either the dose or dose rate of radiation. The data demonstrate that the responses of blood and spleen were largely dependent upon the total dose of radiation employed and that an 80-fold difference in the dose rate was not a significant factor in the great majority of measurements.

  11. Effect of Whole-Body X-Irradiation of the Synthesis of Individual Fatty Acids in Liver Slices from Normal and Fasted Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Hansen, Lisbeth Grænge; Faber, M.

    1965-01-01

    (1) Using (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) butyrate as precursors, rat-liver fatty acids were synthesized in vitro and assayed by paper chromatography. (2) Whole-body x-irradiation induced a change in the synthetic pattern of hepatic fatty acids towards a relatively enhanced synthesis of palmitic acid...

  12. 3-aminobenzamide, a poly (ADP ribose) polymerase inhibitor, enhances wound healing in whole body gamma irradiated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hamoly, Tarek; El-Denshary, Ezzeddin S; Saad, Shokry Mohamed; El-Ghazaly, Mona A

    2015-09-01

    The custom use of radiotherapy was found to participate in the development of chronic unhealed wounds. In general, exposure to gamma radiation stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that eventually leads to damaging effect. Conversely, overexpression of a nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme (PARP) after oxidative insult extremely brings about cellular injury due to excessive consumption of NAD and ATP. Here, we dedicated our study to investigate the role of 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), a PARP inhibitor, on pregamma irradiated wounds. Two full-thickness (6 mm diameter) wounds were created on the dorsum of Swiss albino mouse. The progression of wound contraction was monitored by capturing daily photo images. Exposure to gamma radiation (6Gy) exacerbated the normal healing of excisional wounds. Remarkably, topical application of 3-AB cream (50 µM) revealed a marked acceleration in the rate of wound contraction. Likewise, PARP inhibition ameliorated the unbalanced oxidative/nitrosative status of granulated skin tissues. Such effect was significantly revealed by the correction of the reduced antioxidant capacity and the enhanced lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and myeloperoxidase contents. Moreover, application of 3-AB modified the cutaneous nitrite content throughout healing process. Conversely, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines were down-regulated by PARP inhibition. The mitochondrial ATP content showed a lower consumption rate on 3-AB-treated wound bed as well. In parallel, the mRNA expressions of Sirt-1 and acyl-COA oxidase-2 (ACOX-2) were up-regulated; whom functions control the mitochondrial ATP synthesis and lipid metabolism. The current data suggested that inhibition of PARP-1 enzyme may accelerate the delayed wound healing in whole body gamma irradiated mice by early modifying the oxidative stress as well as the inflammatory response.

  13. Time-course of micronucleated erythrocytes in response to whole-body gamma irradiation in a model mammalian species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolich, Igor I; Savina, Natalya V; Ryabokon, Nadezhda I

    2011-01-01

    The time course of the formation of micronucleated polychromatic (MNPCEs) and normochromatic erythrocytes (MNNCEs) in the bone marrow of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber), a model mouse-like species, was studied using the standard micronucleus test at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 hr following whole-body acute γ-irradiation at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Based on the existing literature on laboratory mice, it was suggested that such a dose will not have significant effect on erythroid cell proliferation in the bank vole and hence on the time course of the rise of micronucleated cells. In total, ∼905,000 polychromatic (PCEs) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) from 82 adult bank voles were analyzed. Although the mean frequencies of MNNCEs were too low to allow for the correct assessment of their time course, an analysis of PCEs showed an increasing rate of MNPCE appearance at 6 hr that reached a maximum at 18-24 hr after irradiation and subsequently decreased. Because the kinetics of MNPCEs reflects the process of erythropoiesis, the current results regarding the time points of appearance of radiation-induced MNPCEs provide the first information on the prolongation of one of the terminal stages of erythrocyte formation in bank vole specimens, namely the stage of maturation of PCEs from erythroblasts. Moreover, the observed time-course data, as well as the low-background frequencies of MNPCEs and characteristic level of PCEs response to radiation, showed similarities between the two model species: bank vole (this study) and laboratory mice (literature data).

  14. Acute and Chronic Whole-Body Vibration Exercise does not Induce Health-Promoting Effects on The Blood Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorou Anastasios A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration (WBV exercise is an alternative, popular and easy exercise that can be followed by general public. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic WBV exercise on health-related parameters. Twenty-eight women were allocated into a control group (n=11, mean ±SEM: age, 43.5 ±1.5 yr; body mass, 66.1 ±3.1 kg; height, 160.6 ±1.5 cm and a vibration group (n=17, mean ±SEM: age, 44.0 ±1.0 yr; body mass, 67.1 ±2.2 kg; height, 162.5 ±1.5 cm. After baseline assessments, participants of the experimental group performed WBV training 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Before and after the chronic WBV exercise, the participants of the vibration group performed one session of acute WBV exercise. Blood chemistry measurements (hematology, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin were assessed pre-exercise and post-exercise at the first and eighth week of WBV exercise in both control and vibration groups. The results failed to support any effect of both acute and chronic WBV exercise on biochemical health-related parameters. However, it seems that WBV exercise is a safe way of training without a negative impact on muscle and liver functionality.

  15. Antibiotic radioprotection of mice exposed to supralethal whole-body irradiation independent of antibacterial activity. [Gamma radiation, streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, gentamycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastromarino, A.; Wilson, R.

    1976-11-01

    Oral administration of streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, or gentamicin to specific pathogen-free C57 x Af mice in their drinking water (4 mg/ml) for 2 weeks before supralethal whole-body irradiation very significantly prolonged their mean survival times (8.2 to 8.9 days vs 6.9 for controls) to values which exceed those reported for germ-free mice (7.3 days). The total fecal concentrations of aerobes and anaerobes were reduced by kanamycin, neomycin, and gentamicin. Streptomycin reduced the anaerobes significantly, but not the aerobes. Unlike germ-free mice, these antibiotic-treated mice did excrete free bile acids, products of bacterial action. Oral antibiotic treatment was ineffective in altering the transit time of the intestinal mucosal cells. Previously reported studies had indicated a correlation between decreased transit time and increased survival after irradiation. No significant correlation between mean survival time after irradiation and mucosal transit time was observed. The data demonstrate that certain antibiotics alter the character of the intestinal bacterial flora and increase protection against supralethal doses of whole-body irradiation. It is concluded that the mechanisms of radioresistance in antibiotic-treated mice and germ-free mice are different and that in both groups radioresistance is the result of more than elimination of postirradiation infection.

  16. SIGN-R1 and complement factors are involved in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Yeon; Loh, SoHee; Cho, Eun-hee [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyeong-Jwa [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Tae-Young [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Nemeno, Judee Grace E.; Lee, Jeong Ik [Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taek Joon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Yuhan College, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, 422-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-Soo [Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minyoung [Division of Radiation Effect, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, 75 Nowon gil Nowon-Gu, Seoul, 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, 400-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young-Sun, E-mail: kangys1967@naver.com [Department of Biomedical Science & Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Although SIGN-R1-mediated complement activation pathway has been shown to enhance the systemic clearance of apoptotic cells, the role of SIGN-R1 in the clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells has not been characterized and was investigated in this study. Our data indicated that whole-body γ-irradiation of mice increased caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic lymphocyte numbers in secondary lymphoid organs. Following γ-irradiation, SIGN-R1 and complements (C4 and C3) were simultaneously increased only in the mice spleen tissue among the assessed tissues. In particular, C3 was exclusively activated in the spleen. The delayed clearance of apoptotic cells was markedly prevalent in the spleen and liver of SIGN-R1 KO mice, followed by a significant increase of CD11b{sup +} cells. These results indicate that SIGN-R1 and complement factors play an important role in the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic innate immune cells to maintain tissue homeostasis after γ-irradiation. - Highlights: • Splenic SIGN-R1{sup +} macrophages are activated after γ-irradiation. • C3 and C4 levels increased and C3 was activated in the spleen after γ-irradiation. • SIGN-R1 mediated the systemic clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells in spleen and liver.

  17. Protection of mouse hematopoietic stem cells by a preparation of herb mixture (hemoHIM) against whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W. H.; Park, H. R.; Oh, H.; Jung, I. Y.; Cho, S. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    A preparation of herb mixture (HemoHIM) was designed from three medicinal herbs including Angelica gigantis Radix to protect gastrointestine, hematopoietic organs and immune system against radiation damage. In the present study, we investigated the radioprotective effects of HemoHIM on hematopoietic stem cells in {gamma}-irradiated mice and the underlying mechanisms. The administration of HemoHIM significantly increased the formation of endogenous spleen colony and reduced apoptosis of bone marrow cells in {gamma}-irradiated mice. These results showed that HemoHIM protected hematopoietic stem cells from irradiation. To investigate the mechanism of the protection, the effects of HemoHIM on expression of radioprotective cytokines was examined. HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1{beta}, TNF-{alpha}, SCF and IL-6 in bone marrow cells and peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In vivo administration of HemoHIM increased the mRNA levels of IL-1{beta}, TNF-{alpha} in spleen. The examination of radical scavenging activity of HemoHIM as another mechanism revealed that HemoHIM was effective at scavenging DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radicals. From these results, it is suggested that HemoHIM exerts these radioprotective effects through the induction of radioprotective cytokines and/or through directly scavenging radicals produced by {gamma}-irradiation.

  18. Studies on immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in vivo: whole-body irradiation has no effect on vaccine-induced resistance in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignali, D.A.A.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1988-02-01

    Actively immunized mice, whole-body irradiated with 650 or 525 rad., manifested comparable levels of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni compared with unirradiated, immunized mice in spite of a marked reduction in circulating leucocytes and platelets, and despite an abrogation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) (Type IV) reponse to schistosomular antigens. However, limited histopathological comparison of lung sections from irradiated and unirradiated mice 7 days post-challenge showed that cellular reactions ('foci') around parasites were similar in size and cellular composition except that in irradiated mice, eosinophils were poorly represented both in the foci and in lung tissue in general. Neither presumed immune complex-mediated (Type III, Arthus reaction) hypersensitivity nor serum anti-schistosomulum extract antibody levels were affected. The pattern of /sup 125/I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens immunoprecipitated with serum from irradiated and unirradiated mice was essentially similar. These results are consistent with antibody playing an important role in vaccine-induced immunity in mice but suggest that radiosensitive T cell function and radiosensitive cells, such as platelets and polymorphonuclear cells, including eosinophils, may not be essential.

  19. Radioprotective Effect of Propolis on the Blood Corpuscle of a Mouse by SEM after X-irradiation on the Whole Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    After x-ray 5 Gy radiation on the whole body of a mouse using a linear accelerator, its leucocyte, erythrocyte, and platelet were observed by SEM. Also, after injecting propolis into the abdominal cavity, the radio-protective effect of blood corpuscles was studied. The observation of micromorphology in blood corpuscles revealed that the number of leukocyte, erythrocyte, and thrombocyte decreased in the experimental group and the lump got together in blood corpuscles after 10 and 20 days. In RBC, crack or break on the surface and poikilosperocytes were observed. In the irradiation group, the size of leucocytes was smaller than that in control group and the number of villus at the verge substantially decreased. The blood corpuscles in the propolis group, however, had the similar results to control group.

  20. The Application of Flow Cytometry to Examine Damage Clearance in Stem Cells From Whole-Body Irradiated Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marples, Brian; Kovalchuk, Olga; McGonagle, Michele; Martinez, Alvaro; Wilson, George, D.

    2010-02-26

    The bone marrow contains many types of cells. Approximately 1-2% of these cells are critical for life, these are the so-called ‘bone marrow stem cells’ which divide indefinitely to produce platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. Death of the bone marrow stem cells results in a diminished ability of the organism to make new blood cell components and can be fatal without medical intervention, such as a bone marrow transplant. Bone marrow stem cells are considered to be particularly sensitive to radiation injury. Therefore, it is important to understand how these cells response to total body radiation exposure and how these cells can be protected from radiation damage. The aim of this project was to determine if these critical cells in the bone marrow are susceptible to short-term and long-term injury after a whole-body exposure to a sub-lethal low dose of ionizing radiation. The overall aims were to determine if the extent of injury produced by the sub-lethal radiation exposure would be cleared from the stem cells and therefore present no long- term genetic risk to the organism, or if the radiation injury persisted and had an adverse long-term consequences for the cell genome. This research question is of interest in order to define the risks to exposed persons after occupational, accidental or terrorism-related sub-lethal low-dose radiation exposures. The novel aspect of this project was the methodology used to obtain the bone marrow stem cell-like cells and examining the outcomes of sub-lethal low-dose radiation in a mammalian animal model. Four radiation treatments were used: single treatments of 0.01Gy, 0.1 Gy, 1 Gy and ten treatments of 0.1 Gy given over 10 days. Bone marrow stem cell-like cells were then harvested 6 hours, 24 hours and 24 days later. The levels of radiation-induced cell death, damage to DNA and permanent changes to cellular DNA were measured in the isolated stem cell-like cells after each radiation treatment and time point and

  1. Protocol on the use of whole-body. gamma. -irradiation for bone marrow transplantation to patients with hemoblastoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkova, T.V.; Danilova, N.B.; Nadezhina, N.M.; Petrosyan, L.N.; Selidovkin, G.D.; Nesterova, V.I.; Khrushchev, V.G.; Grammatikati, V.S.; Dorofeeva, E.M.

    1982-11-01

    Designing of proceedings for carrying out scientific and practical efforts on investigating the efficiency of transplantation of histologically compatible bone marrow to patients with acute leukosis and blastic crisis are described. The main chapters of the proceedings are presented. It is shown that the bone marraw transplantation treatment method and its practical provision are considerably complicated and the given method is available in special establishments only.

  2. Acute effects of whole-body cryotherapy on sit-and-reach amplitude in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardi, Massimo; La Torre, Antonio; Benis, Roberto; Sarabon, Nejc; Fonda, Borut

    2015-12-01

    Flexibility is an intrinsic property of body tissues, which among other factors determines the range of motion (ROM). A decrease in neural activation of the muscle has been linked with greater ROM. Cryotherapy is an effective technique to reduces neural activation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if a single session of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) affects ROM. 60 women and 60 men were divided into two groups (control and experimental). After the initial sit-and-reach test, experimental group performed a 150 s session of WBC, whereas the control group stayed in thermo-neutral environment. Immediately after, both groups performed another sit-and-reach test. A 3-way analysis of variance revealed statistically significant time×group and time × gender interaction. Experimental groups improved sit-and-reach amplitude to a greater extend than the control group. Our results support the hypothesis that ROM is increased immediately after a single session of WBC.

  3. Effect of antihistamines, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or methysergide on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in primates after 25 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Forcino, C.D. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes hypotension, cerebral ischemia and release of histamine (HA) and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relationship among these responses, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received physiological saline (i.v.), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), antihistamines (AH, mepyramine and cimetidine), or methysergide (METH), then were given 25 Gy whole-body irradiation. Monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH had higher post-irradiation mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) than saline-treated controls. Compared to levels in controls, post-irradiation hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) levels were higher in monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH. Treatment with the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist methysergide was the most effective in maintaining both rCBF and MBP after irradiation. Results support the hypothesis that the irradiation-induced cerebral ischemia and, to some extent, the hypotension is mediated by serotonin through 5-HT{sub 2} receptor sites. (author) 72 refs.

  4. Dosimetric analysis for photon and electron beams in Whole body irradiation; Analisis dosimetrico para haces de fotones y electrones en irradiacion corporal total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado G, M. [Posgrado. Fisica Medica Radiologica. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota. Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia. Instituto Regional de Cancer de la Orinoquia. Hospital Regional de Villavicencio, Meta (Colombia)

    1998-12-31

    To initiate the Whole body irradiation as an alternative for the treatment of the hematological diseases, leukemia and assistant for the osseous marrow transplantation, it may be taken account the application of International Protocols about control and quality assurance. It is established the intercomparison by the different dosimetric methods: cylindrical ionization chambers and parallel plane, radiographic emulsion film, semiconductor diodes (Mosfet transistors) and TLD-100 thermoluminescent crystals, obtained measurements for 140 x 140 cm{sup 2} fields and large distances 340 cm respect conventional fields in Radiotherapy. The in vitro dosimetry was realized at the Universal Anthropomorphic puppet Alderson Rando basically with the cylindrical crystals (1 mm diameter) of TLD-100 lithium fluoride. It was obtained the dose value with a 0.6 cm{sup 3} cylindrical ionization chamber and the Farmer electrometer for Whole body irradiation (ICT) with photons for electrons and were obtained values with the Markus plane parallel camera. Knowing the dose rate value to the source-surface distance DFS= 80 cm, it was calibrated the crystals with the reference radiation beam of {sup 60} Co for obtaining the response curve: Dose vs. Tl lecture. It was characterized the 10 % of the total population for 300 crystals for applying the statistics corresponding. The luminescence curve obtained of Gaussian form was considered satisfactory by its stability during the pre-anneal lecture and anneal process, getting the main peak lecture at 300 Centigrade according to assigned parameters at lecture equipment TLD Harshaw model 4500. The results indicate the functional dependence with the distance DFS= 340 cm for the following depth PPD, the relations TMR and TPR, the TAR is not calculated by the increment of the dispersion in air. The penumbra increment indicates an increase of the radiation field respect of luminous field. The dispersion angle q{sub 1} respect at the field central axis

  5. Effects of acute pinitol supplementation on plasma pinitol concentration, whole body glucose tolerance, and activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor in older humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, A J; Wood, K V; Thyfault, J P; Campbell, W W

    2009-05-01

    Limited research with rodents and humans suggests that oral ingestion of pinitol (3- O-methyl- D- CHIRO-inositol) might positively influence glucose tolerance. This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and cross-over study assessed the effects of acute pinitol supplementation on plasma pinitol concentration, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor. Fifteen older, nondiabetic subjects (62+/-1 years, mean+/-SEM) completed four, 1-day trials. Subjects consumed a non-nutritive beverage with nothing (placebo) or 1,000 mg pinitol. Sixty minutes later, the subjects consumed beverages that were either energy- and carbohydrate-free (Sham) or contained 75 g glucose (OGTT). Blood samples were collected frequently over the 240-min testing period. For the OGTT trials only, vastus lateralis samples were obtained before the placebo and pinitol supplementation and 60 min after consuming the 75 g glucose beverage. Plasma pinitol concentration increased and was maintained for 240 min. Pinitol did not influence the fasting state and 180-min area under the curves for plasma glucose and insulin during the Sham and OGTT trials or hepatic (placebo 0.83+/-0.08; pinitol 0.80+/-0.08) and whole-body (placebo 6.10+/-0.54; pinitol 6.22+/-0.52) insulin sensitivities. Activation of the muscle insulin receptor was increased by 140% with glucose ingestion (Pre 0.62+/-0.12; Post 1.49+/-0.35), but pinitol did not influence this response. These results show that the pinitol supplement was quickly absorbed, but did not acutely influence indices of whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, or the activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor in older, nondiabetic humans.

  6. Transcranial magnetic stimulation probes the excitability of the primary motor cortex: A framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute whole-body exercise on motor processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Davranche

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exercise on decision-making performance have been studied using a wide variety of cognitive tasks and exercise interventions. Although the current literature supports a beneficial influence of acute exercise on cognitive performance, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been elucidated. We review studies that used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to probe the excitability of motor structures during whole-body exercise and present a framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute exercise on motor processes. Recent results suggest that, even in the absence of fatigue, the increase in corticospinal excitability classically reported during submaximal and exhausting exercises may be accompanied by a reduction in intracortical inhibition. We propose that reduced intracortical inhibition elicits an adaptive central mechanism that counteracts the progressive reduction in muscle responsiveness caused by peripheral fatigue. Such a reduction would render the motor cortex more sensitive to upstream influences, thus causing increased corticospinal excitability. Furthermore, reduction of intracortical inhibition may account for the more efficient descending drive and for the improvement of reaction time performance during exercise. The adaptive modulation in intracortical inhibition could be implemented through a general increase in reticular activation that would further account for enhanced sensory sensitivity.

  7. Changes in joint angle, muscle-tendon complex length, muscle contractile tissue displacement, and modulation of EMG activity during acute whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Darryl J; Loram, Ian D; Stannard, Stephen R; Rittweger, Jörn

    2009-09-01

    It has been suggested that vibration causes small changes in muscle length, but to the best of our knowledge, these have yet to be demonstrated during whole-body vibration (WBV). This was an observational study to determine whether acute WBV would result in muscle lengthening. We hypothesized that acute WBV would increase electromyography (EMG) activity concurrently with measurable changes in muscle contractile length. Nine healthy males performed two conditions on a Galileo vibration machine for 15 s at 0 HZ (resting) and 6 HZ at a set knee angle of 18 degrees. Muscle tendon complex length, contractile tissue displacement of the medial gastrocnemius muscle, and EMG of soleus, tibialis anterior, and vastus lateralis muscles were measured. At 6 HZ the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle tendon complex (MTC) amplitude (375 microm) was significantly greater (P EMG modulation were found for all muscles during the 6 HZ compared to the 0 HZ condition. The major finding was that approximately 50% of the elongation occurred within the muscle itself and was associated with preceding changes in EMG. This indicates muscle lengthening may be a prerequisite for eliciting stretch reflexes. In conclusion, there is a temporal association between EMG activity and muscle contractile tissue displacement where low-frequency WBV results in small muscle length changes and increases muscle activation.

  8. A single whole-body low dose X-irradiation does not affect L1, B1 and IAP repeat element DNA methylation longitudinally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Newman

    Full Text Available The low dose radioadaptive response has been shown to be protective against high doses of radiation as well as aging-induced genomic instability. We hypothesised that a single whole-body exposure of low dose radiation would induce a radioadaptive response thereby reducing or abrogating aging-related changes in repeat element DNA methylation in mice. Following sham or 10 mGy X-irradiation, serial peripheral blood sampling was performed and differences in Long Interspersed Nucleic Element 1 (L1, B1 and Intracisternal-A-Particle (IAP repeat element methylation between samples were assessed using high resolution melt analysis of PCR amplicons. By 420 days post-irradiation, neither radiation- or aging-related changes in the methylation of peripheral blood, spleen or liver L1, B1 and IAP elements were observed. Analysis of the spleen and liver tissues of cohorts of untreated aging mice showed that the 17-19 month age group exhibited higher repeat element methylation than younger or older mice, with no overall decline in methylation detected with age. This is the first temporal analysis of the effect of low dose radiation on repeat element methylation in mouse peripheral blood and the first to examine the long term effect of this dose on repeat element methylation in a radiosensitive tissue (spleen and a tissue fundamental to the aging process (liver. Our data indicate that the methylation of murine DNA repeat elements can fluctuate with age, but unlike human studies, do not demonstrate an overall aging-related decline. Furthermore, our results indicate that a low dose of ionising radiation does not induce detectable changes to murine repeat element DNA methylation in the tissues and at the time-points examined in this study. This radiation dose is relevant to human diagnostic radiation exposures and suggests that a dose of 10 mGy X-rays, unlike high dose radiation, does not cause significant short or long term changes to repeat element or global DNA

  9. Short duration small sided football and to a lesser extent whole body vibration exercise induce acute changes in markers of bone turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowtell, Joanna L.; Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study whether short-duration vibration exercise or football sessions of two different durations acutely changed plasma markers of bone turnover and muscle strain. Inactive premenopausal women (n = 56) were randomized to complete a single bout of short (FG15) or long duration (FG60......) small sided football or low magnitude whole body vibration training (VIB). Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) was increased during exercise for FG15 (51.6 ± 23.0 to 56.5 ± 22.5 μg·L(-1), mean ± SD, P ....8 ± 15.1 to 36.6 ± 14.7 μg·L(-1), P > 0.05). An increase in osteocalcin was observed 48 h after exercise (P exercise groups. C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen was not affected by exercise. Blood lactate concentration increased during exercise for FG15 (0...

  10. Short Duration Small Sided Football and to a Lesser Extent Whole Body Vibration Exercise Induce Acute Changes in Markers of Bone Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowtell, J. L.; Jackman, S. R.; Scott, S.; Connolly, L. J.; Ermidis, G.; Julian, R.; Yousefian, F.; Helge, E. W.; Jørgensen, N. R.; Fulford, J.; Knapp, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study whether short-duration vibration exercise or football sessions of two different durations acutely changed plasma markers of bone turnover and muscle strain. Inactive premenopausal women (n = 56) were randomized to complete a single bout of short (FG15) or long duration (FG60) small sided football or low magnitude whole body vibration training (VIB). Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) was increased during exercise for FG15 (51.6 ± 23.0 to 56.5 ± 22.5 μg·L−1, mean ± SD, P 0.05). An increase in osteocalcin was observed 48 h after exercise (P < 0.05), which did not differ between exercise groups. C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen was not affected by exercise. Blood lactate concentration increased during exercise for FG15 (0.6 ± 0.2 to 3.4 ± 1.2 mM) and FG60 (0.6 ± 0.2 to 3.3 ± 2.0 mM), but not for VIB (0.6 ± 0.2 to 0.8 ± 0.4 mM) (P < 0.05). Plasma creatine kinase increased by 55 ± 63% and 137 ± 119% 48 h after FG15 and FG60 (P < 0.05), but not after VIB (26 ± 54%, NS). In contrast to the minor elevation in osteocalcin in response to a single session of vibration exercise, both short and longer durations of small sided football acutely increased plasma P1NP, osteocalcin, and creatine kinase. This may contribute to favorable effects of chronic training on musculoskeletal health. PMID:28025642

  11. The effects of acute whole body vibration as a recovery modality following high-intensity interval training in well-trained, middle-aged runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, J; Mündel, T; Weir, K; Cochrane, D J

    2009-02-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of acute whole body vibration (WBV) on recovery following a 3 km time trial (3 km TT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (8 x 400 m). Post-HIIT measures included 3 km time-trial performance, exercise metabolism and markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase, CK) and inflammation (c-reactive protein, CRP). A second purpose was to determine the effects of a 3 km TT and HIIT on performance and metabolism the following day. Nine well-trained, middle-aged, male runners [(mean +/- SD) age 45 +/- 6 years, body mass 75 +/- 7 kg, VO2peak 58 +/- 5 ml kg(-1 )min(-1)] performed a constant pace run at 60 and 80% velocity at VO2peak (v VO2peak) followed by a 3-km TT and a 8 x 400-m HIIT session on two occasions. Following one occasion, the athletes performed 2 x 15 min of low frequency (12 Hz) WBV, whilst the other occasion was a non-WBV control. Twenty-four hours after each HIIT session (day 2) participants performed the constant pace run (60 and 80% v VO2peak) and 3 km TT again. There was a significant decrease in 3 km TT performance (~10 s) 24 h after the HIIT session (P 0.05). Creatine kinase was significantly elevated on day 2, though there were no differences between conditions (P > 0.05). VO2peak and blood lactate were lower on day 2 (P 0.05). These results show no benefit of WBV on running performance recovery following a HIIT session. However, we have shown that there may be acute alterations in metabolism 24 h following such a running session in well-trained, middle-aged runners.

  12. Short Duration Small Sided Football and to a Lesser Extent Whole Body Vibration Exercise Induce Acute Changes in Markers of Bone Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bowtell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study whether short-duration vibration exercise or football sessions of two different durations acutely changed plasma markers of bone turnover and muscle strain. Inactive premenopausal women (n=56 were randomized to complete a single bout of short (FG15 or long duration (FG60 small sided football or low magnitude whole body vibration training (VIB. Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP was increased during exercise for FG15 (51.6±23.0 to 56.5±22.5 μg·L−1, mean ± SD, P0.05. An increase in osteocalcin was observed 48 h after exercise (P<0.05, which did not differ between exercise groups. C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen was not affected by exercise. Blood lactate concentration increased during exercise for FG15 (0.6±0.2 to 3.4±1.2 mM and FG60 (0.6±0.2 to 3.3±2.0 mM, but not for VIB (0.6±0.2 to 0.8±0.4 mM (P<0.05. Plasma creatine kinase increased by 55±63% and 137±119% 48 h after FG15 and FG60 (P<0.05, but not after VIB (26±54%, NS. In contrast to the minor elevation in osteocalcin in response to a single session of vibration exercise, both short and longer durations of small sided football acutely increased plasma P1NP, osteocalcin, and creatine kinase. This may contribute to favorable effects of chronic training on musculoskeletal health.

  13. Pegylated G-CSF Inhibits Blood Cell Depletion, Increases Platelets, Blocks Splenomegaly, and Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation but Not after Irradiation Combined with Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation alone (radiation injury, RI or combined with traumatic tissue injury (radiation combined injury, CI is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological accidents. As demonstrated in animal models, CI results in greater mortality than RI. In our laboratory, we found that B6D2F1/J female mice exposed to 60Co-γ-photon radiation followed by 15% total-body-surface-area skin burns experienced an increment of 18% higher mortality over a 30-day observation period compared to irradiation alone; that was accompanied by severe cytopenia, thrombopenia, erythropenia, and anemia. At the 30th day after injury, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets still remained very low in surviving RI and CI mice. In contrast, their RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were similar to basal levels. Comparing CI and RI mice, only RI induced splenomegaly. Both RI and CI resulted in bone marrow cell depletion. It was observed that only the RI mice treated with pegylated G-CSF after RI resulted in 100% survival over the 30-day period, and pegylated G-CSF mitigated RI-induced body-weight loss and depletion of WBC and platelets. Peg-G-CSF treatment sustained RBC balance, hemoglobin levels, and hematocrits and inhibited splenomegaly after RI. The results suggest that pegylated G-CSF effectively sustained animal survival by mitigating radiation-induced cytopenia, thrombopenia, erythropenia, and anemia.

  14. The acute effects of different training loads of whole body vibration on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, G; Paradisis, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V; Argitaki, P; Smirniotou, A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different vibration loads (frequency and amplitude) of whole-body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in springboard divers. Eighteen male and female divers, aged 19 ± 2 years, volunteered to perform 3 different WBV protocols in the present study. To assess the vibration effect, flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were measured before (Pre), immediately after (Post 1) and 15 min after the end of vibration exposure (Post 15). Three protocols with different frequencies and amplitudes were used in the present study: a) low vibration frequency and amplitude (30 Hz/2 mm); b) high vibration frequency and amplitude (50 Hz/4 mm); c) a control protocol (no vibration). WBV protocols were performed on a Power Plate platform, whereas the no vibration divers performed the same protocol but with the vibration platform turned off. A two-way ANOVA 3 x 3 (protocol × time) with repeated measures on both factors was used. The level of significance was set at p flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were significantly higher in both WBV protocols compared to the no vibration group (NVG). The greatest improvement in flexibility and explosive strength, which occurred immediately after vibration treatment, was maintained 15 min later in both WBV protocols, whereas NVG revealed a significant decrease 15 min later, in all examined strength parameters. In conclusion, a bout of WBV significantly increased flexibility and explosive strength in competitive divers compared with the NVG. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate WBV as a method to increase flexibility and vertical jump height in sports where these parameters play an important role in the success outcome of these sports.

  15. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  16. The effects of exogenous glutathione on reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities of rats with different ages and gender after whole-body Γ-irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Erden Inal, Mine; Akgün, Asiye; Kahraman, Ahmet

    2003-01-01

    Age-and gender-related changes on reduced glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver of rat exposed to different dose of whole-body g-ray irradiation were determined. In addition, the effect of administration of exogenous GSH on endogenous GSH levels, GPx and GR activities was investigated. For this aim, male and female rats aged 1 and 5 moths were divided into two groups as g-ray and g-ray+GSH. Both groups were again divided i...

  17. Skin Inqjuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + γ-Photons Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI increase mortality more than whole-body γ-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6 concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP, complement 3 (C3, immunoglobulin M (IgM, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3 Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n+γ-photons radiations at 0.38 Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival.

  18. SU-E-T-366: Estimation of Whole Body Dose From Cranial Irradiation From C and Perfexion Series Gamma Knife Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S [Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleaveland, OH (United States); Andersen, A; Lulu, B; Das, I [Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleaveland, OH (United States); Cheng, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The Leksell Gamma Knife (GK) B & C series contains 201 Cobalt-60 sources with a helmet. The new model, Perfexion uses 192 Cobalt-60 sources without a helmet; using IRIS system for collimation and stereotactic guidance to deliver SRS to brain tumors. Relative dose to extracranial organs at risk (OARs) is measured in phantom in this study for Perfexion and C-series GK. Materials & Methods: Measurements were performed in a Rando anthropomorphic phantom on both systems using a large ion chamber (Keithley-175) for each collimator. The Keithley-175 cc ion chamber was sandwiched between phantom slices at various locations in the phantom to correspond to different extracranial OARs (thyroid, heart, kidney, ovary and testis, etc.) The dose measurement was repeated with OSL detectors for each position and collimator. Results: A large variation is observed in the normalized dose between these two systems. The dose beyond the housing falls off exponentially for Perfexion. Dose beyond the C-series GK housing falls off exponentially from 0–20cm then remains relatively constant from 20–40cm and again falls off with distance but less rapidly. The variation of extracranial dose with distance for each collimator is found to be parallel to each other for both systems. Conclusion: Whole body dose is found to vary significantly between these systems. It is important to measure the extracranial dose, especially for young patients. It is estimated that dose falls off exponentially from the GK housing and is about 1% for large collimators at 75 cm. The dose is two-orders of magnitude smaller for the 4mm collimator. However, this small dose for patient may be significant radiologically.

  19. Effect of Acute and Fractionated Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kyu Kim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation has become an inevitable health concern emanating from natural sources like space travel and from artificial sources like medical therapies. In general, exposure to ionizing radiation such as γ-rays is one of the methods currently used to stress specific model systems. In this study, we elucidated the long-term effect of acute and fractionated irradiation on DCX-positive cells in hippocampal neurogenesis. Groups of two-month-old C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at acute dose (5 Gy or fractional doses (1 Gy × 5 times and 0.5 Gy × 10 times. Six months after exposure to γ-irradiation, the hippocampus was analyzed. Doublecortin (DCX immunohistochemistry was used to measure changes of neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG. The number of DCX-positive cells was significantly decreased in all acute and fractionally irradiation groups. The long-term changes in DCX-positive cells triggered by radiation exposure showed a very different pattern to the short-term changes which tended to return to the control level in previous studies. Furthermore, the number of DCX-positive cells was relatively lower in the acute irradiation group than the fractional irradiation groups (approximately 3.6-fold, suggesting the biological change on hippocampal neurogenesis was more susceptible to being damaged by acute than fractional irradiation. These results suggest that the exposure to γ-irradiation as a long-term effect can trigger biological responses resulting in the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis.

  20. Mechanisms of delayed re epithelization in wounds combined with whole body irradiation injury%合并全身放射损伤伤口表皮再上皮化延迟的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈纪富; 程天民; 许霖水; 史春梦; 冉新泽

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanisms of delayed re epithelization in wounds combined with whole body irradiation (WBI) injury.Methods We observed re epithelization in wounds by histological methods and transmission electron microscopy, detected the contents of proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein and mRNA using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH) methods. Results Re epithelization in wounds combined with WBI injury was significantly delayed as compared with simple incision injury, and the contents of PCNA protein and mRNA significantly decreased too. Conclusions WBI injury has direct effect on wound epidermic cells, especially the suppress of epidermic basal cell proliferation, which may be an important reason why wound combined with WBI injury heals more slowly.

  1. Protective effects of a preparation(hemoHIM) of herb mixture on self-renewal tissues and immune system in whole body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jo, Sung-Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung-Tae [Sunchon National Univ., Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    A preparation (HemoHIM) of herb mixture was designed to protect the gastrointestine and hematopoietic organs and to promote recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. The mixture of 3 edible medicinal herbs (Angelica gagantis Radix, etc.) was decocted with hot water and the extract was fractionated with ethanol. The preparation HemoHIM was made up with addition of ethanol- insoluble fraction yielded from one half of the total water extract to the other half of the total water extract. In vitro, lymphocytes were protected by HemoHIM, its polysaccharide and ethanol fractions against radiation. The proliferation of lymphocytes and bone marrow cells by HemoHIM was due to its polysaccharide fraction. In mice administered with the preparation (HemoHIM) before gamma- irradiation, the jejunal crypt survival was increased and the apoptosis of crypt cells was decreased. HemoHIM administration increased the survival of bone marrow stem cells and promoted the repopulation of blood cells following irradiation. In the analysis of the repopulated lymphocyte subsets, B cells were firstly regenerated and then T cells were recovered in mice administrated with HemoHIM. The antibody production against T-dependent antigen DNP-KLH was augmented by HemoHIM in irradiated mice. These results indicated that HemoHIM, a preparation of the herb mixture, protected the stem cells of self-renewal tissues and hematopoietic organs and promoted recovery of the immune system against radiation damage. Since the preparation of herb mixture is a relatively nontoxic natural product, it might be a useful modifier for prevention and control of radiation damages.

  2. Changes in circulating angiogenic factors after an acute training bout before and after resistance training with or without whole-body-vibration training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; May, Francisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Joern; Rosenberger, Andre

    2012-07-01

    Both Resistance Exercise and Whole-Body-Vibration training are currently considered as countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Here we investigated the effects of whole-body vibration superimposed upon resistance exercise. Within this context, the present study focuses on changes in circulating angiogenic factors as indicators of skeletal muscle adaption. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male subjects (25.2 ± 4.2 yr) were included in this two-group parallel-designed study and randomly assigned to one of the training interventions: either resistance exercise (RE) or resistance vibration exercise (RVE). Participants trained 2-3 times per week for 6 weeks (completing 16 training sessions), where one session took 9 ± 1 min. Participants trained with weights on a guided barbell. The individual training load was set at 80% of their 1-Repetition-Maximum. Each training session consisted of three sets with 8 squats and 12 heel raises, following an incremental training design with regards to weight (RE and RVE) and vibration frequency (RVE only). The vibration frequency was increased from 20 Hz in the first week till 40 Hz during the last two weeks with 5-Hz weekly increments. At the first and 16 ^{th} training session, six blood samples (pre training and 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 35 min and 75 min post training) were taken. Circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Endostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMPs) were determined in serum using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Results: MMP-2 levels increased by 7.0% (SE = 2.7%, P < 0.001) within two minutes after the exercise bout and then decreased to 5.7% below baseline (SE = 2.4%, P < 0.001) between 15 and 75 minutes post exercise. This response was comparable before and after the training programs (P = 0.70) and also between the two intervention groups (P = 0.42). Preliminary analyses indicate that a similar pattern applies to circulating MMP-9, VEGF and

  3. Differential susceptibility of C57BL/6NCr and B6.Cg-Ptprca mice to commensal bacteria after whole body irradiation in translational bone marrow transplant studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toubai Tomomi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mouse is an important and widely utilized animal model for bone marrow transplant (BMT translational studies. Here, we document the course of an unexpected increase in mortality of congenic mice that underwent BMT. Methods Thirty five BMTs were analyzed for survival differences utilizing the Log Rank test. Affected animals were evaluated by physical examination, necropsy, histopathology, serology for antibodies to infectious disease, and bacterial cultures. Results Severe bacteremia was identified as the main cause of death. Gastrointestinal (GI damage was observed in histopathology. The bacteremia was most likely caused by the translocation of bacteria from the GI tract and immunosuppression caused by the myeloablative irradiation. Variability in groups of animals affected was caused by increased levels of gamma and X-ray radiation and the differing sensitivity of the two nearly genetically identical mouse strains used in the studies. Conclusion Our retrospective analysis of thirty five murine BMTs performed in three different laboratories, identified C57BL/6NCr (Ly5.1 as being more radiation sensitive than B6.Cg-Ptprca/NCr (Ly5.2. This is the first report documenting a measurable difference in radiation sensitivity and its effects between an inbred strain of mice and its congenic counterpart eventually succumbing to sepsis after BMT.

  4. 全身振动训练对脑卒中患者平衡及步行能力的影响%Effect of Whole Body Vibration Training on Balance and Walking Ability of Post-acute Stroke Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国兴; 刘四文

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of whole body vibration on balance and walking ability in post-acute stroke patients. Methods: Twenty patients were assigned randomly to control group (10 cases) and vibration group (10 cases). Both groups received regular rehabilitation treatment for 6 weeks. In addition, vibration group received whole body vibration training. Outcome variables included the Berg balance scale and functional ambulation category before and six weeks after treatment. Results: There was significant difference in the scores of Berg balance and functional ambulation category in both groups before and after treatment (P<0. 01) or between two groups (P< 0. 05). Conclusion; The whole body vibration training to post-acute stroke patients is effective on balance and walking ability.%目的:探讨全身振动训练对脑卒中患者平衡及步行能力的影响.方法:将符合诊断标准的脑卒中患者20例随机分为A组和B组各10例,均采用物理、运动、作业、语言、传统中医等疗法,并配合矫形的应用等治疗.B组在患者能站立情况下加入全身振动训练.分别评定2组Berg平衡量表(BBS)和功能性步行量表(FAC)的数据进行比较.结果:治疗6周后,BBS及FAS评分2组均较治疗前有明显的提高(P<0.01),2组间比较,B组提高幅度明显大于A组(P<0.05).结论:在常规康复治疗基础上辅助全身振动训练,可显著提高脑卒中患者神经肌肉运动的表现能力,使其平衡和步行能力得到进一步改善.

  5. Effects of Acute Pinitol Supplementation on Plasma Pinitol Concentration, Whole Body Glucose Tolerance, and Activation of the Skeletal Muscle Insulin Receptor in Older Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Stull, A. J.; Wood, K V; Thyfault, J. P.; Campbell, W.W.

    2009-01-01

    Limited research with rodents and humans suggests that oral ingestion of pinitol (3-O-methyl-d-chiro-inositol) might positively influence glucose tolerance. This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and cross-over study assessed the effects of acute pinitol supplementation on plasma pinitol concentration, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor. Fifteen older, nondiabetic subjects (62 ± 1 years, mean ± SEM) completed four, 1-day trials. Su...

  6. Measurement of absorbed radiation doses during whole body irradiation for bone marrow transplants using thermoluminescent dosimeters; Verificacao das doses de radiacao absorvidas durante a tecnica de irradiacao de corpo inteiro nos transplantes de medula ossea, por meio de dosimetros termoluminescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordani, Adelmo Jose; Segreto, Helena Cristina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Oliveira, Jose Salvador R. de [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Setor de Radioterapia]. E-mail: adelmogiordani@ig.com.br

    2004-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the precision of the absorbed radiation doses in bone marrow transplant therapy during whole body irradiation. Two-hundred CaSO{sub 4}:Dy + teflon tablets were calibrated in air and in 'phantom'. These tablets were randomly selected and divided in groups of five in the patients' body. The dosimetric readings were obtained using a Harshaw 4000A reader. Nine patients had their entire bodies irradiated in parallel and opposite laterals in a cobalt-60 Alcion II model, with a dose rate of 0.80 Gy/min at 80.5 cm, {l_brace}(10 ? 10) cm{sup 2} field. The dosimetry of this unit was performed using a Victoreen 500 dosimeter. For the determination of the mean dose at each point evaluated, the individual values of the tablets calibrated in air or 'phantom' were used, resulting in a build up of 2 mm to superficialize the dose at a distance of 300 cm. In 70% of the patients a variation of less than 5% in the dose was obtained. In 30% of the patients this variation was less than 10%, when values obtained were compared to the values calculated at each point. A mean absorption of 14% was seen in the head, and an increase of 2% of the administered dose was seen in the lungs. In patients with latero-lateral distance greater than 35 cm the variation between the calculated doses and the measured doses reached 30% of the desired dose, without the use of compensation filters. The measured values of the absorbed doses at the various anatomic points compared to the desired doses (theoretic) presented a tolerance of {+-} 10%, considering the existent anatomical differences and when using the individual calibration factors of the tablets. (author)

  7. Acute biological effects of simulating the whole-body radiation dose distribution from a solar particle event using a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Sanzari, Jenine K; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Yee, Stephanie S; Seykora, John T; Maks, Casey; Ware, Jeffrey H; Litt, Harold I; Reetz, Jennifer A; McDonough, James; Weissman, Drew; Kennedy, Ann R; Cengel, Keith A

    2011-11-01

    In a solar particle event (SPE), an unshielded astronaut would receive proton radiation with an energy profile that produces a highly inhomogeneous dose distribution (skin receiving a greater dose than internal organs). The novel concept of using megavoltage electron-beam radiation to more accurately reproduce both the total dose and the dose distribution of SPE protons and make meaningful RBE comparisons between protons and conventional radiation has been described previously. Here, Yucatan minipigs were used to determine the effects of a superficial, SPE-like proton dose distribution using megavoltage electrons. In these experiments, dose-dependent increases in skin pigmentation, ulceration, keratinocyte necrosis and pigment incontinence were observed. Five of 18 animals (one each exposed to 7.5 Gy and 12.5 Gy radiation and three exposed to 25 Gy radiation) developed symptomatic, radiation-associated pneumonopathy approximately 90 days postirradiation. The three animals from the highest dose group showed evidence of mycoplasmal pneumonia along with radiation pneumonitis. Moreover, delayed-type hypersensitivity was found to be altered, suggesting that superficial irradiation of the skin with ionizing radiation might cause immune dysfunction or dysregulation. In conclusion, using total doses, patterns of dose distribution, and dose rates that are compatible with potential astronaut exposure to SPE radiation, animals experienced significant toxicities that were qualitatively different from toxicities previously reported in pigs for homogeneously delivered radiation at similar doses.

  8. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration con

  9. The evolution of whole-body imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the evolution of whole-body imaging, discussing the history and development of radiography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), combined PET-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. The obstacles hindering progress toward whole-body imaging using each of these modalities, and the technical advances that were developed to overcome them, are reviewed. The effectiveness and the limitations of whole-body imaging with each of these techniques are also briefly discussed.

  10. Whole-body imaging modalities in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Fiona; Shortt, Conor P; Shelly, Martin J; Eustace, Stephen J; O'Connell, Martin J

    2010-03-01

    This article outlines the expanding approaches to whole-body imaging in oncology focusing on whole-body MRI and comparing it to emerging applications of whole-body CT, scintigraphy, and above all PET CT imaging. Whole-body MRI is widely available, non-ionizing and rapidly acquired, and inexpensive relative to PET CT. While it has many advantages, WBMRI is non-specific and, when compared to PET CT, is less sensitive. This article expands each of these issues comparing individual modalities as they refer to specific cancers.

  11. INVOLVEMENT OF THE Ca2+-PROTEIN KINASE C AND ADENYLATE CYCLACE SIGNAL PATHWAYS IN THE ACTIVATION OF THYMOCYTES IN RESPONSE TO WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION WITH LOW DOSE X-RAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the molecular mechanism of the stimulatory effect of low dose radiation(LDR) on T cell activation.Methods. Thymocytes from Kunming mice exposed to whole-body irradiation(WBI) with different doses of X-rays were analyzed for the changes in signal molecules of the phospholipase C-phosphatidylinositol biphosphate(PLC-IP2) and G protein-adenylate cyclase(AC) pathways.Results.It was found that[Ca2+]i increased in response to doses within 0.2 Gy which was most marked after 0.075 Gy and the increase was accentuated in the presence of Con A. The changes in CD3 and calcineurin(CN) expression of the thymocytes followed the same pattern as the alterations in [Ca2+]i after LDR. The expression of α,β1 and β2 isoforms of protein kinase C(PKC) was all up-regulated after 0.075 Gy with the increase in PKC-β1 expression being most marked. The cAMP/cGMP ratio and PKA activity of the thymocytes was lowered after low dose radiation and increased after doses above 0.5 Gy in a dose-dependent manner, thus giving rise to J-shaped dose-response curves. The Ca antagonist TMB-8 and cAMP stimulant cholera toxin suppressed the augmented thymocyte proliferation induced by LDR.Conclusion.Data presented in the present paper suggest that activation of the PLC-PIP2 signal pathway and suppression of the AC-cAMP signal pathway are involved in the stimulation of the thymocytes following WBI with low dose X-rays.

  12. 3D whole body scanners revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Haar, F.B. ter

    2013-01-01

    An overview of whole body scanners in 1998 (H.A.M. Daanen, G.J. Van De Water. Whole body scanners, Displays 19 (1998) 111-120) shortly after they emerged to the market revealed that the systems were bulky, slow, expensive and low in resolution. This update shows that new developments in sensing and

  13. A prospective study of the early clinical symptoms following a 2 Gy therapeutic whole-body irradiation; Etude prospective de la symptomatologie clinique precoce apres irradiation corporelle totale therapeutique de 2 Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fizazi, K.; Chaillet, M.P.; Fourquet, A.; Jammet, P.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-10-01

    Early human tolerance following total body irradiation (TBI) according to the dose received is still poorly known. Thirteen selected patients were prospectively evaluated for clinical side effects during the first 10 hours following a 2 Gy TBI prior to bone marrow transplantation. All of them but one were treated for haematological malignancies and were in clinical remission at the date of TBI. There were 10 males and 3 females, with a median age of 43 y (range 16*61) and a good performance status (WHO 0-1). They received granisetron (3 mg) injected intravenously 1 h before the time of TBI in order to prevent nausea and vomiting. The main symptoms consisted in drowsiness (69%), headache (62%), xerostomia (62%), nausea and vomiting (46%), anorexia (38%), parotid gland pain (23%) and abdominal pain (8%). Their intensity was always moderate, except for 2 patients who experimented severe vomiting. The incidence rate and the time-course of the symptoms of the prodromal phase may proved to be helpful for early clinical evaluation and triage of victims of an accidental irradiation. In particular, absence of fever at the 6{sup th} h after TBI supports the assumption of an estimated exposure dose below 2 Gy. (authors). 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Small and inconsistent effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lesinski, Melanie; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    We quantified the acute and chronic effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance or its proxy measures in competitive and/or elite athletes. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 0.3 % acute effect on maximal voluntary l

  15. Radiation exposure in whole body CT screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Pamidighantam; Ratnam, S V; Rao, K V J

    2011-04-01

    Using a technology that "takes a look" at people's insides and promises early warnings of cancer, cardiac disease, and other abnormalities, clinics and medical imaging facilities nationwide are touting a new service for health conscious people: "Whole body CT screening" this typically involves scanning the body from the chin to below the hips with a form of x-ray imaging that produces cross-sectional images. In USA direct-to-consumer marketing of whole body CT is occurring today in many metropolitan areas. Free standing CT screening centres are being sited in shopping malls and other high density public areas, and these centres are being advertised in the electronic and print media. In this context the present article discussed the pros and cons of having such centres in India with the advent of multislice CT leading to fast scan times.

  16. Whole body MR imaging in diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weckbach, Sabine [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)], E-mail: sabine.weckbach@umm.de; Schoenberg, Stefan O. [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cardiovascular risk factor and one of the major causes for morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic complications have not only major impact on the quality of life of diabetic patients, but are also potentially life-threatening. Therefore prevention, diagnosis and therapy of these long-term complications are of high importance. However, diagnosis of the variety of complications from diabetes mellitus remains a diagnostic challenge and usually several diagnostic steps are necessary to diagnose or exclude these complications. In the last years whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) has been introduced for cardiovascular imaging and is now increasingly applied in clinical routine for the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease and for cardiovascular screening. The article summarizes rationales for WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus, technical concepts of disease specific cardiovascular WB-MRI in diabetes mellitus and discusses potential clinical consequences.

  17. Whole body MR imaging: applications in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Brennan, S; Ford, S; Eustace, S

    2006-04-01

    This article reviews technique and clinical applications of whole body MR imaging as a diagnostic tool in cancer staging. In particular the article reviews its role as an alternative to scintigraphy (bone scan and PET) in staging skeletal spread of disease, its role in assessing total tumour burden, its role in multiple myeloma and finally its evolving non oncologic role predominantly assessing total body composition.

  18. Whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Wurnig, Moritz C.; Eberhardt, Christian; Guggenberger, Roman; Boss, Andreas [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Luechinger, Roger [University and ETH Zurich, Institute of Biomedical Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the technical feasibility of whole-body intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging. Whole-body MR images of eight healthy volunteers were acquired at 3T using a spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with eight b-values. Coronal parametrical whole-body maps of diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and the perfusion fraction (F{sub p}) were calculated. Image quality was rated qualitatively by two independent radiologists, and inter-reader reliability was tested with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in the brain, liver, kidney, and erector spinae muscle. Depiction of anatomic structures was rated as good on D maps and good to fair on D* and F{sub p} maps. Exemplary mean D (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), D* (10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and F{sub p} (%) values (± standard deviation) of the renal cortex were as follows: 1.7 ± 0.2; 15.6 ± 6.5; 20.9 ± 4.4. Inter-observer agreement was ''substantial'' to ''almost perfect'' (ICC = 0.80 - 0.92). The coefficient of variation of D* was significantly lower with the proposed algorithm compared to the conventional algorithm (p < 0.001), indicating higher stability. The proposed IVIM protocol allows computation of parametrical maps with good to fair image quality. Potential future clinical applications may include characterization of widespread disease such as metastatic tumours or inflammatory myopathies. (orig.)

  19. Whole body acid-base modeling revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Troels; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-04-01

    The textbook account of whole body acid-base balance in terms of endogenous acid production, renal net acid excretion, and gastrointestinal alkali absorption, which is the only comprehensive model around, has never been applied in clinical practice or been formally validated. To improve understanding of acid-base modeling, we managed to write up this conventional model as an expression solely on urine chemistry. Renal net acid excretion and endogenous acid production were already formulated in terms of urine chemistry, and we could from the literature also see gastrointestinal alkali absorption in terms of urine excretions. With a few assumptions it was possible to see that this expression of net acid balance was arithmetically identical to minus urine charge, whereby under the development of acidosis, urine was predicted to acquire a net negative charge. The literature already mentions unexplained negative urine charges so we scrutinized a series of seminal papers and confirmed empirically the theoretical prediction that observed urine charge did acquire negative charge as acidosis developed. Hence, we can conclude that the conventional model is problematic since it predicts what is physiologically impossible. Therefore, we need a new model for whole body acid-base balance, which does not have impossible implications. Furthermore, new experimental studies are needed to account for charge imbalance in urine under development of acidosis.

  20. Clinical trial of low-dose whole body irradiation "in the non-myeloablative hemtapoietic stem cell transplantation%低剂量全身照射在非清髓性干细胞移植中的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房彤; 高宏

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察非清髓性低剂量全身照射的临床效果和急性毒副作用.方法 2006年1月至2008年1月对27例异基因造血干细胞移植患者采用含有全身照射的非清髓预处理方案:全身照射(TBI)2 Gy,一次完成;受者原发病不同,受者机体状态、年龄、脏器功能以及供受者HAL相合情况等不同,使用的化疗方案也有不同,包括氟达拉宾、环磷酰胺、阿糖胞苷、马法兰等.预防移植物抗宿主病(GVHD)采用:环孢霉素、霉酚酸酯.结果 造血重建情况:27例均于移植后第4~8天外周血WBC降至(0.05~0.9)×109/L.中性粒细胞计数>0.5×109/L为8~22 d(中位数为10.5 d),血小板计数>30×109/L为11~28 d(中位数为14.5 d).1、2年生存率为85.2%(23/27)、77.8%(21/27).发热率65%,10例发生感染.无出血性膀胱炎和肝静脉闭塞症等并发症.急性GVHD 4例(15%),慢性GVHD 5例(19%).随访3~22个月21例(77.8%)仍存活.结论 采用低剂量全身照射的非清髓性造血干细胞移植预处理方案简便安全,并发症少,适应证广;全身照射总剂量2 Gy,1次完成的方案是安全有效的,可以达到免疫抑制效果.%Objective To observe the efficacy and acute toxicity in non-myeloablative low-dose tatal body irradiation. Methods From January 2006 to January 2008, 27 cases of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients received non-myeloablative pretreatment program involving low-dose whole body irradiation. Pretreatment program: the total dose of TBI was 2 Gy, once completely. According to primary disease, physical condition, age, organ function and HAL coincide situation, the patients received different chemotherapy, including FUL, CTX, Ara-C, melphalan and so on. To prevent the graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), CSA/MMF was used. Results Hematopeietic reconstruction: the peripheral blood WBC in all 27 cases reduced to (0.05-0.9) × 109/L in 4 to 8 days, with the neutrophil count > 0.5 × 109/L in 8 to 22 days (median + 10

  1. FDA Throws Cold Water on Whole Body Cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html FDA Throws Cold Water on Whole Body Cryotherapy Exposure to ultra-low temperatures shows no benefits ... evidence that a growing trend called whole body cryotherapy is effective, but it does pose a number ...

  2. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: assessment of skeletal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynagh, Michael R; Colleran, Gabrielle C; Tavernaraki, Katarina; Eustace, Stephen J; Kavanagh, Eoin C

    2010-03-01

    The concept of a rapid whole-body imaging technique with high resolution and the absence of ionizing radiation for the assessment of osseous metastatic disease is a desirable tool. This review article outlines the current perspective of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of skeletal metastatic disease, with comparisons made to alternative whole-body imaging modalities.

  3. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section...

  4. Action slips during whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimatsu, Kazuma; Meland, Anders; Hansen, Tor Are S; Kåsin, Jan Ivar; Wagstaff, Anthony S

    2016-07-01

    Helicopter aircrew members engage in highly demanding cognitive tasks in an environment subject to whole-body vibration (WBV). Sometimes their actions may not be according to plan (e.g. action slips and lapses). This study used a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) to examine whether action slips were more frequent during exposure to WBV. Nineteen participants performed the SART in two blocks. In the WBV block participants were exposed to 17 Hz vertical WBV, which is typical of larger helicopter working environments. In the No-WBV block there was no WBV. There were more responses to the rare no-go digit 3 (i.e. action slips) in the WBV block, and participants responded faster in the WBV block. These results suggest that WBV influences response inhibition, and can induce impulsive responding. WBV may increase the likelihood of action slips, mainly due to failure of response inhibition.

  5. Effect of two graded doses of whole-body X-irradiation and radioprotection by the use of S-phenethyl formamidino 4(N-ethyl isothioamide) morpholine dihydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, S.S.; Chaturvedi, P.K.; Pandeya, S.N.

    1983-10-01

    The protection offered by a newly synthesized compound (S-phenethyl-formamidino-4(N-ethyl isothioamide) morpholine dihydrochloride) against radiation effects on DNA, RNA and protein biosynthetic processes in the brain, and on metabolites of 5-HT and nor-adrenalin, i.e., 5-HIAA and VMA, in the urine, including the radiobiological damage to thyroid and testes, was evaluated. The use of the compound prior to irradiation prevented radiation-induced changes in the thyroid and testes. The radiation-induced alterations in the pattern of DNA, RNA, protein in the brain, and in 5-HIAA and VMA in urine could be averted by treatment with this compound prior to each dose of X-irradiation.

  6. Quantitative, functional and biochemical alterations in the peritoneal cells of mice exposed to whole-body gamma-irradiation. 1. Changes in cellular protein, adherence properties and enzymatic activities associated with platelet-activating factor formation and inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steel, L.K.; Hughes, H.N.; Walden, T.L. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    Changes in total number, differentials, cell protein, adherence properties, acetyl-CoA transferase and acetylhydrolase activities, prostaglandin E/sub 2/ and leukotriene C/sub 4/ production, as well as Ca/sup 2+/ ionophore A23187 stimulation were examined in resident peritoneal cells isolated from mice 2 h to 10 days postexposure to a single dose (7, 10 or 12 Gy) of gamma-radiation. Radiation dose-related reductions in macrophage and lymphocyte numbers and increases in cellular protein and capacity to adhere to plastic surfaces were evident. In vivo irradiation also elevated the activities of acetyltransferase and acetyl-CoA hydrolase (catalysing platelet-activating factor biosynthesis and inactivation, respectively) in adherent and nonadherent peritoneal cells, particularly 3-4 days postexposure. Blood plasma from irradiated animals did not reflect the increased cellular acetyl-hydrolase activity. Prostaglandin E/sub 2/ and leukotriene C/sub 4/ synthesis were elevated postexposure, suggesting increased substrate (arachidonate) availability and increased cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities. Ionophore stimulation of enzyme activities and eicosanoid release also differed in irradiated peritoneal cells.

  7. Effect of a non lethal whole-body gamma irradiation on the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalographic activities of the adult rabbit; Effets d'une irradiation gamma globale non letale sur les activites electroencephalograpiques spontanees et evoquees du lapin adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The whole of the experimental methods described (animal preparation, achievement of a precise physiological technique, dosimetry, biological information processing) allowed us to follow the changes for 15 days in the spontaneous and evoked electroencephalogram activities of rabbits submitted to a non-lethal 400 rads whole-body gamma-irradiation. Behavioural troubles, changes in the arousal state and the spontaneous electrical activity of the neo-cortex and hippocampus were noticed constantly together with an enhanced cortical excitability, and the appearance of elements of the paroxystic series sometimes in contrast with a general decrease in amplitude. After a visual stimulus the general morphology of evoked activities at the level of the primary visual areas and hippocampus was unchanged, but enhanced latencies and delays, less systematic modifications in amplitudes seemed to show out a direct effect of radiations on the nervous system and sensorial activities; these troubles seemed to occur independently from the basic electrical activity. As a whole, the changes observed were usually transitory and varied with each individual. Finally an assumption is made to explain the mechanism of arousal troubles and the general evolution of spontaneous electrical activity in the brain. (author) [French] 'L'ensemble des methodes experimentales decrites (preparation des animaux, mise au point d'une technique physiologique precise, dosimetrie, traitement de l'information biologique) a permis de suivre, pendant 15 jours, chez le lapin soumis a une irradiation gamma globale non letale de 400 rads, les modifications des activites electroencephaliques spontanees et evoquees. De facon constante, on note des troubles du comportement, des modifications de la vigilance et de l'activite electrique spontanee du neo-cortex et de l'hippocampe, ainsi qu'une augmentation de l'excitabilite corticale, l'apparition d'elements de la serie

  8. Whole-body MRI in paediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Littooij, Annemieke S

    2016-05-01

    Imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and follow-up of paediatric malignancies. Until recently, computed tomography (CT) has been the imaging technique of choice in children with cancer, but nowadays there is an increasing interest in the use of functional imaging techniques like positron emission tomography and single-photon emission tomography. These later techniques are often combined with CT allowing for simultaneous acquisition of image data on the biological behaviour of tumour, as well as the anatomical localisation and extent of tumour spread. Because of the small but not negligible risk of radiation induced secondary cancers and the significantly improved overall survival rates of children with cancer, there is an increasing interest in the use of alternative imaging techniques that do not use ionising radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging tool that allows for acquiring images with a high spatial resolution and excellent soft tissue contrast throughout the body. Moreover, recent technological advances have resulted in fast diagnostic sequences for whole-body MR imaging (WB-MRI), including functional techniques such as diffusion weighted imaging. In this review, the current status of the technique and major clinical applications of WB-MRI in children with cancer will be discussed.

  9. Whole-body MRI of neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo, E-mail: hwgoo@amc.seoul.k [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asanbyeongwon-gil 86, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Whole-body MRI (WBMRI) is an emerging imaging method that has a great potential in pediatric oncologic imaging. It appears useful in staging and monitoring neuroblastoma although its clinical impact has not been thoroughly evaluated. Among various imaging techniques currently available for WBMRI, coronal and sagittal STIR imaging with a quadrature body coil at 1.5T MR system is recommended for a standard protocol. Nevertheless, further technical improvements are anticipated at 3.0T MR system and multi-channel surface coil system. Scan time of WBMRI is reasonably short ranging from 20 min to 60 min. In localized neuroblatoma, WBMRI may help in predicting surgical risks by evaluating image-defined risk factors accurately. In addition, WBMRI is quite useful in detecting distant metastasis, assessing initial treatment responses, and identifying tumor recurrence of neuroblastoma. We should understand limitations of WBMRI in the evaluation of lymph node involvement, in the differentiation between viable tumor and non-viable residual lesion, and in the detection of calcified lesion. Diffusion-weighted imaging may improve diagnostic accuracy of WBMRI. Complementary use of WBMRI and other metabolic imaging method such as MIBG scintigraphy or PET probably increases diagnostic accuracy and, subsequently, improves clinical outcome of children with neuroblastoma.

  10. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  11. Whole-body MR imaging in tumor staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eustace, S. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic and Mater Misericordiae Hospitals, Dublin (Ireland)

    2003-11-01

    Recent refinements allow widespread use of turboSTIR MRI as a whole-body imaging tool and, in particular, as a powerful oncologic screening tool. Whole-body MRI screening can play a primary role in assessing skeletal metastases, as well as metastatic breast and lung carcinoma. (orig.)

  12. Whole-body cryotherapy in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni; Colombini, Alessandra; Melegati, Gianluca

    2010-06-01

    Cold therapy is commonly used as a procedure to relieve pain symptoms, particularly in inflammatory diseases, injuries and overuse symptoms. A peculiar form of cold therapy (or stimulation) was proposed 30 years ago for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The therapy, called whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), consists of exposure to very cold air that is maintained at -110 degrees C to -140 degrees C in special temperature-controlled cryochambers, generally for 2 minutes. WBC is used to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms caused by numerous disorders, particularly those associated with rheumatic conditions, and is recommended for the treatment of arthritis, fibromyalgia and ankylosing spondylitis. In sports medicine, WBC has gained wider acceptance as a method to improve recovery from muscle injury. Unfortunately, there are few papers concerning the application of the treatment on athletes. The study of possible enhancement of recovery from injuries and possible modification of physiological parameters, taking into consideration the limits imposed by antidoping rules, is crucial for athletes and sports physicians for judging the real benefits and/or limits of WBC. According to the available literature, WBC is not harmful or detrimental in healthy subjects. The treatment does not enhance bone marrow production and could reduce the sport-induced haemolysis. WBC induces oxidative stress, but at a low level. Repeated treatments are apparently not able to induce cumulative effects; on the contrary, adaptive changes on antioxidant status are elicited--the adaptation is evident where WBC precedes or accompanies intense training. WBC is not characterized by modifications of immunological markers and leukocytes, and it seems to not be harmful to the immunological system. The WBC effect is probably linked to the modifications of immunological molecules having paracrine effects, and not to systemic immunological functions. In fact, there is an increase in anti

  13. Acoustical method of whole-body hydration status monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvazyan, A. P.; Tsyuryupa, S. N.; Calhoun, M.; Utter, A.

    2016-07-01

    An acoustical handheld hydration monitor (HM) for assessing the water balance of the human body was developed. Dehydration is a critical public health problem. Many elderly over age of 65 are particularly vulnerable as are infants and young children. Given that dehydration is both preventable and reversible, the need for an easy-to-perform method for the detection of water imbalance is of the utmost clinical importance. The HM is based on an experimental fact that ultrasound velocity in muscle is a linear function of water content and can be referenced to the hydration status of the body. Studies on the validity of HM for the assessment of whole-body hydration status were conducted in the Appalachian State University, USA, on healthy young adults and on elderly subjects residing at an assisted living facility. The HM was able to track changes in total body water during periods of acute dehydration and rehydration in athletes and day-to-day and diurnal variability of hydration in elderly. Results of human studies indicate that HM has a potential to become an efficient tool for detecting abnormal changes in the body hydration status.

  14. Low Doses of Oxygen Ion Irradiation Cause Acute Damage to Hematopoietic Cells in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Chang

    Full Text Available One of the major health risks to astronauts is radiation on long-duration space missions. Space radiation from sun and galactic cosmic rays consists primarily of 85% protons, 14% helium nuclei and 1% high-energy high-charge (HZE particles, such as oxygen (16O, carbon, silicon, and iron ions. HZE particles exhibit dense linear tracks of ionization associated with clustered DNA damage and often high relative biological effectiveness (RBE. Therefore, new knowledge of risks from HZE particle exposures must be obtained. In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of low doses of 16O irradiation on the hematopoietic system. Specifically, we exposed C57BL/6J mice to 0.1, 0.25 and 1.0 Gy whole body 16O (600 MeV/n irradiation and examined the effects on peripheral blood (PB cells, and bone marrow (BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs at two weeks after the exposure. The results showed that the numbers of white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils and platelets were significantly decreased in PB after exposure to 1.0 Gy, but not to 0.1 or 0.25 Gy. However, both the frequency and number of HPCs and HSCs were reduced in a radiation dose-dependent manner in comparison to un-irradiated controls. Furthermore, HPCs and HSCs from irradiated mice exhibited a significant reduction in clonogenic function determined by the colony-forming and cobblestone area-forming cell assays. These acute adverse effects of 16O irradiation on HSCs coincided with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, enhanced cell cycle entry of quiescent HSCs, and increased DNA damage. However, none of the 16O exposures induced apoptosis in HSCs. These data suggest that exposure to low doses of 16O irradiation induces acute BM injury in a dose-dependent manner primarily via increasing ROS production, cell cycling, and DNA damage in HSCs. This finding may aid in developing novel strategies in the protection of the

  15. Whole-body MRI in the pediatric patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Sebastian [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: ley@gmx.de; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Schenk, Jens-Peter [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Whole-body MRI is a fast and accurate modality for detection and monitoring of disease throughout the entire body. For pediatric use the technique is of special interest twofold: first it is a radiological method without radiation exposure and second it allows for whole-body staging as well as for detailed local evaluation for surgical treatment thus reducing the number of examinations to be performed in sedation. In the pediatric population the technique is used for oncological, non-oncological (i.e. fever of unknown origin, osteonecrosis) staging and for disease severity assessment of syndromes affecting the whole body. These applications will be reviewed and imaging protocols will be presented.

  16. Mutual stabilization of rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Miyata

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1 whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2 whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition. The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure.

  17. Assessment of testicular function after acute and chronic irradiation: Further evidence for an influence of late spermatids on Sertoli cell function in the adult rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineau, C.; Velez de la Calle, J.F.; Pinon-Lataillade, G.; Jegou, B.

    1989-06-01

    To study cell to cell communications within the testis of adult Sprague-Dawley rats, we used acute whole body neutron plus gamma-irradiation over 7-121 days postirradiation and chronic whole body gamma-irradiation over 14-84 days of irradiation and 7-86 days postirradiation. Neither irradiation protocol had an effect on the body weight of the animals. Neutron plus gamma-rays induced dramatic damages to spermatogonia, preleptotene spermatocytes, spermatozoa, and, to a lesser extent, pachytene spermatocytes. In contrast, gamma-rays induced a selective destruction of spermatogonia. Subsequently, in both experiments a maturation-depletion process led to a marked decrease in all germ cell types. A complete or near complete recovery of the different germ cell types and spermatozoa took place during the two postirradiation periods. Under both irradiation protocols Sertoli cells number was unchanged. Androgen-binding protein and FSH levels were normal in spite of the disappearance of most germ cells from spermatogonia to early spermatids. However, the decline of androgen-binding protein as well as the rise of FSH and their subsequent recovery were highly correlated to the number of late spermatids and spermatozoa. Moreover, it appeared that spermatocytes may also interfere with the production of inhibin (Exp B). With neither irradiation was Leydig cell function altered, except in Exp B in which elevated LH levels were temporarily observed. Correlation analysis suggested a relationship between preleptotene spermatocytes and Leydig cell function. In conclusion, this study establishes that chronic gamma-irradiation is particularly useful in the study of intratesticular paracrine regulation in vivo and provides further support to the concept that late spermatids play a major role in controlling some aspects of Sertoli cell function in the adult rat.

  18. Whole-body impedance control of wheeled humanoid robots

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introducing mobile humanoid robots into human environments requires the systems to physically interact and execute multiple concurrent tasks. The monograph at hand presents a whole-body torque controller for dexterous and safe robotic manipulation. This control approach enables a mobile humanoid robot to simultaneously meet several control objectives with different pre-defined levels of priority, while providing the skills for compliant physical contacts with humans and the environment. After a general introduction into the topic of whole-body control, several essential reactive tasks are developed to extend the repertoire of robotic control objectives. Additionally, the classical Cartesian impedance is extended to the case of mobile robots. All of these tasks are then combined and integrated into an overall, priority-based control law. Besides the experimental validation of the approach, the formal proof of asymptotic stability for this hierarchical controller is presented. By interconnecting the whole-body ...

  19. Whole-body microvascular permeability of small molecules in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H

    1985-01-01

    In order to estimate whole-body permeability-surface area (PS) product, the initial slope of the plasma disappearance curve was determined after simultaneous i.v. injection of 24Na+ (mol.wt 24) and 51Cr-EDTA (mol.wt 342). Twelve subjects were studied. Plasma volume (PV) was measured by the indica......In order to estimate whole-body permeability-surface area (PS) product, the initial slope of the plasma disappearance curve was determined after simultaneous i.v. injection of 24Na+ (mol.wt 24) and 51Cr-EDTA (mol.wt 342). Twelve subjects were studied. Plasma volume (PV) was measured...

  20. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1991-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  1. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1990-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  2. Whole-Body Listening: Developing Active Auditory Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, Susanne P.

    1990-01-01

    "Whole-body" activities are presented to teach first grade students what they must do to listen. The lesson plan covers the differences between hearing and listening, the active nature of listening, poor listening behaviors, and how teachers can tell who is a good listener. (JDD)

  3. Musculoskeletal modelling of low-frequency whole-body vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, John; Andersen, Michael Skipper

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a musculoskeletal model for assessment of the effect of low-frequency whole-body vibrations on the human body. It is a basic assumption behind the model that the vibrations are slow enough to allow the central nervous system to respond to them in terms of muscle activations...

  4. BABYSCAN - a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Bronson, Frazier L; Oginni, Babatunde; Muramatsu, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for $^{137}$Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described.

  5. Positive whole-body /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy in dermatomyositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W.P.; Robinson, R.G.; Gobuty, A.H.

    1979-07-01

    Gallium-67 has proven useful in the evaluation of the extent of several malignancies, including bronchogenic carcinoma, Hodgkin's disease, and lymphoma. Many infectious processes also yield positive scans, including sarcoidosis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, and active tuberculosis. We report a patient in whom whole-body /sup 67/Ga scintimaging led to the diagnosis of dermatomyositis.

  6. Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Popescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA; CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75 RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001 and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001. Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP, in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients.

  7. Student Attitudes to Whole Body Donation Are Influenced by Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2008-01-01

    Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudes to life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial…

  8. Age Modulates Attitudes to Whole Body Donation among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2009-01-01

    Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…

  9. The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

  10. Whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance in obese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena del Rocío Ibarra-Reynoso

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance may be assessed as whole body or hepatic.To study factors associated with both types of insulin resistance.Cross-sectional study of 182 obese children. Somatometric measurements were registered, and the following three adiposity indexes were compared: BMI, waist-to-height ratio and visceral adiposity. Whole-body insulin resistance was evaluated using HOMA-IR, with 2.5 as the cut-off point. Hepatic insulin resistance was considered for IGFBP-1 level quartiles 1 to 3 (<6.67 ng/ml. We determined metabolite and hormone levels and performed a liver ultrasound.The majority, 73.1%, of obese children had whole-body insulin resistance and hepatic insulin resistance, while 7% did not have either type. HOMA-IR was negatively associated with IGFBP-1 and positively associated with BMI, triglycerides, leptin and mother's BMI. Girls had increased HOMA-IR. IGFBP-1 was negatively associated with waist-to-height ratio, age, leptin, HOMA-IR and IGF-I. We did not find HOMA-IR or IGFBP-1 associated with fatty liver.In school-aged children, BMI is the best metric to predict whole-body insulin resistance, and waist-to-height ratio is the best predictor of hepatic insulin resistance, indicating that central obesity is important for hepatic insulin resistance. The reciprocal negative association of IGFBP-1 and HOMA-IR may represent a strong interaction of the physiological processes of both whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance.

  11. Whole body vibration in sport: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, C; Gimigliano, R; Olvirri, S; Gimigliano, F

    2014-12-01

    Whole body vibration training is a recent area of study in athletic conditioning, health and rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the effectiveness of this type of training in sport. A search was conducted across several electronic databases and studies on effects of whole body vibration training on sport performance were reviewed. Thirteen articles were included in the final analysis. The following variables were considered: participants investigated (sex and age), characteristics of the vibration (frequency and amplitude), training (type of sport, exposure time and intensity, tests used, type of study, effects examined and results obtained). This review considers proposed neural mechanisms and identifies studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of WBV in sports. It considers where WBV might act and suggests that vibration can be an effective training stimulus. Future studies should focus on evaluating the long-term effects of vibration training and identify optimum frequency and amplitude, improve strength and muscular performance.

  12. Human Deception Detection from Whole Body Motion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    development of assessment capabilities of these whole body movements for potential operational deployment. 2 Distribution A: Approved for...upon movement frequencies rather than spatial movement qualities. It was anticipated that, if predictive cues related to the spectral motion...replication analyses of the new samples based on the original findings from Year 1. The findings for the temporal/ spatial data from year 3 provided some

  13. Automatic nonrigid registration of whole body CT mice images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Peterson, Todd E; Gore, John C; Dawant, Benoit M

    2008-04-01

    Three-dimensional intra- and intersubject registration of image volumes is important for tasks that include quantification of temporal/longitudinal changes, atlas-based segmentation, computing population averages, or voxel and tensor-based morphometry. While a number of methods have been proposed to address this problem, few have focused on the problem of registering whole body image volumes acquired either from humans or small animals. These image volumes typically contain a large number of articulated structures, which makes registration more difficult than the registration of head images, to which the majority of registration algorithms have been applied. This article presents a new method for the automatic registration of whole body computed tomography (CT) volumes, which consists of two main steps. Skeletons are first brought into approximate correspondence with a robust point-based method. Transformations so obtained are refined with an intensity-based nonrigid registration algorithm that includes spatial adaptation of the transformation's stiffness. The approach has been applied to whole body CT images of mice, to CT images of the human upper torso, and to human head and neck CT images. To validate the authors method on soft tissue structures, which are difficult to see in CT images, the authors use coregistered magnetic resonance images. They demonstrate that the approach they propose can successfully register image volumes even when these volumes are very different in size and shape or if they have been acquired with the subjects in different positions.

  14. Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent.

  15. Verificação das doses de radiação absorvidas durante a técnica de irradiação de corpo inteiro nos transplantes de medula óssea, por meio de dosímetros termoluminescentes Measurement of absorbed radiation doses during whole body irradiation for bone marrow transplants using thermoluminescent dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo José Giordani

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a precisão das doses de radiação absorvidas na terapia de transplantes de medula óssea durante a técnica de irradiação de corpo inteiro. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 200 pastilhas de sulfato de cálcio com disprósio compactado com teflon (CaSO4 + teflon, calibradas no ar e no "phantom", selecionadas aleatoriamente e dispostas em grupos de cinco no corpo dos pacientes. As leituras dosimétricas foram efetuadas pela leitora Harshaw 4000A. Nove pacientes foram irradiados no corpo inteiro em paralelos e em opostos laterais, utilizando-se unidade de cobalto-60, modelo Alcion II, com taxa de dose de 0,80 Gy/min a 80,5 cm, {campo (10 × 10 cm²}. A dosimetria dessa unidade foi realizada com dosímetro Victoreen 500. Para a determinação da dose média em cada ponto avaliado usaram-se os fatores individuais de calibração das pastilhas no ar e no "phantom", colocando-se um "build up" de 2 mm para superficializar a dose à distância de 300 cm. RESULTADOS: Em 70% dos pacientes obteve-se variação de dose menor que 5% e em 30% dos pacientes essa variação foi inferior a 10%, quando comparados os valores medidos com aqueles calculados em cada ponto. Na cabeça ocorre absorção, em média, de 14% da dose administrada, e nos pulmões, acréscimo de 2% na dose administrada. Nos pacientes com distância látero-lateral maior que 35 cm as variações entre as doses calculadas e medidas podem chegar a 30% da dose desejada, sem o uso de filtros compensadores. CONCLUSÃO: Os valores medidos das doses absorvidas nos diversos pontos anatômicos, comparados aos valores desejados (teóricos, apresentam tolerância de ±10%, considerando-se as diferenças anatômicas existentes, quando utilizados os fatores de calibração individuais das pastilhas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the precision of the absorbed radiation doses in bone marrow transplant therapy during whole body irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-hundred CaSO4:Dy + teflon

  16. Whole-body response to pure lateral impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessley, David; Shaw, Greg; Parent, Daniel; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Kindig, Matthew; Riley, Patrick; Purtsezov, Sergey; Sochor, Mark; Gochenour, Thomas; Bolton, James; Subit, Damien; Crandall, Jeff; Takayama, Shinichi; Ono, Koshiro; Kamiji, Koichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband. Following the impact the subject was captured in an energy-absorbing net that provided a controlled non-injurious deceleration. The wall maintained nearly constant velocity throughout the impact event. One of the tested subjects sustained 16 rib fractures as well as injury to the struck shoulder while the other two tested subjects sustained no injuries. The collected response data suggest that the shoulder injury may have contributed to the rib fractures in the injured subject. The results suggest that the shoulder presents a substantial load path and may play an important role in transmitting lateral forces to the spine, shielding and protecting the ribcage. This characterization of whole-body, lateral impact response provides quantified subject responses and boundary condition interactions that are currently unavailable for whole-body, lateral impacts at impact speeds less than 6.7 m/s.

  17. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  18. Whole-body acid-base modeling revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Troels; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The textbook account of whole-body acid-base balance in terms of endogenous acid production, renal net acid excretion and gastrointestinal alkali absorption which is the only comprehensive model around, has never been applied in clinical practice or been formally validated. In order to improve...... understanding of acid-base modeling, we managed to write up this conventional model as an expression solely on urine chemistry. Renal net acid excretion and endogenous acid production was already formulated in terms of urine chemistry, and we could from the literature also see gastrointestinal alkali absorption...

  19. Integrating cellular metabolism into a multiscale whole-body model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Krauss

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolism continuously processes an enormous range of external compounds into endogenous metabolites and is as such a key element in human physiology. The multifaceted physiological role of the metabolic network fulfilling the catalytic conversions can only be fully understood from a whole-body perspective where the causal interplay of the metabolic states of individual cells, the surrounding tissue and the whole organism are simultaneously considered. We here present an approach relying on dynamic flux balance analysis that allows the integration of metabolic networks at the cellular scale into standardized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models at the whole-body level. To evaluate our approach we integrated a genome-scale network reconstruction of a human hepatocyte into the liver tissue of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of a human adult. The resulting multiscale model was used to investigate hyperuricemia therapy, ammonia detoxification and paracetamol-induced toxication at a systems level. The specific models simultaneously integrate multiple layers of biological organization and offer mechanistic insights into pathology and medication. The approach presented may in future support a mechanistic understanding in diagnostics and drug development.

  20. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  1. [Cancer screening with whole-body FDG PET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, S; Ide, M; Takagi, S; Shohtsu, A

    1996-10-01

    We are using whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) for cancer screening. A total of 1,105 healthy subjects have undergone PET studies 1,138 times in fifteen months. Emission scans were performed from the pelvis to the maxilla 45 to 60 minutes after intravenous administration of 260 to 370 MBq 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG). Malignant tumors were detected with PET in nine patients (0.81%): 2 lung cancers, 2 colonic cancers, 1 breast cancer, 1 thyroid cancer, 1 gastric cancer, 1 renal cancer, and 1 lymphoma. Eight of these patients underwent surgery (excepting the lymphoma patient). Lymph node metastasis was not observed in any of the eight cases and surgery was curative. PET scan results were negative in the cases of three prostatic cancers, one bladder cancer, and two colonic mucosal cancers. High FDG accumulations were noticed in benign lesions such as sarcoidosis, chronic thyroiditis, pulmonary tuberculoma, Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland, and chronic sinusitis. In some cases, image artifacts caused by intense myocardial FDG accumulations resulted in incomplete examinations of the lung. Occasionally, high FDG accumulations were observed in the bowel. Our study results suggest the possibility of using whole-body PET for detecting wide varieties of cancers in resectable stages.

  2. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Ciechanowska, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The report of the World Health Organization (WHO) of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used 'postmenopausal osteoporosis' and 'whole-body vibration exercise'.

  3. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Weber-Rajek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report of the World Health Organization (WHO of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used ‘postmenopausal osteoporosis’ and ‘whole-body vibration exercise’.

  4. The Health Effects and Keep Down of Whole Body Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vibration was defined that oscillation of the body according to the reference point. The tools that are used in industry and are the source of vibration cause diseases. For this reason, the vibration has been one of the factors that affect the health and of the most widely researched in the field of ergonomics. The perceived intensity and health effects of vibration depend on the vibration frequency, intensity, direction, acceleration, duration of exposure, vibration affects the region, age, gender, posture, distance from the source person, activity, time of day and the person\\s overall health condition. The one of the most common health effects of whole body vibration is impact on musculoskeletal system. In many studies, indicated that whole-body vibration effect waist, back, shoulder and neck especially. There were varied studies that hormone levels were not changed as well there were varied studies that hormone levels were increased or decreased. There were varied studies about the digestive and circulatory system. In these studies, digestive system complaints, peptic ulcer, gastritis, varicose veins and hemorrhoids were determined frequently. For protection the health effect of vibration, Directives of the European Commission, Turkish Standards, Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise and Vibration Regulations were published. For the control of vibration are need technical and medical measures and education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(2.000: 177-186

  5. EURADOS INTERCOMPARISONS ON WHOLE-BODY DOSEMETERS FOR PHOTONS FROM 2008 TO 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figel, Markus; Stadtmann, Hannes; Grimbergen, Tom W M; McWhan, Andrew; Romero, Ana M

    2016-09-01

    Starting in 2008 the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been performing international intercomparisons on photon whole-body dosemeters for individual monitoring services. These intercomparisons were organised (on a biannual basis) in 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, each time with a similar set-up but with small alterations in the subsequent irradiation plans. With an increasing number of participants and participating systems, this intercomparison action has become an important tool for individual monitoring services to test their whole-body dosimetry systems, compare their results with other services or systems and to improve the quality of their dosimetry. The paper presents and compares the results of these four intercomparisons and compares the dosimetric results for the participating system types. Major dosimetric problems of the individual monitoring services are identified, and trends in the dosimetric performance of the different systems are shown. This gives the opportunity to identify some dosimetry issues that should be improved by application of the monitoring services' quality assurance systems and QA procedures.

  6. Between-centre variability versus variability over time in DXA whole body measurements evaluated using a whole body phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Olivia [Department of Radiology, AZ-VUB, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussel (Belgium)]. E-mail: olivia.louis@az.vub.ac.be; Verlinde, Siska [Belgian Study Group for Pediatric Endocrinology (Belgium); Thomas, Muriel [Belgian Study Group for Pediatric Endocrinology (Belgium); De Schepper, Jean [Department of Pediatrics, AZ-VUB, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussel (Belgium)

    2006-06-15

    This study aimed to compare the variability of whole body measurements, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among geographically distinct centres versus that over time in a given centre. A Hologic-designed 28 kg modular whole body phantom was used, including high density polyethylene, gray polyvinylchloride and aluminium. It was scanned on seven Hologic QDR 4500 DXA devices, located in seven centres and was also repeatedly (n = 18) scanned in the reference centre, over a time span of 5 months. The mean between-centre coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 2.0 (lean mass) to 5.6% (fat mass) while the mean within-centre CV ranged from 0.3 (total mass) to 4.7% (total area). Between-centre variability compared well with within-centre variability for total area, bone mineral content and bone mineral density, but was significantly higher for fat (p < 0.001), lean (p < 0.005) and total mass (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, even when using the same device, the between-centre variability remains a matter of concern, particularly where body composition is concerned.

  7. Whole body MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerbeeck, S.F.L. van [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: stephen.vm@rad-vanmeerbeeck.be; Verstraete, K.L. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Janssens, S.; Mortier, G. [Department of Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: To assess the value of whole body MR imaging in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Materials and methods: 24 patients (15-59 years; mean and median 36 years; 7 males; 17 females) with genetically proven neurofibromatosis type 1 were examined with whole body MR imaging. Axial and coronal T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (slice thickness 6-12 mm) were acquired on a 1.5 T MR unit (Symphony; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The images were reviewed by 2 radiologists: 1 senior, 1 junior. The criterion for a neurofibroma was a mass lesion with low signal intensity on T1 and high signal intensity on T2, along the course of a nerve. The location, size, general morphology and course along plexuses and nerves were evaluated. Cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas were defined as 'superficial' neurofibromas. The other neurofibromas were regarded as 'deep' neurofibromas. Results: There were no major problems to differentiate neurofibromas from lymph nodes, vessels or cysts. The latter three were easily recognised by their typical shape and location, whereas neurofibromas occurred in regions where no mass lesion was anatomically expected. There was no relation between age and total number of neurofibromas throughout the body. Classification according to location and number of neurofibromas: 8 patients had only superficial neurofibromas, 1 only deep and 15 both superficial and deep lesions. Twelve patients had less than 15 neurofibromas and 12 had more. Classification according to course: in 8 patients the neurofibromas occurred along plexuses or proximal part of the intercostal nerves; in 16 patients the lesions were more peripheral. Classification according to morphology: 4 patients had plexiform neurofibromas and 20 patients had multiple solitary lesions. Twelve of these 20 patients had less than 15 lesions, and 8 had more. In 2 patients multiple solitary neurofibromas occurred along the nerve in a chain configuration. In one

  8. Widespread atypical vascular lesions of the skin after whole-body electron beam therapy: expanding the clinical spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Werner

    2013-02-01

    Atypical vascular lesion of the skin is an uncommon usually benign condition, thus far reported almost exclusively from mammary skin after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the breast. Some clinical and histological overlap exists with early angiosarcoma, which can also occur on irradiated skin. The lesions are divided into vascular and lymphatic types, the first representing a higher risk for development of angiosarcoma and the latter being more common. This article reports a rare case of widespread, progressive, vascular-type atypical vascular lesion after repeated whole-body electron beam irradiation administered as treatment for mycosis fungoides.

  9. Whole-body 3D scanner and scan data report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addleman, Stephen R.

    1997-03-01

    With the first whole-body 3D scanner now available the next adventure confronting the user is what to do with all of the data. While the system was built for anthropologists, it has created interest among users from a wide variety of fields. Users with applications in the fields of anthropology, costume design, garment design, entertainment, VR and gaming have a need for the data in formats unique to their fields. Data from the scanner is being converted to solid models for art and design and NURBS for computer graphics applications. Motion capture has made scan data move and dance. The scanner has created a need for advanced application software just as other scanners have in the past.

  10. Analysis and Modelling of Muscles Motion during Whole Body Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Gatta A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to characterize the local muscles motion in individuals undergoing whole body mechanical stimulation. In this study we aim also to evaluate how subject positioning modifies vibration dumping, altering local mechanical stimulus. Vibrations were delivered to subjects by the use of a vibrating platform, while stimulation frequency was increased linearly from 15 to 60 Hz. Two different subject postures were here analysed. Platform and muscles motion were monitored using tiny MEMS accelerometers; a contra lateral analysis was also presented. Muscle motion analysis revealed typical displacement trajectories: motion components were found not to be purely sinusoidal neither in phase to each other. Results also revealed a mechanical resonant-like behaviour at some muscles, similar to a second-order system response. Resonance frequencies and dumping factors depended on subject and his positioning. Proper mechanical stimulation can maximize muscle spindle solicitation, which may produce a more effective muscle activation.

  11. Whole body bone scintigraphy in osseous hydatosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Abdolali

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydatid disease is common in many parts of the world, and causes considerable health and economic loss. This disease may develop in almost any part of the body. Bone involvement is often asymptomatic, and its diagnosis is primarily based on radiographic findings. A whole body bone scan is able to show the extent and distribution of lesions. We describe an unusual case of multifocal skeletal hydatosis and also explain the clinical and diagnostic points. We hope to stimulate a high index of suspicion among clinicians to facilitate early diagnosis and to consider this disease as a differential diagnosis in cases of multiple abnormal activity in bone scintigraphy especially among people in endemic areas.

  12. Integrated Whole Body MR/PET: Where Are We?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hye Jin [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    Whole body integrated magnetic resonance imaging (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging systems have recently become available for clinical use and are currently being used to explore whether the combined anatomic and functional capabilities of MR imaging and the metabolic information of PET provide new insight into disease phenotypes and biology, and provide a better assessment of oncologic diseases at a lower radiation dose than a CT. This review provides an overview of the technical background of combined MR/PET systems, a discussion of the potential advantages and technical challenges of hybrid MR/PET instrumentation, as well as collection of possible solutions. Various early clinical applications of integrated MR/PET are also addressed. Finally, the workflow issues of integrated MR/PET, including maximizing diagnostic information while minimizing acquisition time are discussed.

  13. Radiomodifying effect of organic grape juice supplementation on hematological parameters and organ weight in whole-body X-irradiation in rats Efecto radiomodificador de la suplementación con mosto de uva de cultivo ecológico sobre parámetros hematológicos y peso de órganos en ratas sometidas a irradiación de cuerpo entero con rayos X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ramos de Andrade

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is testing black grape juice as a radiomodifier against whole body X-irradiation using an animal model. Sixteen male Wistar rats were divided into four groups where two were irradiated by X-rays from a 200 kV machine specially designed to biological samples. Animals were fed ad libitum and drank voluntarily 2-10 ml a day of grape juice or placebo (isocaloric glucose and fructose solution for one week before and two weeks after 6 Gy X-irradiation when they were sacrificed. Results have shown a significant liver weight loss in irradiated placebo group only while grape juice one has presented no losses. Hematological analysis showed typical abnormalities for ionizing radiation exposure, including early leucopenia and anemia. The intake of grape juice induced an increase in granulocyte percent count.El propósito de este estudio fue comprobar el efecto radiomodificador del mosto tinto de uva frente a irradiación de cuerpo entero con rayos X usando un modelo animal. Dieciséis ratas macho de raza Wistar fueron irradiadas mediante un aparato de 200 kV diseñado específicamente para muestras biológicas. Los animales fueron alimentados ad libitum y bebieron cada dia voluntariamente entre 2 y 10 ml de mosto de uva o placebo (solución isocalórica de glucosa y fructosa durante una semana antes y dos semanas después de irradiación con rayos X a una dosis de 6 Gy, momento en que fueron sacrificadas. Los resultados mostraron una pérdida significativa de peso hepático en los animales irradiados tratados con placebo, mientras que los tratados con mosto presentaron valores similares a los controles no irradiados. El análisis hematológico presentó las anomalías típicas de la exposición a radiación ionizante, con disminución leucocitaria temprana y anemia. La ingestión de mosto de uva indujo un aumento del porcentaje de granulocitos.

  14. Detection of Unknown Primary Tumors Using Whole Body FDG PET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJun; LINXiangtong; GUANYihui; ZUOChuantao; HUAFengchun; SHENGXiaofang; WANGYang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in locating occult primary lesions. Methods: 50 patients with varying hetero-geneous metastases of unknown primary origin were referred for FDG PET. The locations of the known metastatic tumor manifestations were distributed as follows: cervical lymph nodes metastases (n=18),skeletal metastases (n=15), cerebral metastases (n=12), others (n=5). All patients underwent whole body 18F-FDG PET imaging. The images were interpreted by visual inspection and semi-quantitative analysis(standardized uptake value, SUV). The patients had undergone conventional imaging within 2 weeks of FDG PET. Surgical, clinical and histopathologic findings were used to assess the performance of FDG PET.Results: FDG PET was able to detect the location of the primary tumor in 32/50 patients (64%). The primary tumors were proved by histopathologic results, and located in the lungs (n=17), the nasopharynx(n=9), the breast (n=2), the ovary (n=l), the colon(n=l), the prostate(n=l),the thyroid (n=l). FDG PET were proved false positive in 2 patients (4%), and the suspicious primary tumors were in uterus and colon respectively. During the clinical follow-up of 2 to 26 months, the primary tumor was found in only 2 patients ( prostate cancer, gastric cancer). Conclusion: PET imaging allows identification of the primary site and metastatic lesions(including bone and soft tissue metastases) at a single examination.Whole body lSF-FDG PET allows effective localization of the unknown primary site of origin and can contribute substantially to patient care.

  15. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleakley CM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chris M Bleakley,1 François Bieuzen,2 Gareth W Davison,1 Joseph T Costello3 1Sport and Exercise Science Research Institute, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland; 2Research Department, Laboratory of Sport, Expertise and Performance, French National Institute of Sport (INSEP, Paris, France; 3School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Abstract: Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC involves short exposures to air temperatures below –100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable

  16. Effectiveness of Different Rest Intervals Following Whole-Body Vibration on Vertical Jump Performance between College Athletes and Recreationally Trained Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different rest intervals following whole-body vibration on counter-movement vertical jump performance. Sixteen females, eight recreationally trained and eight varsity athletes volunteered to participate in four testing visits separated by 24 h. Visit one acted as a familiarization visit where subjects were introduced to the counter-movement vertical jump and whole-body vibration protocols. Visits 2–4 contained 2 randomized conditions. Whole-body vibration was administered in four bouts of 30 s with 30 s rest between bouts. During whole-body vibration subjects performed a quarter squat every 5 s, simulating a counter-movement vertical jump. Whole-body vibration was followed by three counter-movement vertical jumps with five different rest intervals between the vibration exposure and jumping. For a control condition, subjects performed squats with no whole-body vibration. There was a significant (p < 0.05 main effect for time for vertical jump height, peak power output, and relative ground reaction forces, where a majority of individuals max jump from all whole-body vibration conditions was greater than the control condition. There were significant (p < 0.05 group differences, showing that varsity athletes had a greater vertical jump height and peak power output compared to recreationally trained females. There were no significant (p > 0.05 group differences for relative ground reaction forces. Practitioners and/or strength and conditioning coaches may utilize whole-body vibration to enhance acute counter-movement vertical jump performance after identifying individuals optimal rest time in order to maximize the potentiating effects.

  17. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J

    2013-01-01

    ), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer...... biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI...... 95%: 9-22) lower energy expenditure (P = 0.02) during exercise, as well as 4.28 kg lower lean body mass (LBM) than premenopausal women. Correction for LBM reduced differences in fat oxidation to 23% (P = 0.05), whereas differences in energy expenditure disappeared (P = 0.22). No differences between...

  18. Cutaneous noradrenaline measured by microdialysis in complex regional pain syndrome during whole-body cooling and heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Astrid Juhl; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Petersen, Lars J.

    2013-01-01

    noradrenaline, vasoconstriction, and reduction in skin temperature. The main findings were that the noradrenaline response did not differ between patients and controls or between the CRPS hand and the contralateral unaffected hand, suggesting that the evoked noradrenaline release from the cutaneous sympathetic......Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterised by autonomic, sensory, and motor disturbances. The underlying mechanisms of the autonomic changes in CPRS are unknown. However, it has been postulated that sympathetic inhibition in the acute phase with locally reduced levels of noradrenaline...... and in healthy volunteers. Seven patients and nine controls completed whole-body cooling (sympathetic activation) and heating (sympathetic inhibition) induced by a whole-body thermal suit with simultaneous measurement of the skin temperature, skin blood flow, and release of dermal noradrenaline. CRPS pain...

  19. Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Without Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Campana, Dario; Pei, Deqing; Bowman, W. Paul; Sandlund, John T.; Kaste, Sue C.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Raimondi, Susana C.; Onciu, Mihaela; Coustan-Smith, Elaine; Kun, Larry E.; Jeha, Sima; Cheng, Cheng; Howard, Scott C.; Simmons, Vickey; Bayles, Amy; Metzger, Monika L.; Boyett, James M.; Leung, Wing; Handgretinger, Rupert; Downing, James R.; Evans, William E.; Relling, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    Background We conducted a clinical trial to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation could be omitted in all children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods A total of 498 evaluable patients were enrolled. Treatment intensity was based on presenting features and the level of minimal residual disease after remission induction treatment. Continuous complete remission was compared between the 71 patients who previously would have received prophylactic cranial irradiation and the 56 historical controls who received it. Results The 5-year event-free and overall survival probabilities (95% confidence interval) for all 498 patients were 85.6% (79.9% to 91.3%) and 93.5% (89.8% to 97.2%), respectively. The 5-year cumulative risk of isolated central-nervous-system (CNS) relapse was 2.7% (1.1% to 4.2%), and that of any CNS relapse (isolated plus combined) was 3.9% (1.9% to 5.9%). The 71 patients had significantly better continuous complete remission than the 56 historical controls (P=0.04). All 11 patients with isolated CNS relapse remain in second remission for 0.4 to 5.5 years. CNS leukemia (CNS-3 status) or a traumatic lumbar puncture with blasts at diagnosis and a high level of minimal residual disease (≥ 1%) after 6 weeks of remission induction were significantly associated with poorer event-free survival. Risk factors for CNS relapse included the presence of the t(1;19)[TCF3-PBX1], any CNS involvement at diagnosis, and T-cell immunophenotype. Common adverse effects included allergic reactions to L-asparaginase, osteonecrosis, thrombosis, and disseminated fungal infection. Conclusions With effective risk-adjusted chemotherapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation can be safely omitted in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:19553647

  20. Whole-body counting in the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.; Kaplan, E.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    In 1978 the Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program was organized to perform radiation measurements and assess radiation doses for the people of the Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. One of the major field components of this program is whole- body counting (WBC). WBC is used to monitor the quantity of gamma- emitting radionuclides present in individuals. A primary objective of the program was to establish {sup 137}Cesium body contents among the Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik populations. {sup 137}Cs was the only gamma-emitting fission radionuclide detected in the 1,967 persons monitored. {sup 137}Cs body burdens tended to increase with age for both sexes, and were higher in males. The average {sup 137}Cs dose Annual Effective Dose for the three populations was as follows: For Enewetak, the dose was 22{+-}4 {mu}Sv. For Utirik, the dose was 33{+-} 3 {mu}Sv. Since 1985 the Rongelap people have been self-exiled to Mejatto. Biological elimination should have reduced their dose to virtually zero, and the measured dose was 2{+-}2 {mu}Sv. If they had remained on Rongelap Island, the calculated dose would have been 99 {mu}Sv, which is about one-third of the background dose. 7 refs., 1 tab. (MHB)

  1. Image Quality Stability of Whole-body Diffusion Weighted Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-bin Chen; Chun-miao Hu; Jing Zhong; Fei Sun

    2009-01-01

    To assess the reproducibility of whole-body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) technique in healthy volunteers under normal breathing with background body signal suppression. Methods WB-DWI was performed on 32 healthy volunteers twice within two-week period using short TI inversion-recovery diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging sequence and built-in body coil. The volunteers were scanned across six stations continuously covering the entire body from the head to the feet under normal breathing. The bone apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and exponential ADC (eADC) of regions of interest (ROIs) were measured. We analyzed correlation of the results using paired-t-test to assess the reproducibility of the WB-DWl technique.Results We were successful in collecting and analyzing data of 64 WB-DWI images. There was no significant difference in bone ADC and eADC of 824 ROIs between the paired observers and paired scans (P>0.05). Most of the images from all stations were of diagnostic quality.Conclusion The measurements of bone ADC and eADC have good reproducibility. WB-DWI technique under normal breathing with background body signal suppression is adequate.

  2. Prostate cancer and occupational whole-body vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadalin, Victoria; Kreiger, Nancy; Parent, Marie-Elise; Salmoni, Alan; Sass-Kortsak, Andrea; Siemiatycki, Jack; Sloan, Margaret; Purdham, James

    2012-10-01

    Prostate cancer is common and its etiology largely unknown; therefore, it is important to explore all potential risk factors that are biologically plausible. Recent literature suggests a relationship between whole-body vibration (WBV) and prostate cancer risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether occupational WBV was a risk factor for prostate cancer. Existing data, collected on 447 incident cases and 532 population controls (or their proxies), in Montreal, Canada, were used to evaluate this question. Personal interviews collected detailed job descriptions for every job held, the tasks involved, and type of equipment used. For each job, experts assessed the intensity and daily duration of WBV exposure. Inter-rater agreement for WBV ratings was examined using the kappa statistic, with values that ranged from 0.83 to 0.94. Logistic regression models explored the relationship between WBV exposure and prostate cancer, using various combinations of intensity, daily duration, and years of exposure. Potential confounders were also examined. Occupations with WBV exposure demonstrated an increased statistically non-significant risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-2.09]. The risk for transport equipment operation, a job with WBV exposure, was significantly elevated (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.07-3.39). These results, together with those of an earlier study, suggest that workers in heavy equipment and transport equipment operation may have increased risk of prostate cancer. Further investigation is warranted.

  3. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, François; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below −100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC. PMID:24648779

  4. Whole-body angular momentum in incline and decline walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Anne K; Wilken, Jason M; Sinitski, Emily H; Neptune, Richard R

    2012-04-01

    Angular momentum is highly regulated over the gait cycle and is important for maintaining dynamic stability and control of movement. However, little is known regarding how angular momentum is regulated on irregular surfaces, such as slopes, when the risk of falling is higher. This study examined the three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum patterns of 30 healthy subjects walking over a range of incline and decline angles. The range of angular momentum was either similar or reduced on decline surfaces and increased on incline surfaces relative to level ground, with the greatest differences occurring in the frontal and sagittal planes. These results suggest that angular momentum is more tightly controlled during decline walking when the risk of falling is greater. In the frontal plane, the range of angular momentum was strongly correlated with the peak hip and knee abduction moments in early stance. In the transverse plane, the strongest correlation occurred with the knee external rotation peak in late stance. In the sagittal plane, all external moment peaks were correlated with the range of angular momentum. The peak ankle plantarflexion, knee flexion and hip extension moments were also strongly correlated with the sagittal-plane angular momentum. These results highlight how able-bodied subjects control angular momentum differently on sloped surfaces relative to level walking and provide a baseline for comparison with pathological populations that are more susceptible to falling.

  5. Cryotherapy: local - whole-body; Kryotherapie: Lokal - Ganzkoerper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, R. [Klinik fuer Rheumatologie, St. Josef-Stift, Sendenhorst (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Cryotherapy, whether administered through ice, cold air, nitrogen, or cold packs has an analgetic effect that can even reach the point of pain elimination. It also inhibits inflammation, relieves swelling, and improves the function of inflamed joints. Further effects are alleviation of excess muscle tone and maintenance of blood irrigation in inflamed tissue. The fields of indication for cryotherapy can be summarised as follows: inflammation, pain, swelling, functional inhibition, excess muscle tone. Whole-body therapy at -110 C effects significantly enhanced function as compared with a control group. Blood oxygen rises. Stenocardias have not been reported, whereas extrasystoles are said to decrease. Helper T lymphocytes in the circulating blood drop significantly in rheumatoid arthritis and Bechterev`s disease. This suggests autoimmune disease as a further field of indication. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kryotherapie mit Eis, Kaltluft, Stickstoff, Kaltluft oder Kaeltepackungen wirkt schmerzlindernd bis hin zur Schmerzaufhebung, wirkt entzuendungshemmend, abschwellend und bei Entzuendung funktionsverbessernd in betroffenen Gelenken. Muskeltonuserhoehungen werden abgebaut. Die Durchblutung wird unter Kryotherapie im Entzuendungsbereich aufrechterhalten. Somit ergeben sich folgende Indikationen: Entzuendung, Schmerz, Schwellung, Funktionseinschraenkung, Muskeltonuserhoehung. Eine Ganzkoerperkaeltetherapie bei -110 C bewirkt eine signifikante Funktionsverbesserung gegenueber einer Kontrollgruppe. Die Sauerstoffkonzentration steigt im Blut. Stenokardien wurden nicht beobachtet. Extrasystolien nahmen ab. T-Helferlymphozyten sinken im zirkulierenden Blut bei Rheumatoider Arthritis und Morbus Bechterew signifikant ab. Daraus ergibt sich als weitere Indikation die Behandlung von Autoimmunerkrankungen. (orig.)

  6. Cryotherapy: local - whole-body; Kryotherapie Lokal - Ganzkoerper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, R. [Klinik fuer Rheumatologie, St. Josef-Stift Sendenhorst (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Cryotherapy, whether administered through ice, cold air, nitrogen or cold pack has an effect that can even reach the point of pain elimination. It also acts antiinflammatorily, eases swelling, and improves the function of inflamed joints. Further effects are alleviation of excess muscle tone and maintenance of blood irrigation in inflamed tissue. The fields of indication for cryotherapy can be summarised as follows: inflammation, pain, swelling, functional inhibition, excess muscle tone. Whole-body therapy at -110 C effects significantly enhanced function as compared with a control groups. Blood oxygen rises. Stenocarias have not been reported, whereas extrasystoles are said to decrease. Helper T lymphocytes in the circulating blood drop significantly in rheumatoid arthritis and Bechterev`s disease. This suggests autoimmune disease as a further field of indication. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kryotherapie mit Eis, Kaltluft, Stickstoff, Kaltluft oder Kaeltepackungen wirkt schmerzlindernd bis hin zu Schmerzaufhebung, wirkt entzuendungshemmend, abschwellend und bei Entzuendung funktionsverbessernd in betroffenen Gelenken, Muskeltonuserhoehungen werden abgebaut. Die Durchblutung, wird unter Ryotherapie im Entzuendungsbereich aufrechterhalten. Somit ergeben sich folgende Indikationen: Entzuendung, Schmerz, Schwellung, Funktionseinschraenkung, Muskeltonuserhoehung. Eine Ganzkoerperkaeltetherapie bei -110 C bewirkt eine signifikante Funktionsverbesserung gegenueber einer Kontrollgruppe. Die Sauerstoffkonzentration steigt im Blut. Stenokardien wurden nicht beobachtet. Extrasystolien nahmen ab. T-Helferlymphozyten sinken im zirkulierenden Blut bei Rheumatoider Arthritis und Morbus Bechterew signifikant ab. Daraus erbit sich als weitere Indikation die Behandlung von Autoimmunerkrankungen. (orig.)

  7. A phantom experiment for the evaluation of whole body exposure during BNCT using cyclotron-based epithermal neutron source (C-BENS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, T., E-mail: t.tsukamoto@ft5.ecs.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Yoshinaga, H. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Asashiro-nishi 2-1010, Kumatori-cho, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Mitsumoto, T. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Osaki 2-1-1, Shinagawa, Tokyo 141-6025 (Japan); Maruhashi, A.; Ono, K.; Sakurai, Y. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Asashiro-nishi 2-1010, Kumatori-cho, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    At Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), cyclotron-based epithermal neutron source was installed in December 2008, and the supplementary construction works have been performed. As of December 2010, the various irradiation characteristics important for BNCT were mostly evaluated. The whole body exposure during BNCT medical irradiation is one of the important characteristics. In this article, measurements of absorbed dose for thermal and fast neutrons and gamma-ray at ten positions corresponding to important organs are reported.

  8. Whole-Body Clinical Applications of Digital Tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Haruhiko; Yuhara, Toshiyuki; Tamura, Mieko; Ishikawa, Takuya; Tate, Etsuko; Ueno, Eiko; Nye, Katelyn; Sabol, John M

    2016-01-01

    With flat-panel detector mammography, radiography, and fluoroscopy systems, digital tomosynthesis (DT) has been recently introduced as an advanced clinical application that removes overlying structures, enhances local tissue separation, and provides depth information about structures of interest by providing high-quality tomographic images. DT images are generated from projection image data, typically using filtered back-projection or iterative reconstruction. These low-dose x-ray projection images are easily and swiftly acquired over a range of angles during a single linear or arc sweep of the x-ray tube assembly. DT is advantageous in a variety of clinical contexts, including breast, chest, head and neck, orthopedic, emergency, and abdominal imaging. Specifically, compared with conventional mammography, radiography, and fluoroscopy, as a result of reduced tissue overlap DT can improve detection of breast cancer, pulmonary nodules, sinonasal mucosal thickening, and bone fractures and delineation of complex anatomic structures such as the ostiomeatal unit, atlantoaxial joint, carpal and tarsal bones, and pancreatobiliary and gastrointestinal tracts. Compared with computed tomography, DT offers reduced radiation exposure, better in-plane resolution to improve assessment of fine bony changes, and less metallic artifact, improving postoperative evaluation of patients with metallic prostheses and osteosynthesis materials. With more flexible patient positioning, DT is also useful for functional, weight-bearing, and stress tests. To optimize patient management, a comprehensive understanding of the clinical applications and limitations of whole-body DT applications is important for improvement of diagnostic quality, workflow, and cost-effectiveness. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  9. Whole-body volume regulation and escape from antidiuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbalis, Joseph G

    2006-07-01

    Both individual cells and organs regulate their volume in response to sustained hypo-osmolality via solute and water losses. Similar processes occur in the whole body to regulate the volumes of extracellular fluid (ECF) and intravascular spaces toward normal levels. Body water losses occur via the phenomena "escape from antidiuresis"; solute losses occur through the secondary natriuresis induced by water retention. As a result of resistance to arginine vasopressin (AVP) signaling, escape from antidiuresis is caused by downregulation of kidney aquaporin-2 expression despite high AVP plasma levels. Recent data have implicated downregulation of vasopressin V2R as a potential mechanism of resistance, and suggest that this may be a result of decreased intrarenal angiotensin II signaling in combination with increased intrarenal nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 signaling. The natriuresis that results in volume regulation of the ECF and vascular spaces is the result of intrarenal hemodynamic changes produced by volume expansion, but the degree to which these effects are modulated by aldosterone secretion and the activity of distal sodium cotransporters and channels remains to be elucidated. The clinical implication of these volume-regulatory processes is that the chronic hyponatremic state is one of water retention and solute losses from intracellular fluid and ECF compartments. The degree to which solute losses versus water retention contribute to hyponatremia will vary in association with many factors, including the etiology of the hyponatremia, the rapidity of development of the hyponatremia, the chronicity of the hyponatremia, the volume of daily water loading, and individual variability. Understanding these volume-regulatory processes allows a better understanding of many aspects of the conundrum of patients with "clinical euvolemia" and dilutional hyponatremia from AVP-induced water retention.

  10. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  11. Ultra-high field magnets for whole-body MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Rory

    2016-09-01

    For whole-body MRI, an ultra-high field (UHF) magnet is currently defined as a system operating at 7 T or above. Over 70 UHF magnets have been built, all with the same technical approach originally developed by Magnex Scientific Ltd. The preferred coil configuration is a compensated solenoid. In this case, the majority of the field is generated by a simple long solenoid that stretches the entire length of the magnet. Additional coils are wound on a separate former outside the main windings with the purpose of balancing the homogeneity. Most of the magnets currently in operation are passively shielded systems where the magnet is surrounded by a steel box of 200-870 tonnes of carbon steel. More recently actively shielded magnets have been built for operation at 7 T; in this case the stray field is controlled by with reverse turns wound on a separate former outside the primary coils. Protection against quench damage is much more complex with an actively shielded magnet design due to the requirement to prevent the stray field from increasing during a quench. In the case of the 7 T 900 magnet this controlled by combining some of the screening coils into each section of the protection circuit. Correction of the field variations caused by manufacturing tolerances and environmental effects are made with a combination of superconducting shims and passive shims. Modern UHF magnets operate in zero boil-off mode with the use of cryocoolers with cooling capacity at 4.2 K. Although there are no cryogen costs associated with normal operation UHF magnets require a significant volume (10 000-20 000 l) of liquid helium for the cool-down. Liquid helium is expensive therefore new methods of cool-down using high-power cryocoolers are being implemented to reduce the requirement.

  12. Whole-body MR imaging. Practical issues, clinical applications, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustace, S J; Walker, R; Blake, M; Yucel, E K

    1999-05-01

    Whole-body MR imaging is in evolution, and although accepting and recognizing limitations, it is likely that both technique and incurred acquisition times will shorten over the next decade. Although the development of dedicated whole-body MR scanners appears to offer the greatest promise for the future, the development of moving table tops, optimized pulse sequences, and advances in gradient technology now facilitate practical whole-body MR imaging using existing clinical systems.

  13. Clinical aspects of accidents resulting in acute total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    That the management of whole body radiation injury involves: (1) watchful waiting, (2) observation of the hematologic parameters, (3) use of antibiotics, platelet red cell and possibly granulocyte transfusions, (4) administration of hemopoietic molecular regulators of granulopoiesis, and (5) bone marrow transplantation as the last line of defense. The clinical indication for the preceding will not be discussed, since this will be a subject of later speakers in this conference. Certainly, if a radiation casualty is fortunate enough to have an identical twin, a marrow transplant may be lifesaving and certainly can do no harm to the patient, and there is little risk to the donor.

  14. [The effect of betahistine on histological changes in rabbit brain in model of whole body wide-frequency vibration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimkus, Iu Iu; Sapegin, I D

    2013-01-01

    In acute experiments in conscious rabbits was studied protective action of selective blocker of histamine H3-receptor betahistine (2mg/kg i/v) against histological changes in precentral and postcentral gyrus, as well as in temporal lobe of cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum, arising in case of modeling of whole body wide-frequency vibration. Betahistine attenuates edematous and degenerative changes in neurons and reciprocal glial reaction, caused by vibration, but does not eliminate edema in perivascular spaces. This effect may be related to the improvement of blood supply as a result of of vasodilatory action and decrease of oxygen consumption via vestibuloprotective effect.

  15. Quantitative, functional, and biochemical alterations in the peritoneal cells of mice exposed to whole-body gamma irradiation. 1. Changes in cellular protein, adherence properties, and enzymatic activities associated with platelet-activating factor formation and inactivation, and arachidonate metabolism. Scientific report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steel, L.K.; Hughes, H.N.; Walden, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in total number, differentials, cell protein, adherence properties, acetyltransferase and acetylhydrolase activities, prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene C4 production, as well as calcium (2+) ionophore A23187 stimulation were examined in resident peritoneal cells isolated from mice 2h to 10 days postexposure to a single dose (7,10 or 12 Gy) of gamma radiation. Radiation dose-related reductions in macrophage and lymphocyte numbers and increases in cellular protein and capacity to adhere to plastic surfaces were evident. In-vitro irradiation also elevated the activities of acetyltransferase and acetylhydrolase (catalyzing platelet-activating factor biosynthesis and inactivation, respectively) in adherent and nonadherent peritoneal cells, particularly 3-4 days postexposure. Blood plasma from irradiated animals did not reflect the increased cellular acetylhydrolase activity. Prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene C4 synthesis were elevated postexposure, suggesting increased substrate (arachidonate) availability and increased cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities. Ionospheric stimulation of enzyme activities and eicosanoid release also differed in irradiated peritoneal cells. While the properties of adherence, platelet-activating factor synthesis/inactivation-associated enzyme activities, and eicosanoid production are generally characterized as those of macrophages, lymphocytes or their products may influence or contribute to the observed radiation-induced changes.

  16. Made-to-measure pattern development based on 3D whole body scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.; Hong, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - New techniques are required to link 3D whole body scans to manufacturing techniques to allow for the mass-customization of clothes. This study aims to compare two methods of producing skirts based on 3D whole body scans. Design/methodology/approach - Three females participated in the study

  17. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FEASIBILITY OF WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING IN DIAGNOSIS OF METASTASIS OF TUMOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-he Yang; Jian-zhong Lin; Xin Wang; Jian-hua Lu; Zhong Chen

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of whole body diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of metastatic tumor.Methods Fifty-six patients (40 males and 16 females, age ranging from 29 to 84 years with a mean age of 57 years) with a variety of primary tumors were investigated by whole body DWI combined with computed tomography (CT) and/or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Twelve patients underwent positron emission tomography. The final diagnosis was made on the basis of CT or high resolution CT result for lung lesion and MRI or CT result for skull, abdomen and other parts. All tumors were classified into four groups by their diameter: below 1.0 cm, 1.0-1.9 cm, 2.0-2.9 cm, and above 3.0 cm. The sensitivity and specificity of whole body DWI in the detection of metastatic tumor were analyzed.Results The sensitivities of whole body DWI for screening metastasis oftlie four groups were 38%, 75%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. Whole body DWI showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting metastasis of the skeletal system. It was difficult to find metastatic tumor whose diameter was below 1.0 cm, or lymph nodes located in the pelvis with diameter below 2.0 cm. Conclusions Whole body DWI is a promising method in the diagnosis ofmetastastic tumors. With the perfection of scanning parameter, whole body DWI should be a new effective whole body technique for tumor detection.

  18. Ventilation and Radon Reduction System of Whole Body Counter’s Shielding Room in CIAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Li-jiao; XIAO; Wen-hui; LU; Zheng; WEN; Fu-ping; HE; Li-hua; XIA; Yi-hua

    2015-01-01

    In 2015,the whole body counter of the Department of Radiation Safety was retrofitted.The whole body counter was used for monitoring radiation workers’internal exposure doses.One of the contents in this project was the retrofit of a ventilation and radon reduction system in the low

  19. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  20. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khmelinskii, A.; Groen, H. C.; De Jong, M.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, po

  1. Segmentation and Visual Analysis of Whole-Body Mouse Skeleton microSPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Khmelinskii (Artem); H.C. Groen (Harald); M. Baiker (Martin); M. de Jong (Marion); B.P.F. Lelieveldt (Boudewijn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-

  2. Whole-body vibration does not influence knee joint neuromuscular function or proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, R; Minshull, C; Folland, J P

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the acute effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on knee joint position sense and indices of neuromuscular function, specifically strength, electromechanical delay and the rate of force development. Electromyography and electrically evoked contractions were used to investigate neural and contractile responses to WBV. Fourteen healthy males completed two treatment conditions on separate occasions: (1) 5 × 1 min of unilateral isometric squat exercise on a synchronous vibrating platform [30 Hz, 4 mm peak-to-peak amplitude] (WBV) and (2) a control condition (CON) of the same exercise without WBV. Knee joint position sense (joint angle replication task) and quadriceps neuromuscular function were assessed pre-, immediately-post and 1 h post-exercise. During maximum voluntary knee extensions, the peak force (PF(V)), electromechanical delay (EMD(V)), rate of force development (RFD(V)) and EMG of the quadriceps were measured. Twitch contractions of the knee extensors were electrically evoked to assess EMD(E) and RFD(E). The results showed no influence of WBV on knee joint position, EMD(V), PF(V) and RFD(V) during the initial 50, 100 or 150 ms of contraction. Similarly, electrically evoked neuromuscular function and neural activation remained unchanged following the vibration exercise. A single session of unilateral WBV did not influence any indices of thigh muscle neuromuscular performance or knee joint proprioception.

  3. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J; Harder-Lauridsen, N M; Solomon, T P; Thomsen, C; Juul, A; Pedersen, M; Pedersen, J T; Mortensen, O H; Pilegaard, H; Pedersen, B K; Lindegaard, B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if fat oxidation was affected by menopausal status and to investigate if this could be related to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Forty-one healthy women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study [premenopausal (n = 19), perimenopausal (n = 8), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI 95%: 9-22) lower energy expenditure (P = 0.02) during exercise, as well as 4.28 kg lower lean body mass (LBM) than premenopausal women. Correction for LBM reduced differences in fat oxidation to 23% (P = 0.05), whereas differences in energy expenditure disappeared (P = 0.22). No differences between groups were found in mRNA [carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, citrate synthase (CS), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)], protein [phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), vascular endothelial growth factor, pyruvate dehydrogenase-1Eα, cytochrome oxidase I], or enzyme activities (β-HAD, CS) in resting skeletal muscle, except for an increased protein level of cytochrome c in the post- and perimenopausal women relative to premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women demonstrated a trend to a blunted exercise-induced increase in phosphorylation of AMPK compared with premenopausal women (P = 0.06). We conclude

  4. Future directions in therapy of whole body radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    Clinicians have long known that marked granulocytopenia predisposed patients to bacterial infections either from pathogens or commensal organisms with which an individual usually lives in harmony. Evidence that infection was of major importance derives from several observations: (a) clinical observations of bacterial infection in human beings exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in reactor accidents, and in large animals dying from radiation exposure, (b) correlative studies on mortality rate, time of death, and incidence of positive culture in animals, (c) challenge of irradiated animals with normally non-virulent organisms, (d) studies of germ free mice and rats, and (e) studies of the effectiveness of antibiotics in reducing mortality rate. General knowledge and sound experimental data on animals and man clearly demonstrated that the sequelae of pancytopenia (bacterial infection, thrombopenic hemorrhage, and anemia) are the lethal factors. A lot of research was required to demonstrate that there were no mysterious radiations toxins, that hyperheparinemia was not a cause of radiation hemorrhage and that radiation hemorrhage could be prevented by fresh platelet transfusions.

  5. Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

  6. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    administered antibiotics, or probiotics affects whole body nitrogen and amino acid turnover. We quantified whole body urea kinetics, threonine fluxes, and threonine disposal into protein, oxidation, and tissue protein synthesis with stable isotope techniques. Compared with controls, antibiotics reduced...... the number and diversity of bacterial species in the distal small intestine (SI) and colon. Antibiotics decreased plasma urea concentrations via decreased urea synthesis. Antibiotics elevated threonine plasma concentrations and turnover, as well as whole body protein synthesis and proteolysis. Antibiotics...... in the proximal SI but not in other tissues. In conclusion, modulation of the gut microbiota by antibiotics and probiotics reduced hepatic ureagenesis and intestinal protein synthesis, but neither altered whole body net threonine balance. These findings suggest that changes in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism...

  7. [What can we think about whole-body-vibration in elderly people?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschilas, Franck; Blain, Hubert

    2010-10-01

    Whole-body-vibration on oscillating platform is a recent type of physical therapy and its use has increased in the last years for elderly people. Whole-body-vibration enhances muscle strength and/or power, but this effect has been poorly studied, specifically in elderly people. The use of oscillating plateforms seems to improve gait stability and reduce the risk of fall, especially in frail and institutionalized elderly people. Oscillating plateforms may have an anti-osteoporotic effect in post-menopausal women. Whole-body-vibration on oscillating plateforms may improve postural stability and motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Maladjusted use of whole body vibration can lead to health problems especially on osteo-articular tissues.

  8. Whole-Body MRI versus PET in assessment of multiple myeloma disease activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shortt, Conor P

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare FDG PET; whole-body MRI; and the reference standard, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, to determine the best imaging technique for assessment of disease activity in multiple myeloma.

  9. Validation of a whole-body cortisol extraction procedure for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed and validated a whole-body cortisol extraction technique for catfish fry. Their small size (cortisol, a common indicator of a stress response, using conventional assay methods. Three volume enhancement methods were tested: CAL method (zero calibrator...

  10. Calculation of effective dose in whole body in dependence of angle of collimator for photon fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuenzalida, M. [Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco (Chile). Programa de Magister en Fisica Medica; Varon, C.; Piriz, G.; Banguero, Y.; Lozano, E.; Mancilla, C., E-mail: fisicamedica@incancer.c [Instituto Nacional del Cancer, Santiago (Chile). Unidad de Fisica Medica

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain quantifiable data of whole body effective dose for photons fields of 6 MV and 18 MV in function of the collimator angle of a Varian Clinac 21EX lineal accelerator. It has been made a variety of studies which investigate the form to reduce the dose in whole body with photons fields, specially over the potential risks and the influence of the collimator angle, as performed Stanthakis et al. [1] with the Monte Carlo method. As a result of this work, the values of whole body effective doses are higher with a 0 deg collimator than with a 90 deg collimator, and as the field size increases, the effective doses difference in whole body, between 0 deg and 90 deg collimator angle, for both energies, becomes smaller. (author)

  11. Whole-body MR imaging for patients with rheumatism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weckbach, Sabine [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Unversity Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)], E-mail: sabine.weckbach@umm.de

    2009-06-15

    WB-MRI in rheumatic diseases is still an emerging imaging tool. So far, WB-MRI in rheumatism is mainly used in seronegative spondyloarthropathies. In these diseases it has the ability to visualize the majority of involved joints and soft tissue structures (both active inflammatory changes and chronic structural abnormalities) in one examination, making it suitable for imaging of different forms of spondylopathies, allowing different types of joint involvement to be recognized and assessing both the acute symptoms of disease and the longer-term consequences. Its role in daily practice is not yet clear. WB-MRI is not recommended as a first line investigation in every patient suffering from a form of spondyloarthropathy, but may add important information in difficult cases. Moreover, WB-MRI might obtain a stronger role in the early diagnosis of spondyloarthritides and in the assessment of treatment response. Other rheumatic diseases where WB-MRI may play a role in the future are polymyositis/dermatomyositis, CRMO and certain forms of systemic vasculitis. WB-MRI in rheumatism is a promising tool with great potential, however further systematic evaluation of its abilities and limitations in different forms of rheumatic diseases is awaited.

  12. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Collado-Mateo; Jose C. Adsuar; Olivares, Pedro R.; Borja del Pozo-Cruz; Parraca, Jose A; Jesus del Pozo-Cruz; Narcis Gusi

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CB...

  13. Alternative Therapeutic Method for Type Two Diabetes: Whole Body Vibration Therapy: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L Simmerman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes continues to increase there is a need for new interventions to control this epidemic. Multiple alternative treatment methods exist for type 2 diabetes mellitus such as acupuncture, bariatric surgery, yoga, aromatherapy, herbal remedies, etc. Whole Body Vibration is a relatively new area of interest recently utilized as an adjunctive therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, representing a potentially new and novel treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective The primary objective of this study was to summarize current literature regarding the effects of whole body vibration on type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review details the effect of whole body vibration on areas of high clinical impact in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus such as glycemic control, body composition, renal function, inflammatory indices, peripheral neuropathy, and wound healing. Methods Reviewers independently screened abstracts and full texts in journal articles and books to extract data from multiple studies and literature to compile a current review on the topic of whole body vibration and diabetes mellitus. Results Current literature in murine and human models reported an overall improvement in glycemic control, renal function, inflammatory indices, and peripheral neuropathy following whole body vibration therapy. Whole body vibration effect on body mass composition is controversial with inconsistent reports of the effect on lean mass, bone density, and fat mass. Conclusions Whole body vibration has demonstrated significant promise in improving multiple systems related to the sequela of type 2 diabetes mellitus, thereby suggesting a new and novel treatment modification in this patient population. Subsequent studies are needed to further analyze the effect of whole body vibration on type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: techniques, clinical indications, and future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R E; Eustace, S J

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews developments in both pulse sequence design and gradient technology that facilitate rapid imaging of the whole body. It discusses its application in patients with bone marrow neoplasms, including metastases, lymphoma, and myeloma and emphasizes the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with known vertebral lesions to detect other bone lesions that are easier to biopsy. It outlines possible applications in well-defined clinical situations, including pregnancy and unknown primary tumor.

  15. Targeted contrast agents--an adjunct to whole-body imaging: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Paul; Bolster, Ferdia; Crosbie, Ian; MacMahon, Peter; O'Kennedy, Richard; Eustace, Stephen J

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews the potential use of a combination of whole-body imaging and targeted contrast agents in improving diagnostics, with a particular focus on oncology imaging. It looks at the rationale for nanoparticles and their development as targeted contrast agents. It subsequently describes many of the advances made thus far in developing tissue-specific contrast agents capable of targeting tumors that combined with whole-body imaging may enable superior cancer detection and characterization.

  16. The Effect of Whole-Body Radiation on Blood Levels of Gastrointestinal Peptides in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Katanyutanon, Sakdhisapol; WU, RONGQIAN; Wang, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Radiation-induced injury may occur in various incidents as well as the terrorist radiation exposure scenario. The digestive tract is among the most radiosensitive organs in the body and its function, which is partly regulated by gastrointestinal (GI) peptides, can be affected by radiation exposure. However, very little is known about the effect of whole-body radiation on blood GI peptides. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the effect of whole-body radiation on circulating level...

  17. Comparative study of whole-body MRI and bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balliu, E., E-mail: eballiu@gmail.co [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Boada, M.; Pelaez, I. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, J.C. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, Clinica Girona - Hospital Sta Caterina, Girona (Spain); Barcelo-Vidal, C. [Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, University of Girona (Spain); Rubio, A.; Galofre, P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Castro, A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain); Pedraza, S. [Department of Magnetic Resonance, IDI Girona, Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr Josep Trueta, Girona (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Aim: To assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy in the detection of metastases to bone. Material and methods: Forty randomly selected patients with known malignant tumours were prospectively studied using bone scintigraphy and whole-body MRI. Two patients were excluded. Symptoms of bone metastasis were present in 29 (76%) patients and absent in nine (24%). Findings were classified into four categories according to the probability of bone metastasis: (1) negative, (2) probably negative, (3) probably positive, and (4) positive. Diagnostic accuracy was determined according to the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The definitive diagnosis was reached using other imaging techniques, biopsy, or 12 months clinical follow-up. Results: Metastases were present in 18 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 94, 90, and 92%, respectively, for whole-body MRI and 72, 75, and 74%, respectively, for bone scintigraphy. Diagnostic accuracy measured by the area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for whole-body MRI (96%) than for bone scintigraphy (77%; p<0.05). Interobserver agreement measured by the kappa index was significantly higher for whole-body MRI (0.895) than for bone scintigraphy (0.524; p<0.05). Whole-body MRI detected lesions in tissues other than bone in 17 (45%) patients. Conclusions: Whole-body MRI is more accurate and more objective than bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases. Whole-body MRI can also detect lesions in tissues other than bone.

  18. Detection of multifocal osteonecrosis in an adolescent with dermatomyositis using whole-body MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Tania C.M.; Terreri, Maria Teresa A.; Hilario, Maria Odete E. [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy, Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Image Diagnosis Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Osteonecrosis is a well-recognized complication of corticosteroid use resulting in significant morbidity, often requiring surgical intervention. Whole-body MRI is a promising method that allows imaging of the whole patient in a reasonable time without the use of ionizing radiation. This technique has the potential for evaluating nonmalignant multifocal skeletal disease like osteonecrosis. This case highlights the value of whole-body MR in an adolescent with dermatomyositis who developed multifocal osteonecrosis. (orig.)

  19. Effect of meal and propranolol on whole body and splanchnic oxygen consumption in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Simonsen, Lene; Henriksen, Jens H

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to measure whole body energy expenditure after a mixed liquid meal, with and without simultaneous propranolol infusion, in patients with cirrhosis. We also wanted to investigate the effect of propranolol on substrate fluxes and oxygen uptake in the tissues drained by the hepatic vein ...... as splanchnic oxygen uptake. The splanchnic reduction in oxygen consumption can explain almost the entire reduction in whole body oxygen consumption....

  20. Gamma camera imaging for studying intestinal absorption and whole-body distribution of selenomethionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L.; Sjögreen-Gleisner, Katarina; Elema, Dennis Ringkjøbing

    2014-01-01

    Se metabolism in humans is not well characterised. Currently, the estimates of Se absorption, whole-body retention and excretion are being obtained from balance and tracer studies. In the present study, we used gamma camera imaging to evaluate the whole-body retention and distribution of radiolab......Se metabolism in humans is not well characterised. Currently, the estimates of Se absorption, whole-body retention and excretion are being obtained from balance and tracer studies. In the present study, we used gamma camera imaging to evaluate the whole-body retention and distribution...... of radiolabelled selenomethionine (SeMet), the predominant form of Se present in foods. A total of eight healthy young men participated in the study. After consumption of a meal containing 4MBq [75Se]L-SeMet ([75Se]SeMet), whole-body gamma camera scanning was performed for 45 min every hour over a 6 h period......]SeMet was retained within the body after 7 d. In contrast, the measured excretion in urine and faeces for the 7 d period was 8•2 (SD 1•1)% of the activity. Time–activity curves were generated for the whole body, stomach, liver, abdomen (other than the stomach and the liver), brain and femoral muscles. Gamma camera...

  1. Cardiopulmonary response during whole-body vibration training in patients with severe COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Petra; Winterkamp, Sandra; Pfeifer, Michael; Nell, Christoph; Christle, Jeffrey W.; Kenn, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Several studies in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have shown that whole-body vibration training (WBVT) has beneficial effects on exercise capacity. However, the acute cardiopulmonary demand during WBVT remains unknown and was therefore investigated in this study. Ten patients with severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s: 38±8% predicted) were examined on two consecutive days. On day one, symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed on a cycle ergometer. The next day, six bouts of repeated squat exercises were performed in random order for one, two or three minutes either with or without WBVT while metabolic demands were simultaneously measured. Squat exercises with or without WBVT induced comparable ventilatory efficiency (minute ventilation (VE)/carbon dioxide production (V′CO2): 38.0±4.4 with WBVT versus 37.4±4.1 without, p=0.236). Oxygen uptake after 3 min of squat exercises increased from 339±40 mL·min−1 to 1060±160 mL·min−1 with WBVT and 988±124 mL min−1 without WBV (p=0.093). However, there were no significant differences between squat exercises with and without WBVT in oxygen saturation (90±4% versus 90±4%, p=0.068), heart rate (109±13 bpm versus 110±15 bpm, p=0.513) or dyspnoea (Borg scale 5±2 versus 5±2, p=0.279). Combining squat exercises with WBVT induced a similar cardiopulmonary response in patients with severe COPD compared to squat exercises without WBVT. Bearing in mind the small sample size, WBVT might be a feasible and safe exercise modality even in patients with severe COPD. PMID:28326310

  2. Whole body and skeletal muscle protein turnover in recovery from burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Craig; Hurren, Nicholas M; Herndon, David N; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Trauma and critical illness are associated with a stress response that results in increased skeletal muscle protein catabolism, which is thought to facilitate the synthesis of acute phase proteins in the liver as well as proteins involved in immune function. What makes burn injury a unique form of trauma is the existence of vast skin lesions, where the majority of afflicted tissue is often surgically excised post injury. Thereafter, recovery is dependent on the formation of a significant quantity of new skin, meaning that the burned patient requires a large and sustained supply of amino acids to facilitate wound healing. Skeletal muscle has the capacity to store surplus glucose and fatty acids within glycogen and triacylglycerol depots respectively, where glycogen and fatty acids can be mobilized during prolonged periods of caloric restriction or heightened metabolic demand (e.g., exercise), to be catabolized in order to maintain cellular ATP availability. Amino acids, on the other hand, are not generally considered to be stored in such a manner within skeletal muscle, i.e., in a temporary pool independent of structural proteins and cellular organelles etc. Subsequently, in response to severe thermal trauma, skeletal muscle assumes the role of an amino acid reserve where muscle protein breakdown and amino acid release from skeletal muscle serves to buffer plasma amino acid concentrations. Interestingly, it seems like aggressive feeding of the severely burned patient may not necessarily supply amino acids in sufficient abundance to normalize skeletal muscle protein metabolism, suggesting that skeletal muscle becomes an essential store of protein in patients suffering from severe burn trauma. In this article, the effects of burn injury on whole body and skeletal muscle protein metabolism will be discussed in an attempt to distill the current understanding of the impact of this debilitating injury on the redistribution of skeletal muscle protein stores.

  3. Patient-specific biomechanical model as whole-body CT image registration tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Miller, Karol; Joldes, Grand Roman; Doyle, Barry; Garlapati, Revanth Reddy; Kikinis, Ron; Wittek, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Whole-body computed tomography (CT) image registration is important for cancer diagnosis, therapy planning and treatment. Such registration requires accounting for large differences between source and target images caused by deformations of soft organs/tissues and articulated motion of skeletal structures. The registration algorithms relying solely on image processing methods exhibit deficiencies in accounting for such deformations and motion. We propose to predict the deformations and movements of body organs/tissues and skeletal structures for whole-body CT image registration using patient-specific non-linear biomechanical modelling. Unlike the conventional biomechanical modelling, our approach for building the biomechanical models does not require time-consuming segmentation of CT scans to divide the whole body into non-overlapping constituents with different material properties. Instead, a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm is used for tissue classification to assign the constitutive properties automatically at integration points of the computation grid. We use only very simple segmentation of the spine when determining vertebrae displacements to define loading for biomechanical models. We demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of our approach on CT images of seven patients suffering from cancer and aortic disease. The results confirm that accurate whole-body CT image registration can be achieved using a patient-specific non-linear biomechanical model constructed without time-consuming segmentation of the whole-body images.

  4. Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Parsonage Turner Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.; Twair, A.; Nelson, E.; Brennan, D.; Eustace, S. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital Finglas, Dublin (Ireland)

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome and to emphasize the value of an additional whole body MR scan to improve specificity of this diagnosis. Material and Methods: Three patients with proven Parsonage Turner syndrome referred for conventional MRI of the shoulder girdle and additional whole body turboSTIR MRI were included for study. Results: In each case, imaging revealed edema in the muscles of the shoulder girdle. Whole body turboSTIR MRI scan confirmed localized unilateral changes in each case improving specificity and confidence in the diagnosis of Parsonage Turner syndrome in each case. Conclusion: Whole body turboSTIR MR imaging is a useful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected Parsonage Turner syndrome. Inclusion of the brain, neck, brachial plexus, and extremity musculature at whole body imaging allows differentiation from polymyositis and elimination of additional causes of shoulder girdle pain and weakness including gross lesions in the brain, neck, and brachial plexus by a single non-invasive study.

  5. Role of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing early spondyloarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mager, Ann-Kathrin; Althoff, Christian E. [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Sieper, Joachim [Department of Rheumatology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hermann, Kay-Geert A. [Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: kgh@charite.de

    2009-08-15

    Ankylosing spondylitis is the prototypical spondyloarthritis. Early diagnosis has gained clinical importance with the advent of new therapeutic options such as TNF-{alpha} inhibitors, which can dramatically improve clinical outcome when initiated early. Whole-body MRI can contribute important diagnostic information for detecting early forms of spondyloarthritis because it enables evaluation of all important joints that may be involved in the disease process as a one-stop shop modality. MRI allows much more accurate diagnostic evaluation of the thoracic spine, which is affected in the majority of patients. This article provides an overview of the use of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the spondyloarthritides. The recommendations given reflect the most recent scientific data and expert opinions. The focus of this review is on MRI findings at both the axial and the appendicular skeleton and the technical feasibility of whole-body MRI in the clinical setting.

  6. Disseminated cysticercosis in a child: whole-body MR diagnosis with the use of parallel imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Atin; Goenka, Ajit Harishkumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, New Delhi, Delhi (India); Choudhary, Anita; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Gulati, Sheffali [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Paediatrics, New Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2010-02-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by infestation with the encysted larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Disseminated cysticercosis is an exceptional expression of this disease characterized by high morbidity due to massive symptomatic parasite burden in the central nervous system, striated muscles, subcutaneous tissues and other organs. Less than 50 such cases have been reported worldwide, and fewer than 10 children. We report on the whole-body MR diagnosis of extensively disseminated cysticercosis in a child. The critical role of whole-body MR as a stand-alone modality in the diagnosis and management of this pleomorphic disease is highlighted. Whole-body MR diagnosis of an infectious disease is unique. (orig.)

  7. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  8. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  9. Animal physiology. Whole-body endothermy in a mesopelagic fish, the opah, Lampris guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Nicholas C; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Dewar, Heidi; Hyde, John R

    2015-05-15

    Endothermy (the metabolic production and retention of heat to warm body temperature above ambient) enhances physiological function, and whole-body endothermy generally sets mammals and birds apart from other animals. Here, we describe a whole-body form of endothermy in a fish, the opah (Lampris guttatus), that produces heat through the constant "flapping" of wing-like pectoral fins and minimizes heat loss through a series of counter-current heat exchangers within its gills. Unlike other fish, opah distribute warmed blood throughout the body, including to the heart, enhancing physiological performance and buffering internal organ function while foraging in the cold, nutrient-rich waters below the ocean thermocline.

  10. False positive diagnosis on (131)iodine whole-body scintigraphy of differentiated thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Vincenzo; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Iovino, Michele; De Pergola, Giovanni; Licchelli, Brunella; Varraso, Antonio; Dicembrino, Franca; Valle, Guido; Guastamacchia, Edoardo

    2016-09-01

    (131)Iodine is used both to ablate any residual thyroid tissue or metastatic disease and to obtain whole-body diagnostic images after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Even though whole-body scan is highly accurate in showing thyroid residues as well as metastases of DTC, false positive results can be found, possibly leading to diagnostic errors and unnecessary treatments. This paper reviews the physiological and pathological processes involved as well as the strategy to recognize and rule out false positive radioiodine images.

  11. Segmentation of rodent whole-body dynamic PET images: an unsupervised method based on voxel dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroy, Renaud; Boisgard, Raphaël; Comtat, Claude;

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful tool for pharmacokinetics studies in rodents during the preclinical phase of drug and tracer development. However, rodent organs are small as compared to the scanner's intrinsic resolution and are affected by physiological movements. We present a new...... method for the segmentation of rodent whole-body PET images that takes these two difficulties into account by estimating the pharmacokinetics far from organ borders. The segmentation method proved efficient on whole-body numerical rat phantom simulations, including 3-14 organs, together...

  12. Whole-Body versus Local DXA-Scan for the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in COPD Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lidwien Graat-Verboom; Spruit, Martijn A; van den Borne, Ben E. E. M.; Smeenk, Frank W J M; Wouters, Emiel F. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Osteoporosis is an extrapulmonary effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD measured by DXA-scan. The best location for BMD measurement in COPD has not been determined. Aim of this study was to assess whole-body BMD and BMD of the hip and lumbar spine (local DXA) in COPD patients and compare the prevalence of osteoporosis at these locations. Methods. Whole body as well as local DXA-scan were made in 168 COPD patients entering...

  13. Dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) protects Wistar albino rats from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Okiti, Osume O; Farombi, E Olatunde

    2011-11-01

    The effect of dried fruit extract from Xylopia aethiopica (Annonaceae) (XA) and vitamin C (VC) against γ-radiation-induced liver and kidney damage was studied in male Wistar rats. XA and VC were given orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg, orally for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed after 1 and 8 weeks of single exposure to radiation. Results showed that all animals in un-irradiated group survived (100%), while 83.3% and 66.7% survived in XA- and VC-treated groups, respectively, and 50% survived in irradiated group. The levels of serum, liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (LPO) were elevated by 88%, 102% and 73% after 1 week of exposure, and by 152%, 221% and 178%, after 8 weeks of exposure, respectively. Treatment with XA and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of LPO in the irradiated animals. Also, γ-radiation caused significant decreases (p<0.05) in the levels of liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), kidney GSH and SOD by 41%, 60%, 81%, 79%, 72% and 58% after 1 week of exposure. Similarly, γ-radiation caused significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST) after 8 weeks of exposure. Precisely, ALT and AST levels were increased by 69% and 82%, respectively. These changes were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in irradiated animals treated with XA and VC. These results suggest that XA and VC could increase the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidney of irradiated animals, and may protect from adverse effects of whole body radiation.

  14. Graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants: a randomized study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilepich, M.V.; Anderson, C.B.; Etheredge, E.E.; Sicard, G.A.; Melzer, J.S.; Blum, J.

    1982-05-01

    A randomized study of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients developing clinical signs of an acute graft rejection received customary antirejection treatment in the form of intravenous administration of high-dose (1 gm per day) of methylprednisolone. They were at the same time randomized to either receive therapeutic irradiation (175 rad every other day to a total of 525 rad) or sham irradiation. Neither the patient nor the Transplant Service surgeons knew at any time whether the radiation treatment had been given. Eighty-three rejection episodes occurring in 64 grafts were entered into the study. Acute rejection was reversed in 84.5% of grafts in the control and 75% in the treated group. The incidence of recurrent rejection was higher in the treated group (66 vs. 46%) and graft survival was lower (22% vs. 54%). The study failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute renal allograft rejection, when used in conjunction with high dose steriods.

  15. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.S.; Selen, L.P.J.; Medendorp, W.P.

    2015-01-01

    The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferenc

  16. Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response Michael C. Madden1 and Brett Winters21US Environmental Protection Agency and 2University of North Carolina Human Studies Facility, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA Studies involving collection and...

  17. Evaluation of Massey Ferguson Model 165 Tractor Drivers exposed to whole-body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nassiri

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that the need to provide intervention , controlling and managing measures to eliminate or reduce exposure to whole body vibration among tractor drivers its necessary. And, preventing main disorder Including musculoskeletal disorders, discomfort and early fatigue is of circular importance. More studies are also necessary to identify the sources of vibration among various of tractors.

  18. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials.

  19. Protein intake during hemodialysis maintains a positive whole body protein balance in chronic hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, JM; Kingma, HA; Boer, TS; Stellaard, F; De Jong, PE; Reijngoud, DJ; Huisman, RM

    2003-01-01

    Protein energy malnutrition is present in 18 to 56% of hemodialysis patients. Because hemodialysis has been regarded as a catabolic event, we studied whether consumption of a protein- and energy-nriched meal improves the whole body protein balance during dialysis in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patien

  20. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, Jose C.; Olivares, Pedro R.; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Parraca, Jose A.; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Gusi, Narcis

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials. PMID:26351517

  1. Whole-body turbo STIR MR imaging: controversies and avenues for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Eoin; Smith, Clare; Eustace, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Cappagh National Orthopaedic and Mater Misericordiae Hospitals, Finglas, Dublin 11 (Ireland)

    2003-09-01

    The idea of a non-ionizing high-resolution technique to screen the entire body for occult disease is immensely appealing. This article outlines an evolving technique, controversies and clinical application of whole-body scanning using MRI with turbo short tau inversion recovery tissue excitation. (orig.)

  2. Whole-body turbo STIR MR imaging: controversies and avenues for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Eoin; Smith, Clare; Eustace, Stephen

    2003-09-01

    The idea of a non-ionizing high-resolution technique to screen the entire body for occult disease is immensely appealing. This article outlines an evolving technique, controversies and clinical application of whole-body scanning using MRI with turbo short tau inversion recovery tissue excitation.

  3. Effect of 4-week Whole Body Vibration on Distal Radius Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Tan; Yan-hui Li; Xin Dong; Bin Zhao; Dong Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of high-frequency loading using whole body vibration on distal radius density in adults. Methods The volunteers diagnosed with osteoporosis or osteopenia in the First Hospital of Jilin University from January 2011 to December 2014 were recruited. All the subjects performed foot-based, whole body vibrations on the vibration platform (35 Hz, 0.25 g) once a day, for 15 minutes per session over a period of 4 weeks. The bone mineral density of distal radius (rBMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at before, 2-week, and 4-week after the vibration treatment. Blood pressures were measured at the end of the vibration treatment. Results A total of 114 volunteers were enrolled. The average rBMD before the treatment was 0.331±0.014 g/cm2. It was reached 0.337±0.019 g/cm2at the end of the fourth week, increased by 1.79% (P<0.05). Whole body vibration increased rBMD of men and women respectively (1.77% and 1.80%, P<0.05). Blood pressures did not change in any of the groups. Conclusion A 4-week whole body vibration was feasible and contributed to increase of rBMD.

  4. Bone marrow suppression caused by whole body electron therapy for mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Asada, Y.; Sumiyoshi, A.; Ogata, K.; Kusuhara, T.; Watanabe, K. (Miyazaki Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1985-06-01

    A case reported is presented of bone marrow suppression in a 62 year old women, who was given six courses of electron therapy between 1979 and 1982 for mycosis fungoides over the whole body. X-ray contamination in the electron beam is discussed.

  5. Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Adam E;

    2013-01-01

    Integrated whole-body PET/MRI tomographs have become available. PET/MR imaging has the potential to supplement, or even replace combined PET/CT imaging in selected clinical indications. However, this is true only if methodological pitfalls and image artifacts arising from novel MR-based attenuation...

  6. Whole body and regional clearances of noradrenaline and adrenaline in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Galbo, H; Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev;

    1984-01-01

    The whole body clearance of noradrenaline (NA) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L-3H-NA was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L-3H-NA were measured in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively, in the resting supine position...

  7. Head-to-toe whole-body MRI in psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Eshed, Iris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: By whole-body MRI (WBMRI), we aimed to examine the frequency and distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions in PsA patients, SpA patients and healthy subjects (HSs), to introduce global WBMRI inflammation/damage scores, and to assess WBMRI's reproducibility and correlation wi...

  8. Nasal visualization on radioiodine whole-body scintigraphy due to benign abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Wang, Qiao; Huang, Rui

    2015-04-01

    Nasal iodine activity can be observed on 123Iodine (123I) or 131I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS) commonly as a normal variant caused by nasal or salivary secretion of the tracer. We encountered 2 patients whose increased accumulation of 131I activity was associated with underlying abnormalities. One patient had a nasal polyp, whereas the other had an abscess.

  9. Circumference estimation using 3D-whole body scanners and shadow scanner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Clothing designers and manufacturers use traditional body dimensions as their basis. When 3D-whole body scanners are introduced to determine the body dimensions, a conversion has to be made, since scan determined circumference measures are slightly larger than the traditional values. This pilot stud

  10. Ability of a single-detector, whole-body counter to locate organs containing radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, G.P. de; Holler, E.W.; Botha, M.; Nel, D. (Nuclear Development Corp. of South Africa (Pty.) Ltd., Pelindaba, Pretoria)

    1985-01-01

    The ability of a single-detector, whole-body counter to locate organs containing radioactivity has been studied by scanning an Anderson Remcal phantom both anteriorly and posteriorly over its length and width. Organs can be located satisfactorily, provided the activity distribution is not too complicated.

  11. Whole body MRI in the diagnosis of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, M T

    2012-06-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a diagnosis of exclusion primarily in children and adolescents. As part of the essential criteria for the diagnosis of CRMO, multifocal lesions must be identified. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with CRMO, whose diagnosis was facilitated by the use of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMR), but not isotope bone scanning.

  12. Suitability of Kinect for measuring whole body movement patterns during exergaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diest, Mike; Stegenga, Jan; Wortche, Heinrich J.; Postema, Klaas; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Exergames provide a challenging opportunity for home-based training and evaluation of postural control in the elderly population, but affordable sensor technology and algorithms for assessment of whole body movement patterns in the home environment are yet to be developed. The aim of the present stu

  13. Back disorders and exposure to whole-body vibration: Thesis summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    Occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is widespread and may cause back trouble. Several epidemiological studies of the relationship between WBV exposure and back trouble were carried out at the Coronel Laboratory of the University of Amsterdam. This project comprised studies of disabil

  14. Whole-Body versus Local DXA-Scan for the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in COPD Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat-Verboom, L.; Spruit, M.A.; van den Borne, B.E.; Smeenk, F.W.; Wouters, E.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Osteoporosis is an extrapulmonary effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD measured by DXA-scan. The best location for BMD measurement in COPD has not been determined. Aim of this study was to assess whole-body BMD and BMD of the h

  15. Whole-Body versus Local DXA-Scan for the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis in COPD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidwien Graat-Verboom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is an extrapulmonary effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on BMD measured by DXA-scan. The best location for BMD measurement in COPD has not been determined. Aim of this study was to assess whole-body BMD and BMD of the hip and lumbar spine (local DXA in COPD patients and compare the prevalence of osteoporosis at these locations. Methods. Whole body as well as local DXA-scan were made in 168 COPD patients entering pulmonary rehabilitation. Patient-relevant characteristics were assessed. Prevalence of osteoporosis was determined. Characteristics of patients without osteoporosis were compared to patients with osteoporosis on local DXA. Results. A higher prevalence of osteoporosis was found using local DXA compared to whole-body DXA (39% versus 21%. One quarter of patients without osteoporosis on whole body-DXA did have osteoporosis on local DXA. Significant differences in patient characteristics between patients without osteoporosis based on both DXA measurements and patients with osteoporosis based on local DXA only were found. Conclusions. DXA of the hip and lumbar spine should be made to assess bone mineral density in COPD patients. The lowest T-score of these locations should be used to diagnose osteoporosis.

  16. Effects of whole-body vibration on muscle strength and power of elderly: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Opuszcka Campos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to summarize available scientific evidence on the utilization of whole body vibration as an alternative method to promote effective modifications on muscle strength and power in the aging population.  Scientific studies were retrieved from the following databases: Medline, Scielo, Lillacs, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Science Citation Index. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies, while content went through a critical analysis. From the 91 studies retrieved, 75 were excluded and 16 attended the selection criteria. From the16, the majority (68.8% presented from moderate to high methodological quality. Whole-body vibration associated to both isometric and dynamic exercises seemed to constitute an alternative for therapeutic intervention to improve muscular strength and power of healthy elderly. However, due to the characteristics of the designs of the studies reviewed and the threats to their internal validity (i.e., the absence of the control condition to the vibratory stimulus it was challenging to establish the additional effects of the whole-body vibration on the target population. Divergent findings were found for the whole-body vibration effect on muscular power. It is still necessary to conduct randomized control trials to establish the real effectiveness of this kind of intervention.

  17. EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY RESISTANCE TRAINING ON BONE STATUS AND BODY COMPOSITION IN YOUNG FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of whole body resistance training on bone status and body composition in young female. Twenty five moderately active females volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to whole body resistance trained (WRT (n=13; 23.1±2.0 years and control (C groups (n=12; 22.5±1.7 years. Height, body weight and body composition measurements were held. Total body fat (%BF, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. After completing the pre-test measurements, the WRT subjects were participated in 12 week whole body resistance training. At the end of the 12-week training period, paired t-test results showed that there was a significant (p.05 change in the body weight (-.21kg or BMI (.09. In the control group, significant (p.05 change in the body weight (.85kg, FFM (.12kg, and BMD (-.002 g/cm2 after 12 week period. These results showed that 12 week whole body resistance training had a optimize effect on body composition and bone status, but had no effect on body weight and body mass index in young female subjects.

  18. Preventive central nervous system irradiation in children with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. [Complications of. gamma. radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, G.V.; Simone, J.V.; Hustu, H.O.; Mason, C.

    1978-11-01

    In this study of children with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia an attempt was made to prevent central nervous system relapse and to determine whether this therapy, coupled with multiagent chemotherapy, would be successful in prolonging durations of complete remission. Central nervous system relapses were prevented by irradiation, although patients who received this therapy did no better than those who did not receive irradiation. A small group of patients received irradiation to the liver and spleen, but this modality also failed to improve the duration of remission. Control of extramedullary leukemia, in this study, failed to improve remission duration because bone marrow relapse was not prevented or delayed. It is unlikely that focal therapy will have a significant impact in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia until longer marrow remissions are achieved.

  19. Whole-Body Vibration and the Prevention and Treatment of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminian-Far, Atefeh; Hadian, Mohammad-Reza; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Talebian, Saeed; Bakhtiary, Amir Hoshang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Numerous recovery strategies have been used in an attempt to minimize the symptoms of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been suggested as a viable warm-up for athletes. However, scientific evidence to support the protective effects of WBV training (WBVT) on muscle damage is lacking. Objective: To investigate the acute effect of WBVT applied before eccentric exercise in the prevention of DOMS. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 32 healthy, untrained volunteers were randomly assigned to either the WBVT (n  =  15) or control (n  =  17) group. Intervention(s): Volunteers performed 6 sets of 10 maximal isokinetic (60°/s) eccentric contractions of the dominant-limb knee extensors on a dynamometer. In the WBVT group, the training was applied using a vibratory platform (35 Hz, 5 mm peak to peak) with 100° of knee flexion for 60 seconds before eccentric exercise. No vibration was applied in the control group. Main Outcome Measure(s): Muscle soreness, thigh circumference, and pressure pain threshold were recorded at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 days postexercise. Maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic knee extensor strength were assessed at baseline, immediately after exercise, and at 1, 2, 7, and 14 days postexercise. Serum creatine kinase was measured at baseline and at 1, 2, and 7 days postexercise. Results: The WBVT group showed a reduction in DOMS symptoms in the form of less maximal isometric and isokinetic voluntary strength loss, lower creatine kinase levels, and less pressure pain threshold and muscle soreness (P < .05) compared with the control group. However, no effect on thigh circumference was evident (P < .05). Conclusions: Administered before eccentric exercise, WBVT may reduce DOMS via muscle function improvement. Further investigation should be undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of WBVT in

  20. Influence of Whole-Body Electrostimulation on Human Red Blood Cell Deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Andre; Kleinöder, Heinz; Plück, Denise; Hollmann, Wildor; Bloch, Wilhelm; Grau, Marijke

    2015-09-01

    Red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS)-dependent NO production is essential for the maintenance of RBC deformability, which is known to improve oxygen supply to the working tissue. Electrostimulation of the whole body (WB-EMS) has been shown to improve maximal strength, springiness, and jumping power of trained and untrained athletes. To examine whether these 2 parameters are associated, this study, for the first time, aimed to investigate the effects of an 18-week dynamic WB-EMS program on RBC deformability in addition to maximal strength performance (1 repetition maximum [1RM]) in elite soccer players. Fifteen test persons were assigned in either WB-EMS group (EG, n = 10) or training group (TG, n = 5). Next to their weekly training sessions, EG performed 3 × 10 squat jumps under the influence of WB-EMS twice per week between weeks 1 and 14 and once per week between weeks 14 and 18. Training group only performed 3 × 10 squat jumps. Performance was assessed by a maximal strength test on the leg press machine (1RM). Subjects were tested at baseline and after weeks 7, 14, and 18 with blood sampling before (Pre), 15-30 minutes after (Post), and 24 hours after (24-hour Post) the training. The results showed that maximal strength was significantly improved in EG (p < 0.01). Maximum RBC deformability (EImax) increased on EMS stimulus in EG while it remained unaffected in the TG. Acute increase in EImax at baseline was explained by an increase in RBC-NOS activation while chronic increase of deformability must be caused by different, yet unknown, mechanisms. EImax decreased between weeks 14 and 18 suggesting that 1 WB-EMS session per week is not sufficient to alter deformability (EImax). In contrast, the deformability at low shear stress (EI 3 Pa), comparable with conditions found in the microcirculation, significantly increased in EG until week 14, whereas in TG deformability only, increased until week 7 due to increasing training volume after the winter break

  1. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING FOR SCREENING PRIMARY TUMORS OF PATIENTS WITH METASTASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai-fu Gu; Xin-lan Xiao; Fei Sun; Jian-hua Yin; Hai Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the values of whole body diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in screening primary unknown tumor in patients with metastases.Methods Totally, 34 patients with metastases of primary unknown tumors were scanned with whole body DWI, and conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed if suspected lesions were detected. All the metastases including 27 cases of osseous metastases, 2 brain metastases, 2 liver metastases, 1 pulmonary multiple metastasis, 1 neck metastasis and 1 malignant ascites, were diagnosed by computed tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, or MR imaging. For the proven primary tumors diagnosed by biopsy or pathology of surgical specimens, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the primary and metastatic lesions were measured respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of this technique for screening primary tumors were evaluated. Results We found 24 cases with suspected primary lesions, in which 23 lesions were proved to be primary tumors, and 1 was proved to be benign lesion. And no definite primary lesion was found in 10 cases on whole body DWI, but in which 1 case was diagnosed with primary tumor by biopsy later, and the other 9 cases remained unknown within follow-up of over half a year. The difference was not significant in ADC values between primary and metastatic lesions (P>0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of whole body DWI for searching primary tumors was 95.8% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusion Combined with conventional MR scanning, whole body DWI can help to search primary lesions of patients with metastases.

  2. Proteomic Profiling of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells after a Whole Body Exposure of CBA/CaJ Mice to Titanium (48Ti Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokporn Noy Rithidech

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid leukemia (ML is one of the major health concerns from exposure to radiation. However, the risk assessment for developing ML after exposure to space radiation remains uncertain. To reduce the uncertainty in risk prediction for ML, a much increased understanding of space radiation-induced changes in the target cells, i.e., hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs, is critically important. We used the label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQMS proteomic approach to determine the expression of protein in HSPC-derived myeloid colonies obtained at an early time-point (one week and a late time-point (six months after an acute whole body exposure of CBA/CaJ mice to a total dose of 0, 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 Gy of heavy-ion titanium (48Ti ions, which are the important component of radiation found in the space environment. Mice exposed to 0 Gy of 48Ti ions served as non-irradiated sham controls. There were five mice per treatment groups at each harvest time. The Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP was used to assign a probability of a particular protein being in the sample. A proof-of-concept based Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA was used to characterize the functions, pathways, and networks of the identified proteins. Alterations of expression levels of proteins detected in samples collected at one week (wk post-irradiation reflects acute effects of exposure to 48Ti ions, while those detected in samples collected at six months (mos post-irradiation represent protein expression profiles involved in the induction of late-occurring damage (normally referred to as genomic instability. Our results obtained by using the IPA analyses indicate a wide array of signaling pathways involved in response to 1 GeV/n 48Ti ions at both harvest times. Our data also demonstrate that the patterns of protein expression profiles are dose and time dependent. The majority of proteins with altered expression levels are involved in cell cycle control, cellular growth and

  3. Accuracy of whole-body low-dose multidetector CT (WBLDCT) versus skeletal survey in the detection of myelomatous lesions, and correlation of disease distribution with whole-body MRI (WBMRI).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, T G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility of whole-body low-dose computed tomography (WBLDCT) in the diagnosis and staging of multiple myeloma and compare to skeletal survey (SS), using bone marrow biopsy and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI; where available) as gold standard.

  4. Radioprotective effect of cimitidine on acutely irradiated mice survival and hematopoietic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-rong WANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the radioprotective effect of cimetidine on survival rate and hematopoietic system in acutely irradiated mice. Methods The total body irradiation doses were 6.0Gy and 8.0Gy respectively at 1.01Gy/min rate. Sixty healthy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, model group, positive-drug (523 group and cimetidine groups (33.3mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 300mg/kg. Each group had ten mice. The mice were given intragastric administration of cimetidine for 6d before the irradiation in cimetidine groups, and 523 was administered before irradiation once a day for one day in 523 group, and at 5h after irradiation, was given again. The 30d survival rate after 8.0Gy irradiation was recorded. The peripheral blood cells, bone marrow DNA content and frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (fMNPCE were determined 30d after 6.0Gy irradiation. Results After 8.0Gy irradiation, all the mice died on 21th day in model control group. The survival rates in cimetidine groups were 50%, 20% and 30%, respectively. After 6.0Gy irradiation on 30th day, compared with control group, the peripheral white blood cells (WBC and bone marrow DNA content were decreased significantly (P<0.01, P<0.05 in model group, and fMNPCE was increased significantly (P<0.05. Compared with model group, WBC was significantly increased in 300mg/kg cimetidine group (P<0.01. In cimetidine groups, the bone marrow DNA content was increased significantly after irradiation (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and the fMNPCE was decreased significantly (P<0.01 or P<0.05and tended towards normal. Conclusion Cimetidine could improve 30d survival rate of acutely irradiated mice and has good protective effect on hematopoietic system. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.12

  5. USE OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION AS A MODE OF WARMING UP BEFORE COUNTER MOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Artero

    2007-12-01

    results are presented jointly (Figure 1.Reports concerning acute effects of WBV on jump performance yield conflicting results. Transient benefits of 2.5, 4 and 8 % in CMJ height has been reported after 4 min (Torvinen et al., 2002a, 10 min (Bosco et al., 2000 and 5 min (Cochrane and Stannard, 2005 of WBV stimulus, respectively. The lack of improvement in our study may be partially explained by the time elapsed between the vibration stimulus and the jump test, since our subjects performed the CMJ immediately after the WBV exposure. The different training level of the participants may also explain discrepancies among studies, as our subjects were not engaged in any regular exercise practice. It has been reported that elite athletes may obtain more benefits from WBV than amateur athletes do (Issurin and Tenenbaum, 1999. In agreement with our results, other studies did not show improvement on CMJ performance after a single bout of WBV (Cormie et al., 2006; Rittweger et al., 2003; Torvinen et al., 2002b. Compared with our results, Cormie et al., 2006 did not find an impairment of CMJ performance immediately after a single WBV bout of 30 s, which may be associated with their shorter WBV stimulus (30 s, the interval actually elapsed between WBV and CMJ test, and the higher training level of their participants.In summary, whole-body vibration combined with voluntary contractions does not seem to be a useful method for warming up before activities involving vertical jumps. At least one minute interval recovery should be allowed when using WBV in a range of 20-30 Hz and 90 or 120 s if maximal jump performance is required.AcknowledgmentThis study was conducted without any conflict of interest, without financial assistance, and supported by grants from the Consejo Superior de Deportes (109/UPB31/03, 13/UPB20/04, the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (AP2003-2128, AP-2004-2745; AP2005-3827; AP2005-4358 and the HELENA study (European Community Sixth RTD Framework Programme

  6. Using electron beam radiation to simulate the dose distribution for whole body solar particle event proton exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Keith A; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Avery, Stephen; Kennedy, Ann R; McDonough, James

    2010-11-01

    As a part of the near solar system exploration program, astronauts may receive significant total body proton radiation exposures during a solar particle event (SPE). In the Center for Acute Radiation Research (CARR), symptoms of the acute radiation sickness syndrome induced by conventional radiation are being compared to those induced by SPE-like proton radiation, to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of SPE protons. In an SPE, the astronaut's whole body will be exposed to radiation consisting mainly of protons with energies below 50 MeV. In addition to providing for a potentially higher RBE than conventional radiation, the energy distribution for an SPE will produce a relatively inhomogeneous total body dose distribution, with a significantly higher dose delivered to the skin and subcutaneous tissues than to the internal organs. These factors make it difficult to use a (60)Co standard for RBE comparisons in our experiments. Here, the novel concept of using megavoltage electron beam radiation to more accurately reproduce both the total dose and the dose distribution of SPE protons and make meaningful RBE comparisons between protons and conventional radiation is described. In these studies, Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the dose distribution of electron beam radiation in small mammals such as mice and ferrets as well as large mammals such as pigs. These studies will help to better define the topography of the time-dose-fractionation versus biological response landscape for astronaut exposure to an SPE.

  7. The effects of whole-body vibration on the Wingate test for anaerobic power when applying individualized frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Rachel K; Wang, Henry; Nagelkirk, Paul R; Frame, Jeffrey W; Dickin, D Clark

    2014-07-01

    Recently, individualized frequency (I-Freq) has been introduced with the notion that athletes may elicit a greater reflex response at differing levels (Hz) of vibration. The aim of the study was to evaluate acute whole-body vibration as a feasible intervention to increase power in trained cyclists and evaluate the efficacy of using I-Freq as an alternative to 30Hz, a common frequency seen in the literature. Twelve highly trained, competitive male cyclists (age, 29.9 ± 10.0 years; body height, 175.4 ± 7.8 cm; body mass, 77.3 ± 13.9 kg) participated in the study. A Wingate test for anaerobic power was administered on 3 occasions: following a control of no vibration, 30 Hz, or I-freq. Measures of peak power, average power (AP), and the rate of fatigue were recorded and compared with the vibration conditions using separate repeated measures analysis of variance. Peak power, AP, and the rate of fatigue were not significantly impacted by either the 30 Hz or I-Freq vibration interventions (p > 0.05). Given the trained status of the individuals in this study, the ability to elicit an acute response may have been muted. Future studies should further refine the vibration parameters used and assess changes in untrained or recreationally trained populations.

  8. Review of the effects of translational whole-body vibration on continuous manual control performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, R. W.; Griffin, M. J.

    1989-08-01

    A review of the literature concerned with experimental studies of the effects of translational whole-body vibration on continuous manual control performance is presented. Results from studies of the effects of vibration variables (vibration frequency, magnitude, axis, random vibration and multi-axis vibration) are compared. Evidence of the influence of control system variables (physical characteristics of the control, control gain, system dynamics and display variables) is also provided. Studies of the effects of vibration duration on manual control performance are reviewed separately. A behavioural model is presented to summarize the mechanisms (including vibration breakthrough, visual impairment, neuro-muscular interference and central effects) by which whole-body vibration may interfere with the performance of continuous manual control tasks. The model emphasizes the adaptive ability of the human operator.

  9. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  10. Postmortem whole-body magnetic resonance imaging as an adjunct to autopsy: preliminary clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriquin, L; Kassarjian, A; Barish, M; Casserley, L; O'Brien, M; Andry, C; Eustace, S

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cadavers as an adjunct to autopsy. Eight consecutive patients underwent both whole-body MRI and autopsy [either conventional (six), limited (one), or percutaneous (one)] within 24 hours of death. Comparison was made of major and minor abnormalities and predicted cause of death recorded by independent readers at both MRI and autopsy. Major discrepancies between the recorded primary cause of death at imaging and autopsy occurred in five (5) patients. These included a myocardial infarction found at autopsy alone, bowel infarction and portal venous gas found at MRI alone, and aortic dissection and occipital infarct found at MRI alone in a patient on whom only limited autopsy was performed. Postmortem MRI may represent a useful adjunct to autopsy, particularly in patients in whom autopsy is limited due to patient/family consent, inoculation risks, and ethnic doctrines.

  11. Whole body bone scintigraphy in tenofovir-related osteomalacia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Biagio Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread® is the only nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor currently approved for the treatment of HIV. It is frequently prescribed not only for its efficacy but also for its decreased side effect profile compared with other nucleotide analogs. In addition, it is now increasingly recognized as a cause of acquired Fanconi's syndrome in individuals with HIV. Case presentation We describe a 48-year-old woman infected with HIV, with chronic renal insufficiency, who developed Fanconi's syndrome after inclusion of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in her antiretroviral therapy. A whole body bone scintigraphy was performed, revealing an abnormal distribution of radiotracer uptake, with characteristic changes compatible with osteomalacia. All symptoms disappeared after tenofovir discontinuation and mineral supplementation. No other explanation for the sudden and complete resolution of the bone disease was found. Conclusion The case highlights the role of whole body bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of tenofovir-related osteomalacia.

  12. Brain-Machine Interfacing Control of Whole-Body Humanoid Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim eBouyarmane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI, motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task.

  13. Vestibular-somatosensory interactions: effects of passive whole-body rotation on somatosensory detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Raffaella Ferrè

    Full Text Available Vestibular signals are strongly integrated with information from several other sensory modalities. For example, vestibular stimulation was reported to improve tactile detection. However, this improvement could reflect either a multimodal interaction or an indirect interaction driven by vestibular effects on spatial attention and orienting. Here we investigate whether natural vestibular activation induced by passive whole-body rotation influences tactile detection. In particular, we assessed the ability to detect faint tactile stimuli to the fingertips of the left and right hand during spatially congruent or incongruent rotations. We found that passive whole-body rotations significantly enhanced sensitivity to faint shocks, without affecting response bias. Critically, this enhancement of somatosensory sensitivity did not depend on the spatial congruency between the direction of rotation and the hand stimulated. Thus, our results support a multimodal interaction, likely in brain areas receiving both vestibular and somatosensory signals.

  14. Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P protein synthesis (PS; P protein also decreased by 46% (P protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

  15. [Usefulness of top-hat transform processing in whole body bone scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Akinobu; Sugimoto, Katsuya; Tsuchida, Tatsurou; Kishimoto, Takahiro; Toi, Akiko; Shimada, Masato; Adachi, Toshiki

    2013-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of top-hat transform processing in whole body bone scintigraphy, five radiological technicians interpreted both original and top-hat processed images to determine the improvement of lesion detectability and interpretation time. For the evaluation of detectability, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The area under the curve (AUC) calculated from the ROC curve was improved in all observers (from 0.786 to 0.864 in average), although no significant difference was observed. However, the interpretation time was improved significantly (from 24.5 to 16.2 s in average). Top-hat transform processing in whole body bone scintigraphy is thought to be useful for the improvement of lesion detectability and interpretation time.

  16. Validation of Experimental whole-body SAR Assessment Method in a Complex Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamba, Aliou; Joseph, Wout; Vermeeren, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    simulations with the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. Furthermore, the method accounts for the diffuse multipath components (DMC) in the total absorption rate by considering the reverberation time of the investigated room, which describes all the losses in a complex indoor environment. The advantage......Assessing experimentally the whole-body specific absorption rate (SARwb) in a complex indoor environment is very challenging. An experimental method based on room electromagnetics theory (accounting only the Line-Of-Sight as specular path) to assess the whole-body SAR is validated by numerical...... of the proposed method is that it allows discarding the computation burden because it does not use any discretizations. Results show good agreement between measurement and computation at 2.8 GHz, as long as the plane wave assumption is valid, i.e., for high distances from the transmitter. Relative deviations 0...

  17. MRI compatible small animal monitoring and trigger system for whole body scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Krumbein, Ines; Reichenbach, Juergen R. [Jena University Hospital (Germany). Medical Physics Group; Pfeiffer, Norman [Jena University Hospital (Germany). Medical Physics Group; Ernst-Abbe-Fachhochschule Jena (Germany); Herrmann, Lutz [Ernst-Abbe-Fachhochschule Jena (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    Performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments with small animals requires continuous monitoring of vital parameters, especially the respiration rate. Clinical whole-body MR scanners represent an attractive option for preclinical imaging as dedicated animal scanners are cost-intensive in both investment and maintenance, thus limiting their availability. Even though impressive image quality is achievable with clinical MR systems in combination with special coils, their built-in physiologic monitoring and triggering units are often not suited for small animal imaging. In this work, we present a simple, MRI compatible low cost solution to monitor the respiration and heart rate of small animals in a clinical whole-body MR scanner. The recording and processing of the biosignals as well as the optimisation of the respiratory trigger generation is described. Additionally rat and mouse in-vivo MRI experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the monitoring and respiratory trigger system in suppressing motion artifacts. (orig.)

  18. A robust optical respiratory trigger for small rodents in clinical whole-body MR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Wagner, Enrico; Deistung, Andreas; Hilger, Ingrid; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

    2008-06-01

    An increasing number of animal experiments are currently conducted on clinical MR systems. Motion artefacts due to breathing can become quite apparent, in particular with abdominal examinations. These artefacts can be reduced by using a triggered acquisition. However, the built-in detectors in human whole-body scanners are usually not sensitive enough to detect the tiny movements of small rodents. Therefore, a sensitive optical motion detector was developed together with a simple, robust analogue circuit. This circuit converts the original optical signal into an electrical one, compensates slow drifts and offsets, and finally generates a transistor-transistor logic trigger signal as input for the clinical whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. The trigger was successfully applied in mouse experiments.

  19. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular heal...

  20. Muscular Damage and Kidney Function in Rugby Players after Daily Whole Body Cryostimulation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Muscular damage, consequent to strenuous activities, could exceed the recovery potential of muscles and determine renal failure. Whole body cryostimulation is a cold-based therapy used to improve recovery or overcome fatigue symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repeated sessions of cryostimulation on muscle damage, renal function, and their relationship. Serum samples, from 27 elite rugby players, under training, before and after 2 sessions/day of cryotherapy over 7 days, wer...

  1. Whole-Body Reaching Movements Formulated by Minimum Muscle-Tension Change Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Naoki; Choi, Kyuheong; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that planar reaching movements of the human shoulder and elbow joints have invariant features: roughly straight hand paths and bell-shaped velocity profiles. The optimal control models with the criteria of smoothness or precision, which determine a unique movement pattern, predict such features of hand trajectories. In this letter on expanding the research on simple arm reaching movements, we examine whether the smoothness criteria can be applied to whole-body reaching movements with many degrees of freedom. Determining a suitable joint trajectory in the whole-body reaching movement corresponds to the optimization problem with constraints, since body balance must be maintained during a motion task. First, we measured human joint trajectories and ground reaction forces during whole-body reaching movements, and confirmed that subjects formed similar movements with common characteristics in the trajectories of the hand position and body center of mass. Second, we calculated the optimal trajectories according to the criteria of torque and muscle-tension smoothness. While the minimum torque change trajectories were not consistent with the experimental data, the minimum muscle-tension change model was able to predict the stereotyped features of the measured trajectories. To explore the dominant effects of the extension from the torque change to the muscle-tension change, we introduced a weighted torque change cost function. Considering the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the muscle as the weighting factor of each joint torque, we formulated the weighted torque change cost as a simplified version of the minimum muscle-tension change cost. The trajectories owing to the minimum weighted torque change criterion also showed qualitative agreement with the common features of the measured data. Proper estimation of the MVC forces in the body joints is essential to reproduce human whole-body movements according to the minimum muscle-tension change

  2. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy S Bakker

    Full Text Available The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion.

  3. Analysis of annual exposure of private farmers to noise and whole body vibration

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Based on a literature review for the period of 1982– 2011, an analysis was performed of studies by various researchers concerning the exposure of private farmers to noise and vibration of the whole body with particular consideration of the annual exposure to these factors. The main sources of noise occurring in agriculture are: agricultural tractors mounted with a set of farm machinery, self-propelled machines, machinery for the production of fodder and workshop equipm...

  4. [A compact whole-body hyperthermia system utilizing extracorporeal circulation for anticancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agishi, T; Okumura, T; Saikusa, H; Seino, I; Masuda, T; Hattori, H

    1983-05-01

    A compact whole-body hyperthermia system utilizing extracorporeal circulation for anticancer treatment has been devised and its clinical applicability is discussed. Our system has the following advantages; 1. Our small heat-exchanger made of polyvinyl-chloride hollow fibers exhibited sufficient heat-exchanging capability. 2. Our system is so compact as not to require priming with blood components. 3. Temporary blood access, created by direct puncture of the femoral vessels, eliminates vascular surgery and cardiac overload to the patients.

  5. Subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of whole-body cryotherapy in patients with osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives One of the treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) is whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the clinical status of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), according to their subjective feelings before and after the application of a 10-day cold treatment cycle. The aim is also to assess the reduction of intensity and frequency of pain, the reduction of the painkiller medication used, and to assess the possible impact on physical activity. Material and methods The study involved 50 people, including 30 women (60%) and 20 men (40%). Thirty-one patients had spondyloarthritis (62% of respondents), 10 had knee osteoarthritis (20%), and 9 hip osteoarthritis (18%). The overall average age was 50.1 ±10.9 years; the youngest patient was 29 years old and the oldest 73 years old. The average age of the women was 6 years higher. The study used a questionnaire completed by patients, and consisted of three basic parts. The modified Laitinen pain questionnaire contained questions concerning the intensity and frequency of pain, frequency of painkiller use and the degree of limited mobility. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used in order to subjectively evaluate the therapy after applying the ten-day treatment cycle. Results According to the subjective assessment of respondents, after the whole-body cryotherapy treatments, a significant improvement occurred in 39 patients (78%), an improvement in 9 patients (18%), and no improvement was only declared by 2 patients (4%). Conclusions Whole-body cryotherapy resulted in a reduction in the frequency and degree of pain perception in patients with osteoarthritis. WBC reduced the number of analgesic medications in these patients. It improved the range of physical activity and had a positive effect on the well-being of patients. PMID:28115779

  6. Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdahl, Jacob H; Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Bang, Ulrich Christian;

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the cutaneous synthesis of 25OHD and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure to ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB) in a randomized setup. Healthy volunteers were randomized to one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed with UVB emission (UVB/UVA ratio 1.......0 nmol/l per 24 h (p exposure to UVB....

  7. An Acute Transverse Myelitis Attack after Total Body Irradiation: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Keklik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation (TBI combined with chemotherapy is widely used as a pretreatment regimen of bone marrow transplantation (BMT in hematologic disorders. Late complications related to TBI as part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been revealed. Acute transverse myelitis (ATM is a neurological syndrome characterized by disorder of motor, sensorial, and autonomic nerves, and tracts at medulla spinalis, which is resulted from involvement of spinal cord. In this paper, we presented an ATM attack developed after TBI in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL as it is a rarely seen case.

  8. Role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 in skin integrity and whole body energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Harini; Ntambi, James M

    2014-01-31

    The skin is the single largest organ in humans, serving as a major barrier to infection, water loss, and abrasion. The functional diversity of skin requires the synthesis of large amounts of lipids, such as triglycerides, wax esters, squalene, ceramides, free cholesterol, free fatty acids, and cholesterol and retinyl esters. Some of these lipids are used as cell membrane components, signaling molecules, and a source of energy. An important class of lipid metabolism enzymes expressed in skin is the Δ(9)-desaturases, which catalyze the synthesis in Δ(9)-monounsaturated lipids, primarily oleoyl-CoA (18:1n-9) and palmitoyl-CoA (16:1n-7), the major monounsaturated fatty acids in cutaneous lipids. Mice with a deletion of the Δ(9)-desaturase-1 isoform (SCD1) either globally (Scd1(-/-)) or specifically in the skin (skin-specific Scd1-knockout; SKO) present with marked changes in cutaneous lipids and skin integrity. Interestingly, these mice also exhibit increased whole body energy expenditure, protection against diet-induced adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and glucose intolerance. The increased energy expenditure in skin-specific Scd1-knockout (SKO) mice is a surprising phenotype, as it links cutaneous lipid homeostasis with whole body energy balance. This minireview summarizes the role of skin SCD1 in regulating skin integrity and whole body energy homeostasis and offers a discussion of potential pathways that may connect these seemingly disparate phenotypes.

  9. Blunt polytrauma: evaluation with 64-section whole-body CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreizin, David; Munera, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Blunt polytrauma remains a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. With the major advances in computed tomography (CT) technology over the past decade, whole-body CT is increasingly recognized as the emerging standard for providing rapid and accurate diagnoses within the narrow therapeutic window afforded to trauma victims with multiple severe injuries. With a single continuous acquisition, whole-body CT angiography is able to demonstrate all potentially injured organs, as well as vascular and bone structures, from the circle of Willis to the symphysis pubis. As its use becomes more widespread, the large volume of information inherent to whole-body CT poses new challenges to radiologists in providing efficient and timely interpretation. An awareness of trauma scoring systems and injury mechanisms is essential to maintain an appropriate level of suspicion in the search for multiple injuries, and the use of multiplanar reformation and three-dimensional postprocessing techniques is important to maximize efficiency in the search. Knowledge of the key injuries that require urgent surgical or percutaneous intervention, including major vascular injuries and active hemorrhage, diaphragmatic rupture, unstable spinal fractures, pancreatic injuries with ductal involvement, and injuries to the mesentery and hollow viscera, is also necessary.

  10. Analysis of adipose tissue distribution using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Diana; Schwarz, Tobias; Dinkel, Julien; Delorme, Stefan; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

    2011-03-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem in the western world and triggers diseases like cancer, type two diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a clinically viable method to measure the amount and distribution of adipose tissue (AT) in the body. However, analysis of MRI images by manual segmentation is a tedious and time-consuming process. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method to quantify the amount of different AT types from whole-body MRI data with less user interaction. Initially, body fat is extracted by automatic thresholding. A statistical shape model of the abdomen is then used to differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral AT. Finally, fat in the bone marrow is removed using morphological operators. The proposed method was evaluated on 15 whole-body MRI images using manual segmentation as ground truth for adipose tissue. The resulting overlap for total AT was 93.7% +/- 5.5 with a volumetric difference of 7.3% +/- 6.4. Furthermore, we tested the robustness of the segmentation results with regard to the initial, interactively defined position of the shape model. In conclusion, the developed method proved suitable for the analysis of AT distribution from whole-body MRI data. For large studies, a fully automatic version of the segmentation procedure is expected in the near future.

  11. Effective dose estimation in whole-body multislice CT in paediatric trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Robin D.; Saueressig, Ulrich; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Bley, Thorsten A. [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Strohm, Peter C.; Zwingmann, Joern; Suedkamp, Norbert P. [University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Uhl, Markus [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Paediatric Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    The number of multislice CT (MSCT) scans performed in polytraumatized children has increased rapidly. There is growing concern regarding the radiation dose in MSCT and its long-term consequences, especially in children. To determine the effective dose to polytraumatized children who undergo whole-body MSCT. A total of 51 traumatized children aged 0-16 years underwent a polytrauma protocol CT scan between November 2004 and August 2006 at our institution. The effective dose was calculated retrospectively by a computer program (CT-Expo 1.5, Hannover, Germany). The mean effective dose was 20.8 mSv (range 8.6-48.9 mSv, SD{+-}7.9 mSv). There was no statistically significant difference in the effective dose between male and female patients. Whole-body MSCT is a superior diagnostic tool in polytraumatized children with 20.8 mSv per patient being a justified mean effective dose. In a potentially life-threatening situation whole-body MSCT provides the clinicians with relevant information to initiate life-saving therapy. Radiologists should use special paediatric protocols that include dose-saving mechanisms to keep the effective dose as low as possible. Further studies are needed to examine and advance dose-saving strategies in MSCT, especially in children. (orig.)

  12. Pharmacokinetics of ivermectin applied topically by whole-body bathing method in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Atsushi; Hirota, Takashi; Tashiro, Mari; Noguchi, Wataru; Kawano, Yayoi; Hanawa, Takehisa; Kigure, Akira; Anata, Taichi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Yuasa, Nae; Koshino, Machi; Shiraishi, Yumi; Yuzawa, Kaoru; Akagi, Keita; Yoshimasu, Takashi; Makigami, Kuniko; Komoda, Masayo

    2016-10-15

    As a novel administration method of ivermectin (IVM) for scabies treatment, we proposed a "whole-body bathing method (WBBM)". In this method, the patients would bathe themselves in a bathing fluid containing IVM at an effective concentration. Previously, we demonstrated that WBBM could deliver IVM to the skin but not to the plasma in rats. In the present study, to assess the clinical validity of the method an arm bathing examination (first trial) and a whole-body bathing examination (second trial) were conducted in healthy volunteers. In both the first and second trials, after bathing in fluid containing IVM, the exposure in the stratum corneum was higher compared with that after taking IVM p.o. as reported previously. IVM was not detected in plasma at any sampling point after the whole-body bathing in the second trial. Furthermore no serious adverse events were found. These results in both trials suggest that WBBM can deliver IVM to the human stratum corneum without systemic exposure or serious adverse effects in healthy volunteers, and at concentrations that would be adequate for scabies treatment.

  13. Involvement patterns in myotilinopathy and desminopathy detected by a novel neuromuscular whole-body MRI protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, Nicolai; Born, Christine; Weckbach, Sabine; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Reilich, Peter; Walter, Maggie C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Friedrich-Baur-Institute, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) has been successfully applied for oncologic and cardiovascular diagnostics, whereas imaging in myopathies usually employs dedicated protocols restricted to areas of specific interest. In this study, we propose a comprehensive neuromuscular WB-MRI protocol. Eighteen patients with degenerative and inflammatory muscle diseases were included. Whole-body imaging was performed on a 1.5-T MR system using parallel imaging. Examination time was 41:26 min. Coronal and axial T1-weighted and coronal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences of the whole body were acquired. Images were analysed by two radiologists. With this protocol we could detect characteristic involvement patterns in different myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs): Patients with myotilinopathy showed frequent involvement of the rhomboid muscles (4/5), the erector spinae (5/5), the biceps femoris and the semimembranosus (5/5), while the semitendinosus was relatively spared (2/5). In contrast, in desminopathy patients the ilipsoas (3/4), the sartorius, (3/4), the gracilis (3/4) and the semitendinosus (3/4) were frequently involved, while the semimembranosus was spared (1/4). As shown for MFMs, WB-MRI is an appropriate modality to detect fatty infiltration and oedema in skeletal muscles. WB-MRI could be more useful than dedicated examinations for differential diagnosis, muscle biopsy planning and noninvasive follow-up examinations. (orig.)

  14. Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Rafael; Tejero, Javier; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed. [Results] Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 ± 8.2 vs. 300.5 ± 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 ± 12.5 vs. 285.2 ± 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 ± 11.4 vs. 65.2 ± 13.2 mm). [Conclusion] Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery.

  15. In-vivo whole body measurement of internal radioactivity in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risco Norrlid, L. del (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (Sweden)); Halldorsson, O. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland)); Holm, S. (NM and PET at Copenhagen' s Univ. Hospital (Denmark)); Huikari, J. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Isaksson, M. (Goeteborg Univ., Dept. Radiation Physics Sahlgren Academy (Sweden)); Lind, B. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Roed, H. (Danish State Institute for Radiation Protection (Denmark))

    2011-02-15

    The PIANOLIB activity aims to harmonize the calibrations of the measurement equipment in the region and to evaluate the quality status of this kind of measurement by means of a proficiency test exercise. In this report the first results of the PIANOLIB activity are presented, that is, a compilation of existent regional resources for in-vivo whole body measurement and the phantom library website. In 2010 the project PIANOLIB collected the relevant information about the regional facilities, distributed the exercise instructions and managed the circulation of the phantom IRINA among the participant laboratories. The inventory within the activity has showed that the regional whole body counting assets has relatively diminished compared to 2006, the last time an inventory of the kind was made. Both the field laboratories as the stationary ones are equipped with sophisticated whole-body counting systems with Ge-or NaI-detectors. The regional competence is good and still retains experienced staff, but it is clear that a new generation is coming that needs training and exchange of experiences. It is important to keep the practice of intercomparison and NKS continues to be the best framework for supporting this kind of activity. (Author)

  16. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reis Teixeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations.

  17. Multiplane spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging of small animals in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    We have successfully developed a multiscale acoustic-resolution photoacoustic tomography system in a single imaging platform. By switching between ultrasound transducers (center frequencies 5 and 40 MHz) and optical condensers, we have photoacoustically imaged microvasculatures of small animals in vivo at different scales. Further, we have extended the field of view of our imaging system to entire bodies of small animals. At different imaging planes, we have noninvasively imaged the major blood vessels (e.g., descending aorta, intercostal vessels, cephalic vessels, brachial vessels, femoral vessels, popliteal vessels, lateral marginal vessels, cranial mesenteric vessels, mammalian vessels, carotid artery, jugular vein, subclavian vessels, iliac vessels, and caudal vessels) as well as intact internal organs (e.g., spleen, liver, kidney, intestine, cecum, and spinal cord) of the animals in vivo. The spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging clearly reveals the spectral responses of the internal structures. Similar to other existing preclinical whole-body imaging systems, this whole-body photoacoustic tomography can be a useful tool for small-animal research.

  18. [Intraindividual comparison of whole body cold therapy and warm treatment with hot packs in generalized tendomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborski, W; Stratz, T; Sobieska, M; Mennet, P; Müller, W; Schulte-Mönting, J

    1992-01-01

    In a cross-over study, the short-term efficacy of whole-body cold therapy and hot mud packs in patients with generalized tendomyopathy (fibromyalgia) was compared. As a pain assessment, visual analog scale and so-called pain score were measured; dolorimetry of the 24 tender points and eight control points was performed as well. Using these methods, we found that there is a significant improvement of all parameters examined during a 2-h period of measurements after cold application, and a marked improvement was also detectable 24 h after this therapy. In contrast, only pain score values showed a slight decrease immediately after hot mud-pack therapy, and no significant differences were found in visual analog scale and pressure tenderness as measured dolorimetrically. Central inhibition of nociceptors as a result of an activation of A-delta system as well as a blockade of gamma-motoneurons are discussed to be a mechanism of action of whole-body cold therapy, resulting in a decrease in muscle tonus. Long-term studies are needed to determine, if there is any enduring effect of whole-body cold therapy on pain in the patients with generalized tendomyopathy.

  19. Complaints of low back pain among private farmers exposed to whole body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Solecki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related lower back disorders , which involve the lumbo-sacral region, as well as injuries of the lumbar section of the spine, are a serious and constantly growing problem in Europe. Whole body vibration is one of the major hazardous factors suspected of the development of back pain. Material and Methods: The study covered a selected group of males, 98 farmers (aged 55.3±10.1 from the area of 7 communes in the Lublin Region, engaged in the mixed agricultural production (plant-animal. The control group consisted of 40 academic workers (university and research institute employees aged 48.9±9.6 years. A questionnaire concerning low back pain (in the lumbar region designed by the researchers of the Institute of Rural Health in Lublin was used as a major research tool. The degree of farmers' exposure to whole body vibration was evaluated based on the parameter known as a cumulative vibration dose (d (years×m2×s-4. Results: The measurements showed that the cumulative vibration dose for the selected group of farmers (98 remained within the range of 2.90-9.68 (years×m2×s-4, in the time interval between 15-50 years of work in conditions of exposure to vibration. The survey confirmed that private farmers exposed to whole body vibration considerably more frequently complained of back pain (92 farmers, 94% of the total number of respondents, than academic workers (control group not exposed to whole body vibration (25 researchers, 63%; p < 0.0001. Also the frequency of back pain in all the three time intervals of employment (15-25, 26-35, 36-50 years is significantly higher in the group of farmers than in the control group (p < 0.05. Conclusions: The frequency of back pains experienced by farmers during the entire period of occupational activity increases with a growing dose of whole body vibration (p = 0.005. In the incidence of chronic pain an upward tendency was observed (statistically insignificant. Med Pr 2014;65(1:55–64

  20. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmelinskii, Artem; Groen, Harald C; Baiker, Martin; de Jong, Marion; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability). The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) and (99m)Tc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-HDP) were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs) of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR) algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.5±12.1 to 2.6±2.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for "incomplete" data (large chunks of skeleton missing) and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT/CT cross

  1. Segmentation and visual analysis of whole-body mouse skeleton microSPECT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Khmelinskii

    Full Text Available Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability. The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers (99mTc-methylene diphosphonate ((99mTc-MDP and (99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate ((99mTc-HDP were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.5±12.1 to 2.6±2.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for "incomplete" data (large chunks of skeleton missing and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT

  2. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) strands post-Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, N P; Kuchma, N D; Askbrant, S; Pasternak, P S; Musica, V V

    1994-12-11

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  3. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) stands post-Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Kuchma, N.D. (Department of Radiology and Land Restoration, Pripyat Research and Industrial Association, Chernobyl (Ukraine)); Askbrant, S. (National Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Pasternak, P.S.; Musica, V.V. (Lyes Research and Industrial Association, Kharykov (Ukraine))

    1994-10-14

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  4. Comparison of atlas-based techniques for whole-body bone segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-02-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of whole-body bone extraction from whole-body MR images using a number of atlas-based segmentation methods. The motivation behind this work is to find the most promising approach for the purpose of MRI-guided derivation of PET attenuation maps in whole-body PET/MRI. To this end, a variety of atlas-based segmentation strategies commonly used in medical image segmentation and pseudo-CT generation were implemented and evaluated in terms of whole-body bone segmentation accuracy. Bone segmentation was performed on 23 whole-body CT/MR image pairs via leave-one-out cross validation procedure. The evaluated segmentation techniques include: (i) intensity averaging (IA), (ii) majority voting (MV), (iii) global and (iv) local (voxel-wise) weighting atlas fusion frameworks implemented utilizing normalized mutual information (NMI), normalized cross-correlation (NCC) and mean square distance (MSD) as image similarity measures for calculating the weighting factors, along with other atlas-dependent algorithms, such as (v) shape-based averaging (SBA) and (vi) Hofmann's pseudo-CT generation method. The performance evaluation of the different segmentation techniques was carried out in terms of estimating bone extraction accuracy from whole-body MRI using standard metrics, such as Dice similarity (DSC) and relative volume difference (RVD) considering bony structures obtained from intensity thresholding of the reference CT images as the ground truth. Considering the Dice criterion, global weighting atlas fusion methods provided moderate improvement of whole-body bone segmentation (DSC= 0.65 ± 0.05) compared to non-weighted IA (DSC= 0.60 ± 0.02). The local weighed atlas fusion approach using the MSD similarity measure outperformed the other strategies by achieving a DSC of 0.81 ± 0.03 while using the NCC and NMI measures resulted in a DSC of 0.78 ± 0.05 and 0.75 ± 0.04, respectively. Despite very long computation time, the extracted

  5. Estimating whole body intermuscular adipose tissue from single cross-sectional magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiang Yan; Gallagher, Dympna; Harris, Tamara; Albu, Jeanine; Heymsfield, Steven; Kuznia, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley

    2007-02-01

    Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), a novel fat depot linked with metabolic abnormalities, has been measured by whole body MRI. The cross-sectional slice location with the strongest relation to total body IMAT volume has not been established. The aim was to determine the predictive value of each slice location and which slice locations provide the best estimates of whole body IMAT. MRI quantified total adipose tissue of which IMAT, defined as adipose tissue visible within the boundary of the muscle fascia, is a subcomponent. Single-slice IMAT areas were calculated for the calf, thigh, buttock, waist, shoulders, upper arm, and forearm locations in a sample of healthy adult women, African-American [n = 39; body mass index (BMI) 28.5 +/- 5.4 kg/m2; 41.8 +/- 14.8 yr], Asian (n = 21; BMI 21.6 +/- 3.2 kg/m2; 40.9 +/- 16.3 yr), and Caucasian (n = 43; BMI 25.6 +/- 5.3 kg/m2; 43.2 +/- 15.3 yr), and Caucasian men (n = 39; BMI 27.1 +/- 3.8 kg/m2; 45.2 +/- 14.6 yr) and used to estimate total IMAT groups using multiple-regression equations. Midthigh was the best, or near best, single predictor in all groups with adjusted R2 ranging from 0.49 to 0.84. Adding a second and third slice further increased R2 and reduced the error of the estimate. Menopausal status and degree of obesity did not affect the location of the best single slice. The contributions of other slice locations varied by sex and race, but additional slices improved predictions. For group studies, it may be more cost-effective to estimate IMAT based on one or more slices than to acquire and segment for each subject the numerous images necessary to quantify whole body IMAT.

  6. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaITl (8 x 4”), and thyroid one, NaITl (3 x 3”). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that was not exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2010 to December 2014, approximately 4500 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  7. Whole-body MR imaging including angiography: Predicting recurrent events in diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertheau, Robert C.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weckbach, Sabine; Schlett, Christopher L. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bamberg, Fabian [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Lochner, Elena [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Findeisen, Hannes M. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Muenster (Germany); Parhofer, Klaus G. [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Internal Medicine II, Munich (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Whether whole-body MRI can predict occurrence of recurrent events in patients with diabetes mellitus. Whole-body MRI was prospectively applied to 61 diabetics and assessed for arteriosclerosis and ischemic cerebral/myocardial changes. Occurrence of cardiocerebral events and diabetic comorbidites was determined. Patients were stratified whether no, a single or recurrent events arose. As a secondary endpoint, events were stratified into organ system-specific groups. During a median follow-up of 70 months, 26 diabetics developed a total of 39 events; 18 (30 %) developed one, 8 (13 %) recurrent events. Between diabetics with no, a single and recurrent events, a stepwise higher burden was observed for presence of left ventricular (LV) hypo-/akinesia (3/28/75 %, p < 0.0001), myocardial delayed-contrast-enhancement (17/33/63 %, p = 0.001), carotid artery stenosis (11/17/63 %, p = 0.005), peripheral artery stenosis (26/56/88 %, p = 0.0006) and vessel score (1.00/1.30/1.76, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for clinical characteristics, LV hypo-/akinesia (hazard rate ratio = 6.57, p < 0.0001) and vessel score (hazard rate ratio = 12.29, p < 0.0001) remained independently associated. Assessing organ system risk, cardiac and cerebral MR findings predicted more strongly events in their respective organ system. Vessel-score predicted both cardiac and cerebral, but not non-cardiocerebral, events. Whole-body MR findings predict occurrence of recurrent events in diabetics independent of clinical characteristics, and may concurrently provide organ system-specific risk. (orig.)

  8. Modulation of anticipatory postural activity for multiple conditions of a whole-body pointing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolambiya, A; Chiovetto, E; Pozzo, T; Thomas, E

    2012-05-17

    This is a study on associated postural activities during the anticipatory segments of a multijoint movement. Several previous studies have shown that they are task dependant. The previous studies, however, have mostly been limited in demonstrating the presence of modulation for one task condition, that is, one aspect such as the distance of the target or the direction of reaching. Real-life activities like whole-body pointing, however, can vary in several ways. How specific is the adaptation of the postural activities for the diverse possibilities of a whole-body pointing task? We used a classification paradigm to answer this question. We examined the anticipatory postural electromyograms for four different types of whole-body pointing tasks. The presence of task-dependent modulations in these signals was probed by performing four-way classification tests using a support vector machine (SVM). The SVM was able to achieve significantly higher than chance performance in correctly predicting the movements at hand (Chance performance 25%). Using only anticipatory postural muscle activity, the correct movement at hand was predicted with a mean rate of 62%. Because this is 37% above chance performance, it suggests the presence of postural modulation for diverse conditions. The anticipatory activities consisted of both activations and deactivations. Movement prediction with the use of the activating muscles was significantly better than that obtained with the deactivating muscles. This suggests that more specific modulations for the movement at hand take place through activation, whereas the deactivation is more general. The study introduces a new method for investigating adaptations in motor control. It also sheds new light on the quantity and quality of information available in the feedforward segments of a voluntary multijoint motor activity.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Whole Body Counting Facilities in the Marshall Islands (2002-2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehl, S R; Hamilton, T; Jue, T; Hickman, D

    2007-04-03

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands (https://eed.llnl.gov/mi/). Local atoll governments have been actively engaged in developing shared responsibilities for protecting the health and safety of resettled and resettling population at risk from exposure to elevated levels of residual fallout contamination in the environment. Under the program, whole body counting facilities have been established at three locations in the Marshall Islands. These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing technical support services including data quality assurance and performance testing. We have also established a mirror whole body counting facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as a technician training center. The LLNL facility also allows program managers to develop quality assurance and operational procedures, and test equipment and corrective actions prior to deployment at remote stations in the Marshall Islands. This document summarizes the results of external performance evaluation exercises conducted at each of the facilities (2002-2005) under the umbrella of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Intercomparison Studies Program (ISP). The ISP was specifically designed to meet intercomparison requirements of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). In this way, the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program has attempted to establish quality assurance measures in whole body counting that are consistent with standard requirements used to monitor DOE workers in the United States. Based on ANSI N13.30, the acceptable performance criteria for relative measurement bias and precision for radiobioassay service laboratory quality control

  10. Analysis of annual exposure of private farmers to noise and whole body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Solecki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a literature review for the period of 1982– 2011, an analysis was performed of studies by various researchers concerning the exposure of private farmers to noise and vibration of the whole body with particular consideration of the annual exposure to these factors. The main sources of noise occurring in agriculture are: agricultural tractors mounted with a set of farm machinery, self-propelled machines, machinery for the production of fodder and workshop equipment. The review of literature showed that the highest values of equivalent exposure to noise (EA, T or noise doses (d were noted during the summer-autumn season and in spring. Mean noise levels for the entire year (of over 90 dB-A, considerably exceeded permissible values.The primary sources of the whole body vibration are agricultural vehicles including agricultural tractors of various types and self-propelled agricultural vehicles. In these vehicles vibration transmitted from the seat to the whole body is of basic importance. The measurements of vibration acceleration indicated that mechanical vibration on seats was produced while performing following activities: hay tedding and raking, sowing of fertilizers, aggregation of soil, grass mowing and cultivation. All of them may create a considerable health risk. These work activities are performed at elevated working speeds of tractors, most often along with hardened or uneven surfaces. In relation to the standard values (A(840.8 m/s2, the mean daily vibration acceleration values remain below the permissible levels during all months of the year. However, considering the occurrence of mechanical shocks of high values (above the Maximum Acceptable Intensity on agricultural vehicles there is a high risk for the spine problems among operators of agricultural vehicles.

  11. Muscle contributions to whole-body sagittal plane angular momentum during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neptune, R R; McGowan, C P

    2011-01-01

    Walking is a complex dynamic task that requires the regulation of whole-body angular momentum to maintain dynamic balance while performing walking subtasks such as propelling the body forward and accelerating the leg into swing. In human walking, the primary mechanism to regulate angular momentum is muscle force generation. Muscles accelerate body segments and generate ground reaction forces that alter angular momentum about the body's center-of-mass to restore and maintain dynamic stability. In addition, gravity contributes to whole-body angular momentum through its contribution to the ground reaction forces. The purpose of this study was to generate a muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulation of normal walking to quantify how individual muscles and gravity contribute to whole-body angular momentum in the sagittal plane. In early stance, the uniarticular hip and knee extensors (GMAX and VAS), biarticular hamstrings (HAM) and ankle dorsiflexors (TA) generated backward angular momentum while the ankle plantar flexors (SOL and GAS) generated forward momentum. In late stance, SOL and GAS were the primary contributors and generated angular momentum in opposite directions. SOL generated primarily forward angular momentum while GAS generated backward angular momentum. The difference between muscles was due to their relative contributions to the horizontal and vertical ground reaction forces. Gravity contributed to the body's angular momentum in early stance and to a lesser extent in late stance, which was counteracted primarily by the plantar flexors. These results may provide insight into balance and movement disorders and provide a basis for developing locomotor therapies that target specific muscle groups.

  12. Body surface area determined by whole-body CT scanning: need for new formulae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Primeau, Charlotte; Hesse, Ulrik;

    2017-01-01

    Calculation of the estimated body surface area (BSA) by body height and weight has been a challenge in the past centuries due to lack of a well-documented gold standard. More recently, available techniques such as 3D laser surface scanning and CT scanning may be expected to quantify the BSA...... in an easier and more accurate way. This study provides the first comparison between BSA obtained from post-mortem whole-body CT scans and BSA calculated by nine predictive formulae. The sample consisted of 54 male cadavers ranging from 20 to 87 years old. 3D reconstructions were generated from CT scans using...

  13. Whole-body effective half-lives for radiolabeled antibodies and related issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Baum, J.W.; Barber, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) are being developed and used in medical imaging and therapy in rapidly increasing numbers. Data on the whole body half effective half-lives were calculated from external dose rates obtained from attending physicians and radiation safety officers at participating institutions. Calculations were made using exponential regression analysis of data from patients receiving single and multiple administrations. Theses data were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, isotope label, radiation energy, antibody type, disease treated, administration method, and number of administrations.

  14. Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; Van Hall, Gerrit;

    2004-01-01

    That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg(-1) min(-1) in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular...... conductances (VC) during leg and arm exercise, to find out if the maximal muscular vasodilatory response is restrained during maximal combined arm and leg exercise. Six Swedish elite cross-country skiers, age (mean +/-s.e.m.) 24 +/- 2 years, height 180 +/- 2 cm, weight 74 +/- 2 kg, and maximal oxygen uptake...

  15. An update on novel quantitative techniques in the context of evolving whole-body PET imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Hess, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    Since its foundation PET has established itself as one of the standard imaging modalities enabling the quantitative assessment of molecular targets in vivo. In the past two decades, quantitative PET has become a necessity in clinical oncology. Despite introduction of various measures...... for quantification and correction of PET parameters, there is debate on the selection of the appropriate methodology in specific diseases and conditions. In this review, we have focused on these techniques with special attention to topics such as static and dynamic whole body PET imaging, tracer kinetic modeling...

  16. Effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in females with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trans, T; Aaboe, J; Henriksen, M;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in female patients with osteoarthritis in the knee (knee-OA). A single blinded, randomised, controlled trial was performed in an outpatient clinic on 52 female patients...... (p=0.051) for VibM to perform better compared to Con. There were no effects in the self-reported disease status measures. This study showed that the WBV-exercise regime on a stable platform (VibM) yielded increased muscle strength, while the WBV-exercise on a balance board (VibF) showed improved TDPM...

  17. Methods for calculating phase angle from measured whole body bioimpedance modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Bernt J.; Martinsen, Ørjan G.; Grimnes, Sverre

    2010-04-01

    Assuming the Cole equation we have developed a method to calculate the Cole parameters (R0, R∞, α, τZ) and the phase angle from four frequency measurements of impedance modulus values. The values obtained compare well with impedance measurements obtained using the Solatron 1294/1260 as obtained when making whole body measurements on five persons. We have also performed calculations using an algorithm based on the Kramers-Kronig approach. The results which are presented show that it is possible to obtain complete body impedance data combining relatively simple measurements with advanced calculation using a laptop. This extends the potential of portable equipment, since the measurements will require less instrumentation.

  18. The role of whole-body bone scintigraphy in a case of osteopetrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyle Marques Barral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Male patient, 35 years old, with occasional mild intensity back pain. Lumbosacral spine radiography showed bone structure with increased density, diffusely and symmetrically, conferring to the vertebral bodies “bone-within-bone” aspect, suggesting osteopetrosis (OP. Whole-body bone scintigraphy showed abnormal uptake in proximal epiphysis of both the humeri, tibias and fibulas, distal epiphysis of the femurs and focal in the ribs suggesting old fractures. Conclusions: Nuclear Medicine may provide an important contribution as supporting diagnosis and extensive skeletal evaluation such as fractures and infection. Bone scintigraphy might also be used for baseline assessments, allowing longitudinal monitoring of the disease and patient follow-up.

  19. Radium-226 retention in placenta and whole body of rat. Preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kshirsagar, S.G.; Sundaram, K.

    1989-07-01

    The /sup 226/Ra retention in the placenta of rat during 3 successive pregnancies (92-213 days after injection) was about 4-5x10/sup -3/% of the injected dose (ID) constituting nearly 0.009% of the whole body /sup 226/Ra content (45-55% ID) in each pregnancy. Thus a uniform relationship was being displayed between the two contents to a reasonable extent. The implication of this observation is discussed vis-a-vis the determination of Ra body burden.

  20. Local forearm and whole-body respiratory quotient in humans after an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Madsen, J;

    1993-01-01

    The effects of an oral glucose load of 75 g on the local forearm and whole-body energy thermogenesis were measured in normal subjects during the 4 h after the glucose intake. Simultaneous assessment of substrate metabolism in the forearm was performed. Energy expenditure (EE) increased after...... and local forearm RQ are not significantly different in the fasting state. The finding of a decrease in local forearm RQ below 0.70 30 min after the glucose load probably indicates a non-steady state in the carbon dioxide exchange. Thus, indirect calorimetry cannot be applied locally during short time...

  1. Estimation of body fat in rats by whole-body counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommer, A.M.; Lakshmanan, F.L.

    1975-07-01

    A method for determining body fat in vivo in rats by whole-body counting of /sup 40/K is described. The technique utilizes a Nuclear Chicago Corporation TOBOR system with 5-in thallium-activated sodium iodide crystals. To test the method a regression equation was developed using the /sup 40/K counts and body weight of young adult rats weighing 333 to 788 g; the results were compared with those obtained from the gravimetric determination of fat in the carcass. The correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.945. (auth)

  2. Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Speech. Part 2; Effect on Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect on speech intelligibility was measured for speech where talkers reading Diagnostic Rhyme Test material were exposed to 0.7 g whole body vibration to simulate space vehicle launch. Across all talkers, the effect of vibration was to degrade the percentage of correctly transcribed words from 83% to 74%. The magnitude of the effect of vibration on speech communication varies between individuals, for both talkers and listeners. A worst case scenario for intelligibility would be the most sensitive listener hearing the most sensitive talker; one participant s intelligibility was reduced by 26% (97% to 71%) for one of the talkers.

  3. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  4. Technical relapsed testicular irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia; Tecnica de irradiacion para testiculos en recidiva de leucemia linfoblastica aguda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Miranda, S.; Delgado Gil, M. M.; Ortiz Siedel, M.; Munoz Carmona, D. M.; Gomez-Barcelona, J.

    2011-07-01

    Testicular irradiation in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia presents difficulties in relation to daily positioning, dosimetry for dose homogenization of complex geometry and volume change during irradiation thereof. This can lead to significant deviations from the prescribed doses. In addition, the usual techniques often associated with unnecessary irradiation of pelvic simphysis, anus and perineum. This, in the case of pediatric patients, is of great importance, since doses in the vicinity of 20 Gy are associated with a deviation of bone growth, low testosterone levels around 24 Gy and high rates of generation of second tumors. To overcome these problems we propose a special restraint in prone and non-coplanar irradiation.

  5. Parameter estimation for whole-body kinetic model of FDG metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yunfeng; BAI Jing; CHEN Yingmao; TIAN Jiahe

    2006-01-01

    Based on the radioactive tracer [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), positron emission tomography (PET), and compartment model, the tracer kinetic study has become an important method to investigate the glucose metabolic kinetics in human body.In this work, the kinetic parameters of three-compartment and four-parameter model for the FDG metabolism in the tissues of myocardium, lung, liver, stomach, spleen, pancreas, and marrow were estimated through some dynamic FDG-PET experiments. Together with published brain and skeletal muscle parameters, a relatively complete whole-body model was presented. In the liver model, the dual blood supply from the hepatic artery and the portal vein to the liver was considered for parameter estimation, and the more accurate results were obtained using the dual-input rather than the single arterial-input. The established whole-body model provides the functional information of FDG metabolism in human body. It can be used to further investigate the glucose metabolism, and also be used for the simulation and visualization of FDG metabolic process in human body.

  6. Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, J.; Mubarak, N.; Nelson, S.; Sweerts de Landas, M.; Magnusson, M.; Okunribido, O.; Pope, M.

    2005-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different positions were adopted (bending, leaning and twisting) and postural analyses were conducted using the OWAS and RULA techniques. Forklift vibrations at the seat (exposure) were measured in the three orthogonal axes ( x-fore and aft, y-lateral and z-vertical) under actual working conditions according to the recommendations of ISO 2631-1. The results showed that LBP was more prevalent amongst forklift drivers than among non-drivers and driving postures in which the trunk is considerably twisted or bent forward associated with greatest risk. Furthermore, forklift drivers showed to be exposed to acceptable levels of vibration in the x- and y-directions (i.e., below the EU Physical Agents Directive on Vibration Exposure recommended action level—0.5 m/s 2), but not in the z-direction. There were indications that whole-body vibration acts associatively with other factors (not independently) to precipitate LBP.

  7. Detection of Recurrent Cervical Cancer by Whole-body FDG PET Scans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaxin Yang; Jinhui Wang; Zhaohui Zhu; Keng Shen; Bocheng Wang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the role of whole-body {18F} fluro-2-dexoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans in the detection of recurrent cervical cancer.METHODS Between June, 2000 and January, 2006, 25 patients had undergone a PET scan at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital to evaluate possible recurrent cervical cancer. All the PET findings were reviewed and compared to available clinical data to classify each PET scan result as a true positive, true negative, false positive, or false negative.RESULTS A total of 38 PET scans were conducted on the 25patients whose median age was 46 years. The Stage distributions were IA (n = 1), IB (n = 11), IIA (n = 5), IIB (n = 4), IIIB (n = 2), WB (n= 1), and unknown Stage (n = 1). There were 22 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 3 cases of adenocarcinoma resulting in 9 true positive PET scans, 27 true negatives, 2 false positives and no false negatives. The sensitivity of the FDG PET scans for detecting recurrent cervical cancer was 100%, specificity 93.1%, positive predictive value 81.8%, and negative predictive value 100%.CONCLUSION The whole body FDG PET scans are a sensitive and specific imaging modality for the detection of recurrent cervical cancer. However the cost of PET scans is too high at this time. A large prospective study will determine whether this modality should be used routinely and take the place of other imaging methods in the early detection of recurrent cervical carcinoma

  8. Calibration of the Accuscan II In Vivo System for Whole Body Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orval R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

    2011-08-01

    This report describes the April 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for whole body counting. The source used for the calibration was a NIST traceable BOMAB manufactured by DOE as INL2006 BOMAB containing Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu-152, Sb-125 and Y-88 with energies from 27 keV to 1836 keV with a reference date of 11/29/2006. The actual usable energy range was 86.5 keV to 1597 keV on 4/21/2011. The BOMAB was constructed inside the Accuscan II counting 'tub' in the order of legs, thighs, abdomen, thorax/arms, neck, and head. Each piece was taped to the backwall of the counter. The arms were taped to the thorax. The phantom was constructed between the v-ridges on the backwall of the Accuscan II counter. The energy and efficiency calibrations were performed using the INL2006 BOMAB. The calibrations were performed with the detectors in the scanning mode. This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibration including performance verification and validation counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for whole body counting and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

  9. Toddlers actively reorganize their whole body coordination to maintain walking stability while carrying an object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Hao; Miranda, Daniel L; Chistolini, Trevor L; Goldfield, Eugene C

    2016-10-01

    Balanced walking involves freely swinging the limbs like pendula. However, children immediately begin to carry objects as soon as they can walk. One possibility for this early skill development is that whole body coordination during walking may be re-organized into loosely coupled collections of body parts, allowing children to use their arms to perform one function, while the legs perform another. Therefore, this study examines: 1) how carrying an object affects the coordination of the arms and legs during walking, and 2) if carrying an object influences stride length and width. Ten healthy toddlers with 3-12 months of walking experience were recruited to walk barefoot while carrying or not carrying a small toy. Stride length, width, speed, and continuous relative phase (CRP) of the hips and of the shoulders were compared between carrying conditions. While both arms and legs demonstrated destabilization and stabilization throughout the gait cycle, the arms showed a reduction in intra-subject coordination variability in response to carrying an object. Carrying an object may modify the function of the arms from swinging for balance to maintaining hold of an object. The observed period-dependent changes of the inter-limb coordination of the hips and of the shoulders also support this interpretation. Overall, these findings support the view that whole-body coordination patterns may become partitioned in particular ways as a function of task requirements.

  10. A study of bone uptake according to renal function in the whole body bone scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong In; Jang, Dong Gun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Woo [Dept. of Radiological Technology Dong-Eui Institute of Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Whole body bone scan has been used to confirm bone metastasis and follow-up study with radio isotope. However, if the factors related to 99mTc uptake and waiting time for study are inappropriate, it would be image of low quality. The purpose of present study was to investigate correlation between the evaluation index of renal function and uptake of radiopharmaceuticals. The population for this retrospective study consisted of 387 patients who underwent whole body bone scan between June 2012 and December 2012. As a result of quantitative and qualitative analysis, we were able to confirm that GFR of less than normal range and creatinine levels in blood of more than average are more likely to be under the mean uptake rate. As a result of analysis on the indicator affecting soft-tissue and bone uptake, the correlation of all elements was somewhat low. Also there are no statistically significances due to the other parameters we did not deal with. Therefore, further research on additional factors is needed for exact study and improvement of the image quality.

  11. Absorption and Turnover Rates of Iron Measured by the Whole Body Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D. C.; Cohn, S. H.

    1962-09-05

    Human iron metabolism has been extensively studied in the past twenty-five years with the radioisotopes iron55 and iron59. Before the availability of the whole body counter, however, iron absorption studies were performed by the indirect methods of fecal assay of unabsorbed radioiron, and estimation of red cell incorporation of absorbed tracer. The few long-term excretion studies performed required numerous assumptions, since human iron excretion was less well understood. Whole body counting provides a simple and accurate method of measuring the total body retention of administrative tracer iron59, thus making absorption and subsequent excretion determinations possible with a single radioiron study. The energetic gamma emissions of iron59 permit ready external detection with small quantities of isotope, Normal radioiron distribution is uniform throughout the circulating red cell mass and thus minimize geometry influences on the counting efficiency, 0nly the 45.1 day half-life of iron59 limits long term iron turnover studies. Measurements of iron59 absorption and long-term body turnover have been under way at Brookhaven National Laboratory for over two years. The present paper outlines some of the results of these studies, and discusses some implications of the method. (auth)

  12. Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

    2009-01-01

    According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit.

  13. Whole-body MRI in adult inflammatory myopathies: Do we need imaging of the trunk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Manoliu, Andrei; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Maurer, Britta [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Division of Rheumatology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate whether imaging of the trunk could be omitted in patients with inflammatory myopathies without losing diagnostic accuracy using a restricted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (rWB-MRI) protocol. After approval by the institutional review board, this study was performed in 63 patients (male/female, 13/50; median age, 52 years; range, 20-81 years) with new-onset myopathic symptoms (group 1, n = 41) or previously diagnosed inflammatory myopathy (group 2, n = 22). After performing whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) at 3.0 Tesla, myositis and fatty atrophy were evaluated in different muscles by two independent radiologists. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to evaluate inter-observer reliability. Acquisition time was 56:01 minutes for WB-MRI and 37:37 minutes (32.8 % shorter) for rWB-MRI. In group 1, 14 patients were diagnosed with inflammatory myopathy based on muscle biopsy. rWB-MRI and WB-MRI showed equal sensitivity (42.9 %) and specificity (100 %) for myositis, and showed equal sensitivity (71.4 %) and similar specificity (63.0 % and 48.1 %, respectively) for fatty atrophy. No myositis was found in the body trunk in any patient. Inter-observer reliability was between substantial and perfect (ICC, 0.77-1.00). rWB-MRI showed diagnostic accuracy similar to WB-MRI for inflammatory myopathy at markedly reduced overall acquisition time. (orig.)

  14. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-07-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested /sup 47/Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003), and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation.

  15. Coffee polyphenols modulate whole-body substrate oxidation and suppress postprandial hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperlipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Takatoshi; Yokoi, Yuka; Misawa, Koichi; Ominami, Hideo; Suzuki, Yasuto; Shibuya, Yusuke; Hase, Tadashi

    2012-06-01

    Postprandial energy metabolism, including postprandial hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperlipidaemia, is related to the risk for developing obesity and CVD. In the present study, we examined the effects of polyphenols purified from coffee (coffee polyphenols (CPP)) on postprandial carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and whole-body substrate oxidation in C57BL/6J mice. In mice that co-ingested CPP with a lipid-carbohydrate (sucrose or starch)-mixed emulsion, the respiratory quotient determined by indirect calorimetry was significantly lower than that in control mice, whereas there was no difference in VO2 (energy expenditure), indicating that CPP modulates postprandial energy partitioning. CPP also suppressed postprandial increases in plasma glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and TAG levels. Inhibition experiments on digestive enzymes revealed that CPP inhibits maltase and sucrase, and, to a lesser extent, pancreatic lipase in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the nine kinds of polyphenols (caffeoyl quinic acids (CQA), di-CQA, feruloyl quinic acids (FQA)) contained in CPP, di-CQA showed more potent inhibitory activity than CQA or FQA on these digestive enzymes, suggesting a predominant role of di-CQA in the regulation of postprandial energy metabolism. These results suggest that CPP modulates whole-body substrate oxidation by suppressing postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, and these effects are mediated by inhibiting digestive enzymes.

  16. LOCALISED MUSCLE TISSUE OXYGENATION DURING DYNAMIC EXERCISE WITH WHOLE BODY VIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Robbins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing use of whole body vibration during exercise an understanding of the exact role of vibration and the supporting physiological mechanisms is still limited. An important aspect of exercise analysis is the utilisation of oxygen, however, there have been limited studies considering tissue oxygenation parameters, particularly during dynamic whole body vibration (WBV exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding WBV during heel raise exercises and assessing changes in tissue oxygenation parameters of the lateral gastrocnemius using Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS. Twenty healthy subjects completed ten alternating sets of 15 heel raises (vibration vs. no vibration. Synchronous oxygenation and motion data were captured prior to exercise to determine baseline levels, for the duration of the exercise and 20 sec post exercise for the recovery period. Both vibration and no vibration conditions elicited a characteristic increase in deoxyhaemoglobin and decreases in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index and normalised tissue haemoglobin index which are indicative of local tissue hypoxia. However, the addition of vibration elicited significantly lower (p < 0. 001 depletions in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, normalised tissue haemoglobin index but no significant differences in deoxyhaemoglobin. These findings suggest that addition of vibration to exercise does not increase the cost of the exercise for the lateral gastrocnemius muscle, but does decrease the reduction in local muscle oxygenation parameters, potentially resulting from increased blood flow to the calf or a vasospastic response in the feet. However, further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings

  17. Whole-body prepulse inhibition protocol to test sensorymotor gating mechanisms in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletti, Patricia G; Maior, Rafael S; Hori, Etsuro; Almeida, Ricardo Miyasaka de; Nishijo, Hisao; Tomaz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is the decrease of startle reflex amplitude when a slight stimulus is previously generated. This paradigm may provide valuable information about sensorimotor gating functionality. Here we aimed at determining the inhibited and uninhibited startle response of capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.), and to evaluate the role of the superior colliculus in PPI. Capuchin monkeys were tested in a whole-body protocol, to determine the best startle amplitude and interstimuli interval. Additionally we tested two subjects with bilateral superior colliculus damage in this protocol. Results show that 115 dB auditory pulse has induced the best startle response. In contrast to reports in other species, no habituation to the auditory stimuli was observed here in capuchins. Also, startle reflex inhibition was optimal after 120 msec interstimuli interval. Finally, there was a downward tendency of percentage inhibition in superior colliculus-lesioned monkeys. Our data provides the possibility of further studies with whole-body protocol in capuchin monkeys and reinforces the importance of the superior colliculus in PPI.

  18. iCub Whole-body Control through Force Regulation on Rigid Noncoplanar Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eNori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the implementation on the humanoid robot iCub of state-of-the-art algorithms for whole-body control. We regulate the forces between the robot and its surrounding environment to stabilize a desired robot posture. We assume that the forces and torques are exerted on rigid contacts. The validity of this assumption is guaranteed by constraining the contact forces and torques, e.g. the contact forces must belong to the associated friction cones. The implementation of this control strategy requires to estimate the external forces acting on the robot, and the internal joint torques. We then detail algorithms to obtain these estimations when using a robot with an iCub-like sensor set, i.e. distributed six-axis force-torque sensors and whole-body tactile sensors. A general theory for identifying the robot inertial parameters is also presented. From an actuation standpoint, we show how to implement a joint torque control in the case of DC brushless motors. In addition, the coupling mechanism of the iCub torso is investigated. The soundness of the entire control architecture is validated in a real scenario involving the robot iCub balancing and making contacts at both arms.

  19. Effects of a short-term whole body vibration intervention on lean mass in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Gómez-Cabello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To clarify whether a short-term whole body vibration (WBV training has an effect on lean mass (LM in the elderly. Method: 49 non-institutionalized elderly (20 men participated in the study. Participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to the WBV or control group. A total of 24 elderly trained squat positioned on a vibration platform 3 times per week for 11 weeks. LM at the whole body, upper and lower limbs was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the effects of the intervention on the studied variables and also to determinate the changes within group throughout the intervention period including age and height as covariates. Results: 11 weeks of WBV training led to no changes in none of the LM parameters. Conclusion: A short-term WBV therapy is not enough to cause significant changes on LM in non-institutionalized seniors.

  20. Influence of ambient temperature on whole body and segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, G.; Bausch, R.; Ismail, A. H.; Cordes, A.; Pikkemaat, R.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements are easy to implement and could be used for continuous monitoring. However, several factors (e.g. environment temperature) influence the measurements limiting the accuracy of the technology. Changes in skin temperature produced by changes in ambient temperature are related with changes in skin blood flow and skin impedance. It is assumed that skin impedance change is responsible for the error observed in whole body and segmental measurements. Measurements including body parts more distant from the torso seem to be more affected. In the present article skin and segment impedance have been performed on healthy subjects under extreme changes in environment temperature (13-39 °C). A commercial BIS device with a range between 5 kHz and 1 MHz has been used for the measurements. The results indicate that not only skin impedance, but also impedance of deeper tissue (e.g. muscle) may be responsible for the influence of environment temperature on BIS measurements. Segmental (knee-to-knee) BIS measurements show a relative change of only 2 %, while forearm and whole body impedance changed 14 % and 8 % respectively.

  1. From multislice CT to whole-body biomarker imaging in lymphoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazelaire, Cedric de; Kerviler, Eric de [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Saint-Louis, APHP, Paris cedex 10 (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France)

    2011-03-15

    Until recently, only nuclear medicine techniques allowed combining whole-body anatomical and functional information. Now, diffusion-weighted imaging seeks to compete with these techniques in the field of oncology, providing assessment of tumour spread, characterizing lesions and evaluating therapeutic response. The first issue has been widely evaluated since the first published whole-body diffusion-weighted images looking like scintigraphy. Optimal background suppression and diffusion weighting highlighted tumours with restricted diffusion. For the two latter issues, ADC seems to represent the key element; it should allow differentiation between benign and malignant tissue, and active from inactive lesions after treatment. This is of paramount importance for the monitoring of lymphomas treated with chemotherapy alone, or for solid tumors treated by neoadjuvant therapies. However, imaging protocols still differ between studies, and there is considerable overlap in ADC values between healthy and neoplastic tissues. Despite this difficulty to identify a clinically reliable threshold for malignancy, there is no doubt that ADC will represent as a reliable biomarker in the future for some malignancies, and lymphomas represent a helpful model for this purpose. (orig.)

  2. Suitability of Kinect for measuring whole body movement patterns during exergaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diest, Mike; Stegenga, Jan; Wörtche, Heinrich J; Postema, Klaas; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2014-09-22

    Exergames provide a challenging opportunity for home-based training and evaluation of postural control in the elderly population, but affordable sensor technology and algorithms for assessment of whole body movement patterns in the home environment are yet to be developed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of Kinect, a commonly available video game sensor, for capturing and analyzing whole body movement patterns. Healthy adults (n=20) played a weight shifting exergame under five different conditions with varying amplitudes and speed of sway movement, while 3D positions of ten body segments were recorded in the frontal plane using Kinect and a Vicon 3D camera system. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to extract and compare movement patterns and the variance in individual body segment positions explained by these patterns. Using the identified patterns, balance outcome measures based on spatiotemporal sway characteristics were computed. The results showed that both Vicon and Kinect capture >90% variance of all body segment movements within three PCs. Kinect-derived movement patterns were found to explain variance in trunk movements accurately, yet explained variance in hand and foot segments was underestimated and overestimated respectively by as much as 30%. Differences between both systems with respect to balance outcome measures range 0.3-64.3%. The results imply that Kinect provides the unique possibility of quantifying balance ability while performing complex tasks in an exergame environment.

  3. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography of patients using a standard clinical scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Tomas; Wikstroem, Johan; Eriksson, Mats-Ola; Lundberg, Anders; Ahlstroem, Haakan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, Lars [Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Ljungman, Christer [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery, Uppsala (Sweden); Hoogeven, Romhild [Philips Medical Systems, MR Clinical Science, Best (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technique of whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of patients with a standard clinical scanner. Thirty-three patients referred for stenoses, occlusions, aneurysms, assessment of patency of vascular grafts, vasculitis and vascular aplasia were examined in a 1.5-T scanner using its standard body coil. Three-dimensional sequences were acquired in four stations after administration of one intravenous injection of 40 ml conventional gadolinium contrast agent. Different vessel segments were evaluated as either diagnostic or nondiagnostic and regarding the presence of stenoses with more than 50% diameter reduction, occlusions or aneurysms. Of 923 vessel segments, 67 were not evaluable because of poor contrast filling (n=31), motion artefacts (n=20), venous overlap (n=12) and other reasons (n=4). Stenoses of more than 50%, occlusions or aneurysms were observed in 26 patients (129 segments). In nine patients additional unsuspected pathology was found. In 10 out of 14 patients (71/79 segments) there was conformity between MRA and digital subtraction angiography regarding the grade of stenosis. This study shows that whole-body MRA with a standard clinical scanner is feasible. Motion artefacts and the timing of the contrast agent through the different segments are still problems to be solved. (orig.)

  4. Automatic Vertebral Column Extraction by Whole-Body Bone SPECT Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Fang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone extraction and division can enhance the accuracy of diagnoses based on whole-body bone SPECT data. This study developed a method for using conventional SPECT for automatic recognition of the vertebral column. A novel feature of the proposed approach is a novel “bone graph" image description method that represents the connectivity between these image regions to facilitate manipulation of morphological relationships in the skeleton before surgery. By tracking the paths shown on the bone graph, skeletal structures can be identified by performing morphological operations. The performance of the method was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Datasets for whole-body bone SPECT scans in 46 lung cancer patients with bone metastasis were obtained with Tc-99m MDP. The algorithm successfully segmented vertebrae in the thoracolumbar spine. The quantitative assessment shows that the segmentation method achieved an average TP, FP, and FN rates of 95.1%, 9.1%, and 4.9%. The qualitative evaluation shows an average acceptance rate of 83%, where the data for the acceptable and unacceptable groups had a Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.718, which indicated reasonable internal consistency and reliability.

  5. Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    Full Text Available Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (-110°C to -140°C. Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers.

  6. Low-Dose Adefovir-Induced Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia on Whole-Body Bone Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bongil; Jo, Il; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    While adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) effectively suppresses the hepatitis B virus, it can cause proximal renal tubular dysfunction leading to phosphate wasting. The safety of low-dose ADV (a dose of 10 mg/day), which does not induce clinically significant nephrotoxicity, is well recognized, but a few cases of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (HO) caused by low-dose ADV therapy have recently been reported. Although HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy is rare, the presence of bone pain in patients treated with ADV should be monitored. Bone scintigraphy can be performed to confirm the occurrence of osteomalacia and to determine the disease extent. Bone scintigraphic and radiological image findings with a brief review of the literature are presented in this article. We report two cases of HO induced by low-dose ADV therapy that showed multifocal increased radiotracer uptakes in the bilateral bony ribs, spines, pelvic bones and lower extremities on whole-body bone scintigraphy. Bone pain gradually improved after phosphate supplementation and by changing the antiviral agent. Whole-body bone scintigraphy is a highly sensitive imaging tool and can show disease extent at once in the setting of the wide range of the clinical spectrum with nonspecific radiological findings. Furthermore, frequent involvement of the lower extremities, as a result of maximum weight bearing, could be an additional scintigraphic clue for the diagnosis of HO. These cases could be helpful for both clinicians prescribing ADV and nuclear physicians to prevent delayed diagnosis and plan further appropriate treatment.

  7. Between-country comparison of whole-body SAR from personal exposure data in Urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Frei, Patrizia; Röösli, Martin; Vermeeren, Günter; Bolte, John; Thuróczy, György; Gajšek, Peter; Trček, Tomaž; Mohler, Evelyn; Juhász, Péter; Finta, Viktoria; Martens, Luc

    2012-12-01

    In five countries (Belgium, Switzerland, Slovenia, Hungary, and the Netherlands), personal radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements were performed in different microenvironments such as homes, public transports, or outdoors using the same exposure meters. From the mean personal field exposure levels (excluding mobile phone exposure), whole-body absorption values in a 1-year-old child and adult male model were calculated using a statistical multipath exposure method and compared for the five countries. All mean absorptions (maximal total absorption of 3.4 µW/kg for the child and 1.8 µW/kg for the adult) were well below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) basic restriction of 0.08 W/kg for the general public. Generally, incident field exposure levels were well correlated with whole-body absorptions (SAR(wb) ), although the type of microenvironment, frequency of the signals, and dimensions of the considered phantom modify the relationship between these exposure measures. Exposure to the television and Digital Audio Broadcasting band caused relatively higher SAR(wb) values (up to 65%) for the 1-year-old child than signals at higher frequencies due to the body size-dependent absorption rates. Frequency Modulation (FM) caused relatively higher absorptions (up to 80%) in the adult male.

  8. Targeted microbubbles for imaging tumor angiogenesis: assessment of whole-body biodistribution with dynamic micro-PET in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmann, Jürgen K; Cheng, Zhen; Davis, Corrine;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate in vivo whole-body biodistribution of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to tumor angiogenesis-related vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by using dynamic micro-positron emission tomography (PET) in living mice....

  9. Can an iPod Touch be used to assess whole-body vibration associated with mining equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, Rebecca; Di Corleto, Luke; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2014-11-01

    The cost and complexity of commercially available whole-body vibration measurement devices is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by collecting 58 simultaneous pairs of acceleration measurements in three dimensions from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and gold standard whole-body vibration measurement devices, while a range of heavy mining equipment was operated at three surface coal mines. The results suggest that accelerometer data gathered from a consumer electronic device are able to be used to measure whole-body vibration amplitude with 95% confidence of ±0.06 m s(-2) root mean square for the vertical direction (1.96 × standard deviation of the constant error).

  10. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and motor performance in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa M. Ibrahim

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that 12-weeks’ intervention of whole-body vibration training can increase knee extensors strength and decrease spasticity with beneficial effects on walking speed and motor development in spastic diplegic CP children.

  11. On the Health Risk of the Lumbar Spine due to Whole-Body VIBRATION—THEORETICAL Approach, Experimental Data and Evaluation of Whole-Body Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, H.; Blüthner, R.; Hinz, B.; Schust, M.

    1998-08-01

    The guidance on the effects of vibration on health in standards for whole-body vibration (WBV) does not provide quantitative relationships between WBV and health risk. The paper aims at the elucidation of exposure-response relationships. An analysis of published data on the static and dynamic strength of vertebrae and bone, loaded with various frequencies under different conditions, provided the basis for a theoretical approach to evaluate repetitive loads on the lumbar spine (“internal loads”). The approach enabled the calculation of “equivalent”—with respect to cumulative fatigue failure—combinations of amplitudes and numbers of internal cyclic stress. In order to discover the relation between external peak accelerations at the seat and internal peak loads, biodynamic data of experiments (36 subjects, three somatotypes, two different postures—relaxed and bent forward; random WBV,aw, r.m.s. 1·4 ms-2, containing high transients) were used as input to a biomechanical model. Internal pressure changes were calculated using individual areas of vertebral endplates. The assessment of WBV was based on the quantitative relations between peak accelerations at the seat and pressures predicted for the disk L5/S1. For identical exposures clearly higher rates of pressure rise in the bent forward compared to the relaxed posture were predicted. The risk assessment for internal forces considered the combined internal static and dynamic loads, in relation to the predicted individual strength, and Miner's hypothesis. For exposure durations between 1 min and 8 h, energy equivalent vibration magnitudes (formula B.1, ISO 2631-1, 1997) and equivalent vibration magnitudes according to formula B.2 (time dependence over-energetic) were compared with equivalent combinations of upward peak accelerations and exposure durations according to predicted cumulative fatigue failures of lumbar vertebrae. Formula B.1 seems to underestimate the health risk caused by high magnitudes

  12. Mitochondrial DNA alterations of peripheral lymphocytes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Fuyun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA alterations, including mtDNA copy number and mtDNA 4977 bp common deletion (CD, are key indicators of irradiation-induced damage. The relationship between total body irradiation (TBI treatment and mtDNA alterations in vivo, however, has not been postulated yet. The aim of this study is to analyze mtDNA alterations in irradiated human peripheral lymphocytes from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients as well as to take them as predictors for radiation toxicity. Methods Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from 26 ALL patients 24 hours after TBI preconditioning (4.5 and 9 Gy, respectively. Extracted DNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. Results Average 2.31 times mtDNA and 0.53 fold CD levels were observed after 4.5 Gy exposure compared to their basal levels. 9 Gy TBI produced a greater response of both mtDNA and CD levels than 4.5 Gy. Significant inverse correlation was found between mtDNA content and CD level at 4.5 and 9 Gy (P = 0.037 and 0.048. Moreover, mtDNA content of lymphocytes without irradiation was found to be correlated to age. Conclusions mtDNA and CD content may be considered as predictive factors to radiation toxicity.

  13. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Tahari, Abdel K; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-21

    Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ~15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ~45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically

  14. Development and validation of reverberation-chamber type whole-body exposure system for mobile-phone frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, K B; Kim, T H; Kim, J L; Doh, H J; Chung, Y C; Choi, J H; Pack, J K

    2008-01-01

    We developed whole-body exposure systems for in-vivo study at cellular (848.5 MHz) and Personal Communication System (PCS, 1,762.5 MHz) frequency, utilizing reverberation chamber. The field uniformities in the test area of the designed chambers were verified by simulation and measurement. In the whole-body exposure environment, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) distributions inside of mice were calculated using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulation. Key results are presented in this article.

  15. FEASIBILITY OF WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING IN DETECTING BONE METASTASIS ON 3.0T MR SCANNER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Xu; Lin Ma; Jins-han Zhang; You-quan Cai; Bai-xuan Xu; Liu-quan Chen; Fei Sun; Xing-gao Guo

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of whole body diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in bone metastasis detection using bone scintigraphy as comparison.Methods Forty-five patients with malignancy history were enrolled in our study. All the patients received the whole body DWI and bone scintigraphy scan within 1 week. The magnetic resonance (MR) examination was performed on 3.0T MR scanner using embedded body coil. The images were reviewed separately by two radiologists and two nuclear medicine physicians, who were blinded to the results of the other imaging modality. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the two techniques for detecting bone metastasis were analyzed.Results A total of 181 metastatic lesions in 77 regions of 34 patients were detected by whole body DWI, and 167 metastatic lesions in 76 regions of 31 patients were identified by bone scintigraphy. The patient-based sensitivity and PPV of whole body DWI and bone scintigraphy were similar (89.5% vs. 81.6%, 97.1% vs. 91.2%), whereas, the patient-basod specificity and NPV of whole body DW1 were obviously higher than those of bone scintigraphy (85.7% vs. 57.1%, 60.0% vs. 36.4%). Ten regions negative in scintigraphy but positive in whole body DWI, mainly located in spine, pelvis, and femur; nine regions only detected by scintigraphy, mainly located in skull, sternum, clavicle, and scapula. The region-based sensitivity and specificity of whole body DWI were slightly higher than those of bone scintigraphy (89.5% vs. 88.4%, 95.6% vs. 87.6%). Conclusion Whole body DWI reveals excellent concordance with bone scintigraphy regarding detection of bone metastasis, and the two techniques are complementary for each other.

  16. An iOS Application for Evaluating Whole-body Vibration Within a Workplace Risk Management Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlothlin, James; Burgess-Limerick, R; Lynas, D

    2015-01-01

    Workplace management of whole-body vibration exposure requires systematic collection of whole-body vibration data in conjunction with the numerous variables which influence vibration amplitudes. The cost and complexity of commercially available measurement devices is an impediment to the routine collection of such data by workplaces. An iOS application (WBV) has been developed which allows an iPod Touch to be used to measure whole-body vibration exposures. The utility of the application was demonstrated by simultaneously obtaining 98 pairs of whole-body vibration measurements from both the iPod Touch application and a commercially available whole-body vibration device during the operation of a variety of vehicles and mobile plant in operation at a surface coal mine. The iOS application installed on a fifth-generation iPod Touch was shown to provide a 95% confidence of +/- 0.077 m/s(2) r.m.s. constant error for the vertical direction. Situations in which vibration levels lay within the ISO2631.1 health guidance caution zone were accurately identified, and the qualitative features of the frequency spectra were reproduced. The low cost and relative simplicity of the application has potential to facilitate its use as a screening tool to identify situations in which musculoskeletal disorders may arise as a consequence of exposure to whole-body vibration.

  17. Optimal whole-body PET scanner configurations for different volumes of LSO scintillator: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Jonathan K; Dahlbom, Magnus L; Moses, William W; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Wang, Wenli; Cherry, Simon R; Badawi, Ramsey D

    2012-07-07

    The axial field of view (AFOV) of the current generation of clinical whole-body PET scanners range from 15-22 cm, which limits sensitivity and renders applications such as whole-body dynamic imaging or imaging of very low activities in whole-body cellular tracking studies, almost impossible. Generally, extending the AFOV significantly increases the sensitivity and count-rate performance. However, extending the AFOV while maintaining detector thickness has significant cost implications. In addition, random coincidences, detector dead time, and object attenuation may reduce scanner performance as the AFOV increases. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulations to find the optimal scanner geometry (i.e. AFOV, detector thickness and acceptance angle) based on count-rate performance for a range of scintillator volumes ranging from 10 to 93 l with detector thickness varying from 5 to 20 mm. We compare the results to the performance of a scanner based on the current Siemens Biograph mCT geometry and electronics. Our simulation models were developed based on individual components of the Siemens Biograph mCT and were validated against experimental data using the NEMA NU-2 2007 count-rate protocol. In the study, noise-equivalent count rate (NECR) was computed as a function of maximum ring difference (i.e. acceptance angle) and activity concentration using a 27 cm diameter, 200 cm uniformly filled cylindrical phantom for each scanner configuration. To reduce the effect of random coincidences, we implemented a variable coincidence time window based on the length of the lines of response, which increased NECR performance up to 10% compared to using a static coincidence time window for scanners with a large maximum ring difference values. For a given scintillator volume, the optimal configuration results in modest count-rate performance gains of up to 16% compared to the shortest AFOV scanner with the thickest detectors. However, the longest AFOV of approximately 2 m with

  18. Responses of primate caudal parabrachial nucleus and Kolliker-fuse nucleus neurons to whole body rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Carey D.; McGee, David M.; Zhou, Jianxun; Scudder, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The caudal aspect of the parabrachial (PBN) and Kolliker-Fuse (KF) nuclei receive vestibular nuclear and visceral afferent information and are connected reciprocally with the spinal cord, hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic cortex. Hence, they may be important sites of vestibulo-visceral integration, particularly for the development of affective responses to gravitoinertial challenges. Extracellular recordings were made from caudal PBN cells in three alert, adult female Macaca nemestrina through an implanted chamber. Sinusoidal and position trapezoid angular whole body rotation was delivered in yaw, roll, pitch, and vertical semicircular canal planes. Sites were confirmed histologically. Units that responded during rotation were located in lateral and medial PBN and KF caudal to the trochlear nerve at sites that were confirmed anatomically to receive superior vestibular nucleus afferents. Responses to whole-body angular rotation were modeled as a sum of three signals: angular velocity, a leaky integration of angular velocity, and vertical position. All neurons displayed angular velocity and integrated angular velocity sensitivity, but only 60% of the neurons were position-sensitive. These responses to vertical rotation could display symmetric, asymmetric, or fully rectified cosinusoidal spatial tuning about a best orientation in different cells. The spatial properties of velocity and integrated velocity and position responses were independent for all position-sensitive neurons; the angular velocity and integrated angular velocity signals showed independent spatial tuning in the position-insensitive neurons. Individual units showed one of three different orientations of their excitatory axis of velocity rotation sensitivity: vertical-plane-only responses, positive elevation responses (vertical plane plus ipsilateral yaw), and negative elevation axis responses (vertical plane plus negative yaw). The interactions between the velocity and integrated velocity components

  19. Factors affecting gastric uptake in whole body FDG-PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomemori, Takashi; Kitagawa, Mami; Nakahara, Tadaki; Wu, Jin; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Uno, Kimiichi; Abe, Kinji; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi [Nishidai Clinic Diagnostic Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) is very useful for the detection and staging of tumors. However, FDG is also accumulated in the normal tissues in various degrees. This physiological FDG uptake is often seen in intestine, making confusion with malignant tumor. The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the stomach. A total of 136 people who underwent cancer screening or staging of tumors except for gastric cancer using FDG whole-body PET was examined (mean age: 55.6 yrs). All subjects fasted for at least 4 hours before the PET study and were administrated with FDG intravenously (mean FDG dose: 308.9 MBq). Emission images were acquired on a whole-body PET scanner and images were reconstructed without attenuation correction. The intensity of gastric uptake of FDG whole-body PET image was visually classified into 3 grades; grade 2 = the intensity of gastric uptake more than pulmonary uptake, grade 1 = the intensity of gastric uptake equal to or less than pulmonary uptake, grade 0 = no contrast between gastric uptake and background. Twenty-eight subjects (20.6%) were classified into grade 2, 42 subjects (30.9%) were grade 1 and 66 subjects (48.5%) were grade 0. Subjects' age, fasting time, FDG dose, serum glucose level, free fatty acid level and insulin level were not significantly correlated with the intensity of gastric uptake. But the subjects with higher gastric uptake tended to have anti-Helicobactor pylori (H. pylori) antibodies. The rate of having anti-H.pylori antibodies in the grade 2 group is significantly higher than the grade 1 group (85.7% vs. 72.5%, p<0.05), and that of the grade 1 group is significantly higher than the grade 0 group (72.5% vs. 42.2%, p<0.01). Gastric uptake was observed in about half of subjects. Especially, approximately 20% of all showed high gastric uptake, which was associated with H.pylori infection. Therefore, most of the subjects

  20. Three-dimensional modeling of supine human and transport system under whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Rahmatalla, Salam

    2013-06-01

    The development of predictive computer human models in whole-body vibration has shown some success in predicting simple types of motion, mostly for seated positions and in the uniaxial vertical direction. The literature revealed only a handful of papers that tackled supine human modeling in response to vertical vibration. The objective of this work is to develop a predictive, multibody, three-dimensional human model to simulate the supine human and underlying transport system in response to multidirectional whole-body vibration. A three-dimensional dynamic model of a supine human and its underlying transport system is presented in this work to predict supine-human biodynamic response under three-dimensional input random whole-body vibration. The proposed supine-human model consists of three interconnected segments representing the head, torso-arms, and pelvis-legs. The segments are connected via rotational and translational joints that have spring-damper components simulating the three-dimensional muscles and tissuelike connecting elements in the three x, y, and z directions. Two types of transport systems are considered in this work, a rigid support and a long spinal board attached to a standard military litter. The contact surfaces between the supine human and the underlying transport system are modeled using spring-damper components. Eight healthy supine human subjects were tested under combined-axis vibration files with a magnitude of 0.5 m/s2 (rms) and a frequency content of 0.5-16 Hz. The data from seven subjects were used in parameter identification for the dynamic model using optimization schemes in the frequency domain that minimize the differences between the magnitude and phase of the predicted and experimental transmissibility. The predicted accelerations in the time and frequency domains were comparable to those gathered from experiments under different anthropometric, input vibration, and transport conditions under investigation. Based on the

  1. Whole body, regional fat accumulation, and appetite-related hormonal response after hypoxic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Takuma; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine change in regional fat accumulation and appetite-related hormonal response following hypoxic training. Twenty sedentary subjects underwent hypoxic (n = 9, HYPO, FiO(2) = 15%) or normoxic training (n = 11, NOR, FiO(2) = 20·9%) during a 4-week period (3 days per week). They performed a 4-week training at 55% of maximal oxygen uptake (V·O(2max)) for each condition. Before and after the training period, V·O(2max), whole body fat mass, abdominal fat area, intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), fasting and postprandial appetite-related hormonal responses were determined. Both groups showed a significant increase in V·O(2max) following training (Pdecreased in both groups (Pappetite-related hormones.

  2. Risks of exposure to ionizing and millimeter-wave radiation from airport whole-body scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, John E

    2012-06-01

    Considerable public concern has been expressed around the world about the radiation risks posed by the backscatter (ionizing radiation) and millimeter-wave (nonionizing radiation) whole-body scanners that have been deployed at many airports. The backscatter and millimeter-wave scanners currently deployed in the U.S. almost certainly pose negligible radiation risks if used as intended, but their safety is difficult-to-impossible to prove using publicly accessible data. The scanners are widely disliked and often feared, which is a problem made worse by what appears to be a veil of secrecy that covers their specifications and dosimetry. Therefore, for these and future similar technologies to gain wide acceptance, more openness is needed, as is independent review and regulation. Publicly accessible, and preferably peer-reviewed evidence is needed that the deployed units (not just the prototypes) meet widely-accepted safety standards. It is also critical that risk-perception issues be handled more competently.

  3. WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING: A NEW ERA OF ONCOLOGICAL RADIOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-yu Jin; Hua-dan Xue; Hua Tao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cancer has become the leading cause of mortality in the urban area of China. Whole body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI), also known as virtual positron emission tomography, has gradually become accepted as an image tool in tumor localization, characterization, staging and monitoring response to therapy or tumor recurrence. Our article aimed to summarize the limited initial clinical use of WB-DWI in the referred area, and to analyze the most potential advantage of WB-DWI in therapeutic monitoring and tumor staging. WB-DWI as a highly sensitive, completely non-invasive, well-tolerated and low price technique has a promising furture in tumor assessment. Profound clinical study is necessary for its further application improvement.

  4. A whole body atlas for segmentation and delineation of organs for radiation therapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qatarneh, S. M.; Crafoord, J.; Kramer, E. L.; Maguire, G. Q.; Brahme, A.; Noz, M. E.; Hyödynmaa, S.

    2001-09-01

    A semi-automatic procedure for delineation of organs to be used as the basis of a whole body atlas database for radiation therapy planning was developed. The Visible Human Male Computed Tomography (CT)-data set was used as a "standard man" reference. The organ of interest was outlined manually and then transformed by a polynomial warping algorithm onto a clinical patient CT. This provided an initial contour, which was then adjusted and refined by the semi-automatic active contour model to find the final organ outline. The liver was used as a test organ for evaluating the performance of the procedure. Liver outlines obtained by the segmentation algorithm on six patients were compared to those manually drawn by a radiologist. The combination of warping and semi-automatic active contour model generally provided satisfactory segmentation results, but the procedure has to be extended to three dimensions.

  5. Effects of whole body vibration on spinal proprioception in normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T Y; Chow, D H K

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem with high reoccurrence rate. While most LBP cases are classified as non-specific, patients in general often present impaired proprioception. Whole body vibration (WBV) has been proven to improve muscle function and proprioception in the lumbo-pelvic region. The aim of this study was to determine whether WBV would affect spinal proprioception. Eleven young normal individuals were recruited. Their body alignment, lumbar repositioning error and lumbo-pelvic coordination during dynamic motion were assessed before and after 5 minutes WBV (18 Hz, 6 mm amplitude). Assessments were conducted before, immediately after, 30 minutes after and 1 hour after WBV. Subjects were found to have improved lumbo-pelvic coordination and flexibility without any adverse effect on the neuromuscular system after WBV. However, WBV had no significant immediate effect on lumbar repositioning ability and body alignment. Future studies of the effects of different WBV protocols on LBP patients are recommended.

  6. Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2008-01-01

    were given a whole body topical application of basic cream 2 mg/cm(2) (control week) and then a cream containing 2% (w/w) of DEP, DBP and BP each (treatment week) daily. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected. Urinary total, and unconjugated BP, monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and monobutyl phthalate...... through dermal absorption, but there are no published data on absorption, metabolism, and excretion after dermal application. This study investigates urinary concentrations of BP and metabolites of DEP and DBP after topical application. In a 2-week single-blinded study, 26 healthy Caucasian male subjects...... (MBP) metabolites were analysed by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). All 26 subjects showed increased excretion of MEP, MBP and BP following topical application. Total MEP, MBP and BP (mean +/- SEM) excreted in urine in the treatment week were, respectively, 41 +/- 1.9, 11...

  7. Correction factors for 13C-labelled substrate oxidation at whole-body and muscle level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit

    1999-01-01

    The oxidation of fatty acids, carbohydrates and amino acids can be measured by quantifying the rate of excretion of labelled CO2 following administration of 14C- or 13C-labelled substrates at whole-body and tissue level. However, there is a theoretical need to correct the oxidation rates...... for the proportion of labelled CO2 that is produced via oxidation but not excreted. Furthermore, depending on the substrate and position of the C label(s), there may also be a need to correct for labelled C from the metabolized substrate that does not appear as CO2, but rather becomes temporarily fixed in other...... metabolites. The bicarbonate correction factor is used to correct for the labelled CO2 not excreted. Recently, an acetate correction factor has been proposed for the simultaneous correction of CO2 not excreted and label fixed in other metabolites via isotopic exchange reactions, mainly in the tricarboxylic...

  8. Focal thyroid incidentalomas identified with whole-body FDG-PET warrant further investigation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prichard, R S

    2012-02-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) whole body positron emission computed tomography (PET-CT) detects clinically occult malignancy. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and significance of focal thyroid 18F - fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. A retrospective review of all patients who had FDG PET-CT examinations, in a single tertiary referral centre was performed. PET scan findings and the final pathological diagnosis were collated. 2105 scans were reviewed. Focal uptake was identified in 35 (1.66%) patients. Final surgical histology was available on eight patients, which confirmed papillary carcinoma in four (20%) patients and lymphoma and metastatic disease in two patients respectively. This gave an overall malignancy rate in focal thyroid uptake of at least 33%. Thyroid incidentalomas occurred with a frequency of 2.13%, with an associated malignancy rate of at least 33% in focal thyroid uptake. The high malignancy rate associated with focal thyroid uptake mandates further investigation in medically fit patients.

  9. PRELIMINARY APPLICATION OF WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING IN SCREENING METASTASIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-jing Guan; Hua-wei Ling; Ke-min Chen

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of whole body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) in screening metastasis.Methods WB-DWI was performed in 24 patients diagnosed with various types of primary tumors. The three-dimensional maximum intensity projection reconstruction and black-and-white flip technique were used to observe metastatic lesions, and the results were compared with those of bone scintigraphy. Results By WB-DWI scanning sequence at b = 800 s/mm2, all the bone lesions found by bone scintigraphy in the cohort were well identified, and other lesions of soft tissue and organs were also well demonstrated. Its screening capability was equivalent with bone scintigraphy in screening metastases in bones (P = 0.062). Conclusion WB-DWI was practicable with the parameter settings attempted in metastases screening.

  10. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  11. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  12. WearDY: Wearable dynamics. A prototype for human whole-body force and motion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latella, Claudia; Kuppuswamy, Naveen; Nori, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Motion capture is a powerful tool used in a large range of applications towards human movement analysis. Although it is a well-established technique, its main limitation is the lack of dynamic information such as forces and torques during the motion capture. In this paper, we present a novel approach for human wearable dynamic (WearDY) motion capture for the simultaneous estimation of whole-body forces along with the motion. Our conceptual framework encompasses traditional passive markers based methods, inertial and contact force sensor modalities and harnesses a probabilistic computational framework for estimating dynamic quantities originally proposed in the domain of humanoid robot control. We present preliminary experimental analysis of our framework on subjects performing a two Degrees-of-Freedom bowing task and we estimate the motion and dynamic quantities. We discuss the implication of our proposal towards the design of a novel wearable force and motion capture suit and its applications.

  13. Pulmonary sequestration: a (131)I whole body scintigraphy false-positive result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinapolice, Elena Giulia; Chytiris, S; Fuccio, C; Leporati, P; Volpato, G; Villani, L; Trifirò, G; Chiovato, L

    2014-08-01

    A 35-year-old woman affected by a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma was referred to our hospital to perform a (131)Iodine ((131)I) whole body scintigraphy for restaging purpose. The patient had been previously treated with total thyroidectomy and three subsequent doses of (131)I for the ablation of a remnant jugular tissue and a suspected metastatic focus at the superior left hemi-thorax. In spite of the previous treatments with (131)I, planar and tomographic images showed the persistence of an area of increased uptake at the superior left hemi-thorax. This finding prompted the surgical resection of the lesion. Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed the presence of a pulmonary tissue consistent with pulmonary sequestration. Even though rare, pulmonary sequestration should be included in the potential causes of false-positive results of radioiodine scans.

  14. Comparison of atlas-based techniques for whole-body bone segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabi, Hossein; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    validation procedure. The evaluated segmentation techniques include: (i) intensity averaging (IA), (ii) majority voting (MV), (iii) global and (iv) local (voxel-wise) weighting atlas fusion frameworks implemented utilizing normalized mutual information (NMI), normalized cross-correlation (NCC) and mean...... square distance (MSD) as image similarity measures for calculating the weighting factors, along with other atlas-dependent algorithms, such as (v) shape-based averaging (SBA) and (vi) Hofmann's pseudo-CT generation method. The performance evaluation of the different segmentation techniques was carried...... out in terms of estimating bone extraction accuracy from whole-body MRI using standard metrics, such as Dice similarity (DSC) and relative volume difference (RVD) considering bony structures obtained from intensity thresholding of the reference CT images as the ground truth. Considering the Dice...

  15. AMPK: positive and negative regulation, and its role in whole-body energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, D Grahame

    2015-04-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of energy status that, when activated by metabolic stress, maintains cellular energy homeostasis by switching on catabolic pathways and switching off ATP-consuming processes. Recent results suggest that activation of AMPK by the upstream kinase LKB1 in response to nutrient lack occurs at the surface of the lysosome. AMPK is also crucial in regulation of whole body energy balance, particularly by mediating effects of hormones acting on the hypothalamus. Recent crystal structures of complete AMPK heterotrimers have illuminated its complex mechanisms of activation, involving both allosteric activation and increased net phosphorylation mediated by effects on phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Finally, AMPK is negatively regulated by phosphorylation of the 'ST loop' within the catalytic subunit.

  16. Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P growth factor I, and testosterone values did not change. Arteriovenous model calculations based on the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine in five subjects revealed a 50% decrease in muscle protein synthesis (PS; P muscle protein also decreased by 46% (P muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

  17. Whole-body angular momentum during stair walking using passive and powered lower-limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickle, Nathaniel T; Wilken, Jason M; Aldridge, Jennifer M; Neptune, Richard R; Silverman, Anne K

    2014-10-17

    Individuals with a unilateral transtibial amputation have a greater risk of falling compared to able-bodied individuals, and falling on stairs can lead to serious injuries. Individuals with transtibial amputations have lost ankle plantarflexor muscle function, which is critical for regulating whole-body angular momentum to maintain dynamic balance. Recently, powered prostheses have been designed to provide active ankle power generation with the goal of restoring biological ankle function. However, the effects of using a powered prosthesis on the regulation of whole-body angular momentum are unknown. The purpose of this study was to use angular momentum to evaluate dynamic balance in individuals with a transtibial amputation using powered and passive prostheses relative to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent and descent. Ground reaction forces, external moment arms, and joint powers were also investigated to interpret the angular momentum results. A key result was that individuals with an amputation had a larger range of sagittal-plane angular momentum during prosthetic limb stance compared to able-bodied individuals during stair ascent. There were no significant differences in the frontal, transverse, or sagittal-plane ranges of angular momentum or maximum magnitude of the angular momentum vector between the passive and powered prostheses during stair ascent or descent. These results indicate that individuals with an amputation have altered angular momentum trajectories during stair walking compared to able-bodied individuals, which may contribute to an increased fall risk. The results also suggest that a powered prosthesis provides no distinct advantage over a passive prosthesis in maintaining dynamic balance during stair walking.

  18. Sequence of fat partitioning and its relationship with whole body insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xiu-ping; LI Hong-liang; YANG Wen-ying; XIAO Jian-zhong; WANG Bing; LOU Da-jun; DU Rui-qin

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently it is unclear whether lipid accumulation occurs in a particular sequence and its relationship with whole body insulin resistance (IR). This study aimed to answer this question.Methods Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed on a normal or a high-fat diet for 20 weeks. Serum triglycerides (TG), serum free fatty acids (FFA), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and liver and skeletal muscle TG were measured. The glucose infusion rate (GIR) and mRNA levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) in the liver and skeletal muscle were determined at different stages.Results Compared with rats fed on the normal diet, serum FFA was not significantly increased in rats fed on the high-fat diet until 20 weeks. In contrast, liver TG was significantly increased by the high-fat diet by four weeks (20-fold; P <0.01),and remained elevated until the end of the study. However, skeletal muscle TG was not significantly increased by the high-fat diet until 20 weeks (10.6-fold; P<0.01), and neither was the FPG. The GIR was significantly reduced (1.6-fold; P <0.01) by the high-fat diet after 8 weeks. The mRNA levels of ACC gradually increased over time and CPT-1 decreased over time, in both the liver and skeletal muscle in rats fed the high-fat diet.Conclusions Lipid accumulation in the liver occurs earlier than lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscle. Fatty liver may be one of the early markers of whole body IR. Changes in the gene expression levels of ACC and CPT-1 may have important roles in the process of IR development.

  19. Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szczepaniak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA. The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 – 4.16 ms[sup] -1 [/sup].

  20. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future.

  1. Quality of planar whole-body bone scan interpretations - a nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadik, May; Suurkula, Madis [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Hoeglund, Peter [Lund University Hospital, Competence Center for Clinical Research, Lund (Sweden); Jaerund, Andreas [EXINI Diagnostics AB, Lund (Sweden); Edenbrandt, Lars [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Lund University Research Program in Medical Informatics, Malmoe University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmoe, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2008-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a nationwide study, the inter-observer variation and performance in interpretations of bone scans regarding the presence or absence of bone metastases. Bone scan images from 59 patients with breast or prostate cancer, who had undergone scintigraphy due to suspected bone metastatic disease, were studied. The patients were selected to reflect the spectrum of pathology found in everyday clinical work. Whole body images, anterior and posterior views, were sent to all 30 hospitals in Sweden that perform bone scans. Thirty-seven observers from 18 hospitals agreed to participate in the study. They were asked to classify each of the patient studies regarding the presence of bone metastasis, using a four-point scale. Each observer's classifications were pairwise compared with the classifications made by all the other observers, resulting in 666 pairs of comparisons. The interpretations of the 37 observers were also compared with the final clinical assessment, which was based on follow-up scans and other clinical data. On average, two observers agreed on 64% of the bone scan classifications. Kappa values ranged between 0.16 and 0.82, with a mean of 0.48. Sensitivity and specificity for the observers compared with the final clinical assessment were 77% and 96%, respectively, for detecting bone metastases in planar whole-body bone scanning. Moderate inter-observer agreement was found when observers were compared pairwise. False-negative errors seem to be the major problem in the interpretations of bone scan images, whilst the specificities for the observers were high. (orig.)

  2. A Framework for Analyzing the Whole Body Surface Area from a Single View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doretto, Gianfranco; Adjeroh, Donald

    2017-01-01

    We present a virtual reality (VR) framework for the analysis of whole human body surface area. Usual methods for determining the whole body surface area (WBSA) are based on well known formulae, characterized by large errors when the subject is obese, or belongs to certain subgroups. For these situations, we believe that a computer vision approach can overcome these problems and provide a better estimate of this important body indicator. Unfortunately, using machine learning techniques to design a computer vision system able to provide a new body indicator that goes beyond the use of only body weight and height, entails a long and expensive data acquisition process. A more viable solution is to use a dataset composed of virtual subjects. Generating a virtual dataset allowed us to build a population with different characteristics (obese, underweight, age, gender). However, synthetic data might differ from a real scenario, typical of the physician’s clinic. For this reason we develop a new virtual environment to facilitate the analysis of human subjects in 3D. This framework can simulate the acquisition process of a real camera, making it easy to analyze and to create training data for machine learning algorithms. With this virtual environment, we can easily simulate the real setup of a clinic, where a subject is standing in front of a camera, or may assume a different pose with respect to the camera. We use this newly designated environment to analyze the whole body surface area (WBSA). In particular, we show that we can obtain accurate WBSA estimations with just one view, virtually enabling the possibility to use inexpensive depth sensors (e.g., the Kinect) for large scale quantification of the WBSA from a single view 3D map. PMID:28045895

  3. Whole-body energy mapping under physical exercise using positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemitsu, M; Itoh, M; Fujimoto, T; Tashiro, M; Nagatomi, R; Ohmori, H; Ishii, K

    2000-12-01

    We attempted to visualize dynamic adjustment of glucose utilization in humans in the whole-body organs during physical exercise by using three-dimensional positron emission tomography (3D-PET) and [18F]-2-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG). Twelve healthy male volunteers collaborated on the study; six subjects were assigned to the resting control group (C) and the other six to the running group (E). Group E subjects performed running on a flat road for 35 min. After 15 min of running, subjects injected FDG and kept on running thereafter for another 20 min. Group C subjects sat on a comfortable chair in a quiet room for 35 min after the injection of FDG. After scanning by PET, the regions of interest (ROIs) were manually set on brain, heart, thorax, abdomen, lower extremities, and the rest of the body on the corresponding transaxial images. The uptake of FDG in each region was evaluated as the % fraction of FDG accumulation relative to the total amount of whole-body accumulation. The results revealed increase of FDG uptake after running in the lower leg muscles from 24.6 +/- 9.5% to 43.1 +/- 4.7% and in the heart from 2.3 +/- 0.4% to 2.8 +/- 0.6%. The differences were significant (P body. FDG uptake in the abdominal region reduced from 37.3 +/- 7.2% to 19.7 +/- 4.9%. However, FDG uptake in the brain remained stable, i.e., 11.9 +/- 2.8% at rest and 10.3 +/- 2.5% after exercise. Thus, 3D-PET is a tool to visualize the dynamic adjustment of energy consumption during physical exercise in humans.

  4. Oral branched-chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Williams, B. D.; Stuart, C. A.; Lane, H. W.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports the effects of ingesting branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine) on protein metabolism in four men. METHODS: To calculate leg protein synthesis and breakdown, we used a new model that utilized the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine and the sampling of the leg arterial-venous difference and muscle biopsies. In addition, protein-bound enrichments provided for the direct calculation of muscle fractional synthetic rate. Four control subjects ingested an equivalent amount of essential amino acids (threonine, methionine, and histidine) to discern the effects of branched-chain amino acid nitrogen vs the effects of essential amino acid nitrogen. Each drink also included 50 g of carbohydrate. RESULTS: Consumption of the branched-chain and the essential amino acid solutions produced significant threefold and fourfold elevations in their respective arterial concentrations. Protein synthesis and breakdown were unaffected by branched-chain amino acids, but they increased by 43% (p < .05) and 36% (p < .03), respectively, in the group consuming the essential amino acids. However, net leg balance of phenylalanine was unchanged by either drink. Direct measurement of protein synthesis by tracer incorporation into muscle protein (fractional synthetic rate) revealed no changes within or between drinks. Whole-body phenylalanine flux was significantly suppressed by each solution but to a greater extent by the branched-chain amino acids (15% and 20%, respectively) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that branched-chain amino acid ingestion suppresses whole-body proteolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle in normal men.

  5. Anatomy by whole body dissection: a focus group study of students’ learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Annette Burgess,1 George Ramsey-Stewart2 1Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, 2Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: The social construction of knowledge within medical education is essential for learning. Students’ interactions within groups and associated learning artifacts can meaningfully impact learning. Situated cognition theory poses that knowledge, thinking, and learning are located in experience. In recent years, there has been a reported decline in time spent on anatomy by whole body dissection (AWBD within medical programs. However, teaching by surgeons in AWBD provides unique opportunities for students, promoting a deeper engagement in learning. In this study, we apply situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework to explore students’ perceptions of their learning experience within the 2014 iteration of an 8-week elective AWBD course. Methods: At the end of the course, all students (n=24 were invited to attend one of three focus groups. Framework analysis was used to code and categorize data into themes. Results: In total, 20/24 (83% students participated in focus groups. Utilizing situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework, we illustrate students’ learning experiences within the AWBD course. Students highlighted opportunities to create and reinforce their own knowledge through active participation in authentic dissection tasks; guidance and clinical context provided by surgeons as supervisors; and the provision of an inclusive learning community. Conclusion: Situated cognition theory offers a valuable lens through which to view students’ learning experience in the anatomy dissection course. By doing so, the importance of providing clinical relevance to medical teaching is highlighted. Additionally, the value of having surgeons teach AWBD and the experience they share is illustrated. The team learning course design, with varying

  6. Dynamics of acutely irradiated skin epidermal epithelium in swine: modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Olga A; Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-07-01

    A mathematical model, which describes the dynamics of acutely irradiated skin epidermal epithelium in swine, is developed. This model embodies the key mechanisms of regulation of skin epidermal epithelium and the principal stages of development of its cells (basal, prickle, and corneal). The model is implemented as a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, whose variables and parameters have clear biological meaning. The modeling results for the dose- and time-dependent changes in basal and prickle cell populations are in a good agreement with relevant experimental data. The correlation between the experimental data on the dynamics of moist reaction in acutely irradiated swine skin epidermal epithelium and the corresponding modeling results on the dynamics of corneal cells is revealed. Proceeding from this, the threshold level of corneal cells, which indicates the appearance of the moist reaction, is found. All this bears witness to the validity of employment of the developed model, after appropriate identification, in the investigation and prediction of radiation effects on skin epidermal epithelium in humans.

  7. The usefulness of early whole body bone scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Furukawa, Yohji; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    Early whole body bone scintigraphy was performed on 25 patients with prostatic cancer (15 cases with bone metastases and 10 cases without bone metastasis) to obtain anterior and posterior whole body images five minutes after administration of [sup 99m]Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate(HMDP). The results were compared with the findings of routine bone scintigraphy after three hours, and the usefulness of the above method for the diagnosis of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer was evaluated. In cases in which increased activity was found in the upper and lower lumbar vertebrae by routine bone scintigraphy but no abnormality was seen by early whole body bone scintigraphy, senile degenerative bone changes such as spondylosis deformance were observed by bone radiography. In cases with multiple bone metastases, abnormal multiple accumulations were found by both early whole body bone scintigraphy and routine bone scintigraphy. In addition, in cases showing super bone scan, high accumulation in the skeletal system had already been detected by early whole body bone scintigraphy. When the courses before and after treatment in nine cases of multiple bone metastases were passaged from the results of early whole body bone scintigraphy and from changes in tumor markers (prostatic specific antigen, [gamma]-semino protein and prostatic acid phosphatase), increased activity and the appearance of new hot spots as well as an increase in tumor markers were detected by early whole body scintigraphy in three of the four advanced cases, whereas decreased accumulations and a decrease in and normalization of tumor markers were observed in five improved cases. (author).

  8. Transplantability of human lymphoid cell line, lymphoma, and leukemia in splenectomized and/or irradiated nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Shimosato, Y.; Kuroki, M.; Sato, Y.; Nakajima, T.

    1980-07-01

    The effects of splenectomy and/or whole-body irradiation of nude mice before xenotransplantation of lymphoid cell lines, lymphoma, and leukemia were studied. Transplantation after whole-body irradiation resulted in the increased ''take'' rate of three cultured cell lines (two of T-cell-derived acute lymphocytic leukemia and one of B-cell derived acute lymphocytic leukemia) and in the tumorous growth of Burkitt-derived Raji and spontaneously transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. With splenectomy plus irradiation as a pretreatment, tumorous growth occurred in four other cell lines which were not transplantable after irradiation only (two cell lines of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cord blood cells and one each of null acute lymphocytic leukemia and nodular lymphoma-derived cell lines). Direct transplantation of leukemia and lymphoma cells into the pretreated mice was successful in 7 of 24 cases (29%). B-cell-derived diffuse large lymphoid lymphoma was transplantable in three of seven cases (43%). However, lymphoma and leukemia of peripheral T-cell origin was difficult to transplant even with pretreatment, and only one pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma grew to a significant size (2 cm). One tumor each of B-cell-derived diffuse large lymphoid and T-cell diffuse lymphoblastic lymphoma became transplantable.

  9. OK-432 reduces mortality and bacterial translocation in irradiated and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-treated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Masako; Uzawa, Akiko; Ogyu, Toshiaki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Suzuki, Gen

    2001-06-01

    Acute radiation induces bacterial translocation from the gut, followed by systemic infection and sepsis. In order to reduce the mortality after acute whole body irradiation, it is essential to control bacterial translocation. In this study, we established a bacterial translocation assay as a sensitive method to detect minor mucosal injury by radiation. By utilizing this assay, we evaluated the adverse effects, if any, of hematopoietic reagents on the mucosal integrity in the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts. Bacterial translocation to the liver and spleen occurred after whole-body irradiation if the dose exceeded 6 Gy. The administration of G-CSF unexpectedly increased the bacterial translocation in 8 Gy-irradiated mice. The pharmaceutical preparation of low-virulent Streptococcus pyogenes, OK-432, significantly reduced the endotoxin levels in peripheral blood without any reduction of bacterial translocation. A combined treatment with G-CSF and OK-432 decreased bacterial translocation and prevented death. This result indicates that the early administration of G-CSF has an adverse effect on bacterial translocation, and that a combined treatment of G-CSF and OK-432 attenuates the adverse effect of G-CSF and improves the survival rate after acute irradiation. (author)

  10. Higher frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after in vitro gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ramyar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most common malignancy in childhood, characterized by excess lymphoblasts, and immature white blood cells that are continuously multiplying and overproducing in the bone marrow. The aim of this investigation was to measure the sensitivity of lymphocytes against gamma irradiation in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and also find out the effect of such irradiations in causing chromosomal abnormalities.Methods: In this investigation performed between April 2010 and July 2011, at the Department of Genetics, Cancer Institute of Iran, we studied the effects of gamma irradiation on the lymphocytes of 20 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The lymphocytes of 30 healthy donors were used to establish as a normal response to gamma irradiation and seven age-matched ataxia telangiectasia patients were recruited as positive control. The chromosomal radiosensitivity was assessed with the G2- and the G0-assay. We compared the mean number of chromosomal abnormalities such as chromosome and chromatid breakages, chromosome and chromatid gaps, and chromatid exchanges in one-hundred metaphases of patients and control groups.Results: The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was statistically higher among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia than the normal controls (P<0.01. In total, 65% of the patients were sensitive to gamma irradiation, but the remaining 35% were similar to the normal controls. Patients with ataxia telangiectasia showed the highest sensitivity to gamma irradiation (P=0.001.Conclusion: Our results showed that a high percentage of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were sensitive to irradiation, meaning that maximum care should be taken during their treatment to avoid unnecessary X-rays or radiotherapies.

  11. Effects of acute {gamma}-irradiation on community structure of the aquatic microbial microcosm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuma, Shoichi, E-mail: fuma@nirs.go.j [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Hiroshi [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Doi, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Isao [Regulatory Sciences Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shikano, Shuichi [Center for Northeast Asian Studies, Tohoku University, 41 Kawauchi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8576 (Japan); Tanaka, Nobuyuki [Marine Environment Section, Water and Soil Environment Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Inamori, Yuhei [Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    To characterise indirect effects of ionising radiation on aquatic microbial communities, effects of acute {gamma}-irradiation were investigated in a microcosm consisting of populations of green algae (Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) and a blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producer; a ciliate protozoan (Cyclidium glaucoma), rotifers (Lecane sp. and Philodina sp.) and an oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi) as consumer; and more than four species of bacteria as decomposers. Population changes in the constituent organisms were observed over 160 days after irradiation. Prokaryotic community structure was also examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA. Principle response curve analysis revealed that the populations of the microcosm as a whole were not significantly affected at 100 Gy while they were adversely affected at 500-5000 Gy in a dose-dependent manner. However, some effects on each population, including each bacterial population detected by DGGE, did not depend on radiation doses, and some populations in the irradiated microcosm were larger than those of the control. These unexpected results are regarded as indirect effects through interspecies interactions, and possible mechanisms are proposed originating from population changes in other organisms co-existing in the microcosm. For example, some indirect effects on consumers and decomposers likely arose from interspecies competition within each trophic level. It is also likely that prey-predator relationships between producers and consumers caused some indirect effects on producers.

  12. Water-Filtered Infrared A Irradiation in Combination with Visible Light Inhibits Acute Chlamydial Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Hanna; Koschwanez, Maria; Pesch, Theresa; Blenn, Christian; Borel, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    New therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome drawbacks in treatment of infections with intracellular bacteria. Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative bacteria implicated in acute and chronic diseases such as abortion in animals and trachoma in humans. Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) is short wavelength infrared radiation with a spectrum ranging from 780 to 1400 nm. In clinical settings, wIRA alone and in combination with visible light (VIS) has proven its efficacy in acute and chronic wound healing processes. This is the first study to demonstrate that wIRA irradiation combined with VIS (wIRA/VIS) diminishes recovery of infectious elementary bodies (EBs) of both intra- and extracellular Chlamydia (C.) in two different cell lines (Vero, HeLa) regardless of the chlamydial strain (C. pecorum, C. trachomatis serovar E) as shown by indirect immunofluorescence and titration by subpassage. Moreover, a single exposure to wIRA/VIS at 40 hours post infection (hpi) led to a significant reduction of C. pecorum inclusion frequency in Vero cells and C. trachomatis in HeLa cells, respectively. A triple dose of irradiation (24, 36, 40 hpi) during the course of C. trachomatis infection further reduced chlamydial inclusion frequency in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial persistence/stress response, as ascertained by electron microscopy. Irradiation of host cells (HeLa, Vero) neither affected cell viability nor induced any molecular markers of cytotoxicity as investigated by Alamar blue assay and Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection, irradiation, and the combination of both showed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MIF/GIF, Serpin E1, RANTES, IL-6, IL-8) and chemokines (IL-16, IP-10, ENA-78, MIG, MIP-1α/β) from host cells. Initial investigation into the mechanism indicated possible thermal effects on Chlamydia due to irradiation. In summary, we demonstrate a non-chemical reduction of chlamydial infection using the combination of water

  13. Water-filtered infrared a irradiation in combination with visible light inhibits acute chlamydial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Marti

    Full Text Available New therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome drawbacks in treatment of infections with intracellular bacteria. Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative bacteria implicated in acute and chronic diseases such as abortion in animals and trachoma in humans. Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA is short wavelength infrared radiation with a spectrum ranging from 780 to 1400 nm. In clinical settings, wIRA alone and in combination with visible light (VIS has proven its efficacy in acute and chronic wound healing processes. This is the first study to demonstrate that wIRA irradiation combined with VIS (wIRA/VIS diminishes recovery of infectious elementary bodies (EBs of both intra- and extracellular Chlamydia (C. in two different cell lines (Vero, HeLa regardless of the chlamydial strain (C. pecorum, C. trachomatis serovar E as shown by indirect immunofluorescence and titration by subpassage. Moreover, a single exposure to wIRA/VIS at 40 hours post infection (hpi led to a significant reduction of C. pecorum inclusion frequency in Vero cells and C. trachomatis in HeLa cells, respectively. A triple dose of irradiation (24, 36, 40 hpi during the course of C. trachomatis infection further reduced chlamydial inclusion frequency in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial persistence/stress response, as ascertained by electron microscopy. Irradiation of host cells (HeLa, Vero neither affected cell viability nor induced any molecular markers of cytotoxicity as investigated by Alamar blue assay and Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection, irradiation, and the combination of both showed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MIF/GIF, Serpin E1, RANTES, IL-6, IL-8 and chemokines (IL-16, IP-10, ENA-78, MIG, MIP-1α/β from host cells. Initial investigation into the mechanism indicated possible thermal effects on Chlamydia due to irradiation. In summary, we demonstrate a non-chemical reduction of chlamydial infection using the combination

  14. EMG and heart rate responses decline within 5 days of daily whole-body vibration training with squatting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rosenberger

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the acute effects of a 5-day daily whole-body vibration (WBV training on electromyography (EMG responses of the m. rectus femoris and m. gastrocnemius lateralis, heart rate (HR, continuously recorded, and blood lactate levels. The purpose of the study was to investigate the adaptation of muscle activity, heart rate and blood lactate levels during 5 days of daily training. Two groups of healthy male subjects performed either squat exercises with vibration at 20 Hz on a side alternating platform (SE+V, n = 20, age  = 31.9±7.5 yrs., height  = 178.8±6.2 cm, body mass  = 79.2±11.4 kg or squat exercises alone (SE, n = 21, age  = 28.4±7.3 years, height  = 178.9±7.4 cm, body mass  = 77.2±9.7 kg. On training day 1, EMG amplitudes of the m. rectus femoris were significantly higher (P<0.05 during SE+V than during SE. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant on training days 3 and 5. The heart rate (HR response was significantly higher (P<0.05 during SE+V than during SE on all training days, but showed a constant decline throughout the training days. On training day 1, blood lactate increased significantly more after SE+V than after SE (P<0.05. On the following training days, this difference became much smaller but remained significantly different. The specific physiological responses to WBV were largest on the initial training day and most of them declined during subsequent training days, showing a rapid neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptation to the vibration stimulus.

  15. Adding whole body vibration to preconditioning exercise increases subsequent on-ice sprint performance in ice-hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Slettaløkken, Gunnar; Ellefsen, Stian

    2016-04-01

    The phenomenon postactivation potentiation can possibly be used to acutely improve sprint performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body-loaded half-squats with added whole body vibration (WBV) on subsequent 20 m on-ice sprint performance. Fifteen male ice-hockey players performed 4 test sessions on separate days and in a randomized order. Two of this test sessions were with WBV and 2 were with noWBV and the best sprint time was used to determine effectiveness. Each test session included preconditioning 30 seconds half-squat exercise, 2 of which were supplemented with 50 Hz WBV at a amplitude of 3 mm. One minute after the cessation of the preconditioning exercise, the 20 m sprint test was performed. Intermediate time was sampled after 10 m. Preconditioning exercise performed with 50 Hz WBV resulted in superior 10 m and 20 m sprint performance compared to preconditioning exercise performed without WBV (1.84 6 0.10 seconds vs. 1.89 6 0.10 seconds and 3.14 6 0.13 vs. 3.17 6 0.13 seconds, respectively, p # 0.01). There was no difference between the protocols in perceived well-being of the legs before the warm-up or after the warm up (p = 0.3). However, there was an improved well-being in the legs immediately after the preconditioning exercise with WBV (p , 0.05). In conclusion, preconditioning exercise performed with WBV at 50 Hz seems to enhance on-ice sprint performance in ice-hockey players. This suggests that coaches can incorporate such exercise into the preparation to specific sprint training to improve the quality of the training.

  16. Organ irradiation and combination chemotherapy in treatment of acute lymphocytic leukaemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzkowsky, P; Shende, A; Aral, I; Saluja, G

    1975-01-01

    Lanzkowsky, P., Shende, A., Aral, I., Saluja, G. (1975). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 50, 685. Organ irradiation and combination chemotherapy in treatment of acute lymphocytic leukaemia in children. A total of 30 consecutive children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) were treated from June 1971 until December 1974. Remission was induced with the use of vincristine and prednisone. After induction of remission, cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate were given. Then the liver, spleen, and kidney were irradiated and 6-mercaptopurine, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate were administered during the maintenance phase. Pulsed doses of vincristine and prednisone were administered at 10- to 12-week intervals. The patients were subdivided into two groups based on their initial white blood cell (WBC) counts: a standard risk group with an initial WBC count of less than 25 000/mm3 (25 X 10(9)/1) and a high risk group with an initial WBC count greater than 25 000/mm3 (25 X 10(9)/1). Of the 30 children entered in this study one standard risk patient died in the induction phase before attaining remission. Analysis of the results is therefore based on the remaining 29 patients, 22 standard risk and 7 high risk patients, who attained complete remission. Survival rates in continuous remission were found to be 43% of the high risk group, 88% for the standard risk group, and 77% for the combined group. Analysis of the data indicates that this therapy is unsatisfactory in high risk ALL. The results to date of this therapy for standard risk are sufficiently encouraging to continue its use in this subgroup of patients. PMID:1059384

  17. Diagnosis of systemic arterial diseases with whole-body 3D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jiang; CHEN Bin; WANG Jian-hua

    2006-01-01

    Background With the development of magnetic resonance (MR) technologies, whole-body 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography (3D CE MRA) has become possible. The purpose of this study was to introduce and evaluate this technique in demonstration of various systemic arterial diseases.Methods Thirty-seven patients underwent whole-body 3D CE MRA using a 1.5T MR imager. The patients included were with clinically documented or suspected peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD, n=19),Takayasu arteritis (n=8), polyarteritis nodosa (n=1), Type B dissection (n=4) and thoracic and/or abdominal aneurysm (n=5). Sixty-eight surface coil elements were employed to encompass the whole body. Four 3D CE MRA stations were acquired successively through automatic table moving. A total scan range of 188 cm,covering the arterial tree from carotid artery to trifurcation vessels, was acquired. Overall image quality of each arterial segment and venous overlay were assessed and rated. The depiction of various systemic arterial diseases was evaluated and compared with other imaging modalities if available, including digital subtraction angiography (DSA), CT angiography, dedicated mono-station MRA.Results Whole-body 3D CE MRA was well tolerated by all patients. It yielded a detailed display of the arterial system with a short examination time. The image quality was considered diagnostic in 99.3% of the arterial segments. The remaining 0.7% of the arterial segments were considered non-diagnostic. In 7 of 19 patients with PAOD, whole-body MRA showed additional vascular narrowing apart from peripheral arterial disease. In 9 patients with vasculitis, whole-body MRA depicted luminal irregularity, narrowing or occlusion, aneurysm and collateral circulation involving multiple vascular segments. Whole-body MRA also clearly revealed the severity and extent of dissection and aortic aneurysm. In 20 cases the vascular pathologies demonstrated on whole body MRA were confirmed by other imaging investigations

  18. Air flow-assisted ionization imaging mass spectrometry method for easy whole-body molecular imaging under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhigang; He, Jiuming; Chen, Yi; He, Jingjing; Gong, Tao; Tang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhang, Ruiping; Huang, Lan; Zhang, Lianfeng; Lv, Haining; Ma, Shuanggang; Fu, Zhaodi; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yu, Shishan; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-03-01

    Whole-body molecular imaging is able to directly map spatial distribution of molecules and monitor its biotransformation in intact biological tissue sections. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), a label-free molecular imaging method, can be used to image multiple molecules in a single measurement with high specificity. Herein, a novel easy-to-implement, whole-body IMS method was developed with air flow-assisted ionization in a desorption electrospray ionization mode. The developed IMS method can effectively image molecules in a large whole-body section in open air without sample pretreatment, such as chemical labeling, section division, or matrix deposition. Moreover, the signal levels were improved, and the spatial assignment errors were eliminated; thus, high-quality whole-body images were obtained. With this novel IMS method, in situ mapping analysis of molecules was performed in adult rat sections with picomolar sensitivity under ambient conditions, and the dynamic information of molecule distribution and its biotransformation was provided to uncover molecular events at the whole-animal level. A global view of the differential distribution of an anticancer agent and its metabolites was simultaneously acquired in whole-body rat and model mouse bearing neuroglioma along the administration time. The obtained drug distribution provided rich information for identifying the targeted organs and predicting possible tumor spectrum, pharmacological activity, and potential toxicity of drug candidates.

  19. Possibilities of whole-body MRI for investigating musculoskeletal diseases; Moeglichkeiten der Ganzkoerper-MRT zur Diagnostik muskuloskelettaler Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenk, S.; Claussen, C.D.; Schlemmer, H.P. [Klinikum der Eberhardt-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische Radiologie (Germany); Fischer, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Strahlentherapie (Germany); Koetter, I. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Haematoonkologie (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    This contribution outlines possibilities and limitations of whole-body MRI for investigating musculoskeletal diseases. Benefits and drawbacks of the novel whole-body MRI technology are discussed and a possible whole-body MRI sequence protocol for musculoskeletal examinations is proposed. Muscle, joint and bone diseases are discussed in which the application of whole-body MRI may be of advantage. Particularly, polymyositis, muscledystrophy, rheumatoid arthritis, spondylitis ancylosans, multiple trauma, skeletal metastases, multiple myeloma and malignant lymphoma are mentioned. Whole-body MRI opens new advantages for the examination of multifocal musculoskeletal diseases. The clinical benefit of this method for particular diseases has to be evaluated in further studies, however. (orig.) [German] Dieser Beitrag gibt eine Uebersicht ueber die Moeglichkeiten und Limitationen der Ganzkoerper-MRT fuer die Diagnostik von Erkrankungen des muskuloskelettalen Systems. Es werden die Vor- und Nachteile der Ganzkoerper-MRT eroertert und ein Sequenzprotokoll fuer die muskuloskelettale Diagnostik vorgeschlagen. Auf Muskel-, Gelenk- und Knochenerkrankungen, bei denen der Einsatz der Ganzkoerper-MRT indiziert erscheint, dabei insbesondere Polymyositis, Muskeldystrophie, rheumatoide Arthritis, Spondylitis ankylosans, Polytrauma, Skelettmetastasen, Plasmozytom und das maligne Lymphom wird eingegangen. Die Ganzkoerper-MRT bietet neue Moeglichkeiten, insbesondere zur Ausbreitungsdiagnostik und Verlaufskontrolle multifokaler muskuloskelettaler Erkrankungen. Der klinische Nutzen dieser Methode fuer die einzelnen Erkrankungsentitaeten muss in weiteren Studien evaluiert werden. (orig.)

  20. Testicular function in boys after chemotherapy and/or testicular irradiation for acute leukemia and malignant lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinami, Akira; Nakanishi, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Kimiko; Takubo, Yoshiyuki; Sako, Masahiro; Konishi, Shouzaburo (Osaka City General Hospital (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    Testicular function was investigated by testicular biopsy, testicular volume, testosterone and LH-RH test in 16 prepubertal boys with 15 cases of acute leukemia and one case of malignant lymphoma after chemotherapy and/or testicular irradiation. One of 2 cases who had infiltrated in testes received irradiation at onset. With another 2 cases, testis was resected at testicular relapse and irradiated on opposite side. All continued complete remission for 1-9 years after cessation of chemotherapy. Basal levels of serum testosterone, FSH and LH were normal in 13 cases of unirradiated group recently but spermatogonia in testicular biopsy specimen decreased on cessation of chemotherapy in 8 cases. Primary gonadal dysfunction was detected in 3 cases of irradiated group. And so testicular irradiation induced damage of tubular system and Leydig cell function. It is necessary to follow up about sexual maturation. (author).

  1. RM de cuerpo entero, experiencia inicial Whole body MRI, initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Rombolá

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Exponer y compartir nuestra experiencia en resonancia magnética de cuerpo entero (RMCE. Material y métodos: Se realizó estudio prospectivo entre octubre de 2005 y mayo de 2007 sobre 165 RMCE. Edad de los pacientes: 21 y 85 años, media de 51,64. Se utilizó equipo de 1,5 Tesla de campo magnético y tabla deslizable. El protocolo de estudio estuvo integrado por cortes coronales multicontraste (T1, T2 y STIR, axiales y sagitales en T2. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 140 (84,84 % estudios con hallazgos relevantes y 25 (15,15 % sin alteraciones. Se halló predominancia de enfermedades degenerativas articulares del esqueleto axial en 94 pacientes (56,96% sin diferencias significativas entre sexos. Trece pacientes realizaron controles oncológicos demostrándose diseminación a distancia en 6 estudios. En 1 examen se registró la distribución de polimiositis. Conclusiones: La RMCE no representa solamente una innovadora herramienta diagnóstica, sino también ostenta el potencial de competir con metodologías preexistentes en aplicaciones oncológicas y no oncológicas. La sensibilidad y especificidad del método están probadas, pero su aplicación se encuentra limitada por el alto costo y la falta de inclusión en protocolos diagnósticos de estadificación tumoral.Objective: To expose and share our experience in whole-body MRI. Material and methods: A prospective study of 165 whole-body MRI was made from october 2005 to may 2007. The age range was between 21 to 85 years old, with a mean age of 51, 64. A 1.5 Tesla MRI scan was utilized with a table-top movement. Multicontrast coronal scans (T1, T2 and STIR, sagittal and axial T2 compose the study protocol. Results: 140 (84,84 % scans with relevant results and 25 (15,15 % without abnormalities were found. The axial skeletal articular degenerative disease prevalence on 94 (56,96 % cases, without significant difference. Six MRI scans showed secondary dissemination of the oncology disease in a

  2. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    subjects were recruited and categorized into an untrained (N=8, VO(2max) 3.5+/-0.1 L/min) and a trained (N=8, VO(2max) 4.6+/-0.2 L/min) group. Subjects performed a graded exercise test commencing at 60 W for 8 min followed by 35 W increments every 3 min. On a separate day, muscle biopsies were obtained...... from vastus lateralis and a 3 h bicycle exercise test was performed at 58% of VO(2max). Whole-body fat oxidation was calculated during prolonged and graded exercise from the respiratory exchange ratio using standard indirect calorimetry equations. Based on the graded exercise test, whole-body peak fat...... oxidation was determined. The body composition was determined by DEXA. Whole-body peak fat oxidation (250+/-25 and 462+/-33 mg/min) was higher (PVO(2max)) in trained compared with untrained subjects, respectively. Muscle...

  3. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration improves postural control in health care professionals: a worksite randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Schade, Volker; Stoecklin, Lukas; Baur, Simone; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2014-05-01

    Slip, trip, and fall injuries are frequent among health care workers. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training was tested to improve postural control. Participants included 124 employees of a Swiss university hospital. The randomized controlled trial included an experimental group given 8 weeks of training and a control group with no intervention. In both groups, postural control was assessed as mediolateral sway on a force plate before and after the 8-week trial. Mediolateral sway was significantly decreased by stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training in the experimental group but not in the control group that received no training (p < .05). Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training is an option in the primary prevention of balance-related injury at work.

  4. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and Whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Bønding, Signe Helbo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiog......Abstract The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration......, pyruvate, succinate) with additional electron input from β-oxidation (octanoylcarnitine) (from 60 ± 13 to 87 ± 24 pmol · s(-1) · mg(-1) P ... of recombinant erythropoietin treatment increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity and myoglobin concentration without any effect on whole body maximal fat oxidation....

  5. Therapeutic impact of low amplitude high frequency whole body vibrations on the osteogenesis imperfecta mouse bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleene, Maximilien; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2013-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by extremely brittle bone. Currently, bisphosphonate drugs allow a decrease of fracture by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone mass but with possible long term side effects. Whole body mechanical vibrations (WBV) treatment may offer a promising route to stimulate bone formation in OI patients as it has exhibited health benefits on both muscle and bone mass in human and animal models. The present study has investigated the effects of WBV (45Hz, 0.3g, 15minutes/days, 5days/week) in young OI (oim) and wild type female mice from 3 to 8weeks of age. Vibration therapy resulted in a significant increase in the cortical bone area and cortical thickness in the femur and tibia diaphysis of both vibrated oim and wild type mice compared to sham controls. Trabecular bone was not affected by vibration in the wild type mice; vibrated oim mice, however, exhibited significantly higher trabecular bone volume fraction in the proximal tibia. Femoral stiffness and yield load in three point bending were greater in the vibrated wild type mice than in sham controls, most likely attributed to the increase in femur cortical cross sectional area observed in the μCT morphology analyses. The vibrated oim mice showed a trend toward improved mechanical properties, but bending data had large standard deviations and there was no significant difference between vibrated and non-vibrated oim mice. No significant difference of the bone apposition was observed in the tibial metaphyseal trabecular bone for both the oim and wild type vibrated mice by histomorphometry analyses of calcein labels. At the mid diaphysis, the cortical bone apposition was not significantly influenced by the WBV treatment in both the endosteum and periosteum of the oim vibrated mice while a significant change is observed in the endosteum of the vibrated wild type mice. As only a weak impact in bone apposition between the vibrated and sham groups is observed in the

  6. The influence of activewear worn under standard work coveralls on whole-body heat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jill M; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Kenny, Glen P

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the influence of activewear undergarments worn under the standard mining coveralls on whole-body heat exchange and change in body heat content during work in the heat. Each participant performed 60 min of cycling at a constant rate of heat production of 400 W followed by 60 min of recovery in a whole-body calorimeter regulated at 40°C and 15% relative humidity donning one of the four clothing ensembles: (1) cotton underwear and shorts only (Control, CON); (2) Activewear only (ACT); (3) Coveralls+Cotton undergarments (COV+COT); or (4) Coveralls+Activewear undergarments (COV+ACT). In the latter two conditions a hard hat with earmuffs, gloves, and socks with closed toe shoes were worn. We observed that both COV+COT and COV+ACT resulted in a similar mean (±SE) change in body heat content, which was significantly greater compared with the CON and ACT during exercise, suggesting that the rate of thermal strain was elevated to a similar degree in both coverall conditions (CON: 245±32 kJ; ACT: 260±29 kJ; COV+COT: 428±36 kJ; COV+ACT: 466±15 kJ; p<0.001). During recovery, the negative change in body heat content was greater for both COV+COT and COV+ACT compared with the CON and ACT but similar between COV+COT and COV+ACT due to the greater amount of heat stored during exercise (CON: -83±16 kJ; ACT: -104±33 kJ; COV+COT: -198±30 kJ; COV+ACT: -145±12 kJ; p=0.048). Core temperatures and heart rate were also significantly elevated for the COV+COT and COV+ACT compared with the CON and ACT conditions during and following exercise (p<0.05). These results suggest that while activewear undergarments are not detrimental, they provide no thermoregulatory benefit when replacing the cotton undergarment worn under the standard coverall during work in the heat.

  7. A HF EM installation allowing simultaneous whole body and deep local EM hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazokhin, V N; Kolmakov, D N; Lucheyov, N A; Gelvich, E A; Troshin, I I

    1999-01-01

    The structure and main features of a HF EM installation based upon a new approach for creating electromagnetic fields destined for whole body (WBH) and deep local (DLH) hyperthermia are discussed. The HF EM field, at a frequency of 13.56 MHz, is created by a coplanar capacity type applicator positioned under a distilled water filled bolus that the patient is lying on. The EM energy being released directly in the deep tissues ensures effective whole body heating to required therapeutic temperatures of up to 43.5 degrees C, whereas the skin temperature can be maintained as low as 39-40.5 degrees C. For DLH, the installation is equipped with additional applicators and a generator operating at a frequency of 40.68 MHz. High efficiency of the WBH applicator makes it possible to carry out the WBH procedure without any air-conditioning cabin. Due to this, a free access to the patient's body during the WBH treatment is provided and a simultaneous WBH/DLH or WBH/LH procedure by means of additional applicators is possible. Controllable power output in the range of 100-800 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and 50-350 W at a frequency of 40.68 MHz allows accurate temperature control during WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures. SAR patterns created by the WBH and DLH applicators in a liquid muscle phantom and measured by means of a non-perturbing E-dipole are investigated. The scattered EM field strength measured in the vicinity of the operating installation during the WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures does not exceed security standards. Examples of temperature versus time graphs in the course of WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures in clinics are presented. The installation is successfully used in leading oncological institutions of Russia and Belarus, though combined WBH/DLH procedures are evidently more complicated and demand thorough planning and temperature measurements to avoid overheating.

  8. Reduction of a Whole-Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Stabilise the Bayesian Analysis of Clinical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Thierry; Tsamandouras, Nikolaos; Dumitras, Swati; Pigeolet, Etienne; Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are increasingly used in drug development for their ability to predict drug concentrations in clinically relevant tissues and to extrapolate across species, experimental conditions and sub-populations. A whole-body PBPK model can be fitted to clinical data using a Bayesian population approach. However, the analysis might be time consuming and numerically unstable if prior information on the model parameters is too vague given the complexity of the system. We suggest an approach where (i) a whole-body PBPK model is formally reduced using a Bayesian proper lumping method to retain the mechanistic interpretation of the system and account for parameter uncertainty, (ii) the simplified model is fitted to clinical data using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques and (iii) the optimised reduced PBPK model is used for extrapolation. A previously developed 16-compartment whole-body PBPK model for mavoglurant was reduced to 7 compartments while preserving plasma concentration-time profiles (median and variance) and giving emphasis to the brain (target site) and the liver (elimination site). The reduced model was numerically more stable than the whole-body model for the Bayesian analysis of mavoglurant pharmacokinetic data in healthy adult volunteers. Finally, the reduced yet mechanistic model could easily be scaled from adults to children and predict mavoglurant pharmacokinetics in children aged from 3 to 11 years with similar performance compared with the whole-body model. This study is a first example of the practicality of formal reduction of complex mechanistic models for Bayesian inference in drug development.

  9. Parameters of a simple whole body counter and thyroid monitor established at the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahre, P. [Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics, Inc., Dresden (Germany); Schoenmuth, T. [Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics, Inc., Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    At the Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc. a simple whole body counter and an iodine-thyroid monitor are used for measuring the internal contamination of workers. There is no shielding chamber in both cases. By using the chamber at the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory the lower limit of detection could be improved by a factor of about 3 for whole body counting and by a factor of 2,5 for thyroid monitoring (I 131, I 125). Concerning the lower limit of detection the applicability of the German standard DIN 25 482 implemented in the Gamma-Vision software packadge is discussed in the paper. (orig.)

  10. Comparison of selective head cooling therapy and whole body cooling therapy in newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: short term results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atıcı, Aytuğ; Çelik, Yalçın; Gülaşı, Selvi; Turhan, Ali Haydar; Okuyaz, Çetin; Sungur, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this study, it was aimed to investigate which method was superior by applying selective head cooling or whole body cooling therapy in newborns diagnosed with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Materials and Method: Newborns above the 35th gestational age diagnosed with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were included in the study and selective head cooling or whole body cooling therapy was performed randomly. The newborns who were treated by both methods were compared in terms of adverse effects in the early stage and in terms of short-term results. Ethics committee approval was obtained for the study (06.01.2010/35). Results: Fifty three babies diagnosed with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were studied. Selective head cooling was applied to 17 babies and whole body cooling was applied to 12 babies. There was no significant difference in terms of adverse effects related to cooling therapy between the two groups. When the short-term results were examined, it was found that the hospitalization time was 34 (7–65) days in the selective head cooling group and 18 (7–57) days in the whole body cooling group and there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.097). Four patients in the selective head cooling group and two patients in the whole body cooling group were discharged with tracheostomy because of the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation and there was no difference between the groups in terms of discharge with tracheostomy (p=0.528). Five patients in the selective head cooling group and three patients in the whole body cooling group were discharged with a gastrostomy tube because they could not be fed orally and there was no difference between the groups in terms of discharge with a gastrostomy tube (p=0.586). One patient who was applied selective head cooling and one patient who was applied whole body cooling died during hospitalization and there was no difference between the groups in terms of

  11. Whole-body (99m)Tc-octreotide scintigraphy with SPECT/CT to detect occult tumor inducing paraneoplastic osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Napoleão Ramalho; Calich, Ana Luisa; Etchebehere, Mauricio; Ichiki, Wilson Andre; Pereira, Fabio Payao; Amstalden, Elaine Maria Ingrid; de Sa Etchebehere, Elba Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman presented with progressive myalgia, bone pain, fatigue, insufficiency hip fractures, high urine phosphate, and low serum phosphate and vitamin D levels. These findings were suggestive of oncogenic osteomalacia. A whole-body Tc-octreotide scintigraphy with SPECT/CT showed uptake on a sclerotic intramedullary lesion in the left medial tibia plateau. MRI depicted a solid lesion. The lesion was surgically removed; the patient became asymptomatic, and follow-up laboratory results normalized. Histopathologic examination revealed a vascular hemangiopericytoma-like tumor, positive for somatostatin receptor (SSR-2). Whole-body Tc-octreotide scintigraphy with SPECT/CT may detect occult oncogenic osteomalacia tumors.

  12. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2009-01-01

    Six periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism.......Six periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism....

  13. Fetal liver transplantation in 2 patients with acute leukaemia after total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, G.; Izzi, T.; Porcellini, A.; Delfini, C.; Galimberti, M.; Moretti, L.; Polchi, P.; Agostinelli, F.; Andreani, M.; Manna, M. (Haematological Department, Pesaro Hospital, Pesaro, Italy)

    1982-01-01

    2 patients with acute leukaemia in relapse were transplanted with fetal liver cells following a conditioning regimen of cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and total body irradiation (1000 r). Each patient achieved a remission with haematopoietic recovery that was rapid in one case and delayed in the other. In one case there was evidence of chimerism as demonstrated by the presence of the XYY karyotype of the donor fetus in 20 % of marrow metaphases, by the presence of double Y bodies in the peripheral blood, by the appearance of new HLA-antigens, and by red cell isoenzyme phenotypes of donor origin. In the second case there was prompt haemotopoietic recovery and the appearance of red cell isoenzyme phenotypes of donor origin. Survival was 153 and 30 d, respectively, and both patients died of interstitial pneumonia without evidence of graft versus host disease.

  14. Whole Body Vibration at Different Exposure Frequencies: Infrared Thermography and Physiological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Sonza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3±2.6 years participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P≤0.05. Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature.

  15. Whole-body MRI of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: comparison with radiography and bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dong Hyun [Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Ra, Young Shin [Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Song, Joon Sup; Im, Ho Joon; Seo, Jong Jin; Ghim, Thad; Moon, Hyung Nam [Asan Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-10-15

    In Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) evaluation of the extent of disease is one of the major predictors of patient outcome. Historically this is undertaken using plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. Recently, whole-body (WB) MRI has been reported to be useful in detecting skeletal and extraskeletal metastases in both adults and children. To evaluate the usefulness of WB MRI in patients with LCH in comparison with plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. In nine children (1-7 years of age; mean 3.3 years) who had a pathological diagnosis of LCH and had either plain radiography or bone scintigraphy for comparison, 43 WB MR examinations were performed. Skeletal and extraskeletal lesions of the disease on WB MRI were compared with those on plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. LCH showed unifocal single-system involvement in one patient, multifocal single-system involvement in three, and multifocal multisystem disease in five. WB MRI identified additional skeletal lesions in three (38%) of eight patients, compared with plain radiography, and in two (25%) of eight, compared with bone scintigraphy. WB MRI detected extraskeletal lesions of the disease in five (56%) of the nine patients exclusively, except for one patient whose lung lesions were also detected on plain radiography. In two patients, treatment was changed according to WB MRI findings. (orig.)

  16. Whole body vibration induces forepaw and hind paw behavioral sensitivity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Hassam A; Guarino, Benjamin B; Lipschutz, Daniel; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2013-11-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been linked to neck and back pain, but the biomechanical and physiological mechanisms responsible for its development and maintenance are unknown. A rodent model of WBV was developed in which rats were exposed to different WBV paradigms, either daily for 7 consecutive days (repeated WBV) or two single exposures at Day 0 and 7 (intermittent WBV). Each WBV session lasted for 30 min and was imposed at a frequency of 15 Hz and RMS platform acceleration of 0.56 ± 0.07 g. Changes in the withdrawal response of the forepaw and hind paw were measured, and were used to characterize the onset and maintenance of behavioral sensitivity. Accelerations and displacements of the rat and deformations in the cervical and lumbar spines were measured during WBV to provide mechanical context for the exposures. A decrease in withdrawal threshold was induced at 1 day after the first exposure in both the hind paw and forepaw. Repeated WBV exhibited a sustained reduction in withdrawal threshold in both paws and intermittent WBV induced a sustained response only in the forepaw. Cervical deformations were significantly elevated which may explain the more robust forepaw response. Findings suggest that a WBV exposure leads to behavioral sensitivity.

  17. Assessment of Routine Procedure Effect on Breathing Parameters in Mice by Using Whole-Body Plethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raşid, Orhan; Chirita, Daniel; Iancu, Adina D; Stavaru, Crina; Radu, Dorel L

    2012-01-01

    We used whole-body plethysmography to investigate the effect of restraint, ear marking, tail vein and retroorbital blood sampling, and tail clipping on respiration in Balb/c × TCR-HA+/– F1 hybrid mice (F1h). Baseline values of breathing parameters were determined. During the experiment, mice experienced a procedure and then plethysmographic recordings were obtained immediately and at 4, 24, and 48 h afterward. Baseline breathing parameters showed significant differences between sexes. Restraint affected minute volume differently than did handling in male mice and to a lesser extent in female mice. Ear marking significantly changed minute volume compared with handling but not restraint in male mice and in the opposite manner in female mice. Tail vein blood sampling changed minute volume in a significant manner compared with restraint but not compared with handling in both sexes. Retroorbital blood sampling significantly changed minute volume compared with values for both handling and restraint in male mice but only compared with handling in female mice. Tail clipping modified minute volume significantly compared with handling in male mice and compared with restraint in both sexes. Analysis of data showed that routine procedures affect minute volume in mice depending on invasiveness of maneuver and in a sex-biased manner for as long as 24 h after the procedure. Our experiment shows that procedures performed on laboratory mice can change respiratory parameters and can be investigated by plethysmography. PMID:23043813

  18. Prevalence and Characteristics of Incidentalomas Discovered by Whole Body FDG PETCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hernandez Pampaloni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the prevalence of incidentalomas in a patient population with no known thyroid malignancy who underwent whole body FDG-PET/CT for staging or restaging of neoplasia. The additional aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using PETCT as a screening tool for malignant thyroid incidentalomas. Methods. Retrospective review of medical records of all the thyroid exams done at our institution between January 1, 2000 and August 20, 2008. We made a criterion of PET/CT as the primary method of detection of incidentalomas. Results. From a total of 8464 thyroid exams, 156 incidentalomas were found and 40 incidentalomas underwent anatomopathology analysis, which was used as gold standard. Chi-square analysis was used to analyze the data. There is no significant association between SUV value and the prevalence of incidentalomas. Discussion. From January 1, 2000 to August 20, 2008, incidentalomas have a prevalence of 1.84% at our institution. 38% of the incidentalomas that were biopsied were characterized as representing malignant tumors. Conclusion. Focal, abnormal FDG uptake representing incidentalomas must be followed up with biopsies. It is impractical to use PET/CT as a screening tool to detect incidentalomas for the general population but it must be done in patients with history of any type of cancer.

  19. Constrained non-rigid registration for whole body image registration: method and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Peterson, Todd E.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2007-03-01

    3D intra- and inter-subject registration of image volumes is important for tasks that include measurements and quantification of temporal/longitudinal changes, atlas-based segmentation, deriving population averages, or voxel and tensor-based morphometry. A number of methods have been proposed to tackle this problem but few of them have focused on the problem of registering whole body image volumes acquired either from humans or small animals. These image volumes typically contain a large number of articulated structures, which makes registration more difficult than the registration of head images, to which the vast majority of registration algorithms have been applied. To solve this problem, we have previously proposed an approach, which initializes an intensity-based non-rigid registration algorithm with a point based registration technique [1, 2]. In this paper, we introduce new constraints into our non-rigid registration algorithm to prevent the bones from being deformed inaccurately. Results we have obtained show that the new constrained algorithm leads to better registration results than the previous one.

  20. Comparison between ISO 5008 and field whole body vibration tractor values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Deboli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to whole body vibration (WBV of tractor drivers during field operations is a problem that has never been solved. WBV values are quite difficult to predict because of the high number of variables, such as mass and geometry of the vehicle, forward speed, tire pressure, type of ground, operation cycle, and environmental factors. The use of an artificial track is useful to limit the variability of some field parameters, such as the path followed, fluctuations in speed, weather, temperature, and soil conditions. For comparative purposes, these variables need to be maintained as constant as possible in order to obtain the most useful data. An analysis of the literature provoked the question: Is there a lower forward speed on artificial track that can generate the same vibration response on tractors working in the same field? In this paper, we analyze the available literature and provide some WBV values and frequency analysis of acceleration measured on agricultural tractors traveling on an artificial test track and on different types of ground.

  1. Whole body vibration at different exposure frequencies: infrared thermography and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonza, Anelise; Robinson, Caroline C; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3 ± 2.6 years) participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz) with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P ≤ 0.05). Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature.

  2. Effects of whole-body vibration training on fibrinolytic and coagulative factors in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Ghazalian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to evaluate effects of 5-week whole body vibration (WBV training with different amplitudes and progressive frequencies on fibrinolytic/coagulative factors. Materials and Methods: 25 subjects were divided randomly in high or low-amplitude vibration, and control groups. Training consisted of 5-week WBV with amplitudes 4 or 2 mm. Plasma samples were analyzed before and after training. Statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed ranked test. P <0.05 was considered significant. Results: High-amplitude vibration caused an increase in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA (P = 0.028 (pretest: 1744.61 ± 707.95; posttest: 2313.63 ± 997.19 pg/ml, and decrease in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 (P = 0.033 (pretest: 97.94 ± 34.37; posttest: 85.12 ± 36.92 ng/ml. Fibrinogen and plasminogen were not changed significantly. Low-amplitude vibration caused an increase in tPA (P = 0.006 (pretest: 2208.18 ± 1280.37; posttest: 3492.72 ± 3549.22 pg/ml. PAI-1, fibrinogen and plasminogen were not changed significantly. There were no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: Amplitude of vibrations in WBV training may affect fibrinolytic factors.

  3. Whole-body muscle MRI to detect myopathies in non-extrapyramidal bent spine syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohana, Mickael [Nouvel Hopital Civil - Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Radiologie B, Strasbourg (France); Durand, Marie-Christine [AP-HP - Hopital Raymond Poincare, Service de Neurologie, Garches (France); Marty, Catherine; Lazareth, Jean-Philippe [AP-HP - Hopital Raymond Poincare, Service de Rhumatologie, Garches (France); Maisonobe, Thierry [APH-HP - Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Service de Neuropathologie, Paris (France); Mompoint, Dominique; Carlier, Robert-Yves [AP-HP - Hopital Raymond Poincare, Service de Radiologie, Garches (France)

    2014-08-15

    Bent spine syndrome (BSS), defined as an abnormal forward flexion of the trunk resolving in supine position, is usually related to parkinsonism, but can also be encountered in myopathies. This study evaluates whole-body muscle MRI (WB-mMRI) as a tool for detecting underlying myopathy in non-extrapyramidal BSS. Forty-three patients (90 % women; 53-86 years old) with a non-extrapyramidal BSS were prospectively included. All underwent a 1.5-T WB-mMRI and a nerve conduction study. Muscle biopsy was performed if a myopathy could not be eliminated based on clinical examination and all tests. Systematic MRI interpretation focused on peripheral and axial muscle injury; spinal posture and incidental findings were also reported. WB-mMRI was completed for all patients, with 13 muscle biopsies ultimately needed and myopathy revealed as the final etiological diagnosis in five cases (12 %). All biopsy-proven myopathies were detected by the WB-mMRI. Relevant incidental MRI findings were made in seven patients. This study supports WB-mMRI as a sensitive and feasible tool for detecting myopathy in BSS patients. Associated with electroneuromyography, it can better indicate when a muscle biopsy is needed and guide it when required. Rigorous radiological interpretation is mandatory, so as not to miss incidental findings of clinical consequence. (orig.)

  4. Time-dependent whole-body fluorescence tomography of probe bio-distributions in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Sachin V.; Bloch, Sharon R.; Achilefu, Samuel; Culver, Joseph P.

    2005-04-01

    We present a fast scanning fluorescence optical tomography system for imaging the kinetics of probe distributions through out the whole body of small animals. Configured in a plane parallel geometry, the system scans a source laser using a galvanometer mirror pair (τswitch~1ms) over flexible source patterns, and detects excitation and emission light using a high frame rate low noise, 5 MHz electron multiplied charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera. Phantom studies were used to evaluate resolution, linearity, and sensitivity. Time dependent (δt=2.2 min.) in vivo imaging of mice was performed following injections of a fluorescing probe (indocyanine green). The capability to detect differences in probe delivery route was demonstrated by comparing an intravenous injection, versus an injection into a fat pocket (retro orbital injection). Feasibility of imaging the distribution of tumor-targeted molecular probes was demonstrated by imaging a breast tumor-specific near infrared polypeptide in MDA MB 361 tumor bearing nude mice. A tomography scan, at 24 hour post injection, revealed preferential uptake in the tumor relative to surrounding tissue.

  5. Joint minimization of uplink and downlink whole-body exposure dose in indoor wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plets, D; Joseph, W; Vanhecke, K; Vermeeren, G; Wiart, J; Aerts, S; Varsier, N; Martens, L

    2015-01-01

    The total whole-body exposure dose in indoor wireless networks is minimized. For the first time, indoor wireless networks are designed and simulated for a minimal exposure dose, where both uplink and downlink are considered. The impact of the minimization is numerically assessed for four scenarios: two WiFi configurations with different throughputs, a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) configuration for phone call traffic, and a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) configuration with a high data rate. Also, the influence of the uplink usage on the total absorbed dose is characterized. Downlink dose reductions of at least 75% are observed when adding more base stations with a lower transmit power. Total dose reductions decrease with increasing uplink usage for WiFi due to the lack of uplink power control but are maintained for LTE and UMTS. Uplink doses become dominant over downlink doses for usages of only a few seconds for WiFi. For UMTS and LTE, an almost continuous uplink usage is required to have a significant effect on the total dose, thanks to the power control mechanism.

  6. Whole-body vibration as a potential countermeasure for dynapenia and arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Figueroa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Age-related decreases in muscle mass and strength are associated with decreased mobility, quality of life, and increased cardiovascular risk. Coupled with the prevalence of obesity, the risk of death becomes substantially greater. Resistance training (RT has a well-documented beneficial impact on muscle mass and strength in young and older adults, although the high-intensity needed to elicit these adaptations may have a detrimental or negligible impact on vascular function, specifically on arterial stiffness. Increased arterial stiffness is associated with systolic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and myocardial ischemia. Therefore, improvements of muscle strength and arterial function are important in older adults. Recently, whole-body vibration (WBV exercise, a novel modality of strength training, has shown to exhibit similar results on muscle strength as RT in a wide-variety of populations, with the greatest impact in elderly individuals with limited muscle function. Additionally, WBV training has been shown to have beneficial effects on vascular function by reducing arterial stiffness. This article reviews relevant publications reporting the effects of WBV on muscle strength and/or arterial stiffness. Findings from current studies suggest the use of WBV training as an alternative modality to traditional RT to countermeasure the age-related detriments in muscle strength and arterial stiffness in older adults.

  7. Whole-body diffusion imaging applying simultaneous multi-slice excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkel, David; Wurning, M.C.; Filli, L.; Ulbrich, E.J.; Boss, A. [Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Runge, V.M. [Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Beck, T. [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a fast protocol for whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (WB-DWI) using a slice-accelerated echo-planar sequence, which, when using comparable image acquisition parameters, noticeably reduces measurement time compared to a conventional WB-DWI protocol. A single-shot echo-planar imaging sequence capable of simultaneous slice excitation and acquisition was optimized for WB-DWI on a 3 T MR scanner, with a comparable conventional WB-DWI protocol serving as the reference standard. Eight healthy individuals and one oncologic patient underwent WB-DWI. Quantitative analysis was carried out by measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and its coefficient of variation (CV) in different organs. Image quality was assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists using a 4-point Likert scale. Using our proposed protocol, the scan time of the WB-DWI measurement was reduced by up to 25.9 %. Both protocols, the slice-accelerated protocol and the conventional protocol, showed comparable image quality without statistically significant differences in the reader scores. Similarly, no significant differences of the ADC values of parenchymal organs were found, whereas ADC values of brain tissue were slightly higher in the slice-accelerated protocol. It was demonstrated that slice-accelerated DWI can be applied to WB-DWI protocols with the potential to greatly reduce the required measurement time, thereby substantially increasing clinical applicability.

  8. Correlation between TMD and Cervical Spine Pain and Mobility: Is the Whole Body Balance TMJ Related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Walczyńska-Dragon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD is considered to be associated with imbalance of the whole body. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of TMD therapy on cervical spine range of movement (ROM and reduction of spinal pain. The study group consisted of 60 patients with TMD, cervical spine pain, and limited cervical spine range of movements. Subjects were interviewed by a questionnaire about symptoms of TMD and neck pain and had also masticatory motor system physically examined (according to RDC-TMD and analysed by JMA ultrasound device. The cervical spine motion was analysed using an MCS device. Subjects were randomly admitted to two groups, treated and control. Patients from the treated group were treated with an occlusal splint. Patients from control group were ordered to self-control parafunctional habits. Subsequent examinations were planned in both groups 3 weeks and 3 months after treatment was introduced. The results of tests performed 3 months after the beginning of occlusal splint therapy showed a significant improvement in TMJ function (P>0.05, cervical spine ROM, and a reduction of spinal pain. The conclusion is that there is a significant association between TMD treatment and reduction of cervical spine pain, as far as improvement of cervical spine mobility.

  9. Whole-Body Vibration Sensor Calibration Using a Six-Degree of Freedom Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cation

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV is associated with a wide variety of health disorders and as a result WBV levels are frequently assessed. Literature outlining WBV accelerations rarely address the calibration techniques and procedures used for WBV sensors to any depth, nor are any detailed information provided regarding such procedures or sensor calibration ranges. The purpose of this paper is to describe a calibration method for a 6 DOF transducer using a hexapod robot. Also described is a separate motion capture technique used to verify the calibration for acceleration values obtained which were outside the robot calibration range in order to include an acceptable calibration range for WBV environments. The sensor calibrated in this study used linear (Y=mX calibration equations resulting in r2 values greater than 0.97 for maximum and minimum acceleration amplitudes of up to ±8 m/s2 and maximum and minimum velocity amplitudes up to ±100°/s. The motion capture technique verified that the translational calibrations held for accelerations up to ±4 g. Thus, the calibration procedures were shown to calibrate the sensor through the expected range for 6-DOF WBV field measurements for off-road vehicles even when subjected to shocks as a result of high speed travel over rough terrain.

  10. Risk communication with Fukushima residents affected by the Fukushima Daiichi accident at whole-body counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunji, I.; Furuno, A.; Yonezawa, R.; Sugiyama, K. [Risk Communication Study Office, Japan Atomic Energy Agency 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the Tokai Research and Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have had direct dialogue as risk communication with Fukushima residents who underwent whole-body counting examination (WBC). The purpose of the risk communication was to exchange information and opinions about radiation in order to mitigate Fukushima residents' anxiety and stress. Two kinds of opinion surveys were performed: one survey evaluated residents' views of the nuclear accident itself and the second survey evaluated the management of WBC examination as well as the quality of JAEA's communication skills on risks. It appears that most Fukushima residents seem to have reduced their anxiety level after the direct dialogue. The results of the surveys show that Fukushima residents have the deepest anxiety and concern about their long-term health issues and that they harbor anger toward the government and TEPCO. On the other hand, many WBC patients and patients' relatives have expressed gratitude for help in reducing their feelings of anxiety.

  11. Environmental Assessment for the new Whole Body Counter facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy proposes to construct and operate a new in-vivo counting facility at the Savannah River Site for the monitoring of employees for internal radionuclides. The proposed facility, titled the new Whole Body Counter (WBC) facility, would house both the existing and additional new invivo counting equipment and facility support operations. The proposed facility would be sited and located in an area of the SRS in which background radiation levels are sufficiently low to assure accurate in-vivo counts and a location that would assure ease of access for occupational workers. This Environmental Assessment has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, and the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CPR Parts 1500-1508). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. The proposed action has independent utility to the Savannah River operations and will be necessary to support plant activities regardless of the makeup of the future mission at the site. As such, the proposed new WBC facility is treated as part of the preliminary Reconfiguration Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement ``No Action`` alternative.

  12. The kinetics of lactate production and removal during whole-body exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes John F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a literature review, the current study aimed to construct mathematical models of lactate production and removal in both muscles and blood during steady state and at varying intensities during whole-body exercise. In order to experimentally test the models in dynamic situations, a cross-country skier performed laboratory tests while treadmill roller skiing, from where work rate, aerobic power and blood lactate concentration were measured. A two-compartment simulation model for blood lactate production and removal was constructed. Results The simulated and experimental data differed less than 0.5 mmol/L both during steady state and varying sub-maximal intensities. However, the simulation model for lactate removal after high exercise intensities seems to require further examination. Conclusions Overall, the simulation models of lactate production and removal provide useful insight into the parameters that affect blood lactate response, and specifically how blood lactate concentration during practical training and testing in dynamical situations should be interpreted.

  13. Whole body [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine imaging of baboons: biodistribution and human radiation dosimetry estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, Rajan [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Harris, Paul; Leibel, Rudolph [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Simpson, Norman; Parsey, Ramin [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Van Heertum, Ronald [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Mann, J.J. [Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Neuroscience, Division of Brain Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 abundance quantified using the radiotracer [{sup 11}C]-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) has been used to study diagnosis and pathogenesis of dementia and psychiatric disorders in humans. In addition, it may be a surrogate marker for insulin-producing pancreatic beta cell mass, useful for longitudinal measurements using positron emission tomography to track progression of autoimmune diabetes. To support the feasibility of long-term repeated administrations, we estimate the biodistribution and dosimetry of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ in humans. Five baboon studies were acquired using a Siemens ECAT camera. After transmission scanning, 165-210 MBq of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ were injected, and dynamic whole body emission scans were conducted. Time-activity data were used to obtain residence times and estimate absorbed radiation dose according to the MIRD model. Most of the injected tracer localized to the liver and the lungs, followed by the intestines, brain, and kidneys. The highest estimated absorbed radiation dose was in the stomach wall. The largest radiation dose from [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ is to the stomach wall. This dose estimate, as well as the radiation dose to other radiosensitive organs, must be considered in evaluating the risks of multiple administrations. (orig.)

  14. Cerebrolysin attenuates blood-brain barrier and brain pathology following whole body hyperthermia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari Shanker; Zimmermann-Meinzingen, Sibilla; Sharma, Aruna; Johanson, Conrad E

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that Cerebrolysin, a mixture of several neurotrophic factors, has some neuroprotective effects on whole body hyperthermia (WBH) induced breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), brain edema formation and neuropathology were examined in a rat model. Rats subjected to a 4 h heat stress at 38 degrees C in a biological oxygen demand (BOD) incubator exhibited profound increases in BBB and BCSFB permeability to Evans blue and radioiodine tracers compared to controls. Hippocampus, caudate nucleus, thalamus and hypothalamus exhibited pronounced increase in water content and brain pathology following 4 h heat stress. Pretreatment with Cerebrolysin (1, 2 or 5 mL/kg i.v.) 24 h before WBH significantly attenuated breakdown of the BBB or BCSFB and brain edema formation. This effect was dose dependent. Interestingly, the cell and tissue injury following WBH in cerebrolysin-treated groups were also considerably reduced. These novel observations suggest that cerebrolysin can attenuate WBH induced BBB and BCSFB damage resulting in neuroprotection.

  15. Determination of whole-body rotenone residues in the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, R E; Furcolow, C A; Johnston, J J; Kimball, B A

    2000-06-01

    The brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) is an introduced pest in Guam, responsible for extensive agricultural damage, the extinction of several bird species, and severe and frequent electrical power outages. Rotenone, a naturally occurring pesticide, has been investigated as a possible chemical control agent. An analytical method was developed to assess whole body rotenone residues ranging in concentration from 0.035 to 250 microg g(-)(1) in snakes. The method employed ethyl acetate extraction of 2 g samples of cryogenically frozen, pulverized snakes, followed by silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cleanup. Extract analysis was performed using a high-performance liquid chromatography system employing a cyanopropyl analytical column. Tissues fortified to concentrations of 0.035, 4.82, and 250 microg g(-)(1) yielded analyte recoveries of 85.1, 85.6, and 83.5%, respectively. The linear response of rotenone standard solutions was assessed from 0. 025 to 0.25 microg mL(-)(1) (r(2) = 0.9968) and from 0.250 to 125 microg mL(-)(1) (r(2) = 0.9999). The method was simple, rugged, and reliable.

  16. Vibration transmission to lower extremity soft tissues during whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesenbichler, Bernd; Lienhard, Karin; Vienneau, Jordyn; Nigg, Benno M

    2014-09-22

    In order to evaluate potential risks of whole-body vibration (WBV) training, it is important to understand the transfer of vibrations from the WBV platform to the muscles. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the transmissibility of vibrations from the WBV platform to the triceps surae and quadriceps soft tissue compartments. Sixteen healthy, male participants were exposed to side-altering WBV at 2.5mm amplitude and frequencies of 10, 17 and 28 Hz. Acceleration signals were measured at the platform and at the soft tissue compartments using tri-axial accelerometers. Transmissibility of peak acceleration and peak amplitude for both tested soft tissue compartments was high at 10 Hz (2.1-2.3), moderate at 17 Hz (1.1-1.9) and low at 28 Hz (0.5-1.2). The average peak acceleration was 125.4 ms(-2) and 46.5 ms(-2) for the triceps surae and quadriceps at 28 Hz, respectively. The muscles' vibration frequency was equal to the input frequency of the WBV platform (ptriceps surae was higher than the corresponding accelerations related to soft tissue injury in animal studies but neither existing regulations nor the comparison to available animal studies seem appropriate to make inferences on injury risk. More realistic animal or computational muscle models may use the current data to evaluate potentially unwanted side effects of WBV training.

  17. Anthropometric Characteristics and Sex Influence Magnitude of Skin Cooling following Exposure to Whole Body Cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, L. E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (−60°C for 30 seconds, −110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (ΔTsk) were calculated. ΔTsk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = −3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ΔTsk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ΔTsk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. PMID:25061612

  18. Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simões, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at −110°C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s−1 concentric and 180° · s−1 eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE. PMID:25750548

  19. Joint Minimization of Uplink and Downlink Whole-Body Exposure Dose in Indoor Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Plets

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The total whole-body exposure dose in indoor wireless networks is minimized. For the first time, indoor wireless networks are designed and simulated for a minimal exposure dose, where both uplink and downlink are considered. The impact of the minimization is numerically assessed for four scenarios: two WiFi configurations with different throughputs, a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS configuration for phone call traffic, and a Long-Term Evolution (LTE configuration with a high data rate. Also, the influence of the uplink usage on the total absorbed dose is characterized. Downlink dose reductions of at least 75% are observed when adding more base stations with a lower transmit power. Total dose reductions decrease with increasing uplink usage for WiFi due to the lack of uplink power control but are maintained for LTE and UMTS. Uplink doses become dominant over downlink doses for usages of only a few seconds for WiFi. For UMTS and LTE, an almost continuous uplink usage is required to have a significant effect on the total dose, thanks to the power control mechanism.

  20. Whole-Body Human Inverse Dynamics with Distributed Micro-Accelerometers, Gyros and Force Sensing †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latella, Claudia; Kuppuswamy, Naveen; Romano, Francesco; Traversaro, Silvio; Nori, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Human motion tracking is a powerful tool used in a large range of applications that require human movement analysis. Although it is a well-established technique, its main limitation is the lack of estimation of real-time kinetics information such as forces and torques during the motion capture. In this paper, we present a novel approach for a human soft wearable force tracking for the simultaneous estimation of whole-body forces along with the motion. The early stage of our framework encompasses traditional passive marker based methods, inertial and contact force sensor modalities and harnesses a probabilistic computational technique for estimating dynamic quantities, originally proposed in the domain of humanoid robot control. We present experimental analysis on subjects performing a two degrees-of-freedom bowing task, and we estimate the motion and kinetics quantities. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. We discuss the possible use of this technique in the design of a novel soft wearable force tracking device and its potential applications. PMID:27213394

  1. Whole Body Vibration Exercises and the Improvement of the Flexibility in Patient with Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Ronikeili-Costa, Pedro; Carvalho-Lima, Rafaelle Pacheco; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bravo-Monteiro, Milena Oliveira; Costa, Rebeca; de Moraes-Silva, Janaina; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Mantilla-Giehl, Paula; Arnobio, Adriano; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV) exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword “flexibility” and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF) of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS) was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS. PMID:25276434

  2. Whole-body MRI in children and juveniles; Ganzkoerper-MRT bei Kindern und Jugendlichen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, J.F.; Kramer, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2011-01-15

    The imaging of systemic disorders without radiation exposure by whole-body MRI (wb-MRI) represents a paradigm shift for pediatric radiology. The reduction of multiple regional examinations, if necessary under sedation, results in a faster treatment start. Modern scanner techniques using automatic table movement and allowing the combination of multiple coil elements and synchronized signal recording with numerous independent receiving channels are the basic prerequisite for high-resolution wb-MRI. The main indications are the evaluation of multifocal bone involvement in different disorders, rheumatic disorders including fever of unknown origin or metastatic spread in solid tumors. Based on the research, there is currently no absolute indication. However, wb-MRI has been shown to yield a higher diagnostic performance than bone scintigraphy and comparable results to FDG-PET for the detection of bone metastases. Due to the low number of published studies, it is uncertain for which entity of solid tumors wb-MRI is the modality of choice and for which tumors wb-MRI will play only a complementary role in the diagnostic work-up. Methodical strategies, pitfalls in image analysis, indications and diagnostic accuracy will be discussed based on already published results as well as our own experience from over 400 examinations, thus providing an overview of the recent research as well as supplying relevant aspects of the daily routine in pediatric wb-MRI. (orig.)

  3. Whole-body MRI of juvenile spondyloarthritis: protocols and pictorial review of characteristic patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Michael R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tse, Shirley M.L.; Rachlis, Alisa C. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Rheumatology, Toronto (Canada); Gupta, Sumeet; Stimec, Jennifer [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Spondyloarthritides are a group of inflammatory rheumatological diseases that cause arthritis with a predilection for spinal or sacroiliac involvement in addition to a high association with HLA-B27. Juvenile spondyloarthritis is distinct from adult spondyloarthritis and manifests more frequently as peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. Consequently juvenile spondyloarthritis is often referred to as enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) subtype under the juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) classification criteria. The American College of Rheumatology Treatment Recommendations for JIA, including ERA, are based on the following clinical parameters: current treatment, disease activity and the presence of poor prognostic features. The MRI features of juvenile spondyloarthritis include marrow edema, peri-enthesal soft-tissue swelling and edema, synovitis and joint or bursal fluid. Marrow edema is nonspecific and can be seen with other pathologies as well as in healthy subjects, and this is an important pitfall to consider. With further longitudinal study and validation, however, whole-body MRI with dedicated images of the more commonly affected areas such as the spine, sacroiliac joints, hips, knees, ankles and feet can serve as a more objective tool compared to clinical exam for early detection and monitoring of disease activity and ultimately direct therapeutic management. (orig.)

  4. Whole-body Response for Pedestrian Impact with a Generic Sedan Buck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason L; Joodaki, Hamad; Forghani, Ali; Riley, Patrick O; Bollapragada, Varun; Lessley, David J; Overby, Brian; Heltzel, Sara; Kerrigan, Jason R; Crandall, Jeff R; Yarboro, Seth; Weiss, David B

    2015-11-01

    To serve as tools for assessing injury risk, the biofidelity of whole-body pedestrian impact dummies should be validated against reference data from full-scale pedestrian impact tests. To facilitate such evaluations, a simplified generic vehicle-buck has been recently developed that is designed to have characteristics representative of a generic small sedan. Three 40 km/h pedestrian-impact tests have been performed, wherein Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) were struck laterally in a mid-gait stance by the buck. Corridors for select trajectory measures derived from these tests have been published previously. The goal of this study is to act as a companion dataset to that study, describing the head velocities, body region accelerations (head, spine, pelvis, lower extremities), angular velocities, and buck interaction forces, and injuries observed during those tests. Scaled, transformed head accelerations exceeded 80 g prior to head contact with the windshield for two of the three tests. Head xaxis angular velocity exceeded 40 rad/s prior to head contact for all three tests. In all cases the peak resultant head velocity relative to the vehicle was greater than the initial impact speed of the vehicle. Corridors of resultant head velocity relative to the vehicle were also developed, bounded by the velocities observed in these tests combined with those predicted to occur if the PMHS necks were perfectly rigid. These results, along with the other kinematic and kinetic data presented, provide a resource for future pedestrian dummy development and evaluation.

  5. The influence of whole body vibration on the central and peripheral cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Dan; Yoganathan, Priya; Goss-Sampson, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological changes of the cardiovascular system in response to whole body vibration during quiet standing and identify whether there is a greater influence on the central or peripheral cardiovascular system. Twenty healthy participants (12 male and 8 female) were assessed over two separate testing sessions for changes in peripheral skin temperature, peripheral venous function, blood flow velocity in the dorsalis pedis artery, blood pressure and heart rate during quiet standing with 40 Hz 1·9 mm synchronous vibration. Vibration exposure totalled 5 min in 1 min increments with 5 min recovery during each testing session. There were no significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure or peripheral skin temperature. Significant results were obtained for blood flow velocity with increases from 0·5 + 0·2 cm·s(-1) at baseline to 1 + 0·2 cm·s(-1) during vibration, returning to baseline levels during the recovery period. Due to the absence of changes in heart rate, blood pressure or lower leg and foot temperature, the change in blood flow velocity can be attributed to changes in peripheral vascular function. The results suggest a high level of sensitivity of the peripheral vascular system to vibration exposure; therefore, further studies should be completed to ascertain the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of vibration on the peripheral vascular system.

  6. Whole-body and thoracic bioimpedance measurement: hypertension and hyperhydration in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescolarde, L; Bogónez, P; Calpe, J; Hernández, R; Doñate, T; Rosell, J

    2007-01-01

    Mono-frequency (50 kHz) and multi-frequency (3 kHz - 1 MHz) whole-body and thoracic segment bioimpedance measurement were doing before and after hemodialysis session in 20 patients. The patients were classified in hypertensive or non-hypertensive according to the mean blood pressure, BPmean. The relation between hyper-hydration in thorax segment through real part of impedance and mean blood pressure was analyzed. Also the bioelectrical impedance vector analysis method was used to analyze the displacement of Z/H vector in order to establish the relation with hyper-hydration (edema). Finally we made multi-frequency measurements with the objective to find a significative change in high and low frequency. We obtained a significant difference (P bioimpedance measurement show an important change at low and high frequency and indicate that is possible to obtain more information about extra-cellular or intra-cellular fluid status, to find the relation between fluid loads, bioimpedance parameters, extra-cellular water, and blood pressure.

  7. Whole Body Vibration Exercises and the Improvement of the Flexibility in Patient with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúbia da Cunha Sá-Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword “flexibility” and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS.

  8. Influence of copper exposure on whole-body sodium levels in larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Genderen, Eric J; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2008-06-01

    Because metals such as Cu inhibit ionoregulation, the increased energy requirement to counter passive diffusive losses in soft water may translate into increased sensitivity to metal exposure. We developed a method to determine whole-body Na concentrations of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as a physiological indicator of health. This method was used to characterize net rates of Na flux from fish exposed to Cu in the presence of varying levels of hardness and alkalinity. In extremely soft waters (hardness, hardness (>10 mg/L as CaCO(3)), however, decreased the apparent kinetics of Na loss caused by Cu exposure, which suggests the process was related to uncompetitive inhibition of Cu by hardness cations. Although the percentage of Na loss associated with mortality in larval fish was similar to that in juvenile and adult fish (30% loss of exchangeable Na pool), larvae reached this level within 12 h of exposure, and it was not representative of the onset of mortality. These results suggested that ionoregulatory measures by themselves are not a conclusive metric for Cu regulation using larval fish. To account for increased sensitivity in low-hardness waters in the development of biotic ligand models, the critical amount of Cu associated with the gill to cause mortality (i.e., the median lethal accumulation value) should be characterized more appropriately as a function of hardness below 20 mg/L as CaCO(3).

  9. Muscular Damage and Kidney Function in Rugby Players after Daily Whole Body Cryostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscular damage, consequent to strenuous activities, could exceed the recovery potential of muscles and determine renal failure. Whole body cryostimulation is a cold-based therapy used to improve recovery or overcome fatigue symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repeated sessions of cryostimulation on muscle damage, renal function, and their relationship. Serum samples, from 27 elite rugby players, under training, before and after 2 sessions/day of cryotherapy over 7 days, were tested for markers of muscular (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase and renal (creatinine, cystatin C functions. eGFR was calculated with two formulas based on either serum creatinine concentration (MDRD or serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations (creatinine/cystatin C CKD EPI. Pre- and posttreatment differences were determined by Wilcoxon’s test; correlations were evaluated with Spearman’s test. Cryostimulation helped muscular recovery (increased lactate dehydrogenase activity (P<0.001 and the stabile creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. Creatinine was unaffected while cystatin C was increased (P=0.013. Creatinine-based eGFR was not affected by cryostimulation, while creatinine/cystatin C-based eGFR showed a slight decrease (P=0.015. eGFR and muscular biomarkers were not correlated, suggesting a real recovery effect of cryotherapy. Cystatin C seemed more sensible than creatinine in evaluating the kidney function.

  10. Reducing whole-body vibration and musculoskeletal injury with a new car seat design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhsous, M; Hendrix, R; Crowther, Z; Nam, E; Lin, F

    2005-07-15

    A new car seat design, which allows the back part of the seat (BPS) to lower down while a protruded cushion supports the lumbar spine, was quantitatively tested to determine its effectiveness and potentials in reducing whole-body vibration (WBV) and musculoskeletal disorders in automobile drivers. Nine subjects were tested to drive with the seat in: 1) the conventional seating arrangement (Normal posture); and 2) the new seating design (without BPS (WO-BPS) posture). By reducing contact between the seat and the ischial tuberosities (ITs), the new seating design reduced both contact pressure and amplitude of vibrations transmitted through the body. Root-mean-squared values for acceleration along the z-axis at the lumbar spine and ITs significantly decreased 31.6% (p spine and ITs by 43.0% (p < 0.05) and 34.5% (p < 0.01). This reduction in WBV allows more sustained driving than permitted by conventional seating devices, by several hours, before sustaining unacceptable WBV levels. Such seating devices, implemented in large trucks and other high-vibration vehicles, may reduce the risk of WBV-related musculoskeletal disorders among drivers.

  11. Computation of trunk muscle forces, spinal loads and stability in whole-body vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrgari, B.; Shirazi-Adl, A.; Kasra, M.

    2008-12-01

    Whole-body vibration has been indicated as a risk factor in back disorders. Proper prevention and treatment management, however, requires a sound knowledge of associated muscle forces and loads on the spine. Previous trunk model studies have either neglected or over-simplified the trunk redundancy with time-varying unknown muscle forces. Trunk stability has neither been addressed. A novel iterative dynamic kinematics-driven approach was employed to evaluate muscle forces, spinal loads and system stability in a seated subject under a random vertical base excitation with ˜±1 g peak acceleration contents. This iterative approach satisfied equations of motion in all directions/levels while accounting for the nonlinear passive resistance of the ligamentous spine. The effect of posture, co-activity in abdominal muscles and changes in buttocks stiffness were also investigated. The computed vertical accelerations were in good agreement with measurements. The input base excitation, via inertial and muscle forces, substantially influenced spinal loads and system stability. The flexed posture in sitting increased the net moment, muscle forces and passive spinal loads while improving the trunk stability. Similarly, the introduction of low to moderate antagonistic coactivity in abdominal muscles increased the passive spinal loads and improved the spinal stability. A trade-off, hence, exists between lower muscle forces and spinal loads on one hand and more stable spine on the other. Base excitations with larger peak acceleration contents substantially increase muscle forces/spinal loads and, hence, the risk of injury.

  12. Whole body muscle activity during the FIFA 11+ program evaluated by positron emission tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsuke Nakase

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program on whole body muscle activity using positron emission tomography. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers were divided into a control group and a group that performed injury prevention exercises (The 11+. The subjects of the control group were placed in a sitting position for 20 min and 37 MBq of (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG was injected intravenously. The subjects then remained seated for 45 min. The subjects of the exercise group performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, after which FDG was injected. They then performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, and rested for 25 min in a sitting position. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography images were obtained 50 min after FDG injection in each group. Regions of interest were defined within 30 muscles. The standardized uptake value was calculated to examine the FDG uptake of muscle tissue per unit volume. RESULTS: FDG accumulation within the abdominal rectus, gluteus medius and minimus were significantly higher in the exercise group than in the control group (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: The hip abductor muscles and abdominal rectus were active during part 2 of the FIFA 11+ program.

  13. Alkaline ceramidase 1 is essential for mammalian skin homeostasis and regulating whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakath-Ali, Kifayathullah; Vancollie, Valerie E; Lelliott, Christopher J; Speak, Anneliese O; Lafont, David; Protheroe, Hayley J; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Galli, Antonella; Green, Angela; Gleeson, Diane; Ryder, Ed; Glover, Leanne; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Karp, Natasha A; Arends, Mark J; Brenn, Thomas; Spiegel, Sarah; Adams, David J; Watt, Fiona M; van der Weyden, Louise

    2016-07-01

    The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin that acts as a barrier to protect the body from the external environment and to control water and heat loss. This barrier function is established through the multistage differentiation of keratinocytes and the presence of bioactive sphingolipids such as ceramides, the levels of which are tightly regulated by a balance of ceramide synthase and ceramidase activities. Here we reveal the essential role of alkaline ceramidase 1 (Acer1) in the skin. Acer1-deficient (Acer1(-/-) ) mice showed elevated levels of ceramide in the skin, aberrant hair shaft cuticle formation and cyclic alopecia. We demonstrate that Acer1 is specifically expressed in differentiated interfollicular epidermis, infundibulum and sebaceous glands and consequently Acer1(-/-) mice have significant alterations in infundibulum and sebaceous gland architecture. Acer1(-/-) skin also shows perturbed hair follicle stem cell compartments. These alterations result in Acer1(-/-) mice showing increased transepidermal water loss and a hypermetabolism phenotype with associated reduction of fat content with age. We conclude that Acer1 is indispensable for mammalian skin homeostasis and whole-body energy homeostasis. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Monte Carlo Simulations for the Purpose of Efficiency Curve Calibration for the Fastscan Whole Body Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hannah Robyn

    In order to be able to qualify and quantify radiation exposure in terms of dose, a Fastscan whole body counter must be calibrated correctly. Current calibration methods do not take the full range of body types into consideration when creating efficiency curve calibrations. The goal of this work is the creation of a Monte Carlo (MCNP) model, that allows the simulation of efficiency curves for a diverse population of subjects. Models were created for both the Darlington and the Pickering Fastscan WBCs, and the simulations were benchmarked against experimental results with good agreement. The Pickering Fastscan was found to have agreement to within +/-9%, and the Darlington Fastscan had agreement to within +/-11%. Further simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of increased body fat on the detected activity, as well as locating the position of external contamination using front/back ratios of activity. Simulations were also conducted to create efficiency calibrations that had good agreement with the manufacturer's efficiency curves. The work completed in this thesis can be used to create efficiency calibration curves for unique body compositions in the future.

  15. Whole-body MRI in children: Current status and future applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darge, Kassa [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)], E-mail: darge@email.chop.edu; Jaramillo, Diego [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)], E-mail: jaramillo@email.chop.edu; Siegel, Marilyn J. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 South Kingshighway Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)], E-mail: siegelm@mir.wustl.edu

    2008-11-15

    Whole-body MRI (WBMRI) is a novel technique that makes imaging of the whole patient in a manner similar to scintigraphy or positron emission tomography (PET) possible. Unlike the latter two methods, it is without exposure to radiation and thus gaining increasing importance and application in pediatrics. With the introduction of a moving tabletop, sequential movement of the patient through the magnet has become possible with automatic direct realignment of the images after acquisition. The common scan plane is coronal with additional planes being added depending on the indication. WBMRI is targeted for maximum coverage of the body within the shortest possible time using the minimum number of sequences. The evaluation of the bone marrow has been the primary indication thus inversion recovery sequences like STIR or TIRM are mostly used with the T1-weighted sequence being added variably. For correct evaluation of the bone marrow in the pediatric age group understanding normal pattern of marrow transformation is essential. The primary role of WBMRI has been in oncology for the detection of tumor spread and also for the follow-up and evaluation of complications. The initial comparative studies of WBMRI with scintigraphy and PET in children have shown the high diagnostic potential of WBMRI. Emerging potential applications of WBMRI include the evaluation for osteonecrosis, chronic multifocal recurrent osteomyelitis, myopathies, and generalized vascular malformations. Future use of WBMRI may incorporate non-accidental trauma, virtual autopsy, body fat mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging.

  16. Validation of experimental whole-body SAR assessment method in a complex indoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Aliou; Joseph, Wout; Vermeeren, Gunter; Tanghe, Emmeric; Gaillot, Davy Paul; Andersen, Jørgen B; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Lienard, Martine; Martens, Luc

    2013-02-01

    Experimentally assessing the whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR(wb) ) in a complex indoor environment is very challenging. An experimental method based on room electromagnetics theory (accounting only the line-of-sight as specular path) is validated using numerical simulations with the finite-difference time-domain method. Furthermore, the method accounts for diffuse multipath components (DMC) in the total absorption rate by considering the reverberation time of the investigated room, which describes all the losses in a complex indoor environment. The advantage of the proposed method is that it allows discarding the computational burden because it does not use any discretizations. Results show good agreement between measurement and computation at 2.8 GHz, as long as the plane wave assumption is valid, that is, at large distances from the transmitter. Relative deviations of 0.71% and 4% have been obtained for far-field scenarios, and 77.5% for the near field-scenario. The contribution of the DMC in the total absorption rate is also quantified here, which has never been investigated before. It is found that the DMC may represent an important part of the total absorption rate; its contribution may reach up to 90% for certain scenarios in an indoor environment.

  17. Lumbar back muscle activity of helicopter pilots and whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, C G; Simpson, D M; Nadal, J

    2001-10-01

    Several studies have attributed the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in helicopter pilots mainly to poor posture in-flight and whole-body vibration, with the latter hypothesis particularly related to a cyclic response of the erector spine (ES) muscle to vibration. This work aims to determine if helicopter vibration and the pilot's normal posture during flight have significant effects on the electromyogram (EMG) of the ES muscle. The bilateral surface EMG of the ES muscle at the L3 level was collected in 10 young pilots before and during a short flight in UH-50 helicopters. The vibration was monitored by a triaxial accelerometer fixed to the pilots' seat. Prior to the flight, the EMG was recorded for relaxed seated and standing postures with 0 degrees (P0) and 35 degrees (P35) of trunk flexion. The effect of the posture during the flight was tested by comparing left and right EMG (normalized with respect to P35). The in-flight muscle stress was evaluated by histograms of EMG activity, and compared to P0 values. Only one pilot in ten showed significant (pvibration and the EMG over cycles of vibration, and no consistent causal effect was found. The pilots' posture did not show significant asymmetric muscular activity, and low EMG levels were observed during most of the duration of the flight. The results do not provide evidence that LBP in helicopter pilots is caused by ES muscle stress in the conditions studied.

  18. Effects of whole-body vibrations on sensory motor system performance in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, G M; Roll, J P; Martin, B; Harlay, F

    1981-08-01

    The effects of whole body vibration (WBV) were studied on subjects trained to perform on tasks involving blindfolded arm positioning (proprioceptive tasks), tracking of visual targets and control of static and dynamic torques. Subjects were vibrated in a seated position by means of a hydraulic jack. The vibration used (0.1 G at floor level and 18 Hz) was that occasionally encountered on medium-size cruising helicopter. The seat was that of a heliccopter pilot whose foam cushion was 6 cm thick with a density of 26 kg/m3. Systematic past-pointing was observed for both arm flexion and extension. Foot and arm visual tracking precision, as determined by position and velocity errors, increased in both directions. Static and dynamic control, rated by torque holding stability and torque amplitude precision, were also significantly altered compared to pre-stimulus readings. The results are interpreted in relation to current knowledge of the effects of vibration induced at spinal, vestibular, and central nervous system levels. It is concluded that the proprioceptive system through which vibration-induced afferents enter the neurological networks is the common denominator for the observed alterations of the position, velocity, and force controls. Our observations suggest that particular care should be taken in helicopters and other vibrating vehicles to prevent vibration from reaching muscular masses, especially those involved in motor tasks.

  19. Whole body vibration: unsupervised training or combined with a supervised multi-purpose exercise for fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of an unsupervised whole body vibration (WBV) training and two different supervised multi-purpose exercise programmes, with and without WBV, on body composition, functional fitness and self-reported well-being in middle-aged adults. Fifty-four healthy participants (age 48.6 ± 6.7 years) were randomly assigned to a vibration group (VG), a multi-purpose exercise group (MG) and a multi-purpose exercise with vibration group (VMG) and trained 3 days a week for 4 months. VG performed a standardised unsupervised WBV protocol, MG a supervised multi-purpose exercise and VMG a multi-purpose exercise including vibration. After training, drop out was significantly higher in VG group (P = 0.016) when compared to VMG group. In both MG and VMG, body composition, sit-up, push-up, sit and reach, agility test, hopping test and self-reported general health significantly improved (P fitness and the best results in adherence could be achieved integrating WBV practice into a multi-purpose exercise training.

  20. Whole-body vibration training induces hypertrophy of the human patellar tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, F; Wiesinger, H-P; Kösters, A; Müller, E; Seynnes, O R

    2016-08-01

    Animal studies suggest that regular exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) induces an anabolic response in bone and tendon. However, the effects of this type of intervention on human tendon properties and its influence on the muscle-tendon unit function have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WBV training on the patellar tendon mechanical, material and morphological properties, the quadriceps muscle architecture and the knee extension torque-angle relationship. Fifty-five subjects were randomized into either a vibration, an active control, or an inactive control group. The active control subjects performed isometric squats on a vibration platform without vibration. Muscle and tendon properties were measured using ultrasonography and dynamometry. Vibration training induced an increase in proximal (6.3%) and mean (3.8%) tendon cross-sectional area, without any appreciable change in tendon stiffness and modulus or in muscle architectural parameters. Isometric torque at a knee angle of 90° increased in active controls (6.7%) only and the torque-angle relation remained globally unchanged in all groups. The present protocol did not appreciably alter knee extension torque production or the musculo-tendinous parameters underpinning this function. Nonetheless, this study shows for the first time that WBV elicits tendon hypertrophy in humans.

  1. Whole body vibration exposures in forklift operators: comparison of a mechanical and air suspension seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Ploger, James D; Johnson, Peter W

    2010-11-01

    Using a repeated measures design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures when 12 forklift operators drove the same forklift with a mechanical suspension and an air suspension seat. A portable PDA-based WBV data acquisition system collected and analysed time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 WBV measurement standards. Tri-axial measurements of weighted vibration (A(w)), crest factor, vibration dose values, time-weighted average-peak, raw (+) peak, raw (-) peak and static compression dose (S(ed)) were compared between seats. There were significant differences in z-axis WBV exposures with the air suspension seat, yielding lower WBV exposures. In addition, there were differences between seats in how they attenuated WBV exposures based on the driver's weight. In the mechanical suspension seat, WBV exposures were weight-dependent, with lighter drivers having higher WBV exposures, whereas with the air suspension seat, the same trends were not as prevalent. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study contributes to the understanding of how different seat suspensions can influence WBV transmission and how some components of vibration transmission are dependent on the weight of the driver. Additional systematic studies are needed to quantify how various factors can influence WBV exposures.

  2. Effect of whole body heat stress on peripheral vasoconstriction during leg dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, R. Matthew; Wingo, Jonathan E.; Hubing, Kimberly A.; Del Coso, Juan

    2009-01-01

    The venoarteriolar response (VAR) increases vascular resistance upon increases in venous transmural pressure in cutaneous, subcutaneous, and muscle vascular beds. During orthostasis, it has been proposed that up to 45% of the increase in systemic vascular tone is due to VAR-related local mechanism(s). The objective of this project was to test the hypothesis that heat stress attenuates VAR-mediated cutaneous and whole leg vasoconstriction. During normothermic conditions, measurements of cutaneous blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and femoral artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) were obtained from both legs during supine and leg-dependent conditions. These measurements were repeated following a whole body heat stress (increase in internal temperature of 1.4 ± 0.2°C). Before leg dependency, cutaneous (CVC) and femoral vascular conductances (FVC) were significantly elevated in both legs during heat stress relative to normothermia (P < 0.001). During leg dependency the absolute decrease in CVC was attenuated during heat stress (P < 0.01) while the absolute decrease in FVC was unaffected (P = 0.90). When CVC and FVC data were analyzed as a relative change from their respective baseline values, heat stress significantly attenuated the magnitude of vasoconstriction due to leg dependency in the cutaneous and femoral circulations (P < 0.001 for both variables). These data suggest that an attenuated local vasoconstriction, evoked via the venoarteriolar response, may contribute to reduced blood pressure control and thus reduced orthostatic tolerance that occurs in heat-stressed individuals. PMID:19815719

  3. Anthropometric Characteristics and Sex Influence Magnitude of Skin Cooling following Exposure to Whole Body Cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Hammond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC. Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (−60°C for 30 seconds, −110°C for 2 minutes. Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (ΔTsk were calculated. ΔTsk was significantly greater in females (12.07±1.55°C than males (10.12±1.86°C; t(30=-3.09, P=.004. A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ΔTsk in the combined dataset (P=.002, r=.516 and between fat-free mass index and ΔTsk in males (P=.005, r=.622. No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols.

  4. Dynamic Postural Control in Female Athletes and Nonathletes After a Whole-Body Fatigue Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Woodhouse, Linda J; Gaeini, Abbas A

    2016-07-01

    Baghbani, F, Woodhouse, LJ, and Gaeini, AA. Dynamic postural control in female athletes and nonathletes after a whole-body fatigue protocol. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1942-1947, 2016-Postural control is a crucial element in regular training of athletes, development of complex technical movement, and injury prevention; however, distributing factor of the postural control such as fatigue has been neglected by athletic trainers in novice and inexperienced athletes. The objective of this study was to compare changes in dynamic postural control of young female athletes and nonathletes after a fatigue protocol. Thirty females (15 athletes and 15 nonathletes) with no orthopedic problems were recruited to participate in this study. All participants completed the pre-SEBT (star excursion balance test) in 8 directions at baseline; then, they performed a 20-minute fatigue protocol after which post-SEBT was measured. Rating of perceived exertion was measured using the Borg scale immediately before, mid-way through (i.e., after the third station), and after performing the fatigue protocol (i.e., immediately before the post-SEBT). Female nonathlete groups had significant differences in dynamic balance performance after fatigue in the medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions (p postural control of the novice with progressing the exercise time. Our findings could also help coaches to develop trainings focused on the 3 directions of medial, posteromedial, and posterior directions and aimed at exercises increasing fatigue resistance.

  5. The clinical value of routine whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in palliative care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geitung, Jonn Terje (Department of Radiology, Haraldspass Deaconess (University) Hospital (Norway); Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen (Norway)), Email: jtgeit@online.no; Eikeland, Joakim (Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen (Norway)); Rosland, Jan Henrik (Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen (Norway); Sunniva Clinic for Palliative Care, Haraldsplass Deaconess (University) Hospital (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    Background. Whole-body MRI (WBMRI) has become an accessible method for detecting different types of pathologies both in the skeleton and the viscera, which may explain painful conditions, for example tumors and inflammation. Purpose. To assess a possible value of using WBMRI in order to improve palliative care. Material and Methods. Twenty patients (all eligible patients) admitted to the Department for Palliative Care were consecutively included in this study. They underwent a modified WBMRI, with fewer and shorter pulse sequences than in a standard WBMRI, to reduce patient stress. However, the patients' physicians were to exclude patients where little might be obtained and discomfort, distress, and pain could be induced. The treating physicians registered clinical utility directly after receiving the MRI report in a questionnaire. The registration was repeated after ended treatment. Results. Eighty percent had new findings detected, and 40% of the patients had a change in treatment due to the MRI result, mainly changes in analgesics and/or radiation therapy. Conclusion. The WBMRI helped the clinicians to improve treatment and a majority of the patients benefited from this. In eight patients the treatment was changed due to the results. The clinical value (utility) was indicated to be high

  6. Whole-body vibration training as complement to programs aimed at weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cristi-Montero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Whole-body vibration training (WBVT has been shown to be an extremely useful tool for increasing muscle mass, bone tissue, muscle power, flexibility, and strength, among others. However, to date, there are few studies on the effects of WBVT on energy metabolism and whether this tool could be able to enhance weight loss in addition to a nutritional plan and/or exercise. Objective: The aim of this review is to analyse the most recent studies on vibration training in order to determine whether this method constitutes a reliable complement to programs aimed at weight loss. Methods: An updated literature search was conducted using PubMed, SciELO and SPORTDiscus. In addition, a detailed search was also performed from references given in selected studies. Results: WBVT appears to be associated with three pathways involved in weight loss: inhibition of adipogenesis and reduction of fat mass, increased energy expenditure, and increase in muscle mass. After analysing the literature, none of the results for the proposed pathways are consistent, and indeed are often contradictory. Conclusion: Further in-depth research is required on this subject. However, WBVT would appear to be a safe method, and may possibly yield benefits, mainly as regards muscle mass, which in turn might promote weight loss when combined with a nutritional plan and a traditional exercise program.

  7. Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Vertical Jump Performance Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing vertical jump performance is critical for many sports. Following high intensity training, individuals often experience exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD. Many recovery modalities have been tested with conflicting results. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV on vertical jump performance following EIMD. 27 females volunteered for 7 sessions and were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and administered each testing day. Vertical jump performance was assessed via vertical jump height (VJH, peak power output (PPO, rate of force development (RFD, relative ground reaction force (GRFz, and peak activation ratio of the vastus medialis (VM via electromyography (EMG before and after 3 days of EIMD via split squats. Two testing sets were collected each day, consisting of pre measures followed by WBV or control, and then post second measures. A 2x8 (group x time mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA was conducted for each variable. No significant interactions or group differences were found in any variable. Significant main effects for time were found in any variable, indicating performance declined following muscle damage. These results indicate that WBV does not aid in muscle recovery or vertical jump performance following EIMD.

  8. Development of an LSI for Tactile Sensor Systems on the Whole-Body of Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroyama, Masanori; Makihata, Mitsutoshi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Matsuzaki, Sakae; Yamada, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ui; Nakayama, Takahiro; Nonomura, Yutaka; Fujiyoshi, Motohiro; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    We have developed a network type tactile sensor system, which realizes high-density tactile sensors on the whole-body of nursing and communication robots. The system consists of three kinds of nodes: host, relay and sensor nodes. Roles of the sensor node are to sense forces and, to encode the sensing data and to transmit the encoded data on serial channels by interruption handling. Relay nodes and host deal with a number of the encoded sensing data from the sensor nodes. A sensor node consists of a capacitive MEMS force sensor and a signal processing/transmission LSI. In this paper, details of an LSI for the sensor node are described. We designed experimental sensor node LSI chips by a commercial 0.18µm standard CMOS process. The 0.18µm LSIs were supplied in wafer level for MEMS post-process. The LSI chip area is 2.4mm × 2.4mm, which includes logic, CF converter and memory circuits. The maximum clock frequency of the chip with a large capacitive load is 10MHz. Measured power consumption at 10MHz clock is 2.23mW. Experimental results indicate that size, response time, sensor sensitivity and power consumption are all enough for practical tactile sensor systems.

  9. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery after hamstring damaging exercise: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, B; Sarabon, N

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during the 5-day recovery period after damaging exercise for hamstrings. Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions (control and experimental condition) separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted of WBC everyday during the recovery period. WBC included single 3-min daily exposures to low temperatures (-140 to -19 °C) in the cryo-cabin. During the recovery period, subjects were tested for biochemical markers, perceived pain sensation, and physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal isometric torque production, and maximally explosive isometric torque production). Majority of the observed variables showed statistically significant time effects (P Pain measures substantially differed between the WBC and the control condition after the exercise. Results of this study are not completely supportive of the use of WBC for recovery enhancement after strenuous training.

  10. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents Enhancement with Acute Gamma Irradiation in Curcuma alismatifolia (Zingiberaceae Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Taheri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to assess the effect of various doses of acute gamma irradiation (0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy on the improvement of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant properties of Curcuma alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography (GC analysis uncovered that various types of phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and fatty acids gradually altered in response to radiation doses. On the other hand, antioxidant activities determined by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reduction, antioxidant power (FRAP, and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assay showed a higher irradiation level significantly increased the antioxidant properties. This study revealed an efficient effect of varying levels of gamma radiation, based on the pharmaceutical demand to enhance the accumulation and distribution of bioactive compounds such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, fatty acids, as well as their antioxidant activities in the leaves of C. alismatifolia var. Sweet pink.

  11. A Multiscale Computational Model of the Response of Swine Epidermis After Acute Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events can lead to very high skin dose for astronauts on exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth s magnetic field [1]. Assessing the detrimental effects to human skin under such adverse conditions could be predicted by conducting territorial experiments on animal models. In this study we apply a computational approach to simulate the experimental data of the radiation response of swine epidermis, which is closely similar to human epidermis [2]. Incorporating experimentally measured histological and cell kinetic parameters into a multiscale tissue modeling framework, we obtain results of population kinetics and proliferation index comparable to unirradiated and acutely irradiated swine experiments [3]. It is noted the basal cell doubling time is 10 to 16 days in the intact population, but drops to 13.6 hr in the regenerating populations surviving irradiation. This complex 30-fold variation is proposed to be attributed to the shortening of the G1 phase duration. We investigate this radiation induced effect by considering at the sub-cellular level the expression and signaling of TGF-beta, as it is recognized as a key regulatory factor of tissue formation and wound healing [4]. This integrated model will allow us to test the validity of various basic biological rules at the cellular level and sub-cellular mechanisms by qualitatively comparing simulation results with published research, and should lead to a fuller understanding of the pathophysiological effects of ionizing radiation on the skin.

  12. Comparison of whole-body phantom designs to estimate organ equivalent neutron doses for secondary cancer risk assessment in proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteabbed, Maryam; Geyer, Amy; Drenkhahn, Robert; Bolch, Wesley E; Paganetti, Harald

    2012-01-21

    Secondary neutron fluence created during proton therapy can be a significant source of radiation exposure in organs distant from the treatment site, especially in pediatric patients. Various published studies have used computational phantoms to estimate neutron equivalent doses in proton therapy. In these simulations, whole-body patient representations were applied considering either generic whole-body phantoms or generic age- and gender-dependent phantoms. No studies to date have reported using patient-specific geometry information. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of patient–phantom matching when using computational pediatric phantoms. To achieve this goal, three sets of phantoms, including different ages and genders, were compared to the patients' whole-body CT. These sets consisted of pediatric age specific reference, age-adjusted reference and anatomically sculpted phantoms. The neutron equivalent dose for a subset of out-of-field organs was calculated using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit, where proton fields were used to irradiate the cranium and the spine of all phantoms and the CT-segmented patient models. The maximum neutron equivalent dose per treatment absorbed dose was calculated and found to be on the order of 0 to 5 mSv Gy(-1). The relative dose difference between each phantom and their respective CT-segmented patient model for most organs showed a dependence on how close the phantom and patient heights were matched. The weight matching was found to have much smaller impact on the dose accuracy except for very heavy patients. Analysis of relative dose difference with respect to height difference suggested that phantom sculpting has a positive effect in terms of dose accuracy as long as the patient is close to the 50th percentile height and weight. Otherwise, the benefit of sculpting was masked by inherent uncertainties, i.e. variations in organ shapes, sizes and locations.Other sources of uncertainty included errors associated

  13. Experimental study on therapy of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation in acute soman intoxication in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-qing; MU Shi-jie; ZHANG Xiao-di; CHEN Rui; XIA Ai-jun; LIANG Xin; HAI Chun-xu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the therapy effect of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation(UBIO) on blood AChe activity and lung injury due to acute soman intoxication in rabbits. Methods :Forty rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, intoxication group, routine therapy group and UBIO therapy group. Blood AChe activity and artery blood gas were analyzed 2 h after intoxication. ACP and AKP activities in BALF were determined respectively. Results:Blood AChe activity in intoxication group was lower than that in normal control group (P<0. 05). BALF ACP and AKP activities in intoxication group were higher than that in normal control group. Blood AChe activities in UBIO therapy group increased and were higher than that in intoxication and routine therapy groups. Compared with intoxication group, BALF ACP and AKP activities were decreased (P<0.05) in UBIO therapy group,while artery blood pH, PaO2 and SaO2 increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: UBIO therapy can elevate blood AChe activity and alleviate lung injury induced by soman intoxication. So it may be a new way to treat acute soman intoxication.

  14. Acute and chronic response of articular cartilage to Ho:YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauner, Kenneth B.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Flotte, Thomas J.; Patel, Dinesh K.

    1992-06-01

    A Ho:YAG laser system operating at a wavelength of 2.1 microns has recently been introduced for use in arthroscopic surgery. The acceptability of this new tool will be determined not only by its ability to resect tissue, but also by its long term effects on articular surfaces. In order to investigate these issues further, we performed two studies to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of the laser on cartilaginous tissue. We evaluated the acute, in vitro effects of 2.1 micron laser irradiation on articular and fibrocartilage. This included the measurement of ablation efficiency, ablation threshold and thermal damage in both meniscus and articular cartilage. To document the chronic effects on articular cartilage in vivo, we next performed a ten week healing study. Eight sheep weighing 30 - 40 kg underwent bilateral arthrotomy procedures. Multiple full thickness and partial thickness defects were created. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, and 10 weeks. The healing study demonstrated: (1) no healing of full or partial thickness defects at 10 weeks with hyaline cartilage; (2) fibrocartilaginous granulation tissue filling full thickness defects at two and four weeks, but no longer evident at ten weeks; (3) chondrocyte necrosis extending to greater than 900 microns distal to ablation craters at four weeks with no evidence of repair at later dates; and (4) chondrocyte hyperplasia at the borders of the damage zone at two weeks but no longer evident at later sacrifice dates.

  15. Whole body 3-methylhistidine production and proteinase activities in porcine muscle after protein-free feeding and realimentation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemel-Grooten, van den H.N.A.; Rathmacher, J.A.; Garssen, G.J.; Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1998-01-01

    Whole body 3-methylhistidine (3MH) production rates and proteinase activities in porcine skeletal muscles were studied during a protein-free feeding period and subsequent realimentation. Out of 54 castrated male pigs (35 kg on day 0), six pigs were slaughtered on day 0, and 48 were randomly divided

  16. Short-term effects of whole-body vibration on postural control in unilateral chronic stroke patients: preliminary evidence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, I.J.W. van; Geurts, A.C.H.; Hendricks, H.T.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2004-01-01

    The short-term effects of whole-body vibration as a novel method of somatosensory stimulation on postural control were investigated in 23 chronic stroke patients. While standing on a commercial platform, patients received 30-Hz oscillations at 3 mm of amplitude in the frontal plane. Balance was asse

  17. Outcome in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with negative diagnostic whole-body scanning and detectable stimulated thyroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, KM; Jager, PL; de Vries, EGE; Piers, DA; Boezen, HM; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF; Links, TP

    2003-01-01

    Background: Management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma with negative diagnostic radioiodide scanning and increased serum thyroglobulin (Tg) concentrations is a widely debated problem. High-dose iodine-131 treatment of patients who have a negative I-131 diagnostic whole-body scan (W

  18. Alterations in Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity Resulting From Repeated Eccentric Exercise of a Single Muscle Group: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Barwood, Martin J; Goodall, Stuart; Thomas, Kevin; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-08-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise using large muscle groups elicits soreness, decrements in physical function and impairs markers of whole-body insulin sensitivity; although these effects are attenuated with a repeated exposure. Eccentric exercise of a small muscle group (elbow flexors) displays similar soreness and damage profiles in response to repeated exposure. However, it is unknown whether damage to small muscle groups impacts upon whole-body insulin sensitivity. This pilot investigation aimed to characterize whole-body insulin sensitivity in response to repeated bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Nine healthy males completed two bouts of eccentric exercise separated by 2 weeks. Insulin resistance (updated homeostasis model of insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR) and muscle damage profiles (soreness and physical function) were assessed before, and 48 h after exercise. Matsuda insulin sensitivity indices (ISI Matsuda) were also determined in 6 participants at the same time points as HOMA2-IR. Soreness was elevated, and physical function impaired, by both bouts of exercise (both p Eccentric exercise decreased ISI Matsuda after the first but not the second bout of eccentric exercise (time x bout interaction p Eccentric exercise performed with an isolated upper limb impairs whole-body insulin sensitivity after the first, but not the second, bout.

  19. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography at 3 tesla using a hybrid protocol in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Yousef W; Eiberg, Jonas P; Logager, Vibeke B;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of 3T whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) using a hybrid protocol in comparison with a standard protocol in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In 26 consecutive patients with PAD two different proto...

  20. Whole-body adipose tissue analysis: comparison of MRI, CT and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kullberg, J; Brandberg, J; Angelhed, J-E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a recently proposed MRI-based T(1)-mapping method for analysis of whole-body adipose tissue (AT) using an established CT protocol as reference and to include results from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). 10 subjects, drawn from the Swedish Obese...

  1. Effects of real and sham whole-body mechanical vibration on spinal excitability at rest and during muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, T.; Rider, P.; DeVita, P.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of whole-body mechanical vibration (WBV) on indices of motoneuronal excitability at rest and during muscle contraction in healthy humans. Real and sham WBV at 30Hz had no effect on reflexes measured during muscle contraction. Real WBV at 30 and 50Hz depressed the H-reflex app

  2. Two-phase whole-body skeletal scintigraphy in children--revisiting the usefulness of the early blood pool phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatra, Neha; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Majd, Massoud

    2013-10-01

    The usefulness of whole-body blood pool imaging as part of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) skeletal scintigraphy in detection of marrow infiltrative processes and unexpected soft-tissue and visceral abnormalities is demonstrated via illustrative case examples. Technical aspects of this simple and fast scanning technique are also highlighted.

  3. The impact of self-reported exposure to whole-body-vibrations on the risk of disability pension among men:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, F; Feveile, H; Christensen, KB;

    2010-01-01

    -body-vibrations was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.40) after adjustment for age, smoking habits, BMI, physical job demands and awkward work postures. In our model, with the available explanatory variables, 5.6% of the male disability pension cases were attributable to whole-body-vibrations. Conclusions...

  4. Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galindo, C; Larsen, Mogens; Ouellet, D R

    2015-01-01

    Nine Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannulas and indwelling catheters in splanchnic blood vessels were used to study the effects of supplementing AA on milk lactose secretion, whole-body rate of appearance (WB-Ra) of glucose, and tissue metabolism of glucose, lactate, glycerol, and β-OH-butyrate...

  5. Altered skeletal muscle fiber composition and size precede whole-body insulin resistance in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Madsbad, Sten

    2007-01-01

    associated with LBW. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained by percutaneous biopsy from 20 healthy 19-yr-old men with birth weights at 10th percentile or lower for gestational age (LBW) and 20 normal birth weight controls, matched for body fat, physical fitness, and whole-body glucose...

  6. The Dissection Room Experience: A Factor in the Choice of Organ and Whole Body Donation--A Nigerian Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.; Obikili, Emmanuel N.; Agu, Augustine U.

    2014-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of human dissection on the lives of medical and health science students has been noted. To assess the impact of the dissection room experience on one's willingness to become a whole body and organ donor, the attitudes of 1,350 students and professionals from the medical, health, and non-health related disciplines to body…

  7. Effects of Different Magnitudes of Whole-Body Vibration on Dynamic Squatting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Pedro J; García Rioja, Javier; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Hazell, Tom J

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects (a) of different whole-body vibration (WBV) accelerations when applied simultaneously during a set of squats on performance and perceived exertion and (b) of different linear increases and decreases of vibrations during the squats. It is a randomized, crossover experimental design. Undergraduate students (3 female; 16 male) participated. Each participant completed 5 laboratory sessions in this study (4 familiarization and 1 test session). The test session then had each participant complete one 20-second set of dynamics quarter-squats for 5 separate conditions followed by 5 minutes of rest. Squatting was performed at maximum speed from full extension knee with plantar-flexion ankle to a knee angle of 70° (0° = anatomic position) with dorsiflexion ankle. All sets were performed on the WBV platform in random order, where the 5 different conditions were (a) no WBV-sham, (b) 30 Hz (30 Hz low amplitude), (c) 50 Hz (50 Hz high amplitude), (d) 30-50 Hz (increasing frequency from 30 to 50 Hz; 1 Hz per second with high amplitude), and (e) 50-30 Hz (decreasing frequency from 50 to 30 Hz; 1 Hz per second). There was a significant decrease in the mean velocity of squatting performed during the 30- to 50-Hz condition compared with all other conditions (p ≤ 0.05). There were a significantly lower amount of repetitions performed during the 30- to 50-Hz exposure compared with the no-WBV and 30-Hz conditions. There was a significantly lower Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) during the 30-Hz condition compared with the no-WBV, 50-Hz, 30-50-Hz, and 50-30-Hz conditions.

  8. COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ACCELERATIONS ON COUNTER-MOVEMENT JUMP PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Bazett-Jones

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available While it seems that whole body vibration (WBV might be an effective modality to enhance physical performance, the proper prescription of WBV for performance enhancement remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effect of various WBV accelerations on counter movement jump (CMJ height, the duration of any effect, and differences between men and women. Forty-four participants (33 men, 11 women participated in no less than four CMJ familiarization sessions and completed all vibration sessions. Participants performed a pre-test (three maximal CMJs, followed randomly by one of five WBV accelerations; 1g (no-WBV control, 2.16g, 2.80g, 4.87g, and 5.83g. Participants performed three maximal CMJs immediately, five, and 10 minutes following each 45 sec WBV session. The mean of the three performances was used and calculated as a percentage of the pre-vibration mean value. A Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA; acceleration x time x gender model was used to analyze the data. The two-way interactions of acceleration-gender (p = 0.033 and time-gender (p = 0.050 were significant. Women performed significantly better following the 2.80g (p = 0.0064 and 5.83g (p = 0. 0125 WBV sessions compared to the 1g (control session. Men, however, did not experience performance enhancing effects following any of the vibration sessions. While significant differences did not occur between time in either gender, the effects of the 45 sec WBV session in women were transient, lasting approximately five minutes. During the prescription of WBV, gender should be considered given that the results of this study seem to indicate that men and women respond differently to WBV. The results of this study suggest that WBV might be a useful modality as applied during the pre-competition warm-up

  9. Accuracy and reproducibility of adipose tissue measurements in young infants by whole body magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stefan Bauer

    Full Text Available MR might be well suited to obtain reproducible and accurate measures of fat tissues in infants. This study evaluates MR-measurements of adipose tissue in young infants in vitro and in vivo.MR images of ten phantoms simulating subcutaneous fat of an infant's torso were obtained using a 1.5T MR scanner with and without simulated breathing. Scans consisted of a cartesian water-suppression turbo spin echo (wsTSE sequence, and a PROPELLER wsTSE sequence. Fat volume was quantified directly and by MR imaging using k-means clustering and threshold-based segmentation procedures to calculate accuracy in vitro. Whole body MR was obtained in sleeping young infants (average age 67±30 days. This study was approved by the local review board. All parents gave written informed consent. To obtain reproducibility in vivo, cartesian and PROPELLER wsTSE sequences were repeated in seven and four young infants, respectively. Overall, 21 repetitions were performed for the cartesian sequence and 13 repetitions for the PROPELLER sequence.In vitro accuracy errors depended on the chosen segmentation procedure, ranging from 5.4% to 76%, while the sequence showed no significant influence. Artificial breathing increased the minimal accuracy error to 9.1%. In vivo reproducibility errors for total fat volume of the sleeping infants ranged from 2.6% to 3.4%. Neither segmentation nor sequence significantly influenced reproducibility.With both cartesian and PROPELLER sequences an accurate and reproducible measure of body fat was achieved. Adequate segmentation was mandatory for high accuracy.

  10. Impact of Whole Body Cryotherapy at -110 °C on Subjects with Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missmann, M; Himsl, M; Mur, E; Ulmer, H; Marschang, P

    2016-02-01

    Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) in a cryo-chamber as a medical treatment was first established in Japan in the 1980s, later in Central Europe, and is now becoming more popular also in the United States. The exposure to extreme, non-physiological environmental conditions in a cryo-chamber at -110 °C may exceed the normal adaption capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of WBC on blood pressure (BP) readings in adult subjects with rheumatic disorders and normal or moderately elevated BP. A sample of 23 subjects (8 female, 15 male) which were recruited according to their pathology between the age of 35 and 69 years undergoing 21 WBC applications was divided into three groups: a group of subjects with anti-hypertensive therapy, a group of subjects with mild arterial hypertension without medical treatment, and a normotensive control-group. A total of 483 BP readings were taken immediately before and after each WBC application. The systolic and diastolic BP were recorded, and the mean arterial pressure, and the amplitude of BP were calculated. A statistically significant rise of BP after WBC was found in the whole sample and in the normotensive group. Over the course of time, no significant change of BP behavior was observed, except for normotensive subjects, who showed a wider range in their systolic BP values. Generally accepted exclusion criteria were applied, and in our sample group WBC was safe with respect to unwanted BP alterations for adult subjects under 70 years-regardless of a pre-existing untreated mild or pharmacologically treated arterial hypertension. Greater changes of BP values might infrequently occur, so an individual monitoring of subjects is necessary.

  11. Low back pain and association with whole body vibration among military armoured vehicle drivers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozali, A; Rampal, K G; Shamsul Bahri, M T; Sherina, M S; Shamsul Azhar, S; Khairuddin, H; Sulaiman, A

    2009-09-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted among military armoured vehicle drivers in the two largest mechanized battalions with the objective to determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP), and its association with whole body vibration (WBV) and other associated factors. A self-administered questionnaire and Human Vibration Meter were used in this study. A total of 159 respondents participated in this study and 102 (64.2%) of them were subjected to WBV measurement. One-hundred-and-seventeen respondents complained of LBP for the past 12 months giving a prevalence of 73.6%. The prevalence of LBP among tracked armoured vehicle drivers was higher (81.7%) as compared to wheeled armoured vehicle drivers (67.0%). The mean acceleration at Z-axis in tracked armoured vehicles (1.09 +/- 0.26 ms(-2)) and wheeled armoured vehicles (0.33 +/- 0.07 ms) were the dominant vibration directions. The mean estimated vibration dose value (eVDV) for eight-hour daily exposure at Z-axis (19.86 +/- 4.72 ms(-1.75)) in tracked armoured vehicles showed the highest estimation. Based on the European Vibration Directive (2002), the mean eVDV at Z-axis in tracked armoured vehicles exceeded exposure action value (EAV) (> 9.1 ms(-1.75), but did not exceed exposure limit value (ELV) (<21.0 ms(-1.75)). Logistic regression analysis revealed that only driving in forward bending sitting posture (OR = 3.63, 95% CI 1.06-12.42) and WBV exposure at X-axis (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.02-3.69) were significant risk factors to LBP. Preventive measures should be implemented to minimize risk of WBV and to improve ergonomic postures among drivers.

  12. Whole body periodic acceleration is an effective therapy to ameliorate muscular dystrophy in mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Francisco; Perez, Claudio F; Liu, Min; Widrick, Jeffrey; Barton, Elisabeth R; Allen, Paul D; Adams, Jose A; Lopez, Jose R

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin in both skeletal and cardiac muscles. This leads to severe muscle degeneration, and dilated cardiomyopathy that produces patient death, which in most cases occurs before the end of the second decade. Several lines of evidence have shown that modulators of nitric oxide (NO) pathway can improve skeletal muscle and cardiac function in the mdx mouse, a mouse model for DMD. Whole body periodic acceleration (pGz) is produced by applying sinusoidal motion to supine humans and in standing conscious rodents in a headward-footward direction using a motion platform. It adds small pulses as a function of movement frequency to the circulation thereby increasing pulsatile shear stress to the vascular endothelium, which in turn increases production of NO. In this study, we examined the potential therapeutic properties of pGz for the treatment of skeletal muscle pathology observed in the mdx mouse. We found that pGz (480 cpm, 8 days, 1 hr per day) decreased intracellular Ca(2+) and Na(+) overload, diminished serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and reduced intracellular accumulation of Evans Blue. Furthermore, pGz increased muscle force generation and expression of both utrophin and the carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand of nNOS (CAPON). Likewise, pGz (120 cpm, 12 h) applied in vitro to skeletal muscle myotubes reduced Ca(2+) and Na(+) overload, diminished abnormal sarcolemmal Ca(2+) entry and increased phosphorylation of endothelial NOS. Overall, this study provides new insights into the potential therapeutic efficacy of pGz as a non-invasive and non-pharmacological approach for the treatment of DMD patients through activation of the NO pathway.

  13. Effects of whole body vibration training on balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, M Adoración; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moros, Teresa; Gómez-Trullén, Eva; Casajús, José A

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether a whole body vibration training program (WBV) is able to improve static standing balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescents with DS aged 11-20 years (DSG) and 27 adolescent, age/sex matched, without DS (CG) joined the study. Participants of each group were divided into two comparable groups, those who performed WVB (in DSG: VDSG; in CG: VCG) and those who did not perform WVB (in DSG: nVDSG; in CG: nVCG). Static-standing-balance under four conditions (C1: open-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C2: closed-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C3: open-eyes/compliant-foot-support; C4: closed-eyes/compliant-foot-support) was examine, before and after a 20-week WBV training program. For balance study, Postural-Parameters (PPs), based on center of pressure (COP) oscillations (anterior/posterior and medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity), and PPs ratios among the four conditions were calculated. After WBV training, no significant differences were found in any parameter in the VCG and nVCG and neither in the nVDSG, but there was a decrease of mean values in the analyzed PPs under C4, with significant differences in medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity, and a significant decrease in the ratio C4/C1 of the mean velocity in VDSG. Therefore, WBV training had positive effects in the balance of DS adolescents although only under specific conditions, with vision and somatosensory input altered. The positive results of this study are encouraging and open a wide field of research, looking for the most efficient program for this population.

  14. Whole-body MRI in neurofibromatosis: incidental findings and prevalence of scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, Jacob L.; MacMahon, Peter J.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Merker, Vanessa L.; Plotkin, Scott R. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology and Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Mautner, Victor F. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To demonstrate incidental findings and scoliosis on whole-body MRI (WBMRI) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2 (NF1 and NF2, respectively), and schwannomatosis. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this prospective HIPAA-compliant study. A total of 247 subjects (141 with NF1, 55 with NF2, 51 with schwannomatosis; 132 women (53.5%); mean age, 41 years, range, 18-97 years) underwent WBMRI using coronal STIR (TR/TE: 4190/111 ms, TI: 150 ms) and T1-weighted images (TR/TE: 454/10 ms), 10-mm slice thickness, imaging time {proportional_to}40 min. Images were reviewed for the presence of incidental findings, outside of nerve sheath tumors. The presence of scoliosis was recorded and curve morphology was assessed and quantified. Incidental findings other than scoliosis were recorded in 104/247 (42%) patients, most often affecting the musculoskeletal system (65/247 patients, 26%). We found 16/247 (6.5%) significant incidental findings likely to affect clinical management, including avascular necrosis of bone in eight patients (five with NF2), eight insufficiency fractures, and four non-neurogenic neoplasms (Hodgkin's lymphoma, liposarcoma, dermoid cyst, large uterine myoma requiring excision). Scoliosis was seen in 50/247 patients (20%), including 8/55 with NF2 (15%) and 11/51 with schwannomatosis (22%). Incidental findings in the neurofibromatoses frequently involve the skeleton. Given the relatively high incidence of unsuspected osteonecrosis and stress fractures, close attention to the skeleton on WBMRI is advised. In addition, knowledge of common incidental findings can help clinicians prepare patients who undergo WBMRI for potential unexpected findings. (orig.)

  15. APPLICATION OF WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED MR IMAGING FOR DIAGNOSIS AND STAGING OF MALIGNANT LYMPHOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Li; Hua-dan Xue; Jian Li; Fei Sun; Bo Jiang; Dong Liu; Hong-yi Sun; Zheng-yu Jin

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical impact of whole body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) on diagnosis and staging of malignant lymphoma. Methods Thirty-one patients with suspected iymphadenopathy were enrolled. WB-DWI was performed by using short TI inversion recovery echo-planar imaging sequence with free breathing and built-in body coil. Axial T2-weighted imaging images of the same location were used as reference. The results of WB-DWI were compared with pathological results and other imaging modalities. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of different kinds of lymph nodes were compared. Results WB-DWI was positive in all 18 cases with lymphoma, 5 cases with metastatic lymph nodes and 4 of 8 cases with benign lymphadenopathy. The mean ADC value of lymphomatous, metastatic and benign lymph nodes was (0.87±0.17) × 10-3, (0.98 ± 0.09) × 10-3 and (1.20 ± 0.10) × 10-3 mm2/s. There was significant difference in ADC value between benign lymph nodes and other two groups (P < 0.01). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of WB-DWI in diagnosis of lymphoma were 100% (18/18), 30.8% (4/13) and 71.0% (22/31). When an ADC value of 1.08 × 10-3 mm2/s was used as the threshold value for differentiating malignant from benign lymph nodes, the best results were obtained with sensitivity of 87.8% and specificity of 91.3%. Sixteen of eighteen cases (88.9%) of lymphoma were accurately staged in accordance with clinical staging. Conclusions WB-DWI is a sensitive, but less specific technique for diagnosis of lymphoma. It is difficult to differentiate lymphomatous from metastatic lymph nodes using WB-DWI. However, it is a valuable imaging modality for staging of patients with malignant lymphoma.

  16. Long-term whole-body vibration training in two late-onset Pompe disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnese, Federica; Thiele, Simone; Wenninger, Stephan; Schoser, Benedikt

    2016-08-01

    The treatment of late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) relies on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and physiotherapy but the most appropriate exercise program is not yet established. Whole-body vibration training (WBVT) has showed promising results, improving motor performances in various populations. Our aim is to assess the effects of WBVT performed by two LOPD patients in addition to ERT and physiotherapy. A side-alternating WBVT lasting 2 years; clinical assessments included: manual muscle testing (MRC sumscore), knee extension and arm flection isometric strength (multi-muscle tester M3diagnos), timed function tests (10 m walking, standing-up from chair, ascending 4-steps), 6 min walking (6 MWT), motor disability (Walton Gardner-Medwin scale), pulmonary function. Follow-up evaluations performed for 9 years since ERT start (pre-WBVT and post-WBVT) are reported for comparison. MRC sumscore improved in both patients (Pt.1:41 → 48, Pt.2:42 → 47) as isometric strength of knee extension (Pt.1: + 62 %, Pt.2: + 26 %) and arm flection (Pt.1: + 88 %, Pt.2: + 66 %), 6 MWT improved in Pt.1 (+75 m). Timed function tests did not greatly change. Patients reported no significant CK elevation or WBVT-related complaints. WBVT may be safely used in LOPD and seems to moderately boost muscle strength in patients receiving ERT and physiotherapy for more than 3 years. Larger cohorts should be studied to better assess WBVT potential as adjunctive exercise tool in LOPD.

  17. Modulation of the Cutaneous Silent Period in the Upper-Limb with Whole-Body Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Nathanial R; Poston, Brach; Riley, Zachary A

    2016-01-01

    The silent period induced by cutaneous electrical stimulation of the digits has been shown to be task-dependent, at least in the grasping muscles of the hand. However, it is unknown if the cutaneous silent period is adaptable throughout muscles of the entire upper limb, in particular when the task requirements are substantially altered. The purpose of the present study was to examine the characteristics of the cutaneous silent period in several upper limb muscles when introducing increased whole-body instability. The cutaneous silent period was evoked in 10 healthy individuals with electrical stimulation of digit II of the right hand when the subjects were seated, standing, or standing on a wobble board while maintaining a background elbow extension contraction with the triceps brachii of ~5% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) strength. The first excitatory response (E1), first inhibitory response (CSP), and second excitatory response (E2) were quantified as the percent change from baseline and by their individual durations. The results showed that the level of CSP suppression was lessened (47.7 ± 7.7% to 33.8 ± 13.2% of baseline, p = 0.019) and the duration of the CSP inhibition decreased (p = 0.021) in the triceps brachii when comparing the seated and wobble board tasks. For the wobble board task the amount of cutaneous afferent inhibition of EMG activity in the triceps brachii decreased; which is proposed to be due to differential weighting of cutaneous feedback relative to the corticospinal drive, most likely due to presynaptic inhibition, to meet the demands of the unstable task.

  18. Modulation of the Cutaneous Silent Period in the Upper-Limb with Whole-Body Instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanial R Eckert

    Full Text Available The silent period induced by cutaneous electrical stimulation of the digits has been shown to be task-dependent, at least in the grasping muscles of the hand. However, it is unknown if the cutaneous silent period is adaptable throughout muscles of the entire upper limb, in particular when the task requirements are substantially altered. The purpose of the present study was to examine the characteristics of the cutaneous silent period in several upper limb muscles when introducing increased whole-body instability. The cutaneous silent period was evoked in 10 healthy individuals with electrical stimulation of digit II of the right hand when the subjects were seated, standing, or standing on a wobble board while maintaining a background elbow extension contraction with the triceps brachii of ~5% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC strength. The first excitatory response (E1, first inhibitory response (CSP, and second excitatory response (E2 were quantified as the percent change from baseline and by their individual durations. The results showed that the level of CSP suppression was lessened (47.7 ± 7.7% to 33.8 ± 13.2% of baseline, p = 0.019 and the duration of the CSP inhibition decreased (p = 0.021 in the triceps brachii when comparing the seated and wobble board tasks. For the wobble board task the amount of cutaneous afferent inhibition of EMG activity in the triceps brachii decreased; which is proposed to be due to differential weighting of cutaneous feedback relative to the corticospinal drive, most likely due to presynaptic inhibition, to meet the demands of the unstable task.

  19. EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON SPRINT RUNNING KINEMATICS AND EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Paradisis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volunteers (12 women and 12 men participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12 into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30 min·d-1, 3 times a week on a vibration platform. The amplitude of the vibration platform was 2.5 mm and the acceleration was 2.28 g. The control group did not participate in any training. Tests were performed Pre and post the training period. Sprint running performance was measured during a 60 m sprint where running time, running speed, step length and step rate were calculated. Explosive strength performance was measured during a counter movement jump (CMJ test, where jump height and total number of jumps performed in a period of 30 s (30CVJT. Performance in 10 m, 20 m, 40 m, 50 m and 60 m improved significantly after 6 wk of WBV training with an overall improvement of 2.7%. The step length and running speed improved by 5.1% and 3.6%, and the step rate decreased by 3.4%. The countermovement jump height increased by 3.3%, and the explosive strength endurance improved overall by 7.8%. The WBV training period of 6 wk produced significant changes in sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance

  20. Effects of Whole-body Vibration Training on Sprint Running Kinematics and Explosive Strength Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgos, Paradisis; Elias, Zacharogiannis

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV) training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volunteers (12 women and 12 men) participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12) into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30 min·d(-1), 3 times a week) on a vibration platform. The amplitude of the vibration platform was 2.5 mm and the acceleration was 2.28 g. The control group did not participate in any training. Tests were performed Pre and post the training period. Sprint running performance was measured during a 60 m sprint where running time, running speed, step length and step rate were calculated. Explosive strength performance was measured during a counter movement jump (CMJ) test, where jump height and total number of jumps performed in a period of 30 s (30CVJT). Performance in 10 m, 20 m, 40 m, 50 m and 60 m improved significantly after 6 wk of WBV training with an overall improvement of 2.7%. The step length and running speed improved by 5.1% and 3.6%, and the step rate decreased by 3.4%. The countermovement jump height increased by 3.3%, and the explosive strength endurance improved overall by 7.8%. The WBV training period of 6 wk produced significant changes in sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Key pointsWBV training.Sprint running kinematics.Explosive strength performance.

  1. Singles transmission scans performed post-injection for quantitative whole body FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.J.; Benard, F.; Karp, J.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Post-injection singles transmission scanning has been implemented in the septumless PENN PET 240H scanner (prototype of the GE QUEST). The method uses a 6 mCi point transmission source of {sup 137}Cs at the axial center and 37 cm of transaxial center of the camera field of view. Singles transmission scans of 1.8 minutes per bed axial position provide similar scan count densities to 15 minute coincidence transmission scans with 0.5 mCi {sup 68}Ge rod transmission source. Scatter and emission contamination suppression are achieved by applying a narrow 662 keV transmission photopeak energy window. The residual 511 keV emission contamination constitutes a background of uniform spatial distribution. Accurate and low noise attenuation correction is achieved by segmenting the singles transmission images into lung and soft tissue volumes. Established 511 keV gamma ray attenuation coefficients are then applied and these images are forward projected for attenuation correction. Expectation maximisation or OS-EM reconstruction of the transmission and emission images is used to improve image quality. Both the segmentation and OS-EM reconstruction maintain quantitative accuracy in the fully corrected emission images compared to measured coincidence transmission correction. Thus, a clinical protocol involving 40 minutes of emission scans followed by 20 minutes of singles transmission scans allow the 60 cm of the human torso to be fully scanned within 60 minutes. These quantitative whole body FDG PET images may then be used for tumor grading and assessment of tumor response to treatment.

  2. Characterisation of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome in French Bulldogs Using Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Chieh Liu

    Full Text Available Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS is an important health and welfare problem in several popular dog breeds. Whole-body barometric plethysmography (WBBP is a non-invasive method that allows safe and repeated quantitative measurements of respiratory cycles on unsedated dogs. Here respiratory flow traces in French bulldogs from the pet population were characterised using WBBP, and a computational application was developed to recognise affected animals. Eighty-nine French bulldogs and twenty non-brachycephalic controls underwent WBBP testing. A respiratory functional grading system was used on each dog based on respiratory signs (i.e. respiratory noise, effort, etc. before and after exercise. For development of an objective BOAS classifier, functional Grades 0 and I were considered to have insignificant clinical signs (termed here BOAS- and Grades II and III to have significant signs (termed here BOAS+. A comparison between owner-perception of BOAS and functional grading revealed that 60 % of owners failed to recognise BOAS in dogs that graded BOAS+ in this study.WBBP flow traces were found to be significantly different between non-brachycephalic controls and Grade 0 French bulldogs; BOAS- and BOAS+ French bulldogs. A classifier was developed using quadratic discriminant analysis of the respiratory parameters to distinguish BOAS- and BOAS + French bulldogs, and a BOAS Index was calculated for each dog. A cut-off value of the BOAS Index was selected based on a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the classifier on the training group (n=69 were 0.97, 0.93, 0.95, and 0.97, respectively. The classifier was validated using a test group of French bulldogs (n=20 with an accuracy of 0.95. WBBP offers objective screening for the diagnosis of BOAS in French Bulldogs. The technique may be applied to other brachycephalic breeds affected by BOAS, and

  3. Whole-body MRI for full assessment and characterization of diffuse inflammatory myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Saleh Elessawy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a highly valuable tool for full assessment of the extent of bilateral symmetrical diffuse inflammatory myopathy, owing to its high sensitivity in the detection of edema which correlates with, and sometimes precedes, clinical findings. Purpose To evaluate the use of whole-body (WB-MRI in characterization and full assessment of the extent and distribution of diffuse inflammatory myopathy. Material and Methods A prospective study on 15 patients presenting with clinical evidence of inflammatory myopathy. It included 4 boys/men and 11 girls/women (age range, 6–44 years; mean age, 25.5 years. 1.5 T WB-MRI was performed and the distribution and extent of disease severity was assessed according to muscle edema on STIR images. Results Four cases of dermatomyositis showed lower limb disease predilection with edema in gluteal, thigh, and calf muscles. The same finding was seen in one case with recurrent polymyositis and three cases with overlap myositis with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Bilateral upper and lower limb myositis was demonstrated in three cases of polymyositis and one case of overlap myositis with scleroderma. Bilateral edema involving all scanned muscle groups was detected in three cases of polymyositis with paraneoplastic syndrome, SLE, and severe active dermatomyositis (including the neck muscles. Conclusion WB-MRI is the diagnostic modality of choice for cases of inflammatory myopathy. It accurately detects the most severely affected muscles candidate for biopsy and provides a reliable baseline study for follow-up of disease progression as well as response to treatment.

  4. sEMG during Whole-Body Vibration Contains Motion Artifacts and Reflex Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lienhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the excessive spikes observed in the surface electromyography (sEMG spectrum recorded during whole-body vibration (WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and/or reflex activity. The occurrence of motion artifacts was tested by electrical recordings of the patella. The involvement of reflex activity was investigated by analyzing the magnitude of the isolated spikes during changes in voluntary background muscle activity. Eighteen physically active volunteers performed static squats while the sEMG was measured of five lower limb muscles during vertical WBV using no load and an additional load of 33 kg. In order to record motion artifacts during WBV, a pair of electrodes was positioned on the patella with several layers of tape between skin and electrodes. Spectral analysis of the patella signal revealed recordings of motion artifacts as high peaks at the vibration frequency (fundamental and marginal peaks at the multiple harmonics were observed. For the sEMG recordings, the root mean square of the spikes increased with increasing additional loads (p < 0.05, and was significantly correlated to the sEMG signal without the spikes of the respective muscle (r range: 0.54 - 0.92, p < 0.05. This finding indicates that reflex activity might be contained in the isolated spikes, as identical behavior has been found for stretch reflex responses evoked during direct vibration. In conclusion, the spikes visible in the sEMG spectrum during WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and possibly reflex activity.

  5. Body surface area determined by whole-body CT scanning: need for new formulae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Chiara; Primeau, Charlotte; Hesse, Ulrik; Hougen, Hans Petter; Lynnerup, Niels; Hesse, Birger

    2017-03-01

    Calculation of the estimated body surface area (BSA) by body height and weight has been a challenge in the past centuries due to lack of a well-documented gold standard. More recently, available techniques such as 3D laser surface scanning and CT scanning may be expected to quantify the BSA in an easier and more accurate way. This study provides the first comparison between BSA obtained from post-mortem whole-body CT scans and BSA calculated by nine predictive formulae. The sample consisted of 54 male cadavers ranging from 20 to 87 years old. 3D reconstructions were generated from CT scans using Mimics software, and BSA values were automatically extracted from the program. They were compared with nine predictive equations from the literature. Remarkably, close correlations (r > 0·90) were found between BSA values from CT scans and those from the predictive formulae. A mean BSA of the 54 cadavers of 1·84-1·87 m(2) was calculated by all formulae except one, SD values varying between 0·171 and 0·223 m(2) . T-tests revealed significant differences between mean BSA values calculated with CT and three of the formulae. Regression analyses showed intercepts >(0;0) and slopes <1·0 using all predictive equations, with the CT scan determination as gold standard. It is concluded that DuBois and DuBois' equation can be safely used in normal-weight male subjects with high accuracy, but it seems likely that BSA is underestimated in underweight subjects and overestimated in overweight individuals. Creation of new formulae specific for overweight subjects and children may be needed.

  6. Impact of different treatment of whole-body cryotherapy on circulatory parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Felice Giulio; De Nardi, Massimo; Fappani, Aldo; Zani, Viviana; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Cryotherapy is commonly used as a procedure to relieve pain symptoms, particularly in inflammatory diseases, injuries and overuse symptoms. A peculiar form of cold therapy or stimulation was proposed 30 years ago for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The therapy consists in the exposure to very cold air in special cryochambers. The air is maintained at temperatures between -110 and -160°C. The treatment was named whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). It consists in a brief exposure to extreme cold in a temperature-controlled chamber. It is applied to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms caused by numerous disorders, particularly those associated with rheumatic conditions, and it is recommended for the treatment of arthritis, fibromyalgia and ankylosing spondylitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatment of WBC on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) parameters in adult subjects characterized from non-pathological values of BP. Eighty subjects (36 females, 44 males, age range 19-80 years) submitted to 4-17 WBC applications for a total of 816 treatments were recruited. Immediately before and after each WBC application systolic and diastolic BP and HR were measured and recorded. We did not find significant differences in BP and HR (p > 0.05). WBC seems to be safe with respect to unwanted BP and HR alterations for adult patients. An individual monitoring of subjects is recommended over the treatment, but pathological changes of circulatory parameters can be considered rare and occasional.

  7. Mental state and quality of life after 10 session whole-body cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska-Gieracha, Joanna; Borsuk, Paulina; Pawik, Malwina; Rymaszewska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a whole-body cryotherapy (WBCT) on various parameters of the mental state of patients depending on their age, gender, and diagnosed illness. The study included 55 subjects - 43 women and 12 men aged from 20 to 70 years. Based on the diagnosed illness, the patients were divided into two diagnostic groups. The first group consisted of patients with spinal pain syndromes (n = 34). The second group comprised patients with peripheral joint disease (n = 21). All patients underwent 10 WBCT sessions. The subjects completed a survey at two time points: before the first WBCT treatment (T1) and after completing the tenth treatment (T2). The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-Bref) questionnaire and the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI) questionnaire were used in the study. After a series of WBCT treatments, the WHOQOL-Bref and PGWBI scores significantly improved (p = .005161, p = .000862, respectively). WBCT proved to be more effective in enhancing the mood and well-being of the patients than in improving their quality of life. WBCT has a significant influence on improving the well-being and mood of patients (in terms of both psychological and somatic aspects) and consequently leads to an improvement in their quality of life. The worse the mental state of the patients is prior to the cryotherapy, the stronger its effect. The observed effectiveness of cryotherapy was the strongest in women, patients with spinal pains and in patients with severe depressive symptoms.

  8. Ciprofloxacin Enhances Stress Erythropoiesis in Spleen and Increases Survival after Whole-Body Irradiation Combined with Skin-Wound Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    and clearly distinguished red pulp from white pulp (Figure 4A and B bottom panels). It has been reported that red pulp macrophages (RPMs) digest ...the recommendations and guidelines of the American Veterinary Medical Association. For the survival study, we observed animals every 2 hours during work...resonance system . Calibration of the dose rate with alanine was directly traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National

  9. Real-Time Telemetric Monitoring in Whole-Body 60Co Gamma-Photon Irradiated Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    anemia , and thrombocytopenia could occur. Moistened biscuits with fruit juice, fluids, and/or colloids would be provided. During days 14–25, the...logical features. In: The Laboratory Nonhuman Pri- mate. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2002. 11 Haigh MV, Paterson E: Effects of a single session of

  10. Prospective randomized comparison of single-dose versus hyperfractionated total-body irradiation in patients with hematologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girinsky, T.; Benhamou, E.; Bourhis, J.H.; Dhermain, F.; Guillot-Valls, D.; Ganansia, V.; Luboinski, M.; Perez, A.; Cosset, J.M.; Socie, G.; Baume, D.; Bouaouina, N.; Briot, E.; Baudre, A.; Bridier, A.; Pico, J.L

    2001-02-01

    The efficiency of the two irradiation modes are similar, but the hyperfractionated irradiation seems superior in term of global and specific survival. The incidence rates of pneumopathies are not different between the two groups but the incidence rate of the liver vein-occlusive illness is superior in the group treated by non fractionated whole body irradiation. The cost of the hyperfractionated whole body irradiation is superior to this one of the non fractionated whole body irradiation around a thousand dollars. (N.C.)

  11. Clinical Value of Whole-body Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Weighted Imaging on Detection of Malignant Metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Li; Zhen-sheng Liu; Xian-mao Du; Ling He; Jian Chen; Wei Wang; Fei Sun; Fang Du; Zhi-gang Luo; Zhen-long Xue; Yi Zhao; Chang-wu Zhou

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the value of whole-body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) on detection of malignant metastasis.Methods Forty-six patients with malignant tumors underwent WB-DWI examinations between April 2007 and August 2007 in our hospital. Before WB-DWI examination, the primary cancers of all the patients were confirmed by pathology, and the TNM-stage was assessed with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). WB-DWl was performed using short TI inversion recovery echo-planar imaging (STIR-EPI) sequence. Abnormal high signal intensities on WB-DWI were considered as metastases. The results of WB-DWI were compared with other imaging modalities. For the assessment of the diagnostic capability of WB-DWl, WB-DWI were compared with CT for demonstrating mediastinal lymph node metastases and lung metastases, and with conventional MRI for demonstrating metastases in other locations.Results WB-DWI demonstrated 143 focuses, 14 of which were diagnosed to he benign lesions in routine imaging. The number of bone metastases depicted on WB-DWI and routine imaging was 85 and 86; lymph node metastases was 17 and 18; liver metastases was 14 and 14; lung metastases was 4 and 8; and brain metastases was 6 and 8, respectively. WB-DWI failed to detect 12 metastatic lesions including 3 osteoplastic bone metastases, 4 lung metastases, 3 mediastinal lymph node metastases, and 2 brain metastases. Four metastatic lesions including 2 deltopectoral lymph nodes and 2 rib metastases were detected with WB-DWI alone, all of which evolved greatly during clinical follow-up for more than 6 months. WB-DWI had higher detection rates for metastatic lesions in liver, bone, and lymph nodes than those in lung and brain (X2=30, P<0.001).Conclusions WB-DWI could detect most of metastatic lesions that were diagnosed with conventional MRI and CT. The limitations of WB-DWI might be had high false-positive rate and low efficiency in detecting mediastinal lymph node, brain, and

  12. Health hazard assessment of tractor driver whole-body vibration utilizing the ISO 2631 standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Ahmadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available v\\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML;} o\\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML;} w\\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML;} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML;} Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} In order to quantify tractor driver Whole-Body Vibration (WBV induced by some of the agricultural operations, the ISO 2631 standard was utilized. Detailed methodology of the calculation of the WBV evaluating indices using the time-domain acceleration data analysis was presented. According to the results of the study, typical weighted root mean square (WRMS value of the Z-axis vibration was more than the WRMS value of the X and Y axes vibrations. Furthermore all of the severity categories (SV obtained from driving the tractor on asphalt road, plowing and power tilling based on the equivalent daily stress