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Sample records for acute vocal variability

  1. Prospective investigation of nimodipine for acute vocal fold paralysis.

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    Rosen, Clark A; Smith, Libby; Young, Vyvy; Krishna, Priya; Muldoon, Matthew F; Munin, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    Nimodipine has been shown to be beneficial for recovery from acute vocal fold paralysis (AVFP) in an animal model. prospective, open-label trial of patients with AVFP was performed using nimodipine. Consecutive patients were evaluated and offered nimodipine therapy. Fifty-three patients were considered for treatment with nimodipine. Thirteen did not qualify for inclusion, 5 were lost to follow-up, and 7 had side effects requiring cessation of treatment. Thus 28 patients (30 paralyzed vocal folds) were analyzed. Eighteen of the paralyzed vocal folds experienced recovery of purposeful motion (60%). Historical controls and laryngeal electromyography meta-analysis suggest no more than a 20% recovery rate from AVFP. This open label study using nimodipine for treatment of AVFP demonstrates tripling of the recovery rate of vocal fold motion compared with historical controls. Further study in a randomized, controlled manner is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A hypothesis on improving foreign accents by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits

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    Anna J Simmonds

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid vocal motor learning is observed when acquiring a language in early childhood, or learning to speak another language later in life. Accurate pronunciation is one of the hardest things for late learners to master and they are almost always left with a non-native accent. Here I propose a novel hypothesis that this accent could be improved by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits during learning. Much of the neurobiology of human vocal motor learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Jarvis (2004 proposed the hypothesis that as in songbirds there are two pathways in humans: one for learning speech (the striatal vocal learning pathway, and one for production of previously learnt speech (the motor pathway. Learning new motor sequences necessary for accurate non-native pronunciation is challenging and I argue that in late learners of a foreign language the vocal learning pathway becomes inactive prematurely. The motor pathway is engaged once again and learners maintain their original native motor patterns for producing speech, resulting in speaking with a foreign accent. Further, I argue that variability in neural activity within vocal motor circuitry generates vocal variability that supports accurate non-native pronunciation. Recent theoretical and experimental work on motor learning suggests that variability in the motor movement is necessary for the development of expertise. I propose that there is little trial-by-trial variability when using the motor pathway. When using the vocal learning pathway variability gradually increases, reflecting an exploratory phase in which learners try out different ways of pronouncing words, before decreasing and stabilizing once the ‘best’ performance has been identified. The hypothesis proposed here could be tested using behavioral interventions that optimize variability and engage the vocal learning pathway for longer, with the prediction that this would allow learners to

  3. Resting-associated vocalization emitted by captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus: acoustic structure and variability in an unusual mammalian vocalization.

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    Irena Schneiderová

    Full Text Available Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals.

  4. Effects of Parental Interaction on Infant Vocalization Rate, Variability and Vocal Type

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    Franklin, Beau; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Messinger, Daniel; Bene, Edina; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Lee, Chia-Chang; Lambert, Brittany; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Examination of infant vocalization patterns across interactive and noninteractive contexts may facilitate better understanding of early communication development. In the current study, with 24 infant-parent dyads, infant volubility increased significantly when parent interaction ceased (presenting a "still face," or SF) after a period of…

  5. [Jinsangsanjie capsule for treating vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules].

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    Zhang, Sulin; Li, Yuncheng; Wang, Yanjun; Kong, Weijia

    2012-08-01

    To investigate therapeutic effects of Jinsangsanjie capsule on vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules. Seventy-five patients with vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules were treated by taking Jinsangsanjie capsule orally. After the therapeutic course, they were all followed up for 1 month. The effective rate of vocal nodule group was 93.8%, the effective rate of vocal fold polyp group was 89.7%, the effective rate of vocal nodule with acute congestion group was 100%, the effective rate of vocal fold polyp with acute congestion group was 100%, and the effective rate of hypertrophy of vocal cords with chronic congestion group was 66.7%. Jinsangsanjie capsule has definite efficacy for treatment of vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules and deserved to be recommended.

  6. Drug delivery system of basic fibroblast growth factor using gelatin hydrogel for restoration of acute vocal fold scar.

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    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Mizuta, Masanobu; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kishimoto, Yo; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Kanemaru, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    There continue to be therapeutic challenges in the management of vocal fold scarring. We previously showed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) injection has therapeutic potential for vocal fold scarring. However, the working time of bFGF is relatively short, and multiple injections were required in many cases to obtain the regenerative effect. An efficacious delivery system for bFGF has yet to be established. We designed a method of sustained drug delivery system (DDS) of bFGF by using a gelatin hydrogel. Hydrogel has been developed for targeted delivery and controlled release of bFGF. Hydrogel of the particle type is also injectable and commercially available. The current study aims to investigate the effects of a single injection of bFGF-DDS on acute vocal fold scarring using a canine model. Vocal folds from eight beagles were unilaterally scarred by stripping the lamina propria. One month later, hydrogels (0.5ml) containing 10μg of bFGF were injected into the scarred vocal folds of four beagles (FGF-hydrogel group). Saline (0.5ml) was injected into the other four beagles (sham group). Vibratory and histological examination of excised larynges was performed 5 months after treatment. Comparative analysis between the current data and our previous data with repeated injection of bFGF solution was also completed. Vibratory examination demonstrated significantly improved vibration in the bFGF hydrogel-treated group. Histological examination of the bFGF hydrogel group showed restoration of hyaluronic acid in the lamina propria as compared to sham. Comparison between the DDS system and our previous bFGF solution injection indicated better effects of the DDS system on vibratory amplitude. A single injection of bFGF hydrogel has regenerative effects on acute vocal fold scarring, which is at least similar to repeated injection of bFGF solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. South East Pacific atmospheric composition and variability sampled along 20° S during VOCALS-REx

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    G. Allen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx was conducted from 15 October to 15 November 2008 in the South East Pacific (SEP region to investigate interactions between land, sea and atmosphere in this unique tropical eastern ocean environment and to improve the skill of global and regional models in representing the region. This study synthesises selected aircraft, ship and surface site observations from VOCALS-REx to statistically summarise and characterise the atmospheric composition and variability of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL and Free Troposphere (FT along the 20° S parallel between 70° W and 85° W. Significant zonal gradients in mean MBL sub-micron aerosol particle size and composition, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and ozone were seen over the campaign, with a generally more variable and polluted coastal environment and a less variable, more pristine remote maritime regime. Gradients in aerosol and trace gas concentrations were observed to be associated with strong gradients in cloud droplet number. The FT was often more polluted in terms of trace gases than the MBL in the mean; however increased variability in the FT composition suggests an episodic nature to elevated concentrations. This is consistent with a complex vertical interleaving of airmasses with diverse sources and hence pollutant concentrations as seen by generalised back trajectory analysis, which suggests contributions from both local and long-range sources. Furthermore, back trajectory analysis demonstrates that the observed zonal gradients both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere are characteristic of marked changes in airmass history with distance offshore – coastal boundary layer airmasses having been in recent contact with the local land surface and remote maritime airmasses having resided over ocean for in excess of ten days. Boundary layer composition to the east of 75° W was observed to be dominated by coastal

  8. Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism: Structural Characteristics, Variability, and Effects of Auditory Stimulation

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    Lanovaz, Marc J.; Sladeczek, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine (a) the relationship between the structural characteristics (i.e., bout duration, inter-response time [IRT], pitch, and energy) and overall duration of vocal stereotypy, and (b) the effects of auditory stimulation on the duration and temporal structure of the behavior. In the first experiment, we measured…

  9. Marine boundary layer over the subtropical southeast Pacific during VOCALS-REx – Part 2: Synoptic variability

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    D. A. Rahn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of this work we study the day-to-day variability of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MBL over the subtropical southeast Pacific using primarily results from a numerical simulation that covered the whole VOCALS-REx period (October–November 2008. In situ and satellite-derived observations of the MBL height in the offshore region indicate rapid, significant variations (from 500 m to 1700 m a.s.l. over a few days during October. These MBL changes are connected with the passage of midlatitude troughs that altered the large-scale environment over the VOCALS-REx region. In contrast, the synoptic forcing and MBL changes were less prominent during November. Modelled and observed MBL depth at Point Omega (20° S, 85° W compare quite well during October (but the simulation is on average 200 m lower while in November the simulation does not perform as well.

    In the prognostic local MBL height equation the height change, the horizontal MBL height advection, and the large scale vertical velocity at MBL top are calculated explicitly from the simulation. The entrainment velocity is calculated as the residual of the other terms in the equation. While the vertical velocity and residual terms are opposing and generally have the largest magnitude on average, it is the variability in the advection that explains most of the large changes in the MBL depth. Examination of several cases during VOCALS-REx suggests that the advective term is in turn largely controlled by changes in wind direction, driven by midlatitude activity, acting on a MBL that generally slopes down toward the coast. In one phase, the subtropical anticyclone is reinforced and extends toward the Chilean coast, leading to easterly wind that advects low MBL heights from the coast as far as Point Omega. The opposite phase occurs after the passage of an extratropical cyclone over southern Chile, leading to southwesterly wind that advects a deeper MBL towards subtropical

  10. Effects of acute ethanol administration and chronic stress exposure on social investigation and 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Willey, Amanda R; Spear, Linda P

    2013-04-01

    Adolescents drink largely in social situations, likely in an attempt to facilitate social interactions. This study sought to examine alterations in the incentive salience of a social stimulus following repeated stress exposure and acute ethanol administration in adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Subjects were either exposed to 5days of restraint stress, chronic variable stress (CVS), which consisted of a different stressor every day, or non-stressed. On test day, the animals were injected with 0, 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75g/kg ethanol and placed in a social approach test in which they could see, hear, and smell a social conspecific, but could not physically interact with it. All the animals showed an interest in the social stimulus, with adolescents engaging in more social investigation than adults. Restraint stressed adults showed ethanol-induced increases in social investigation, while ethanol effects were not seen in any other group. An ethanol-associated increase in 50kHz ultrasonic vocalization (USV) production was only evident in restraint stressed adolescents following 0.75g/kg ethanol. 50kHz USVs were not correlated with time spent investigating the social stimulus in any test condition. These results show that age differences in the facilitatory effects of ethanol on incentive salience of social stimuli are moderated by stress, with the facilitation of social approach by ethanol only evident in restraint stressed adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of within subjects variability in mouse ultrasonic vocalization: pups exhibit inconsistent, state-like patterns of call production

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    Michael Adam Rieger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV in multiple communicative contexts, including adult social interaction (e.g., male to female courtship, as well as pup calls when separated from the dam. Assessment of pup USV has been widely applied in models of social and communicative disorders, dozens of which have shown alterations to this conserved behavior. However, features such as call production rate can vary substantially even within experimental groups and it is unclear to what extent aspects of USV represent stable trait-like influences or are vulnerable to an animal's state. To address this question, we have employed a mixed modeling approach to describe consistency in USV features across time, leveraging multiple large cohorts recorded from two strains, and across ages/times. We find that most features of pup USV show consistent patterns within a recording session, but inconsistent patterns across postnatal development. This supports the conclusion that pup USV is most strongly influenced by state-like variables. In contrast, adult USV call rate and call duration show higher consistency across sessions and may reflect a stable trait. However, spectral features of adult song such as the presence of pitch jumps do not show this level of consistency, suggesting that pitch modulation is more susceptible to factors affecting the animal's state at the time of recording. Overall, the utility of this work is threefold. First, as variability necessarily affects the sensitivity of the assay to detect experimental perturbation, we hope the information provided here will be used to help researchers plan sufficiently powered experiments, as well as prioritize specific ages to study USV behavior and to decide which features to consider most strongly in analysis. Second, via the mouseTube platform, we have provided these hundreds of recordings and associated data to serve as a shared resource for other researchers interested in either benchmark data for

  12. Vocal Cord Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy can sometimes be an option. Symptoms Vocal cords open and closed Vocal cords open and closed Your vocal cords are two ... Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research. 2014;6:47. Vocal cord paralysis Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Doctors & departments Advertisement ...

  13. Variability in antibiotic use across Ontario acute care hospitals.

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    Tan, Charlie; Vermeulen, Marian; Wang, Xuesong; Zvonar, Rosemary; Garber, Gary; Daneman, Nick

    2017-02-01

    Antibiotic stewardship is a required organizational practice for Canadian acute care hospitals, yet data are scarce regarding the quantity and composition of antibiotic use across facilities. We sought to examine the variability, and risk-adjusted variability, in antibiotic use across acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada's most populous province. Antibiotic purchasing data from IMS Health, previously demonstrated to correlate strongly with internal antibiotic dispensing data, were acquired for 129 Ontario hospitals from January to December 2014 and linked to patient day (PD) denominator data from administrative datasets. Hospital variation in DDDs/1000 PDs was determined for overall antibiotic use, class-specific use and six practices of clinical or ecological significance. Multivariable risk adjustment for hospital and patient characteristics was used to compare observed versus expected utilization. There was 7.4-fold variability in the quantity of antibiotic use across the 129 acute care hospitals, from 253 to 1873 DDDs/1000 PDs. Variation was evident within hospital subtypes, exceeded that explained by hospital and patient characteristics, and included wide variability in proportion of broad-spectrum antibiotics (IQR 36%-48%), proportion of fluoroquinolones among respiratory antibiotics (IQR 40%-62%), proportion of ciprofloxacin among urinary anti-infectives (IQR 44%-60%), proportion of antibiotics with highest risk for Clostridium difficile (IQR 29%-40%), proportion of 'reserved-use' antibiotics (IQR 0.8%-3.5%) and proportion of anti-pseudomonal antibiotics among antibiotics with Gram-negative coverage (IQR 26%-40%). There is extensive variability in antibiotic use, and risk-adjusted use, across acute care hospitals. This could motivate, focus and benchmark antibiotic stewardship efforts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  14. Involvement of Glutamate NMDA Receptors in the Acute, Long-Term, and Conditioned Effects of Amphetamine on Rat 50kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations

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    Costa, Giulia; Morelli, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rats emit 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in response to either natural or pharmacological pleasurable stimuli, and these USVs have emerged as a new behavioral measure for investigating the motivational properties of drugs. Earlier studies have indicated that activation of the dopaminergic system is critically involved in 50kHz USV emissions. However, evidence also exists that non-dopaminergic neurotransmitters participate in this behavioral response. Methods: To ascertain whether glutamate transmission plays a role in 50kHz USV emissions stimulated by amphetamine, rats received five amphetamine (1–2mg/kg, i.p.) administrations on alternate days in a test cage, either alone or combined with the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1–0.5mg/kg, i.p.). Seven days after treatment discontinuation, rats were re-exposed to the test cage to assess drug conditioning, and afterwards received a drug challenge. USVs and locomotor activity were evaluated, along with immunofluorescence for Zif-268 in various brain regions and spontaneous alternation in a Y maze. Results: Amphetamine-treated rats displayed higher 50kHz USV emissions and locomotor activity than vehicle-treated rats, and emitted conditioned vocalizations on test cage re-exposure. Rats co-administered amphetamine and MK-801 displayed lower and dose-dependent 50kHz USV emissions, but not lower locomotor activity, during repeated treatment and challenge, and scarce conditioned vocalization compared with amphetamine-treated rats. These effects were associated with lower levels of Zif-268 after amphetamine challenge and spontaneous alternation deficits. Conclusions: These results indicate that glutamate transmission participates in the acute, long-term, and conditioned effects of amphetamine on 50kHz USVs, possibly by influencing amphetamine-induced long-term neuronal changes and/or amphetamine-associated memories. PMID:25991653

  15. Heart rate variability is reduced during acute uncomplicated diverticulitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chenxi; Alamili, Mahdi; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to report the trajectory of heart rate variability (HRV) indices during a low-grade acute inflammation and their associations to biomarkers for infection. METHODS: Twelve patients with uncomplicated acute diverticulitis completed this observational study......, which composed of 3 sessions of continuous HRV recording from 9 PM to 8 AM during ongoing diverticulitis and at complete remission (baseline). The blood samples were collected at each study session measuring C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocytes. RESULTS: This study showed that the trajectories...... of the HRV indices were decreased both in time and frequency domains during acute diverticulitis compared to baseline. In particular, the indices reflecting the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic activities were affected: standard deviation of normal-to-normal beats (P = .003), low-frequency power (P...

  16. Heart rate variability is reduced during acute uncomplicated diverticulitis.

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    Huang, Chenxi; Alamili, Mahdi; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the trajectory of heart rate variability (HRV) indices during a low-grade acute inflammation and their associations to biomarkers for infection. Twelve patients with uncomplicated acute diverticulitis completed this observational study, which composed of 3 sessions of continuous HRV recording from 9 PM to 8 AM during ongoing diverticulitis and at complete remission (baseline). The blood samples were collected at each study session measuring C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocytes. This study showed that the trajectories of the HRV indices were decreased both in time and frequency domains during acute diverticulitis compared to baseline. In particular, the indices reflecting the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic activities were affected: standard deviation of normal-to-normal beats (P = .003), low-frequency power (P diverticulitis suggesting inflammatory involvement in the observed HRV alterations. We found substantial HRV depression in relation to acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, and this was associated with the elevated CRP levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Variability of patient safety culture in Belgian acute hospitals.

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    Vlayen, Annemie; Schrooten, Ward; Wami, Welcome; Aerts, Marc; Barrado, Leandro Garcia; Claes, Neree; Hellings, Johan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to measure differences in safety culture perceptions within Belgian acute hospitals and to examine variability based on language, work area, staff position, and work experience. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed to hospitals participating in the national quality and safety program (2007-2009). Hospitals were invited to participate in a comparative study. Data of 47,136 respondents from 89 acute hospitals were used for quantitative analysis. Percentages of positive response were calculated on 12 dimensions. Generalized estimating equations models were fitted to explore differences in safety culture. Handoffs and transitions, staffing, and management support for patient safety were considered as major problem areas. Dutch-speaking hospitals had higher odds of positive perceptions for most dimensions in comparison with French-speaking hospitals. Safety culture scores were more positive for respondents working in pediatrics, psychiatry, and rehabilitation compared with the emergency department, operating theater, and multiple hospital units. We found an important gap in safety culture perceptions between leaders and assistants within disciplines. Administration and middle management had lower perceptions toward patient safety. Respondents working less than 1 year in the current hospital had more positive safety culture perceptions in comparison with all other respondents. Large comparative databases provide the opportunity to identify distinct high and low scoring groups. In our study, language, work area, and profession were identified as important safety culture predictors. Years of experience in the hospital had only a small effect on safety culture perceptions.

  18. NOAEL-dose of a neonicotinoid pesticide, clothianidin, acutely induce anxiety-related behavior with human-audible vocalizations in male mice in a novel environment.

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    Hirano, Tetsushi; Yanai, Shogo; Takada, Tadashi; Yoneda, Naoki; Omotehara, Takuya; Kubota, Naoto; Minami, Kiichi; Yamamoto, Anzu; Mantani, Youhei; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2018-01-05

    Neonicotinoids are novel systemic pesticides acting as agonists on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects. Experimental studies have revealed that neonicotinoids pose potential risks for the nervous systems of non-target species, but the brain regions responsible for their behavioral effects remain incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess the neurobehavioral effects of clothianidin (CTD), a later neonicotinoid developed in 2001 and widely used worldwide, and to explore the target regions of neonicotinoids in the mammalian brain. A single-administration of 5 or 50mg/kg CTD to male C57BL/6N mice at or below the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) induced an acute increase in anxiety during the elevated plus-maze test. In addition, mice in the CTD-administered group spontaneously emitted human-audible vocalizations (4-16kHz), which are behavioral signs of aversive emotions, and showed increased numbers of c-fos immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In conclusion, mice exposed to NOAEL-dose CTD would be rendered vulnerable to a novel environment via the activation of thalamic and hippocampal regions related to stress responses. These findings should provide critical insight into the neurobehavioral effects of neonicotinoids on mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Macrogeographical variability in the great call of Hylobates agilis: assessing the applicability of vocal analysis in studies of fine-scale taxonomy of gibbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R; Pedersen, Adam Frederik Sander; Wang, Christian William

    2010-01-01

    Vocal characteristics have been used extensively to distinguish different taxonomic units of gibbons (family Hylobatidae). The agile gibbon (Hylobates agilis) has a disjunct distribution range in the Southeast Asian archipelago (remnants of the former Sunda landmass), and populations on different...

  20. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds.

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    Guillaume Lemaitre

    Full Text Available Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by through a different system (the voice apparatus. The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products, human vocal imitations, and computational "auditory sketches" (created by algorithmic computations. The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access

  1. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

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    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  2. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

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    Ingo Titze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size, range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1 laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2 nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid, so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers, increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations.

  3. Sleep disordered breathing as a delayed complication of iatrogenic vocal cord trauma

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    Faiz, Saadia A.; Bashoura, Lara; Kodali, Lavanya; Hessel, Amy C.; Evans, Scott E.; Balachandran, Diwakar

    2017-01-01

    A case of a 55 year old woman with iatrogenic vocal cord trauma and sleep related symptoms is reported. In particular this case highlights sleep disordered breathing as a delayed complication after iatrogenic vocal cord trauma. The patient developed acute stridor from a contralateral vocal cord hematoma following vocal fold injection for right vocal cord paralysis. Acute respiratory symptoms resolved with oxygen, steroids and nebulized therapy, but nocturnal symptoms persisted and polysomnography revealed sleep-related hypoventilation and mild obstructive sleep apnea. Positive pressure therapy was successfully used to ameliorate her symptoms and treat sleep disordered breathing until her hematoma resolved. In addition to the typically acute respiratory symptoms that may result from vocal cord dysfunction, sleep disordered breathing may also present as a significant sub-acute or chronic problem. Management of the acute respiratory symptoms is relatively well established, but clinicians should be alert for more subtle nocturnal symptoms that may require further study with polysomnography. PMID:27544828

  4. Prediction of acute and late responses to light therapy from vocal (pitch) and self-rated activation in seasonal affective disorder.

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    Boenink, A D; Bouhuys, A L; Beersma, D G; Meesters, Y

    1997-02-01

    It was hypothesized that pre-treatment activation plays a role in the response to light therapy in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). In 55 SAD patients (DSMIII-R) energetic and tense activation was assessed before light therapy via self-rating (AD-ACL) and voice sound characteristics (mean pitch and variation in pitch). These variables were studied in relation to the "acute" response to 4 days of light therapy (30 min, 10000 lux) and to a "late" response (11 (10) days after light therapy had stopped). Acute response was defined as the percent change in 3 times daily self-rated depressed mood (AMS) with respect to the average of 4 baseline days. "Late" response was defined as the percent change in HRSD or AMS scores between baseline and 11 (10) days after light therapy. It was found that patients having high pitched voices with small variation in this pitch benefitted more from light therapy than the patients with low pitch and large variation in pitch levels. This effect was only significant after the first day of light exposure. No other significant relations were found between baseline activation and acute or late responses to light therapy. Hence, light therapy seems to give extra comfort in "tense" patients, who become rapid responders to light therapy.

  5. Influence of climate variability on acute myocardial infarction mortality in Havana, 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Alina; Bolufé, Javier; Ortiz, Paulo L; Rodríguez, Yunisleydi; Reyes, María C

    2015-04-01

    Death from acute myocardial infarction is due to many factors; influences on risk to the individual include habits, lifestyle and behavior, as well as weather, climate and other environmental components. Changing climate patterns make it especially important to understand how climatic variability may influence acute myocardial infarction mortality. Describe the relationship between climate variability and acute myocardial infarction mortality during the period 2001-2012 in Havana. An ecological time-series study was conducted. The universe comprised 23,744 deaths from acute myocardial infarction (ICD-10: I21-I22) in Havana residents from 2001 to 2012. Climate variability and seasonal anomalies were described using the Bultó-1 bioclimatic index (comprising variables of temperature, humidity, precipitation, and atmospheric pressure), along with series analysis to determine different seasonal-to-interannual climate variation signals. The role played by climate variables in acute myocardial infarction mortality was determined using factor analysis. The Mann-Kendall and Pettitt statistical tests were used for trend analysis with a significance level of 5%. The strong association between climate variability conditions described using the Bultó-1 bioclimatic index and acute myocardial infarctions accounts for the marked seasonal pattern in AMI mortality. The highest mortality rate occurred during the dry season, i.e., the winter months in Cuba (November-April), with peak numbers in January, December and March. The lowest mortality coincided with the rainy season, i.e., the summer months (May-October). A downward trend in total number of deaths can be seen starting with the change point in April 2009. Climate variability is inversely associated with an increase in acute myocardial infarction mortality as is shown by the Bultó-1 index. This inverse relationship accounts for acute myocardial infarction mortality's seasonal pattern.

  6. Designing resistance training programmes to enhance muscular fitness: a review of the acute programme variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen P; Tarpenning, Kyle M; Marino, Frank E

    2005-01-01

    The popularity of resistance training has grown immensely over the past 25 years, with extensive research demonstrating that not only is resistance training an effective method to improve neuromuscular function, it can also be equally effective in maintaining or improving individual health status. However, designing a resistance training programme is a complex process that incorporates several acute programme variables and key training principles. The effectiveness of a resistance training programme to achieve a specific training outcome (i.e. muscular endurance, hypertrophy, maximal strength, or power) depends on manipulation of the acute programme variables, these include: (i) muscle action; (ii) loading and volume; (iii) exercise selection and order; (iv) rest periods; (v) repetition velocity; and (vi) frequency. Ultimately, it is the acute programme variables, all of which affect the degree of the resistance training stimuli, that determine the magnitude to which the neuromuscular, neuroendocrine and musculoskeletal systems adapt to both acute and chronic resistance exercise. This article reviews the available research that has examined the application of the acute programme variables and their influence on exercise performance and training adaptations. The concepts presented in this article represent an important approach to effective programme design. Therefore, it is essential for those involved with the prescription of resistance exercise (i.e. strength coaches, rehabilitation specialists, exercise physiologists) to acquire a fundamental understanding of the acute programme variables and the importance of their practical application in programme design.

  7. Vocal process granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Dousary, S

    1997-06-01

    Vocal process granuloma or contact ulcer is uncommon disease in which there is chronic irritation and granulation tissue formation at the posterior third of the vocal folds. Thirteen patients (11 men and two women) with vocal process granuloma were enrolled in this study; cases of intubation granuloma were excluded. The most frequent complaints were throat irritation, frequent throat clearing and voice change. Forty-seven percent of patients had a recurrence two to four months after surgery. Computed tomography (CT) of the larynx in four patients showed arytenoid sclerosis on the involved side and disclosed moderate enhancement of the vocal fold granuloma after contrast injection in one. Three patients had hyperacidity and four had hyperfunctioning granulomas: two used their voices excessively and the other two had bilateral sulcus vocalis. To our knowledge this is the first report of sulcus vocalis with vocal process granuloma, and of enhanced vocal process granuloma.

  8. A sensorimotor area in the songbird brain is required for production of vocalizations in the song learning period of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piristine, Hande C; Choetso, Tenzin; Gobes, Sharon M H

    2016-11-01

    Sensory feedback is essential for acquiring and maintaining complex motor behaviors, including birdsong. In zebra finches, auditory feedback reaches the song control circuits primarily through the nucleus interfacialis nidopalii (Nif), which provides excitatory input to HVC (proper name)-a premotor region essential for the production of learned vocalizations. Despite being one of the major inputs to the song control pathway, the role of Nif in generating vocalizations is not well understood. To address this, we transiently inactivated Nif in late juvenile zebra finches. Upon Nif inactivation (in both hemispheres or on one side only), birds went from singing stereotyped zebra finch song to uttering highly variable and unstructured vocalizations resembling sub-song, an early juvenile song form driven by a basal ganglia circuit. Simultaneously inactivating Nif and LMAN (lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium), the output nucleus of a basal ganglia circuit, inhibited song production altogether. These results suggest that Nif is required for generating the premotor drive for song. Permanent Nif lesions, in contrast, have only transient effects on vocal production, with song recovering within a day. The sensorimotor nucleus Nif thus produces a premotor drive to the motor pathway that is acutely required for generating learned vocalizations, but once permanently removed, the song system can compensate for its absence. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1213-1225, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Vocal Symptoms and Their Intercorrelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybacka, Ida; Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, Simberg et al. (2009) found genetic effects on a composite variable consisting of 6 vocal symptom items measuring dysphonia. The purpose of the present study was to determine genetic and environmental effects on the individual vocal symptoms in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. Method: The sample comprised 1,728 twins…

  10. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  11. Coping strategies in teachers with vocal complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Behlau, Mara

    2014-05-01

    To understand the coping strategies used by teachers with vocal complaints, compare the differences between those who seek and those who do not seek voice therapy, and investigate the relationships among coping and voice perceptual analysis, coping and signs and symptoms of voice, and coping and participation restrictions and limitations in vocal activities. Cross-sectional nonrandomized prospective study with control group. Ninety female teachers participated in the study, of similar ages, divided into three groups: group 1 (G1) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who sought voice therapy, group 2 (G2) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who never sought voice therapy, and group 3 (G3) comprised 30 teachers without vocal complaints. The following analysis were conducted: identification and characterization questionnaire, addressing personal and occupational description, recording speech material for voice perceptual analysis, Voice Signs and Symptoms Questionnaire, Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP), and Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire (VDCQ)-Brazilian Version. In relation to the voice perceptual analysis, there was statistically significant difference between the groups with vocal complaint (G1+G2), which had showed voices with mild-to-moderate deviation, and the group without vocal complaint (G1), which showed voices within the normal variability of voice quality (mean for G1 = 49.9, G2 = 43.7, and G3 = 32.3, P vocal complaints who looked for voice therapy (G1) tended to use more problem-focused strategies and had higher scores in VDCQ (G1 = 45.4, G2 = 38.5, and G3 = 9.5, P vocal deviation, VAPP total score, VAPP partial scores of self-perceived severity of voice problem, effect on daily communication, effect on emotion, and participation restriction for G1; VAPP total score and partial score of effect on daily communication for G2; and all VAPP scores for G3. No correlation was found between voice signs and

  12. Lung Functional and Biologic Responses to Variable Ventilation in Experimental Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samary, Cynthia S; Moraes, Lillian; Santos, Cintia L; Huhle, Robert; Santos, Raquel S; Ornellas, Debora S; Felix, Nathane S; Capelozzi, Vera L; Schanaider, Alberto; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Rocco, Patricia R M; Silva, Pedro L

    2016-07-01

    The biologic effects of variable ventilation may depend on the etiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. We compared variable and conventional ventilation in experimental pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome. Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. University research laboratory. Twenty-four Wistar rats. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide administered intratracheally (pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome, n = 12) or intraperitoneally (extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome, n = 12). After 24 hours, animals were randomly assigned to receive conventional (volume-controlled ventilation, n = 6) or variable ventilation (n = 6). Nonventilated animals (n = 4 per etiology) were used for comparison of diffuse alveolar damage, E-cadherin, and molecular biology variables. Variable ventilation was applied on a breath-to-breath basis as a sequence of randomly generated tidal volume values (n = 600; mean tidal volume = 6 mL/kg), with a 30% coefficient of variation (normal distribution). After randomization, animals were ventilated for 1 hour and lungs were removed for histology and molecular biology analysis. Variable ventilation improved oxygenation and reduced lung elastance compared with volume-controlled ventilation in both acute respiratory distress syndrome etiologies. In pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome, but not in extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome, variable ventilation 1) decreased total diffuse alveolar damage (median [interquartile range]: volume-controlled ventilation, 12 [11-17] vs variable ventilation, 9 [8-10]; p ventilation, 21.5 [18.3-23.3] vs variable ventilation, 5.6 [4.6-12.1]; p ventilation, 2.0 [1.3-2.1] vs variable ventilation, 0.7 [0.6-1.4]; p ventilation, 0.3 [0.2-0.5] vs variable ventilation, 0.8 [0.5-1.3]; p ventilation increased vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA expression (volume

  13. Bicarbonate availability for vocal fold epithelial defense to acidic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkes, Abigail; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Bicarbonate is critical for acid-base tissue homeostasis. In this study we investigated the role of bicarbonate ion transport in vocal fold epithelial defense to acid challenges. Acidic insults to the larynx are common in gastric reflux, carcinogenesis and metastasis, and acute inflammation. Ion transport was measured in viable porcine vocal fold epithelium. First, 18 vocal folds were exposed to either the carbonic anhydrase antagonist acetazolamide or to vehicle. Second, 32 vocal folds were exposed to either a control buffer or a bicarbonate-free buffer on their luminal or basolateral surface or both. Third, 32 vocal folds were challenged with acid in the presence of bicarbonate-free or control buffer. The vocal fold transepithelial resistance was greater than 300 Ω*cm(2), suggesting robust barrier integrity. Ion transport did not change after exposure to acetazolamide (p > 0.05). Exposure to bicarbonate-free buffer did not compromise vocal fold ion transport (p > 0.05). Ion transport increased after acid challenge. This increase approached statistical significance and was the greatest for the control buffer and for the bicarbonate-free buffer applied to the basolateral surface. Bicarbonate secretion may contribute to vocal fold defense against acid challenge. Our data offer a potential novel role for bicarbonate as a therapeutic agent to reduce pH abnormalities in the larynx and prevent associated pathological changes.

  14. Adverse incidents, patient flow and nursing workforce variables on acute psychiatric wards: the Tompkins Acute Ward Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Len; Allan, Teresa; Simpson, Alan; Nijman, Henk; Warren, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Adverse incidents (violence, self-harm and absconding) can cause significant harm to patients and staff, are difficult to predict, and are driving an increase in security measures and defensive practice. To explore the relationship between adverse incidents on acute psychiatric wards, admissions and nursing workforce variables. A retrospective analysis of officially collected data covering a period of 30 months on 14 acute wards at three hospitals. This data included 69 serious untoward incidents. Adverse incidents were more likely during and after weeks of high numbers of male admissions, during weeks when other incidents also occurred, and during weeks of high regular staff absence through leave and vacancy. It may be possible to predict adverse incidents. Careful staff management and deployment may reduce the risks.

  15. Impacto vocal de professores Teachers' vocal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ricarte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o impacto vocal nas atividades diárias em professores do ensino médio. Correlacionar os achado da auto-percepção do problema vocal com os aspectos: efeitos no trabalho, na comunicação diária, na comunicação social e na sua emoção. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por 107 professores, sendo 86 com queixa e 21 sem queixa, selecionados em escolas da rede particular de ensino de Maceió-AL. Cada professor respondeu individualmente o protocolo Perfil Participação em Atividades Vocais na presença da pesquisadora, assinalando suas respostas em uma escala visual que varia de 0 a 10. O protocolo é composto por 28 questões com a presença integrada em cinco aspectos englobados para avaliar a qualidade de vida e o resultado de tratamentos vocais. O protocolo oferece, ainda, dois escores adicionais: pontuação de limitação nas atividades (PLA e de restrição de participação (PRP. RESULTADOS: na comparação dos grupos com e sem queixa vocal foram verificados que todos os resultados foram estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: to analyze the vocal impact in the daily activities on high-school teachers. Correlate the finding of the auto-perception on the vocal problem with the following aspects: effects in the work, daily communication, social communication and, its emotion METHODS: the sample consisted of 107 teachers, 86 with and 21 with no complaint, selected from private teaching schools in Maceió-AL. Each teacher answered individually the Protocol for Voice Activity Participation Profile in the presence of the researcher, noting their responses on a visual scale ranging from 0 to 10. The protocol is composed of 28 questions with the presence integrated in five aspects to evaluate the quality of life and the result of vocal treatments. The protocol offers, still, two additional scores: punctuation of limitation in the activities (PLA and restriction of participation (PRP. RESULTS: comparing the groups with

  16. Vocal nodules in a colombian teachers group with dysphonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrés Felipe Alvarado Díaz; Carlos Eduardo Pinzón; José Rafael Tovar Cuevas; Adriana Fajardo Hoyos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study determined the prevalence of vocal nodules associated with dysphonia in teachers aged from 35 to 65 years, taking into consideration both individual and occupational variables. Methodology...

  17. Role of heart rate variability in predicting the severity of severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyao; Zhou, Jing; Ke, Lu; Nie, Yao; Tong, Zhihui; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2014-10-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) are major complications of acute pancreatitis which determine disease severity and outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate the value of admission heart rate variability as a marker of IPN or MODS in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients. Forty-one SAP patients within 72 h of symptoms onset were included in this prospective observational study. General demographics, laboratory data and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores were recorded at admission. 5-minute ECG signals were obtained at the same time for heart rate variability analyses to assess SAP severity. The baseline heart rate variability measurements, levels of low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) were significantly lower whereas high frequency norm (nHF) levels were significantly higher in patients who present with IPN and MODS or died (P procalcitonin. nHF and LF/HF were better than APACHE II in predicting IPN and LF/HF showed superiority over APACHE II in the prediction of MODS. Admission heart rate variability is a good marker of IPN and MODS in SAP patients.

  18. Vocal Cord Nodules, Polyps, and Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in three forms; nodules, polyps, and cysts. Vocal Cord Nodules (also called Singer's Nodes, Screamer's Nodes) Vocal ... when overuse of the area is stopped. Vocal Cord Polyp A vocal cord polyp typically occurs only ...

  19. Dose dependency and individual variability of the lipopolysaccharide-induced bovine acute phase protein response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.; Tølbøll, T.

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the dose dependency and the individual variability of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute phase protein response in cattle, 8 nonlactating, nonpregnant Danish Holstein cows were challenged 3 times each by intravenous injection of increasing doses (10, 100, and 1000 ng....../kg, consecutively) of Escherichia coli LPS with 3-wk intervals. All 3 LPS doses resulted in a rapid increase in serum concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) and a decrease in serum concentrations of albumin in all 8 cows. Serum concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP) remained altered...... not only reflect the magnitude of LPS exposure but are also influenced by the ability of the individual cow to mount an acute phase response. The ability to produce SAA and haptoglobin may be an innate characteristic of the individual, as responses in consecutive challenges were quantitatively similar....

  20. Clinical Variables Associated with Hydration Status in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Shabbir, Yasmeen; Miller, Leslie; Silliman, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Acute stroke patients with dysphagia are at increased risk for poor hydration. Dysphagia management practices may directly impact hydration status. This study examined clinical factors that might impact hydration status in acute ischemic stroke patients with dysphagia. A retrospective chart review was completed on 67 ischemic stroke patients who participated in a prior study of nutrition and hydration status during acute care. Prior results indicated that patients with dysphagia demonstrated elevated BUN/Cr compared to non-dysphagia cases during acute care and that BUN/Cr increased selectively in dysphagic patients. This chart review evaluated clinical variables potentially impacting hydration status: diuretics, parenteral fluids, tube feeding, oral diet, and nonoral (NPO) status. Exposure to any variable and number of days of exposure to each variable were examined. Dysphagia cases demonstrated significantly more NPO days, tube fed days, and parenteral fluid days, but not oral fed days, or days on diuretics. BUN/Cr values at discharge were not associated with NPO days, parenteral fluid days, oral fed days, or days on diuretics. Patients on modified solid diets had significantly higher mean BUN/Cr values at discharge (27.12 vs. 17.23) as did tube fed patients (28.94 vs. 18.66). No difference was noted between these subgroups at baseline (regular diet vs. modified solids diets). Any modification of solid diets (31.11 vs. 17.23) or thickened liquids (28.50 vs. 17.81) resulted in significantly elevated BUN/Cr values at discharge. Liquid or diet modifications prescribed for acute stroke patients with dysphagia may impair hydration status in these patients.

  1. Fractal analysis of heart rate variability and mortality after an acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapanainen, Jari M; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Køber, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The recently developed fractal analysis of heart rate (HR) variability has been suggested to provide prognostic information about patients with heart failure. This prospective multicenter study was designed to assess the prognostic significance of fractal and traditional HR variability parameters...... in a large, consecutive series of survivors of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A consecutive series of 697 patients were recruited to participate 2 to 7 days after an AMI in 3 Nordic university hospitals. The conventional time-domain and spectral parameters and the newer fractal scaling indexes of HR...... variability were analyzed from 24-hour RR interval recordings. During the mean follow-up of 18.4 +/- 6.5 months, 49 patients (7.0%) died. Of all the risk variables, a reduced short-term fractal scaling exponent (alpha(1)

  2. Factors Involved in Vocal Fatigue: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Behlau, Mara; Bruneel, Laura; Meerschman, Iris; Luyten, Anke; Lambrecht, Stien; Cassol, Mauriceia; Corthals, Paul; Kryshtopava, Maryna; Wuyts, Floris L; Claeys, Sofie; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the vocal characteristics of a treatment-seeking population with the primary complaint of vocal fatigue (VF). Forty-three men (mean age 42 years, range 19-69) and 145 women (mean age 34 years, range 18-68) were included. None of the subjects had received voice therapy or previous laryngeal surgery. A questionnaire, laryngeal and perceptual evaluations, aerodynamic and acoustic parameters, and the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) were used to determine vocal characteristics. In 74% of the subjects, flexible laryngeal videostroboscopic evaluation revealed a vocal pathology, with vocal nodules and muscle tension dysphonia as the most frequently diagnosed pathologies. Vocal abuse/misuse was present in 65% of the subjects. A median DSI value of -0.4 and -0.8 was found in female and male patients, respectively. Aerodynamic and acoustic parameters and DSI scores were significantly different from normative data. VF is a vocal sign with a significant need for medical consultation, especially in future professional voice users. Understanding the occurrence and the influencing variables of VF may help to close the gap between early stages of a vocal problem and the starting point of a well-established disorder. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. MARATHON DESPITE UNILATERAL VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach

    2008-06-01

    vocal fold paralysis for the first time. Although a marathon race is an endurance exertion without maximum acute strain on the respiratory system (McArdle et al., 2001, the sport medical examinations also showed no restriction at maximum exertion, neither expiratory nor inspiratory. An unilateral vocal fold paralysis is apparently not such a serious obstacle to the respiratory tract that one would have to reckon with a clear-cut respiratory deficit. Exercise testing of larger samples of patients with vocal fold paralysis should be performed concerning their capacity to endure exertion.The question in the present case thus remains the causal connection between the paralysis and unspecific respiratory complaints. The laryngological examination speaks against an acute event. A possible cause of the vocal fold paralysis is the thoracotomy or the pleuritis in childhood; Due to the time lapse of over 40 years, this cannot be proven. The entire diagnostic spectrum excluded another organic cause for her respiratory complaints, so that we tend to assume a functional or psychosomatic nature. As the symptoms vanished spontaneously, no further proof of this can be offered

  4. Vocal cord palsy: An uncommon presenting feature of myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi Prahlad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal cord palsy can have myriad causes. Unilateral vocal cord palsy is common and frequently asymptomatic. Trauma, head, neck and mediastinal tumors as well as cerebrovascular accidents have been implicated in causing unilateral vocal cord palsy. Viral neuronitis accounts for most idiopathic cases. Bilateral vocal cord palsy, on the other hand, is much less common and is a potentially life-threatening condition. Myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies targeting the post-synaptic acetylcholine receptor, has been infrequently implicated in its causation. We report here a case of bilateral vocal cord palsy developing in a 68-year-old man with no prior history of myasthenia gravis 2 months after he was operated on for diverticulitis of the large intestine. Delay in considering the diagnosis led to endotracheal intubation and prolonged mechanical ventilation with attendant complications. Our case adds to the existing literature implicating myasthenia gravis as an infrequent cause of bilateral vocal cord palsy. Our case is unusual as, in our patient, acute-onset respiratory distress and stridor due to bilateral vocal cord palsy was the first manifestation of a myasthenic syndrome.

  5. Vocal cord paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundfast, K M; Harley, E

    1989-06-01

    The information presented in this article demonstrates that unilateral or bilateral vocal cord paresis or paralysis in infants and children is difficult to diagnose and difficult to manage. In an attempt to provide the otolaryngologist with a concise set of relevant guidelines, the following rules for management are presented here. 1. Suspect bilateral abductor vocal cord paralysis (BAVP) when a neonate or infant presents with high-pitched inspiratory stridor and evidence of airway compromise. Factors that should increase the suspicion of BAVP include associated Arnold-Chiari malformation; congenital anatomic abnormality involving the mediastinum (for example, tracheoesophageal fistula, vascular ring, other vascular anomalies); dysmorphic syndromes, especially those involving brainstem dysfunction; and manifest findings indicative of neuromuscular disorder. The neonate or infant with Arnold-Chiari malformation and inspiratory stridor has bilateral abductor vocal cord paralysis until proven otherwise. 2. Suspect unilateral vocal cord paresis or paralysis in an infant or child with hoarse voice, low-pitched cry, or breathy cry or voice. The infant who develops mild stridor and hoarse cry following surgical repair of a patent ductus arteriosus or tracheoesophageal fistula has a unilateral vocal cord paralysis until proven otherwise. 3. Direct laryngoscopy with the flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscope and photodocumentation using a videocassette recorder offers the best method for diagnosis of vocal cord paresis or paralysis. Additional diagnostic studies that may be helpful include radiographic studies, CT scan, MRI scan, electromyography of the larynx, and, in older children, stroboscopy. 4. In using a flexible direct laryngoscope be careful not to interpret all motions of the vocal cords or arytenoids as evidence to preclude the diagnosis of vocal cord paralysis or paresis and be careful not to mistake the anterior intraluminal portion of a normal cricoid

  6. Impact of operator experience on the variability of fetal lung volume estimation by 3D-ultrasound (VOCAL) and magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizek, B; Cos Sanchez, T; Khalifé, J; Jani, J; Cannie, M

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of operator experience in volumetric measurements on intra- and inter-observer variability of lung volume estimation by 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We conducted a retrospective single-center study. Total fetal lung volume (TFLV) was measured twice using 52 stored 3D-ultrasound volumes and 52 corresponding MRI exams by a fetal medicine specialist with no experience in volumetric measurements and two operators experienced in the respective techniques. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate intra- and inter-observer variability. Measurements of TFLV by 3D-ultrasound showed higher intra-observer variability compared with MRI irrespective of operator experience, with narrower 95% limits of agreement on MRI as compared with ultrasound measurements. Similarly, 3D-ultrasound showed higher inter-observer variability as compared with MRI. Finally the 95% limits of agreement at ultrasound were quite comparable for intra-observer variability between the experienced and the inexperienced operator. Our study shows that operator experience has an impact on the variability of TFLV and, in the absence of experience in volumetric measurements, estimation of TFLV in fetuses with CDH by 3D-ultrasound shows higher variability than MRI measurements, but even in experienced hands variability is greater for 3D-ultrasound.

  7. Individual variability in compensatory eating following acute exercise in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mark; Blundell, John E; King, Neil A

    2014-10-01

    While compensatory eating following acute aerobic exercise is highly variable, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the alterations in exercise-induced eating behaviour. Overweight and obese women (body mass index=29.6±4.0 kg/m(2)) performed a bout of cycling individually tailored to expend 400 kcal (EX) or a time-matched no exercise control condition in a randomised, counter-balanced order. 60 min after the cessation of exercise, an ad libitum test meal was provided. Substrate oxidation and subjective appetite ratings were measured during exercise/time-matched rest, and during the period between the cessation of exercise and food consumption. While ad libitum energy intake (EI) did not differ between EX and the control condition (666.0±203.9 vs 664.6±174.4 kcal, respectively; ns), there was a marked individual variability in compensatory EI. The difference in EI between EX and the control condition ranged from -234.3 to 278.5 kcal. Carbohydrate oxidation during exercise was positively associated with postexercise EI, accounting for 37% of the variance in EI (r=0.57; p=0.02). These data indicate that the capacity of acute exercise to create a short-term energy deficit in overweight and obese women is highly variable. Furthermore, exercise-induced CHO oxidation can explain a part of the variability in acute exercise-induced compensatory eating. Postexercise compensatory eating could serve as an adaptive response to facilitate the restoration of carbohydrate balance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model of t...

  9. Practical management: vocal cord dysfunction in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John J; Wilson, Erin M

    2006-07-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is characterized by paradoxical adduction of the vocal folds during inhalation, and occasionally upon exhalation, resulting in extrathoracic airflow obstruction. Sports medicine professionals must have a high index of suspicion for VCD when acute respiratory symptoms occur so that prompt evaluation and use of appropriate specialists results in an accurate and timely diagnosis. Many factors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of VCD, including laryngeal irritants, psychogenic and neurogenic causes. The diagnosis and management of VCD involves a variety of specialties including pulmonology, otolaryngology, speech-language pathology, allergy and immunology, and psychologic management as appropriate. The mainstay of treatment remains behavioral management guided by a medical speech-language pathologist, as well as pharmacologic management for VCD triggers.

  10. Systolic Blood Pressure Variability is a Novel Risk Factor for Rebleeding in Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-Song; Ping-Chen; Lin, Yuan-Xiang; Lin, Zhang-Ya; Yu, Liang-Hong; Dai, Lin-Sun; Kang, De-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rebleeding of an aneurysm is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated predictors of rebleeding and effect of systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) on stroke, few data on the association between SBPV and rebleeding. Here, we sought to identify the effect of SBPV on rebleeding in acute aneurysmal SAH. Case–control study. From January 2010 to June 2015, 612 patients with aneurysmal SAH were enrolled in our tertiary care medical center. Main outcome measures: Consecutive patients with acute (ictus) aneurismal rebleeding or repair or death were retrospectively included. Antihypertensive therapy based on a predefined standardized protocol was prescribed to lower and maintain SBP between 120 and 160 mm Hg. SBP was measured hourly until a censoring event occurred. SBPV was determined as standard deviation (SD) and successive variation (SV). Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between SBPV and rebleeding. Rebleeding occurred in 61 (10.0%) of the 612 patients. We identified 47 acute rebleeding as cases and 382 early repair or early death as controls. On binary logistic regression analysis, rebleeding was associated with the SD of SBP (odds ratio [OR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.131–1.391; P < 0.001) and the SV of SBP (OR, 1.131; 95% CI, 1.039–1.231; P = 0.004). No significant difference was seen between rebleeding and mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP). SBPV is associated with increased rates of acute aneurysmal rebleeding. Further prospective research is warranted to confirm that SBP stability prevents acute aneurysm rebleeding. PMID:26986118

  11. Variability of staffing and staff mix across acute care units in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna; Hastings, Stephanie E; Suter, Esther; Bloom, Judy

    2016-12-01

    The health workforce has a crucial position in healthcare, and effective distribution of the workforce is one of the critical areas for healthcare improvement. This requires a proper understanding of the allocation of healthcare providers including staffing levels and staffing variability within a healthcare system. High variability may imply significant differences in outcomes and greater opportunity to better distribute staffing and improve patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine staffing variation across acute care units in a large and integrated healthcare system. We used survey and administrative data on full time equivalencies of Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses, Health Care Aides, and allied health staff for 287 acute care units to examine staffing levels across multiple unit types. We used a subsample of 157 units in a more detailed analysis of staffing levels and staff distribution. Results from the full sample indicate that staffing levels, particularly for Registered Nurses, vary substantially across unit types. Subsample analyses showed that the highest variation in staffing levels occurred in rural units, which also had higher average staffing for licensed practical nurses and allied health staff. Rural units had fewer Health Care Aides than did other units. The majority of units were staffed with a combination of all three nursing providers, but the most common arrangement in rural units was staffing of Registered Nurses and Licensed Practical Nurses only. We also found that units with the highest number Registered Nurses also tended to have higher numbers of other staff, particularly allied health providers. We observed significant variation in staffing levels and mix in acute care units. Some of the differences might be attributable to differences in patient needs and unit types. However, we also observed high variability in units with similar services and patient populations. As other research has shown that

  12. Vocal fold motion outcome based on excellent prognosis with laryngeal electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Libby J; Rosen, Clark A; Munin, Michael C

    2016-10-01

    As laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) becomes more refined, accurate predictions of vocal fold motion recovery are possible. Focus has been on outcomes for patients with poor prognosis for vocal fold motion recovery. Limited information is available regarding the expected rate of purposeful vocal fold motion recovery when there is good to normal motor recruitment, no signs of denervation, and no signs of synkinetic activity with LEMG, termed excellent prognosis. The objective of this study is to determine the rate of vocal fold motion recovery with excellent prognosis findings on LEMG after acute recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Retrospective review. Patients undergoing a standardized LEMG protocol, consisting of qualitative (evaluation of motor recruitment, motor unit configuration, detection of fibrillations, presence of synkinesis) and quantitative (turns analysis) measurements were evaluated for purposeful vocal-fold motion recovery, calculated after at least 6 months since onset of injury. Twenty-three patients who underwent LEMG for acute vocal fold paralysis met the inclusion criteria of excellent prognosis. Eighteen patients (78.3%) recovered vocal fold motion, as determined by flexible laryngoscopy. Nearly 80% of patients determined to have excellent prognosis for vocal fold motion recovery experienced return of vocal fold motion. This information will help clinicians not only counsel their patients on expectations but will also help guide treatment. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2310-2314, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Temporal recalibration in vocalization induced by adaptation of delayed auditory feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants produced a single voice sound repeatedly with specific delay times of DAF (0, 66, 133 ms during three minutes to induce 'Lag Adaptation'. They then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback. We found that lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. Furthermore, we found that the temporal recalibration in vocalization can be affected by averaging delay times in the adaptation phase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  14. Can illness perceptions predict lower heart rate variability following acute myocardial infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Princip

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV has been reported to be a predictor of mortality after myocardial infarction (MI. Patients’ beliefs and perceptions concerning their illness may play a role in decreased HRV. This study investigated if illness perceptions predict HRV at three months following acute MI. Methods: 130 patients referred to a tertiary cardiology centre, were examined within 48 hours and three months following acute MI. At admission, patients’ cognitive representations of their MI were assessed using the German version of the self-rated Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ. At admission and after three months (follow-up, frequency and time domain measures of HRV were obtained from 5-min electrocardiogram (ECG recordings during stable supine resting. Results: Linear hierarchical regression showed that the Brief IPQ dimensions timeline (β coefficient = -0.29; p = .044, personal control (β = 0.47; p = .008 and illness understanding (β = 0.43; p = .014 were significant predictors of HRV, adjusted for age, gender, baseline HRV, diabetes, beta-blockers, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, attendance of cardiac rehabilitation, and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: As patients’ negative perceptions of their illness are associated with lower HRV following acute MI, a brief illness perception questionnaire may help to identify patients who might benefit from a specific illness perceptions intervention.

  15. [Management of acute bronchiolitis in spanish emergency wards: variability and appropriateness analysis (aBREVIADo project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Sangrador, C; González de Dios, J

    2013-09-01

    The management of acute bronchiolitis (AB) is controversial. The aim of this multicenter nationwide study in Spain is to determine the variability in the management of AB in Primary Care centers. A cross-sectional observational study (from October 2007 to March 2008) was conducted on all cases of AB (McConnochie criteria) seen in a sample of 60 Health Care Centers from 11 regions of Spain, who did not require hospital admission. A comparison between autonomous communities was made. A total of 940 cases were collected. It was found that there was a low use of diagnostic tests, although with significant differences between communities. There was an excessive use of inhaled (64.1%) or oral (17.8%) beta 2-adrenergics, and to a lesser degree of corticosteroids (25%) and other treatments of unclear efficacy (antibiotics, bronchodilators, oral, inhaled corticosteroids, ipratropium bromide, etc...). The treatment methods in the different communities varied significantly. In the acute phase there was an inappropriate use of treatments in 74.8% of cases, and in 47.4% in the maintenance phase. There are discrepancies between routine practice and evidence-based management of outpatient AB, due to a wide use of inappropriate treatments. The variability in the prescription of bronchodilators or steroids between communities shows the lack of justification and there is scope for improvement. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of cardiac autonomic function using heart rate variability in children with acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Cagdas; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Kosger, Pelin; Bolluk, Ozge; Kilic, Zubeyir; Ucar, Birsen

    2017-11-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning may cause myocardial toxicity and cardiac autonomic dysfunction, which may contribute to the development of life-threatening arrhythmias. We investigated the potential association between acute carbon monoxide exposure and cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability. The present study included 40 children aged 1-17 years who were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with acute carbon monoxide poisoning and 40 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Carboxyhaemoglobin and cardiac enzymes were measured at admission. Electrocardiography was performed on admission and discharge, and 24-hour Holter electrocardiography was digitally recorded. Heart rate variability was analysed at both time points - 24-hour recordings - and frequency domains - from the first 5 minutes of intensive care unit admission. Time domain and frequency indices such as high-frequency spectral power and low-frequency spectral power were similar between patient and control groups (p>0.05). The ratio of low-frequency spectral power to high-frequency spectral power was significantly lower in the carbon monoxide poisoning group (pcarbon monoxide poisoning group (pcarbon monoxide poisoning group compared with controls on discharge (p<0.05). The frequency domain indices, especially the ratio of low-frequency spectral power to high-frequency spectral power, are useful for the evaluation of the cardiac autonomic function. The decreased low-frequency spectral power-to-high-frequency spectral power ratio reflects a balance of the autonomic nervous system, which shifted to parasympathetic components.

  17. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Emilie M.M. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yoo, Albert J. [Texas Stroke Institute, Plano, TX (United States); Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berkhemer, Olvert A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie [AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the MR CLEAN investigators

    2016-02-15

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  18. Vocally disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M K; Kaas, M J; Richie, M F

    1996-11-01

    Vocally disruptive behavior (VDB) is intelligible or unintelligible noise making that may be goal-directed or purposeless. VDB can be conceptualized as a cyclic phenomenon. VDB has been linked to cognitive impairment, poor sleep, requiring assistance with ADLs, and being at high risk for falling. General nursing interventions for VDB include remaining calm, using gentle touch, creating a familiar, home-like environment, and using diversions during ADLs.

  19. Vocal Body, Gender and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Dordete Steckert Jacobs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The text discusses scientific and artistic discourses from the perspective of vocalities gendering, which assigns specific and binary gender marks to bodies. For this, it contextualizes the territory of Feminist Critique and Gender Theories, mainly based on the thoughts of the feminist philosopher Judith Butler, who approaches sex and gender as naturalized cultural constructions. It points, in this context, to a view of biological determinism implied in these discourses concerning the voice, which naturalizes vocal production from physiological aspects of vocal bodies, limiting the understanding of training and vocal creation in the arts.

  20. The effect of vocal tract impedance on the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the interaction between the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract with the flow across the vocal cords is well established. In this paper we are investigating the changes in vocal tract impedance when using the different modes of phonation according to Sadolin [1], going from......) . The results show changes in the resonance frequencies of the vocal tract with increasing pitch, whereas the changes between the modes are less clear due to the measurement signal being weak in comparison to the louder modes, especially at high pitches. The electroglottograph shows a very different waveform...... to different density and speed of sound in Helium. The electroglottograph shows a change in waveform when the singer inhales helium. The percentage of the glottal cycle when the vocal cords are open, the so-called open quotient, increases from 40 to 55%. When inhaling helium the male singer was able reach Eb5...

  1. A new videokymography system for evaluation of the vibration pattern of entire vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Soo-Geun; Park, Hee-June; Lee, Byung-Joo; Lee, Sung-Mo; Ko, Bumjun; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Young Min

    2016-06-01

    To overcome the limitations of previous videokymography methods, we developed a new videokymography system for the evaluation of the whole mucosal wave of the entire vocal cord mucous membrane. To confirm the usefulness of the new videokymography system, we performed videokymography to evaluate the mucosal wave of the vocal folds during modal and falsetto phonation in normal adult males. Additionally, we serially performed both laryngeal videostroboscopy and the new videokymography method in patients diagnosed with acute ulcerative laryngitis. Using the new videokymography system, the mucosal wave pattern of entire vocal folds was captured during the examination. The opening and closing durations could be differentiated, and the symmetry of amplitude and phase could be assessed. The shape of the medial and lateral peaks could be assessed. In patients with acute laryngitis, the new videokymography system showed an enhanced ability to evaluate the flexibility of the vocal folds. The new videokymography system enables recording of the whole mucosal wave pattern of entire vocal folds. Although further studies are required to confirm its clinical efficacy for the evaluation of vocal folds, the system can be applied to evaluate the static and dynamic status of vocal folds in patients with vocal cord diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptation to Delayed Speech Feedback Induces Temporal Recalibration between Vocal Sensory and Auditory Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. Participants read some sentences with specific delay times of DAF (0, 30, 75, 120 ms during three minutes to induce ‘Lag Adaptation’. After the adaptation, they then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback in producing simple voice but not speech. We found that speech production with lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  3. MEDEX 2015: Heart Rate Variability Predicts Development of Acute Mountain Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Angus; Freer, Joseph; Evans, Laura; Dolci, Alberto; Crotti, Matteo; Macdonald, Jamie Hugo

    2017-09-01

    Sutherland, Angus, Joseph Freer, Laura Evans, Alberto Dolci, Matteo Crotti, and Jamie Hugo Macdonald. MEDEX 2015: Heart rate variability predicts development of acute mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol. 18: 199-208, 2017. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) develops when the body fails to acclimatize to atmospheric changes at altitude. Preascent prediction of susceptibility to AMS would be a useful tool to prevent subsequent harm. Changes to peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) on hypoxic exposure have previously been shown to be of poor predictive value. Heart rate variability (HRV) has shown promise in the early prediction of AMS, but its use pre-expedition has not previously been investigated. We aimed to determine whether pre- and intraexpedition HRV assessment could predict susceptibility to AMS at high altitude with better diagnostic accuracy than SpO2. Forty-four healthy volunteers undertook an expedition in the Nepali Himalaya to >5000 m. SpO2 and HRV parameters were recorded at rest in normoxia and in a normobaric hypoxic chamber before the expedition. On the expedition HRV parameters and SpO2 were collected again at 3841 m. A daily Lake Louise Score was obtained to assess AMS symptomology. Low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio in normoxia (cutpoint ≤2.28 a.u.) and LF following 15 minutes of exposure to normobaric hypoxia had moderate (area under the curve ≥0.8) diagnostic accuracy. LF/HF ratio in normoxia had the highest sensitivity (85%) and specificity (88%) for predicting AMS on subsequent ascent to altitude. In contrast, pre-expedition SpO2 measurements had poor (area under the curve <0.7) diagnostic accuracy and inferior sensitivity and specificity. Pre-ascent measurement of HRV in normoxia was found to be of better diagnostic accuracy for AMS prediction than all measures of HRV in hypoxia, and better than peripheral oxygen saturation monitoring.

  4. High Resolution ECG for Evaluation of QT Interval Variability during Exposure to Acute Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupet, P.; Finderle, Z.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Starc, V.

    2010-01-01

    Ventricular repolarization instability as quantified by the index of QT interval variability (QTVI) is one of the best predictors for risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Because it is difficult to appropriately monitor early signs of organ dysfunction at high altitude, we investigated whether high resolution advanced ECG (HR-ECG) analysis might be helpful as a non-invasive and easy-to-use tool for evaluating the risk of cardiac arrhythmias during exposure to acute hypoxia. 19 non-acclimatized healthy trained alpinists (age 37, 8 plus or minus 4,7 years) participated in the study. Five-minute high-resolution 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded (Cardiosoft) in each subject at rest in the supine position breathing room air and then after breathing 12.5% oxygen for 30 min. For beat-to-beat RR and QT variability, the program of Starc was utilized to derive standard time domain measures such as root mean square of the successive interval difference (rMSSD) of RRV and QTV, the corrected QT interval (QTc) and the QTVI in lead II. Changes were evaluated with paired-samples t-test with p-values less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. As expected, the RR interval and its variability both decreased with increasing altitude, with p = 0.000 and p = 0.005, respectively. Significant increases were found in both the rMSSDQT and the QTVI in lead II, with p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively. There was no change in QTc interval length (p = non significant). QT variability parameters may be useful for evaluating changes in ventricular repolarization caused by hypoxia. These changes might be driven by increases in sympathetic nervous system activity at ventricular level.

  5. Prediction of persistent post-operative pain: Pain-specific psychological variables compared with acute post-operative pain and general psychological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn-Hofmann, C; Scheel, J; Dimova, V; Parthum, A; Carbon, R; Griessinger, N; Sittl, R; Lautenbacher, S

    2018-01-01

    Psychological variables and acute post-operative pain are of proven relevance for the prediction of persistent post-operative pain. We aimed at investigating whether pain-specific psychological variables like pain catastrophizing add to the predictive power of acute pain and more general psychological variables like depression. In all, 104 young male patients undergoing thoracic surgery for pectus excavatum correction were studied on the pre-operative day (T0) and 1 week (T1) and 3 months (T2) after surgery. They provided self-report ratings (pain-related: Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale = PASS, Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire = PVAQ; general psychological: Screening for Somatoform Symptoms, State-Anxiety Inventory-X1, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale = CES-D). Additional predictors (T1) as well as criterion variables (T2) were pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale) and pain disability (Pain Disability Index). Three months after surgery, 25% of the patients still reported clinically relevant pain (pain intensity ≥3) and over 50% still reported pain-related disability. Acute post-operative pain as well as general psychological variables did not allow for a significant prediction of persistent post-operative pain; in contrast, pain-related psychological variables did. The best single predictors were PASS for pain intensity and PVAQ for pain disability. Pain-related psychological variables derived from the fear-avoidance model contributed significantly to the prediction of persistent post-operative pain. The best possible compilation of these measures requires further research. More general psychological variables may become relevant predictors later in the medical history. Our results suggest that pain-specific psychological variables such as pain anxiety and pain hypervigilance add significantly to the prediction of persistent post-operative pain and might even outperform established predictors such as

  6. Effects of Systemic Hydration on Vocal Acoustics of 18- to 35-Year-Old Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, Maria Claudia; Simpson, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of body hydration and vocal acoustics was investigated in this study. Effects of two levels of hydration on objective measures of vocal acoustics were explored. In an attempt to reduce variability in the degree of systemic hydration and to induce a state of systemic dehydration, participants were instructed to refrain from ingestion…

  7. Medical image of the week: bilateral vocal cord paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hook CJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old morbidly obese woman with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to pulmonary emboli required emergency intubation. She was described by the anesthesiologist as having a difficult airway. The patient was liberated from the ventilator after two days. Following extubation she complained of hoarse voice and dyspnea. Physical exam revealed audible stridor. The upper airway was normal by CAT imaging. Flow-volume curve demonstrated marked flattening of both the inspiratory and expiratory limbs, consistent with a fixed extra-thoracic obstruction (Figure 1. Endoscopy revealed the vocal cords to be in the adducted position, with minimal movement throughout the respiratory cycle, consistent with bilateral vocal cord paralysis (Figure 2. Traumatic intubation follows thyroid surgery as the most common cause of bilateral vocal cord paralysis (1. In a minority of patients spontaneous recovery may occur. Surgical treatment options include cordotomy or tracheostomy. Nocturnal BIPAP has been used in patients who decline surgery (2.

  8. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible.

  9. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumović Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice were also obtained by computer analysis. Results. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in all dysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100 of adult patients and 29% (29/100 had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025 in all dysphonia parameters except SD F0 and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD F0, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03. Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affecting diverse acoustic parameters.

  10. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  11. Surgical versus non-surgical interventions for vocal cord nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mette; McGlashan, Julian

    2012-06-13

    This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 2, 2001 and previously updated in 2007 and 2009.Vocal cord nodules are bilateral, benign, callous-like growths of the mid-portion of the membranous vocal folds. They are of variable size and are characterised histologically by thickening of the epithelium with a variable degree of inflammation in the underlying superficial lamina propria. They characteristically produce hoarseness, discomfort and an unstable voice when speaking or singing. To assess the effectiveness of surgery versus non-surgical interventions for vocal cord nodules. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; ISRCTN and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was 9 April 2012. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing any surgical intervention for vocal cord nodules with non-surgical treatment or no treatment. No suitable trials were identified. No studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There is a need for high-quality randomised controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and non-surgical treatment of vocal cord nodules.

  12. Modal locking between vocal fold and vocal tract oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Vainio, Martti

    2012-01-01

    The human vocal folds are known to interact with the vocal tract acoustics during voiced speech production; namely a nonlinear source-filter coupling has been observed both by using models and in \\emph{in vivo} phonation. These phenomena are approached from two directions in this article. We first present a computational dynamical model of the speech apparatus that contains an explicit filter-source feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics back to the vocal folds oscillations. The model was used to simulate vocal pitch glideswhere the trajectory was forced to cross the lowest vocal tract resonance, i.e., the lowest formant $F_1$. Similar patterns produced by human participants were then studied. Both the simulations and the experimental results reveal an effect when the glides cross the first formant (as may happen in \\textipa{[i]}). Conversely, this effect is not observed if there is no formant within the glide range (as is the case in \\textipa{[\\textscripta]}). The experiments show smaller effect c...

  13. Sequential analysis of variable markers for predicting outcomes in pediatric patients with acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hajime; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Fukuda, Akinari; Sasaki, Kengo; Shigeta, Takanobu; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Kubota, Masaya; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Kasahara, Mureo

    2017-11-01

    Our aim was to analyze serial changes in the predictive variables and a scoring system retrospectively adapted to evaluate outcomes in pediatric patients with acute liver failure (ALF). We retrospectively collected data on 65 patients with ALF. The 65 patients were divided into two groups according to the need for liver transplantation (LT) as follows: LT group (n = 54) and non-LT group (n = 11). The early determination scoring system of the indications for LT proposed by the Intractable Hepato-Biliary Diseases Study Group of Japan (JIHBDSG) was used in our study. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was calculated for the JIHBDSG score between the LT group and non-LT group at the time of diagnosis (day 0) and day 3, and day 5 after the diagnosis. A JIHBDSG score of >3 at day 5 was found to identify the patients requiring LT with 83.7% sensitivity, 81.8% specificity, and 83.3% diagnostic accuracy. Based on a comparison of AUROC values, the JIHBDSG score on day 5 (AUROC 0.91) was higher than that on day 0 (AUROC 0.75) and day 3 (AUROC 0.84). We showed that a serial analysis of the JIHBDSG score might be useful for predicting outcomes of ALF in pediatric patients who fulfilled the criteria of LT indication in our center. However, further studies are needed to validate our results. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  14. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumović, Gordana; Veselinović, Mila; Arbutina, Tanja; Škrbić, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice) were also obtained by computer analysis. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (pvocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100) of adult patients and 29% (29/100) had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025) in all dysphonia parameters except SD FO and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD FO, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy) were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03). Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (pVocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affectinq diverse acoustic parameters.

  15. Vocal handicap index in popular and erudite professional singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola-Barreiro, Camila Miranda; Silva, Marta Assumpção de Andrada E

    To compare the voice handicap index of popular and erudite professional singers according to gender, age, professional experience time, and presence or absence of self-reported vocal complaints. One hundred thirty-two professional singers, 74 popular and 58 erudite, who responded to a questionnaire with regards to identification, age, gender, professional experience time in singing, musical genres (for popular singers), vocal classification (for erudite singers), presence of self-reported vocal complaints, and the specific protocols for popular (Modern Singing Handicap Index - MSHI) and erudite (Classical Singing Handicap Index - CSHI) singing. Higher proportion of women and higher incidence of vocal complaints were observed in the popular singers compared with the erudite singers. Most of the popular singers belonged to the genre of Brazilian Popular Music. Regarding the classification of erudite singers, there was greater participation of sopranos and tenors. No statistical differences were observed with respect to age and professional experience time between the groups. Comparison of the MSHI and CSHI scores showed no statistically significant difference between these scores and genre or age in both groups of singers. Professional experience time was related to the total score and the subscales disability and impairment in the MSHI, only for popular singers with vocal complaints. There was no correlation between these variables and the CSHI for erudite singers. The impact of vocal difficulty/problem interferes differently in these two musical genres when related to vocal complaint and professional experience time. The MSHI and CSHI protocols proved to be important tools not only for the identification of problems, but also for the understanding of how these individuals relate their voices with this occupational activity.

  16. Vocal matching by orange-fronted conures (Aratinga canicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balsby, Thorsten J S; Bradbury, Jack W

    2009-01-01

    in groups with variable composition, and lack multiple alarm signals. Here we present the results of interactive playbacks in a fission/fusion parrot species, the orange-fronted conjure (Aratinga canicularis), that provide evidence of vocal matching. A randomly selected loud contact call (chee) per trial...

  17. Personality Processes Reflected in Client Vocal Style and Rorschach Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Laura North; Gaylin, Ned L.

    1973-01-01

    Vocal style was proposed as a useful variable with which to classify groups of clients in order to study the differential effects of various therapeutic maneuvers. Relationships between voice quality ratings in early psychotherapy interviews and pretherapy Rorschach and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores were investigated in order…

  18. Factors associated with vocal fry among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor-Cutiva, Lady Catherine; Bottalico, Pasquale; Hunter, Eric

    2017-08-14

    Vocal fry is increasingly used in everyday speech. The purpose of this study was to identify associated factors of vocal fry among young US college-age students. Forty college students participated in a cross-sectional study. Participants produced speech under nine different room acoustic conditions (simulated). The recorded speech was perceptually evaluated by three speech-language pathologists. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables (individual, environmental) associated with the perceptual assessment of vocal fry. A high occurrence of perceptually identified vocal fry was identified among college students. Two factors were significantly associated with lower occurrence of perceptually identified vocal fry: one individual (sporadic consumption of caffeinated beverages) and one environmental factor (speaking in an environment with background noise). Similar to modal phonation, fry-like phonation seems to be influenced by individual and environmental factors. Therefore, clinicians interested in including this technique as part of their intervention programs may take into account the caffeine consumption and the background noise conditions of the room where the therapy will take place in order to facilitate the production of fry-like phonation.

  19. [Temperament of children with vocal fold nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Youhua; Wang, Zhinan; Xu, Zhongqiang; Chen, Ping; Hao, Lili

    2009-11-01

    To examine the temperament of children with vocal fold nodules. To compare the temperament dimension and temperamental types of 42 children with vocal fold nodules with 46 vocally normal children, using Chinese children's Temperament Problem Screening system (CCTPSs). The children with vocal fold nodules differed significantly from the comparison group in their temperament dimension's adaptability, intensity of reaction, mood value, persistency and temperamental types. There are more difficult and slow-to-warm-up children in patients with vocal fold nodules than vocally normal children.

  20. Hippotherapy acute impact on heart rate variability non-linear dynamics in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabiddu, Ramona; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Trimer, Renata; Trimer, Vitor; Ricci, Paula Angélica; Italiano Monteiro, Clara; Camargo Magalhães Maniglia, Marcela; Silva Pereira, Ana Maria; Rodrigues das Chagas, Gustavo; Carvalho, Eliane Maria

    2016-05-15

    Neurological disorders are associated with autonomic dysfunction. Hippotherapy (HT) is a therapy treatment strategy that utilizes a horse in an interdisciplinary approach for the physical and mental rehabilitation of people with physical, mental and/or psychological disabilities. However, no studies have been carried out which evaluated the effects of HT on the autonomic control in these patients. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a single HT session on cardiovascular autonomic control by time domain and non-linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The HRV signal was recorded continuously in twelve children affected by neurological disorders during a HT session, consisting in a 10-minute sitting position rest (P1), a 15-minute preparatory phase sitting on the horse (P2), a 15-minute HT session (P3) and a final 10-minute sitting position recovery (P4). Time domain and non-linear HRV indices, including Sample Entropy (SampEn), Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), were calculated for each treatment phase. We observed that SampEn increased during P3 (SampEn=0.56±0.10) with respect to P1 (SampEn=0.40±0.14, p<0.05), while DFA decreased during P3 (DFA=1.10±0.10) with respect to P1 (DFA=1.26±0.14, p<0.05). A significant SDRR increase (p<0.05) was observed during the recovery period P4 (SDRR=50±30ms) with respect to the HT session period P3 (SDRR=30±10ms). Our results suggest that HT might benefit children with disabilities attributable to neurological disorders by eliciting an acute autonomic response during the therapy and during the recovery period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prognostic value of heart rate variability after acute myocardial infarction in the era of immediate reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Ali; Coch, Michael; Bilgin, Mehmet; Parahuleva, Mariana; Tillmanns, Harald; Waldecker, Bernd; Soydan, Nedim

    2008-12-01

    The incidence and significance of impaired heart rate variability (HRV) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have not yet been evaluated in cohorts of patients in whom early reperfusion was systematically attempted. Therefore, HRV was evaluated in 412 unselected patients with AMI (311 men, mean age: 60+/-12 years, anterior AMI in 172 patients) treated with direct coronary angioplasty (PTCA) within 12 hours of symptom onset (mean 3.5+/-2.0 h). Standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN), square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, mean: 55+/-15%) were measured 11+/-9 days after AMI before discharge. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta-blockers were prescribed at discharge in 81.1% and 70.1% of patients, respectively. Mean SDNN was 94+/-30 ms (range 14-155). SDNN was 50 ms was 80% vs 92%, respectively (p<0.001, Kaplan Meier analysis). Low SDNN (odds ratio OR=2.0, p<0.05) but not RMSSD was an independent denominator for long-term mortality as were low LVEF (OR=1.0 decrease in LVEF, p<0.01, proportional hazards model) and age (OR=1.1, p<0.001). Only 3/31 fatalities and 1/24 cardiac deaths were predicted by a SDNN <50 ms and only 5/31 fatalities by a RMSSD <15 ms. The incidence of severely depressed HRV in patients after AMI is low (<10%) in the era of early reperfusion of the infarct vessel using direct PTCA. Mortality in patients with a very low HRV when assessed by SDNN is substantial but the positive predictive value of this parameter is low.

  2. Exploring the Variability in Acute Glycemic Responses to Exercise in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasuku Terada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore the factors associated with exercise-induced acute capillary glucose (CapBG changes in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods. Fifteen individuals with T2D were randomly assigned to energy-matched high intensity interval exercise (HI-IE and moderate intensity continuous exercise (MI-CE interventions and performed a designated exercise protocol 5 days per week for 12 weeks. The duration of exercise progressed from 30 to 60 minutes. CapBG was measured immediately before and after each exercise session. Timing of food and antihyperglycemic medication intake prior to exercise was recorded. Results. Overall, the mean CapBG was lowered by 1.9 mmol/L (P<0.001 with the change ranging from −8.9 to +2.7 mmol/L. Preexercise CapBG (44%; P<0.001, medication (5%; P<0.001, food intake (4%; P=0.043, exercise duration (5%; P<0.001, and exercise intensity (1%; P=0.007 were all associated with CapBG changes, explaining 59% of the variability. Conclusion. The greater reduction in CapBG seen in individuals with higher preexercise CapBG may suggest the importance of exercise in the population with elevated glycemia. Lower blood glucose can be achieved with moderate intensity exercise, but prolonging exercise duration and/or including brief bouts of intense exercise accentuate the reduction, which can further be magnified by performing exercise after meals and antihyperglycemic medication. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01144078.

  3. Resolution of pulmonary edema with variable mechanical ventilation in a porcine model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M Ruth; Gulati, Harleena; Kha, Lan; Girling, Linda G; Goertzen, Andrew; Mutch, W Alan C

    2011-08-01

    Resolution of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requires clearance of pulmonary edema. Biologically variable ventilation (BVV) strategies that improve gas exchange, lung mechanics, and inflammatory mediators in ARDS may be beneficial in this regard. We used quantitative computed tomography (CT), a single indicator thermodilution system (PiCCO®) to determine extravascular lung water (EVLW), and the change in edema protein concentration over time to compare edema clearance with BVV vs conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in a porcine ARDS model. Sixteen pigs with oleic acid lung injury were randomized to four hours of ventilation with either CMV (n = 8) or BVV (n = 8) at identical low tidal volume and minute ventilation over time. Hemodynamic variables, gas exchange, lung mechanics, and PiCCO derived EVLW were determined hourly. Computed tomography images and edema fluid samples were obtained at baseline lung injury and after four hours of ventilation. Wet and dry lung weights were determined postmortem. At four hours with BVV, peak airway pressure was decreased significantly and lung compliance improved compared with CMV (P = 0.003; P lung weight and global lung density (P = 0.005; P = 0.04 respectively) with BVV. These findings were associated with a significant increase in the gas volume of normally aerated lung regions (P lung regions (P = 0.001). No change in any CT parameter occurred with CMV. The lung weights derived from computed tomography correlated well with postmortem wet weights (R(2) = 0.79; P lung water showed no correlation with postmortem wet weights and significantly underestimated lung water. Average alveolar fluid clearance rates were positive (1.4%·hr(-1) (3%)) with BVV and negative with CMV (-2.0%·hr(-1) (4%)). In a comparison between BVV and CMV, computed tomography evidence suggests that BVV facilitates enhanced clearance and/or redistribution of edema fluid with improved recruitment of atelectatic and

  4. Domestic Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris are Sensitive to the “Human” Qualities of Vocal Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Gibson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, domestic dogs have been recognized for their ability to utilize human communicative gestures in choice tasks, as well as communicate with humans through visual and auditory means. A few dogs have even demonstrated the capacity to learn hundreds to thousands of human words and object labels with extensive training. However less is known about dogs‟ understanding or perception of human vocalizations in the absence of explicit training. This study was conducted to determine what aspects of human scolding vocalizations dogs would be most responsive to when presented with a choice to consume or avoid available food items. Variables included the gender, authenticity, word clarity and the human quality of the vocal commands. Our results suggest that dogs are generally cautious about novel sounds produced in the proximity of food. However they are most likely to avoid consumption when hearing a vocalization originally produced by a scolding human, suggesting awareness of vocal qualities common to human speech.

  5. [Voice classification in professional singers: the influence of vocal fold length, vocal tract length and body measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürbe, D; Roers, F; Sundberg, J

    2011-06-01

    Professional voice performance is strongly affected by the functional adjustments of the structures involved in voice production. Generally, these functional skills are required by means of intensive training. On the other hand, the individual morphology of the larynx and vocal tract limits this functional variability. Thus, to neglect morphological conditions might result in voice problems. The present paper summarizes investigations on the influence of morphological measurements on the voice classification of professional singers. Vocal fold length, vocal tract length and body height have been found to differ systematically between sopranos, mezzosopranos, altos, tenors, baritones and basses. Although the knowledge of morphological measures does not permit a definite assignment or prediction of the individual voice classification, the data are valuable for counseling by voice teachers and phoniatricians. This might contribute to the prevention of voice disorders.

  6. The vocal monotony of monogamy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanette

    2003-04-01

    There are four phocids in waters around Antarctica: Weddell, leopard, crabeater, and Ross seals. These four species provide a unique opportunity to examine underwater vocal behavior in species sharing the same ecosystem. Some species live in pack ice, others in factice, but all are restricted to the Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands. All breed and produce vocalizations under water. Social systems range from polygyny in large breeding colonies, to serial monogamy, to solitary species. The type of mating system influences the number of underwater vocalizations in the repertoire, with monogamous seals producing only a single call, polygynous species producing up to 35 calls, and solitary species an intermediate number of about 10 calls. Breeding occurs during the austral spring and each species carves-out an acoustic niche for communicating, with species using different frequency ranges, temporal patterns, and amplitude changes to convey their species-specific calls and presumably reduce acoustic competition. Some species exhibit geographic variations in their vocalizations around the continent, which may reflect discrete breeding populations. Some seals become silent during a vulnerable time of predation by killer whales, perhaps to avoid detection. Overall, vocalizations of these seals exhibit adaptive characteristics that reflect the co-evolution among species in the same ecosystem.

  7. The effect of active immunization against adrenocorticotropic hormone on cortisol, beta-endorphin, vocalization, and growth in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Giles, L R; Bryden, W L; Downing, J A; Collins, D C; Wynn, P C

    2005-10-01

    Because the poor growth performance of intensively housed pigs is associated with increased circulating glucocorticoid concentrations, we investigated the effects of glucocorticoid suppression by inducing a humoral immune response to ACTH on physiological and production variables in growing pigs. Grower pigs (28.6 +/- 0.9 kg) were immunized with amino acids 1 through 24 of ACTH conjugated to ovalbumin and suspended in diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) dextran-adjuvant or adjuvant alone (control) on d 1, 28, and 56. The ACTH-specific antibody titers generated suppressed increases in cortisol concentrations on d 63 in response to an acute stressor (P = 0.002; control = 71 +/- 8.2 ng/mL; ACTH-immune = 43 +/- 4.9 ng/mL) without altering basal concentrations. Plasma beta-endorphin concentrations were also increased (P immune = 63 +/- 7.3 ng/mL), presumably because of a release from negative feedback on the expression of proopiomelanocortin in pituitary corticotropes. Immunization against ACTH did not alter ADG (P = 0.120; control = 1,077 +/- 25; ACTH-immune = 1,143 +/- 25 g) or ADFI (P = 0.64; control = 2,719 +/- 42; ACTH-immune = 2,749 +/- 42 g) and did not modify behavior (P = 0.681) assessed by measuring vocalization in response to acute restraint. In summary, suppression of stress-induced cortisol responses through ACTH immunization increased beta-endorphin concentrations, but it did not modify ADG, ADFI, or restraint vocalization score in growing pigs.

  8. Vocal Frequency Measures in Normal Speaking Children and Children with Vocal Deviations. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Herbert A., Jr.; Iverson, Rachel L.

    The report examines vocal frequency differences between normal speaking children and 65 children (mean age 9-years) with vocal nodules and accompanying vocal quality disturbances. In part I of the study children were screened by a physician and their voices were recorded and analyzed by a digitizer-computer system for mean vocal frequency,…

  9. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  10. Disabled Vocal Cords: An Occupational Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Norma B.

    1987-01-01

    A teacher points out the occupational hazard that can result from the misuse of the voice and ensuing vocal cord damage. Presents discussion of ways to avoid misusing the voice and prevent vocal cord damage. (MD)

  11. A Bayesian Account of Vocal Adaptation to Pitch-Shifted Auditory Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H R Hahnloser

    Full Text Available Motor systems are highly adaptive. Both birds and humans compensate for synthetically induced shifts in the pitch (fundamental frequency of auditory feedback stemming from their vocalizations. Pitch-shift compensation is partial in the sense that large shifts lead to smaller relative compensatory adjustments of vocal pitch than small shifts. Also, compensation is larger in subjects with high motor variability. To formulate a mechanistic description of these findings, we adapt a Bayesian model of error relevance. We assume that vocal-auditory feedback loops in the brain cope optimally with known sensory and motor variability. Based on measurements of motor variability, optimal compensatory responses in our model provide accurate fits to published experimental data. Optimal compensation correctly predicts sensory acuity, which has been estimated in psychophysical experiments as just-noticeable pitch differences. Our model extends the utility of Bayesian approaches to adaptive vocal behaviors.

  12. Vocal Pitch and Intensity Effects on Vowel Spectral Noise Level in Condition of Vocal Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kimberly Vogt

    The proliferation of quick methods for analyzing vocal signals has made acoustic voice measurement more practical for clinical application. One measure of interest is the acoustic vowel spectral noise level (SNL). For vowel SNL measurements to be clinically meaningful, however, it is necessary to understand what variables may affect them. For this study, vocal fundamental frequency (f _{rm o}) and phonation intensity effects on vowel /a/^ectral noise level (SNL) for adult females with (N = 10) and without (N = 8) formal singing training were studied. The effects of loud, high-pitched oral reading on SNL were also investigated. Results showed that mean SNL diminished as phonation intensity increased from low to high for both subject groups' phonations at controlled low f_{rm o}. At controlled high f_ {rm o}, however, significant SNL differences across intensities were revealed within the non-singer group only. Here it appeared that the mean SNL diminished as the non-singer group increased phonation intensity, but remained unchanged for the singer-group. For both subject groups' controlled low f _{rm o} phonations, mean SNL increased following 15 minutes of loud, high-pitched oral reading but decreased to pre-reading level following a 1-hour vocal rest period. No SNL differences before -reading, after-reading or after-rest reached significance when subjects phonated at controlled high f_ {rm o}. Results also showed an inverse relationship between f_{rm o} and vowel SNL, although the differences were not statistically tested. The observed trend for decreased SNL to accompany increased vocal f_{rm o}, however, confirms previous findings.

  13. Laryngeal Electromyography for Prognosis of Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Maza, Adriana; García-Lopez, Isabel; Santiago-Pérez, Susana; Gavilán, Javier

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the value of laryngeal electromyography in the prognosis of vocal fold paralysis. This is a retrospective descriptive study. This study included 80 patients diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral vocal fold paralysis on flexible laryngoscopy between 2002 and 2014 in a tertiary medical center. Laryngeal electromyography using a standardized protocol was performed; the outcome measures were classified and analyzed into two groups according to the degree of injury. Group 1 included patients with mild to moderate injury, and group 2 included patients with severe to complete injury. Prognosis was correlated with vocal fold motion recovery status with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up since the symptoms onset using positive and negative predictive values. Sixty patients showed acute or chronic recurrent laryngeal neuropathy in laryngeal electromyography. Twelve of 41 patients included in group 1 recovered motion, and 30 of 35 patients included in group 2 did not recover, resulting in 88.2% of positive predictive value and 35.7% of negative predictive value. Our data confirm that laryngeal electromyography is a useful clinical tool in predicting poor recovery in patients with vocal fold paralysis. It allows identification of candidates for early intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical practice: vocal nodules in dysphonic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Branco, Anete; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Gramuglia, Andrea Cristina Jóia

    2013-09-01

    Common among children, vocal symptoms are a cause of concern for parents who seek elucidation of their diagnosis and treatment. Vocal nodules are the major cause of dysphonias in children and are related to vocal abuse. We conducted a literature review considering clinical, physiopathological, epidemiological, and histological aspects of vocal nodules, as well as diagnostic methods, highlighting the main studies addressing this issue. The controversial points of treatments were also discussed.

  15. [The difference of phonation patterns in vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biru; Zheng, Yiqing; Gong, Jian; Chen, Yongming

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the difference of phonation patterns by dividing patients with vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules into two groups according to muscle tension patterns (MTP). Fifty-six patients with vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules were divided into two groups according to phonation with MTP or not by video strobolaryngoscopy. MTP could be found in 85% patients with vocal nodules and in 55.56% patients with vocal fold polyps. Significant difference was found in patients with/without MTP, and difference was also found in every type of MTP. MTP lies in most patients with vocal nodules while only part of patients with vocal fold polyps, which indicated that vocal fold polyps and vocal nodules may demonstrate different phona

  16. Increased non-Gaussianity of heart rate variability predicts cardiac mortality after an acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichiro eHayano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-Gaussianity index (λ is a new index of heart rate variability (HRV that characterizes increased probability of the large heart rate deviations from its trend. A previous study has reported that increased λ is an independent mortality predictor among patients with chronic heart failure. The present study examined predictive value of λ in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Among 670 post-AMI patients, we performed 24-hr Holter monitoring to assess λ and other HRV predictors, including standard deviation of normal-to-normal interval, very-low frequency power, scaling exponent α1 of detrended fluctuation analysis, deceleration capacity, and heart rate turbulence (HRT. At baseline, λ was not correlated substantially with other HRV indices (|r| <0.4 with either indices and was decreased in patients taking β-blockers (P = 0.04. During a median follow up period of 25 months, 45 (6.7% patients died (32 cardiac and 13 non-cardiac and 39 recurrent nonfatal AMI occurred among survivors. While all of these HRV indices but λ were significant predictors of both cardiac and non-cardiac deaths, increased λ predicted exclusively cardiac death (RR [95% CI], 1.6 [1.3-2.0] per 1 SD increment, P <0.0001. The predictive power of increased λ was significant even after adjustments for clinical risk factors, such as age, diabetes, left ventricular function, renal function, prior AMI, heart failure, and stroke, Killip class, and treatment ([95% CI], 1.4 [1.1-2.0] per 1 SD increment, P = 0.01. The prognostic power of increased λ for cardiac death was also independent of all other HRV indices and the combination of increased λ and abnormal HRT provided the best predictive model for cardiac death. Neither λ nor other HRV indices was an independent predictor of AMI recurrence. Among post-AMI patients, increased λ is associated exclusively with increased cardiac mortality risk and its predictive power is independent of clinical risk factors and

  17. Radiophonosurgery of vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Sameh M

    2009-12-01

    To describe the current support in the literature for radiophonosurgery in cases of vocal fold nodules. Radiophonosurgery is a recent innovation in the field of laryngeal surgery. It is emerging as a reliable and practical method for treating benign superficial vocal fold lesions that is increasingly becoming popular. It induces an excellent subjective and objective improvement in voice parameters. Histologically, it produces unremarkable lateral thermal damage and char penetration, which is quite crucial in a functional surgery such as in phonosurgery. Well designed probes are still lacking in the market. Radiophonosurgery provides a new approach for patients with vocal fold nodules. It combines the advantages of both cold knife and laser phonosurgery and is easy, well tolerated, precise and effective with excellent tactile and hemostatic properties.

  18. Investigation into psychological correlates of patients with vocal nodules using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jae Ho; Lee, Kyung Chul; Jin, Sung Min

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychological characteristics of patients with vocal nodules and to establish the relationship between these characteristics and the development of vocal nodules. A tertiary medical centre. The patient group consisted of 41 housewives with vocal nodules, and the control group consisted of 35 housewives who did not have any vocal pathology. The subjects completed questionnaires related to the voice disorder and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision. The scores of the patient group with less than 1 year of symptom duration (acute) and more than 1 year of symptom duration (chronic) were also compared with those of the controls. The total patient group differed statistically from the control group on seven neurotic dimensions (p vocal nodules. The dimensions in which the total patient group differed significantly from the control group may indicate the changes that occur in the psychological characteristics following voice change. The collective results indicate that psychological characteristics play an important role in the pathogenesis of vocal nodules. Hence, greater attention should be given to the psychological and emotional aspects of patients for the treatment and prevention of vocal nodules.

  19. Vocal Nodules: Their Cause and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Darrel L.

    1977-01-01

    Provides knowledge about the workings of the vocal apparatus, the scientific basis of certain vocal problems, and what to do to overcome those problems. Specifically discusses the occurrence of nodules on the vocal cords and how to treat them, a subject of interest to both singers and nonsingers. (Editor/RK)

  20. Effects of Social Games on Infant Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Fogel, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the contextual effects of social games on prelinguistic vocalizations. The two main goals were to (1) investigate the functions of vocalizations as symptoms of affective arousal and symbols of social understanding, and (2) explore form-function (de)coupling relations between vocalization types and game…

  1. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  2. Comparison of benign lesion regression following vocal fold steroid injection and vocal hygiene education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Te; Liao, Li-Jen; Lai, Mei-Shu; Cheng, Po-Wen

    2014-02-01

    This study intends to objectively quantify and compare the regression rates of vocal lesions in patients receiving either vocal fold steroid injection (VFSI) or vocal hygiene education (VHE). Potential influence of occupational vocal demands on the treatment outcome was also investigated. Retrospective case series. This study enrolled 176 patients of vocal nodules and vocal polyps. Ninety-two patients received VFSI, while 84 patients received VHE. We measured the lesion area with correction by the length of vocal fold, according to videolaryngoscopic examinations before treatment and 1 and 2 months after treatment. VFSI was associated with a higher lesion reduction rate than VHE at 1 and 2 months (P vocal nodules and patients with ordinary occupational vocal demands, VFSI achieved a higher lesion regression rate than VHE at 1 month (P 0.05). In vocal polyps, the lesion reduction rate after VFSI was higher than that following VHE at 1 and 2 months (P vocal demands, the lesion sizes decreased significantly at 1 and 2 months following VFSI (P 0.05). VHE remains the fundamental strategy for all dysphonic patients, while VFSI can be applied alternatively. Both VFSI and VHE are effective for vocal nodules and patients with ordinary occupational vocal demands, but VFSI achieves lesion regression earlier than VHE. VFSI is preferred over VHE for vocal polyps and patients with high occupational vocal demands. 4. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Mutual stabilization of rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kohei; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1) whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2) whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice) in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition) that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition). The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure.

  4. Mutual stabilization of rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Miyata

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the rhythmic coordination between vocalization and whole-body movement. Previous studies have reported that spatiotemporal stability in rhythmic movement increases when coordinated with a rhythmic auditory stimulus or other effector in a stable coordination pattern. Therefore, the present study conducted two experiments to investigate (1 whether there is a stable coordination pattern between vocalization and whole-body movement and (2 whether a stable coordination pattern reduces variability in whole-body movement and vocalization. In Experiment 1, two coordination patterns between vocalizations and whole-body movement (hip, knee, and ankle joint flexion-on-the-voice vs. joint extension-on-the-voice in a standing posture were explored at movement frequencies of 80, 130, and 180 beats per minute. At higher movement frequencies, the phase angle in the extension-on-the-voice condition deviated from the intended phase angle. However, the angle of the flexion-on-the-voice was maintained even when movement frequency increased. These results suggest that there was a stable coordination pattern in the flexion-on-the-voice condition. In Experiment 2, variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was compared between two conditions: one related to tasks performed in the flexion-on-the-voice coordination (coordination condition that was a stable coordination pattern, and the other related to tasks performed independently (control condition. The results showed that variability in whole-body movement and voice-onset intervals was smaller in the coordination condition than in the control condition. Overall, the present study revealed mutual stabilization between rhythmic vocalization and whole-body movement via coordination within a stable pattern, suggesting that coupled action systems can act as a single functional unit or coordinative structure.

  5. Acute and Chronic Effects of Isometric Handgrip Exercise on Cardiovascular Variables in Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Q. Farah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe, through a systematic review, the acute and chronic effects of isometric handgrip exercise on cardiovascular variables in hypertensive individuals. In this systematic review, we included studies that analyzed whether a single bout or a program with isometric exercises affect cardiovascular variables in hypertensive adults. The electronic database PubMed/Medline was searched for relevant studies published until May 2017. Of the 2927 studies initially identified, 2916 were excluded based on title and abstract and five on the basis of full-text assessment, leaving six studies remaining. In addition, one further study cited in the references of the included articles was included in this review, totaling seven studies included (five studies on the chronic effects of isometric handgrip exercise on cardiovascular parameters. None of the acute studies observed post-exercise hypotension. The majority of the chronic studies found decreases in office blood pressure after isometric handgrip training, with training ranging from 6 to 10 weeks, while heart rate variability parameters were improved in one study and did not change in another. Reduction in oxidative stress was observed; however, this variable was only analyzed in one study. In hypertensives, acute responses to isometric handgrip exercise are very limited due to the small number of studies, therefore more research is required. Furthermore, chronic isometric handgrip training reduces blood pressure; however, there is still a gap in the knowledge on the effects of this modality of exercise on other cardiovascular variables—such as endothelial function, oxidative stress, and cardiac autonomic modulation—which should be addressed in future studies.

  6. Variables That Best Differentiate In-Patient Acute Stroke from Stroke-Mimics with Acute Neurological Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Natteru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Strokes and stroke-mimics have been extensively studied in the emergency department setting. Although in-hospital strokes are less studied in comparison to strokes in the emergency department, they are a source of significant direct and indirect costs. Differentiating in-hospital strokes from stroke-mimics is important. Thus, our study aimed to identify variables that can differentiate in-hospital strokes from stroke-mimics. Methods. We present here a retrospective analysis of 93 patients over a one-year period (2009 to 2010, who were evaluated for a concern of in-hospital strokes. Results. About two-thirds (57 of these patients were determined to have a stroke, and the remaining (36 were stroke-mimics. Patients with in-hospital strokes were more likely to be obese (p=0.03, have been admitted to the cardiology service (p=0.01, have atrial fibrillation (p=0.03, have a weak hand or hemiparesis (p=0.03, and have a prior history of stroke (p=0.05, whereas, when the consults were called for “altered mental status” but no other deficits (p<0.0001, it is likely a stroke-mimic. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that in-hospital strokes are a common occurrence, and knowing the variables can aid in their timely diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Vocal Health for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Josh; McColl, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teachers are often at risk for vocal disease and are more likely to change occupations because of their voice problems compared to non-teachers. Physical educators are especially at risk for voice problems due to the intense daily demands of voice projection. Chronic abuse can cause swelling and inflammation of the…

  8. An analysis of prognostic variables in acute lymphocytic leukaemia in a heterogenous South African population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesseling, PB; Buurman, M; Oud, C; Nel, ED

    The records of all 96 children below the age of 15 years diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at Tygerberg Hospital in the Republic of South African between 1983 and 1995 were reviewed to determine risk factors which may predict poor outcome. Age <2 and > 8 years, and white cell count >20 x

  9. Producing song: the vocal apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthers, Roderick A; Zollinger, Sue Anne

    2004-06-01

    In order to achieve the goal of understanding the neurobiology of birdsong, it is necessary to understand the peripheral mechanisms by which song is produced. This paper reviews recent advances in the understanding of syringeal and respiratory motor control and how birds utilize these systems to create their species-typical sounds. Songbirds have a relatively homogeneous duplex vocal organ in which sound is generated by oscillation of a pair of thickened labia on either side of the syrinx. Multiple pairs of syringeal muscles provide flexible, independent control of sound frequency and amplitude, and each side of the syrinx exhibits a degree of acoustic specialization. This is in contrast to many non-songbirds, including vocal learners such as parrots, which have fewer syringeal muscles and use syringeal membranes to generate sound. In doves, at least, these membranes generate a harmonic signal in which the fundamental frequency is regulated by respiratory pressure in the air sac surrounding the syrinx and the overtones are filtered out by the vocal tract. The songs of adult songbirds are generally accompanied by precisely coordinated respiratory and syringeal motor patterns that, despite their relative stereotypy, are modulated in real time by somatosensory feedback. Comparative studies indicate songbirds have evolved species-specific motor patterns that utilize the two sides of the syrinx in specific ways and enhance the particular acoustic effects characterizing the species song. A vocal mimic tutored with heterospecific song uses the same motor pattern as the tutor species when he accurately copies the song, suggesting that physical or physiological constraints on sound production have had a prominent role in the evolution of species-specific motor patterns. An understanding of the relationship between the central processing and peripheral performance of song motor programs is essential for an understanding of the development, function, and evolution of these

  10. Study of a Vocal Feature Selection Method and Vocal Properties for Discriminating Four Constitution Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Ho Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The voice has been used to classify the four constitution types, and to recognize a subject's health condition by extracting meaningful physical quantities, in traditional Korean medicine. In this paper, we propose a method of selecting the reliable variables from various voice features, such as frequency derivative features, frequency band ratios, and intensity, from vowels and a sentence. Further, we suggest a process to extract independent variables by eliminating explanatory variables and reducing their correlation and remove outlying data to enable reliable discriminant analysis. Moreover, the suitable division of data for analysis, according to the gender and age of subjects, is discussed. Finally, the vocal features are applied to a discriminant analysis to classify each constitution type. This method of voice classification can be widely used in the u-Healthcare system of personalized medicine and for improving diagnostic accuracy.

  11. Determinants of the mouse ultrasonic vocal structure and repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Jesse; McGuinness, Brigit; Celikel, Tansu; Englitz, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) exhibit a high degree of complexity as demonstrated in recent years. A multitude of factors have been identified to influence USVs on the spectrotemporal as well as structural - e.g. syntactic - level. A synthesis of the various studies that attributes semantics to USV properties or sequences is still lacking. Presently, we address the factors modulating the composition of USVs, specifically age, gender, genetic background (including the targeted FoxP2 mutagenesis), behavioral state and individuality. It emerges that the different factors share a set of common influences, e.g. vocalization rate and frequency range are universally modulated across independent variables described; however, distinct influences exist for sequential structure (different effects for age, behavioral state and genetic background) or vocal repertoire (age). Recently, USV research has seen important advances based on the quantitative maturation of methods on multiple levels of vocalization. Adoption of these methods to address the natural statistics of USV will ultimately benefit several related research areas, e.g. neurolinguistics, neurodevelopmental disorders, multisensory and sensorimotor research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The prevalence and factors associate with vocal nodules in general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Seong Jun; Kim, Rock Bum; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Kwon, Min Su; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of vocal nodules and to identify factors related with an increased risk for vocal nodules. This study was conducted using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2011. The subjects consisted of 19,636 men and women aged ≥19 years. Related factors such as age, marital status, incomes, and education level were assessed in individual interviews, and health-related behaviors including smoking, alcohol, and activity were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. Also, examination survey such as laryngoscopy examination, basic physical examination, and blood sampling was conducted. The prevalence of vocal nodules was 1.31% (n = 258). Among variable factors, age, education level, and voice disorder were related with the presence of vocal nodules (P vocal nodules. This result may help reduce the incidence of vocal nodules and offer proper management for patients with vocal nodules, and may also facilitate efficient allocation of public health resources. PMID:27684845

  13. The prevalence and factors associate with vocal nodules in general population: Cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Seong Jun; Kim, Rock Bum; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Kwon, Min Su; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of vocal nodules and to identify factors related with an increased risk for vocal nodules.This study was conducted using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2011. The subjects consisted of 19,636 men and women aged ≥19 years. Related factors such as age, marital status, incomes, and education level were assessed in individual interviews, and health-related behaviors including smoking, alcohol, and activity were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. Also, examination survey such as laryngoscopy examination, basic physical examination, and blood sampling was conducted.The prevalence of vocal nodules was 1.31% (n = 258). Among variable factors, age, education level, and voice disorder were related with the presence of vocal nodules (P vocal nodules.This result may help reduce the incidence of vocal nodules and offer proper management for patients with vocal nodules, and may also facilitate efficient allocation of public health resources.

  14. Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals (2.45GHz) on heart variability and blood pressure in Albinos rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saili, Linda; Hanini, Amel; Smirani, Chiraz; Azzouz, Ines; Azzouz, Amina; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Bouslama, Zihad

    2015-09-01

    Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25cm at the right side near the heart. Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that, WIFI alter catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control. These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radiofrequency can act directly and/or indirectly on cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares Vocal behavior of popular singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Zimmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas de canto e conhecimento sobre postura; AMADOR - não cantar dançando, não imitar vozes, ausência de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de terapia fonoaudiológica, ausência de orientações de anatomofisiologia vocal e não utilização de álcool nos ensaios; PROFISSIONAL - rouquidão, conhecimento sobre articulação, álcool durante os shows, "garganta suja" ou pigarro, dor após cantar. CONCLUSÕES: a comparação entre os sexos evidenciou que os homens utilizavam microfone no ensaio, não apresentavam problemas alérgicos ou respiratórios, nem problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas apresentavam sensação de dor ou desconforto após o canto e não possuíam noções sobre higiene vocal; e que as mulheres realizavam aulas de canto e possuíam orientações de postura. A comparação entre amadores e profissionais mostrou que os amadores não cantavam dançando, não imitavam vozes, não utilizavam álcool nos ensaios, e não apresentavam problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas não possuíam avaliação otorrinolaringológica, não realizavam terapia fonoaudiológica, e não possuíam conhecimento sobre anatomofisiologia vocal; e os profissionais apresentavam queixa de rouquidão, de "garganta suja" ou pigarro e de dor após cantar, e usavam álcool durante os shows, apesar de possuir conhecimento sobre articulação.PURPOSE: to investigate aspects of vocal history, vocal habits and

  16. Postlaryngectomy vocal rehabilitation in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boci, B; Isufi, R; Thomai, K

    2012-01-01

    To assess short and midterm results with consistent use of indwelling voice prostheses (Provox 1 and Provox 2 valves) for vocal rehabilitation after total laryngectomy. From May 2008 to June 2010 106 patients (104 men, 2 women, median age 62.32 years) with total laryngectomy underwent vocal prosthesis insertion and replacement procedures as needed. Patients were prosthesized primarily or secondarily and follow-up was performed monthly. Median patient-device follow-up was 279 days (range 184-995). Leakage through the prosthesis, mainly caused by Candida deposits on the valve, was the most common cause of failure of the Provox valves. Compared to other European countries, like the Netherlands (100 days) and France (150 days) Albania has the longest device half life. This relatively long prosthesis' lifetime in our country is perhaps related with the use of spicy food (a common custom in our country), and the use of antifungal and antacid agents.

  17. Recording vocalizations with Bluetooth technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona-González, Andrés; Santillán-Doherty, Ana María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita Virginia; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Aguillón-Pantaleón, Miguel Angel; Ordoñez-Gómez, José Domingo; Márquez-Arias, Alejandra

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method for capturing vocalizations that is designed to avoid some of the limiting factors found in traditional bioacoustical methods, such as the impossibility of obtaining continuous long-term registers or analyzing amplitude due to the continuous change of distance between the subject and the position of the recording system. Using Bluetooth technology, vocalizations are captured and transmitted wirelessly into a receiving system without affecting the quality of the signal. The recordings of the proposed system were compared to those obtained as a reference, which were based on the coding of the signal with the so-called pulse-code modulation technique in WAV audio format without any compressing process. The evaluation showed p < .05 for the measured quantitative and qualitative parameters. We also describe how the transmitting system is encapsulated and fixed on the animal and a way to video record a spider monkey's behavior simultaneously with the audio recordings.

  18. Vocal communication of wild parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Jack

    2004-05-01

    Field studies of four sympatric parrot species in Costa Rica are revealing several possible functions for the well-known ability of parrots to mimic new sounds throughout life. Despite earlier suggestions that this might facilitate exchanges of environmental information, all data so far suggest that vocal mimicry in the wild is associated with mediation of the fission/fusion of groups of parrots and/or of conflicts between mated pairs. Recent results using array recording and interactive playback will be summarized, and several technical problems created by the mechanisms of parrot vocal signal production discussed. [Research supported by NSF Grant IBN-022927 and by continued encouragement and logistics provided by the staff of the Area Conservacion Guanacaste (Costa Rica).

  19. Exploring the Variability in Acute Glycemic Responses to Exercise in Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tasuku; Friesen, Alanna; Chahal, Baljot S.; Bell, Gordon J.; McCargar, Linda J.; Boul?, Normand G.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To explore the factors associated with exercise-induced acute capillary glucose (CapBG) changes in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods. Fifteen individuals with T2D were randomly assigned to energy-matched high intensity interval exercise (HI-IE) and moderate intensity continuous exercise (MI-CE) interventions and performed a designated exercise protocol 5 days per week for 12 weeks. The duration of exercise progressed from 30 to 60 minutes. CapBG was measured immediately bef...

  20. Universal vocal signals of emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Sauter, D.; Eisner, F; Ekman, P.; Scott, S

    2009-01-01

    Emotional signals allow for the sharing of important information with conspecifics, for example to warn them of danger. Humans use a range of different cues to communicate to others how they feel, including facial, vocal, and gestural signals. Although much is known about facial expressions of emotion, less research has focused on affect in the voice. We compare British listeners to individuals from remote Namibian villages who have had no exposure to Western culture, and examine recognition ...

  1. Nonlinear phenomena in contemporary vocal music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jürgen; Edgerton, Michael; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2004-03-01

    Complex and multiphonic voice signals of vocal improvisors are analyzed within the framework of nonlinear dynamics. Evidence is given that nonlinear phenomena are extensively used by performers associated with contemporary music. Narrow-band spectrograms of complex vocalizations are used to visualize the appearance of nonlinear phenomena (spectral bifurcation diagrams). Possible production mechanisms are discussed in connection with previous research, personal performance and pedagogical experience. Examples for period doubling, biphonation and irregular aperiodic phonation in vocal sonorities of contemporary vocal improvisors are given, and glottal whistle production encompassed with biphonation and triphonation is shown. Furthermore, coincidences of harmonics-formant matching associated with abrupt transitions to subharmonics and biphonation in the vocal output are provided. This also shows the recurrent use of nonlinear phenomena by performers. It is argued that mechanisms such as source-tract coupling or vocal fold desynchronization due to asymmetry are used in a reproducible way for musical tasks.

  2. Integrating perspectives on vocal performance and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Sakata, Jon T.; Vehrencamp, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments in divergent fields of birdsong have revealed that vocal performance is important for reproductive success and under active control by distinct neural circuits. Vocal consistency, the degree to which the spectral properties (e.g. dominant or fundamental frequency) of song elements are produced consistently from rendition to rendition, has been highlighted as a biologically important aspect of vocal performance. Here, we synthesize functional, developmental and mechanistic (...

  3. A comparison of biologically variable ventilation to recruitment manoeuvres in a porcine model of acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rector Edward S

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologically variable ventilation (return of physiological variability in rate and tidal volume using a computer-controller was compared to control mode ventilation with and without a recruitment manoeuvre – 40 cm H2O for 40 sec performed hourly; in a porcine oleic acid acute lung injury model. Methods We compared gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, and measured bronchoalveolar fluid for inflammatory cytokines, cell counts and surfactant function. Lung injury was scored by light microscopy. Pigs received mechanical ventilation (FIO2 = 0.3; PEEP 5 cm H2O in control mode until PaO2 decreased to 60 mm Hg with oleic acid infusion (PaO2/FIO2 2O was added after injury. Animals were randomized to one of the 3 modes of ventilation and followed for 5 hr after injury. Results PaO2 and respiratory system compliance was significantly greater with biologically variable ventilation compared to the other 2 groups. Mean and mean peak airway pressures were also lower. There were no differences in cell counts in bronchoalveolar fluid by flow cytometry, or interleukin-8 and -10 levels between groups. Lung injury scoring revealed no difference between groups in the regions examined. No differences in surfactant function were seen between groups by capillary surfactometry. Conclusions In this porcine model of acute lung injury, various indices to measure injury or inflammation did not differ between the 3 approaches to ventilation. However, when using a low tidal volume strategy with moderate levels of PEEP, sustained improvements in arterial oxygen tension and respiratory system compliance were only seen with BVV when compared to CMV or CMV with a recruitment manoeuvre.

  4. Psychogenic dysphonia: diversity of clinical and vocal manifestations in a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Ranalli, Paula Ferreira; Branco, Anete; Pessin, Adriana Bueno Benito

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic dysphonia is a functional disorder with variable clinical manifestations. To assess the clinical and vocal characteristics of patients with psychogenic dysphonia in a case series. The study included 28 adult patients with psychogenic dysphonia, evaluated at a University hospital in the last ten years. Assessed variables included gender, age, occupation, vocal symptoms, vocal characteristics, and videolaryngostroboscopic findings. 28 patients (26 women and 2 men) were assessed. Their occupations included: housekeeper (n=17), teacher (n=4), salesclerk (n=4), nurse (n=1), retired (n=1), and psychologist (n=1). Sudden symptom onset was reported by 16 patients and progressive symptom onset was reported by 12; intermittent evolution was reported by 15; symptom duration longer than three months was reported by 21 patients. Videolaryngostroboscopy showed only functional disorders; no patient had structural lesions or changes in vocal fold mobility. Conversion aphonia, skeletal muscle tension, and intermittent voicing were the most frequent vocal emission manifestation forms. In this case series of patients with psychogenic dysphonia, the most frequent form of clinical presentation was conversion aphonia, followed by musculoskeletal tension and intermittent voicing. The clinical and vocal aspects of 28 patients with psychogenic dysphonia, as well as the particularities of each case, are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychogenic dysphonia: diversity of clinical and vocal manifestations in a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Garcia Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychogenic dysphonia is a functional disorder with variable clinical manifestations. Objective: To assess the clinical and vocal characteristics of patients with psychogenic dysphonia in a case series. Methods: The study included 28 adult patients with psychogenic dysphonia, evaluated at a University hospital in the last ten years. Assessed variables included gender, age, occupation, vocal symptoms, vocal characteristics, and videolaryngostroboscopic findings. Results: 28 patients (26 women and 2 men were assessed. Their occupations included: housekeeper (n = 17, teacher (n = 4, salesclerk (n = 4, nurse (n = 1, retired (n = 1, and psychologist (n = 1. Sudden symptom onset was reported by 16 patients and progressive symptom onset was reported by 12; intermittent evolution was reported by 15; symptom duration longer than three months was reported by 21 patients. Videolaryngostroboscopy showed only functional disorders; no patient had structural lesions or changes in vocal fold mobility. Conversion aphonia, skeletal muscle tension, and intermittent voicing were the most frequent vocal emission manifestation forms. Conclusions: In this case series of patients with psychogenic dysphonia, the most frequent form of clinical presentation was conversion aphonia, followed by musculoskeletal tension and intermittent voicing. The clinical and vocal aspects of 28 patients with psychogenic dysphonia, as well as the particularities of each case, are discussed.

  6. Vocal acoustic analysis as a biometric indicator of information processing: implications for neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alex S; Dinzeo, Thomas J; Donovan, Neila J; Brown, Caitlin E; Morrison, Sean C

    2015-03-30

    Vocal expression reflects an integral component of communication that varies considerably within individuals across contexts and is disrupted in a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. There is reason to suspect that variability in vocal expression reflects, in part, the availability of "on-line" resources (e.g., working memory, attention). Thus, understanding vocal expression is a potentially important biometric index of information processing, not only across but within individuals over time. A first step in this line of research involves establishing a link between vocal expression and information processing systems in healthy adults. The present study employed a dual attention experimental task where participants provided natural speech while simultaneously engaged in a baseline, medium or high nonverbal processing-load task. Objective, automated, and computerized analysis was employed to measure vocal expression in 226 adults. Increased processing load resulted in longer pauses, fewer utterances, greater silence overall and less variability in frequency and intensity levels. These results provide compelling evidence of a link between information processing resources and vocal expression, and provide important information for the development of an automated, inexpensive and uninvasive biometric measure of information processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition...

  8. Vocal fold dynamics for frequency change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollien, Harry

    2014-07-01

    This article provides a review of data drawn from a series of related experiments to demonstrate how frequency change (Δf0) is accomplished in the modal register. The research cited involves studies of (1) laryngeal size, (2) vocal fold length, (3) vocal fold thickness, and (4) subglottic pressure; new data describe their effect on vocal fold mass. It was found that changes in these dimensions (1) explain how the shifts in frequency are accomplished, (2) establish the way vocal fold mass can be measured, and (3) strongly support the aerodynamic-myoelastic theory of phonation. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Recurrent Vocal Fold Paralysis and Parsonage-Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parsonage-Turner syndrome, or neuralgic amyotrophy (NA, is an acute brachial plexus neuritis that typically presents with unilateral shoulder pain and amyotrophy but also can affect other peripheral nerves, including the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Idiopathic vocal fold paralysis (VFP represents approximately 12% of the VFP cases and recurrence is extremely rare. Methods and Results. We report a man with isolated recurrent unilateral right VFP and a diagnosis of NA years before. Conclusions. We emphasize that shoulder pain and amyotrophy should be inquired in any patient suffering from inexplicable dysphonia, and Parsonage-Turner syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic VFP.

  10. Diagnosis of acute pediatric appendicitis from children with inflammatory diseases by combination of metabolic markers and inflammatory response variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengjie; Xiang, Tianxin; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Shouhua; Yang, Wenlong; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Qiang; Sun, Shuilin; Xie, Baogang

    2018-01-08

    The discovery of new metabolic markers may be helpful for early diagnosis of acute pediatric appendicitis (APA). However, no studies have been reported regarding identification of potential metabolic markers for the APA diagnosis by metabonomics. Serum samples of APA (n=32), non-appendicitis inflammation (NAI, n=32) and healthy children (HS, n=65) were analyzed by the 1H NMR-based metabonomics. A logistic regression model was established to screen the most efficient markers combinations for classification. Forty double-blind samples were further validated the model. Nine blood metabolites that were different in the APA group from other groups were identified. To differentiate APA from HS, single variable of acetate, formate, white blood cell (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) showed a high diagnostic value (area under the receiver operating characteristic [AUROC]metabolic alterations associated with APA and indicates that measurement of these metabolites in serum effectively aids in the clinical identification of APA.

  11. Identifying autonomic nervous system dysfunction in acute cerebrovascular attack by assessments of heart rate variability and catecholamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akıl, Eşref; Tamam, Yusuf; Akıl, Mehmet Ata; Kaplan, İbrahim; Bilik, Mehmet Zihni; Acar, Abdullah; Tamam, Banu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in the autonomic nervous system caused by cerebral lesions due to acute stroke. We assessed heart rate variability and catecholamine levels in lieu of stroke lesion localization. A total of 60 stroke patients and 31 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were measured on the first, third, and seventh days following the stroke event. Heart rate variability was evaluated with time-domain and frequency-domain analyses via 24-hour Holter monitor recordings. On the first and third day following the stroke, norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in all patient groups as compared to controls. Epinephrine levels on the first, third and seventh days after the stroke were significantly higher in patients with lesions in the right middle cerebral artery territory than controls. In frequency-domain analysis, patients with right middle cerebral artery territory lesions had greater low frequency and low frequency to high frequency ratio values than controls. Time-domain analysis revealed significant decreases in the standard deviation from the mean for 5-minute 288 R-R intervals in patients with lesions in the right middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery territory when contrasted with controls. Patients with lesions in the right middle cerebral artery territory demonstrated the highest increase in the percentage of consecutive R-R intervals differing by more than 50 ms (pNN50) as compared to the control group. These findings indicate that autonomic dysfunction favoring an increase in sympathetic activity occurs in acute stroke patients.

  12. Quantitative Tools for Examining the Vocalizations of Juvenile Songbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron D. Wellock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The singing of juvenile songbirds is highly variable and not well stereotyped, a feature that makes it difficult to analyze with existing computational techniques. We present here a method suitable for analyzing such vocalizations, windowed spectral pattern recognition (WSPR. Rather than performing pairwise sample comparisons, WSPR measures the typicality of a sample against a large sample set. We also illustrate how WSPR can be used to perform a variety of tasks, such as sample classification, song ontogeny measurement, and song variability measurement. Finally, we present a novel measure, based on WSPR, for quantifying the apparent complexity of a bird’s singing.

  13. Heart rate variability is differentially altered in multiple sclerosis: implications for acute, worsening and progressive disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Valeria; Rocchi, Camilla; Motta, Caterina; Lauretti, Benedetta; Perugini, Jacopo; Brambilla, Laura; Pareja-Gutierrez, Lorena; Camera, Giorgia; Barbieri, Francesca Romana; Marfia, Girolama A; Centonze, Diego; Rossi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Sympathovagal imbalance has been associated with poor prognosis in chronic diseases, but there is conflicting evidence in multiple sclerosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the autonomic nervous system dysfunction correlation with inflammation and progression in multiple sclerosis. Heart rate variability was analysed in 120 multiple sclerosis patients and 60 healthy controls during supine rest and head-up tilt test; the normalised units of low frequency and high frequency power were considered to assess sympathetic and vagal components, respectively. Correlation analyses with clinical and radiological markers of disease activity and progression were performed. Sympathetic dysfunction was closely related to the progression of disability in multiple sclerosis: progressive patients showed altered heart rate variability with respect to healthy controls and relapsing-remitting patients, with higher rest low frequency power and lacking the expected low frequency power increase during the head-up tilt test. In relapsing-remitting patients, disease activity, even subclinical, was associated with lower rest low frequency power, whereas stable relapsing-remitting patients did not differ from healthy controls. Less sympathetic reactivity and higher low frequency power at rest were associated with incomplete recovery from relapse. Autonomic balance appears to be intimately linked with both the inflammatory activity of multiple sclerosis, which is featured by an overall hypoactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, and its compensatory plastic processes, which appear inefficient in case of worsening and progressive multiple sclerosis.

  14. Acute differences in foot strike and spatiotemporal variables for shod, barefoot or minimalist male runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallion, Ciara; Donne, Bernard; Fleming, Neil; Blanksby, Brian

    2014-05-01

    This study compared stride length, stride frequency, contact time, flight time and foot-strike patterns (FSP) when running barefoot, and in minimalist and conventional running shoes. Habitually shod male athletes (n = 14; age 25 ± 6 yr; competitive running experience 8 ± 3 yr) completed a randomised order of 6 by 4-min treadmill runs at velocities (V1 and V2) equivalent to 70 and 85% of best 5-km race time, in the three conditions. Synchronous recording of 3-D joint kinematics and ground reaction force data examined spatiotemporal variables and FSP. Most participants adopted a mid-foot strike pattern, regardless of condition. Heel-toe latency was less at V2 than V1 (-6 ± 20 vs. -1 ± 13 ms, p foot strike pattern.Stride duration and flight time were greater when shod and in minimalist footwear than when barefoot.Stride frequency when barefoot was higher than when shod or in minimalist footwear.Contact time when shod was longer than when barefoot or in minimalist footwear.Spatiotemporal variables when running in minimalist footwear more closely resemble shod than barefoot running.

  15. Heart rate variability measurement and clinical depression in acute coronary syndrome patients: narrative review of recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris PR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Patricia RE Harris,1 Claire E Sommargren,2 Phyllis K Stein,3 Gordon L Fung,4,5 Barbara J Drew6,7 1ECG Monitoring Research Lab, 2Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Heart Rate Variability Laboratory, School of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA; 4Asian Heart & Vascular Center at Mount Zion, Division of Cardiology, University of California, 5Cardiology Consultation Service, Cardiac Noninvasive Laboratory, and The Enhanced External Counterpulsation Unit, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Medical Center, 6Division of Cardiology, 7Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Aim: We aimed to explore links between heart rate variability (HRV and clinical depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, through a review of recent clinical research literature. Background: Patients with ACS are at risk for both cardiac autonomic dysfunction and clinical depression. Both conditions can negatively impact the ability to recover from an acute physiological insult, such as unstable angina or myocardial infarction, increasing the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. HRV is recognized as a reflection of autonomic function. Methods: A narrative review was undertaken to evaluate state-of-the-art clinical research, using the PubMed database, January 2013. The search terms “heart rate variability” and “depression” were used in conjunction with “acute coronary syndrome”, “unstable angina”, or “myocardial infarction” to find clinical studies published within the past 10 years related to HRV and clinical depression, in patients with an ACS episode. Studies were included if HRV measurement and depression screening were undertaken during an ACS hospitalization or within 2 months of hospital discharge. Results: Nine clinical studies met the inclusion criteria. The

  16. Avian vocal production beyond low dimensional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2017-02-01

    Birdsong is an active field of research in neuroscience, since songbirds learn their songs through a process similar to that followed by humans during vocal learning. Moreover, many of the vocalizations produced by birds are quite complex. Since the avian vocal organ is nonlinear, it is sensible to explore how much of that complexity is due to the neural instructions controlling the vocal organ, and how much to its nonlinear nature. In this work we first review some of the work carried out in the last years to address this problem, and then we discuss the existence of noisy sound sources in the avian vocal organ. We show that some spectral features of the song produced by the Zebra finch (one of the most widely studied species) can only be explained when vortex sound is taken into account.

  17. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.

  18. Diel and Spatial Dependence of Humpback Song and Non-Song Vocalizations in Fish Spawning Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The vocalization behavior of humpback whales was monitored over vast areas of the Gulf of Maine using the passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing technique (POAWRS over multiple diel cycles in Fall 2006. The humpback vocalizations comprised of both song and non-song are analyzed. The song vocalizations, composed of highly structured and repeatable set of phrases, are characterized by inter-pulse intervals of 3.5 ± 1.8 s. Songs were detected throughout the diel cycle, occuring roughly 40% during the day and 60% during the night. The humpback non-song vocalizations, dominated by shorter duration (≤3 s downsweep and bow-shaped moans, as well as a small fraction of longer duration (∼5 s cries, have significantly larger mean and more variable inter-pulse intervals of 14.2 ± 11 s. The non-song vocalizations were detected at night with negligible detections during the day, implying they probably function as nighttime communication signals. The humpback song and non-song vocalizations are separately localized using the moving array triangulation and array invariant techniques. The humpback song and non-song moan calls are both consistently localized to a dense area on northeastern Georges Bank and a less dense region extended from Franklin Basin to the Great South Channel. Humpback cries occur exclusively on northeastern Georges Bank and during nights with coincident dense Atlantic herring shoaling populations, implying the cries are feeding-related.

  19. Acute Differences in Foot Strike and Spatiotemporal Variables for Shod, Barefoot or Minimalist Male Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara McCallion

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared stride length, stride frequency, contact time, flight time and foot-strike patterns (FSP when running barefoot, and in minimalist and conventional running shoes. Habitually shod male athletes (n = 14; age 25 ± 6 yr; competitive running experience 8 ± 3 yr completed a randomised order of 6 by 4-min treadmill runs at velocities (V1 and V2 equivalent to 70 and 85% of best 5-km race time, in the three conditions. Synchronous recording of 3-D joint kinematics and ground reaction force data examined spatiotemporal variables and FSP. Most participants adopted a mid-foot strike pattern, regardless of condition. Heel-toe latency was less at V2 than V1 (-6 ± 20 vs. -1 ± 13 ms, p < 0.05, which indicated a velocity related shift towards a more FFS pattern. Stride duration and flight time, when shod and in minimalist footwear, were greater than barefoot (713 ± 48 and 701 ± 49 vs. 679 ± 56 ms, p < 0.001; and 502 ± 45 and 503 ± 41 vs. 488 ±4 9 ms, p < 0.05, respectively. Contact time was significantly longer when running shod than barefoot or in minimalist footwear (211±30 vs. 191 ± 29 ms and 198 ± 33 ms, p < 0.001. When running barefoot, stride frequency was significantly higher (p < 0.001 than in conventional and minimalist footwear (89 ± 7 vs. 85 ± 6 and 86 ± 6 strides·min-1. In conclusion, differences in spatiotemporal variables occurred within a single running session, irrespective of barefoot running experience, and, without a detectable change in FSP.

  20. Imaging and Analysis of Human Vocal Fold Vibration Using Two-Dimensional (2D) Scanning Videokymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-June; Cha, Wonjae; Kim, Geun-Hyo; Jeon, Gye-Rok; Lee, Byung Joo; Shin, Bum-Joo; Choi, Yang-Gyu; Wang, Soo-Geun

    2016-05-01

    Laryngeal videokymography and high-speed digital kymography are the currently available techniques for studying aperiodic vibration of the vocal folds. However, videokymography has a fundamental limitation that only linear portions of the vocal fold mucosa can be visualized, whereas high-speed digital kymography has the disadvantages of lack of immediate feedback during examination and considerable waiting time before kymographic visualization. We developed a new system, two-dimensional (2D) scanning videokymography, that provides a possible alternative for evaluation of the vibratory pattern of the vocal folds. Herein, we report the application of 2D scanning videokymography for visualization of vocal fold vibration in humans and an analysis of its parameters. Two young healthy volunteers (one man and one woman) took part in this study. The vibratory patterns of their vocal folds were evaluated using 2D scanning videokymography and laryngeal stroboscopy. Two-dimensional scanning videokymography provided a high-definition image of the vibratory movements of the vocal folds. In analysis of the images acquired by the device, various parameters including fundamental frequency; ratio of the vibratory phases; phase, amplitude, and glottal area symmetry; and cycle-to-cycle variability were extracted. Our results indicate that 2D scanning videokymography is a useful and promising tool for visualization of the vibratory movement of the vocal folds. This new technique might improve our understanding of the mechanism of vocal fold vibration and contribute to voice research as well as clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of posture and acute sleep deprivation on heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Chang; Kwon, Min Kyung; Kim, Deok Won

    2011-07-01

    In our previous study to investigate autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity due to radio frequency (RF) radiation using heart rate variability (HRV), drowsiness was observed in approximately half of all subjects. Therefore, the usage of HRV with unwanted drowsiness could falsely indicate the effects of RF radiation by mobile phones on the ANS. The objective of this study was to determine which posture is appropriate for accurate HRV analysis for provocation study. A total of 52 healthy subjects (25 males and 27 females) participated in this experiment. We measured the number of times a subject showed drowsiness or sleep deprivation due to awakening, and analyzed HRV six times over 30 minutes in sitting and recumbent postures, using power spectrum. We employed the ratio of low frequency power to high frequency power (LFP/HFP) to analyze the changes in the ANS. The number of sleep deprivation occurrences in the sitting posture was significantly less than that in the recumbent posture (psleep deprivation, thereby decreasing variation of LFP/HFP during experiment. Considering the drowsiness, it is also recommended that any experiment should be completed within 15 minutes, if possible.

  2. Changes in the heart rate variability in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and its response to acute CPAP treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Kufoy

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to demonstrate whether the use of CPAP produces significant changes in the heart rate or in the heart rate variability of patients with OSA in the first night of treatment and whether gender and obesity play a role in these differences. METHODS: Single-center transversal study including patients with severe OSA corrected with CPAP. Only patients with total correction after CPAP were included. Patients underwent two sleep studies on consecutive nights: the first night a basal study, and the second with CPAP. We also analyzed the heart rate changes and their relationship with CPAP treatment, sleep stages, sex and body mass index. Twenty-minute segments of the ECG were selected from the sleep periods of REM, no-REM and awake. Heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV were studied by comparing the R-R interval in the different conditions. We also compared samples from the basal study and CPAP nights. RESULTS: 39 patients (15 females, 24 males were studied. The mean age was 50.67 years old, the mean AHI was 48.54, and mean body mass index was 33.41 kg/m(2 (31.83 males, 35.95 females. Our results showed that HRV (SDNN decreased after the use of CPAP during the first night of treatment, especially in non-REM sleep. Gender and obesity did not have any influence on our results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support that cardiac variability improves as an acute effect, independently of gender or weight, in the first night of CPAP use in severe OSA patients, supporting the idea of continuous use and emphasizing that noncompliance of CPAP treatment should be avoided even if it is just once.

  3. Acoustic censusing using automatic vocalization classification and identity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi, Kuntoro; Johnson, Michael T; Osiejuk, Tomasz S

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents an advanced method to acoustically assess animal abundance. The framework combines supervised classification (song-type and individual identity recognition), unsupervised classification (individual identity clustering), and the mark-recapture model of abundance estimation. The underlying algorithm is based on clustering using hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) similar to methods used in the speech recognition community for tasks such as speaker identification and clustering. Initial experiments using a Norwegian ortolan bunting (Emberiza hortulana) data set show the feasibility and effectiveness of the approach. Individually distinct acoustic features have been observed in a wide range of animal species, and this combined with the widespread success of speaker identification and verification methods for human speech suggests that robust automatic identification of individuals from their vocalizations is attainable. Only a few studies, however, have yet attempted to use individual acoustic distinctiveness to directly assess population density and structure. The approach introduced here offers a direct mechanism for using individual vocal variability to create simpler and more accurate population assessment tools in vocally active species.

  4. Effects of a music therapy voice protocol on speech intelligibility, vocal acoustic measures, and mood of individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneishi, E

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a Music Therapy Voice Protocol (MTVP) on speech intelligibility, vocal intensity, maximum vocal range, maximum duration of sustained vowel phonation, vocal fundamental frequency, vocal fundamental frequency variability, and mood of individuals with Parkinson's disease. Four female patients, who demonstrated voice and speech problems, served as their own controls and participated in baseline assessment (study pretest), a series of MTVP sessions involving vocal and singing exercises, and final evaluation (study posttest). In study pre and posttests, data for speech intelligibility and all acoustic variables were collected. Statistically significant increases were found in speech intelligibility, as rated by caregivers, and in vocal intensity from study pretest to posttest as the results of paired samples t-tests. In addition, before and after each MTVP session (session pre and posttests), self-rated mood scores and selected acoustic variables were collected. No significant differences were found in any of the variables from the session pretests to posttests, across the entire treatment period, or their interactions as the results of two-way ANOVAs with repeated measures. Although not significant, the mean of mood scores in session posttests (M = 8.69) was higher than that in session pretests (M = 7.93).

  5. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  6. Voice therapy and vocal nodules in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    This review considers recent and significant information pertinent to voice therapy for vocal nodules. Available evidence suggests that voice therapy directed to excessive, hyperfunctional and maladaptive vocal practices can be effective in improving voice quality and reducing size/extent of pathology. However, there is also a growing literature suggesting that behavioral approaches may not be sufficient to permanently heal tissue changes in some patients, regardless of compliance with treatment aims, due to lasting structural damage in the vocal fold cover. This evidence underscores the need for early identification and education in individuals at risk for nodules. The relationship between vocal nodules and excessive, phonotraumatic voice use is well established. Voice therapy typically consists of education regarding vocal fold mechanics and etiological factors, as well as modification of specific vocal practices that either cause, exacerbate or result from inappropriate voice production. Therapy can be effective in improving voice quality and tissue health but does not necessarily result in complete resolution of pathology. It should always be considered as a part of the treatment regimen for patients with vocal nodules.

  7. Detecting Depression Severity from Vocal Prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Fairbairn, Catherine; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relation between vocal prosody and change in depression severity over time, 57 participants from a clinical trial for treatment of depression were evaluated at seven-week intervals using a semi-structured clinical interview for depression severity (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: HRSD). All participants met criteria for Major Depressive Disorder at week 1. Using both perceptual judgments by naive listeners and quantitative analyses of vocal timing and fundamental frequency, three hypotheses were tested: 1) Naive listeners can perceive the severity of depression from vocal recordings of depressed participants and interviewers. 2) Quantitative features of vocal prosody in depressed participants reveal change in symptom severity over the course of depression. And 3) Interpersonal effects occur as well; such that vocal prosody in interviewers shows corresponding effects. These hypotheses were strongly supported. Together, participants' and interviewers' vocal prosody accounted for about 60% of variation in depression scores, and detected ordinal range of depression severity (low, mild, and moderate-to-severe) in 69% of cases (kappa = 0.53). These findings suggest that analysis of vocal prosody could be a powerful tool to assist in depression screening and monitoring over the course of depressive disorder and recovery.

  8. Vocal Loading in Speaking a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Kati; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether speaking a foreign language affects the subjective notions of vocal fatigue, and whether acoustic measurements reveal a higher vocal loading. The speech samples of 20 native Finnish-speaking and 23 native English-speaking subjects were recorded in Finnish and in English. From the speech samples, fundamental frequency, equivalent sound level, total duration of voiced speech, speech rate, alpha ratio and L1-L0 level difference were analyzed. Vocal doses were calculated. According to subjective notions, the voice gets tired more quickly when speaking a foreign language. The mean fundamental frequency increased but the speech rate and total duration of voiced speech decreased significantly when speaking a foreign language. Thus, the vocal doses decreased. The subjective sensations of increased vocal fatigue may be due to increased mental stress rather than to higher vocal loading. However, a trend that speaking a foreign language may involve more loading was found in L1-L0 level difference and in the doses normalized to time dose. Longer speech samples should be studied. Voice quality-based indicators of vocal loading are worth testing in addition to the measures based on the amount of voicing in speech. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Aerodynamic and acoustic features of vocal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Allison L; Lowell, Soren Y; Colton, Raymond H

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the aerodynamic and acoustic features of speech produced at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. Prospective, quasi-experimental research design. Eighteen healthy participants with normal voice were included in this study. After task training, participants produced repeated syllable combinations at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. A pneumotachometer and vented (Rothenberg) mask were used to record aerodynamic data, with simultaneous recording of the acoustic signal for subsequent analysis. Aerodynamic measures of subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and laryngeal resistance were analyzed, along with acoustic measures of cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and its standard deviation (SD). Participants produced significantly greater subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR during maximal effort speech as compared with comfortable vocal effort. When producing speech at minimal vocal effort, participants lowered subglottal pressure, MFDR, and laryngeal resistance. Acoustic changes associated with changes in vocal effort included significantly higher CPP during maximal effort speech and significantly lower CPP SD during minimal effort speech, when each was compared with comfortable effort. For healthy speakers without voice disorders, subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR may be important factors that contribute to an increased sense of vocal effort. Changes in the cepstral signal also occur under conditions of increased or decreased vocal effort relative to comfortable effort. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Serial Holter ST-segment monitoring after first acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence, variability, and long-term prognostic importance of transient myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J

    1998-01-01

    Based on serial Holter monitoring performed 7 times within 3 years after a first acute myocardial infarction, we assessed the prevalence, variability and long-term clinical importance of transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) defined as episodes of ambulatory ST-segment depression. In all, 121...

  11. Coordination between posture and phonation in vocal effort behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Aude; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Ghio, Alain; Legou, Thierry; Giovanni, Antoine; Assaiante, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Postural correlates of vocal effort are rarely described in the literature, while they are extensively dealt with in speech therapy. This study aims at determining whether body movement is a side effect of vocal effort or an integral part of communication effort behavior. The answer to this question is mainly based on correlations between posture and phonation. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. They had to communicate with a listener under 3 conditions requiring different levels of vocal effort. The vocal parameters increased and confirmed that the subjects had made a vocal effort. The kinematic parameters (amplitude and duration of body movement) increased with vocal effort. Lastly, vocal and kinematic characteristics were significantly correlated. The close correlation of posture with vocal production shows that movement is not a mere consequence of vocal effort. Posture and voice are coordinated in communication behavior, and each body segment plays its specific role in the vocal effort behavior. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  13. Vocal learning beyond imitation: mechanisms of adaptive vocal development in songbirds and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Marcus, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Studies of vocal learning in songbirds typically focus on the acquisition of sensory templates for song imitation and on the consequent process of matching song production to templates. However, functional vocal development also requires the capacity to adaptively diverge from sensory templates, and to flexibly assemble vocal units. Examples of adaptive divergence include the corrective imitation of abnormal songs, and the decreased tendency to copy over-abundant syllables. Such frequency-dependent effects might mirror tradeoffs between the assimilation of group identity (culture) while establishing individual and flexibly expressive songs. Intriguingly, although the requirements for vocal plasticity vary across songbirds, and more so between birdsong and language, the capacity to flexibly assemble vocal sounds develops in a similar, stepwise manner across species. Therefore, universal features of vocal learning go well beyond the capacity to imitate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vocal Cord Actinomycosis Mimicking a Laryngeal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Yoshihama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal carcinoma and laryngeal papilloma are the most commonly encountered tumorous lesions in the larynx. Herein, we report a case of the mass arising from the left vocal cord in a 49-year-old Japanese man. Endoscopic examination suggested that the mass is a tumor such as carcinoma and papilloma. Pathological examination showed that the specimen demonstrated actinomycosis in the left vocal cord. Although vocal cord actinomycosis is extremely rare, the otolaryngologist should recognize this condition during the inspection of the larynx.

  15. Vocal Cord Actinomycosis Mimicking a Laryngeal Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihama, Keisuke; Kato, Yasumasa; Baba, Yuh

    2013-01-01

    Laryngeal carcinoma and laryngeal papilloma are the most commonly encountered tumorous lesions in the larynx. Herein, we report a case of the mass arising from the left vocal cord in a 49-year-old Japanese man. Endoscopic examination suggested that the mass is a tumor such as carcinoma and papilloma. Pathological examination showed that the specimen demonstrated actinomycosis in the left vocal cord. Although vocal cord actinomycosis is extremely rare, the otolaryngologist should recognize this condition during the inspection of the larynx. PMID:23573444

  16. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Javad Seyed Toutounchi; Mahmood Eydi; Samad EJ Golzari; Mohammad Reza Ghaffari; Nashmil Parvizian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis. Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such a...

  17. Actions in vocal health: a proposal for improving the vocal profile of teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Penteado, Regina Zanella; Vieira, Tais Pichirilli Guilherme; Libardi, Aline; Rossi, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    several authors have pointed to the urgent need of researches and actions involving teachers, in the school environment, that have a preventive and vocal health promotion character with the purpose of improving work conditions. to analyze the vocal complaints, laryngeal symptoms, vocal habits and vocal profile of teachers of a public school before and after their participation in voice workshops. the study was divided in different steps: 1st step - closed interview, larynx and perceptive-auditory assessment in which 42 teachers were evaluated; 2nd step - voice workshops; 3rd step - perceptive-auditory reassessment in which 13 teachers were evaluated. 73% of the subjects presented vocal complaints; 57.14% presented mild to moderate hoarseness, 78.57% presented breathiness and 52.38% vocal tension. Evaluation of the larynx indicated that 75.86% of the subjects presented glottal gaps and 34.48% mucous thickening. After the voice workshops a significant difference was observed in the level of vocal tension, both in the analysis of the /e/ vowel and in the analysis of Spontaneous Speech (p = 0.0277 for p > 0.05 for both). Improvement was observed in vocal care and in the understanding of intervening and determinant factors for vocal alterations, which are present in the teaching environment. health actions, such as voice workshops, are important to trigger changes in the work environment as well as in the health of teachers.

  18. Nocturnal "humming" vocalizations: adding a piece to the puzzle of giraffe vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baotic, Anton; Sicks, Florian; Stoeger, Angela S

    2015-09-09

    Recent research reveals that giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis sp.) exhibit a socially structured, fission-fusion system. In other species possessing this kind of society, information exchange is important and vocal communication is usually well developed. But is this true for giraffes? Giraffes are known to produce sounds, but there is no evidence that they use vocalizations for communication. Reports on giraffe vocalizations are mainly anecdotal and the missing acoustic descriptions make it difficult to establish a call nomenclature. Despite inconclusive evidence to date, it is widely assumed that giraffes produce infrasonic vocalizations similar to elephants. In order to initiate a more detailed investigation of the vocal communication in giraffes, we collected data of captive individuals during day and night. We particularly focussed on detecting tonal, infrasonic or sustained vocalizations. We collected over 947 h of audio material in three European zoos and quantified the spectral and temporal components of acoustic signals to obtain an accurate set of acoustic parameters. Besides the known burst, snorts and grunts, we detected harmonic, sustained and frequency-modulated "humming" vocalizations during night recordings. None of the recorded vocalizations were within the infrasonic range. These results show that giraffes do produce vocalizations, which, based on their acoustic structure, might have the potential to function as communicative signals to convey information about the physical and motivational attributes of the caller. The data further reveal that the assumption of infrasonic communication in giraffes needs to be considered with caution and requires further investigations in future studies.

  19. Classification of acute stress using linear and non-linear heart rate variability analysis derived from sternal ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanev, George; Saadi, Dorthe B; Hoppe, Karsten; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress detection is an important factor in predicting and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. This work is a pilot study with a focus on developing a method for detecting short-term psychophysiological changes through heart rate variability (HRV) features. The purpose of this pilot study is to establish and to gain insight on a set of features that could be used to detect psychophysiological changes that occur during chronic stress. This study elicited four different types of arousal by images, sounds, mental tasks and rest, and classified them using linear and non-linear HRV features from electrocardiograms (ECG) acquired by the wireless wearable ePatch® recorder. The highest recognition rates were acquired for the neutral stage (90%), the acute stress stage (80%) and the baseline stage (80%) by sample entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis and normalized high frequency features. Standardizing non-linear HRV features for each subject was found to be an important factor for the improvement of the classification results.

  20. Primary care clinicians use variable methods to assess acute nonspecific low back pain and usually focus on impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Peter M; Keating, Jennifer L; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the assessment of acute (Physiotherapy, Manipulative Physiotherapy, Chiropractic, Osteopathy, General Medicine, and Musculoskeletal Medicine). Descriptive statistics (proportions and frequency of use distributions) were used to describe assessment technique use, Mann-Whitney U tests were used to determine between-discipline differences in the use of each assessment technique, and Bonferroni-adjusted inferential confidence intervals were constructed to allow visual comparison of the use of assessment techniques from five health domains. The results indicate that the methods used by different professional disciplines to assess NSLBP vary considerably, as 44 out of 48 assessment techniques showed significantly different utilisation rates across professions. Furthermore, assessment across domains of health in this condition was variable, as clinicians commonly assess physical impairments and pain and less commonly assess activity limitation and psychosocial function (100% of clinicians very frequently or often assess physical impairment, 99% [95%CI 98-100%] assess pain, 21% [95%CI 15-27%] assess activity limitation, and 7% [95%CI 3-11%] assess psychosocial function). Adoption of greater standardisation of assessment by clinicians may require demonstration of the capacity of this standardisation to improve patient outcomes.

  1. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, K. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain images as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.

  2. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clay, Zanna; Archbold, Jahmaira; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    ... independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates...

  3. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  4. Laryngeal and vocal alterations after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyomasa, Renata Mizusaki; Tagliarini, José Vicente; Rodrigues, Sérgio Augusto; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Martins, Regina Helena Garcia

    2017-09-21

    Dysphonia is a common symptom after thyroidectomy. To analyze the vocal symptoms, auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal, videolaryngoscopy, the surgical procedures and histopathological findings in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Prospective study. Patients submitted to thyroidectomy were evaluated as follows: anamnesis, laryngoscopy, and acoustic vocal assessments. Moments: pre-operative, 1st post (15 days), 2nd post (1 month), 3rd post (3 months), and 4th post (6 months). Among the 151 patients (130 women; 21 men). Type of surgery: lobectomy+isthmectomy n=40, total thyroidectomy n=88, thyroidectomy+lymph node dissection n=23. Vocal symptoms were reported by 42 patients in the 1st post (27.8%) decreasing to 7.2% after 6 months. In the acoustic analysis, f0 and APQ were decreased in women. Videolaryngoscopies showed that 144 patients (95.3%) had normal exams in the preoperative moment. Vocal fold palsies were diagnosed in 34 paralyzes at the 1st post, 32 recurrent laryngeal nerve (lobectomy+isthmectomy n=6; total thyroidectomy n=17; thyroidectomy+lymph node dissection n=9) and 2 superior laryngeal nerve (lobectomy+isthmectomy n=1; Total thyroidectomy+lymph node dissection n=1). After 6 months, 10 patients persisted with paralysis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (6.6%). Histopathology and correlation with vocal fold palsy: colloid nodular goiter (n=76; palsy n=13), thyroiditis (n=8; palsy n=0), and carcinoma (n=67; palsy n=21). Vocal symptoms, reported by 27.8% of the patients on the 1st post decreased to 7% in 6 months. In the acoustic analysis, f0 and APQ were decreased. Transient paralysis of the vocal folds secondary to recurrent and superior laryngeal nerve injury occurred in, respectively, 21% and 1.3% of the patients, decreasing to 6.6% and 0% after 6 months. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Learned vocal variation is associated with abrupt cryptic genetic change in a parrot species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul F H Ribot

    Full Text Available Contact zones between subspecies or closely related species offer valuable insights into speciation processes. A typical feature of such zones is the presence of clinal variation in multiple traits. The nature of these traits and the concordance among clines are expected to influence whether and how quickly speciation will proceed. Learned signals, such as vocalizations in species having vocal learning (e.g. humans, many birds, bats and cetaceans, can exhibit rapid change and may accelerate reproductive isolation between populations. Therefore, particularly strong concordance among clines in learned signals and population genetic structure may be expected, even among continuous populations in the early stages of speciation. However, empirical evidence for this pattern is often limited because differences in vocalisations between populations are driven by habitat differences or have evolved in allopatry. We tested for this pattern in a unique system where we may be able to separate effects of habitat and evolutionary history. We studied geographic variation in the vocalizations of the crimson rosella (Platycercus elegans parrot species complex. Parrots are well known for their life-long vocal learning and cognitive abilities. We analysed contact calls across a ca 1300 km transect encompassing populations that differed in neutral genetic markers and plumage colour. We found steep clinal changes in two acoustic variables (fundamental frequency and peak frequency position. The positions of the two clines in vocal traits were concordant with a steep cline in microsatellite-based genetic variation, but were discordant with the steep clines in mtDNA, plumage and habitat. Our study provides new evidence that vocal variation, in a species with vocal learning, can coincide with areas of restricted gene flow across geographically continuous populations. Our results suggest that traits that evolve culturally can be strongly associated with reduced gene flow

  6. Vocal nodules in a colombian teachers group with dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Alvarado Díaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study determined the prevalence of vocal nodules associated with dysphonia in teachers aged from 35 to 65 years, taking into consideration both individual and occupational variables. Methodology: Descriptive study that included the information contained in 262 medical records of teachers diagnosed with dysphonia in occupational health consultations at the institutions that provide health services in Bogotá, Colombia from March 2009 to March 2012. The presence of laryngeal nodules was based on the findings of a nasofibrolaryngoscopy procedure. Results: Nodules were found in 67 teachers, which corresponded to a rate of 25.5%, being apparently (highest observed rates associated primarily with the following variables: females, ages from 45 to 54 years, bilateral nodules, and teaching position (preschool and physical education. Of the teachers with nodules, 76.1% had fewer than five doctor's appointments, and 75% had more than 90 days of sick leave. Conclusion: A high percentage of teachers have vocal nodules associated with dysphonia. This may be apparently related to different variables such as sex, type of nodule, area and teaching position. Was observed only a statistically significant association among presence of nodules and age (p=0.018. In addition this disorder generates a large number of incapacities and employee absenteeism.

  7. Vocal efficiency measurements in subjects with vocal polyps and nodules: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jack; Stern, Jennifer; Chen, Hui-Jun; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2004-04-01

    Vocal efficiency is a quantitative measure of the ability of the larynx to convert subglottal power to acoustic power. On the basis of the scant previous literature and clinical intuition, we tested the hypothesis that vocal efficiency, as an indicator of the functional status of the larynx, is abnormally reduced in persons with vocal nodules and polyps. Because the most difficult aspect of obtaining measures of vocal efficiency has been the determination of subglottal pressure, we applied a noninvasive airflow interruption technique for this purpose. Subjects with normal voices (n = 22), vocal polyps (n = 14), and vocal nodules (n = 16) phonated at different intensities into a mask connected by way of piping to a flow meter, a pressure transducer, and an acoustic microphone. Inflation of a balloon-type valve located within the piping provided interruption of phonation. The intraoral pressure plateau occurring during flow interruption was used to estimate subglottal pressure. Subglottal power and acoustic power were determined, and their quotient provided a measure of vocal efficiency. The vocal efficiency in the normal subjects averaged 1.15 x 10(-5) at 70 dB, 3.17 x 10(-5) at 75 dB, 7.52 x 10(-5) at 80 dB, and 1.41 x 10(-4) at 85 dB. The vocal efficiency in the patients with vocal polyps averaged 3.62 x 10(-6) at 70 dB, 8.34 x 10(-6) at 75 dB, 2.10 x 10(-5) at 80 dB, and 4.26 x 10(-5) at 85 dB. The vocal efficiency in the patients with vocal nodules averaged 4.32 x 10(-6) at 70 dB, 1.57 x 10(-5) at 75 dB, 4.26 x 10(-5) at 80 dB, and 8.34 x 10(-5) at 85 dB. As compared to the normal subjects, the patients with laryngeal polyps or vocal nodules had significantly reduced vocal efficiency. These results provide quantitative verification of the clinical impression of inefficient phonation in patients with mass lesions of the vocal folds.

  8. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  9. Perceptions of Voice Teachers Regarding Students' Vocal Behaviors During Singing and Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Shellie A

    2017-01-01

    This study examined voice teachers' perceptions of their instruction of healthy singing and speaking voice techniques. An online, researcher-generated questionnaire based on the McClosky technique was administered to college/university voice teachers listed as members in the 2012-2013 College Music Society directory. A majority of participants believed there to be a relationship between the health of the singing voice and the health of the speaking voice. Participants' perception scores were the most positive for variable MBSi, the monitoring of students' vocal behaviors during singing. Perception scores for variable TVB, the teaching of healthy vocal behaviors, and variable MBSp, the monitoring of students' vocal behaviors while speaking, ranked second and third, respectively. Perception scores for variable TVB were primarily associated with participants' familiarity with voice rehabilitation techniques, gender, and familiarity with the McClosky technique. Perception scores for variable MBSi were primarily associated with participants' familiarity with voice rehabilitation techniques, gender, type of student taught, and instruction of a student with a voice disorder. Perception scores for variable MBSp were correlated with the greatest number of characteristics, including participants' familiarity with voice rehabilitation techniques, familiarity with the McClosky technique, type of student taught, years of teaching experience, and instruction of a student with a voice disorder. Voice teachers are purportedly working with injured voices and attempting to include vocal health in their instruction. Although a voice teacher is not obligated to pursue further rehabilitative training, the current study revealed a positive relationship between familiarity with specific rehabilitation techniques and vocal health. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Vocal Fold Nodules on Glottal Cycle Measurements Derived from High-Speed Videoendoscopy in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita R Patel

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to quantify the effects of vocal fold nodules on vibratory motion in children using high-speed videoendoscopy. Differences in vibratory motion were evaluated in 20 children with vocal fold nodules (5-11 years and 20 age and gender matched typically developing children (5-11 years during sustained phonation at typical pitch and loudness. Normalized kinematic features of vocal fold displacements from the mid-membranous vocal fold point were extracted from the steady-state high-speed video. A total of 12 kinematic features representing spatial and temporal characteristics of vibratory motion were calculated. Average values and standard deviations (cycle-to-cycle variability of the following kinematic features were computed: normalized peak displacement, normalized average opening velocity, normalized average closing velocity, normalized peak closing velocity, speed quotient, and open quotient. Group differences between children with and without vocal fold nodules were statistically investigated. While a moderate effect size was observed for the spatial feature of speed quotient, and the temporal feature of normalized average closing velocity in children with nodules compared to vocally normal children, none of the features were statistically significant between the groups after Bonferroni correction. The kinematic analysis of the mid-membranous vocal fold displacement revealed that children with nodules primarily differ from typically developing children in closing phase kinematics of the glottal cycle, whereas the opening phase kinematics are similar. Higher speed quotients and similar opening phase velocities suggest greater relative forces are acting on vocal fold in the closing phase. These findings suggest that future large-scale studies should focus on spatial and temporal features related to the closing phase of the glottal cycle for differentiating the kinematics of children with and without vocal fold nodules.

  11. Effects of Vocal Fold Nodules on Glottal Cycle Measurements Derived from High-Speed Videoendoscopy in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita R; Unnikrishnan, Harikrishnan; Donohue, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to quantify the effects of vocal fold nodules on vibratory motion in children using high-speed videoendoscopy. Differences in vibratory motion were evaluated in 20 children with vocal fold nodules (5-11 years) and 20 age and gender matched typically developing children (5-11 years) during sustained phonation at typical pitch and loudness. Normalized kinematic features of vocal fold displacements from the mid-membranous vocal fold point were extracted from the steady-state high-speed video. A total of 12 kinematic features representing spatial and temporal characteristics of vibratory motion were calculated. Average values and standard deviations (cycle-to-cycle variability) of the following kinematic features were computed: normalized peak displacement, normalized average opening velocity, normalized average closing velocity, normalized peak closing velocity, speed quotient, and open quotient. Group differences between children with and without vocal fold nodules were statistically investigated. While a moderate effect size was observed for the spatial feature of speed quotient, and the temporal feature of normalized average closing velocity in children with nodules compared to vocally normal children, none of the features were statistically significant between the groups after Bonferroni correction. The kinematic analysis of the mid-membranous vocal fold displacement revealed that children with nodules primarily differ from typically developing children in closing phase kinematics of the glottal cycle, whereas the opening phase kinematics are similar. Higher speed quotients and similar opening phase velocities suggest greater relative forces are acting on vocal fold in the closing phase. These findings suggest that future large-scale studies should focus on spatial and temporal features related to the closing phase of the glottal cycle for differentiating the kinematics of children with and without vocal fold nodules.

  12. Vocalizations of Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis): Characterization, effect of physical environment and differences between populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Thiago Orion Simões; Andriolo, Artur; Reis, Sarah S; dos Santos, Manuel E

    2016-03-01

    The vocal repertoire of the Amazon river dolphin and its geographic variations are still poorly known, especially in relation to ecological variables. Here the acoustic characteristics of low frequency pulsed vocalizations, with single or multiple pulses, recorded in two protected areas of the Amazon were described and differences in acoustic emissions related to water properties were analyzed. Both frequency and time parameters differ relative to abiotic condition of water turbidity. Changes in the animals' acoustic behavior might be due to differences in sound propagation between rich-sediment water and clear water. Geographic variation was found in frequency and time parameters, requiring further investigation.

  13. Afferents from vocal motor and respiratory effectors are recruited during vocal production in juvenile songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottjer, Sarah W; To, Michelle

    2012-08-08

    Learned behaviors require coordination of diverse sensory inputs with motivational and motor systems. Although mechanisms underlying vocal learning in songbirds have focused primarily on auditory inputs, it is likely that sensory inputs from vocal effectors also provide essential feedback. We investigated the role of somatosensory and respiratory inputs from vocal effectors of juvenile zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) during the stage of sensorimotor integration when they are learning to imitate a previously memorized tutor song. We report that song production induced expression of the immediate early gene product Fos in trigeminal regions that receive hypoglossal afferents from the tongue and syrinx (the main vocal organ). Furthermore, unilateral lesion of hypoglossal afferents greatly diminished singing-induced Fos expression on the side ipsilateral to the lesion, but not on the intact control side. In addition, unilateral lesion of the vagus reduced Fos expression in the ipsilateral nucleus of the solitary tract in singing birds. Lesion of the hypoglossal nerve to the syrinx greatly disrupted vocal behavior, whereas lesion of the hypoglossal nerve to the tongue exerted no obvious disruption and lesions of the vagus caused some alterations to song behavior. These results provide the first functional evidence that somatosensory and respiratory feedback from peripheral effectors is activated during vocal production and conveyed to brainstem regions. Such feedback is likely to play an important role in vocal learning during sensorimotor integration in juvenile birds and in maintaining stereotyped vocal behavior in adults.

  14. Changes in heart rate variability associated with acute alcohol consumption: current knowledge and implications for practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Magdalena; Schmidt, John E; Bostwick, John M; Mrazek, David A; Karpyak, Victor M

    2011-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a broad array of physiologic and behavioral effects including changes in heart rate. However, the physiologic mechanisms of alcohol effects and the reasons for individual differences in the cardiac response remain unknown. Measuring changes in resting heart rate (measured as beats/min) has not been found to be as sensitive to alcohol's effects as changes in heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is defined as fluctuations in interbeat interval length which reflect the heart's response to extracardiac factors that affect heart rate. HRV allows simultaneous assessment of both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity and the interplay between them. Increased HRV has been associated with exercise and aerobic fitness, while decreased HRV has been associated with aging, chronic stress, and a wide variety of medical and psychiatric disorders. Decreased HRV has predictive value for mortality in general population samples and patients with myocardial infarction and used as an indicator of altered autonomic function. A significant inverse correlation was found between HRV and both the severity of depression and the duration of the depressive episode. HRV analysis provides insights into mechanisms of autonomic regulation and is extensively used to clarify relationships between depression and cardiovascular disease. This article will review the methodology of HRV measurements and contemporary knowledge about effects of acute alcohol consumption on HRV. Potential implications of this research include HRV response to alcohol that could serve as a marker for susceptibility to alcoholism. At present however there is almost no research data supporting this hypothesis. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. A PERFORMANCE CONSTRAINT ON THE EVOLUTION OF TRILLED VOCALIZATIONS IN A SONGBIRD FAMILY (PASSERIFORMES: EMBERIZIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podos, Jeffrey

    1997-04-01

    Behavioral evolution can be influenced by constraints, for example, of phylogeny and performance. In this paper I describe a pattern in the evolution of birdsongs that may reflect a constraint on vocal performance. Trilled vocalizations from 34 species of songbirds (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) were analyzed. Two acoustic variables, trill rate and frequency bandwidth, were measured for different trill types. In most species, maximal values of frequency bandwidth were found to decrease with increasing trill rates. Further, trills with low trill rates exhibited wide variance in frequency bandwidth, and trills with high trill rates exhibited only narrow frequency bandwidths. The bounded nature of this pattern suggests that performance constraints have limited the evolutionary diversification of trills. In particular, I explore the role of constraints associated with vocal tract modulations during song production and evolution. Identification of this constraint may enhance our ability to explain particular patterns of trill evolution. © 1997 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Evaluation of peripheral vocal cord paralysis by electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosheva, Maria; Wittekindt, Claus; Pototschnig, Claus; Lindenthaler, Werner; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2008-06-01

    To analyze the predictive value of electromyography (EMG) after peripheral vocal cord paralysis and to estimate regeneration time. Retrospective study based on electromyographic data and medical chart review of university based ENT hospitals. EMG results of 448 patients were classified into neuropraxia, axonotmesis/neurotmesis, or not classifiable and followed until final outcome. Final outcome was classified electromyographically into restitutio ad integrum, defective healing, or not classifiable. The etiology of the paralysis was thyroid gland surgery in 42.9% and other iatrogenic lesions in 11.8%. Idiopathic paralysis was found in 20.3%. Mean follow-up time was 4.8 months. Initial EMG findings were neuropraxia in 31.0%, axonotmesis/neurotmesis in 40.8%, and not classifiable in 28.1%. Restitutio ad integrum was detected by EMG in 17.6% and defective healing in 43.3%. In 39.1%, the outcome could not be classified. The positive predictive value of EMG was 97% and the negative predictive value 60%. The outcome depended significantly on the initial EMG result (P neuropraxia was 4.0 months and after axonotmesis/neurotmesis 5.6 months. Laryngeal EMG has a high predictive value for acute peripheral vocal cord paralysis. The outcome can be predicted more reliably by means of EMG than by analysis of the etiology of the lesion.

  17. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2004-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  18. Individual killer whale vocal variation during intra-group behavioral dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebner, Dawn M.

    The scientific goal of this dissertation was to carefully study the signal structure of killer whale communications and vocal complexity and link them to behavioral circumstances. The overall objective of this research sought to provide insight into killer whale call content and usage which may be conveying information to conspecifics in order to maintain group cohesion. Data were collected in the summers of 2006 and 2007 in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia. For both individuals and small groups, vocalizations were isolated using a triangular hydrophone array and the behavioral movement patterns were captured by a theodolite and video camera positioned on a cliff overlooking the hyrophone locations. This dissertation is divided into four analysis chapters. In Chapter 3, discriminant analysis was used to validate the four N04 call subtypes which were originally parsed due to variations in slope segments. The first two functions of the discriminant analysis explained 97% of the variability. Most of the variability for the N04 call was found in the front convex and the terminal portions of the call, while very little variability was found in the center region of the call. This research revealed that individual killer whales produced multiple subtypes of the N04 call. No correlations of behaviors to acoustic parameters obtained were found. The aim of the Chapter 4 was to determine if killer whale calling behavior varied prior to and after the animals had joined. Pulsed call rates were found to be greater pre- compared to post-joining events. Two-way vocal exchanges were more common occurring 74% of the time during pre-joining events. In Chapter 5, initiated and first response to calls varied between age/sex class groups when mothers were separated from an offspring. Solo mothers and calves initiated pulsed calls more often than they responded. Most of the no vocal responses were due to mothers who were foraging. Finally, observations of the frequency split in N04

  19. Pneumomediastino espontâneo após esforço vocal: relato de caso Spontaneous pneumomediastinum following vocal effort: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Paiva Lobo Lopes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo é relatado o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 14 anos de idade, que após fazer grande esforço vocal, durante uma partida de futebol, desenvolveu quadro agudo de dor torácica. As radiografias de tórax e a tomografia computadorizada evidenciaram pneumomediastino, com pequeno pneumotórax bilateral. Os exames clínico, laboratoriais e radiológicos não demonstraram qualquer fator predisponente, ficando o caso classificado como pneumomediastino espontâneo.The present article reports the case of a 14-year-old male patient who developed acute chest pain following increased vocal effort during a soccer game. Chest radiography and computed tomography demonstrated pneudomediastinum with small bilateral pneumothorax. Clinical, laboratory and radiological studies did not demonstrate any predisposing factor, and the case was classified as spontaneous pneudomediastinum.

  20. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of Gesture and Movement Training on the Intonation of Children's Singing in Vocal Warm-Up Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mei-Ying; Davidson, Jane W.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of gesture and movement training for beginning children's choirs with regard to improving intonation. It was a between-subjects design with one independent variable Training Technique (TT). One dependent variable was measured: intonation in the singing of vocal pattern warm-up…

  2. Self-Reported Acute and Chronic Voice Disorders in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable, self-reported dysphonia, was determined via a single question, "Have you noticed changes in your voice quality?" and if so, a follow-up question queried the duration of this change, acute or chronic. The independent variables were dichotomized and divided into five categories: sociodemographic and economic data; lifestyle; organizational and environmental data; health-disease processes; and voice. Analyses of associated factors were performed via a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model. The present study included 226 teachers, of whom 38.9% reported no voice disorders, 35.4% reported an acute disorder, and 25.7% reported a chronic disorder. Excessive voice use daily, consuming more than one alcoholic drink per time, and seeking medical treatment because of voice disorders were associated factors for acute and chronic voice disorders. Consuming up to three glasses of water per day was associated with acute voice disorders. Among teachers who reported chronic voice disorders, teaching for over 15 years and the perception of disturbing or unbearable noise outside the school were both associated factors. Identification of organizational, environmental, and predisposing risk factors for voice disorders is critical, and furthermore, a vocal health promotion program may address these issues. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Social complexity parallels vocal complexity: a comparison of three nonhuman primate species

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    Hélène eBOUCHET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social factors play a key role in the structuring of vocal repertoires at the individual level, notably in nonhuman primates. Some authors suggested that, at the species level too, social life may have driven the evolution of communicative complexity, but this has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we use a comparative approach to address this issue. We investigated vocal variability, at both the call type and the repertoire levels, in three forest-dwelling species of Cercopithecinae presenting striking differences in their social systems, in terms of social organization as well as social structure. We collected female call recordings from twelve De Brazza’s monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus, six Campbell’s monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli and seven red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus housed in similar conditions. First, we noted that the level of acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness found in several call types was related to their importance in social functioning. Contact calls, essential to intra-group cohesion, were the most individually distinctive regardless of the species, while threat calls were more structurally variable in mangabeys, the most ‘despotic’ of our three species. Second, we found a parallel between the degree of complexity of the species’ social structure and the size, diversity, and usage of its vocal repertoire. Mangabeys (most complex social structure called twice as often as guenons and displayed the largest and most complex repertoire. De Brazza’s monkeys (simplest social structure displayed the smallest and simplest repertoire. Campbell’s monkeys displayed an intermediate pattern. Providing evidence of higher levels of vocal variability in species presenting a more complex social system, our results are in line with the theory of a social-vocal coevolution of communicative abilities, opening new perspectives for comparative research on the evolution of communication systems in

  4. Phonosurgery of vocal fold polyps, cysts and nodules is beneficial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jane Bjerg; Rasmussen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds.......This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds....

  5. The effects of trimetazidine on heart rate variability and signal-averaged electrocardiography in early period of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulgen, M S; Akdemir, O; Toprak, N

    2001-02-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is accompanied by electrophysiological changes in cardiovascular system as well as those in autonomic cardiac control. Heart rate variability (HRV) is depressed due to increased sympathetic activity and/or decreased parasympathetic activity following AMI. Moreover, the frequency of ventricular late potentials (VLP) is increased due to the electrophysiological changes. Based on the hypothesis that the treatments increasing HRV and decreasing the frequency of VLP can improve the prognosis of AMI, we investigated the short-term effects of trimetazidine (TMZ) on HRV and VLP in patients with AMI. The study group consisted of 64 patients (men 49, mean age 55+/-12 years, range 26-70) suffering from first Q-wave AMI. Thirty-one of them were treated with conventional therapy (thrombolytic therapy, aspirin, beta-blocker, heparin and intravenous nitroglycerin) plus TMZ 20 mg tid. The remaining 33 patients served as controls. Holter monitorization between 24 and 48 h, echocardiography at average day 6 (range 4-7 days) and SAECG and sub-maximal exercise at average day 7 (range 6-9 days) were performed to all patients. While HRV parameters reflecting parasympathetic activity (SDSD: 43+/-16 ms-35+/-13 ms, RMSSD: 34+/-14 ms-27+/-8 ms, HF: 7.8+/-5 ms(2) -4.3+/-4 ms(2), P0.05) was similar in both groups. In addition, LF/HF ratio showing sympatho-vagal balance was significantly decreased in TMZ group (1.5-3.0, P=0.005). About VLP, the mean FQRS (105+/-8 ms-107+/-10 ms), LAS (28+/-10 ms-30+/-11 ms) and RMS-40 (34+/-15 microV-41+/-12 microV) were not different in both two groups (P>0.05). Our results suggest that TMZ treatment causes changes in sympatho-vagal balance in favor of vagal activity by increasing parasympathetic activity in AMI at early period; however, no effect on VLP was observed.

  6. A controlled trial of acute effects of human exposure to traffic particles on pulmonary oxidative stress and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumbach, Robert J; Kipen, Howard M; Ko, Susan; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Cepeda, Clarimel; Pettit, Ashley; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Junfeng; Gong, Jicheng; Veleeparambil, Manoj; Gow, Andrew J

    2014-11-01

    For many individuals, daily commuting activities on roadways account for a substantial proportion of total exposure, as well as peak-level exposures, to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPS) including ultrafine particles, but the health impacts of these exposures are not well-understood. We sought to determine if exposure to TRAPs particles during commuting causes acute oxidative stress in the respiratory tract or changes in heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of autonomic activity. We conducted a randomized, cross-over trial in which twenty-one young adults took two 1.5-hr rides in a passenger vehicle in morning rush-hour traffic. The subjects wore a powered-air-purifying respirator, and were blinded to high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration during one of the rides. At time points before and after the rides, we measured HRV and markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) including nitrite, the sum of nitrite and nitrate, malondialdehyde, and 8-isoprostane. We used mixed linear models to evaluate the effect of exposure on EBC and HRV outcomes, adjusting for pre-exposure response levels. We used linear models to examine the effects of particle concentrations on EBC outcomes at post-exposure time points. Mean EBC nitrite and the sum of nitrite and nitrate were increased from baseline at immediately post-exposure comparing unfiltered to filtered rides (2.11 μM vs 1.70 μM, p = 0.02 and 19.1 μM vs 10.0 μM, p = 0.02, respectively). Mean EBC malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were about 10% greater following the unfiltered vs. filtered exposures, although this result was not statistically significant. We found no significant associations between exposure to traffic particles and HRV outcomes at any of the time points. At immediately post-exposure, an interquartile range increase in particle number concentration was associated with statistically significant increases in nitrite (99.4%, 95% CI 32.1% to 166.7%) and

  7. Linear and nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability in healthy subjects and after acute myocardial infarction in patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Kunz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the use of linear and nonlinear methods for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV in healthy subjects and in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Heart rate (HR was recorded for 15 min in the supine position in 10 patients with AMI taking β-blockers (aged 57 ± 9 years and in 11 healthy subjects (aged 53 ± 4 years. HRV was analyzed in the time domain (RMSSD and RMSM, the frequency domain using low- and high-frequency bands in normalized units (nu; LFnu and HFnu and the LF/HF ratio and approximate entropy (ApEn were determined. There was a correlation (P < 0.05 of RMSSD, RMSM, LFnu, HFnu, and the LF/HF ratio index with the ApEn of the AMI group on the 2nd (r = 0.87, 0.65, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.64 and 7th day (r = 0.88, 0.70, 0.69, 0.69, and 0.87 and of the healthy group (r = 0.63, 0.71, 0.63, 0.63, and 0.74, respectively. The median HRV indexes of the AMI group on the 2nd and 7th day differed from the healthy group (P < 0.05: RMSSD = 10.37, 19.95, 24.81; RMSM = 23.47, 31.96, 43.79; LFnu = 0.79, 0.79, 0.62; HFnu = 0.20, 0.20, 0.37; LF/HF ratio = 3.87, 3.94, 1.65; ApEn = 1.01, 1.24, 1.31, respectively. There was agreement between the methods, suggesting that these have the same power to evaluate autonomic modulation of HR in both AMI patients and healthy subjects. AMI contributed to a reduction in cardiac signal irregularity, higher sympathetic modulation and lower vagal modulation.

  8. Effects of speech style, room acoustics, and vocal fatigue on vocal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Vocal effort is a physiological measure that accounts for changes in voice production as vocal loading increases. It has been quantified in terms of sound pressure level (SPL). This study investigates how vocal effort is affected by speaking style, room acoustics, and short-term vocal fatigue. Twenty subjects were recorded while reading a text at normal and loud volumes in anechoic, semi-reverberant, and reverberant rooms in the presence of classroom babble noise. The acoustics in each environment were modified by creating a strong first reflection in the talker position. After each task, the subjects answered questions addressing their perception of the vocal effort, comfort, control, and clarity of their own voice. Variation in SPL for each subject was measured per task. It was found that SPL and self-reported effort increased in the loud style and decreased when the reflective panels were present and when reverberation time increased. Self-reported comfort and control decreased in the loud style, while self-reported clarity increased when panels were present. The lowest magnitude of vocal fatigue was experienced in the semi-reverberant room. The results indicate that early reflections may be used to reduce vocal effort without modifying reverberation time.

  9. A virtual trajectory model predicts differences in vocal fold kinematics in individuals with vocal hyperfunction1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E.; Hillman, Robert E.; Heaton, James T.

    2010-01-01

    A simple, one degree of freedom virtual trajectory model of vocal fold kinematics was developed to investigate whether kinematic features of vocal fold movement confirm increased muscle stiffness. Model simulations verified that increases in stiffness were associated with changes in kinematic parameters, suggesting that increases in gesture rate would affect kinematic features to a lesser degree in vocal hyperfunction patients given the increased levels of muscle tension they typically employ to phonate. This hypothesis was tested experimentally in individuals with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD; N=10) and vocal nodules (N=10) relative to controls with healthy normal voice (N=10) who were examined with trans-nasal endoscopy during a simple vocal fold abductory-adductory task. Kinematic measures in MTD patients were less affected by increased gesture rate, consistent with the hypothesis that these individuals have elevated typical laryngeal muscle tension. Group comparisons of the difference between medium and fast gesture rates (Mann–Whitney, one-tailed) showed statistically significant differences between the control and MTD individuals on the two kinematic features examined (pnodules participants were mixed and are discussed independently. The findings support the potential use of vocal fold kinematics as an objective clinical assay of vocal hyperfunction. PMID:21117765

  10. Effects of Voice Therapy on Vocal Acoustic Characteristics in Patients With Vocal Cord Nodules

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    Yunos Amiri Shavaki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Vocal cord nodule is one of the voice disorders causes hoarseness and breathy voice. Voice therapy is one of the treatment approaches. We aimed to find out the effects of voice therapy on vocal acoustic characteristics in these patients.Methods: In this case series, five women with vocal nodule (14 to 45-year-old participated in a 9-week voice therapy program developed by Boone. Vocal hygiene and voice practices were measured every day using a questionnaire. Moreover, structure and movements of vocal folds were examined using videolaryngostroboscope by a laryngologist before and after voice therapy to evaluate the effectiveness of program. For collecting voice samples we used sustained /æ/ in comfortable loudness for all patients and data were analyzed using Speech Studio.Results: After voice therapy, fundamental frequency in four of five subjects were decreased but it was not significant (p=0.225. However, jitter in all of five subjects was significantly decreased (p=0.043. After voice therapy, shimmer in three of five subjects were decreased that was not significant (p=0.345.Conclusion: Voice therapy can be used for the remedy of acoustic vocal characteristics and elimination or contraction of vocal cord nodule.

  11. Sensorimotor control of vocal pitch production in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Emily Q; Chen, Ling; Li, Weifeng; Chen, Zhaocong; Liu, Hanjun

    2013-08-21

    The present study was designed to investigate the sensorimotor control of voice fundamental frequency (F0) in individuals with Parkinson's diseases (PD). Fifteen Cantonese individuals with PD, and fifteen age- and sex-matched healthy Cantonese individuals participated in the experiment. Participants were asked to vocalize a vowel sound while hearing their voice auditory feedback unexpectedly pitch-shifted upwards or downwards through headphones. The size of pitch shifts varied from 50, 100, to 200 cents. One novel averaging method was used to categorize the individual trials such that only those trials that opposed the perturbation direction were averaged to generate an overall response. The results showed that Cantonese individuals with PD produced significantly larger magnitudes of vocal compensation for pitch perturbations than healthy participants. Both groups showed systematic changes in compensation magnitude as a function of perturbation size and direction: larger perturbation size or upward direction elicited greater compensation magnitude. Moreover, pitch variability indexed by the standard deviations of the baseline F0 was significantly correlated with the magnitude of vocal compensation in individuals with PD, whereas this correlation failed to reach significance for healthy participants. This study presents the first data demonstrating the abnormal processing of auditory feedback in the sensorimotor control of voice F0 for Cantonese individuals with PD. It is suggested that the abnormal sensorimotor integration of voice F0 control in PD may be caused by the increased weighting of auditory feedback control resulting from dysfunction of feedforward control and somatosensory feedback caused by the impairment of the basal ganglia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Automatic Classification of Cetacean Vocalizations Using an Aural Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    the Gulf of Mexico . A set of pre-recorded bowhead and humpback whale vocalizations and a set of synthetic bowhead and humpback vocalizations were...vocalizations primarily from four1 cetacean species – the sperm whale , northern right whale , the bowhead whale and the humpback whale . These species...with the classifier as time permits. For example, Minke whale vocalizations, available on the Mobysound website, were the focal topic for the 5th

  13. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vocal Health Education and Medical Resources for Graduate-Level Vocal Performance Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Katherine; Messing, Barbara; Bidlack, Melissa; Merritt, Samantha; Zhou, Xian; Akst, Lee M

    2017-03-01

    Most agree that education about vocal health and physiology can help singers avoid the development of vocal disorders. However, little is known about how this kind of education is provided to singers as part of their formal training. This study describes the amount of instruction in these topics provided through graduate-level curricula, who provides this instruction, and the kinds of affiliations such graduate singing programs have with medical professionals. This is an online survey of music schools with graduate singing programs. Survey questions addressed demographics of the programs, general attitudes about vocal health instruction for singers, the amount of vocal health instruction provided and by whom it was taught, perceived barriers to including more vocal health instruction, and any affiliations the voice program might have with medical personnel. Eighty-one survey responses were received. Instruction on vocal health was provided in 95% of the schools. In 55% of the schools, none of this instruction was given by a medical professional. Limited time in the curriculum, lack of financial support, and lack of availability of medical professional were the most frequently reported barriers to providing more instruction. When programs offered more hours of instruction, they were more likely to have some of that instruction given by a medical professional (P = 0.008) and to assess the amount of instruction provided positively (P = 0.001). There are several perceived barriers to incorporating vocal health education into graduate singing programs. Opportunity exists for more collaboration between vocal pedagogues and medical professionals in the education of singers about vocal health. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Variable positive end-expiratory pressure can maintain oxygenation in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by oleic acid in dogs

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    F.C. Lanza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP or lung recruitment maneuvers (RM to improve oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is used but it may reduce cardiac output (CO. Intermittent PEEP may avoid these complications. Our objective was to determine if variable PEEP compared with constant PEEP is capable of maintaining arterial oxygenation and minimizing hemodynamic alterations with or without RM. Eighteen dogs with ARDS induced by oleic acid were randomized into three equal groups: group 1, low variable PEEP; group 2, high variable PEEP, and group 3, RM + high variable PEEP. All groups were submitted to constant PEEP, followed by variable PEEP (PEEP was increased from 5 to 10 cmH2O in group 1, and from 5 to 18 cmH2O in the other two groups. PaO2 was higher in group 3 (356.2 ± 65.4 mmHg than in group 1 (92.7 ± 29.7 mmHg and group 2 (228.5 ± 72.4 mmHg, P 0.05. Variable PEEP is able to maintain PaO2 when performed in combination with RM in dogs with ARDS. After RM, CO was reduced and there was no relevant difference between the variable and constant PEEP periods.

  16. ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS FOR VOCAL FOLD POLYP FORMATION

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    DAŠA GLUVAJIĆ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vocal fold polyp is one of the most common causes for hoarseness. Many different etiological factors contribute to vocal fold polyp formation. The aim of the study was to find out whether the etiological factors for polyp formation have changed in the last 30 years.Methods: Eighty-one patients with unilateral vocal fold polyp were included in the study. A control group was composed of 50 volunteers without voice problems who matched the patients by age and gender. The data about etiological factors and the findings of phoniatric examination were obtained from the patients' medical documentation and from the questionnaires for the control group. The incidence of etiological factors was compared between the two groups. The program SPSS, Version 18 was used for statistical analysis.Results: The most frequent etiological factors were occupational voice load, GER, allergy and smoking. In 79% of patients 2 – 6 contemporary acting risk factors were found. Occupational voice load (p=0,018 and GER (p=0,004 were significantly more frequent in the patients than in the controls. The other factors did not significantly influence the polyp formation.Conclusions: There are several factors involved simultaneously in the formation of vocal fold polyps both nowadays and 30 years ago. Some of the most common factors remain the same (voice load, smoking, others are new (GER, allergy, which is probably due to the different lifestyle and working conditions than 30 years ago. Occupational voice load and GER were significantly more frequently present in the patients with polyp than in the control group. Regarding the given results it is important to instruct workers with professional vocal load about etiological factors for vocal fold polyp formation.

  17. Check Vocal: A program to facilitate checking the accuracy and response time of vocal responses from DMDX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Protopapas, Athanassios

    2007-01-01

    CheckVocal is a Windows application that facilitates checking the accuracy and response time of recorded vocal responses in naming and other experimental tasks using the DMDX display and response collection software...

  18. CheckVocal: a program to facilitate checking the accuracy and response time of vocal responses from DMDX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Protopapas, Athanassios

    2007-01-01

    CheckVocal is a Windows application that facilitates checking the accuracy and response time of recorded vocal responses in naming and other experimental tasks using the DMDX display and response collection software...

  19. Automated Assessment of Child Vocalization Development Using LENA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jeffrey A.; Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmistha; Paul, Terrance

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To produce a novel, efficient measure of children's expressive vocal development on the basis of automatic vocalization assessment (AVA), child vocalizations were automatically identified and extracted from audio recordings using Language Environment Analysis (LENA) System technology. Method: Assessment was based on full-day audio…

  20. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

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    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  1. The Importance of Vocal Parameters Correlation

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    Valentin Ghisa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyze communication we need to study the main parameters that describe the vocal sounds from the point of view of information content transfer efficiency. In this paper we analyze the physical quality of the “on air" information transfer, according to the audio streaming parameters and from the particular phonetic nature of the human factor. Applying this statistical analysis we aim to identify and record the correlation level of the acoustical parameters with the vocal ones and the impact which the presence of this cross-correlation can have on communication structures’ improvement.

  2. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture...... both the temporal correlations and the dependencies among the feature dimensions. We systematically study the performance of a set of classifiers, including linear regression, generalized linear model, Gaussian mixture model, reduced kernel orthonormalized partial least squares and {K-}means on cross...

  3. Meaning and emotion in animal vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2003-12-01

    Historically, a dichotomy has been drawn between the semantic communication of human language and the apparently emotional calls of animals. Current research paints a more complicated picture. Just as scientists have identified elements of human speech that reflect a speaker's emotions, field experiments have shown that the calls of many animals provide listeners with information about objects and events in the environment. Like human speech, therefore, animal vocalizations simultaneously provide others with information that is both semantic and emotional. In support of this conclusion, we review the results of field experiments on the natural vocalizations of African vervet monkeys, diana monkeys, baboons, and suricates (a South African mongoose). Vervet and diana monkeys give acoustically distinct alarm calls in response to the presence of leopards, eagles, and snakes. Each alarm call type elicits a different, adaptive response from others nearby. Field experiments demonstrate that listeners compare these vocalizations not just according to their acoustic properties but also according to the information they convey. Like monkeys, suricates give acoustically distinct alarm calls in response to different predators. Within each predator class, the calls also differ acoustically according to the signaler's perception of urgency. Like speech, therefore, suricate alarm calls convey both semantic and emotional information. The vocalizations of baboons, like those of many birds and mammals, are individually distinctive. As a result, when one baboon hears a sequence of calls exchanged between two or more individuals, the listener acquires information about social events in its group. Baboons, moreover, are skilled "eavesdroppers:" their response to different call sequences provides evidence of the sophisticated information they acquire from other individuals' vocalizations. Baboon males give loud "wahoo" calls during competitive displays. Like other vocalizations, these

  4. The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx: goals, platforms, and field operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The VAMOS1 Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx was an international field program designed to make observations of poorly understood but critical components of the coupled climate system of the southeast Pacific. This region is characterized by strong coastal upwelling, the coolest SSTs in the tropical belt, and is home to the largest subtropical stratocumulus deck on Earth. The field intensive phase of VOCALS-REx took place during October and November 2008 and constitutes a critical part of a broader CLIVAR program (VOCALS designed to develop and promote scientific activities leading to improved understanding, model simulations, and predictions of the southeastern Pacific (SEP coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system, on diurnal to interannual timescales. The other major components of VOCALS are a modeling program with a model hierarchy ranging from the local to global scales, and a suite of extended observations from regular research cruises, instrumented moorings, and satellites. The two central themes of VOCALS-REx focus upon (a links between aerosols, clouds and precipitation and their impacts on marine stratocumulus radiative properties, and (b physical and chemical couplings between the upper ocean and the lower atmosphere, including the role that mesoscale ocean eddies play. A set of hypotheses designed to be tested with the combined field, monitoring and modeling work in VOCALS is presented here. A further goal of VOCALS-REx is to provide datasets for the evaluation and improvement of large-scale numerical models. VOCALS-REx involved five research aircraft, two ships and two surface sites in northern Chile. We describe the instrument payloads and key mission strategies for these platforms and give a summary of the missions conducted.

    1 Variability of the American Monsoon Systems, an international CLIVAR program.

  5. Characterizing Vocal Repertoires--Hard vs. Soft Classification Approaches.

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    Philip Wadewitz

    Full Text Available To understand the proximate and ultimate causes that shape acoustic communication in animals, objective characterizations of the vocal repertoire of a given species are critical, as they provide the foundation for comparative analyses among individuals, populations and taxa. Progress in this field has been hampered by a lack of standard in methodology, however. One problem is that researchers may settle on different variables to characterize the calls, which may impact on the classification of calls. More important, there is no agreement how to best characterize the overall structure of the repertoire in terms of the amount of gradation within and between call types. Here, we address these challenges by examining 912 calls recorded from wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus. We extracted 118 acoustic variables from spectrograms, from which we constructed different sets of acoustic features, containing 9, 38, and 118 variables; as well 19 factors derived from principal component analysis. We compared and validated the resulting classifications of k-means and hierarchical clustering. Datasets with a higher number of acoustic features lead to better clustering results than datasets with only a few features. The use of factors in the cluster analysis resulted in an extremely poor resolution of emerging call types. Another important finding is that none of the applied clustering methods gave strong support to a specific cluster solution. Instead, the cluster analysis revealed that within distinct call types, subtypes may exist. Because hard clustering methods are not well suited to capture such gradation within call types, we applied a fuzzy clustering algorithm. We found that this algorithm provides a detailed and quantitative description of the gradation within and between chacma baboon call types. In conclusion, we suggest that fuzzy clustering should be used in future studies to analyze the graded structure of vocal repertoires. Moreover, the use of

  6. Working Conditions and Workplace Barriers to Vocal Health in Primary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Caitriona; Farrell, Rory

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the working conditions and workplace barriers to vocal health in primary school teachers. The relationship between working conditions and voice is analyzed. This is a survey study in 42 randomized schools from a restricted geographical area. An 85-item questionnaire was administered to 550 primary school teachers in 42 schools in Dublin. It was designed to obtain information on demographics, vocal use patterns, vocal health, work organization, working conditions, and teacher's perceptions of the conditions in teaching that might cause a voice problem. The relationship between voice and overstretched work demands, and voice and class size, was examined. A chi-squared test was run to test the null hypothesis that the variables overstretched work demands and voice and class size and voice are independent. Subjects were given the opportunity to give their opinion on their working conditions and on the availability of advice and support within the workplace. A final question sought their opinion on what should be included in a voice care program. A 55% response rate was obtained (n = 304). It was found with 96.52% confidence that the variables overstretched work demands and voice are related. Likewise, it was found that the variables class size and voice are related with 99.97% confidence. There are workplace barriers to vocal health. The working conditions of primary school teachers need to be fully adapted to promote vocal health. Changes by education and health policy makers are needed to achieve this goal. There is a need for future research which focuses on the working conditions of teachers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Discrimination of ultrasonic vocalizations by CBA/CaJ mice (Mus musculus is related to spectrotemporal dissimilarity of vocalizations.

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    Erikson G Neilans

    Full Text Available The function of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs produced by mice (Mus musculus is a topic of broad interest to many researchers. These USVs differ widely in spectrotemporal characteristics, suggesting different categories of vocalizations, although this has never been behaviorally demonstrated. Although electrophysiological studies indicate that neurons can discriminate among vocalizations at the level of the auditory midbrain, perceptual acuity for vocalizations has yet to be determined. Here, we trained CBA/CaJ mice using operant conditioning to discriminate between different vocalizations and between a spectrotemporally modified vocalization and its original version. Mice were able to discriminate between vocalization types and between manipulated vocalizations, with performance negatively correlating with spectrotemporal similarity. That is, discrimination performance was higher for dissimilar vocalizations and much lower for similar vocalizations. The behavioral data match previous neurophysiological results in the inferior colliculus (IC, using the same stimuli. These findings suggest that the different vocalizations could carry different meanings for the mice. Furthermore, the finding that behavioral discrimination matched neural discrimination in the IC suggests that the IC plays an important role in the perceptual discrimination of vocalizations.

  8. Vocal learning is constrained by the statistics of sensorimotor experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sober, Samuel J; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-12-18

    The brain uses sensory feedback to correct behavioral errors. Larger errors by definition require greater corrections, and many models of learning assume that larger sensory feedback errors drive larger motor changes. However, an alternative perspective is that larger errors drive learning less effectively because such errors fall outside the range of errors normally experienced and are therefore unlikely to reflect accurate feedback. This is especially crucial in vocal control because auditory feedback can be contaminated by environmental noise or sensory processing errors. A successful control strategy must therefore rely on feedback to correct errors while disregarding aberrant auditory signals that would lead to maladaptive vocal corrections. We hypothesized that these constraints result in compensation that is greatest for smaller imposed errors and least for larger errors. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the pitch of auditory feedback in singing Bengalese finches. We found that learning driven by larger sensory errors was both slower than that resulting from smaller errors and showed less complete compensation for the imposed error. Additionally, we found that a simple principle could account for these data: the amount of compensation was proportional to the overlap between the baseline distribution of pitch production and the distribution experienced during the shift. Correspondingly, the fraction of compensation approached zero when pitch was shifted outside of the song's baseline pitch distribution. Our data demonstrate that sensory errors drive learning best when they fall within the range of production variability, suggesting that learning is constrained by the statistics of sensorimotor experience.

  9. Distributed acoustic cues for caller identity in macaque vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Doyle, Alex M; Mullarkey, Matthew P; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2015-12-01

    Individual primates can be identified by the sound of their voice. Macaques have demonstrated an ability to discern conspecific identity from a harmonically structured 'coo' call. Voice recognition presumably requires the integrated perception of multiple acoustic features. However, it is unclear how this is achieved, given considerable variability across utterances. Specifically, the extent to which information about caller identity is distributed across multiple features remains elusive. We examined these issues by recording and analysing a large sample of calls from eight macaques. Single acoustic features, including fundamental frequency, duration and Weiner entropy, were informative but unreliable for the statistical classification of caller identity. A combination of multiple features, however, allowed for highly accurate caller identification. A regularized classifier that learned to identify callers from the modulation power spectrum of calls found that specific regions of spectral-temporal modulation were informative for caller identification. These ranges are related to acoustic features such as the call's fundamental frequency and FM sweep direction. We further found that the low-frequency spectrotemporal modulation component contained an indexical cue of the caller body size. Thus, cues for caller identity are distributed across identifiable spectrotemporal components corresponding to laryngeal and supralaryngeal components of vocalizations, and the integration of those cues can enable highly reliable caller identification. Our results demonstrate a clear acoustic basis by which individual macaque vocalizations can be recognized.

  10. Risk factors for the appearance of minimal pathologic lesions on vocal folds in vocal professionals

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    Stojanović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An excessive use or misuse of voice by vocal professionals may result in symptoms such are husky voice, hoarse voice, total loss of voice, or even organic changes taking place on vocal folds - minimal pathological lesions - MAPLs. The purpose of this study was to identify the type of MAPLs which affects vocal professionals, as well as to identify the risk factors that bring about these changes. Methods. There were 94 vocal professionals who were examined altogether, out of whom 46 were affected by MAPLs, whereas 48 of them were diagnosed with no MAPLs, so that they served as the control group. All these patients were clinically examined (anamnesis, clinical examination, bacteoriological examination of nose and pharynx, radiography of paranasal cavities, allergological processing, phoniatric examination, endo-video-stroboscopic examination, as well as gastroenterologic examination, and finally endocrinological and pulmological analyses. Results. The changes that occurred most often were identified as nodules (50%; n = 23/46 and polyps (24%; n = 11/46. Risk factors causing MAPLs in vocal professionals were as follows: age, which reduced the risk by 23.9% [OR 0.861 (0.786-0.942] whereas the years of career increase the risk [OR 1.114 (1.000-1.241], as well as the presence of a chronic respiratory disease [OR 7.310 (1.712- 31.218], and the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease [OR 4.542 (1.263-16.334]. The following factors did not contribute to development of MAPLs in vocal professionals: sex, a place of residence, irritation, smoking, endocrinologic disease and the presence of poly-sinusitis. Conclusion. It is necessary to introduce comprehensive procedures for prevention of MAPLs, particularly in high-risk groups. Identification of the risk factors for MAPLs and prevention of their influence on vocal professionals (given that their income depends on their vocal ability is of the highest importance.

  11. [A case of vocal cord contact granuloma after vocal cord polyp surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhili; Jiang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The vocal cord polyp is easy to relapse after surgery, but if the patient has recurrence in a short term, it is necessary to consider it as postoperative vocal cord contact granuloma. If the patients with contact granuloma after surgical treatment had severe impact on the pronunciation, it is necessary to be operated and confirmed by pathology and given the treatment of acid suppression, in order to avoid postoperative recurrence.

  12. Differential diagnosis in paradoxical vocal fold movement (PVFM): an interdisciplinary task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, Maria Claudia

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to contribute to the discussion of differential diagnosis in paradoxical vocal fold movement (PVFM), a disorder frequently associated with episodes of breathing difficulty and stridor. Because of analogous respiratory symptoms, PVFM is often misdiagnosed as asthma. Additional evidence suggests the association of factors such as respiratory struggle during physical exertion, digestive reflux, and respiratory allergies with PVFM, particularly in athletes and young females. Interdisciplinary attention is warranted to avoid unnecessary utilization of medical resources and potential delay in the application of proper treatment. A description of critical points in PVFM differential diagnosis is proposed, featuring the assessment of a seven-year-old female with a history of behaviors considered to exacerbate voice fatigue symptoms. Noticeably, the child has consistently demonstrated tiredness and respiratory difficulties during physical education classes. Past use of oral steroids to reduce respiratory problems was applied with no improvement; short-acting beta 2-agonists have been also tried with mild improvement. Indications of instability and effort associated with respiratory-phonatory functions were demonstrated. Furthermore, there was evidence of GERD and seasonal allergies. The literature suggests an association of factors such as respiratory struggle during physical exertion, unwanted vocal effort, GERD, and respiratory allergies in individuals with PVFM, particularly in young females. A diagnosis of PVFM was suggested, in association with paradoxical vocal folds motion caused by respiratory difficulties verified by laryngeal examination. In PVFM, the vocal folds adduct during inhalation, thereby restricting the airway opening. Inconsistent vocal folds movement during phonation may also lead to PVFM symptoms. Acute bronchospasm/asthma-like symptoms, as well as additional morbidity may impact accuracy of diagnosis, leading to

  13. The Tufts Non-Vocal Communication Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Richard A.; And Others

    Described are the efforts of the Biomedical Engineering Center in developing devices, particularly the Tufts Interactive Communicator (TIC) for the non-vocal severely physically disabled individual. It is noted that research has been conducted in the following areas: dictionary development, anticipatory communication, symbol communication, symbol…

  14. Vocal cord hemangioma in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kanlıkama

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumors in the head and neck region. Laryngeal hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of unknown etiology that arise from subglottic region with stridor in infants. This type also known as congenital laryngeal hemangioma, is the more common. Congenital hemangiomas occur usually in subglottic region and more frequent in girls. Laryngeal hemangioma in adults is a very rare condition and main symptom is hoarseness and breathing difficulties. Adult hemangiomas can be seen in different locations such as the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoids and false and true vocal cords. They are more often of cavernous form and cause hoarseness. In this report we present an adult patient with hemangioma of the left vocal fold and review the literature. Diagnostic investigation revealed a pink-purple mass which was extended from the anterior comissure to the posterior part of true vocal cord and false vocal cord, filling the ventricule and extending to supraglottic region. Direct laryngoscopy was performed, but the lesion was not excised because of its widespread extension in the larynx. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 2(3: 323-326.

  15. Vocal fold nodules: morphological and immunohistochemical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Defaveri, Julio; Custódio Domingues, Maria Aparecida; de Albuquerque E Silva, Rafael; Fabro, Alexandre

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of vocal fold nodules. The study design was prospective and retrospective. For the histological study, we reviewed 15 slides from the surgical cases of vocal fold nodules, in which we analyzed epithelium, basal membrane (bm), and lamina propria. For the transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) studies, five new cases on vocal fold nodules were included. Immunohistochemistry study was carried out in the 15 specimens, using antifibronectin, antilaminin, and anticollagen IV antibodies. The main histological alterations were epithelial hyperplasia (73.33%), basement membrane thickening (86.66%), edema, and fibrosis (93.33%). SEM--reduction in mucous lacing and increase in the desquamating cells, without epithelial erosion. TEM--hyperplasia of the epithelium, enlargement of the intercellular junctions, which was filled by fluid, subepithelial thickening of the lamina reticularis, and break points in the basal membrane. Immunohistochemistry--we identified greater immunoexpression of fibronectin on the basal membrane, on the lamina propria, and around the vessels. Antilaminin and anticollagen IV antibodies showed higher pigmentation on the endothelium of the vessels than that on the basal membrane. In vocal fold nodules, combined assessment using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry can reveal important morphological details useful in characterizing these lesions. 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  17. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bänziger

    Full Text Available We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness. While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars.

  18. Patterns of Vocalization and Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald P.; Bouma, Gary D.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the interactive behavior that accompanies verbal exchange. It specifically describes a set of experiments designed to isolate an important subset of interactive behavior, the vocal (as opposed to the verbal) and to relate this information to a wide range of social impressions resulting from verbal exchange. (Available from…

  19. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  20. Enhanced Processing of Vocal Melodies in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael W.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.; Dawber, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Music cognition is typically studied with instrumental stimuli. Adults remember melodies better, however, when they are presented in a biologically significant timbre (i.e., the human voice) than in various instrumental timbres (Weiss, Trehub, & Schellenberg, 2012). We examined the impact of vocal timbre on children's processing of melodies.…

  1. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

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    Zanna Clay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus. We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the “peep” across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility.

  2. Assessment of thyroplasty for vocal fold paralysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Ågot Møller; Faber, Christian; Jakobsen, John

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroplasty with silicone rubber implantation is a surgical procedure for treatment of patients with vocal fold paralysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of the operation and to monitor which of the analyses were the more beneficial. MATERIAL AND METHODS...

  3. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  4. Audiovisual vocal outburst classification in noisy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyben, Florian; Petridis, Stavros; Schuller, Björn; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate an audiovisual approach for classification of vocal outbursts (non-linguistic vocalisations) in noisy conditions using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines. Fusion of geometric shape features and acoustic low-level

  5. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Salinas-Ranneberg, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    ” (central vowel, sounding like a darker “e” as in hesitations like “ehm”)—as experimental approximations to natural vocalizations. Methods: In 50 students vowel production and self-report ratings were assessed during painful and nonpainful heat stimulation (hot water immersion) as well as during baseline...

  6. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076

  7. Hypnosis as a diagnostic modality for vocal cord dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, R D; Hehir, D A

    2000-12-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a condition of paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords during the inspiratory phase of the respiratory cycle. VCD often presents as stridorous breathing, which may be misdiagnosed as asthma. The mismanagement of this disorder may result in unnecessary treatment and iatrogenic morbidity. An association with psychogenic factors has been reported, and a higher incidence of anxiety-related illness has been demonstrated in patients with VCD. Definitive diagnosis of VCD is made by visualization of adducted cords during an acute episode using nasopharyngeal fiber-optic laryngoscopy. Diagnosis can be problematic, because it may be difficult to reproduce an attack in a controlled setting. To maximize diagnostic yield during laryngoscopy, provocation of symptoms using methacholine, histamine, or exercise challenges have been used. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy, wherein hypnotic suggestion was used as an alternative method to achieve a diagnosis of VCD. The patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit for elective fiber-optic laryngoscopy to confirm a diagnosis of VCD. The patient had a 4-year history of refractory asthma, severe gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) for which he had undergone a Nissen fundoplication, and suspected VCD. At 9 years of age the patient began manifesting monthly respiratory distress episodes of a severe character different from those that had been attributed to his asthma. Typically, he awoke from sleep with shortness of breath and difficulty with inhalation. He described a "neck attack" during which he felt as if the walls of his throat were "beating together." The patient was at times noted by his mother to exhibit a "suckling" behavior before onset of his respiratory distress episodes. On 4 occasions the patient became unconscious during an attack and then spontaneously regained consciousness after a few minutes. On these occasions, he was transported by ambulance to the hospital and the

  8. Vocal tract analysis in patients with vocal fold nodules, clefts and cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Raquel Buzelin; Souza, Andrea Moreira Veiga de; Duprat, Andre de Campos; Silva, Marta Assumpção de Andrade E; Costa, Rejane Cardoso; Paulino, Juliana Gomes

    2009-01-01

    The supraglottic plan represents an important dimension in vocal production, and its characterization is very important in the evaluation and treatment approach of dysphonic individuals. To check if certain glottic configurations are related to specific adjustments in the vocal tract. To use nasal and laryngeal fibroscopy to assess the frequency of supraglottic vocal tract adjustments in dysphonic women with nodules, clefts and cysts. We assessed 31 dysphonic women, with age ranging between 18 and 45 years, with vocal alteration and a diagnosis of nodules, middle-posterior cleft and cyst, and we carried out a summarized evaluation of the sensory-motor and oral systems and the patients were submitted to video-laryngostroboscopy and nasal and laryngeal fibroscopy. Three distinct groups were selected: patients with bilateral nodules, clefts and cysts, with similar glottic configuration. Their vocal tracts were visually analyzed through exams of nasal and laryngeal fibroscopy, by speech and hearing therapists and otorhinolaryngologists, checking the following parameters: supraglottic constriction, larynx vertical mobility, pharyngeal constriction and tongue mobility. The data was statistically described and treated. During visual analysis we did not find statistically significant differences which would separate the glottic alterations groups. There was no correlation between supraglottic tract adjustments with any particular type of glottic alteration. These are individual behaviors that generate adjustments and justify the different vocal qualities in patients with the same type of laryngeal alteration.

  9. Brown meagre vocalization rate increases during repetitive boat noise exposures: a possible case of vocal compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciulin, Marta; Sebastianutto, Linda; Codarin, Antonio; Calcagno, Giuliana; Ferrero, Enrico A

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated whether or not boat noise causes variations in brown meagre (Sciaena umbra) vocalizations recorded in a nearshore Mediterranean marine reserve. Six nocturnal experimental sessions were carried out from June to September 2009. In each of them, a recreational boat passed over vocalizing fish 6 times with 1 boat passage every 10 min. For this purpose three different boats were used in random order: an 8.5-m cabin-cruiser (CC), a 5-m fiberglass boat (FB), and a 7-m inflatable boat (INF). In situ continuous acoustic recordings were collected using a self-standing sonobuoy. Because boat noise levels largely exceeded both background noise and S. umbra vocalizations in the species' hearing frequency range, masking of acoustic communication was assumed. Although no immediate effect was observed during a single boat passage, the S. umbra mean pulse rate increased over multiple boat passages in the experimental condition but not in the control condition, excluding that the observed effect was due to a natural rise in fish vocalizations. The observed vocal enhancement may result either from an increased density of callers or from an increased number of pulses/sounds produced by already acoustically active individuals, as a form of vocal compensation. These two explanations are discussed.

  10. Ultrasonic vocalizations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus reveal modest sex differences and nonlinear signals of sexual motivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Fernández-Vargas

    Full Text Available Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1 calling rates, 2 composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena and 3 acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual

  11. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and vocal disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic disease in which gastroduodenal contents reflux into the esophagus. The clinical picture of gastroesophageal reflux disease is usually composed by heartburn and regurgitation (typical manifestations. Atypical manifestations (vocal disturbances and asthma may also be complaint. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical, endoscopic, manometric and pHmetric aspects of patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with vocal disturbances. METHODS: Fifty patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease were studied, including 25 with vocal disturbances (group 1 - G1 and 25 without these symptoms (group 2 - G2. All patients were submitted to endoscopy, manometry and esophageal pHmetry (2 probes. The group 1 patients were submitted to videolaryngoscopy. RESULTS: Endoscopic findings: non-erosive reflux disease was observed in 95% of G1 patients and 88% of G2. Videolaryngoscopy: vocal fold congestion, asymmetry, nodules and polyps were observed in G1 patients. Manometric findings: pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter (mm Hg: 11.6 ± 5.2 in G1 and 14.0 ± 6.2 in G2 (P = 0.14; pressure in the upper esophageal sphincter (mm Hg: 58.4 ± 15.9 in G1 and 69.5 ± 30.7 in the controls. pHmetric findings: De Meester index: 34.0 ± 20.9 in G1 and 15.4 ± 9.4 in G2 (P<0.001; number of reflux episodes in distal probe: 43.0 ± 20.4 in G1 and 26.4 ± 17.2 in G2 (P = 0.003; percentage of time with esophageal pH value lower than 4 units (distal sensor: 9.0% ± 6.4% in G1 and 3.4% ± 2.1% in G2 (P<0.001; number of reflux episodes in proximal probe: 7.5 ± 10.9 in G1 and 5.3 ± 5.7 in G2 (P = 0.38; percentage of time with esophageal pH values lower than 4 units (Proximal probe: 1.2 ± 2.7 in G1 and 0.5 ± 0.7 in G2 (P = 0.21. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The clinical, endoscopic, and manometric findings observed in patients with vocal disturbance do not differ from those without these symptoms; 2 gastroesophageal

  12. Auditory lateralization of conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Laddago, Serena; Quaranta, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Auditory lateralization in response to both conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations (dog vocalizations) was observed in 16 tabby cats (Felis catus). Six different vocalizations were used: cat "purring," "meowing" and "growling" and dog typical vocalizations of "disturbance," "isolation" and "play." The head-orienting paradigm showed that cats turned their head with the right ear leading (left hemisphere activation) in response to their typical-species vocalization ("meow" and "purring"); on the other hand, a clear bias in the use of the left ear (right hemisphere activation) was observed in response to vocalizations eliciting intense emotion (dogs' vocalizations of "disturbance" and "isolation"). Overall these findings suggest that auditory sensory domain seems to be lateralized also in cat species, stressing the role of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication and of the right hemisphere in processing threatening and alarming stimuli.

  13. Vocal learning in elephants: neural bases and adaptive context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, Angela S; Manger, Paul

    2014-10-01

    In the last decade clear evidence has accumulated that elephants are capable of vocal production learning. Examples of vocal imitation are documented in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants, but little is known about the function of vocal learning within the natural communication systems of either species. We are also just starting to identify the neural basis of elephant vocalizations. The African elephant diencephalon and brainstem possess specializations related to aspects of neural information processing in the motor system (affecting the timing and learning of trunk movements) and the auditory and vocalization system. Comparative interdisciplinary (from behavioral to neuroanatomical) studies are strongly warranted to increase our understanding of both vocal learning and vocal behavior in elephants. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. [Phonosurgery of chronic vocal cord edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, A

    1997-01-01

    Chronic (Reinke's) oedema of the vocal folds is a frequent and declicate objective of phonosurgery. It is characterized by a marked bilateral subepithelial oedema, which develops by degrees, as a non-specific reaction of the vocal folds to various irritative noxious agents (especially smoking), in patients with some predisposition. It is found, by the light and electron microscopes and immunohistochemistry, that oedema is characterized by subepithelial fissure-like spaces, which accumulate a protein-rich fluid, and develops like neobursae. Therefore, mechanical factors and functional influences may also contribute to the development of Reinke's oedema. The voice is low pitched and with various degrees of hoarseness. Reinke's oedema alters the mechanical properties of the cover, which becomes very pliable and with reduced stiffness, incapacitating the vocal fold for production of high tones. Hoarseness is induced in subject with associated laryngitis, or disbalance in mechanical properties of the vocal folds. Hyperkinetic pattern of voice production can often be seen in patients with Reinke's oedema, which is a compensatory results of reduced functional capability of the vocal folds. Stroboscopy reveals a prolonged closed phase of the vibratory cycles and strikingly marked mucosal waves. A series of 371 patients with Reinke's oedema was operated by direct microlaryngoscopy, under the general anaesthesia. The "excessive" mucosa was removed by bimanual micro-procedure, while the care was not taken to severe layers deeper than a superficial part of the intermediate layer of the vocal fold (Reinke's space). In this procedure we used the micro-forceps and scissors, to detach oedema parallel to the free edge of the vocal fold, at its upper and lower demarcation lines, beginning from the posterior part of oedema. Another 27 patients were operated by indirect procedures. Microstroboscopy (IMS) was used in subjects, while videostroboscopy (IVS) was carried out in another 18

  15. Laryngeal ultrasound and pediatric vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkasuwan, Julina; Devore, Danielle; Hollas, Sarah; Jones, Jeremy; Tran, Brandon

    2017-03-01

    The term vocal fold nodules refers to bilateral thickening of the membranous folds with minimal impairment of the vibratory properties of the mucosa. Nodules are thought to be related to repetitive mechanical stress, associated with voice use patterns. Diagnosis is typically made in the office via either rigid or flexible laryngeal stroboscopy. Depending on the individual child, obtaining an optimal view of the larynx can be difficult if not impossible. Recent advances in high-frequency ultrasonography allows for transcervical examination of laryngeal structures. The goal of this project was to determine if laryngeal ultrasound (LUS) can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in dysphonic children. Prospective case-control study in which the patient acted as his or her own control. Forty-six pediatric patients were recruited for participation in this study; the mean age was 4.8 years. Twenty-three did not have any vocal fold lesions and 23 had a diagnosis of vocal fold nodules on laryngeal stroboscopy. Recorded LUSs were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the nodule status. There was substantial inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.89) between the two radiologists regarding the presence of nodules. There was also substantial agreement (κ = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.72-1) between LUS and laryngeal stroboscopy. Sensitivity of LUS was 100% (95% CI: 85%-100%) and specificity was 87% (95% CI: 66%-97%). LUS can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in children with substantial agreement with laryngeal stroboscopy. 3b Laryngoscope, 127:676-678, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Are Vocal Pitch Changes in Response to Facial Expressions of Emotions Potential Cues of Empathy? A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Sethu; Ramachandra, Vijayachandra

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that even brief exposures to facial expressions of emotions elicit facial mimicry in receivers in the form of corresponding facial muscle movements. As well, vocal and verbal patterns of speakers converge in conversations, a type of vocal mimicry. There is also evidence of cross-modal mimicry in which emotional vocalizations elicit corresponding facial muscle activity. Further, empathic capacity has been associated with enhanced tendency towards facial mimicry as well as verbal synchrony. We investigated a type of potential cross-modal mimicry in a simulated dyadic situation. Specifically, we examined the influence of facial expressions of happy, sad, and neutral emotions on the vocal pitch of receivers, and its potential association with empathy. Results indicated that whereas both mean pitch and variability of pitch varied somewhat in the predicted directions, empathy was correlated with the difference in the variability of pitch while speaking to the sad and neutral faces. Discussion of results considers the dimensional nature of emotional vocalizations and possible future directions.

  17. Learning to detect vocal hyperfunction from ambulatory neck-surface acceleration features: initial results for vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Van Stan, Jarrad H; Mehta, Daryush D; Zañartu, Matías; Cheyne, Harold A; Hillman, Robert E; Guttag, John V

    2014-06-01

    Voice disorders are medical conditions that often result from vocal abuse/misuse which is referred to generically as vocal hyperfunction. Standard voice assessment approaches cannot accurately determine the actual nature, prevalence, and pathological impact of hyperfunctional vocal behaviors because such behaviors can vary greatly across the course of an individual's typical day and may not be clearly demonstrated during a brief clinical encounter. Thus, it would be clinically valuable to develop noninvasive ambulatory measures that can reliably differentiate vocal hyperfunction from normal patterns of vocal behavior. As an initial step toward this goal we used an accelerometer taped to the neck surface to provide a continuous, noninvasive acceleration signal designed to capture some aspects of vocal behavior related to vocal cord nodules, a common manifestation of vocal hyperfunction. We gathered data from 12 female adult patients diagnosed with vocal fold nodules and 12 control speakers matched for age and occupation. We derived features from weeklong neck-surface acceleration recordings by using distributions of sound pressure level and fundamental frequency over 5-min windows of the acceleration signal and normalized these features so that intersubject comparisons were meaningful. We then used supervised machine learning to show that the two groups exhibit distinct vocal behaviors that can be detected using the acceleration signal. We were able to correctly classify 22 of the 24 subjects, suggesting that in the future measures of the acceleration signal could be used to detect patients with the types of aberrant vocal behaviors that are associated with hyperfunctional voice disorders.

  18. Clinical variables associated with poor outcome from sepsis-associated acute kidney injury and the relationship with timing of initiation of renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Xosé; Sabater-Riera, Joan; Sileanu, F E; Vázquez-Reverón, José; Ballús-Noguera, Josep; Cárdenas-Campos, Paola; Betbesé-Roig, Antoni; Kellum, John A

    2017-08-01

    Identify clinical variables associated with mortality in patients with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (SA-AKI) receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and examine timing of initiation of CRRT in reference to those variables identified. Retrospective study conducted at two tertiary care hospitals including 939 septic shock patients with SA-AKI who received CRRT in the intensive care unit (ICU). Cox regression models were used to identify variables associated with 90-day mortality. Timing of CRRT initiation was assessed in relationship to significant clinical variables identified. Overall 90-day mortality was 62.9%. Variables prior to CRRT associated with 90-day mortality included: age (aHR, 1.02; 95%CI, 1.01-1.02, pCRRT initiation (1.01, 1.0-1.0, pCRRT within the first 5days (n=433), urine output during the 24h prior to CRRT initiation was a strong predictor of survival (2.6, 1.6-4.3, pCRRT is started in the setting of low urine output. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Combining multiobjective optimization and cluster analysis to study vocal fold functional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaparthi, Anil; Riede, Tobias; Titze, Ingo R

    2014-07-01

    Morphological design and the relationship between form and function have great influence on the functionality of a biological organ. However, the simultaneous investigation of morphological diversity and function is difficult in complex natural systems. We have developed a multiobjective optimization (MOO) approach in association with cluster analysis to study the form-function relation in vocal folds. An evolutionary algorithm (NSGA-II) was used to integrate MOO with an existing finite element model of the laryngeal sound source. Vocal fold morphology parameters served as decision variables and acoustic requirements (fundamental frequency, sound pressure level) as objective functions. A two-layer and a three-layer vocal fold configuration were explored to produce the targeted acoustic requirements. The mutation and crossover parameters of the NSGA-II algorithm were chosen to maximize a hypervolume indicator. The results were expressed using cluster analysis and were validated against a brute force method. Results from the MOO and the brute force approaches were comparable. The MOO approach demonstrated greater resolution in the exploration of the morphological space. In association with cluster analysis, MOO can efficiently explore vocal fold functional morphology.

  20. Discriminating between the vocalizations of Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Soto, Alvaro; Marsh, Helene; Everingham, Yvette; Smith, Joshua N; Parra, Guido J; Noad, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins co-occur throughout most of their range in coastal waters of tropical Australia. Little is known of their ecology or acoustic repertoires. Vocalizations from humpback and snubfin dolphins were recorded in two locations along the Queensland coast during 2008 and 2010 to describe their vocalizations and evaluate the acoustic differences between these two species. Broad vocalization types were categorized qualitatively. Both species produced click trains burst pulses and whistles. Principal component analysis of the nine acoustic variables extracted from the whistles produced nine principal components that were input into discriminant function analyses to classify 96% of humpback dolphin whistles and about 78% of snubfin dolphin calls correctly. Results indicate clear acoustic differences between the vocal whistle repertoires of these two species. A stepwise routine identified two principal components as significantly distinguishable between whistles of each species: frequency parameters and frequency trend ratio. The capacity to identify these species using acoustic monitoring techniques has the potential to provide information on presence/absence, habitat use and relative abundance for each species.

  1. Improvement of vocal pathologies diagnosis using high-speed videolaryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi; Hachiya, Adriana; Dajer, Maria Eugenia; Ishikawa, Camila Cristina; Takahashi, Marystella Tomoe; Montagnoli, Arlindo Neto

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV) has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia). The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases) were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation.

  2. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation.

  3. Vocal quality in university teachers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, E; Claeys, S; Wuyts, F; Van Lierde, K M

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the vocal quality of 20 male and 9 female university teachers using a multi-parameter approach. Secondly, the effect of an academic lecture on the voice profiles of the university teachers was measured. All groups underwent subjective voice evaluations (perceptual evaluation, Voice Handicap Index, anamnesis of vocal complaints and vocal abuse) and objective voice evaluations (aerodynamic and acoustic parameters, vocal performance, and the Dysphonia Severity Index). The same voice assessment was performed after an academic lecture with a mean length of one and a half hours. The mean DSI score was + 2.2 for the male teachers and + 4.0 for the female teachers. The mean VHI score was 13. Perceptually, all voice parameters were rated as normal. The questionnaire revealed a relatively high amount of vocal abuse. No changes in the objective vocal parameters were found after the lecture. Perceptually, however, the voices of the university teachers were significantly less instable after the lecture. Although no negative changes in objective vocal quality were observed, 48% of the university teachers experienced subjective vocal changes. The authors concluded that university teachers are professional voice users with good vocal quality who suffer no handicapping effect from possible voice disorders. No important changes in the vocal profile after a teaching activity of one and a half hours were found, despite the high prevalence of voice complaints.

  4. Vocal tract discomfort in teachers after teaching activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Amanda Corrêa do; Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Behlau, Mara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the vocal tract discomfort (VTD) reported by teachers, comparing their vocal self-assessment at three different times: before teaching, after four hours of teaching, and after eight hours of teaching. Methods The study sample was composed of 50 teachers: 42 women and eight men. The participating teachers were divided into two groups according to the cutoff value of the Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS): Vocal Risk Group (VRG) and Vocally Healthy Group (VHG). The List of Vocal Signs and Symptoms (LVSS) was used to identify the number of vocal symptoms in each group. The groups were evaluated at three specific moments (before (BT) and after four (4HT) and eight (8HT) hours of teaching) by means of the Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale (VTD scale) and vocal self-assessment. Results The VRG presented more vocal signs and symptoms of the LVSS than the VHG (total: VHG=0.56/VRG=1.60, pBT=0.67; 4HT=0.96; 8HT=0.96, p=0.007). However, the VRG presented vocal tract discomfort after four and eight hours of teaching for both frequency (BT=1.60; 4HT=2.49; 8HT=2.95, pBT=1.79; 4HT=2.52; 8HT=3.12, pBT=2.00; 4HT=2.42; 8HT=3.00, p<0.001). Conclusion Teachers at vocal risk present worse vocal self-assessment and increased vocal tract discomfort throughout the teaching working day.

  5. Data on respiratory variables in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Georgopoulos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data show respiratory variables in 108 critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+ after at least 36 h on passive mechanical ventilation. PAV+ was continued for 48 h until the patients met pre-defined criteria either for switching to controlled modes or for breathing without ventilator assistance. Data during passive mechanical ventilation and during PAV+ are reported. Data are acquired from the whole population, as well as from patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. The reported variables are tidal volume, driving pressure (ΔP, the difference between static end-inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory airway pressure, respiratory system compliance and resistance, and arterial blood gasses. The data are supplemental to our original research article, which described individual ΔP in these patients and examined how it related to ΔP when the same patients were ventilated with passive mechanical ventilation using the currently accepted lung-protective strategy “Driving pressure during assisted mechanical ventilation. Is it controlled by patient brain?” [1].

  6. Buccal telomere length and its associations with cortisol, heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to an acute social evaluative stressor in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Alex; Hamilton, Katrina; Livitz, Irina E; Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationship between stress and telomere length (a marker of cellular aging) is of great interest for reducing aging-related disease and death. One important aspect of acute stress exposure that may underlie detrimental effects on health is physiological reactivity to the stressor. This study tested the relationship between buccal telomere length and physiological reactivity (salivary cortisol reactivity and total output, heart rate (HR) variability, blood pressure, and HR) to an acute psychosocial stressor in a sample of 77 (53% male) healthy young adults. Consistent with predictions, greater reductions in HR variability (HRV) in response to a stressor and greater cortisol output during the study session were associated with shorter relative buccal telomere length (i.e. greater cellular aging). However, the relationship between cortisol output and buccal telomere length became non-significant when adjusting for medication use. Contrary to past findings and study hypotheses, associations between cortisol, blood pressure, and HR reactivity and relative buccal telomere length were not significant. Overall, these findings may indicate there are limited and mixed associations between stress reactivity and telomere length across physiological systems.

  7. Objectively Assessed Sleep Variability as an Acute Warning Sign of Suicidal Ideation in a Longitudinal Evaluation of Young Adults at High Suicide Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernert, Rebecca A; Hom, Melanie A; Iwata, Naomi G; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-06-01

    Young adults attempt suicide at disproportionately high rates relative to other groups and demonstrate high rates of sleep disturbance. No study has yet prospectively evaluated disturbed sleep as an acute indicator of risk using an objective index of sleep. We investigated objective and subjective parameters of disturbed sleep as a warning sign of suicidal ideation among young adults over an acute period. A longitudinal study across a 21-day observation period and 3 time points. Fifty of 4,847 participants (aged 18-23 years) were prescreened from a university undergraduate research pool (February 2007-June 2008) on the basis of suicide attempt history and recent suicidal ideation. Actigraphic and subjective sleep parameters were evaluated as acute predictors of suicidal ideation (Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation), with adjustment for baseline symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses were employed to predict residual change scores. Ninety-six percent of participants (n = 48) endorsed a suicide attempt history. Mean actigraphy values revealed objectively disturbed sleep parameters; 78% (n = 39) and 36% (n = 18) endorsed clinically significant insomnia and nightmares, respectively. When results were controlled for baseline suicidal and depressive symptoms, actigraphic and subjective sleep parameters predicted suicidal ideation residual change scores at 7- and 21-day follow-ups (P suicidal ideation (P suicidal ideation across time points (P suicidal ideation increases in this population, independent of depressed mood. Self-reported insomnia and nightmares and actigraphically assessed sleep variability emerged as acute warning signs of suicidal ideation. These findings highlight the potential utility of sleep as a proposed biomarker of suicide risk and a therapeutic target.

  8. Anatomy and control of the developing human vocal tract: A response to Lieberman

    OpenAIRE

    Boë, Louis-Jean; Badin, Pierre; Ménard, Lucie; Captier, Guillaume; Davis, Barbara; Macneilage, Peter; Sawallis, Thomas,; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Since Lieberman and Crelin (1971), the question of vocal tract abilities and the link between anatomy and control has been the object of a number of conflicting papers. Part of the debate concerns the acoustic possibilities of the Variable Linear Articulatory Model (VLAM), an articulatory model that has provided the foundation of our own work for many years. VLAM is considered by Lieberman and some others as misleading because of its supposed overestimation of phonetic...

  9. Desvantagem vocal em cantores de igreja Vocal handicap of church singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Prestes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a desvantagem vocal de cantores amadores de coros de igreja. MÉTODO: participaram 42 cantores de coros amadores de igrejas, sendo 20 homens e 22 mulheres, com idades entre 18 e 59 anos. Todos responderam a um questionário contendo perguntas sobre autopercepção vocal e práticas de canto, e ao protocolo Índice de Desvantagem para o Canto Moderno (IDCM, composto por 30 questões referentes às subescalas incapacidade, desvantagem e defeito. Foi realizada triagem perceptivo-auditiva para classificação das vozes em adaptadas ou alteradas e mensuração dos graus De alteração. RESULTADOS: a pontuação total média obtida no IDCM foi 23 pontos. Os maiores escores foram obtidos na subescala "defeito" (10,9, seguido por "incapacidade" (7,6 e "desvantagem" (4,5, com diferença entre elas (p= 0,001. Cantores que nunca realizaram aula de canto apresentaram maiores escores no domínio "desvantagem" (p=0,003. À medida que o escore total do IDCM aumentou, a nota atribuída pelo cantor em relação à própria voz diminuiu (p= 0,046. Participantes com qualidade vocal alterada apresentaram maiores escores nas subescalas incapacidade e desvantagem e no domínio total do IDCM quando comparados aos que apresentavam qualidade vocal adaptada (p=0,012, p=0,049 e p=0,015, respectivamente. Além disso, quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores foram os escores referentes à subescala incapacidade (p=0,022. CONCLUSÃO: cantores de igreja apresentam desvantagem vocal importante. Quando apresentam alterações vocais, esta desvantagem é ainda maior. Quanto maior o grau de alteração vocal, maiores as limitações referentes à voz cantada. Aulas de canto parecem minimizar a desvantagem vocal nessa população.PURPOSE: to evaluate the vocal handicap of amateur singers of church choirs. METHOD: we interviewed 42 amateur singers from church choirs, 20 men, and 22 women, between 18 and 59 year old. Everybody answered a questionnaire

  10. Modal locking between vocal fold and vocal tract oscillations: Simulations in time domain

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Aalto, Daniel; Vainio, Martti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that during voiced speech, the human vocal folds interact with the vocal tract acoustics. The resulting source-filter coupling has been observed using mathematical and physical models as well as in in vivo phonation. We propose a computational time-domain model of the full speech apparatus that, in particular, contains a feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics to the vocal fold oscillations. It is based on numerical solution of ordinary and partial differential equations defined on vocal tract geometries that have been obtained by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The model is used to simulate rising and falling pitch glides of [a, i] in the fundamental frequency (f_0) interval [180 Hz, 360 Hz]. The interval contains the first formant F1 of [i] as well as the subformants F1/4 and F1/3 of [a]. The simulations reveal a locking pattern of the f_0-trajectory at F1 of [i] in falling and rising glides. The subformants of [a] produce perturbations in the waveforms of glottal signals but no locki...

  11. Four-dimensional CT analysis of vocal cords mobility for highly focused single vocal cord irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Sarah O S; de Boer, Hans C J; Heijmen, Ben J M; Levendag, Peter C

    2008-10-01

    To quantify respiratory motion of the vocal cords during normal respiration using 4D-CT. The final goal is to develop a technique for single vocal cord irradiation (SVCI) in early glottic carcinoma. Sparing the non-involved cord and surrounding structures has the potential to preserve voice quality and allow re-irradiation of recurrent and second primary tumors. Four-dimensional CTs of 1mm slice thickness from 10 early glottic carcinoma patients were acquired. The lateral dimensions of the air gap separating the vocal cords were measured anteriorly, at mid-level and posteriorly at each phase of the 4D-CTs. The corresponding anterior-posterior gaps were similarly measured. Cranio-caudal vocal cords movements during breathing were derived from the shifts of the arythenoids. The population-averaged mean gap size+/-the corresponding standard deviation due to breathing (SD(B)) for the lateral gaps was 5.8+/-0.7mm anteriorly, 8.7+/-0.9mm at mid-level, and 11.0+/-1.3mm posteriorly. Anterior-posterior gap values were 21.7+/-0.7mm, while cranio-caudal shift SD(B) was 0.8mm. Vocal cords breathing motions were found to be small relative to their separation. Hence, breathing motion does not seem to be a limiting factor for SVCI.

  12. The Vocal Tract Organ: A New Musical Instrument Using 3-D Printed Vocal Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M

    2017-10-27

    The advent and now increasingly widespread availability of 3-D printers is transforming our understanding of the natural world by enabling observations to be made in a tangible manner. This paper describes the use of 3-D printed models of the vocal tract for different vowels that are used to create an acoustic output when stimulated with an appropriate sound source in a new musical instrument: the Vocal Tract Organ. The shape of each printed vocal tract is recovered from magnetic resonance imaging. It sits atop a loudspeaker to which is provided an acoustic L-F model larynx input signal that is controlled by the notes played on a musical instrument digital interface device such as a keyboard. The larynx input is subject to vibrato with extent and frequency adjustable as desired within the ranges usually found for human singing. Polyphonic inputs for choral singing textures can be applied via a single loudspeaker and vocal tract, invoking the approximation of linearity in the voice production system, thereby making multiple vowel stops a possibility while keeping the complexity of the instrument in reasonable check. The Vocal Tract Organ offers a much more human and natural sounding result than the traditional Vox Humana stops found in larger pipe organs, offering the possibility of enhancing pipe organs of the future as well as becoming the basis for a "multi-vowel" chamber organ in its own right. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. If horses entrain, don’t entirely reject vocal learning: An experience-based vocal learning hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adena Schachner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bregman and colleagues describe methods for testing whether horses entrain their actions to an auditory beat. If horses can entrain, does this necessarily imply that there is no causal relationship between vocal learning and entrainment? I propose an alternative way in which vocal learning may relate to entrainment — one that is consistent with entrainment in some vocal non-learning species. Due to engaging in the developmental process of vocal learning, there may be early experiences common to vocal learners, but rare in vocal non-learning species. It is possible that it is these experiences that are critical for entrainment — not vocal learning itself, nor related genes. These experiences may result in critical changes in neural development, leading to the development of cognitive mechanisms necessary for both vocal learning and entrainment. This hypothesis changes the causal story from one of genetic change to one of changes in experience, and from a focus on evolution to a focus on individual ontogeny. Thus, if horses can entrain, we should not immediately reject the idea of a relationship between vocal learning and entrainment: First, we should consider whether some unusual aspect of the horses' experience effectively replicates the unusual experiences of vocal learning animals.

  14. Vocal similarity in long-distance and short-distance vocalizations in raven pairs (Corvus corax) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luef, Eva Maria; Ter Maat, Andries; Pika, Simone

    2017-09-01

    Vocal interactions in many birds are characterized by imitation or the matching of vocalizations whereby one individual makes its vocalizations more similar to those of a conspecific. This behaviour is aided by vocal learning, which allows birds to change the vocalizations already in their repertoires, or to add new ones. The majority of studies on vocal similarity have been focussing on the songs of birds rather than their calls, with evidence for vocal similarity in calls being rather scarce. Here, we investigated whether ravens make their calls acoustically similar to one another by analysing the extent to which short- and long-distance calls of their vocal repertoires exhibited vocal similarity. Our results showed that long-distance calls, but not short-distance calls, are highly similar between pair partners. This effect may be explained by the different functions underlying short- and long-distance communication in ravens, with vocal similarity possibly being scaffolded by specific social matrices such as pair-bonds and/or strong social relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Vocal Responses in Heighted States of Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mersbergen, Miriam; Lyons, Patricia; Riegler, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate electroglottography (EGG) contact quotient modulation with emotional state in the presence of increased arousal. A within-subject reversal paradigm using multiple experimental conditions. A total of 11 healthy undergraduate students underwent emotion induction with intermittent startles to increase physiologic arousal. During emotion induction, they vocalized on the vowel /u/ while EGG was recorded. EGG contact quotient was significantly greater for negative emotions compared with positive emotions with increased arousal commensurate with past research. In addition, overall EGG contact quotient was greater with elevated arousal. However, the effect sizes were small. EGG contact quotient appears to increase with elevated arousal and be greater for negative mood states than positive mood states confirming that emotion states directly influence vocal functioning. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vocal tract dynamics in an adult stutterer

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    Lesley Wolk

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was motivated by the clinical observation of "laryngeal spasms" during dysfluency in an adult female  stutterer. The flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscope was employed in an attempt to assess this phenomenon objectively. Findings from fiberscopic and spectrographic investigations provided evidence for a disturbance in laryngeal behaviour, and in turn served to determine the nature of the treatment programme. Asymmetry of the vocal folds  and partial abductory laryngeal behaviour, reflecting  a conflict between adductory and abductory forces, characterized the dysfluency  in this patient. A subjective evaluation after treatment revealed a reduction in both severity and frequency of stuttering behaviour. Furthermore, fiberscopic examination carried out after treatment revealed an absence of the laryngeal disturbances noted previously. Results are considered in terms of vocal tract dynamics in stuttering and its clinical applicability.

  17. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Salinas-Ranneberg, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: There have, yet, been only few attempts to phonetically characterize the vocalizations of pain, although there is wide agreement that moaning, groaning, or other nonverbal utterance can be indicative of pain. We studied the production of vowels “u,” “a,” “i”, and “schwa...... (no-stimulation). The phonetic parameters extracted were pitch (mean F0), phonatory fluctuations (range F0) and loudness (acoustic energy level). Results: Only for the vowels “u” and “schwa,” which might be considered best approximations to moaning and groaning, did pitch and loudness increase during...... and comprehensive phonetic analyses will surely help to provide an even more precise characterization of vocalizations because of pain....

  18. Vocal tract dynamics in an adult stutterer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Wolk

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was motivated by the clinical observation of "laryngeal spasms" during dysfluency in an adult female  stutterer. The flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscope was employed in an attempt to assess this phenomenon objectively. Findings from fiberscopic and spectrographic investigations provided evidence for a disturbance in laryngeal behaviour, and in turn served to determine the nature of the treatment programme. Asymmetry of the vocal folds  and partial abductory laryngeal behaviour, reflecting  a conflict between adductory and abductory forces, characterized the dysfluency  in this patient. A subjective evaluation after treatment revealed a reduction in both severity and frequency of stuttering behaviour. Furthermore, fiberscopic examination carried out after treatment revealed an absence of the laryngeal disturbances noted previously. Results are considered in terms of vocal tract dynamics in stuttering and its clinical applicability.

  19. Perfil da saúde vocal de cantores amadores de igreja evangélica Vocal health profile of amateur singers from an evangelical church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaise Marcela Mota Barreto

    2011-06-01

    complaints, such as continuous hoarseness (43.6%, constant throat clearing (43.6%, voice failure (34.5%, voice loss (18.1%, dry throat (18.1%, weak voice (14.5%, and neck and cervix pain (12.7%. During singing activity, the most reported complaints were difficulties in reaching high notes (45.4%, hoarseness (30.9% and voice failure (29%. The vocal habits the singers reported regarded excessive talking (63.6%, immoderate icy beverages intake (43.6%, loud talking (40%, and repeatedly shouting (20%. Significant differences were found between genders regarding the variables voice failure, icy beverages intake, and loud talking. CONCLUSION: Amateur religious singers of both genders showed an expressive percentage of vocal complaints and habits that might be associated to lack of information about healthy vocal habits, which can contribute to the development of laryngeal alterations and voice disorders.

  20. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terry, Andrew Mark Ryder; Peake, Thomas More; McGregor, Peter Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated...... and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time. We present case studies in birds where vocal individuality has been applied to conservation and we discuss its role in mammals....

  1. Mapping of Vocal Risk in Amateur Choir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Milka; Behlau, Mara

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate and map the existence of vocal risk in amateur singers, analyzing the contribution of general voice signs and symptoms, specific singing handicap, and generalized anxiety. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 526 volunteer amateur choristers-186 male and 340 female-(mean age of 42.07 years) from different choirs in the region of São Paulo. Three questionnaires were used: the Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS), the Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale. The mean total score obtained on the VoiSS was 17.57, which is almost two points higher than the protocol's passing score (16). The choristers who scored higher or equal to 16 points (51.5%, n = 271)-considered at vocal risk-and the group who scored less than 16 points (48.5%, n = 255)-healthy group-were analyzed separately. The risk group presented a mean total score of 26.34 on the VoiSS and 20.97 on the MSHI, with higher deviation on the impairment subscale, followed by the disability and handicap subscales, along with mild anxiety. The healthy group presented a mean total score of 8.27 on the VoiSS and 6.11 on the MSHI, also with higher deviation in the impairment subscale, followed by disability and handicap, and a minimum level of anxiety. Even in leisure activities, vocal care is necessary for the correct use of the singing voice, which demands individual adaptations. The use of protocols for voice symptoms and singing handicap has revealed the possibility of amateur choristers to present vocal risk. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz; Marco Rodrigo Castro da Silva; Charleston Teixeira Palmeira

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classic...

  3. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui E; Belafsky, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Promising new techniques in the management of vocal fold nodules have been developed in the past 2 years. Simultaneously, the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin has rapidly expanded. This review explores the use of botulinum toxin in treatment of vocal nodules and summarizes current therapeutic concepts. New microsurgical instruments and techniques, refinements in laser technology, radiosurgical excision and steroid intralesional injections are all promising new techniques in the management of vocal nodules. Botulinum toxin-induced 'voice rest' is a new technique we have employed in patients with recalcitrant nodules. Successful resolution of nodules is possible with this technique, without the risk of vocal fold scarring inherent in dissection/excision techniques. Botulinum toxin usage is exponentially increasing, and large-scale, long-term studies demonstrate its safety profile. Targeted vocal fold temporary paralysis induced by botulinum toxin injection is a new, well tolerated and efficacious treatment in patients with persistent vocal fold nodules.

  4. The etiology of vocal fold nodules in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkos, Petros D; McCormick, Maxwell

    2009-12-01

    To review the recent literature on the etiology and pathophysiology of vocal fold nodules in adults. Research regarding the etiology of vocal nodules over the past 2 years supports previous thinking regarding the central role of voice misuse, overuse, and phonatory trauma. Advanced modeling techniques have helped elucidate mechanisms by which this may occur such as vibration-induced rise in capillary pressures and varying fluid dynamics in the layered vocal fold structure. Contributory roles of personality traits, reflux, and allergy have also been hypothesized. Current research supports long-held beliefs that phonatory trauma is a central cause of vocal fold nodule formation. Innovative basic science research has unraveled mechanisms of traumatic damage and clinical research continues to identify crucial lifestyle behavior and contributing comorbid conditions that play a role in the pathogenesis of vocal fold nodules. The multifactorial etiology of vocal fold nodules requires a comprehensive history to identify contributing factors and a multidisciplinary approach to optimize treatment outcome.

  5. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Gregg A; McGinley, Matthew J; McCormick, David A

    2016-03-16

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/-) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/- mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/- mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/- song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene's role in general vocal motor control.

  6. Imaging evaluation of vocal cord paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Magalhaes, Fabiana Pizanni; Dadalto, Gabriela Bijos; Moura, Marina Vimieiro Timponi de [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelomgarcia@superig.com.br, e-mail: ce@axialmg.com.br

    2009-09-15

    Vocal cord paralysis is a common cause of hoarseness. It may be secondary to many types of lesions along the cranial nerve X pathway and its branches, particularly the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Despite the idiopathic nature of a great number of cases, imaging methods play a very significant role in the investigation of etiologic factors, such as thyroid and esophagus neoplasias with secondary invasion of the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Other conditions such as aortic and right subclavian artery aneurysms also may be found. The knowledge of local anatomy and related diseases is of great importance for the radiologist, so that he can tailor the examination properly to allow an appropriate diagnosis and therapy planning. Additionally, considering that up to 35% of patients with vocal cord paralysis are asymptomatic, the recognition of radiological findings indicative of this condition is essential for the radiologist who must warn the referring physician on the imaging findings. In the present study, the authors review the anatomy and main diseases related to vocal cord paralysis, demonstrating them through typical cases evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, besides describing radiological findings of laryngeal abnormalities indicative of this condition. (author)

  7. A validated battery of vocal emotional expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Maurage

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the exploration of emotions focused on facial expression, and vocal expression of emotion has only recently received interest. However, no validated battery of emotional vocal expressions has been published and made available to the researchers’ community. This paper aims at validating and proposing such material. 20 actors (10 men recorded sounds (words and interjections expressing six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, neutral and sadness. These stimuli were then submitted to a double validation phase: (1 preselection by experts; (2 quantitative and qualitative validation by 70 participants. 195 stimuli were selected for the final battery, each one depicting a precise emotion. The ratings provide a complete measure of intensity and specificity for each stimulus. This paper provides, to our knowledge, the first validated, freely available and highly standardized battery of emotional vocal expressions (words and intonations. This battery could constitute an interesting tool for the exploration of prosody processing among normal and pathological populations, in neuropsychology as well as psychiatry. Further works are nevertheless needed to complement the present material.

  8. Vocally mediated social recognition in anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Mark A.

    2005-09-01

    Anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are among the most vocal of vertebrates and have long served as model systems for investigating the mechanisms and evolution of acoustic communication. Compared to higher vertebrates, however, the role of cognition in anuran communication has received less attention, at least in part due to the lack of evidence that juvenile anurans learn to produce signals or associate them with particular social contexts. Recent studies of social recognition in two anuran families indicate that territorial male frogs in some species are able to learn about and recognize the individually distinctive properties of the calls of nearby neighbors. For example, male bullfrogs (ranidae) learn about the pitch of a neighbor's vocalizations (an individually distinct voice property) and associate a familiar pitch with the location of the neighbor's territory. As in songbirds, this form of vocally mediated social recognition allows territory holders to direct low levels of aggression toward well-established neighbors, while maintaining a readiness to respond aggressively to more threatening strangers that may attempt a territory takeover. A brief review of currently available data will be used to illustrate how anurans can serve as model systems for investigating the role of cognition in acoustic communication.

  9. A retrospective study of long-term treatment outcomes for reduced vocal intensity in hypokinetic dysarthria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Watts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced vocal intensity is a core impairment of hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Speech treatments have been developed to rehabilitate the vocal subsystems underlying this impairment. Intensive treatment programs requiring high-intensity voice and speech exercises with clinician-guided prompting and feedback have been established as effective for improving vocal function. Less is known, however, regarding long-term outcomes of clinical benefit in speakers with PD who receive these treatments. Methods A retrospective cohort design was utilized. Data from 78 patient files across a three year period were analyzed. All patients received a structured, intensive program of voice therapy focusing on speaking intent and loudness. The dependent variable for all analyses was vocal intensity in decibels (dBSPL. Vocal intensity during sustained vowel production, reading, and novel conversational speech was compared at pre-treatment, post-treatment, six month follow-up, and twelve month follow-up periods. Results Statistically significant increases in vocal intensity were found at post-treatment, 6 months, and 12 month follow-up periods with intensity gains ranging from 5 to 17 dB depending on speaking condition and measurement period. Significant treatment effects were found in all three speaking conditions. Effect sizes for all outcome measures were large, suggesting a strong degree of practical significance. Conclusions Significant increases in vocal intensity measured at 6 and 12 moth follow-up periods suggested that the sample of patients maintained treatment benefit for up to a year. These findings are supported by outcome studies reporting treatment outcomes within a few months post-treatment, in addition to prior studies that have reported long-term outcome results. The positive treatment outcomes experienced by the PD cohort in this study are consistent with treatment responses subsequent to other treatment

  10. Contextual effects of noise on vocalization encoding in primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ruiye; Bender, David A; Shanechi, Amirali M; Gamble, Jeffrey R; Barbour, Dennis L

    2017-02-01

    Robust auditory perception plays a pivotal function for processing behaviorally relevant sounds, particularly with distractions from the environment. The neuronal coding enabling this ability, however, is still not well understood. In this study, we recorded single-unit activity from the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) while delivering conspecific vocalizations degraded by two different background noises: broadband white noise and vocalization babble. Noise effects on neural representation of target vocalizations were quantified by measuring the responses' similarity to those elicited by natural vocalizations as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. A clustering approach was used to describe the range of response profiles by reducing the population responses to a summary of four response classes (robust, balanced, insensitive, and brittle) under both noise conditions. This clustering approach revealed that, on average, approximately two-thirds of the neurons change their response class when encountering different noises. Therefore, the distortion induced by one particular masking background in single-unit responses is not necessarily predictable from that induced by another, suggesting the low likelihood of a unique group of noise-invariant neurons across different background conditions in A1. Regarding noise influence on neural activities, the brittle response group showed addition of spiking activity both within and between phrases of vocalizations relative to clean vocalizations, whereas the other groups generally showed spiking activity suppression within phrases, and the alteration between phrases was noise dependent. Overall, the variable single-unit responses, yet consistent response types, imply that primate A1 performs scene analysis through the collective activity of multiple neurons. The understanding of where and how auditory scene analysis is accomplished is of broad interest to neuroscientists. In this paper

  11. Vocal patterns in infants with autism spectrum disorder: canonical babbling status and vocalization frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Elena; Belardi, Katie; Baranek, Grace T; Watson, Linda R; Labban, Jeffrey D; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2014-10-01

    Canonical babbling is a critical milestone for speech development and is usually well in place by 10 months. The possibility that infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show late onset of canonical babbling has so far eluded evaluation. Rate of vocalization or "volubility" has also been suggested as possibly aberrant in infants with ASD. We conducted a retrospective video study examining vocalizations of 37 infants at 9-12 and 15-18 months. Twenty-three of the 37 infants were later diagnosed with ASD and indeed produced low rates of canonical babbling and low volubility by comparison with the 14 typically developing infants. The study thus supports suggestions that very early vocal patterns may prove to be a useful component of early screening and diagnosis of ASD.

  12. EFFECTS OF MUSIC ON VOCAL STEREOTYPY IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    OpenAIRE

    Lanovaz, Marc J.; Sladeczek, Ingrid E; Rapp, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of manipulating the intensity (i.e., volume) of music on engagement in vocal stereotypy in 2 children with autism. Noncontingent access to music decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for each participant, but it produced only marginal effects on subsequent engagement in the behavior (i.e., after withdrawal). Manipulating the intensity of music did not produce differential effects on immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy. The implications of the results ...

  13. Vocalizing Dance Movement for Interactive Sonification of Laban Effort Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Françoise, Jules; Fdili Alaoui, Sarah; Schiphorst, Thecla; Bevilacqua, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We investigate the use of interactive sound feedback for dance pedagogy based on the practice of vocalizing while moving. Our goal is to allow dancers to access a greater range of expressive movement qualities through vocalization. We propose a methodology for the sonification of Effort Factors, as defined in Laban Movement Analysis, based on vocalizations performed by movement experts. Based on the experiential outcomes of an exploratory workshop, we propose a set of ...

  14. A Framework for Automated Marmoset Vocalization Detection And Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    killer whales [13], and marmosets [8]. Recent work on semi-automated marmoset vocalization classification [10] is primarily based on the use of...Elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) Vocalizations,” vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 956–963, 2005. [13] J. C. Brown, “Automatic classification of killer whale ... behavior assessment. Index Terms: Automated detection and classification, marmoset vocalization, primate behavioral analysis, primate welfare monitoring

  15. Acoustic Vocal Tract Model of One-year-old Children

    OpenAIRE

    M. Vojnović; I. Bogavac; L. Dobrijević

    2014-01-01

    The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant) frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract...

  16. Interspecific hybridization as a tool to understand vocal divergence: the example of crowing in quail (Genus Coturnix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Derégnaucourt

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that lead organisms to be separated into distinct species remains a challenge in evolutionary biology. Interspecific hybridization, which results from incomplete reproductive isolation, is a useful tool to investigate such mechanisms. In birds, interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent, despite the fact that closed species exhibit morphological and behavioural differences. Evolution of behaviour is difficult to investigate on a large timescale since it does not 'fossilize'. Here I propose that calls of hybrid non-songbirds that develop without the influence of learning may help in understanding the gradual process that leads to vocal divergence during speciation. I recorded crows produced by the European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix, the domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica and their hybrids (F1, F2 and backcrosses. Most crowing patterns were intermediate to those of the parental species; some were similar to one or the other parental species, or not present in either parental species. I also observed vocal changes in hybrid crows during the breeding season and from one year to the other. This vocal variability resembles those observed during the ontogeny of the crow in quails. It is likely that similar mechanisms involved in vocal changes during ontogeny might have driven vocal divergence in the species of Palearctic quails. I suggest that hybrid crows might have resembled those produced by intermediary forms of quails during speciation.

  17. Interspecific hybridization as a tool to understand vocal divergence: the example of crowing in quail (Genus Coturnix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derégnaucourt, Sébastien

    2010-02-26

    Understanding the mechanisms that lead organisms to be separated into distinct species remains a challenge in evolutionary biology. Interspecific hybridization, which results from incomplete reproductive isolation, is a useful tool to investigate such mechanisms. In birds, interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent, despite the fact that closed species exhibit morphological and behavioural differences. Evolution of behaviour is difficult to investigate on a large timescale since it does not 'fossilize'. Here I propose that calls of hybrid non-songbirds that develop without the influence of learning may help in understanding the gradual process that leads to vocal divergence during speciation. I recorded crows produced by the European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix), the domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) and their hybrids (F1, F2 and backcrosses). Most crowing patterns were intermediate to those of the parental species; some were similar to one or the other parental species, or not present in either parental species. I also observed vocal changes in hybrid crows during the breeding season and from one year to the other. This vocal variability resembles those observed during the ontogeny of the crow in quails. It is likely that similar mechanisms involved in vocal changes during ontogeny might have driven vocal divergence in the species of Palearctic quails. I suggest that hybrid crows might have resembled those produced by intermediary forms of quails during speciation.

  18. Encoding of situations in the vocal repertoire of piglets (Sus scrofa: a comparison of discrete and graded classifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Tallet

    Full Text Available Two important questions in bioacoustics are whether vocal repertoires of animals are graded or discrete and how the vocal expressions are linked to the context of emission. Here we address these questions in an ungulate species. The vocal repertoire of young domestic pigs, Sus scrofa, was quantitatively described based on 1513 calls recorded in 11 situations. We described the acoustic quality of calls with 8 acoustic parameters. Based on these parameters, the k-means clustering method showed a possibility to distinguish either two or five clusters although the call types are rather blurred than strictly discrete. The division of the vocal repertoire of piglets into two call types has previously been used in many experimental studies into pig acoustic communication and the five call types correspond well to previously published partial repertoires in specific situations. Clear links exist between the type of situation, its putative valence, and the vocal expression in that situation. These links can be described adequately both with a set of quantitative acoustic variables and through categorisation into call types. The information about the situation of emission of the calls is encoded through five call types almost as accurately as through the full quantitative description.

  19. Comparison of Effects Produced by Physiological Versus Traditional Vocal Warm-up in Contemporary Commercial Music Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, María Priscilla; Rojas, Sandra; Guzman, Marco; Quezada, Camilo

    2017-05-31

    The present study aimed to observe whether physiological warm-up and traditional singing warm-up differently affect aerodynamic, electroglottographic, acoustic, and self-perceived parameters of voice in Contemporary Commercial Music singers. Thirty subjects were asked to perform a 15-minute session of vocal warm-up. They were randomly assigned to one of two types of vocal warm-up: physiological (based on semi-occluded exercises) or traditional (singing warm-up based on open vowel [a:]). Aerodynamic, electroglottographic, acoustic, and self-perceived voice quality assessments were carried out before (pre) and after (post) warm-up. No significant differences were found when comparing both types of vocal warm-up methods, either in subjective or in objective measures. Furthermore, the main positive effect observed in both groups when comparing pre and post conditions was a better self-reported quality of voice. Additionally, significant differences were observed for sound pressure level (decrease), glottal airflow (increase), and aerodynamic efficiency (decrease) in the traditional warm-up group. Both traditional and physiological warm-ups produce favorable voice sensations. Moreover, there are no evident differences in aerodynamic and electroglottographic variables when comparing both types of vocal warm-ups. Some changes after traditional warm-up (decreased intensity, increased airflow, and decreased aerodynamic efficiency) could imply an early stage of vocal fatigue. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Variability of hemodynamic responses to acute digitalization in chronic cardiac failure due to cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, K; Selzer, A; Kersh, E S; Karpman, L S; Goldschlager, N

    1975-04-01

    Eight patients with chronic congestive heart failure (four with cardiomyopathy and four with ischemic heart disease) underwent hemodynamic studies during acute administration of digoxin, given intravenously in two 0-5 mg doses 2 hours apart. Observations were made before administration of digitalis (control period) and serially therafter for 4 hours after the first dose. Resting mean cardiac index and pulmonary arterial wedge pressure were as follows: 2.0 liters/min per m2 and 23 mm Hg (control period); 2.1 and 24 (at 1 hour); 2.0 and 23 (at 2 hours); 2.7 and 19 (at 3 hours); and 2.3 and 20 (at 4 hours). Exercise responses of mean cardiac index and pulmonary arterial wedge pressure in five patients were: 3.1 liters/min per m2 and 36 mm Hg (control period); 3.2 and 33 (at 1 hour); 3.2 and 28 (at 2 hours); 3.1 and 27 (at.3 hours); and 3.4 and 31 (at 4 hours). The pulmonary arterial wedge pressure remained elevated during exercise in all cases. Arrhythmias were seen in five patients after administration of 0.5 mg of digoxin. Hemodynamic improvement at 4 hours involving both reduced filling pressure and increased blood flow was observed in only two patients at rest and in one additional patient during exercise. Acute deterioration of cardiac function (elevated pulmonary arterial wedge pressure of decreased cardiac index) occurred 30 minutes after administration of digoxin in four patients, concomitantly with increased systemic resistance. In six patients, a peak hemodynamic effect appeared 1 to 1 1/2 hours after administration of digoxin, with partial or total loss of initial benefit by 2 and 4 hours. In previously performed studies observations have seldom exceeded 1 hour; the results of this 4 hour study suggest that, in patients with cardiomyopathy or coronary artery disease and chronic congestive heart failure, acute digitalization does not necessarily lead to consistent, marked or lasting hemodynamic improvement. Thus, current concepts of the use of digitalis is

  1. Classification of acute stress using linear and non-linear heart rate variability analysis derived from sternal ECG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, George; Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Hoppe, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress detection is an important factor in predicting and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. This work is a pilot study with a focus on developing a method for detecting short-term psychophysiological changes through heart rate variability (HRV) features. The purpose of this pil...

  2. Audience effects, but not environmental influences, explain variation in gorilla close distance vocalizations-A test of the acoustic adaptation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, Daniela; Mundry, Roger; Robbins, Martha M; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Close distance vocalizations are an integral part of primate vocal communication. They exhibit large acoustic variation which has been suggested to constitute flexible responses to the highly variable social setting of group living animals. However, a recent study suggested that acoustic variation in close distance calls of baboons may also arise from acoustic adaptations to environmental factors in order to counteract sound degradation. We tested whether the variation in calling rate and acoustic structure of gorilla close distance vocalizations may serve to counteract distorting effects of vegetation during sound propagation. Using focal animal sampling we recorded the vocal behavior of 15 adult individuals living in two groups: one group of western lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla and one group of mountain gorillas Gorilla beringei beringei. We considered the distance between the caller and its nearest neighbor as the minimum transmission distance of calls; while vegetation density was quantified through measures of visibility. Our analysis revealed vocal plasticity in gorilla close calls in relation to changes in visibility and nearest neighbor distance. However, the observed changes in fundamental frequency and calling rate are unlikely to counteract degrading effects of vegetation, but rather seem to reflect reactions to variation in spatial and visual separation from other group members, similar to the audience effects demonstrated in a range of other species. We propose that vocal plasticity to counteract distorting environmental effects may not be prevalent across taxa and perhaps confined to species living in heterogeneous habitats with highly variable transmission conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Computational acoustic modeling of cetacean vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Michael Dixon

    A framework for computational acoustic modeling of hypothetical vocal production mechanisms in cetaceans is presented. As a specific example, a model of a proposed source in the larynx of odontocetes is developed. Whales and dolphins generate a broad range of vocal sounds, but the exact mechanisms they use are not conclusively understood. In the fifty years since it has become widely accepted that whales can and do make sound, how they do so has remained particularly confounding. Cetaceans' highly divergent respiratory anatomy, along with the difficulty of internal observation during vocalization have contributed to this uncertainty. A variety of acoustical, morphological, ethological and physiological evidence has led to conflicting and often disputed theories of the locations and mechanisms of cetaceans' sound sources. Computational acoustic modeling has been used to create real-time parametric models of musical instruments and the human voice. These techniques can be applied to cetacean vocalizations to help better understand the nature and function of these sounds. Extensive studies of odontocete laryngeal morphology have revealed vocal folds that are consistently similar to a known but poorly understood acoustic source, the ribbon reed. A parametric computational model of the ribbon reed is developed, based on simplified geometrical, mechanical and fluid models drawn from the human voice literature. The physical parameters of the ribbon reed model are then adapted to those of the odontocete larynx. With reasonable estimates of real physical parameters, both the ribbon reed and odontocete larynx models produce sounds that are perceptually similar to their real-world counterparts, and both respond realistically under varying control conditions. Comparisons of acoustic features of the real-world and synthetic systems show a number of consistencies. While this does not on its own prove that either model is conclusively an accurate description of the source, it

  4. VoICE: A semi-automated pipeline for standardizing vocal analysis across models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkett, Zachary D; Day, Nancy F; Peñagarikano, Olga; Geschwind, Daniel H; White, Stephanie A

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we present VoICE (Vocal Inventory Clustering Engine), an approach to grouping vocal elements by creating a high dimensionality dataset through scoring spectral similarity between all vocalizations within a recording session...

  5. The Influence of Noise on the Vocal Dose in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Santos, Juliana Nunes; Souza, Bárbara Oliveira; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; de Castro Magalhães, Max

    2017-12-28

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if noise interferes with the vocal dose in women without vocal complaints. This is an experimental and comparative study. Data were collected on 27 women between 22 and 50 years of age without vocal complaints in a university classroom. Speech-language pathology evaluation was performed employing auditory-perceptual analysis and a vocal symptom questionnaire. The acoustics of the classroom were evaluated via both observation of the characteristics of the room and the quantification of background noise and reverberation time. Two distinctive acoustic conditions were created for evaluations: condition 1, a room without acoustic treatment and without noise reproduction, and condition 2, a room without acoustic treatment with noise reproduction. Each participant was evaluated individually in both acoustic conditions. To obtain vocal dose data, a vocal dosimeter was used. Subjects were asked to perform two 10-minute readings, one in each acoustic condition. The order of conditions was randomized between subjects. Subjects were instructed to complete the reading tasks at the vocal intensity deemed appropriate to be heard by a listener in the back of the room. t Tests and the Wilcoxon test were employed to compare parameters across subjects and conditions. Fundamental frequency, vocal intensity, percentage of phonation, and cycle dose significantly increased in the background noise condition. A positive relation between vocal dose and the presence of excessive noise in the environment was observed. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fat augmentation following microsurgical removal of the vocal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Ming-Wang; Chen, Yen-Yu; Pai, Lu; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Kang, Bor-Hwang; Wang, Hsing-Won

    2002-08-01

    Autogenous fat augmentation has been used as a treatment for glottic insufficiency. However, no information is available on the effectiveness of fat injection in patients with vocal nodules or recurrent vocal nodules after surgery. The retrospective study reviews the efficiency of fat injection after surgery in patients with vocal nodules (n = 18) and recurrent vocal nodules (n = 5). The perceptual acoustic, phonatory function, and video laryngostroboscopic data were evaluated before and after surgery in 23 patients. Mean follow-up time was 7.5 months. Nineteen patients had excellent results. Two patients had improvement, and no change was observed in two patients. Phonatory function showed significant improvement in shimmer, harmonic-to-noiseratio (P vocal fold edge, amplitude of vocal fold vibration, and excursion of the mucosal wave (P vocal nodules than in nonrecurrent vocal nodules. Fat injection is an effective autogenous implant and may be considered as an option in management of patients with vocal nodules after surgery. Recurrence of nodules is a problem, but the procedure may be repeated.

  7. Vocal Emotion of Humanoid Robots: A Study from Brain Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driven by rapid ongoing advances in humanoid robot, increasing attention has been shifted into the issue of emotion intelligence of AI robots to facilitate the communication between man-machines and human beings, especially for the vocal emotion in interactive system of future humanoid robots. This paper explored the brain mechanism of vocal emotion by studying previous researches and developed an experiment to observe the brain response by fMRI, to analyze vocal emotion of human beings. Findings in this paper provided a new approach to design and evaluate the vocal emotion of humanoid robots based on brain mechanism of human beings.

  8. Automatic recognizing of vocal fold disorders from glottis images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Chiun; Leu, Yi-Shing; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Chu, Wen-Lin; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wu, Han-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    The laryngeal video stroboscope is an important instrument to test glottal diseases and read vocal fold images and voice quality for physician clinical diagnosis. This study is aimed to develop a medical system with functionality of automatic intelligent recognition of dynamic images. The static images of glottis opening to the largest extent and closing to the smallest extent were screened automatically using color space transformation and image preprocessing. The glottal area was also quantized. As the tongue base movements affected the position of laryngoscope and saliva would result in unclear images, this study used the gray scale adaptive entropy value to set the threshold in order to establish an elimination system. The proposed system can improve the effect of automatically captured images of glottis and achieve an accuracy rate of 96%. In addition, the glottal area and area segmentation threshold were calculated effectively. The glottis area segmentation was corrected, and the glottal area waveform pattern was drawn automatically to assist in vocal fold diagnosis. When developing the intelligent recognition system for vocal fold disorders, this study analyzed the characteristic values of four vocal fold patterns, namely, normal vocal fold, vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold polyp, and vocal fold cyst. It also used the support vector machine classifier to identify vocal fold disorders and achieved an identification accuracy rate of 98.75%. The results can serve as a very valuable reference for diagnosis. © IMechE 2014.

  9. Animal behaviour: elephants are capable of vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Joyce H; Tyack, Peter L; Stoeger-Horwath, Angela S; Watwood, Stephanie

    2005-03-24

    There are a few mammalian species that can modify their vocalizations in response to auditory experience--for example, some marine mammals use vocal imitation for reproductive advertisement, as birds sometimes do. Here we describe two examples of vocal imitation by African savannah elephants, Loxodonta africana, a terrestrial mammal that lives in a complex fission-fusion society. Our findings favour a role for vocal imitation that has already been proposed for primates, birds, bats and marine mammals: it is a useful form of acoustic communication that helps to maintain individual-specific bonds within changing social groupings.

  10. Perceptual and acoustic parameters of vocal nodules in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramuglia, Andréa Cristina Joia; Tavares, Elaine L M; Rodrigues, Sérgio Augusto; Martins, Regina H G

    2014-02-01

    Vocal nodules constitute the major cause of dysphonia during childhood. Auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal analyses have been used to differentiate vocal nodules from normal voice in children. To study the value of auditory-perceptual and acoustic vocal analyses in assessments of children with nodules. Diagnostic test study. A comparative study was carried out including 100 children with videolaryngoscopic diagnosis of vocal nodules (nodule group-NG); and 100 children without vocal symptoms and with normal videolaryngoscopic exams (control group-CG). The age range of both groups was between 4 and 11 years. All children underwent auditory-perceptual vocal analyses (GRBASI scale); maximum phonation time and s/z ratio were calculated, and acoustic vocal analysis (MDVP software) were carried out. There was no difference in the values of maximum phonation time and s/z ratio between groups. Auditory-perceptual analysis indicated greater compromising of voice parameters for NG, compared to CG: G (79 versus 24), R (53 versus 3), B (67 versus 23) and S (35 versus 1). The values of acoustic parameters jitter, PPQ, shimmer, APQ, NHR and SPI were higher for NG for CG. The parameter f0 did not differ between groups. Compromising of auditory-perceptual (G, R, B and S) and acoustic vocal parameters (jitter, PPQ, shimmer, APQ, NHR and SPI) was greater for children with nodules than for those of the control group, which makes them important methods for assessing child dysphonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute alcohol effects on set-shifting and its moderation by baseline individual differences: a latent variable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucuoglu, Ozlem; Sher, Kenneth J; Wood, Phillip K; Saults, John Scott; Altamirano, Lee; Miyake, Akira; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2017-03-01

    To compare the acute effects of alcohol on set-shifting task performance (relative to sober baseline performance) during ascending and descending limb breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), as well as possible moderation of these effects by baseline individual differences. Shifting performance was tested during an initial baseline and a subsequent drinking session, during which participants were assigned randomly to one of three beverage conditions (alcohol, placebo or control) and one of two BrAC limb conditions [ascending and descending (A/D) or descending-only (D-only)]. A human experimental laboratory on the University of Missouri campus in Columbia, MO, USA. A total of 222 moderate-drinking adults (ages 21-30 years) recruited from Columbia, MO and tested between 2010 and 2013. The outcome measure was performance on set-shifting tasks under the different beverage and limb conditions. Shifting performance assessed at baseline was a key moderator. Although performance improved across sessions, this improvement was reduced in the alcohol compared with no-alcohol groups (post-drink latent mean comparison across groups, all Ps ≤ 0.05), and this effect was more pronounced in individuals with lower pre-drink performance (comparison of pre- to post-drink path coefficients across groups, all Ps ≤ 0.05). In the alcohol group, performance was better on descending compared with ascending limb (P ≤ 0.001), but descending limb performance did not differ across the A/D and D-only groups. Practising tasks before drinking moderates the acute effects of alcohol on the ability to switch between tasks. Greater impairment in shifting ability on descending compared with ascending breath alcohol concentration is not related to task practice. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. [Variability in the management and prognosis at short- and medium-term of myocardial infarct in Spain: the PRIAMHO study. Registration Project of Hospital Acute Myocardial Infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabadés, A; López-Bescós, L; Arós, F; Loma-Osorio, A; Bosch, X; Pabón, P; Marrugat, J

    1999-10-01

    The paucity of data on myocardial infarction management and results in Spain lead to the design of the PRIAMHO study (Proyecto de Registro de Infarto Agudo de Miocardio Hospitalario [Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Registration Project]) which developed standard methods to collect information on the management of patients with such a condition and their characteristics. The variability results among hospitals in myocardial infarction management and in one-year mortality are presented. A cohort study with a one-year follow-up was designed to register all patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction discharged from 24 Spanish hospitals that completed all the requisites to participate. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, their management during the coronary care unit stage, and the outcome and complications were prospectively registered. Standard definitions for diagnosis were used. Confidentiality regarding patient identity and participating centers was guaranteed. 5,242 (77.6%) of the 6,756 patients with myocardial infarction admitted in the 24 participating hospitals were registered in the coronary care units. Half of the centers had an on-site hemodynamic laboratory and in seven coronary surgery. The delay between symptom-onset and emergency room admission was 2 hours. Acute pulmonary edema or cardiogenic shock was developed by 16.6% of patients and 41.8% received thrombolysis. Mean time delay between symptom-onset and thrombolysis was 3 hours. A large variability in the use of beta-blockers, thrombolysis, echocardiography, coronary catheterization angiography and invasive revascularization was observed among hospitals. Mortality in the coronary care unit was 10.9% and increased to 14.0% at 28 days and to 18.5% at one year with considerable variation among hospitals. Four hospitals showed higher mortality among their patients, independently from the proportion of diabetes, hypertension, women, anterior location of myocardial

  13. Learning to detect vocal hyperfunction from ambulatory neck-surface acceleration features: Initial results for vocal fold nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Zañartu, Matías; Cheyne, Harold A.; Hillman, Robert E.; Guttag, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Voice disorders are medical conditions that often result from vocal abuse/misuse which is referred to generically as vocal hyperfunction. Standard voice assessment approaches cannot accurately determine the actual nature, prevalence, and pathological impact of hyperfunctional vocal behaviors because such behaviors can vary greatly across the course of an individual's typical day and may not be clearly demonstrated during a brief clinical encounter. Thus, it would be clinically valuable to dev...

  14. Relationship between vocal symptoms in college students and their possible causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto; Guerra, Juliana Ranzani; Loiola,Camila Miranda; Ghirardi,Ana Carolina de Assis Moura

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction:?Studies to understand the vocal profile of a population are important to plan collective health measures. The prevalence of vocal symptoms can be indicative of vocal disorder and must be investigated to support measures to prevent vocal diseases. Aim:?To characterize vocal symptoms in college students and their possible causes, and to analyze the association between hoarseness, vocal fatigue, phlegm, and burning in the throat with the possible causes mentioned. Method:?P...

  15. Variability of acute physiological responses and performance profiles of youth soccer players in small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Haas, Stephen; Coutts, Aaron; Rowsell, Greg; Dawson, Brian

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the variability in physiological and perceptual responses and time-motion profiles of various small-sided soccer game (SSG) formats (2 versus 2, 4 versus 4 and 6 versus 6 players) and regimes (interval and continuous). Typical error (TE) was calculated for mean heart rate as a percentage of maximum heart rate (%HR(max)), global ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate [La(-)] and various time-motion characteristics for 16 male soccer players (mean 16.2 years, range 15.6-17.9). The TE for HR responses were 8km/h) reflected increased variability, irrespective of game format or regime. Collectively, these results suggest that SSG training can provide a reliable aerobic training stimulus.

  16. [The Correlation between the Size of Vocal Polyps, Vocal Nodules and Vocal Dysfunction, before and after Laryngeal Microsurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunieda, Chikako; Kanazawa, Takeharu; Komazawa, Daigo; Ree, Yougaku; Indo, Kanako; Akagi, Yusuke; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Matsushima, Koji; Suzuki, Takeshi; Watanabe, Yusuke

    2015-10-01

    When we operate on a vocal polyp or a vocal nodule with laryngeal microscopy, we always carefully measure their length and width then multiply the length by the width to get the area. We examined whether there is a correlation between the area of these lesions and the acoustic analysis of voice. Before the surgery and one month post-operation, we checked five acoustic parameters, maximum phonation time (MPT), range of voice, mean air flow rate (MFR) and acoustic analyses (jitter% and shimmer%). By doing this, we could arrive at the improvement rate of each of the five acoustic parameters. We examined whether there was a correlation between the lesion area and acoustic parameters before surgery and the improvement rates of these acoustic parameters. Examinations of polyps showed a correlation between the size and range of voice and Jitter% pre-operation, and showed a correlation between the size and improvement rate of range of voice, MFR, Jitter% and Shimmer% post-operation. On the other hand, examination of nodules showed a correlation only between the size and range of voice pre-operation. Next we examined the correlation between the size and these acoustic parameters in the Elite vocal performer (EVP) group and extra EVP group. In the examinations of polyps, the EVP group showed a lower correlation between the size and acoustic parameters than in the extra EVP group. On the other hand, in the examinations of nodules, correlation between the size and acoustic parameters was low in both the EVP and extra EVP group.

  17. Maternal Perception of Decreased Fetal Movement in One Twin: A Clue Leading to the Early Detection of Absent Variability due to Acute Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotada Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreased fetal movement (DFM perceived by pregnant women sometimes indicates imminent fetal jeopardy. It is unknown whether this also holds true for twin pregnancy. A 27-year-old primiparous woman with monochorionic diamniotic (MD pregnancy had a slight difference of amniotic fluid volume at 312/7 weeks of gestation. DFM only in one twin at 314/7 weeks of gestation prompted her to receive urgent consultation. Since cardiotocogram indicated absent variability of one twin, we performed Cesarean section. Male infants weighing 2060 g and 1578 g were delivered; hemoglobin was 20.7 versus 10.8 g/dL, respectively; cardiothoracic ratio was 70% versus 44%, respectively, indicating acute twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS. The recipient infant had heart failure, which was still observed at 1 month postpartum. In conclusion, maternal perception of DFM indicated imminent fetal death or jeopardy caused by acute TTTS, suggesting that education regarding DFM for women with twin pregnancy may be clinically important.

  18. Flexible Coupling of Respiration and Vocalizations with Locomotion and Head Movements in the Freely Behaving Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Andrews Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quadrupedal mammals typically synchronize their respiration with body movements during rhythmic locomotion. In the rat, fast respiration is coupled to head movements during sniffing behavior, but whether respiration is entrained by stride dynamics is not known. We recorded intranasal pressure, head acceleration, instantaneous speed, and ultrasonic vocalizations from male and female adult rats while freely behaving in a social environment. We used high-speed video recordings of stride to understand how head acceleration signals relate to locomotion and developed techniques to identify episodes of sniffing, walking, trotting, and galloping from the recorded variables. Quantitative analysis of synchrony between respiration and head acceleration rhythms revealed that respiration and locomotion movements were coordinated but with a weaker coupling than expected from previous work in other mammals. We have recently shown that rats behaving in social settings produce high rates of ultrasonic vocalizations during locomotion bouts. Accordingly, rats emitted vocalizations in over half of the respiratory cycles during fast displacements. We present evidence suggesting that emission of these calls disrupts the entrainment of respiration by stride. The coupling between these two variables is thus flexible, such that it can be overridden by other behavioral demands.

  19. Vocal cord paralysis and its etiologies: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Toutounchi, Seyed Javad; Eydi, Mahmood; Golzari, Samad Ej; Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza; Parvizian, Nashmil

    2014-01-01

    Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis. In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such as examination of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, thyroid, cervical, lung, and mediastinum, brain and heart by diagnostic imaging to investigate the cause vocal cord paralysis. The study was ended by diagnosing the reason of vocal cord paralysis at each stage of the examination and the clinical studies. The mean duration of symptoms was 18.95±6.50 months. The reason for referral was phonation changes (97.8%) and aspiration (37.8%) in the subjects. There was bilateral paralysis in 6.82%, left paralysis in 56.82% and right in 63.36% of subjects. The type of vocal cord placement was midline in 52.8%, paramedian in 44.4% and lateral in 2.8% of the subjects. The causes of vocal cords paralysis were idiopathic paralysis (31.11%), tumors (31.11%), surgery (28.89%), trauma, brain problems, systemic disease and other causes (2.2%). An integrated diagnostic and treatment program is necessary for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Possibility of malignancy should be excluded before marking idiopathic reason to vocal cord paralysis.

  20. Activation of frontal neocortical areas by vocal production in marmosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano S Simões

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Primates often rely on vocal communication to mediate social interactions. Although much is known about the acoustic structure of primate vocalizations and the social context in which they are usually uttered, our knowledge about the neocortical control of audio-vocal interactions in primates is still incipient, being mostly derived from lesion studies in squirrel monkeys and macaques. To map the neocortical areas related to vocal control in a New World primate species, the common marmoset, we employed a method previously used with success in other vertebrate species: Analysis of the expression of the immediate-early gene Egr-1 in freely behaving animals. The neocortical distribution of Egr-1 immunoreactive cells in three marmosets that were exposed to the playback of conspecific vocalizations and vocalized spontaneously (H/V group was compared to data from three other marmosets that also heard the playback but did not vocalize (H/n group. The anterior cingulate cortex, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex presented a higher number of Egr-1 immunoreactive cells in the H/V group than in H/n animals. Our results provide direct evidence that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the region that comprises Broca's area in humans and has been associated with auditory processing of species-specific vocalizations and orofacial control in macaques, is engaged during vocal output in marmosets. Altogether, our results support the notion that the network of neocortical areas related to vocal communication in marmosets is quite similar to that of Old world primates. The vocal production role played by these areas and their importance for the evolution of speech in primates are discussed.

  1. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Seyed Toutounchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis.Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such as examination of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, thyroid, cervical, lung, and mediastinum, brain and heart by diagnostic imaging to investigate the cause vocal cord paralysis. The study was ended by diagnosing the reason of vocal cord paralysis at each stage of the examination and the clinical studies.Results: The mean duration of symptoms was 18.95±6.50 months. The reason for referral was phonation changes (97.8% and aspiration (37.8% in the subjects. There was bilateral paralysis in 6.82%, left paralysis in 56.82% and right in 63.36% of subjects. The type of vocal cord placement was midline in 52.8%, paramedian in 44.4% and lateral in 2.8% of the subjects. The causes of vocal cords paralysis were idiopathic paralysis (31.11%, tumors (31.11%, surgery (28.89%, trauma, brain problems, systemic disease and other causes (2.2%.Conclusion: An integrated diagnostic and treatment program is necessary for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Possibility of malignancy should be excluded before marking idiopathic reason to vocal cord paralysis.

  2. Variability in Criteria for Emergency Medical Services Routing of Acute Stroke Patients to Designated Stroke Center Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay; Koenig, William; Bosson, Nichole; Song, Sarah; Saver, Jeffrey L; Mack, William J; Sanossian, Nerses

    2015-09-01

    Comprehensive stroke systems of care include routing to the nearest designated stroke center hospital, bypassing non-designated hospitals. Routing protocols are implemented at the state or county level and vary in qualification criteria and determination of destination hospital. We surveyed all counties in the state of California for presence and characteristics of their prehospital stroke routing protocols. Each county's local emergency medical services agency (LEMSA) was queried for the presence of a stroke routing protocol. We reviewed these protocols for method of stroke identification and criteria for patient transport to a stroke center. Thirty-three LEMSAs serve 58 counties in California with populations ranging from 1,175 to nearly 10 million. Fifteen LEMSAs (45%) had stroke routing protocols, covering 23 counties (40%) and 68% of the state population. Counties with protocols had higher population density (1,500 vs. 140 persons per square mile). In the six counties without designated stroke centers, patients meeting criteria were transported out of county. Stroke identification in the field was achieved using the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Screen in 72%, Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen in 7% and a county-specific protocol in 22%. California EMS prehospital acute stroke routing protocols cover 68% of the state population and vary in characteristics including activation by symptom onset time and destination facility features, reflecting matching of system design to local geographic resources.

  3. Low frequency mechanical resonance of the vocal tract in vocal exercises that apply tubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Jaromír; Radolf, Vojtěch; Laukkanen, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, August (2017), s. 39-49 ISSN 1746-8094 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01246S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : biomechanics of voice * vocal tract acoustics * phonation into tubes * water resistance voice therapy * bubbling frequency * formant frequencies Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.214, year: 2016

  4. Characteristics of Vocal Fold Vibrations in Vocally Healthy Subjects: Analysis with Multi-Line Kymography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Tayama, Niro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to analyze longitudinal data from high-speed digital images in normative subjects using multi-line kymography. Method: Vocally healthy subjects were divided into young (9 men and 17 women; M[subscript age] = 27 years) and older groups (8 men and 12 women; M[subscript age] = 73 years). From high-speed…

  5. Modeling mechanisms of in vivo variability in methotrexate accumulation and folate pathway inhibition in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Panetta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Methotrexate (MTX is widely used for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. The accumulation of MTX and its active metabolites, methotrexate polyglutamates (MTXPG, in ALL cells is an important determinant of its antileukemic effects. We studied 194 of 356 patients enrolled on St. Jude Total XV protocol for newly diagnosed ALL with the goal of characterizing the intracellular pharmacokinetics of MTXPG in leukemia cells; relating these pharmacokinetics to ALL lineage, ploidy and molecular subtype; and using a folate pathway model to simulate optimal treatment strategies. Serial MTX concentrations were measured in plasma and intracellular MTXPG concentrations were measured in circulating leukemia cells. A pharmacokinetic model was developed which accounted for the plasma disposition of MTX along with the transport and metabolism of MTXPG. In addition, a folate pathway model was adapted to simulate the effects of treatment strategies on the inhibition of de novo purine synthesis (DNPS. The intracellular MTXPG pharmacokinetic model parameters differed significantly by lineage, ploidy, and molecular subtypes of ALL. Folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS activity was higher in B vs T lineage ALL (p<0.005, MTX influx and FPGS activity were higher in hyperdiploid vs non-hyperdiploid ALL (p<0.03, MTX influx and FPGS activity were lower in the t(12;21 (ETV6-RUNX1 subtype (p<0.05, and the ratio of FPGS to γ-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH activity was lower in the t(1;19 (TCF3-PBX1 subtype (p<0.03 than other genetic subtypes. In addition, the folate pathway model showed differential inhibition of DNPS relative to MTXPG accumulation, MTX dose, and schedule. This study has provided new insights into the intracellular disposition of MTX in leukemia cells and how it affects treatment efficacy.

  6. Changes in aerodynamics during vocal cord dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Ito, Dennis O; Schulz, Kristine; Vess, Gina; Witsell, David L

    2015-02-01

    Changes in laryngeal airflow dynamics during episodes of vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) have not been well described. Very little is known about how inspiratory airflow is impacted when the vocal cords transition from normal inhalation state to a paradoxical adducted state; and how much change in laryngeal airflow and resistance occur before symptoms of stridor and air hunger emerge. This study provides new insight on the effects of VCD on respiratory airflow using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Computed tomography images of a subject with normal vocal cords opening at the time of scanning were digitally modified to mimic an episode of VCD. To quantify and compare changes in inspiratory flow during VCD attack and normal inhalation, steady-state, laminar simulations were performed for three different breathing rates. Pressure-flow analysis during VCD revealed that increasing inspiratory effort is not as efficient as in normal inhalation. Airflow resistance at the epiglottis was higher in the normal state (0.04Pa.s/mL versus 0.02Pa.s/mL) than in VCD; while resistance at the glottis and trachea remained roughly the same (0.04Pa.s/mL) during normal inhalation, it escalated during VCD (0.11Pa.s/mL and 0.13Pa.s/mL at the glottis and trachea, respectively). Peak airflow velocity and vorticity occurred around the glottis during VCD, and at the epiglottis during normal inhalation. This pilot study demonstrates that attempting to force more inspired air will yield greater glottal resistance during VCD. Furthermore, there were evidence of abrupt laryngeal pressure gradient, chaotic airflow and high concentration of shear stresses in the glottal region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acetylcholinesterase in central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AChE presence in the vocal control system suggests innervation by either afferent projecting cholinergic systems and/or local circuit cholinergic neurons. Co-occurrence with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) indicates efferent cholinergic projections. The cholinergic presence in parts of the zebra finch vocal control system, ...

  8. Effects of Music on Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanovaz, Marc J.; Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Rapp, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of manipulating the intensity (i.e., volume) of music on engagement in vocal stereotypy in 2 children with autism. Noncontingent access to music decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for each participant, but it produced only marginal effects on subsequent engagement in the behavior (i.e., after withdrawal).…

  9. The Effect of Vocalization on Melodic Memory Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrook, Randall G.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study which reinforces prior findings on melodic memory that show a majority of students do not sing accurately enough after only one hearing of a melody to benefit from vocalization memory techniques. Questions whether vocalization can be a memory reinforcer in melodies that are shorter and simpler than those used in this research.…

  10. Relationship between voice quality and vocal nodule size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rahul K; Engel, Samuel H; Choi, Sukgi S

    2008-11-01

    To determine the effect of vocal nodule size on voice in pediatric patients. Vocal nodules were graded according to a validated grading scale by three pediatric otolaryngologists. Patients evaluated from 2003 to 2007 with a diagnosis of vocal nodules were included. Forty patients (21 female) with a mean age of 7.5 years were identified. Vocal nodules were rated as grade 1 (17 patients), grade 2 (15 patients), and grade 3 (8 patients). Pitch range was reduced in patients with larger nodules (P = 0.001). There was no statistical association between nodule grade and fundamental frequency abnormality, perturbation, shimmer, decreased respiratory support, air loss, or significant muscle tension. Voice characteristics in patients with vocal nodules were evaluated. Other than pitch reduction, objective and subjective voice measurements are not statistically different in varying vocal nodule sizes; however, many of the measures did show a trend towards significance. Vocal rehabilitation is complex in children with nodules and may not directly correlate with vocal nodule size.

  11. What's the Difference Between Vocal Cord Dysfunction and Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may involve special breathing exercises called panting maneuvers, speech therapy, biofeedback and avoidance of irritants. With James T C Li, M.D., Ph.D. References Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD) or Paradoxical Vocal Fold Movement (PVFM). American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology. ...

  12. BENIGN LESIONS OF THE VOCAL FOLDS - HISTOPATHOLOGY AND PHONOTRAUMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIKKERS, FG; NIKKELS, PGJ

    Benign lesions of the vocal folds have various appearances. Histopathologic examination might provide the true diagnosis. Therefore, histologic slides of 74 patients (92 vocal folds) with clinically well-defined diagnoses were single-blind examined by a pathologist. Single histologic features did

  13. Prevalence and correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Velthuis, A.A.; Jenner, J.A.; van de Willige, G.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    Background Hearing voices occurs in middle childhood, but little is known about prevalence, aetiology and immediate consequences. Aims To investigate prevalence, developmental risk factors and behavioural correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in 7- and 8-year-olds. Method Auditory vocal

  14. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. The developmental dynamics of marmoset monkey vocal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, D Y; Fenley, A R; Teramoto, Y; Narayanan, D Z; Borjon, J I; Holmes, P; Ghazanfar, A A

    2015-08-14

    Human vocal development occurs through two parallel interactive processes that transform infant cries into more mature vocalizations, such as cooing sounds and babbling. First, natural categories of sounds change as the vocal apparatus matures. Second, parental vocal feedback sensitizes infants to certain features of those sounds, and the sounds are modified accordingly. Paradoxically, our closest living ancestors, nonhuman primates, are thought to undergo few or no production-related acoustic changes during development, and any such changes are thought to be impervious to social feedback. Using early and dense sampling, quantitative tracking of acoustic changes, and biomechanical modeling, we showed that vocalizations in infant marmoset monkeys undergo dramatic changes that cannot be solely attributed to simple consequences of growth. Using parental interaction experiments, we found that contingent parental feedback influences the rate of vocal development. These findings overturn decades-old ideas about primate vocalizations and show that marmoset monkeys are a compelling model system for early vocal development in humans. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Alternative measures to observe and record vocal fold vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, HK; McCafferty, G; Coman, W; Carroll, R

    1996-01-01

    Vocal fold vibration patterns form the basis for the production of vocal sound. Over the years much effort has been spend to optimize the ways to visualize and give a description of these patterns. Before video possibilities became available the description of the patterns was Very time-consuming.

  16. North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Divya D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…

  17. Vocal Fold Mucus Aggregation in Persons with Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; White, Lisa; Kuckhahn, Kelsey; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Deliyski, Dimitar D.

    2012-01-01

    Mucus aggregation on the vocal folds is a common finding from laryngeal endoscopy. Patients with voice disorders report the presence of mucus aggregation. Patients also report that mucus aggregation causes them to clear their throat, a behavior believed to be harmful to vocal fold mucosa. Even though clinicians and patients report and discuss…

  18. Bilateral vocal cord injury following anterior cervical discectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We recommend a more detailed preoperative airway exam to include a voice exam with specific voice fatigue questioning on all patients coming for ACD/F. Such detailed assessment may uncover hidden UVCI and allow a safer perioperative period. Keywords: Anterior cervical discectomy, Bilateral vocal cord injury, Vocal ...

  19. Dynamics of zebra finch and mockingbird vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimenser, Aylin

    Along with humans, whales, and bats, three groups of birds which include songbirds (oscines) such as the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) are the only creatures known to learn sounds by imitation. Numerous similarities between human and songbird vocalizations exist and, recently, it has been shown that Zebra Finch in particular possesses a gene, FoxP2, known to be involved in human language. This thesis investigates song development in Zebra Finches, as well as the temporal dynamics of song in Mockingbirds. Zebra Finches have long been the system of choice for studying vocal development, ontogeny, and complexity in birdsong. Physicists find them intriguing because the spectrally complex vocalizations of the Zebra Finch can exhibit sudden transitions to chaotic dynamics, period doubling & mode-locking phenomena. Mockingbirds, by contrast, provide an ideal system to examine the richness of an avian repertoire, since these musically versatile songbirds typically know upwards of 200 songs. To analyse birdsong data, we have developed a novel clustering algorithm that can be applied to the bird's syllables, tracing their dynamics back to the earliest stages of vocal development. To characterize birdsong we have used Fourier techniques, based upon multitaper spectral analysis, to optimally work around the constraints imposed by (Heisenberg's) time-frequency uncertainty principle. Furthermore, estimates that provide optimal compromise between frequency and temporal resolution have beautiful connections with solutions to the Helmholtz wave equation in prolate spheroidal coordinates. We have used this connection to provide firm foundation for certain heuristics used in the literature to compute associated spectral derivatives and supply a pedagogical account here in this thesis. They are of interest because spectral derivatives emphasize sudden changes in the dynamics of the underlying phenomenon, and often provide a nice way to visualize

  20. When internal communication becomes multi-vocal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    The aim of this paper is to present the findings of an exploratory case study of communication on internal social media within the Danish bank, Jyske Bank. The study involved an analysis of staff interaction on internal social media over three months, as well as interviews with 17 of the bank......’s employees. The study not only answers questions about who participates in internal social media and the content of their communication, it also shows that when organizational culture and management support coworker communication, internal social media becomes a multi-vocal rhetorical arena where coworkers...

  1. The Influence of Changes in Acute Training Load on Daily Sensitivity of Morning-Measured Fatigue Variables in Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Robin T; Strudwick, Anthony J; Buchheit, Martin; Atkinson, Greg; Drust, Barry; Gregson, Warren

    2017-04-01

    To determine the sensitivity of a range of potential fatigue measures to daily training load accumulated over the previous 2, 3, and 4 d during a short in-season competitive period in elite senior soccer players (N = 10). Total highspeed-running distance, perceived ratings of wellness (fatigue, muscle soreness, sleep quality), countermovement-jump height (CMJ), submaximal heart rate (HRex), postexercise heart-rate recovery (HRR), and heart-rate variability (HRV: Ln rMSSD) were analyzed during an in-season competitive period (17 d). General linear models were used to evaluate the influence of 2-, 3-, and 4-d total high-speed-running-distance accumulation on fatigue measures. Fluctuations in perceived ratings of fatigue were correlated with fluctuations in total high-speed-running-distance accumulation covered on the previous 2 d (r = -.31; small), 3 d (r = -.42; moderate), and 4 d (r = -.28; small) (P training loads. Perceived ratings of fatigue and HRex were sensitive to fluctuations in acute total high-speed-running-distance accumulation, although sensitivity was not systematically influenced by the number of previous days over which the training load was accumulated. The present findings indicate that the sensitivity of morning-measured fatigue variables to changes in training load is generally not improved when compared with training loads beyond the previous day's training.

  2. Vocal activity of lesser galagos (Galago spp.) at zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan; Štefanská, Lucie; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Lhota, Stanislav; Brandl, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Almost nothing is known about the natural vocal behavior of lesser galagos living in zoos. This is perhaps because they are usually kept in nocturnal exhibits separated from the visitors by a transparent and acoustically insulating glass barrier. The aim of the present study was therefore to fill this gap in knowledge of the vocal behavior of lesser galagos from zoos. This knowledge might be beneficial because the vocalizations of these small primates can be used for species determination. We performed a 10-day-long acoustic monitoring of vocal activity in each of seven various groups of Galago senegalensis and G. moholi living at four zoos. We quantitatively evaluated the occurrence of four loud vocalization types present in both species, including the most species-specific advertisement call. We found that qualitative as well as quantitative differences exist in the vocal behavior of the studied groups. We confirmed that the observed vocalization types can be collected from lesser galagos living at zoos, and the success can be increased by selecting larger and more diverse groups. We found two distinct patterns of diel vocal activity in the most vocally active groups. G. senegalensis groups were most vocally active at the beginning and at the end of their activity period, whereas one G. moholi group showed an opposite pattern. The latter is surprising, as it is generally accepted that lesser galagos emit advertisement calls especially at dawn and dusk, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of their diel activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Light evokes melanopsin-dependent vocalization and neural activation associated with aversive experience in neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Delwig

    Full Text Available Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs are the only functional photoreceptive cells in the eye of newborn mice. Through postnatal day 9, in the absence of functional rods and cones, these ipRGCs mediate a robust avoidance behavior to a light source, termed negative phototaxis. To determine whether this behavior is associated with an aversive experience in neonatal mice, we characterized light-induced vocalizations and patterns of neuronal activation in regions of the brain involved in the processing of aversive and painful stimuli. Light evoked distinct melanopsin-dependent ultrasonic vocalizations identical to those emitted under stressful conditions, such as isolation from the litter. In contrast, light did not evoke the broad-spectrum calls elicited by acute mechanical pain. Using markers of neuronal activation, we found that light induced the immediate-early gene product Fos in the posterior thalamus, a brain region associated with the enhancement of responses to mechanical stimulation of the dura by light, and thought to be the basis for migrainous photophobia. Additionally, light induced the phosphorylation of extracellular-related kinase (pERK in neurons of the central amygdala, an intracellular signal associated with the processing of the aversive aspects of pain. However, light did not activate Fos expression in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis, the primary receptive field for painful stimulation to the head. We conclude that these light-evoked vocalizations and the distinct pattern of brain activation in neonatal mice are consistent with a melanopsin-dependent neural pathway involved in processing light as an aversive but not acutely painful stimulus.

  4. Image analysis of vocal fold histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Lou; Garrett, C. Gaelyn

    2001-05-01

    To visualize the concentration gradients of collagen, elastin and ground substance in histologic sections of vocal folds, an image enhancement scheme was devised. Slides stained with Movat's solution were viewed on a light microscope. The image was digitally photographed. Using commercially available software, all pixels within a color range are selected from the mucosa presented on the image. Using the Movat's pentachrome stain, yellow to yellow-brown pixels represented mature collagen, blue to blue-green pixels represented young collagen (collagen that is not fully cross-linked) and black to dark violet pixels represented elastin. From each of the color range selections, a black and white image was created. The pixels not within the color range were black. The selected pixels within the color range were white. The image was averaged and smoothed to produce 256 levels of gray with less spatial resolution. This new grey-scale image showed the concentration gradient. These images were further enhanced with contour lines surrounding equivalent levels of gray. This technique is helpful to compare the micro-anatomy of the vocal folds. For instance, we find large concentration of the collagen deep in the mucosa and adjacent to the vocalis muscle.

  5. Timing of nimodipine therapy for the treatment of vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Shaum S; Rosen, Clark A; Smith, Libby J; Young, VyVy N; Munin, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively determine optimal timing for initiation of nimodipine within a cohort of patients with acute vocal fold paralysis (VFP). Retrospective patient review. Subjects were divided into three groups: initiation within 15 days postinjury (n = 19), between 15 and 30 days postinjury (n = 23), or greater than 30 days postinjury (n = 11). Fifty-one patients (53 paralyzed vocal folds [VFs]) met entrance criteria and were offered and started off-label nimodipine treatment. Thirty-six of 53 VFs recovered purposeful motion (67.9%). There was no significant difference in the rate of VF recovery among patients who began nimodipine within 15 days (68.4%), patients who started nimodipine between 15 and 30 days (73.9%) of nerve injury (P = .1405), and patients who initiated nimodipine after 30 days postinjury (54.5%). Nimodipine treatment for acute VFP yielded equal VF motion recovery rates regardless of when the medication was initiated. Time to recovery of motion was not different between groups studied. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Treatment Outcomes of In-Office KTP Ablation of Vocal Fold Granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Laura M; Brown, Raymond J; Simpson, C Blake

    2017-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of in-office potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) treatment of vocal fold granulomas and identify any predictors of complete lesion resolution. A retrospective review of patients who underwent in-office KTP ablation of vocal fold granulomas between 2007 and 2016 was performed. Medical records were reviewed for use of acid suppression medication, prior surgical treatment, voice therapy, laser settings, number of treatments, follow-up time, and Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) scores. Twenty-six patients underwent a total of 43 laser treatments. Eighty percent of patients were previously on acid suppression medication, and 42.3% had failed previous endoscopic treatments. Patients underwent a mean number of 1.65 ± 1.16 in-office treatments with decrease in size in 96.2% of cases. The VHI-10 was not significantly affected. Complete resolution occurred in 73.1% of cases with follow-up time ranging from 1 to 86 months (median = 9.5 months). No recurrences occurred in patients with complete resolution. Other than undergoing a single KTP treatment, no variable was found to be predictive of complete lesion resolution. Granuloma etiology was not predictive of lesion resolution but did correlate with symptom improvement. In-office pulsed KTP laser is an effective treatment option for vocal fold granulomas as the lesion resolves in the majority of cases.

  7. Relationship between Voice Complaints and Subjective and Objective Measures of Vocal Function in Iranian Female Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faham, Maryam; Jalilevand, Nahid; Torabinezhad, Farhad; Silverman, Erin Pearson; Ahmadi, Akram; Anaraki, Zahra Ghayoumi; Jafari, Narges

    2017-07-01

    Teachers are at high risk of developing voice problems because of the excessive vocal demands necessitated by their profession. Teachers' self-assessment of vocal complaints, combined with subjective and objective measures of voice, may enable better therapeutic decision-making. This investigation compared audio-perceptual assessment and acoustic variables in teachers with and without voice complaints. Ninety-nine teachers completed this cross-sectional study and were assigned to one of two groups: those "with voice complaint (VC)" and those "without voice complaint (W-VC)." Voice samples were collected during reading, counting, and vowel prolongation tasks. Teachers were also asked to document any voice symptoms they experienced. Voice samples were analyzed using Dr. Speech program (4th version; Tiger Ltd., USA), and labeled "normal" or "abnormal" according to the "grade" dimension "G" from GRBAS scale. Twenty-one teachers were assigned to the VC group based on self-assessment data. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups with regard to self-reported voice symptoms of hoarseness, breathiness, pitch breaks, and vocal fatigue (P Teachers with and without voice complaints differed in the incidence, but not type of voice symptoms. Teachers' voice complaints did not correspond to perceptual and acoustic measures. This suggests a potential unmet need for teachers to receive further education on voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  8. An Investigation of Vocal Tract Characteristics for Acoustic Discrimination of Pathological Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of measures related to vocal tract characteristics in classifying normal and pathological speech. Unlike conventional approaches that mainly focus on features related to the vocal source, vocal tract characteristics are examined to determine if interaction effects between vocal folds and the vocal tract can be used to detect pathological speech. Especially, this paper examines features related to formant frequencies to see if vocal tract characteristics are affected by the nature of the vocal fold-related pathology. To test this hypothesis, stationary fragments of vowel /aa/ produced by 223 normal subjects, 472 vocal fold polyp subjects, and 195 unilateral vocal cord paralysis subjects are analyzed. Based on the acoustic-articulatory relationships, phonation for pathological subjects is found to be associated with measures correlated with a raised tongue body or an advanced tongue root. Vocal tract-related features are also found to be statistically significant from the Kruskal-Wallis test in distinguishing normal and pathological speech. Classification results demonstrate that combining the formant measurements with vocal fold-related features results in improved performance in differentiating vocal pathologies including vocal polyps and unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which suggests that measures related to vocal tract characteristics may provide additional information in diagnosing vocal disorders.

  9. Equipotent subanesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane and xenon preventing cold-stimulated vocalization of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Hannah; Thoresen, Marianne; Bishop, Sarah; Smit, Elisa; Liu, Xun; Walloe, Lars; Dingley, John

    2014-12-01

    The effects of inhaled anesthetics on the developing brain are studied using neonatal rodents exposed to fractions of minimum alveolar concentration (to avoid cardiorespiratory compromise). However, these fractions cannot be assumed to be equipotent. Xenon's anesthetic and neuroprotective properties warrant investigation in these models. Therefore, equipotent, subanesthetic concentrations of inhaled anesthetics are needed. Forty-eight Wistar rats (Charles River Laboratories, Kent, United Kingdom) on postnatal day 9 were randomized to eight concentrations of inhaled anesthetics: isoflurane, sevoflurane, or xenon. Exposure was closely monitored in individual metal-based chambers resting on a 35°C mat to maintain normothermia. A 25°C mat was used to stimulate vocalization and a sound recording made (1 min, 1 to 100 kHz). Rectal temperature or partial pressure of carbon dioxide and pH of mixed arteriovenous blood were measured immediately after the exposure. Concentration-response models were constructed using logistic regression (dependent variable: vocalization and explanatory variable: concentration). The effects of all other explanatory variables were assessed by inserting them individually into the model. The effective inhaled concentrations preventing cold-stimulated vocalization in 50 and 95% of neonatal rats (EiC50 and EiC95) on postnatal day 9 were 0.46 and 0.89% sevoflurane and 20.15 and 34.81% xenon, respectively. The effect on the EiC50 of all other explanatory variables, including duration, was minimal. Stability of EiC50 isoflurane was not achieved over three durations (40, 80, and 120 min exposure). Partial pressure of carbon dioxide and pH in mixed arteriovenous blood appeared normal. The authors report equipotent subanesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane and xenon in neonatal rats with preserved cardiopulmonary function. This may be useful in designing neonatal rodent models of anesthesia.

  10. The structure and usage of female and male mouse ultrasonic vocalizations reveal only minor differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Hammerschmidt

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vocalizations (USV of mice are increasingly recognized as informative dependent variables in studies using mouse models of human diseases. While pup vocalizations primarily serve to re-establish contact with the mother, adult male "songs" were considered to be courtship signals. Alternatively, mouse USVs may generally function as territorial signals. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we compared the structure and usage of adult male and female USVs in staged resident-intruder encounters. If calls function primarily as courtship signals, males should respond stronger than females, specifically when presented with a female intruder. Refuting this hypothesis, we found that in response to female intruders, females called more than males (228±32 calls/min vs. 71±15 calls/min, and males called more to female than to male intruders (14±7.5 calls/min. There were no significant differences in the acoustic characteristics of the calls given by females and males. To control for the influence of the intruder's behavior on calling, we repeated the experiments using anaesthetized intruders. Again, females produced more calls to female than male intruders (173±17 calls/min vs. 71±15 calls/min, while males called more in response to female than male intruders (39±17 calls/min, and there were no acoustic differences in female and male calls. The vocal activity did not differ significantly with regard to intruder state (awake or anaesthetized, while the acoustic structure exhibited significant differences. Taken together, our findings support the view that calls do not mainly function as courtship signals, although they might serve both a territorial (sex-independent and a courtship function. The comparison of responses to awake vs. anaesthetized intruders suggests that the latter are sufficient to elicit vocal activity. The subtle acoustic differences, however, indicate that the subject differentiates between intruder states.

  11. Exploring Attitudes of Indian Classical Singers Toward Seeking Vocal Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjawate, Dhanshree R; Aithal, Venkataraja U; Guddattu, Vasudeva; Kishore, Amrutha; Bellur, Rajashekhar

    2016-11-01

    The attitude of Indian classical singers toward seeking vocal health care is a dimension yet to be explored. The current study was aimed to determine the attitudes of these singers toward seeking vocal health care and further understand the influence of age and gender. Cross-sectional. A 10-item self-report questionnaire adapted from a study on contemporary commercial music singers was used. An additional question was added to ask if the singer was aware about the profession and role of speech-language pathologists (SLPs). The questionnaire was administered on 55 randomly selected self-identified trained Indian classical singers who rated the items using a five-point Likert scale. Demographic variables were summarized using descriptive statistics and t test was used to compare the mean scores between genders and age groups. Of the singers, 78.2% were likely to see a doctor for heath-related problems, whereas 81.8% were unlikely to seek medical care for voice-related problems; the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Responses for the questions assessing the attitudes toward findings from medical examination by a specialist revealed a statistically significant difference (P = 0.02) between the genders. Age did not have a significant influence on the responses. Only 23.6% of the respondents were aware about the profession and the role of SLPs. The findings are in tune with western literature reporting hesitation of singers toward seeking vocal health care and draws attention of SLPs to promote their role in vocal health awareness and management. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pediatric vocal nodules: correlation with perceptual voice analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rahul K; Woodnorth, Geralyn Harvey; Glynn, Amy; Nuss, Roger C

    2005-07-01

    To present the epidemiology and correlation with perceptual analysis of vocal nodules in pediatric patients. Retrospective review of patients seen in a tertiary care pediatric hospital's voice center from 1996 to 2003. Six hundred and forty-six patients were evaluated with videostroboscopic examinations and perceptual analysis of voice characteristics by speech pathologists. Appropriate treatment was based on the pathology identified. Two hundred and fifty-four patients (40%) with an average age of 7.7 years (range 0.1-19.3 years) were identified as having vocal nodules. Of these, 72% were male. Six patients (2%) were under the age of 7 months. Nodules were most commonly found in males, aged 3-10 years old. Evidence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease was found in one-quarter of patients; hyperfunction of the larynx was seen in three-fourths. Hyperfunction of the larynx correlates with the size of vocal nodules. Distortion of the vocal fold mucosal wave was not present. Perceptual analysis revealed positive correlation of the severity of hoarseness, breathiness, straining and aphonia with the size of vocal nodules. The epidemiology and correlation with perceptual voice analysis in pediatric patients with vocal nodules is presented. Hyperfunction of the larynx correlates with nodule size, while the presence of reflux disease does not. The severity of hoarseness, breathiness, straining and aphonia correlates with the size of vocal nodules.

  13. Spatiotemporal analysis of normal and pathological human vocal fold vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausert, Christopher R; Liang, Yufang; Zhang, Yu; Rieves, Adam L; Geurink, Kyle R; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-01-01

    For spatiotemporal analysis to become a relevant clinical tool, it must be applied to human vocal fold vibration. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis will help assess the ability of spatiotemporal parameters to detect pathological vibration. Spatiotemporal parameters of correlation length and entropy were extracted from high-speed videos of 124 subjects, 67 without vocal fold pathology and 57 with either vocal fold polyps or nodules. Mann-Whitney rank sum tests were performed to compare normal vocal fold vibrations to pathological vibrations, and ROC analysis was used to assess the diagnostic value of spatiotemporal analysis. A statistically significant difference was found between the normal and pathological groups in both correlation length (P nodules and polyps groups in either correlation length (P = .227) or entropy (P = .943). The ROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.63 for correlation length and 0.51 for entropy. Although they could not effectively distinguish vibration of vocal folds with nodules from those with polyps, the spatiotemporal parameters correlation length and entropy exhibit the ability to differentiate normal and pathological vocal fold vibration and may represent a diagnostic tool for objectively detecting abnormal vibration in the future, especially in neurological voice disorders and vocal folds without a visible lesion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spontaneous motor entrainment to music in multiple vocal mimicking species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Brady, Timothy F; Pepperberg, Irene M; Hauser, Marc D

    2009-05-26

    The human capacity for music consists of certain core phenomena, including the tendency to entrain, or align movement, to an external auditory pulse [1-3]. This ability, fundamental both for music production and for coordinated dance, has been repeatedly highlighted as uniquely human [4-11]. However, it has recently been hypothesized that entrainment evolved as a by-product of vocal mimicry, generating the strong prediction that only vocal mimicking animals may be able to entrain [12, 13]. Here we provide comparative data demonstrating the existence of two proficient vocal mimicking nonhuman animals (parrots) that entrain to music, spontaneously producing synchronized movements resembling human dance. We also provide an extensive comparative data set from a global video database systematically analyzed for evidence of entrainment in hundreds of species both capable and incapable of vocal mimicry. Despite the higher representation of vocal nonmimics in the database and comparable exposure of mimics and nonmimics to humans and music, only vocal mimics showed evidence of entrainment. We conclude that entrainment is not unique to humans and that the distribution of entrainment across species supports the hypothesis that entrainment evolved as a by-product of selection for vocal mimicry.

  15. Acoustic Vocal Tract Model of One-year-old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vojnović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract shape imaging (X-ray, magnetic resonance, etc. are not appropriate for children. One possibility is to start from the shape of the adult vocal tract and correct it based on anatomical, morphological and articulatory differences between children and adults. This paper presents a method for vocal tract shape estimation of the child aged one year. The initial shapes of the vocal tract refer to the Russian vowels spoken by an adult male. All the relevant anatomical and articulation parameters, that influence the formant frequencies, are analyzed. Finally, the hypothetical configurations of the children’s vocal tract, for the five vowels, are presented.

  16. The impact of intraglottal vortices on vocal fold dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Byron; Pirnia, Alireza; Peterson, Sean

    2016-11-01

    During voiced speech a critical pressure is produced in the lungs that separates the vocal folds and creates a passage (the glottis) for airflow. As air passes through the vocal folds the resulting aerodynamic loading, coupled with the tissue properties of the vocal folds, produces self-sustained oscillations. Throughout each cycle a complex flow field develops, characterized by a plethora of viscous flow phenomena. Air passing through the glottis creates a jet, with periodically-shed vortices developing due to flow separation and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer. These vortices have been hypothesized to be a crucial mechanism for producing vocal fold vibrations. In this study the effect of vortices on the vocal fold dynamics is investigated experimentally by passing a vortex ring over a flexible beam with the same non-dimensional mechanical properties as the vocal folds. Synchronized particle image velocimetry data are acquired in tandem with the beam dynamics. The resulting impact of the vortex ring loading on vocal fold dynamics is discussed in detail. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant CBET #1511761.

  17. A comparative neurological approach to emotional expressions in primate vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Grandjean, Didier

    2017-02-01

    Different approaches from different research domains have crystallized debate over primate emotional processing and vocalizations in recent decades. On one side, researchers disagree about whether emotional states or processes in animals truly compare to those in humans. On the other, a long-held assumption is that primate vocalizations are innate communicative signals over which nonhuman primates have limited control and a mirror of the emotional state of the individuals producing them, despite growing evidence of intentional production for some vocalizations. Our goal is to connect both sides of the discussion in deciphering how the emotional content of primate calls compares with emotional vocal signals in humans. We focus particularly on neural bases of primate emotions and vocalizations to identify cerebral structures underlying emotion, vocal production, and comprehension in primates, and discuss whether particular structures or neuronal networks solely evolved for specific functions in the human brain. Finally, we propose a model to classify emotional vocalizations in primates according to four dimensions (learning, control, emotional, meaning) to allow comparing calls across species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efeito imediato de técnicas vocais em mulheres sem queixa vocal Immediate effect of vocal techniques in women without vocal complaint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o efeito imediato das técnicas vocais vibração, som nasal e sobrearticulação na voz e na laringe de mulheres sem queixas vocais. MÉTODO: participaram da pesquisa 32 sujeitos do sexo feminino, com idades entre 20 e 45 anos, sem queixas vocais, com qualidade vocal avaliada entre normal e alteração de grau leve Os sujeitos foram submetidos à análise perceptivo-auditiva pela escala visual analógica da vogal /ε/ e fala espontânea, análise acústica e laringoestroboscopia antes e após a realização das técnicas. RESULTADOS: a análise perceptivo-auditiva revelou melhora significante dos parâmetros impressão global da voz, rouquidão e estabilidade na vogal /ε/ e articulação na fala espontânea. A análise acústica evidenciou melhora significante do jitter e shimmer. A laringoestroboscopia evidenciou significante melhora no fechamento glótico e melhora na movimentação muco-ondulatória das pregas vocais. CONCLUSÃO: as técnicas vocais estudadas são capazes de proporcionar melhora imediata significante da qualidade vocal e da configuração laríngea.PURPOSE: to check the immediate effect of vocal techniques: vibration, nasal sound and overarticulation. METHOD: 32 female subjects with normal to mild dysphonia took part in the study, with ages from 20 to 45 years. Subjects were submitted to perceptual analysis and laryngostroboscopic exams before and after the use of vocal techniques. RESULTS: subjects' vocal classification in perceptual analysis after accomplishing the vocal techniques showed significant improvement on parameters voice global impression, hoarseness and stability; and, in spontaneous speech, one showed a significant improvement on the parameter articulation. The acoustic analysis evidenced significant improvement of the jitter and shimmer. Laryngostroboscopic examination evidenced a significant increase in the glottic closing and an increase in the mucondulatory movement of the vocal folds

  19. A nomenclature paradigm for benign midmembranous vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Hathaway, Bridget; Simpson, C Blake; Postma, Gregory N; Courey, Mark; Sataloff, Robert T

    2012-06-01

    There is a significant lack of uniform agreement regarding nomenclature for benign vocal fold lesions (BVFLs). This confusion results in difficulty for clinicians communicating with their patients and with each other. In addition, BVFL research and comparison of treatment methods are hampered by the lack of a detailed and uniform BVFL nomenclature. Clinical consensus conferences were held to develop an initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm. Perceptual video analysis was performed to validate the stroboscopy component of the paradigm. The culmination of the consensus conferences and the video-perceptual analysis was used to evaluate the BVFL nomenclature paradigm using a retrospective review of patients with BVFL. An initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm was proposed utilizing detailed definitions relating to vocal fold lesion morphology, stroboscopy, response to voice therapy and intraoperative findings. Video-perceptual analysis of stroboscopy demonstrated that the proposed binary stroboscopy system used in the BVFL nomenclature paradigm was valid and widely applicable. Retrospective review of 45 patients with BVFL followed to the conclusion of treatment demonstrated that slight modifications of the initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm were required. With the modified BVFL nomenclature paradigm, 96% of the patients fit into the predicted pattern and definitions of the BVFL nomenclature system. This study has validated a multidimensional BVFL nomenclature paradigm. This vocal fold nomenclature paradigm includes nine distinct vocal fold lesions: vocal fold nodules, vocal fold polyp, pseudocyst, vocal fold cyst (subepithelial or ligament), nonspecific vocal fold lesion, vocal fold fibrous mass (subepithelial or ligament), and reactive lesion. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Vocal Qualities in Music Theater Voice: Perceptions of Expert Pedagogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Tracy; Kenny, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    To gather qualitative descriptions of music theater vocal qualities including belt, legit, and mix from expert pedagogues to better define this voice type. This is a prospective, semistructured interview. Twelve expert teachers from United States, United Kingdom, Asia, and Australia were interviewed by Skype and asked to identify characteristics of music theater vocal qualities including vocal production, physiology, esthetics, pitch range, and pedagogical techniques. Responses were compared with published studies on music theater voice. Belt and legit were generally described as distinct sounds with differing physiological and technical requirements. Teachers were concerned that belt should be taught "safely" to minimize vocal health risks. There was consensus between teachers and published research on the physiology of the glottis and vocal tract; however, teachers were not in agreement about breathing techniques. Neither were teachers in agreement about the meaning of "mix." Most participants described belt as heavily weighted, thick folds, thyroarytenoid-dominant, or chest register; however, there was no consensus on an appropriate term. Belt substyles were named and generally categorized by weightedness or tone color. Descriptions of male belt were less clear than for female belt. This survey provides an overview of expert pedagogical perspectives on the characteristics of belt, legit, and mix qualities in the music theater voice. Although teacher responses are generally in agreement with published research, there are still many controversial issues and gaps in knowledge and understanding of this vocal technique. Breathing techniques, vocal range, mix, male belt, and vocal registers require continuing investigation so that we can learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in music theater singing. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between patient-perceived vocal handicap and clinician-rated level of vocal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Lesley F; Bielinski, Clifford; Toles, Laura; Hamilton, Amy; Deane, Janis; Mau, Ted

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between patient-reported vocal handicap and clinician-rated measures of vocal dysfunction is not understood. This study aimed to determine if a correlation exists between the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and the Voice Functional Communication Measure rating in the National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS). Retrospective case series. Four hundred and nine voice evaluations over 12 months at a tertiary voice center were reviewed. The VHI-10 and NOMS scores, diagnoses, and potential comorbid factors were collected and analyzed. For the study population as a whole, there was a moderate negative correlation between the NOMS rating and the VHI-10 (Pearson r = -0.57). However, for a given NOMS level, there could be considerable spread in the VHI-10. In addition, as the NOMS decreased stepwise below level 4, there was a corresponding increase in the VHI-10. However, a similar trend in VHI-10 was not observed for NOMS above level 4, indicating the NOMS versus VHI-10 correlation was not linear. Among diagnostic groups, the strongest correlation was found for subjects with functional dysphonia. The NOMS versus VHI-10 correlation was not affected by gender or the coexistence of a psychiatric diagnosis. A simple relationship between VHI-10 and NOMS rating does not exist. Patients with mild vocal dysfunction have a less direct relationship between their NOMS ratings and the VHI-10. These findings provide insight into the interpretation of patient-perceived and clinician-rated measures of vocal function and may allow for better management of expectations and patient counseling in the treatment of voice disorders. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Vocal Problems in Sports and Fitness Instructors: A Study of Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Need for Prevention in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, Lionel; Fraval, Marie; Michon, Anne; Déjean, Sébastien; Welby-Gieusse, Muriel

    2017-03-01

    Sports and fitness instructors (SFIs) are known for being a high-risk population for voice difficulties (VD). However, past studies have encountered various methodological difficulties in determining prevalence and risk factors for VD in SFIs, such as limited population, gender and selection biases, or poor statistical power, because VD were studied as a binary variable. The present research work addresses these issues and aims at studying the prevalence of vocal problems and risk factors in French SFIs, a population in which no such study was conducted yet. Another objective is to survey the French SFIs' habits and expectations regarding vocal prevention and care. This is a cross-sectional study. Three hundred and twenty SFIs answered a questionnaire, whether in an online (n = 267) or a paper (n = 53) version. The questionnaire consisted of 31 items addressing self-reported vocal difficulties, supposed risk factors, and personal health-care history, followed by the Voice Handicap Index assessment. Prevalence of self-reported vocal difficulties is 55%. The Voice Handicap Index is significantly associated with gender, age, and variables related to work environment (noise and music) and habits (shouting, frequency of classes), as well as with daily sleeping time. Results also indicate that a minority of the SFIs (37%) received information on vocal difficulties, whereas a majority (80%) declares being interested in participating in prevention programs. This work confirms that SFIs are a high-risk population for VD, underlines the need for specific information programs in France, and provides relevant data for driving such preventive actions. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. True vocal fold nodules: the role of differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduk, Melda; McWhorter, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    The present article aims to discuss the current reviews and the literature published regarding the differential diagnosis of vocal fold nodules with emphasis on diagnosis and nomenclature. Benign lesions of the vocal folds, including nodules, continue to challenge practitioners in nomenclature uniformity and even histologic diagnosis. Utilization of molecular techniques is helping to better understand Reinke's space and to better differentiate these lesions. This more accurate diagnosis may help guide appropriate treatment indicating behavioral versus surgical therapy. Further study with the application of new technology in the laboratory and clinic will continue to refine our differential diagnosis and understanding of vocal fold nodules.

  4. Non-Linguistic Vocal Event Detection Using Online Random

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    Accurate detection of non-linguistic vocal events in social signals can have a great impact on the applicability of speech enabled interactive systems. In this paper, we investigate the use of random forest for vocal event detection. Random forest technique has been successfully employed in many...... areas such as object detection, face recognition, and audio event detection. This paper proposes to use online random forest technique for detecting laughter and filler and for analyzing the importance of various features for non-linguistic vocal event classification through permutation. The results...

  5. Frontal lobe epilepsy manifesting with seizures consisting of isolated vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Ricardo; Arnold, Stephan; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2006-12-01

    Vocalizations may occur in focal epileptic seizures, which typically arise from frontal and temporal regions. They are commonly associated with other motor phenomena such as automatisms, tonic posturing, or head version. We report on a patient whose seizures were documented by video-EEG monitoring, but in whom the observable ictal semiology consisted solely of a brief, monotonous vocalization. Ictal EEGs showed left frontal seizure patterns. Isolated vocalizations can constitute an ictal epileptic event and may be the only observable clinical manifestation of a left frontal lobe epilepsy. [Published with video sequences].

  6. Especializaciones cognitivas: El caso del procesamiento de consonantes y vocales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Toro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Las consonantes y la vocales parecen tener funciones diferentes. Mientras las consonantes están más directamente implicadas en el procesamiento léxico, las vocales tienden a marcar rasgos sintácticos. Estudios recientes con lenguajes artificiales confirman esta hipótesis. Los resultados muestran que las palabras se reconocen más fácilmente sobre las consonantes, mientras que se extraen y generalizan reglas más fácilmente sobre las vocales

  7. The variability of hepatitis B envelope is associated with HBs antigen persistence in either chronic or acute HBV genotype A infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschlimann, Marine; Malvé, Brice; Velay, Aurélie; Fenaux, Honorine; Berger, Sibel; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Zoulim, Fabien; Bensenane, Mouni; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Goehringer, François; May, Thierry; Jeulin, Hélène; Schvoerer, Evelyne

    2017-09-01

    More than 240 million people are chronically infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. Envelope proteins play a crucial role in viral cellular entry and immune recognition. The loss of HBs antigen (HBsAg) correlated with a good clinical prognosis is rarely achieved with or without treatment (3-16%). HBV envelope variability was investigated according to HBsAg persistence. The cohort consisted of 15 HBV genotype A-infected patients divided into "resolvers", with HBsAg clearance, and "non-resolvers", with HBsAg persistence and in subgroups: acute (n=5, AHBV) or chronic infection (n=4, CHBV) and HBV/HIV coinfection (n=6, CHBV/HIV). HBV S and preS sequences were studied by direct and ultra-deep sequencing. Amino acid sequences were analyzed with bioinformatics for predicted antigenicity. In S gene, the complexity was lower in AHBV than in chronic-infected patients (p=0.046). Major mutations, detected using direct sequencing, were more frequent in AHBV developing chronicity (p=0.01) than in AHBV resolvers. In the Major Hydrophilic Region, more frequent mutations were observed in non-resolvers versus resolvers (p=0.047) and non-resolvers tended to have more haplotypes with a reduced predicted antigenicity (p=0.07). Most of the mutations in preS/S region were found rather in epitopic than in non-epitopic areas (p=0.025). Interestingly, the mutation sY161F found in 3/8 non-resolvers was associated with a decrease in predicted antigenicity (28%; AnTheProt). HBsAg persistence was correlated with mutations and deletions in areas playing a key role in immune recognition. These data suggest that variability in HBV envelope could favor immune escape in various clinical settings of HBV genotype A-infected patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. BREATH OF USE AND VOCAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran ACAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breathable, who escorted us in every aspect of our lives and our survival is our primary activity, allowing for quality of life in a healthy way. quality of breaths taken the right technique, you need both health professional sense should perhaps take advantage of individuals who want to achieve success in life is the primary rule. When the diaphragm is born with assisted breathing lungs of every person's life starts to grow to keep up with the flurry lose this special and important skills. First and foremost, which is important for our body health, including every aspect of proper breathing, especially correct use of the voice carries particular importance. In this article, breathing subject discussed, correct breathing and our lives have tried to give us information about the benefits of both vocal training.

  9. The program complex for vocal recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konev, Anton; Kostyuchenko, Evgeny; Yakimuk, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the possibility of applying the algorithm of determining the pitch frequency for the note recognition problems. Preliminary study of programs-analogues were carried out for programs with function “recognition of the music”. The software package based on the algorithm for pitch frequency calculation was implemented and tested. It was shown that the algorithm allows recognizing the notes in the vocal performance of the user. A single musical instrument, a set of musical instruments, and a human voice humming a tune can be the sound source. The input file is initially presented in the .wav format or is recorded in this format from a microphone. Processing is performed by sequentially determining the pitch frequency and conversion of its values to the note. According to test results, modification of algorithms used in the complex was planned.

  10. Differentiating vocal cord dysfunction from asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fretzayas A

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Fretzayas,1,2 Maria Moustaki,3 Ioanna Loukou,3 Konstantinos Douros4 1Third Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, “Attikon” University Hospital, Haidari, Greece; 2Athens Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Marousi, Greece; 3Department of Cystic Fibrosis, “Aghia Sofia”, Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece; 4Respiratory Unit, Third Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, “Attikon” University Hospital, Haidari, Greece Abstract: Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD-associated symptoms are not rare in pediatric patients. Dyspnea, wheezing, stridor, chest pain or tightness and throat discomfort are the most commonly encountered symptoms. They may occur either at rest or more commonly during exercise in patients with VCD, as well as in asthmatic subjects. The phase of respiration (inspiration rather than expiration, the location of the wheezing origin, the rapid resolution of symptoms, and the timing occurring in relation to exercise, when VCD is exercise induced, raise the suspicion of VCD in patients who may have been characterized as merely asthmatics and, most importantly, had not responded to the appropriate treatment. The gold standard method for the diagnosis of VCD is fiberoptic laryngoscopy, which may also identify concomitant laryngeal abnormalities other than VCD. However, as VCD is an intermittent phenomenon, the procedure should be performed while the patient is symptomatic. For this reason, challenges that induce VCD symptoms should be performed, such as exercise tests. Recently, for the evaluation of patients with exercise-induced VCD, continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (such as treadmill, bicycle ergometer, swimming was used. A definite diagnosis of VCD is of importance, especially for those patients who have been erroneously characterized as asthmatics, without adequate response to treatment. In these cases, another therapeutic approach is necessary, which will depend on

  11. Automating Ultrasonic Vocalization Analyses: The WAAVES Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reno, James M.; Marker, Bryan; Cormack, Lawrence K.; Schallert, Timothy; Duvauchelle, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Human emotion is a crucial component of drug abuse and addiction. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) elicited by rodents are a highly translational animal model of emotion in drug abuse studies. A major roadblock to comprehensive use of USV data is the overwhelming burden to attain accurate USV assessment in a timely manner. One of the most accurate methods of analyzing USVs, human auditory detection with simultaneous spectrogram inspection, requires USV sound files to be played back 4% normal speed. New Method WAAVES (WAV-file Automated Analysis of Vocalizations Environment Specific) is an automated USV assessment program utilizing MATLAB’s Signal and Image Processing Toolboxes in conjunction with a series of customized filters to separate USV calls from background noise, and accurately tabulate and categorize USVs as flat or frequency-modulated (FM) calls. In the current report, WAAVES functionality is demonstrated by USV analyses of cocaine self-administration data collected over 10 daily sessions. Results WAAVES counts are significantly correlated with human auditory counts (r(48)=0.9925; p<0.001). Statistical analyses used WAAVES output to examine individual differences in USV responses to cocaine, cocaine-associated cues and relationships between USVs, cocaine intake and locomotor activity. Comparison with Existing Method WAAVES output is highly accurate and provides tabulated data in approximately 0.4% of the time required when using human auditory detection methods. Conclusions The development of a customized USV analysis program, such as WAAVES streamlines USV assessment and enhances the ability to utilize USVs as a tool to advance drug abuse research and ultimately develop effective treatments. PMID:23832016

  12. Singers' and Nonsingers' Perception of Vocal Vibrato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Anita; Subramanian, Uma

    2015-09-01

    Vibrato, a small, nevertheless an important component in the singing voice is known to enrich the overall singing voice quality. However, in the perception of overall performance, it is often neglected. Singing performance is often appreciated by a mixed audience of those who love music, but not necessarily sing and other singers who may or may not be teachers of singing. The objectives of the present study were aimed at investigating singers' and nonsingers' perception of vocal vibrato and its effect on the ratings of singer's overall performance. Prerecorded audio samples of the chorus of a hymn (How Great Thou Art) as sung by 10 singers (both men and women) were played via a speaker to two groups of judges which consisted of three experienced singers and three experienced nonsingers. The singer judges (SJs) were vocal instructors in Western classical, music theater, pop, and contemporary styles. Seven parameters (presence of vibrato, rate, extent, conspicuousness, quality, periodicity, and type) related to vibrato were evaluated through auditory perception by these two groups of judges on a rating scale developed specifically for the study, and one parameter evaluated singer's overall performance. Cohen's Kappa statistical analysis was used for inter-rater reliability within groups. Nonsinger judges (NSJs) within the group showed varied ratings as did SJs, yet SJs did have higher agreement than NSJs. Chi-square analysis was used across groups. Both groups were distinct from each other in their perception of vibrato. Ratings of singer's overall performance were not affected for NSJs, but certainly affected for SJ. It could not be concluded that ratings on singer's overall performance was affected as a result of vibrato. Since vibrato is often over-ridden by the singer's voice. But a rare occasion can arise where a vibrato may not sound pleasant and can affect the listener's perception of the singer's performance. Often a feedback from listeners would help monitor

  13. Language-specific vocal tract configurations during nonspeech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gick, Bryan; Cook, Clare

    2003-04-01

    Previous work has been found to be surprisingly low within-speaker variability in baseline articulator positions during inter-utterance nonspeech [Gick, Phonetica (2002)], raising the question of whether these baseline positions may in fact be active in speech production. If so, then they should be specified and should vary systematically across languages. A study was conducted to test for cross-language differences in inter-utterance articulator positions. Individual video frames were extracted at the midpoint of interutterance pauses in x-ray films of 5 French and 5 English speakers. Measures were made of articulator positions relative to fixed bone points, and values normalized to jaw size. Frames with potentially confounding surrounding phonetic contexts were omitted. Results for lip measures indicate that French speakers have significantly greater protrusion of the lower lip, but significantly less upper lip protrusion, than English speakers. Additional results will be presented for lingual articulators. Thus these baseline vocal tract configurations do appear to be specified differently for different languages. Additional implications will be discussed, such as possible roles these configurations may play in phonology, potential influence on vowel systems (especially schwa), and cross-language vowel normalization. [Research supported by NSERC and NIH.

  14. A Vocal Health Survey Among Amateur and Professional Voice Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekly, Edrie Means; Carroll, Linda M; Korovin, Gwen S; Fleming, Rachelle

    2017-09-22

    An international survey was conducted to provide insights into current practices related to vocal health among amateur and professional voice users. Vocalists of various genres completed an online survey related to their practice in seeking medical care for vocal health concerns, and their preferences for the type of medical help they seek. Specific vocal symptoms or conditions which the subjects feel would warrant evaluation was also queried, as well as their preference for voice use and management should laryngeal pathology be diagnosed during a medical examination. Participants were knowledgeable in both traditional and alternative medical approaches but showed a preference for those options most readily available, as opposed to those best suited for a vocal issue. Ideally, a combination of traditional and alternative management would appear to be the best long-term strategy for professional and amateur voice users. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of interventions to reduce multiply controlled vocal stereotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, Rachel; Henry, Kelsey; Davis, Tonya N; Amos, Kally; Zoch, Tamara; Turchan, Sarah; Wagner, Tara

    2015-07-01

    This study examined four interventions targeted at decreasing multiply controlled vocal stereotypy for a 12-year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and a severe intellectual disability. These interventions included Noncontingent Music, Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors, Self-Recording, and Functional Communication Training (FCT). In addition to measuring vocal stereotypy during each condition, task engagement and challenging behavior were also monitored. Across conditions, vocal stereotypy did not vary significantly from baseline except in FCT, when it decreased significantly. Task engagement was higher in this condition as well. It is hypothesized that FCT provided an enriched environment by increasing social interaction and access to desired items as well as removal of less preferred activities. For these reasons, there was a decrease in the need for the participant to engage in vocal stereotypy and challenging behavior and increase in his ability to engage in a task. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Corrigendum: Cultural Relativity in Perceiving Emotion From Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Gendron, M., Roberson, D., van der Vyver, J. M., & Barrett, L. F. (2014). Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations. Psychological Science, 25, 911-920. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797613517239 ).

  17. Calcified Vocal Cord Nodule – A Unique Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sundarapandian, S.; Suresh, Revathy V

    2014-01-01

    Vocal cord nodules are benign neoplastic lesions which occur due to submucosal oedema and haemorrhage, leading to fibrosis and hyalinization. Calcification in vocal cord nodules has not been reported so far in literature. It is thought to be a laryngeal counterpart of idiopathic calcinosis cutis. Here, we are reporting a case of a 38-year-old male patient who presented with a change in voice, which had a duration of one month. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a globular, yellowish white, se...

  18. Automatic Classification of Cetacean Vocalizations Using an Aural Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    if time permits. For example, Minke whale vocalizations have recently been made available on the Mobysound website as the focal topic for the 5th...4] Carolyn M. Binder and Paul C. Hines, “Applying Automatic Aural Classification to Cetacean Vocalizations,” Proceedings: 11th European ...Dalhousie Unversity), “ European Conference on Underwater Acoustics 2012 Student Presentation Prize,” sponsered by the UK Institute of Acoustics.

  19. Vocal Characteristics and Laryngoscopic Findings in Future Musical Theater Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Claeys, Sofie; Meerschman, Iris; Bettens, Kim; Degeest, Sofie; Dijckmans, Caroline; De Smet, Joke; Luyten, Anke; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2017-07-01

    Musical theater performers are a special group of elite vocal performers with a high vocal load as they combine singing, acting, and physical performance. As they are absolutely depending on their voice quality and vocal capacities for their studies and their future profession, an optimal voice production is very important. The purpose of this study was to determine the voice quality of musical theater students. The voice quality of seven students was then reevaluated 1 year after the first assessment. Observational study. Thirty-one musical students (7 men and 24 women) with a mean age of 20 years participated in the study. To determine the voice quality, objective (aerodynamic measurements, voice range profile, acoustic analysis, and Dysphonia Severity Index) and subjective (videolaryngostroboscopy, Voice Handicap Indexes, and questionnaires regarding voice symptoms and risk factors) voice measurements were performed. The median Dysphonia Severity Index in male and female musical students was respectively 5.3 and 5.7, both corresponding with an overall good voice quality. The questionnaires revealed the presence of vocal fatigue, dryness of the throat, vocal tract discomfort, and harmful vocal habits in the majority of students. In 45% of the subjects, videolaryngostroboscopic evaluation of the vocal folds showed an organic lesion. The majority of these lesions are inflammatory lesions (26%). In 68% of the subjects, a certain degree of supraglottic constriction was observed. Despite the overall good voice quality, videolaryngostroboscopy showed a high presence of vocal fold lesions and supraglottic constriction during phonation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Morphometric Study of Vocal Folds in Indian Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawal J.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: -The larynx is an air passage and a sphincteric device used in respiration and phonation. The larynx, from inside outwards has a framework of mucosa surrounded by fibro-elastic membrane which in turn is surrounded by cartilages and then a layer of muscles. Vocal folds are intrinsic ligament of larynx covered by mucosal folds. Larynx generates sound through rhythmic opening and closing of the vocal folds. The perceived pitch of human voice mainly depends upon fundamental frequency of sound generated by larynx. Aim: - The aim of present study is to measure various dimensions of vocal folds in Indian cadavers. Material & Methods: - 50 larynx were obtained from embalmed cadavers, of which 10 larynx were of females. Vocal cords were dissected from the larynx and morphometric analysis was done. Results and Conclusions: - The average total length of the vocal folds was found to be 16.11 mm. ± 2.62 mm. in male and 14.10 mm. ± 1.54 mm. in female cadavers. The average width of the vocal folds was found to be 4.38 mm. ± 0.74 mm. in male and 3.60 mm. ± 0.64 mm. in female cadavers. The average total length of the membranous part of the vocal folds was found to be 11.90 mm. ± 1.86 mm. in male and 10.45 mm. ± 1.81 mm. in female cadavers. The average ratio of the length of the membranous and the cartilaginous parts of the vocal folds was calculated to be 3.10 ± 0.96in male and 2.85 ± 0.73in female cadavers.

  1. Social ultrasonic vocalization in awake head-restrained mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weiner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We developed a novel method for head-restrained male mice (HRMM to interact with non-restrained female mice (NRFM and show that mice can emit USVs in this context. We first recorded USVs in free arena with non-restrained male mice (NRMM and NRFM. Of the NRMM, which vocalized in the free arena, the majority could be habituated to also vocalize while head-restrained but only when a female mouse was present in proximity. The USVs emitted by HRMM are similar to the USVs of NRMM in the presence of a female mouse in their spectral structure, inter syllable interval distribution and USV sequence length, and therefore are interpreted as social USVs. By analyzing vocalizations of NRMM, we established criteria to predict which individuals are likely to vocalize while head fixed based on the USV rate and average syllable duration. To characterize the USVs emitted by HRMM, we analyzed the syllable composition of HRMM and NRMM and found that USVs emitted by HRMM have higher proportions of USVs with complex spectral representation, supporting previous studies showing that mice social USVs are context dependent. Our results suggest a way to study the neural mechanisms of production and control of social vocalization in mice using advanced methods requiring head fixation.

  2. Vocal accuracy and neural plasticity following micromelody-discrimination training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Mary Zarate

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent behavioral studies report correlational evidence to suggest that non-musicians with good pitch discrimination sing more accurately than those with poorer auditory skills. However, other studies have reported a dissociation between perceptual and vocal production skills. In order to elucidate the relationship between auditory discrimination skills and vocal accuracy, we administered an auditory-discrimination training paradigm to a group of non-musicians to determine whether training-enhanced auditory discrimination would specifically result in improved vocal accuracy.We utilized micromelodies (i.e., melodies with seven different interval scales, each smaller than a semitone as the main stimuli for auditory discrimination training and testing, and we used single-note and melodic singing tasks to assess vocal accuracy in two groups of non-musicians (experimental and control. To determine if any training-induced improvements in vocal accuracy would be accompanied by related modulations in cortical activity during singing, the experimental group of non-musicians also performed the singing tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Following training, the experimental group exhibited significant enhancements in micromelody discrimination compared to controls. However, we did not observe a correlated improvement in vocal accuracy during single-note or melodic singing, nor did we detect any training-induced changes in activity within brain regions associated with singing.Given the observations from our auditory training regimen, we therefore conclude that perceptual discrimination training alone is not sufficient to improve vocal accuracy in non-musicians, supporting the suggested dissociation between auditory perception and vocal production.

  3. A HTK-based Method for Detecting Vocal Fold Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Majidnezhad, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years a number of methods based on acoustic analysis were developed for vocal fold pathology detection. These methods can be categorized in two categories:a) detection based on the phonemes b) detection based on the continuous speeches. While there are many researches which belong to the first category, there are few efforts for detecting vocal fold pathology based on the continuous speeches (second category). Methods: In this work, a method based on the Hidden Markov ...

  4. El examen dinámico de las cuerdas vocales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Portmann, M; Verhulst, J

    1987-01-01

    ... grabaciones sucesivas. tras técnicas indirectas permiten explorar la diná- a de las cuerdas vocales: la electroglotografía y la rasonoglotografía. as cuerdas vocales tienen tres tipos de movimien- : aducción-abducción; elongación-encogimiento; vibración. os dos primeros movimientos se hacen en un pla- horizontal. El tercer movimiento se llama vertical, FI...

  5. The Effect of Vocal Hygiene and Behavior Modification Instruction on the Self-Reported Vocal Health Habits of Public School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…

  6. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Wells, Randall S.; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother–calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources. PMID:23427174

  7. Augmentation after microsurgical removal of vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Ming-Wang; Lee, Jin-Chin

    2009-12-01

    Innovative otolaryngologists, speech language pathologists, and voice scientists have continued to move forward in understanding the etiology and treatment of vocal nodules. The present article reviews the publications with respect to the advances in this area. There is support for the notion that there is a positive relationship between vocal nodules and the presence of a posterior glottic chink (PGC). Generalized tension in all the laryngeal muscle is often associated with the PGC due to persistent posterior cricoarytenoid muscle pull during phonation. This phenomenon leads to secondary mucosal change with formation of vocal nodules. Fat augmentation after microsurgical removal of vocal nodules can reduce both the occurrence of a PGC and posterior cricoarytenoid muscle activity and subsequently decrease vocal nodule recurrence. Therefore, the treatment efficiency and protocol are direct and fast. Finally, long-term outcomes studies have demonstrated improvements in vocal disability with both objective and subjective evaluation. Fat augmentation is an effective autogenous implant which may be considered in the management of patients after microsurgical removal of nodules.

  8. Treatment outcome of vocal cord leukoplakia by transoral laser microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Chao, Wei-Chieh; Lee, Yun-Shien; Chang, Liang-Che; Hsieh, Tsan-Yu; Chen, Tai-An; Luo, Cheng-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the treatment outcome and analyze the associated factors of postoperative recurrence in patients who received transoral laser microsurgery for vocal cord leukoplakia. The demographic, histopathological data were retrospectively reviewed and the factors associated with recurrence of vocal leukoplakia after surgery were analyzed statistically. A total of 44 patients, including 36 males and 8 females, with a mean age of 50.4 ± 13.4 years, were enrolled. All the patients received excision of the vocal leukoplakia by carbon dioxide laser (2-4 Watt, ultrapulse mode) under general anesthesia. No patients had malignant transformation after surgery. Postoperative recurrence occurred in 10 patients (22.7 %). Univariate analysis showed that patients who had the habit of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease tended to recur. Among these risk factors, presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (odds ratio 8.43) was the independent prognostic factor for recurrence using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Carbon dioxide laser excision is effective for treating vocal leukoplakia that is still confined to dysplasia of any degree, with acceptable morbidity. This study suggests that the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease is the prognostic indicator for postoperative recurrence of vocal leukoplakia. Aggressive treatment of reflux disease for those who have received surgical excision for vocal leukoplakia is indicated.

  9. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  10. Emancipation of the voice: Vocal complexity as a fitness indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L

    2017-02-01

    Although language is generally spoken, most evolutionary proposals say little about any changes that may have induced vocal control. Here I suggest that the interaction of two changes in our species-one in sociality, the other in life history-liberated the voice from its affective moorings, enabling it to serve as a fitness cue or signal. The modification of life history increased the helplessness of infants, thus their competition for care, pressuring them to emit, and parents (and others) to evaluate, new vocal cues in bids for attention. This change elaborated and formalized the care communication system that was used in infancy and, because of parental adoption of social criteria, extended it into childhood, supporting the extrafamilial relationships that intensify in those stages. The remodeling of life history, in conjunction with intensified sociality, also enhanced vocal signaling in adolescence-a second stage that is unique to humans-and adulthood. Building on the new vocal skills and fitness criteria that emerged earlier, I claim that males with ornamented speech enjoyed advantages in their pursuit of dominance and reproductive opportunities in evolutionary history, as they do today. There are implications of this scenario for the mechanistic level of vocal diversification. Today, intentionality plays a role both in the instrumental crying of infants and the modulated vocalizations of adults. In evolutionary history, I claim that in both cases, spontaneously emitted behavioral cues elicited perceptible responses, giving rise to strategic signals that were sent, and processed, under a new and fundamentally different neural regime.

  11. CheckVocal: a program to facilitate checking the accuracy and response time of vocal responses from DMDX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapas, Athanassios

    2007-11-01

    CheckVocal is a Windows application that facilitates checking the accuracy and response time of recorded vocal responses in naming and other experimental tasks using the DMDX display and response collection software. CheckVocal handles all keeping-track and presents each recorded response audiovisually (as waveform, spectrogram, and sound played out) along with the correspondingprinted correct response andregistered responsetime. The user simply decides whether the response was correct, wrong, or missing, with a single mouse click advancing to the next response. Response ti me correction can be done manually or automatically (retriggering by apower threshold). Data safety and integrity is ensured by cross-checking and status saving, so t hat interruptedsessions can be resumed later. CheckVocal is freely available to the DMDX community via a dedicated Web page.

  12. Vocal Materiality and Expression In Intentionally Compromised Vocal Physiology: The Cause and Effect of the Castrato Superstar Luigi Marchesi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berger, Talya

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, I analyze Pichl's transcriptions of Marchesi's vocal acrobatic display-virtuosity and technique due in part to 'natural gift' and in part to the unnatural physiological intervention of castration...

  13. Deficits in auditory processing contribute to impairments in vocal affect recognition in autism spectrum disorders: A MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Carly; Hopkins, Joyce; Kopald, Brandon E; Paulson, Kim; Doyle, Lauren; Andrews, Whitney E; Lewine, Jeffrey David

    2015-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between magnetoencephalography-based (MEG) indices of basic cortical auditory processing and vocal affect recognition (VAR) ability in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). MEG data were collected from 25 children/adolescents with ASD and 12 control participants using a paired-tone paradigm to measure quality of auditory physiology, sensory gating, and rapid auditory processing. Group differences were examined in auditory processing and vocal affect recognition ability. The relationship between differences in auditory processing and vocal affect recognition deficits was examined in the ASD group. Replicating prior studies, participants with ASD showed longer M1n latencies and impaired rapid processing compared with control participants. These variables were significantly related to VAR, with the linear combination of auditory processing variables accounting for approximately 30% of the variability after controlling for age and language skills in participants with ASD. VAR deficits in ASD are typically interpreted as part of a core, higher order dysfunction of the "social brain"; however, these results suggest they also may reflect basic deficits in auditory processing that compromise the extraction of socially relevant cues from the auditory environment. As such, they also suggest that therapeutic targeting of sensory dysfunction in ASD may have additional positive implications for other functional deficits. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Aeroelastic-aeroacoustic measurements in a self-oscillating physical model of the human vocal folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Michael; Cates, Zachary

    2009-11-01

    Measurements are presented characterizing the relationship between the structure of physical models of the human vocal folds and the sound produced by their vibration by airflow from the lungs. The model vocal folds are fabricated by molding two layers of silicone rubber of specified stiffness, approximating the body/cover structure. These are mounted in a model vocal tract, where the prephonatory gap adjusted using micropositioners. Measurements conducted in an anechoic chamber include radiated sound pressure, and high-speed video of the vibrating model vocal folds, using prephonatory separation, body stiffness, and subglottal pressure as input parameters.. Essential behavior of the vocal fold models is presented. Vibration fundamental frequency and radiated sound pressure level outside the model vocal tract as a function of subglottal pressure and prephonatory gap are presented for the cases of two identical vocal folds and one vocal fold with lower stiffness, approximating vocal fold paralysis.

  15. Individual vocal signatures in barn owl nestlings: does individual recognition have an adaptive role in sibling vocal competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, A N; Ruppli, C A; Roulin, A

    2014-01-01

    To compete over limited parental resources, young animals communicate with their parents and siblings by producing honest vocal signals of need. Components of begging calls that are sensitive to food deprivation may honestly signal need, whereas other components may be associated with individual-specific attributes that do not change with time such as identity, sex, absolute age and hierarchy. In a sib-sib communication system where barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocally negotiate priority access to food resources, we show that calls have individual signatures that are used by nestlings to recognize which siblings are motivated to compete, even if most vocalization features vary with hunger level. Nestlings were more identifiable when food-deprived than food-satiated, suggesting that vocal identity is emphasized when the benefit of winning a vocal contest is higher. In broods where siblings interact iteratively, we speculate that individual-specific signature permits siblings to verify that the most vocal individual in the absence of parents is the one that indeed perceived the food brought by parents. Individual recognition may also allow nestlings to associate identity with individual-specific characteristics such as position in the within-brood dominance hierarchy. Calls indeed revealed age hierarchy and to a lower extent sex and absolute age. Using a cross-fostering experimental design, we show that most acoustic features were related to the nest of origin (but not the nest of rearing), suggesting a genetic or an early developmental effect on the ontogeny of vocal signatures. To conclude, our study suggests that sibling competition has promoted the evolution of vocal behaviours that signal not only hunger level but also intrinsic individual characteristics such as identity, family, sex and age. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Envelhecimento vocal em idosos instucionalizados Vocal aging of institutionalized elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Neiva de Menezes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar de forma perceptivo-auditiva as características vocais de idosos institucionalizados, identificar se essas características interferem no processo de comunicação e correlacioná-las com a avaliação das estruturas do sistema estomatognático e do padrão de fala. MÉTODOS: estudo clínico do tipo transversal, no qual foram realizadas anamneses e avaliações fonoaudiológicas em uma amostra aleatória de 48 indivíduos idosos, residentes na Casa do Ancião Francisco Azevedo - Belo Horizonte/MG, que não apresentavam nenhum tipo de alteração neurológica, uma vez que, buscou-se traçar as manifestações fonoaudiológicas de idosos em processo de envelhecimento sadio. Utilizou-se protocolos específicos, desenvolvidos pelas autoras, de acordo com os aspectos pertinentes aos objetivos do presente estudo. RESULTADOS: na avaliação perceptivo-auditiva da qualidade vocal, constatou-se predominantemente qualidade vocal rouca (70,8%, em grau moderado (33,3%, loudness reduzida (56,2%, pitch grave (62,5% e tempos máximos de fonação reduzidos (81,2%. Dos 48 participantes, 85,4% relataram que a voz não interfere no processo de comunicação. Em relação aos padrões de fala, predominaram inteligibilidade preservada (83,3%, articulação preservada (72,9% e precisão articulatória preservada (83,3%. CONCLUSÕES: existem alterações nos parâmetros referentes à voz decorrentes da idade, sendo que elas não interferem na comunicação e mantêm relação diversa com outras mudanças nas estruturas do sistema estomatognático. Este estudo veio complementar as pesquisas na área de voz envolvendo indivíduos da terceira idade, sob processo de envelhecimento sadio e residentes em instituições de longa permanência.PURPOSES: to investigate vocal aspects related to healthy aging in the institutionalized elderly people, and to identify if these aspects interfer with communication and correlate vocal changes with motor oral system

  17. Practice variability in management of acute respiratory distress syndrome: bringing evidence and clinician education to the bedside using a web-based teaching tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Thomas E; Gajic, Ognjen; Rabatin, Jeffrey T; Harrison, Barry A

    2004-09-01

    Clinical practice often lags behind publication of evidence-based research and national consensus guidelines. To assess practice variability in the clinical management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and test an evidence-based, online clinician-education tool designed to improve intensive-care clinicians' understanding of current evidence about ARDS management. We surveyed 117 intensive care clinicians (16 critical care physician specialists, 28 resident physicians, 50 critical care nurses, and 23 respiratory therapists) with an online questionnaire in our tertiary academic institution. Fifty of the original respondents (12 residents, 26 critical care nurses, and 12 respiratory therapists) also responded to a repeat survey that included context-sensitive hypertext links to a summary of critically appraised primary articles regarding ARDS management, to determine if the responses changed after the clinicians had read the evidence-based summary information. Critical care physician specialists were most likely to choose the low-tidal-volume (low-VT) ventilation strategy and protocol-based ventilator weaning and were least likely to choose neuromuscular blockade or parenteral nutrition (p 48 h, during the 6 months before and after the survey, from which we identified 45 ARDS patients. Following the clinician-education intervention, ARDS patients were less likely to receive potentially injurious high-VT ventilation (mean day-3 VT 10.3 +/- 2.3 mL/kg before vs 8.9 +/- 1.7 mL/kg after, p = 0.02). Web-based teaching tools are useful to educate intensive-care practitioners and to promote evidence-based practice. Copyright 2004 Daedalus Enterprises

  18. Measuring Psychosocial Variables in Patients With (Sub) Acute Low Back Pain Complaints, at Risk for Chronicity A Validation Study of the Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire-Dutch Language Version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heneweer, Hans; van Woudenberg, Nienke J.; van Genderen, Frank; Vanhees, Luc; Wittink, Harriet

    2010-01-01

    Study Design. A validation study of the Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire Dutch Language Version (ALBPSQ-DLV). Objective. To determine internal consistency, construct and convergent validity of the ALBPSQ-DLV in a population of patients with (sub) acute low back pain (LBP) referred to

  19. Verbal learning in the context of background music: no influence of vocals and instrumentals on verbal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Brügger, Eliane; Brummer, Moritz; Scherrer, Stephanie; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2014-03-26

    Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still a matter of dispute. In this study we investigated the influence of vocal and instrumental background music on verbal learning. 226 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups (one control group and 4 experimental groups). All participants were exposed to a verbal learning task. One group served as control group while the 4 further groups served as experimental groups. The control group learned without background music while the 4 experimental groups were exposed to vocal or instrumental musical pieces during learning with different subjective intensity and valence. Thus, we employed 4 music listening conditions (vocal music with high intensity: VOC_HIGH, vocal music with low intensity: VOC_LOW, instrumental music with high intensity: INST_HIGH, instrumental music with low intensity: INST_LOW) and one control condition (CONT) during which the subjects learned the word lists. Since it turned out that the high and low intensity groups did not differ in terms of the rated intensity during the main experiment these groups were lumped together. Thus, we worked with 3 groups: one control group and two groups, which were exposed to background music (vocal and instrumental) during verbal learning. As dependent variable, the number of learned words was used. Here we measured immediate recall during five learning sessions (recall 1 - recall 5) and delayed recall for 15 minutes (recall 6) and 14 days (recall 7) after the last learning session. Verbal learning improved during the first 5 recall sessions without any strong difference between the control and experimental groups. Also the delayed recalls were similar for the three groups. There was only a trend for attenuated verbal learning for the group passively listened to vocals. This learning attenuation diminished during the following learning sessions. The exposure to vocal or instrumental background music during encoding did not

  20. The Traditional/Acoustic Music Project: a study of vocal demands and vocal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Molly L

    2012-09-01

    The Traditional/Acoustic Music Project seeks to identify the musical and performance characteristics of traditional/acoustic musicians and determine the vocal demands they face with the goals of (1) providing information and outreach to this important group of singers and (2) providing information to physicians, speech-language pathologists, and singing teachers who will enable them to provide appropriate services. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data have been collected through administration of a 53-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to artists performing at local venues in Knoxville, Tennessee and also to musicians attending the 2008 Folk Alliance Festival in Memphis, Tennessee. Approximately 41% of the respondents have had no vocal training, whereas approximately 34% of the respondents have had some form of formal vocal training (private lessons or group instruction). About 41% of the participants had experienced a tired voice, whereas about 30% of the participants had experienced either a loss of the top range of the voice or a total loss of voice at least once in their careers. Approximately 31% of the respondents had no health insurance. Approximately 69% of the respondents reported that they get their information about healthy singing practices solely from fellow musicians or that they do not get any information at all. Traditional/acoustic musicians are a poorly studied population at risk for the development of voice disorders. Continued research is necessary with the goal of a large sample that can be analyzed for associations, identification of subpopulations, and formulation of specific hypotheses that lend themselves to experimental research. Appropriate models of information and service delivery tailored for the singer-instrumentalist are needed. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Contextual Modulation of Vocal Behavior in Mouse: Newly Identified 12 kHz “Mid-Frequency” Vocalization Emitted during Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Jasmine M. S.; Sheth, Saloni; Vallabh, Neil; Grimsley, Calum A.; Bhattal, Jyoti; Latsko, Maeson; Jasnow, Aaron; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    While several studies have investigated mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by isolated pups or by males in mating contexts, studies of behavioral contexts other than mating and vocalization categories other than USVs have been limited. By improving our understanding of the vocalizations emitted by mice across behavioral contexts, we will better understand the natural vocal behavior of mice and better interpret vocalizations from mouse models of disease. Hypothesizing that mouse vocal behavior would differ depending on behavioral context, we recorded vocalizations from male CBA/CaJ mice across three behavioral contexts including mating, isolation, and restraint. We found that brief restraint elevated blood corticosterone levels of mice, indicating increased stress relative to isolation. Further, after 3 days of brief restraint, mice displayed behavioral changes indicative of stress. These persisted for at least 2 days after restraint. Contextual differences in mouse vocal behavior were striking and robust across animals. Thus, while USVs were the most common vocalization type across contexts, the spectrotemporal features of USVs were context-dependent. Compared to the mating context, vocalizations during isolation and restraint displayed a broader frequency range, with a greater emphasis on frequencies below 50 kHz. These contexts also included more non-USV vocal categories and different vocal patterns. We identified a new Mid-Frequency Vocalization, a tonal vocalization with fundamental frequencies below 18 kHz, which was almost exclusively emitted by mice undergoing restraint stress. These differences combine to form vocal behavior that is grossly different among behavioral contexts and may reflect the level of anxiety in these contexts. PMID:27014000

  2. Do Talkativeness and Vocal Loudness Correlate With Laryngeal Pathology? A Study of the Vocal Overdoer/Underdoer Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Robert W; Thomas, James P

    2016-09-01

    Assess the correlation between self-rating scales of talkativeness and loudness with various types of voice disorders. This is a retrospective study. A total of 974 patients were analyzed. The cohort study included 430 consecutive patients presenting to the senior author with voice complaints from December 1995 to December 1998. The case-control study added 544 consecutive patients referred to the same examiner from January 1988 to December 1998 for vocal fold examination before thyroid, parathyroid, and carotid surgery. Patient responses on seven-point Likert self-rating scales of talkativeness and loudness were compared with laryngeal disease. Mucosal lesions clearly associated with vibratory trauma are strongly associated with a high self-rating of talkativeness. Laryngeal deconditioning disorders were associated with a low self-rating of talkativeness. Use of a simple self-rating scale of vocal loudness and talkativeness during history taking can reliably orient the examiner to the types of voice disorders likely to be diagnosed subsequently during vocal capability testing and visual laryngeal examination. The high degree of talkativeness and loudness seen in vocal overdoers correlates well with mucosal disorders such as nodules, polyps, capillary ectasia, epidermoid inclusion cysts, and hemorrhage. A lower degree of talkativeness correlates with muscle deconditioning disorders such as vocal fold bowing, atrophy, presbyphonia, and vocal fatigue syndrome. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  4. Association between readiness for behavior change and complaints of vocal problems in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2015-01-01

    To verify the association between readiness to behavioral change and self-reported vocal problems of teachers in schools from the municipal education network of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The URICA-VOICE scale was used to measure the motivational stages of 138 teachers. Readiness to change was the variable outcome, whereas the independent variables referred to sociodemographic, economic, occupational, lifestyle, general health, and teacher's own voice factors. The majority (59.4%) of teachers were in the pre-contemplation stage of the URICA-VOICE scale. The variables use of medication, perception of voice failure, and demand for speech and language therapy were retained for the final model. The low readiness to change showed the need for increased awareness of the risks and benefits related to the voice and general health. The results can provide public health intervention strategies that deal with individuals at various stages in the decision-making process.

  5. Automatic Transcription of Polyphonic Vocal Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McLeod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for automatic music transcription applied to audio recordings of a cappella performances with multiple singers. We propose a system for multi-pitch detection and voice assignment that integrates an acoustic and a music language model. The acoustic model performs spectrogram decomposition, extending probabilistic latent component analysis (PLCA using a six-dimensional dictionary with pre-extracted log-spectral templates. The music language model performs voice separation and assignment using hidden Markov models that apply musicological assumptions. By integrating the two models, the system is able to detect multiple concurrent pitches in polyphonic vocal music and assign each detected pitch to a specific voice type such as soprano, alto, tenor or bass (SATB. We compare our system against multiple baselines, achieving state-of-the-art results for both multi-pitch detection and voice assignment on a dataset of Bach chorales and another of barbershop quartets. We also present an additional evaluation of our system using varied pitch tolerance levels to investigate its performance at 20-cent pitch resolution.

  6. Developmental changes in sensitivity to vocal paralanguage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Margaret

    2000-05-01

    Developmental changes in children's sensitivity to the role of acoustic variation in the speech stream in conveying speaker affect (vocal paralanguage) were examined. Four-, 7- and 10-year-olds heard utterances in three formats: low-pass filtered, reiterant, and normal speech. The availability of lexical and paralinguistic information varied across these three formats in a way that required children to base their judgments of speaker affect on different configurations of cues in each format. Across ages, the best performance was obtained when a rich array of acoustic cues was present and when there was no competing lexical information. Four-year-olds performed at chance when judgments had to be based solely on speech prosody in the filtered format and they were unable to selectively attend to paralanguage when discrepant lexical cues were present in normal speech. Seven-year-olds were significantly more sensitive to the paralinguistic role of speech prosody in filtered speech than were 4-year-olds and there was a trend toward greater attention to paralanguage when lexical and paralinguistic cues were inconsistent in normal speech. An integration of the ability to utilize prosodic cues to speaker affect with attention to paralanguage in cases of lexical/paralinguistic discrepancy was observed for 10-year-olds. The results are discussed in terms of the development of a perceptual bias emerging out of selective attention to language.

  7. Simulated Reflux Decreases Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Elizabeth; Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The vocal fold epithelium provides a barrier to the entry of inhaled and systemic challenges. However, the location of the epithelium makes it vulnerable to damage. Past research suggests, but does not directly demonstrate, that exposure to gastric reflux adversely affects the function of the epithelial barrier. Understanding the nature of reflux-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction is necessary to better recognize the mechanisms for vocal fold susceptibility to this disease. Therefore, we examined the effects of physiologically relevant reflux challenges on vocal fold transepithelial resistance and gross epithelial and subepithelial appearance. Study Design Ex vivo, mixed design with between-group and repeated-measures analyses. Methods Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N = 52) were exposed to physiologically relevant acidic pepsin, acid-only, or pepsin-only challenges and examined with electrophysiology and light microscopy. For all challenges, vocal folds exposed to a neutral pH served as control. Results Acidic pepsin and acid-only challenges, but not pepsin-only or control challenges significantly reduced transepithelial resistance within 30 minutes. Reductions in transepithelial resistance were irreversible. Challenge exposure produced minimal gross changes in vocal fold epithelial or subepithelial appearance as evidenced by light microscopy. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that acidic environments characteristic of gastric reflux compromise epithelial barrier function without gross structural changes. In healthy, native vocal folds, reductions in transepithelial resistance could reflect reflux-related epithelial disruption. These results might guide the development of pharmacologic and therapeutic recommendations for patients with reflux, such as continued acid-suppression therapy and patient antireflux behavioral education. PMID:20564752

  8. Is voice therapy effective for the treatment of dysphonic patients with benign vocal fold lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Makoto; Inohara, Hidenori

    2017-08-22

    To update our knowledge regarding the effectiveness of voice therapy for the treatment of vocal disturbance associated with benign vocal fold lesions, including vocal polyps, nodules and cysts, and for determining the utility of voice therapy in treating organic voice disorders, while highlighting problems for the future development of this clinical field. We conducted a review of the most recent literature on the therapeutic effects of voice therapy, vocal hygiene education or direct vocal training on vocal quality, the lesion appearance and discomfort felt by patients due to the clinical entity of benign vocal fold mass lesions. Although voice therapy is principally indicated for the treatment of functional dysphonia without any organic abnormalities in the vocal folds, a number of clinicians have attempted to perform voice therapy even in dysphonic patients with benign mass lesions in the vocal folds. The two major possible reasons for the effectiveness of voice therapy on vocal disturbance associated with benign vocal fold lesions are hypothesized to be the regression of lesions and the correction of excessive/inappropriate muscle contraction of the phonatory organs. According to the current literature, a substantial proportion of vocal polyps certainly tend to shrink after voice therapy, but whether or not the regression results from voice therapy, vocal hygiene education or a natural cure is unclear at present due to the lack of controlled studies comparing two groups with and without interventions. Regarding vocal nodules, no studies have investigated the effectiveness of voice therapy using proper experimental methodology. Vocal cysts are difficult to cure by voice therapy without surgical excision according to previous studies. Evidences remains insufficient to support the use of voice therapy against benign vocal fold lesions. Evidences at present is therefore still insufficient to support the use of voice therapy for the treatment of benign vocal fold

  9. Effects of the phencyclidine model of schizophrenia and nicotine on total and categorized ultrasonic vocalizations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalve, Natashia; Mulholland, Michele M; Schulz, Tiffany D; Li, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia smoke cigarettes at a higher rate than the general population. We hypothesized that a factor in this comorbidity is sensitivity to the reinforcing and reinforcement-enhancement effects of nicotine. Phencyclidine (PCP) was used to model behavioral changes resembling negative symptoms of schizophrenia in rats. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in rats have been used to measure emotional states, with 50 kHz USVs indicating positive states and 22 kHz USVs indicating negative states. Total and categorized numbers of 22 and 50 kHz USVs and USVs during a visual stimulus (e.g. a potential measure of reinforcement-enhancement) were examined in rats following injection of PCP (2.0 mg/kg) and/or nicotine (0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. PCP was then discontinued and all rats received nicotine (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) and PCP (2.0 mg/kg) on three challenge days. PCP acutely decreased 50 kHz vocalizations, whereas repeated nicotine potentiated rates of vocalizations, with similar patterns during light presentations. Rats in the PCP and nicotine combination groups made more 50 kHz vocalizations compared with rats in the control groups on challenge days. We conclude that PCP may produce a reward deficit, which is shown by decreased 50 kHz USVs, and behaviors post-PCP exposure may best model the comorbidity between schizophrenia and nicotine.

  10. A grading scale for pediatric vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rahul K; Feldman, Henry A; Nuss, Roger C

    2007-02-01

    To design a grading scale for vocal fold nodules in pediatric patients. We conducted a prospective study in which a grading scale for vocal nodule size and contour based on static fiberoptic images of pediatric larynges was developed to achieve the scale presented here. Twenty-eight health care professionals each rated 28 images of pediatric vocal fold nodules. The intraclass correlation for nodule size was strong (0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.87). The kappa statistic for nodule contour was mild (0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.37). Agreement between experienced and other raters found no significant difference for the nodule size or contour grade of a given image. A grading scale for pediatric vocal fold nodules is presented. Interrater reliability for nodule size is high and can be reliably used by health care professionals with varying levels of experience. A validated grading scale facilitates objective analysis of outcomes when studying and following patients with vocal nodules.

  11. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Cordeiro, Alexandra Ferreira; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Oliveira, Stanley R M; Violaro, Fabio; de Almeida, Andréia C M; Neves, Diego Pereira

    2013-09-12

    Assessing pigs' welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline), feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals' mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka(®) data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets' vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger), with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets.

  12. MOTIVATIONAL AND ADAPTATIVE ASPECT OF PROSPECTIVE MUSIC TEACHERS’ VOCAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with motivational and adaptive direction of vocal training of the Art Faculty students of the Pedagogical University. Motivational and adaptive phase consisted in identifying the real state of prospective music teachers’ readiness to work with educational vocal choirs. The criterion of formation of motivational and adaptive component is defined as personal motivation in acquiring high-quality vocal and choral training. The author developed an experimental technique that involves a number of empirical research methods: special and long-term monitoring of the content and progress of the educational process; analysis, control and objectivity of teaching methods; testing; perform creative tasks; test activities; conversations and interviews that were conducted among students, faculty and trainers professional disciplines teaching practice.The mentioned criterion implies that Chinese students have sustained professional focus on improving their own vocal and choral training, awareness of the importance and prospects of this profession in their practical activities in educational conditions in China. Motivation in learning vocal and choral activities, Chinese students made the so-called "immunity" to the difficulties related with the new learning environment in universities Ukraine increases the desire to intensify and optimize the process of conducting and choral training, there is awareness of the need for new development knowledge, skills, new experience and carry it into practice national music and teacher education.

  13. Modeling Vocal Fold Intravascular Flow using Synthetic Replicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Aaron D.; Ricks, Matthew T.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2017-11-01

    Vocal fold vibration that is induced by air flowing from the lungs is believed to decrease blood flow through the vocal folds. This is important due to the critical role of blood flow in maintaining tissue health. However, the precise mechanical relationships between vocal fold vibration and blood perfusion remain understudied. A platform for studying liquid perfusion in a synthetic, life-size, self-oscillating vocal fold replica has recently been developed. The replicas are fabricated using molded silicone with material properties comparable to those of human vocal fold tissues and that include embedded microchannels through which liquid is perfused. The replicas are mounted on an air flow supply tube to initiate flow-induced vibration. A liquid reservoir is attached to the microchannel to cause liquid to perfuse through replica in the anterior-posterior direction. As replica vibration is initiated and amplitude increases, perfusion flow rate decreases. In this presentation, the replica design will be presented, along with data quantifying the relationships between parameters such as replica vibration amplitude, stiffness, microchannel diameter, and perfusion flow rate. This work was supported by Grant NIDCD R01DC005788 from the National Institutes of Health.

  14. Effect of pneumotach on measurement of vocal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Gage; McPhail, Michael; Krane, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Aerodynamic and acoustic measurements of vocal function were performed in a physical model of the human airway with and without a pneumotach (Rothenberg mask), used by clinicians to measure vocal volume flow. The purpose of these experiments was to assess whether the device alters acoustic and aerodynamic conditions sufficiently to change phonation behavior. The airway model, which mimics acoustic behavior of an adult human airway from trachea to mouth, consists of a 31.5cm long straight duct with a 2.54cm square cross section. Model vocal folds comprised of molded silicone rubber were set into vibration by introducing airflow from a compressed air source. Measurements included transglottal pressure difference, mean volume flow, vocal fold vibratory motion, and sound pressure measured at the mouth. The experiments show that while the pneumotach imparted measurable aerodynamic and acoustic loads on the system, measurement of mean glottal resistance was not affected. Acoustic pressure levels were attenuated, however, suggesting clinical acoustic measurements of vocal function need correction when performed in conjunction with a pneumotach Acknowledge support from NIH DC R01005642-11.

  15. Effect of Vocal Fry on Voice and on Velopharyngeal Sphincter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias, Vanessa Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It is known that the basal sound promotes shortening and adduction of the vocal folds and leaves the mucosa looser. However there are few studies that address the supralaryngeal physiological findings obtained using the technique. Objective To check the effectiveness of using vocal fry on the voice and velopharingeal port closure of five adult subjects, whose cleft palate has been corrected with surgery. Methods Case study with five subjects who underwent otolaryngology examination by means of nasopharyngoscopy for imaging and measurement of the region of velopharyngeal port closure before and after using the vocal fry technique for three minutes. During the exam, the subjects sustained the isolated vowel /a:/ in their usual pitch and loudness. The emission of the vowel /a:/ was also used for perceptual analysis and spectrographic evaluation of their voices. Results Four subjects had an improvement in the region of velopharyngeal port closure; the results of the spectrographic evaluation were indicative of decreased hypernasality, and the results of the auditory-perceptual analysis suggested improved overall vocal quality, adequacy of loudness, decreased hypernasality, improvement of type of voice and decreased hoarseness. Conclusion This study showed a positive effect of vocal fry on voice and greater velopharyngeal port closure.

  16. Human vocal attractiveness as signaled by body size projection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    Full Text Available Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.

  17. Human Vocal Attractiveness as Signaled by Body Size Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Lee, Albert; Wu, Wing-Li; Liu, Xuan; Birkholz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language. PMID:23638065

  18. Retromolar laryngoscopy: a randomized crossover vocal cords visualization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterer, Christian; Waltl, Barbara; Kabon, Barbara; Schramm, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    Vocal cords visualization is a major determinant for successful tracheal intubation. The aim of our study was to compare vocal cord visualization by using conventional direct laryngoscopy with retromolar direct laryngoscopy in patients with an existing retromolar gap at the right mandible. We enrolled 100 adults needing endotracheal intubation for elective surgery. In each patient, the vocal cords were visualized and scored according to Cormack and Lehane with a Macintosh blade #3 for conventional technique and with a Miller blade #4 for the retromolar technique in a randomized sequence. Finally, tracheal intubation was performed primarily by conventional laryngoscopy and in the case of failing retromolar laryngoscopy was used as the rescue method. Overall 100 laryngoscopies with the conventional method and 100 laryngoscopies with the retromolar method were scored according to Cormack and Lehane. The retromolar technique achieved significant (P=0.000003) lower Cormack and Lehane scores compared to the conventional technique. In eleven patients, intubation by conventional laryngoscopy failed and seven of those patients were successfully intubated by the retromolar technique. A BURP-maneuver significantly improved vocal cord visualization during both methods. In summary, laryngoscopy via the retromolar method by using a Miller blade #4 lead to a significantly better vocal cord visualization compared to the conventional method performed with a Macintosh blade #3 in patients with an existing retromolar gap on the right side.

  19. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pereira Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline, feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger, with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets.

  20. Failure of operant control of vocal learning in budgerigars

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    Yoshimasa Seki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Budgerigars were trained by operant conditioning to produce contact calls immediately after hearing a stimulus contact call. In Experiments 1 and 2, playback stimuli were chosen from two different contact call classes from the bird’s repertoire. Once this task was learned, the birds were then tested with other probe stimulus calls from its repertoire, which differed from the original calls drawn from the two classes. Birds failed to mimic the probe stimuli but instead produced one of the two call classes as in the training sessions, showing that birds learned that each stimulus call served as a discriminative stimulus but not as a vocal template for imitation. In Experiment 3, birds were then trained with stimulus calls falling along a 24-step acoustic gradient which varied between the two sounds representing the two contact call categories. As before, birds obtained a reward when the bird’s vocalization matched that of the stimulus above a criterion level. Since the first step and the last step in the gradient were the birds’ original contact calls, these two patterns were easily matched. Intermediate contact calls in the gradient were much harder for the birds to match. After extensive training, one bird learned to produce contact calls that had only a modest similarity to the intermediate contact calls along the gradient. In spite of remarkable vocal plasticity under natural conditions, operant conditioning methods with budgerigars, even after extensive training and rigorous control of vocal discriminative stimuli, failed to show vocal learning.

  1. Human temporal-lobe response to vocal sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, Pascal; Zatorre, Robert J; Ahad, Pierre

    2002-02-01

    Voice is not only the vehicle of speech, it is also an 'auditory face' that conveys a wealth of information on a person's identity and affective state. In contrast to speech perception, little is known about the neural bases of our ability to perceive these various types of paralinguistic vocal information. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we identified regions along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) that were not only sensitive, but also highly selective to vocal sounds. In the present study, we asked how neural activity in the voice areas was influenced by (i) the presence or not of linguistic information in the vocal input (speech vs. nonspeech) and (ii) frequency scrambling. Speech sounds were found to elicit greater responses than nonspeech vocalizations in most parts of auditory cortex, including primary auditory cortex (A1), on both sides of the brain. In contrast, response attenuation due to frequency scrambling was much more pronounced in anterior STS areas than at the level of A1. Importantly, only right anterior STS regions responded more strongly to nonspeech vocal sounds than to their scrambled version, suggesting that these regions could be specifically involved in paralinguistic aspects of voice perception.

  2. Biases in facial and vocal emotion recognition in chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut eDondaine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been extensive research on impaired emotion recognition in schizophrenia in the facial and vocal modalities. The literature points to biases toward non-relevant emotions for emotional faces but few studies have examined biases in emotional recognition across different modalities (facial and vocal. In order to test emotion recognition biases, we exposed 23 patients with stabilized chronic schizophrenia and 23 healthy controls to emotional facial and vocal tasks asking them to rate emotional intensity on visual analog scales. Results showed that patients performed poorer than healthy controls whatever the task. However, we showed that patients with schizophrenia provided higher intensity ratings on the nontarget scales (e.g. surprise scale for fear stimuli than healthy controls for the both tasks. Furthermore, with the exception of neutral vocal stimuli, they provided the same intensity ratings on the target scales as the healthy controls. These findings suggest that patients with chronic schizophrenia have emotional biases when judging emotional stimuli in the visual and vocal modalities. These biases may stem from a basic sensorial deficit, a high-order cognitive dysfunction, or both. The respective roles of prefrontal-subcortical circuitry and the basal ganglia are discussed.

  3. Parameters Quantifying Dehydration in Canine Vocal Fold Lamina Propria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kevin P.; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to measure the solid and liquid volume and mass of canine vocal fold lamina propria tissue at varying dehydration levels and to calculate parameters to test the biphasic theory of vocal fold physiology and biomechanics. Study Design Open controlled experimental trial Methods The vocal fold lamina propria was dissected from 15 canine larynges, yielding 30 tissue samples. The initial volumes and masses of the tissue samples were measured. The masses of the tissue samples were then measured every 2 minutes during 30%, 50%, and 70% dehydration, with 10 samples subjected to each of the 3 treatments, followed by complete dehydration to yield the solid component of the tissue. The liquid mass and volume fractions and liquid:solid mass and volume ratios of the vocal fold lamina propria samples were calculated. Results The liquid mass and volume fractions and liquid:solid mass and volume ratios were significantly different at each dehydration level, except for the liquid:solid volume ratios at 30% vs. 50% dehydration. Linear regression analysis suggested that all of the solid and liquid parameters measured could be predicted by dehydration level based on inverse, linear relationships. Conclusions These results provide further experimental evidence supporting the biphasic theory and suggest that the extent of vocal fold lamina propria tissue dehydration may be quantified based on the biphasic model parameters. PMID:20564654

  4. Production of ultrasonic vocalizations by Peromyscus mice in the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonhof Maarten J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been considerable research on rodent ultrasound in the laboratory and these sounds have been well quantified and characterized. Despite the value of research on ultrasound produced by mice in the lab, it is unclear if, and when, these sounds are produced in the wild, and how they function in natural habitats. Results We have made the first recordings of ultrasonic vocalizations produced by two free-living species of mice in the genus Peromyscus (P. californicus and P. boylii on long term study grids in California. Over 6 nights, we recorded 65 unique ultrasonic vocalization phrases from Peromyscus. The ultrasonic vocalizations we recorded represent 7 different motifs. Within each motif, there was considerable variation in the acoustic characteristics suggesting individual and contextual variation in the production of ultrasound by these species. Conclusion The discovery of the production of ultrasonic vocalizations by Peromyscus in the wild highlights an underappreciated component in the behavior of these model organisms. The ability to examine the production of ultrasonic vocalizations in the wild offers excellent opportunities to test hypotheses regarding the function of ultrasound produced by rodents in a natural context.

  5. Pitch- and spectral-based dynamic time warping methods for comparing field recordings of harmonic avian vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Meliza, C; Keen, Sara C.; Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measures of acoustic similarity can reveal patterns of shared vocal behavior in social species. Many methods for computing similarity have been developed, but their performance has not been extensively characterized in noisy environments and with vocalizations characterized by complex frequency modulations. This paper describes methods of bioacoustic comparison based on dynamic time warping (DTW) of the fundamental frequency or spectrogram. Fundamental frequency is estimated using a Bayesian particle filter adaptation of harmonic template matching. The methods were tested on field recordings of flight calls from superb starlings, Lamprotornis superbus, for how well they could separate distinct categories of call elements (motifs). The fundamental-frequency-based method performed best, but the spectrogram-based method was less sensitive to noise. Both DTW methods provided better separation of categories than spectrographic cross correlation, likely due to substantial variability in the duration of superb starling flight call motifs. PMID:23927136

  6. Evaluation of Singing Vocal Health in Yakshagana Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjawate, Dhanshree R; Aithal, Venkataraja U; Devadas, Usha; Guddattu, Vasudeva

    2017-03-01

    Yakshagana, a popular traditional folk art from Karnataka, India, includes singing and dancing. Yakshagana singer or Bhagavata plays an important role in singing and conducting the performance. The present study aims to assess the singing vocal health using Singing Voice Handicap Index-10 (SVHI-10) in these singers and to compare between those who report voice problem and those who do not. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 26 Bhagavata using demographic questionnaire and SVHI-10 in the Kannada language. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the data. Independent sample t test was used to compare the responses for demographic variables between the two groups of singers with and without voice problems. The difference in scores of SVHI-10 between the two groups was analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test. Of the Bhagavata, 38% reported to have experienced voice problems, which affected their singing, with higher total SVHI-10 score (31.2 ± 5.7) compared with those who did not report any problems (16.81 ± 9.56). A statistically significant difference between the groups was noted in the emotional domain and total scores. The present study provides preliminary information on the voice handicap reported by Bhagavata. The singers reporting voice problems scored higher on SVHI-10. A healthy singing voice is essential for Yakshagana singers, and voice problems can have a significant impact on their performance and livelihood. Hence, results of the present study indicate the need to understand these singers' voice problems and their impact more comprehensively, and educate them about voice care. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation between vocal tract symptoms and modern singing handicap index in church gospel singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Joel; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Ramos, Janine Santos; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Zambon, Fabiana; Behlau, Mara

    2017-08-24

    To verify the correlation between vocal tract discomfort symptoms and perceived voice handicaps in gospel singers, analyzing possible differences according to gender. 100 gospel singers volunteered, 50 male and 50 female. All participants answered two questionnaires: Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) scale and the Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) that investigates the vocal handicap perceived by singers, linking the results of both instruments (phandicaps and also more frequent and higher intensity vocal tract discomfort. Furthermore, the more frequent and intense the vocal tract symptoms, the higher the vocal handicap for singing. Female gospel singers present higher frequency and intensity of vocal tract discomfort symptoms, as well as higher voice handicap for singing than male gospel singers. The higher the frequency and intensity of the laryngeal symptoms, the higher the vocal handicap will be.

  8. Vocal cord dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: four cases and a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaff, Maaike M.; Grolman, Wilko; Westermann, Erik J.; Boogaardt, Hans C.; Koelman, Hans; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; Tijssen, Marina A.; de Visser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We describe 4 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and glottic narrowing due to vocal cord dysfunction, and review the literature found using the following search terms: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, stridor, laryngospasm, vocal cord abductor paresis, and

  9. Lamina propria of the mucosa of benign lesions of the vocal folds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, FG; Nikkels, PGJ

    1999-01-01

    Objective/Hypothesis: To demonstrate a correlation between the duration and specific pattern of trauma of benign lesions of the vocal folds and their histopathologic appearance, Benign lesions of the vocal folds have various macroscopic appearances. Investigations demonstrate characteristic

  10. The vocal repertoire of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus): structure and function of calls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Favaro, Livio; Ozella, Laura; Pessani, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is a highly social and vocal seabird. However, currently available descriptions of the vocal repertoire of African Penguin are mostly limited to basic descriptions of calls...

  11. The Effect of Narrow-Band Transmission on Recognition of Paralinguistic Information From Human Vocalizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fruhholz, Sascha; Marchi, Erik; Schuller, Bjorn

    2016-01-01

    ... to the recognition of paralinguistic cues in speech. We thus investigated the impact of narrow-band standard speech coders on the machine-based classification of affective vocalizations and clinical vocal recordings...

  12. Caracterização vocal de pacientes com hipertireoidismo e hipotireoidismo Vocal characterization of patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Werlang Isolan-Cury

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a qualidade vocal, por meio de análise computadorizada e perceptivo-auditiva, de pacientes com hipertireoidismo (grupo A e hipotireoidismo (grupo B. MÉTODOS: Vinte mulheres não fumantes, com idades entre 18 e 55 anos, atendidas no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia da instituição, foram avaliadas após o diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de hipertireoidismo ou hipotireoidismo. Os parâmetros investigados foram: tempo da doença, presença de queixa vocal, tempos máximos de fonação /a/, /s/ e /z/, freqüência fundamental (F0, ruído glótico (GNE. Os aspectos avaliados na análise perceptivo-auditiva, foram: coordenação pneumo-fonoarticulatória (coordenada ou incoordenada, pitch, loudness, ataque vocal, ressonância, velocidade de fala e qualidade vocal, que poderia ter até duas das seguintes classificações: neutra, rouca, soprosa, áspera ou tensa, e grau: leve, moderado ou severo. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados estatisticamente através do programa EPI-INFO 6.04b, método qualitativo Fisher, com nível de significância menor do que 0.05. RESULTADOS: A análise perceptivo-auditiva mostrou que sete pacientes hipotireoideos e nove pacientes hipertireoideos apresentaram alteração na qualidade vocal. Oito pacientes em ambos os grupos apresentaram incoordenação pneumo-fonoarticulatória. Oito pacientes do grupo A e seis pacientes do grupo B referiam queixas vocais como rouquidão e voz grossa, respectivamente. Na análise acústica, nove pacientes apresentaram o ruído glótico alterado. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados evidenciaram grande incidência de alteração vocal nos grupos estudados (grupos dos pacientes com hipertireoidismo e com hipotireoidismo, o que demonstra a relação entre disfonia e disfunções tireoideanas.PURPOSE: To characterize the vocal quality of subjects with hyperthyroidism (group A, and hypothyroidism (group B through a computer-aided and auditory-perceptive analysis. METHODS

  13. Vessel noise cuts down communication space for vocalizing fish and marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putland, Rosalyn L; Merchant, Nathan D; Farcas, Adrian; Radford, Craig A

    2017-11-30

    Anthropogenic noise across the world's oceans threatens the ability of vocalizing marine species to communicate. Some species vocalize at key life stages or whilst foraging, and disruption to the acoustic habitat at these times could lead to adverse consequences at the population level. To investigate the risk of these impacts, we investigated the effect of vessel noise on the communication space of the Bryde's whale Balaenoptera edeni, an endangered species which vocalizes at low frequencies, and bigeye Pempheris adspersa, a nocturnal fish species which uses contact calls to maintain group cohesion while foraging. By combining long-term acoustic monitoring data with AIS vessel-tracking data and acoustic propagation modelling, the impact of vessel noise on their communication space was determined. Routine vessel passages cut down communication space by up to 61.5% for bigeyes and 87.4% for Bryde's whales. This influence of vessel noise on communication space exceeded natural variability for between 3.9 and 18.9% of the monitoring period. Additionally, during the closest point of approach of a large commercial vessel, <10 km from the listening station, the communication space of both species was reduced by a maximum of 99% compared to the ambient soundscape. These results suggest that vessel noise reduces communication space beyond the evolutionary context of these species and may have chronic effects on these populations. To combat this risk, we propose the application or extension of ship speed restrictions in ecologically significant areas, since our results indicate a reduction in sound source levels for vessels transiting at lower speeds. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The effect of age of cochlear implantation on vocal characteristics in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Knight

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early cochlear implantation aids auditory feedback and supports better communication and self-monitoring of the voice. The objective of this study was to determine whether the age of cochlear implantation has an impact on vocal development in children implanted before age 4.Method and procedures: The study consisted of 19 participants in total. All implant recipients (experimental group were 3–5 years post-implantation, including four prelingual (0–2 years and five perilingual (2–4 years implant recipients. The control group consisted of 10 children whose hearing was within normal limits between the ages 3–6 years and 10 months, which was compared to the experimental group. Established paediatric norms were used for additional comparison. A questionnaire was used to gather information from each of the participant’s caregivers to determine whether other personal and contextual factors had an impact on voice production. An acoustic analysis was conducted for each participant using the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program of the Computerized Speech Lab.Results: When the experimental group and the control group were compared, similar results were yielded for fundamental frequency and short-term perturbation (jitter and shimmer. More variability was noted in long-term frequency and amplitude measures, with significantly higher differences, and therefore further outside the norms, in the prelingual group when compared to the perilingual and control groups.Conclusion: In this study, age of implantation did not impact vocal characteristics. Further research should include larger sample sizes, with participants that are age and gender matched.Keywords: cochlear implant; vocal development; age of implantation; prelingual; lingual

  15. Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis: A Systematic Review of Speech-Language Pathology Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Chloe; Conway, Erin; Blackshaw, Helen; Carding, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Dysphonia due to unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) can be characterized by hoarseness and weakness, resulting in a significant impact on patients' activity and participation. Voice therapy provided by a speech-language pathologist is designed to maximize vocal function and improve quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review literature surrounding the effectiveness of speech-language pathology intervention for the management of UVFP in adults. This is a systematic review. Electronic databases were searched using a range of key terms including dysphonia, vocal fold paralysis, and speech-language pathology. Eligible articles were extracted and reviewed by the authors for risk of bias, methodology, treatment efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Of the 3311 articles identified, 12 met the inclusion criteria: seven case series and five comparative studies. All 12 studies subjectively reported positive effects following the implementation of voice therapy for UVFP; however, the heterogeneity of participant characteristics, voice therapy, and voice outcome resulted in a low level of evidence. There is presently a lack of methodological rigor and clinical efficacy in the speech-language pathology management of dysphonia arising from UVFP in adults. Reasons for this reduced efficacy can be attributed to the following: (1) no standardized speech-language pathology intervention; (2) no consistency of assessment battery; (3) the variable etiology and clinical presentation of UVFP; and (4) inconsistent timing, frequency, and intensity of treatment. Further research is required to develop the evidence for the management of UVFP incorporating controlled treatment protocols and more rigorous clinical methodology. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Regeneration of Vocal Fold Mucosa Using Tissue-Engineered Structures with Oral Mucosal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mioko Fukahori; Shun-Ichi Chitose; Kiminori Sato; Shintaro Sueyoshi; Takashi Kurita; Hirohito Umeno; Yu Monden; Ryoji Yamakawa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Scarred vocal folds result in irregular vibrations during phonation due to stiffness of the vocal fold mucosa. To date, a completely satisfactory corrective procedure has yet to be achieved. We hypothesize that a potential treatment option for this disease is to replace scarred vocal folds with organotypic mucosa. The purpose of this study is to regenerate vocal fold mucosa using a tissue-engineered structure with autologous oral mucosal cells. Study Design Animal experiment using ...

  17. An acoustic glottal source for vocal tract physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannukainen, Antti; Kuortti, Juha; Malinen, Jarmo; Ojalammi, Antti

    2017-11-01

    A sound source is proposed for the acoustic measurement of physical models of the human vocal tract. The physical models are produced by fast prototyping, based on magnetic resonance imaging during prolonged vowel production. The sound source, accompanied by custom signal processing algorithms, is used for two kinds of measurements from physical models of the vocal tract: (i) amplitude frequency response and resonant frequency measurements, and (ii) signal reconstructions at the source output according to a target pressure waveform with measurements at the mouth position. The proposed source and the software are validated by computational acoustics experiments and measurements on a physical model of the vocal tract corresponding to the vowels [] of a male speaker.

  18. Quantifying group specificity of animal vocalizations without specific sender information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Heike; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Timme, Marc; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Recordings of animal vocalization can lack information about sender and context. This is often the case in studies on marine mammals or in the increasing number of automated bioacoustics monitorings. Here, we develop a framework to estimate group specificity without specific sender information. We introduce and apply a bag-of-calls-and-coefficients approach (BOCCA) to study ensembles of cepstral coefficients calculated from vocalization signals recorded from a given animal group. Comparing distributions of such ensembles of coefficients by computing relative entropies reveals group specific differences. Applying the BOCCA to ensembles of calls recorded from group of long-finned pilot whales in northern Norway, we find that differences of vocalizations within social groups of pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are significantly lower than intergroup differences.

  19. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Análise do trato vocal em pacientes com nódulos, fendas e cisto de prega vocal Vocal tract analysis in patients with vocal fold nodules, clefts and cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Buzelin Nunes; Andrea Moreira Veiga de Souza; Andre de Campos Duprat; Marta Assumpção de Andrade e Silva; Rejane Cardoso Costa; Juliana Gomes Paulino

    2009-01-01

    O plano supraglótico representa uma importante dimensão na produção vocal, sendo de grande relevância sua caracterização na avaliação e conduta terapêutica de indivíduos disfônicos. OBJETIVO: Verificar se determinadas configurações glóticas se relacionam com ajustes específicos de trato vocal. Avaliar por meio da nasofibrolaringoscopia a freqüência dos ajustes do trato vocal supraglótico em mulheres disfônicas com nódulos, fendas e cistos. MÉTODO: Foram avaliadas 31 mulheres disfônicas, faixa...

  1. Neurons controlling voluntary vocalization in the macaque ventral premotor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Coudé

    Full Text Available The voluntary control of phonation is a crucial achievement in the evolution of speech. In humans, ventral premotor cortex (PMv and Broca's area are known to be involved in voluntary phonation. In contrast, no neurophysiological data are available about the role of the oro-facial sector of nonhuman primates PMv in this function. In order to address this issue, we recorded PMv neurons from two monkeys trained to emit coo-calls. Results showed that a population of motor neurons specifically fire during vocalization. About two thirds of them discharged before sound onset, while the remaining were time-locked with it. The response of vocalization-selective neurons was present only during conditioned (voluntary but not spontaneous (emotional sound emission. These data suggest that the control of vocal production exerted by PMv neurons constitutes a newly emerging property in the monkey lineage, shedding light on the evolution of phonation-based communication from a nonhuman primate species.

  2. Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues to female reproductive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Susanne; Fink, Bernhard; Jones, Benedict C

    2013-06-01

    Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues may advertise women's fertility. However, most of the evidence for this proposal has come from studies of changes in young adult women's attractiveness over the menstrual cycle. By contrast with this emphasis on changes in attractiveness over the menstrual cycle, possible changes in women's attractiveness over their lifespan have received little attention. The present study investigated men's ratings of young girls' (11-15 years old), adult women's (19-30 years old) and circum-menopausal women's (50-65 years old) facial, body odor, and vocal attractiveness and femininity. Faces and voices, but not body odors, of young girls and adult women were perceived to be significantly more attractive and feminine than those of circum-menopausal women. These data suggest that facial and vocal cues may be cues to women's reproductive value, but that body odor cues do not necessarily advertise this information.

  3. Facial, Olfactory, and Vocal Cues to Female Reproductive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Röder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues may advertise women's fertility. However, most of the evidence for this proposal has come from studies of changes in young adult women's attractiveness over the menstrual cycle. By contrast with this emphasis on changes in attractiveness over the menstrual cycle, possible changes in women's attractiveness over their lifespan have received little attention. The present study investigated men's ratings of young girls' (11–15 years old, adult women's (19–30 years old and circum-menopausal women's (50–65 years old facial, body odor, and vocal attractiveness and femininity. Faces and voices, but not body odors, of young girls and adult women were perceived to be significantly more attractive and feminine than those of circum-menopausal women. These data suggest that facial and vocal cues may be cues to women's reproductive value, but that body odor cues do not necessarily advertise this information.

  4. Injeção de gordura na prega vocal: efeitos do local de injeção sobre a configuração glótica e a distribuição espacial da gordura injetada Fat injection into the vocal fold: effects of the place of injection on the configuration of the glottis and the spatial distribution of the fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Imamura

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A injeção intracordal de gordura tem sido utilizada para medializar a prega vocal em casos de paralisia laríngea, com resultados variáveis. A ausência de consenso entre os autores em relação a diversos aspectos técnicos, como o local de injeção, pode contribuir, em parte, para essa variação. OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito do local de injeção em relação à distribuição espacial da gordura dentro da prega vocal e à configuração glótica após essas injeções. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Seis laringes adultas excisadas foram utilizadas. Gordura colhida por lipoaspiração foi injetada, por meio de uma seringa de pressão, no ponto médio da prega vocal em três laringes e lateralmente ao processo vocal da aritenóide em outras três. Fotografias digitais em vista cranial da glote foram obtidas antes e após as injeções. Após fixação e descalcificação, as laringes foram cortadas no plano frontal nos terços anterior, médio e posterior da prega vocal e no nível da cartilagem aritenóide, para estudar a distribuição da gordura. RESULTADOS: Somente a injeção de gordura lateralmente ao processo vocal da aritenóide permitiu o fechamento da glote posterior. A gordura tendeu a ocupar um espaço cilíndrico dentro do músculo tireoaritenóideo, ao longo do maior eixo da prega vocal, mesmo quando injetada próximo ao processo vocal. CONCLUSÕES: O local de injeção da gordura teve influência sobre a configuração glótica após a injeção, apesar da gordura tender a ocupar um espaço cilíndrico ao longo da prega vocal em ambos os grupos.Intracordal fat injection has been used for vocal fold medialization in cases of laryngeal paralysis with variable results. A lack of consensus among the authors concerning various technical aspects, such as the site of injection, may contribute, in part, to this variation. AIM: To study the effects of the place of fat injection on the spatial distribution of fat and

  5. Phonosurgery of vocal fold polyps, cysts and nodules is beneficial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jane Bjerg; Rasmussen, Niels

    2013-02-01

    This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds. During the five-year period from 2003 to 2007, a total of 97 patients had PS for vocal fold polyps (n = 63), vocal fold cysts (n = 17), vocal fold nodules (n = 12) or vocal fold oedema (n = 5). Their average age was 41 years; 62% were women and 69% were smokers. Post-operative voice therapy was given to 45 patients. Post-operative clinical evaluation was available for data analysis in 89 patients (92%). Voice quality was assessed using the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP), video-stroboscopy and self-reported assessment. The median follow-up time was 3.9 months. Post-operative voice quality was reported as unaffected in 85%, improved but moderately affected in 13%, and severely affected in one patient with a cyst and vocal fold sulcus. Unaffected voice quality was obtained in 91% of patients not receiving voice therapy and in 77% of patients receiving voice therapy. All lesions except one polyp in the anterior commissure were completely removed. MDVP was performed both pre- and post-operatively in 22% of patients. The effect was a significant improvement of jitter (p = 0.013), shimmer (p = 0.001) and Soft Phonation Index (p = 0.013). PS is a quick and effective treatment with uncommon and transient post-operative complications. Objective assessment of the voice pre- and post-operatively should be used consistently and applied in controlled studies evaluating the additional impact of pre- and post-operative voice therapy. not relevant. not relevant.

  6. Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?

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    Lemasson Alban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-human primate communication is thought to be fundamentally different from human speech, mainly due to vast differences in vocal control. The lack of these abilities in non-human primates is especially striking if compared to some marine mammals and bird species, which has generated somewhat of an evolutionary conundrum. What are the biological roots and underlying evolutionary pressures of the human ability to voluntarily control sound production and learn the vocal utterances of others? One hypothesis is that this capacity has evolved gradually in humans from an ancestral stage that resembled the vocal behavior of modern primates. Support for this has come from studies that have documented limited vocal flexibility and convergence in different primate species, typically in calls used during social interactions. The mechanisms underlying these patterns, however, are currently unknown. Specifically, it has been difficult to rule out explanations based on genetic relatedness, suggesting that such vocal flexibility may not be the result of social learning. Results To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness. Conclusion Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication.

  7. RELACIÓN ENTRE LA LONGITUD DE LA CUERDA VOCAL Y LA COMPOSICIÓN HISTOLÓGICA DE LA LÁMINA PROPIA EN LARINGES PEDIÁTRICAS Relationship between vocal cord length and hystological composition of the lamina propria in pediatric larynxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Torres Pazmiño

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La macro y microarquitectura de cuerda vocal del niño difiere notablemente de la del adulto, y se ha demostrado que en el proceso de madurez existen diferentes mecanismos que suceden hasta cierta edad. Los investigadores han mostrado sus resultados pero no hay mención de una herramienta clínica que permita su aplicación en la fonocirugía infantil. Objetivo. Establecer la relación entre la longitud de la cuerda vocal con la composición histológica de la lámina propia en laringes pediátricas. Material y métodos. Estudio observacional, descriptivo de cortes histológicos de cuerdas vocales de diferente longitud con aplicación de software de análisis de color y análisis estadístico de resultados con SPSS 17.0 trial versión. Resultados. En 22 cortes histológicos de cuerda vocal se hallaron como características histológicas la presencia de hipercelularidad, distribución de fibras al azar, presencia de glándulas y de abundantes vasos sanguíneos en la lámina propia del tercio medio de la cuerda. El porcentaje de fibras colágenas depende en un 38,9 por ciento de la longitud de la cuerda vocal y el porcentaje de fibras elásticas en un 26,4 por ciento. Los valores de p para cada variable fueron de 0,040 y 0,061, respectivamente. Discusión. No parece existir una relación directa entre el porcentaje de fibras colágenas y elásticas y la longitud de la cuerda vocal en niños. Dentro de las características histológicas destacadas se halló presencia de abundantes glándulas y vasos sanguíneos en la lámina propia a nivel del tercio medio de la cuerda vocal.Background. The macro and micro-architecture of an infant’s vocal cord differs notably from that of the adult, and it has been demonstrated that during the maturation process there are mechanisms that occur until a given age. However, there is yet no mention of a clinical tool that would allow the assessment of these changes and could be applied to pediatric

  8. β-Defensin-2 is overexpressed in human vocal cord polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jinjin; Huang, Yongwang

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the expression of human β-defensin-1 (hBD-1) and human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) in vocal cord polyps using tissue microarray. Tissue specimens from vocal cord polyps (N = 51), vocal cord nodules (N = 26), and healthy vocal cords (N = 8) were retrieved from the biobank of the Department of Pathology of Tianjin Tianhe Hospital between 2003 and 2006 and immunostained on tissue microarrays for the quantitative analysis of hBD-1 and hBD-2 expression. hBD-1 expression did not differ significantly between healthy vocal cords, vocal cord nodules, and vocal cord polyps (p = 0.904). In contrast, hBD-2 expression was significantly higher in vocal cord polyps compared to vocal cord nodules and healthy vocal cords (p vocal cord polyp epithelium. This suggests that hBD-1 has a more constitutive role in host defense in the vocal cords, whereas hBD-2 expression may be a result of local inflammation or the presence of invading pathogens.

  9. Apoptosis and Vocal Fold Disease: Clinically Relevant Implications of Epithelial Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Carter, Bruce D.; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Ridner, Sheila H.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Vocal fold diseases affecting the epithelium have a detrimental impact on vocal function. This review article provides an overview of apoptosis, the most commonly studied type of programmed cell death. Because apoptosis can damage epithelial cells, this article examines the implications of apoptosis on diseases affecting the vocal fold…

  10. Characterization of Vocal Fold Vibration in Sulcus Vocalis Using High-Speed Digital Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize vocal fold vibrations in sulcus vocalis by high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and to clarify the correlations between HSDI-derived parameters and traditional vocal parameters. Method: HSDI was performed in 20 vocally healthy subjects (8 men and 12 women) and…

  11. Phonatory and Phonetic Characteristics of Prelinguistic Vocal Development in Cri Du Chat Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohner, Linda; Mitchell, Pamela

    1991-01-01

    Vocal samples were collected from a child with cri du chat syndrome from the age of 8 to 26 months. Analyses indicated that the high vocal fundamental was characteristic of comfort state vocalizations of the child. There was a predominance of falling intonation contours and limited interutterance variation of fundamental frequency, and phonetic…

  12. Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Single Vocal Cord Irradiation in Early Glottic Cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.O.S. Osman (Sarah)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe larynx anatomy is graphically presented in figure 1.1 . The vocal cords in the center of the larynx are muscular bands covered by thin mucosa layers. Together, the right and left vocal cords have a V-shape, when viewed from cranial. The vocal cords play key roles in the control of

  13. Peripheral Mechanisms for Vocal Production in Birds--Differences and Similarities to Human Speech and Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Goller, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Song production in songbirds is a model system for studying learned vocal behavior. As in humans, bird phonation involves three main motor systems (respiration, vocal organ and vocal tract). The avian respiratory mechanism uses pressure regulation in air sacs to ventilate a rigid lung. In songbirds sound is generated with two independently…

  14. Coos, booms, and hoots: The evolution of closed-mouth vocal behavior in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Eliason, Chad M; Miller, Edward H; Goller, Franz; Clarke, Julia A

    2016-08-01

    Most birds vocalize with an open beak, but vocalization with a closed beak into an inflating cavity occurs in territorial or courtship displays in disparate species throughout birds. Closed-mouth vocalizations generate resonance conditions that favor low-frequency sounds. By contrast, open-mouth vocalizations cover a wider frequency range. Here we describe closed-mouth vocalizations of birds from functional and morphological perspectives and assess the distribution of closed-mouth vocalizations in birds and related outgroups. Ancestral-state optimizations of body size and vocal behavior indicate that closed-mouth vocalizations are unlikely to be ancestral in birds and have evolved independently at least 16 times within Aves, predominantly in large-bodied lineages. Closed-mouth vocalizations are rare in the small-bodied passerines. In light of these results and body size trends in nonavian dinosaurs, we suggest that the capacity for closed-mouth vocalization was present in at least some extinct nonavian dinosaurs. As in birds, this behavior may have been limited to sexually selected vocal displays, and hence would have co-occurred with open-mouthed vocalizations. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. A numerical strategy for finite element modeling of frictionless asymmetric vocal fold collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Brunskog, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of voice pathologies may require vocal fold models that include relevant features such as vocal fold asymmetric collision. The present study numerically addresses the problem of frictionless asymmetric collision in a self-sustained three-dimensional continuum model of the vocal folds. Th...

  16. Individual Monitoring of Vocal Effort with Relative Fundamental Frequency: Relationships with Aerodynamics and Listener Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Yu-An S.; Michener, Carolyn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) was investigated as a potential objective measure to track variations in vocal effort within and across individuals. Method: Twelve speakers with healthy voices created purposeful modulations in their vocal effort during speech tasks. RFF and an aerodynamic measure of vocal effort,…

  17. Fatores associados a patologias de pregas vocais em professores Factores asociados a patologías de cuerdas vocales en profesores Factors associated with vocal fold pathologies in teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lima de Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar fatores associados à prevalência do diagnóstico médico referido de patologias das pregas vocais em professores. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico transversal, censitário, com 4.495 professores da rede pública municipal de ensino elementar e fundamental de Salvador, BA, de março a abril de 2006. A variável dependente foi o diagnóstico médico referido de patologias das pregas vocais e as independentes, características sociodemográficas, atividade profissional, organização do trabalho/relações interpessoais, características físicas do ambiente de trabalho, freqüência de transtornos mentais comuns, medida pelo Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20 >7 e condições de saúde geral. Foram aplicadas técnicas de análise estatística descritiva, bivariada e regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de diagnóstico médico referido de patologias das pregas vocais foi de 18,9%. Na análise de regressão logística, as variáveis que permaneceram associadas ao diagnóstico médico de patologia das pregas vocais foram: sexo feminino, trabalhar como professor por mais de sete anos, uso intensivo da voz, referir mais de cinco características desfavoráveis do ambiente físico de trabalho, uma ou mais doenças do trato respiratório, perda auditiva e apresentar transtornos mentais comuns. CONCLUSÕES: A presença de patologias das pregas vocais referidas associou-se a fatores que indicam a necessidade de ações de promoção da saúde vocal do professor e modificações na organização e estrutura do trabalho docente.OBJETIVO: Analizar factores asociados a la prevalencia del diagnóstico médico referido de patologías de las cuerdas vocales en profesores. MÉTODOS: Estudio epidemiológico transversal, censitario, con 4.495 profesores de la red pública municipal de enseñanza primaria y media de Salvador, Noreste de Brasil, de marzo a abril de 2006. La variable dependiente fue el diagnóstico m

  18. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  19. Evidence of auditory insensitivity to vocalization frequencies in two frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Sandra; Mason, Matthew J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and maintenance of animal communication systems requires the co-evolution of signal and receiver. Frogs and toads rely heavily on acoustic communication for coordinating reproduction and typically have ears tuned to the dominant frequency of their vocalizations, allowing discriminat......The emergence and maintenance of animal communication systems requires the co-evolution of signal and receiver. Frogs and toads rely heavily on acoustic communication for coordinating reproduction and typically have ears tuned to the dominant frequency of their vocalizations, allowing...... by their high toxicity might help to explain why calling has not yet disappeared, and that visual communication may have replaced auditory in these colourful, diurnal frogs....

  20. Ultrasonic vocalizations in mouse models for speech and socio-cognitive disorders: insights into the evolution of vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J; Hammerschmidt, K

    2011-02-01

    Comparative analyses used to reconstruct the evolution of traits associated with the human language faculty, including its socio-cognitive underpinnings, highlight the importance of evolutionary constraints limiting vocal learning in non-human primates. After a brief overview of this field of research and the neural basis of primate vocalizations, we review studies that have addressed the genetic basis of usage and structure of ultrasonic communication in mice, with a focus on the gene FOXP2 involved in specific language impairments and neuroligin genes (NL-3 and NL-4) involved in autism spectrum disorders. Knockout of FoxP2 leads to reduced vocal behavior and eventually premature death. Introducing the human variant of FoxP2 protein into mice, in contrast, results in shifts in frequency and modulation of pup ultrasonic vocalizations. Knockout of NL-3 and NL-4 in mice diminishes social behavior and vocalizations. Although such studies may provide insights into the molecular and neural basis of social and communicative behavior, the structure of mouse vocalizations is largely innate, limiting the suitability of the mouse model to study human speech, a learned mode of production. Although knockout or replacement of single genes has perceptible effects on behavior, these genes are part of larger networks whose functions remain poorly understood. In humans, for instance, deficiencies in NL-4 can lead to a broad spectrum of disorders, suggesting that further factors (experiential and/or genetic) contribute to the variation in clinical symptoms. The precise nature as well as the interaction of these factors is yet to be determined. © 2010 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  1. Auditory feedback control of vocal pitch during sustained vocalization: a cross-sectional study of adult aging.

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    Peng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Auditory feedback has been demonstrated to play an important role in the control of voice fundamental frequency (F(0, but the mechanisms underlying the processing of auditory feedback remain poorly understood. It has been well documented that young adults can use auditory feedback to stabilize their voice F(0 by making compensatory responses to perturbations they hear in their vocal pitch feedback. However, little is known about the effects of aging on the processing of audio-vocal feedback during vocalization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we recruited adults who were between 19 and 75 years of age and divided them into five age groups. Using a pitch-shift paradigm, the pitch of their vocal feedback was unexpectedly shifted ±50 or ±100 cents during sustained vocalization of the vowel sound/u/. Compensatory vocal F(0 response magnitudes and latencies to pitch feedback perturbations were examined. A significant effect of age was found such that response magnitudes increased with increasing age until maximal values were reached for adults 51-60 years of age and then decreased for adults 61-75 years of age. Adults 51-60 years of age were also more sensitive to the direction and magnitude of the pitch feedback perturbations compared to younger adults. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the pitch-shift reflex systematically changes across the adult lifespan. Understanding aging-related changes to the role of auditory feedback is critically important for our theoretical understanding of speech production and the clinical applications of that knowledge.

  2. Análise do trato vocal em pacientes com nódulos, fendas e cisto de prega vocal Vocal tract analysis in patients with vocal fold nodules, clefts and cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Buzelin Nunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O plano supraglótico representa uma importante dimensão na produção vocal, sendo de grande relevância sua caracterização na avaliação e conduta terapêutica de indivíduos disfônicos. OBJETIVO: Verificar se determinadas configurações glóticas se relacionam com ajustes específicos de trato vocal. Avaliar por meio da nasofibrolaringoscopia a freqüência dos ajustes do trato vocal supraglótico em mulheres disfônicas com nódulos, fendas e cistos. MÉTODO: Foram avaliadas 31 mulheres disfônicas, faixa etária entre 18 e 45 anos, com alteração vocal e diagnóstico de nódulos, fenda médioposterior e cisto e realizada avaliação resumida do sistema sensório-motor e oral e exames de videolaringoestroboscopia e nasofibrolaringoscopia. Três grupos distintos foram selecionados: pacientes com nódulos bilaterais, com fenda e com cisto, com configurações glóticas semelhantes. Foi realizada, por fonoaudiólogas e otorrinolaringologistas, a análise visual do trato vocal dos exames de nasofibrolaringoscopia, verificando os parâmetros de: constrição supraglótica, mobilidade vertical da laringe, constrição faríngea e mobilidade de língua. Os dados foram descritos e tratados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: Na análise visual não foi encontrada diferença estatística significante que separasse os grupos das alterações glóticas. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve correlação dos ajustes do trato supraglótico com determinado tipo de alteração glótica. São comportamentos individuais que geram os ajustes e justificam as diferentes qualidades vocais em pacientes com mesmo tipo de alteração laríngea.The supraglottic plan represents an important dimension in vocal production, and its characterization is very important in the evaluation and treatment approach of dysphonic individuals. AIM: to check if certain glottic configurations are related to specific adjustments in the vocal tract. To use nasal and laryngeal fibroscopy to assess

  3. The effect of stretch-and-flow voice therapy on measures of vocal function and handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Christopher R; Diviney, Shelby S; Hamilton, Amy; Toles, Laura; Childs, Lesley; Mau, Ted

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the efficacy of stretch-and-flow voice therapy as a primary physiological treatment for patients with hyperfunctional voice disorders. Prospective case series. Participants with a diagnosis of primary muscle tension dysphonia or phonotraumatic lesions due to hyperfunctional vocal behaviors were included. Participants received stretch-and-flow voice therapy structured once weekly for 6 weeks. Outcome variables consisted of two physiologic measures (s/z ratio and maximum phonation time), an acoustic measure (cepstral peak prominence [CPP]), and a measure of vocal handicap (voice handicap index [VHI]). All measures were obtained at baseline before treatment and within 2 weeks posttreatment. The s/z ratio, maximum phonation time, sentence CPP, and VHI showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvement through therapy. Effect sizes reflecting the magnitude of change were large for s/z ratio and VHI (d = 1.25 and 1.96 respectively), and moderate for maximum phonation time and sentence CPP (d = 0.79 and 0.74, respectively). This study provides supporting evidence for preliminary efficacy of stretch-and-flow voice therapy in a small sample of patients. The treatment effect was large or moderate for multiple outcome measures. The data provide justification for larger, controlled clinical trials on the application of stretch-and-flow voice therapy in the treatment of hyperfunctional voice disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pre-linguistic children with cleft palate: growth of gesture, vocalization, and word use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Nancy J; Boyce, Sarah; Martin, Gerri

    2013-12-01

    Children with cleft lip and/or palate show early delays in speech and vocabulary development that may have an impact on later communication and social development. While delays in the complexity of babbling may put children at risk for later delays in speech and language development, there is considerable variability in development. This study focused on the rate of children's communication acts, canonical vocalizations, and word use as they made the transition from the pre-linguistic to linguistic development. The study included 15 children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate who were seen at three time points between 17-34 months age. Communication rates were calculated from parent-child language samples collected during play activities. Assignment to linguistic stages was based on the children's expressive vocabulary, as reported on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences. From the pre-linguistic to linguistic level, the children's average rate per minute of: communicative acts overall increased significantly from 1.49 to 3.07 per minute; canonical vocalizations from 0.21 to 0.90 per minute; and word use from 0.16 to 3.61 per minute. Rates of communicative acts were associated with later word use. It appears that children with clefts rely on non-verbal communicative acts when verbal development is delayed.

  5. Analysis of the vocal profiles of male seduction: from exhibition to self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anolli, Luigi; Ciceri, Rita

    2002-04-01

    The authors analyzed the suprasegmental (temporary) vocal profiles of 19 young men (not married) during their seductive interaction with 19 young women (not married) whom they had not known previously. The aim of the research was to verify the specificity, the sequential temporal stream, and the efficacy of the acoustical features of the seducer's voice during seductive interaction. In an ecological laboratory situation, the male participants were asked to meet their female partners. Participant-by-participant analysis showed that the male seductive voice is characterized by strong variations during the course of the seductive sequence. At the beginning of the sequence it had a higher pitch and an elevated intensity, as well as a faster rate of articulation than it did during normal speech (the exhibition voice). In the following phases it became gradually lower, weaker, and warmer (the self-disclosure voice). The modulation and variability of the vocal profiles during the seductive interaction were significantly stressed in the 9 successful seducers (those who succeeded in arranging a subsequent meeting with the partner), compared with the 10 unsuccessful seducers. The results have been interpreted as an ability to perform an effective local management of seductive communication.

  6. Quantifying the effects of altering ambient humidity on ionic composition of vocal fold surface fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, M Preeti; Carroll, Thomas L; Kosinski, Aaron M; Rosen, Clark A

    2013-07-01

    Vocal fold surface fluid (VFSF) is important in hydration and defense of underlying epithelial cells. The objective of this study was to quantify changes in the ionic composition of VFSF after altering the humidity of inhaled air. We tested the hypothesis that low humidity exposure would increase the concentration of VFSF sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions but that high humidity exposure would decrease the concentration of VFSF Na(+) and Cl(-) ions as compared to the low humidity challenge. Prospective design. Eighteen healthy adults participated in this study. VFSF was collected from each subject at baseline and following exposure to low humidity and high humidity environments. VFSF Na(+) concentration was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. VFSF Cl(-) concentration was measured with indirect potentiometry. All analyses were completed by personnel blinded to the hypothesis being tested. The low humidity environment increased Na(+) concentration in the majority of the subjects. Data for changes in Cl(-) concentrations were variable. Overall the data did not reach statistical significance (P > .05). Subjective impressions suggested that VFSF collection was more difficult in low humidity as compared to the high humidity and baseline conditions. This study is the first attempt to measure the ionic concentration of VFSF. The results from the current study have important implications for future programmatic research quantifying the effects of pollutants and laryngopharyngeal reflux on VFSF composition, epithelial hydration, and vocal fold defense. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. The sound of danger: threat sensitivity to predator vocalizations, alarm calls, and novelty in gulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A MacLean

    Full Text Available The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses.

  8. Sintomas vocais e perfil de professores em um programa de saúde vocal Vocal symptoms and profile of teachers in a vocal health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Choi-Cardim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar sintomas vocais de dois grupos de professores que foram avaliados em momentos distintos de um programa de saúde vocal. MÉTODOS: correlacionar condições de trabalho e hábitos com o número de sintomas vocais apresentados por 411 professores, agrupados em G1 (256 sujeitos a serem submetidos ao programa preventivo e G2 (155 sujeitos a serem submetidos ao programa preventivo e de tratamento. RESULTADOS: em ambos os grupos observou-se predomínio de mulheres (p = 0,550, entre 31 e 40 anos (p = 0,557, lecionando para mais de um grau de ensino (p = 0,345 com até 30 alunos/sala (p = 0,521, com presença de ruído no trabalho (p = 0,660, que relataram cuidados vocais (p = 0,231 e utilizavam voz extra-profissionalmente (p = 0,713, não tabagistas (p = 0,010 nem alcoolistas (p = 0,029. Em contrapartida, no G1 observou-se carga horária diária de trabalho de até 5 horas, enquanto a maior parte do G2 trabalhava de 6 a 10 horas (p 4 os grupos; sendo a média de 3,5 (57% para G1 e 5,8 (98,05% para G2 - (p PURPOSE: to analyze vocal symptoms from two groups of teachers assessed during two different instances of a vocal health program. METHODS: correlate work conditions and habits with the number of vocal symptoms submitted by 411 teachers divided into G1 (256 subjects to be submitted to a prevention program and G2 (155 subjects to be submitted to a prevention and treatment program. RESULTS: it was observed that in both groups there was a larger number of women (p=0.550, aged 31 to 40 years (p=0.557, teaching for more than one grade (p=0.345 and with up to 30 students per class (p=0.521; they related presence of noise in their work environment (p=0.660, used to take care of their voices (p=0.231, were non-smokers (p=0.010, used their voices in extra-professional activities and did not have the habit of drinking. On the other hand, both groups were different upon relating daily work hours; in G1 most teachers worked up to 5 hours a day

  9. CASE REPORT: RESECTION OF SYMPTOMATIC VOCAL CORD NODULE BY MICROLARYNGEAL SURGERY USING 0 0 , 30 0 ENDOSCOPE

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh V .; Shweta,

    2015-01-01

    Vocal cord nodules are benign reactive lesions commonly caused due to phonotrauma and vocal abuse. Patients with vocal nodules present with husky and breathy voice. These lesions are removed by microlaryngeal surgery using either operating microscope or endoscope. We present a case report of symptomatic vocal cord nodule which was precisely r...

  10. Gelada vocal sequences follow Menzerath’s linguistic law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustison, Morgan L.; Semple, Stuart; Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Bergman, Thore J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying universal principles underpinning diverse natural systems is a key goal of the life sciences. A powerful approach in addressing this goal has been to test whether patterns consistent with linguistic laws are found in nonhuman animals. Menzerath’s law is a linguistic law that states that, the larger the construct, the smaller the size of its constituents. Here, to our knowledge, we present the first evidence that Menzerath’s law holds in the vocal communication of a nonhuman species. We show that, in vocal sequences of wild male geladas (Theropithecus gelada), construct size (sequence size in number of calls) is negatively correlated with constituent size (duration of calls). Call duration does not vary significantly with position in the sequence, but call sequence composition does change with sequence size and most call types are abbreviated in larger sequences. We also find that intercall intervals follow the same relationship with sequence size as do calls. Finally, we provide formal mathematical support for the idea that Menzerath’s law reflects compression—the principle of minimizing the expected length of a code. Our findings suggest that a common principle underpins human and gelada vocal communication, highlighting the value of exploring the applicability of linguistic laws in vocal systems outside the realm of language. PMID:27091968

  11. Using Response Interruption and Redirection to Reduce Vocal Stereotypy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehey, Patricia H.; Wells, Jenny C.

    2018-01-01

    Response interruption and redirection, commonly referred to as RIR, is an evidence-based intervention that has been demonstrated to quickly reduce moderate to high levels of vocal stereotypy in children with autism spectrum disorder. The RIR intervention is a simple, three-step procedure that can be embedded in classroom instruction with minimal…

  12. Vocal Problems among Aerobic Instructors and Aerobic Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidel, Sandra E.; Torgerson, John K.

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of vocal problems of 50 female aerobic instructors and 50 female aerobic participants by means of questionnaires found that aerobic instructors generally experienced more hoarseness and episodes of voice loss during and after instructing and exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of nodules. (Author/DB)

  13. Behavioral characteristics of children with vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nelson; Holt, Kellianne I; Redmond, Sean; Muntz, Harlan

    2007-03-01

    Vocal fold nodules (VNs) in children are benign, bilateral lesions occurring on the mid-membranous vocal folds. Repetitive phonotraumatic behavior leading to chronic vocal fold injury and repair is frequently cited as the primary etiology; however, specific behavioral characteristics may predispose some children toward intense and potentially phonotraumatic voice use, thereby contributing secondarily to VN formation. The purpose of this case-control study was to determine whether children with VNs possess unique behavioral characteristics that may predispose them to VN development. Parents of 26 children with VNs (20 boys, 6 girls, mean age=7.2 years, SD=2.5 years), and 29 vocally normal, medical controls (22 boys, 7 girls, mean age=6.7 years, SD=2.4), completed the Childhood Behavior Checklist (CBCL/4-18, Achenbach, 1991), a standardized parent-rating scale with strong psychometric properties. No significant between-group differences were detected on any of the behavior problem syndrome scales. Group differences approached significance for the individual items "screams a lot" and "teases a lot" (VN group > Controls). The VN group scored significantly higher than the controls on the "Social Scale," a compilation of positive ratings of the child's social activity, frequency of contacts with friends, behavior with others, and behavior by themselves. Observed outcomes were consistent with previous characterizations of children with VN as "outgoing" or "extroverted" but were not consistent with other claims that this population may be at risk for "aggressive," "attentional," or "impulsive" behavior problems.

  14. Jugular vein phlebectasia in paediatric patients with vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Sun, Chang-zhi; Zou, Hua; Luo, Ren-zhong

    2013-08-01

    Jugular vein phlebectasia (JVP) may often be overlooked in clinical practice and the management for JVP include surgery and a conservative approach. We have studied the relationship between JVP and vocal fold nodules in paediatric patients as well as the effects of treatment. Twenty-three cases of paediatric vocal fold nodules with JVP were studied. All patients received voice therapy. After 6 months of treatment, hoarseness, neck appearance (subjective evaluation) and the degree of dilation of the jugular vein detected by Doppler ultrasonography were analysed. The follow-up period was 6 to 84 months. The hoarseness disappeared or lessened noticeably after treatment for 1-4 months. The neck masses also lessened (pre vs. post: 2.58 ± 0.40 vs. 1.60 ± 0.19) after treatment for 1-4 months. The visual analogue score of the post-treatment symptoms decreased significantly compared with pre-treatment (p vocal fold nodules may be related to JVP. Voice changes may also be observed in cases of paediatric JVP. Voice therapy may offer another conservative treatment option for JVP accompanied by vocal fold nodules, and it may offer better results than simple observation of JVP.

  15. Dynamic 3-D visualization of vocal tract shaping during speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yinghua; Kim, Yoon-Chul; Proctor, Michael I; Narayanan, Shrikanth S; Nayak, Krishna S

    2013-05-01

    Noninvasive imaging is widely used in speech research as a means to investigate the shaping and dynamics of the vocal tract during speech production. 3-D dynamic MRI would be a major advance, as it would provide 3-D dynamic visualization of the entire vocal tract. We present a novel method for the creation of 3-D dynamic movies of vocal tract shaping based on the acquisition of 2-D dynamic data from parallel slices and temporal alignment of the image sequences using audio information. Multiple sagittal 2-D real-time movies with synchronized audio recordings are acquired for English vowel-consonant-vowel stimuli /ala/, /a.ιa/, /asa/, and /a∫a/. Audio data are aligned using mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) extracted from windowed intervals of the speech signal. Sagittal image sequences acquired from all slices are then aligned using dynamic time warping (DTW). The aligned image sequences enable dynamic 3-D visualization by creating synthesized movies of the moving airway in the coronal planes, visualizing desired tissue surfaces and tube-shaped vocal tract airway after manual segmentation of targeted articulators and smoothing. The resulting volumes allow for dynamic 3-D visualization of salient aspects of lingual articulation, including the formation of tongue grooves and sublingual cavities, with a temporal resolution of 78 ms.

  16. Dynamic 3D Visualization of Vocal Tract Shaping During Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yinghua; Kim, Yoon-Chul; Proctor, Michael I.; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging is widely used in speech research as a means to investigate the shaping and dynamics of the vocal tract during speech production. 3D dynamic MRI would be a major advance, as it would provide 3D dynamic visualization of the entire vocal tract. We present a novel method for the creation of 3D dynamic movies of vocal tract shaping based on the acquisition of 2D dynamic data from parallel slices and temporal alignment of the image sequences using audio information. Multiple sagittal 2D real-time movies with synchronized audio recordings are acquired for English vowel-consonant-vowel stimuli /ala/, /aɹa/, /asa/ and /aʃa/. Audio data are aligned using mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) extracted from windowed intervals of the speech signal. Sagittal image sequences acquired from all slices are then aligned using dynamic time warping (DTW). The aligned image sequences enable dynamic 3D visualization by creating synthesized movies of the moving airway in the coronal planes, visualizing desired tissue surfaces and tube-shaped vocal tract airway after manual segmentation of targeted articulators and smoothing. The resulting volumes allow for dynamic 3D visualization of salient aspects of lingual articulation, including the formation of tongue grooves and sublingual cavities, with a temporal resolution of 78 ms. PMID:23204279

  17. Anatomical study of minor alterations in neonate vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriano Rezende; Machado, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. To evaluate the existence and anatomical characterization of minor structural alterations in the vocal folds of newborns. 56 larynxes excised from neonates of both genders were studied. They were examined fresh, or defrosted after conservation via freezing, under a microscope at magnifications of 25× and 40×. The vocal folds were inspected and palpated by two examiners, with the aim of finding minor structural alterations similar to those described classically, and other undetermined minor structural alterations. Larynges presenting abnormalities were submitted to histological examination. Six cases of abnormalities were found in different larynges: one (1.79%) compatible with a sulcus vocalis and five (8.93%) compatible with a laryngeal micro-diaphragm. No cases of cysts or mucosal bridges were found. The observed abnormalities had characteristics similar to those described in other age groups. Abnormalities similar to sulcus vocalis or micro-diaphragm may be present at birth. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K Moore

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all animals exploit vocal signals for a range of ecologically-motivated purposes: detecting predators prey and marking territory, expressing emotions, establishing social relations and sharing information. Whether it is a bird raising an alarm, a whale calling to potential partners,a dog responding to human commands, a parent reading a story with a child, or a business-person accessing stock prices using emph{Siri}, vocalisation provides a valuable communication channel through which behaviour may be coordinated and controlled, and information may be distributed and acquired.Indeed, the ubiquity of vocal interaction has led to research across an extremely diverse array of fields, from assessing animal welfare, to understanding the precursors of human language, to developing voice-based human-machine interaction. Opportunities for cross-fertilisation between these fields abound; for example, using artificial cognitive agents to investigate contemporary theories of language grounding, using machine learning to analyse different habitats or adding vocal expressivity to the next generation of language-enabled autonomous social agents. However, much of the research is conducted within well-defined disciplinary boundaries, and many fundamental issues remain. This paper attempts to redress the balance by presenting a comparative review of vocal interaction within-and-between humans, animals and artificial agents (such as robots, and it identifies a rich set of open research questions that may benefit from an inter-disciplinary analysis.

  19. Vocal Tract Representation in the Recognition of Cerebral Palsied Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzicz, Frank; Hirst, Graeme; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored articulatory information as a means of improving the recognition of dysarthric speech by machine. Method: Data were derived chiefly from the TORGO database of dysarthric articulation (Rudzicz, Namasivayam, & Wolff, 2011) in which motions of various points in the vocal tract are measured during speech.…

  20. Instrumental and Vocal Teacher Education: Competences, Roles and Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Mary; Reed, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on selected outcomes of the European Association of Conservatoires (AEC) "Polifonia" Working Group for Instrumental and Vocal Teacher Training in Europe (2007-2010). The introduction provides the background to the project, explains the rationale and objectives, describes the research process and gives an overview of…

  1. Elimination of Vocal Abuse in School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, Forrest G.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on activities that the regular classroom teacher can incorporate into the speech arts curriculum that will help to eliminate the high incidence of vocal disorders in students. Includes a description of the mechanics of voice production and exercises designed to help children use their voices more efficiently. (FL)

  2. Radiology findings in adult patients with vocal fold paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S. [Helsinki Medical Imaging Centre, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu, Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: s.robinson@dzu.at; Pitkaeranta, A. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Haartmaninkatu, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-10-15

    Aim: To compile imaging findings in patients with vocal fold paralysis. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical charts of 100 consecutive patients, admitted to our department with vocal fold paralysis was undertaken. After laryngoscopy, patients were referred for radiological work-up depending on their clinical history and clinical findings. Ultrasound of the neck and/or contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography (CT) of the neck and mediastinum was performed, extending to include the whole chest if necessary. In one patient, CT of the brain and in two patients, magnetic resonance angiography was undertaken. Analysis of the clinical and radiological data was performed to assess the most frequent causes for vocal fold paralysis. Results: In 66% of patients, the paralysis was related to previous surgery. Thirty-four percent of cases were labelled idiopathic after clinical examination. After imaging and follow-up, only 8% remained unexplained. Nine patients suffered from neoplasms, four from vascular disease, and 12 from infections. One patient developed encephalomyelitis disseminata on follow-up. Conclusion: Thorough radiological work-up helps to reduce the amount of idiopathic cases of vocal fold paralysis and guides appropriate therapy.

  3. Laughter as an approach to vocal evolution: The bipedal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provine, Robert R

    2017-02-01

    Laughter is a simple, stereotyped, innate, human play vocalization that is ideal for the study of vocal evolution. The basic approach of describing the act of laughter and when we do it has revealed a variety of phenomena of social, linguistic, and neurological significance. Findings include the acoustic structure of laughter, the minimal voluntary control of laughter, the punctuation effect (which describes the placement of laughter in conversation and indicates the dominance of speech over laughter), and the role of laughter in human matching and mating. Especially notable is the use of laughter to discover why humans can speak and other apes cannot. Quadrupeds, including our primate ancestors, have a 1:1 relation between breathing and stride because their thorax must absorb forelimb impacts during running. The direct link between breathing and locomotion limits vocalizations to short, simple utterances, such as the characteristic panting chimpanzee laugh (one sound per inward or outward breath). The evolution of bipedal locomotion freed the respiration system of its support function during running, permitting greater breath control and the selection for human-type laughter (a parsed exhalation), and subsequently the virtuosic, sustained, expiratory vocalization of speech. This is the basis of the bipedal theory of speech evolution.

  4. Vocal communication in adult greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Kobayasi, Kohta; Zhang, Shuyi; Metzner, Walter

    2006-05-01

    Whereas echolocation in horseshoe bats is well studied, virtually nothing is known about characteristics and function of their communication calls. Therefore, the communication calls produced by a group of captive adult greater horseshoe bats were recorded during various social interactions in a free-flight facility. Analysis revealed that this species exhibited an amazingly rich repertoire of vocalizations varying in numerous spectro-temporal aspects. Calls were classified into 17 syllable types (ten simple syllables and seven composites). Syllables were combined into six types of simple phrases and four combination phrases. The majority of syllables had durations of more than 100 ms with multiple harmonics and fundamental frequencies usually above 20 kHz, although some of them were also audible to humans. Preliminary behavioral observations indicated that many calls were emitted during direct interaction with and in response to social calls from conspecifics without requiring physical contact. Some echolocation-like vocalizations also appeared to clearly serve a communication role. These results not only shed light upon a so far widely neglected aspect of horseshoe bat vocalizations, but also provide the basis for future studies on the neural control of the production of communicative vocalizations in contrast to the production of echolocation pulse sequences.

  5. Vocal Fold Pathologies and Three-Dimensional Flow Separation Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, Adam G.; Weiland, Kelley S.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Polyps and nodules are two different pathologies, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, and have been shown to significantly disrupt a person's ability to communicate. Although the mechanism by which the vocal folds self-oscillate and the three-dimensional nature of the glottal jet has been studied, the effect of irregularities caused by pathologies is not fully understood. Examining the formation and evolution of vortical structures created by a geometric protuberance is important, not only for understanding the aerodynamic forces exerted by these structures on the vocal folds, but also in the treatment of the above-mentioned pathological conditions. Using a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, the present investigation considers three-dimensional flow separation induced by a model vocal fold polyp. Building on previous work using skin friction line visualization, both the velocity flow field and wall pressure measurements around the model polyp are presented and compared. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  6. Body height, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R.; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J.; Krams, Indrikis

    2014-12-01

    Health, facial and vocal attributes and body height of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body height was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a height of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body height was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body height and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body height negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.

  7. Evolution of vocal fold nodules from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bodt, M S; Ketelslagers, K; Peeters, T; Wuyts, F L; Mertens, F; Pattyn, J; Heylen, L; Peeters, A; Boudewyns, A; Van de Heyning, P

    2007-03-01

    Bilateral (quasi) symmetrical lesions of the anterior third of the vocal folds, commonly called vocal fold nodules (VFNs) are the most frequent vocal fold lesions in childhood caused by vocal abuse and hyperfunction. This study evaluates their long-term genesis with or without surgery and voice therapy. A group of 91 postmutational adolescents (mean age, 16 years), in whom VFNs were diagnosed in childhood, were questioned to analyze the evolution of their complaints. Thirty four of them could be clinically reexamined by means of the European Laryngological Society-protocol, including a complete laryngological investigation and voice assessment. A total of 21% of the questioned group (n=91) had voice complaints persisting into postpubescence with a statistically significant difference (P dysphonia ("G") in childhood enable a fairly correct prediction of persisting voice complaints in adolescence (sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 67%). The results of this study show a clearly different evolution for both sexes, with significant higher long-term risks for dysphonic girls with allergy.

  8. Unimagining Song : Making Kin in the Vocal Scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonelli, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Practitioners in the soundsinging tradition are frequently subjected to evaluations of their vocal music that refuse to label it as singing or song. While these evaluations might be considered justified based on certain commonplace definitions of singing and song, I argue here that these terms refer

  9. Breeding bird density does not drive vocal individuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. BLUMSTEIN, Douglas R. MCCLAIN, Carrie DE JESUS, Gustavo ALARCÓN-NIETO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many species produce individually specific vocalizations and sociality is a hypothesized driver of such individuality. Previous studies of how social variation influenced individuality focused on colonial or non-colonial avian species, and how social group size influenced individuality in sciurid rodents. Since sociality is an important driver of individuality, we expected that bird species that defend nesting territories in higher density neighborhoods should have more individually-distinctive calls than those that defend nesting territories in lower-density neighborhoods. We used Beecher’s information statistic to quantify individuality, and we examined the relationship between bird density (calculated with point-counts and vocal individuality on seven species of passerines. We found non-significant relationships between breeding bird density and vocal individuality whether regressions were fitted on species values, or on phylogenetically-independent contrast values. From these results, we infer that while individuality may be explained by social factors, breeding bird density is unlikely to be generally important in driving the evolution of individually-specific vocalizations [Current Zoology 58 (5: 765–772, 2012].

  10. Song evolution, speciation, and vocal learning in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Nicholas A; Burns, Kevin J; Tobias, Joseph A; Claramunt, Santiago; Seddon, Nathalie; Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2017-03-01

    Phenotypic divergence can promote reproductive isolation and speciation, suggesting a possible link between rates of phenotypic evolution and the tempo of speciation at multiple evolutionary scales. To date, most macroevolutionary studies of diversification have focused on morphological traits, whereas behavioral traits─including vocal signals─are rarely considered. Thus, although behavioral traits often mediate mate choice and gene flow, we have a limited understanding of how behavioral evolution contributes to diversification. Furthermore, the developmental mode by which behavioral traits are acquired may affect rates of behavioral evolution, although this hypothesis is seldom tested in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we examine evidence for rate shifts in vocal evolution and speciation across two major radiations of codistributed passerines: one oscine clade with learned songs (Thraupidae) and one suboscine clade with innate songs (Furnariidae). We find that evolutionary bursts in rates of speciation and song evolution are coincident in both thraupids and furnariids. Further, overall rates of vocal evolution are higher among taxa with learned rather than innate songs. Taken together, these findings suggest an association between macroevolutionary bursts in speciation and vocal evolution, and that the tempo of behavioral evolution can be influenced by variation in developmental modes among lineages. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Acetylcholinesterase in central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    function relation combined with the changes in synaptic efficacy and neurochemical content constitutes a well- suited model to elucidate neuronal correlates of learning and memory processes. The vocal repertoire in each case needs to be acquired. Once acquired it is either retained throughout life in a stereotyped manner, ...

  12. Religiosity in young adolescents with auditory vocal hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Laura A.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Jenner, Jack A.; Aleman, André; Bruggeman, Richard; Nauta, Maaike H.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current exploratory study examined the associations between auditory vocal hallucinations (AVH) and delusions and religiosity in young adolescents. 337 children from a population-based case-control study with and without AVH, were assessed after five years at age 12 and 13, on the presence and

  13. Acoustic Characteristics of Simulated Respiratory-Induced Vocal Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Story, Brad H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of respiratory forced oscillation to the acoustic characteristics of vocal tremor. Method: Acoustical analyses were performed to determine the characteristics of the intensity and fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) for speech samples obtained by Farinella, Hixon, Hoit, Story,…

  14. Vocal Features of Conversational Sarcasm: A Comparison of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated vocal cues that differentiate sarcastic utterances from non-sarcastic utterances. Utterances were drawn from videotapes of participant interviews and arranged on a master tape for analysis. Utterances that were identified as sarcastic by speakers and recognized as sarcastic by listeners were randomly arranged with…

  15. Evidence of auditory insensitivity to vocalization frequencies in two frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Sandra; Mason, Matthew J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and maintenance of animal communication systems requires the co-evolution of signal and receiver. Frogs and toads rely heavily on acoustic communication for coordinating reproduction and typically have ears tuned to the dominant frequency of their vocalizations, allowing discriminat...

  16. Individuality in harp seal, Phoca groenlandica, pup vocalizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Opzeeland, IC; Van Parijs, SM

    2004-01-01

    In gregarious breeders, parents often use individually stereotyped vocalizations as a cue to relocate offspring. Harp seals aggregate in large colonies on pack ice during the whelping season. During the 11-day lactation period, females alternate between periods at sea and attending their pup. If

  17. A new generation videokymography for routine clinical vocal fold examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Qingjun; Schutte, Harm K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to introduce a new-generation videokymographic system, which provides simultaneous laryngoscopic and kymographic image, for routine clinical vocal fold examination. Study Design: The authors explored a new imaging method for diagnosis and evaluation of voice disorders.

  18. Vocal Pitch Shift in Congenital Amusia (Pitch Deafness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25…

  19. Aprendizaje vocal y dialectos de canto en las aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo L. Tubaro

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Bird song díalects, that Is the existence of particular types of song shared by birds which inhabit a local area, have been functionally explained in terms of a mechanism which reduces gene flow between neighbouring populatíons, manipulation of territorial competítors, or adaptation of a signal to long range communícation in a partieular habitat. However, no one of these hypotheses has successfully accounted for the díalect diversity present in the species studied. In terms proximal causes, dialects are the product of vocal learning that take place during different stages of bird Iífe, in the context of a partieular life history. In this paper. we show the need of acomparative study of vocal learning processes, using species which are phylogeneticaly close but ecologically distinct, and unrelated species which occupy similar ecological niches, to understand the selective condítíons which have shaped the vocal ontogeny and, in turn, make clear the origin of Intraspecific vocal diversity

  20. A HTK-based Method for Detecting Vocal Fold Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidnezhad, Vahid

    2014-08-01

    In recent years a number of methods based on acoustic analysis were developed for vocal fold pathology detection. These methods can be categorized in two categories:a) detection based on the phonemes b) detection based on the continuous speeches. While there are many researches which belong to the first category, there are few efforts for detecting vocal fold pathology based on the continuous speeches (second category). In this work, a method based on the Hidden Markov model Toolkit (HTK) for detecting vocal fold pathology in the Russian digits is developed which belongs to the second category. It employs a three state HMM for modeling each phoneme. According to the results of the experiments, the proposed method achieves the 90% of detection accuracy. The proposed method is one of the first works for detecting vocal fold pathology based on the Russian digits (from 1 to 10) for Belorussian people. The reported accuracy is rather good and therefore it is recommended to use it as an auxiliary tool in medical centers.

  1. Vocal cord paralysis associated with Ramsay Hunt syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Mey, Kristianna

    2014-01-01

    and dysphagia. We present a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome combined with unilateral hearing loss and left vocal cord paralysis. The patient underwent MRI, CT and a lumbar puncture causing anxiety in the patient and delaying the initiation of antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatment, which is only efficient when...

  2. Investigating the Role of Salivary Cortisol on Vocal Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist-Jämsén, Sofia; Johansson, Ada; Santtila, Pekka; Westberg, Lars; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Simberg, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether participants who reported more often occurring vocal symptoms showed higher salivary cortisol levels and if such possible associations were different for men and women. Method: The participants (N = 170; men n = 49, women n = 121) consisted of a population-based sample of Finnish twins born between 1961 and 1989.…

  3. Body height, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J; Krams, Indrikis

    2014-12-01

    Health, facial and vocal attributes and body height of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body height was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a height of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body height was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body height and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body height negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.

  4. Development of vocalization and hearing in American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christian; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Rasmus L.

    2013-01-01

    American mink (Neovison vison) kits are born altricial and fully dependent on maternal care, for which the kits’ vocalizations appear essential. We used auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to determine: (1) hearing sensitivity of adult females from two breeding lines known to differ in maternal...

  5. Neural correlates of infants’ sensitivity to vocal expressions of peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Missana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Responding to others’ emotional expressions is an essential and early developing social skill among humans. Much research has focused on how infants process facial expressions, while much less is known about infants’ processing of vocal expressions. We examined 8-month-old infants’ processing of other infants’ vocalizations by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs to positive (infant laughter, negative (infant cries, and neutral (adult hummed speech vocalizations. Our ERP results revealed that hearing another infant cry elicited an enhanced negativity (N200 at temporal electrodes around 200 ms, whereas listening to another infant laugh resulted in an enhanced positivity (P300 at central electrodes around 300 ms. This indexes that infants’ brains rapidly respond to a crying peer during early auditory processing stages, but also selectively respond to a laughing peer during later stages associated with familiarity detection processes. These findings provide evidence for infants’ sensitivity to vocal expressions of peers and shed new light on the neural processes underpinning emotion processing in infants.

  6. Videokymography : High-speed line scanning of vocal fold vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, JG; Schutte, HK

    A digital technique for high-speed visualization of vibration, called videokymography, was developed and applied to the vocal folds. The system uses a modified video camera able to work in two modes: high-speed (nearly 8,000 images/s) and standard (50 images/s in CCIR norm). In the high-speed mode,

  7. Motor organization of positive and negative emotional vocalization in the cat midbrain periaqueductal gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Hari H; Arun, Mridula; Silburn, Peter A; Holstege, Gert

    2016-06-01

    Neurochemical microstimulation in different parts of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the cat generates four different types of vocalization, mews, howls, cries, and hisses. Mews signify positive vocal expression, whereas howls, hisses, and cries signify negative vocal communications. Mews were generated in the lateral column of the intermediate PAG and howls and hisses in the ventrolateral column of the intermediate PAG. Cries were generated in two regions, the lateral column of the rostral PAG and the ventrolateral column of the caudal PAG. To define the specific motor patterns belonging to mews, howls, and cries, the following muscles were recorded during these vocalizations: larynx (cricothyroid, thyroarytenoid, and posterior cricoarytenoid), tongue (genioglossus), jaw (digastric), and respiration (diaphragm, internal intercostal, external abdominal oblique, and internal abdominal oblique) muscles. Furthermore, the frequency, intensity, activation cascades, and turns and amplitude analyses of the electromyograms (EMGs) during these vocalizations were analyzed. The results show that each type of vocalization consists of a specific, circumscribed motor coordination. The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) in the caudal medulla serves as the final premotor interneuronal output system for vocalization. NRA neurochemical microstimulation also generated vocalizations (guttural sounds). Analysis of the EMGs demonstrated that these vocalizations consist of only small parts of the emotional voalizations generated by neurochemical stimulation in the PAG. These results demonstrate that motor organization of positive and negative emotional vocal expressions are segregated in the PAG and that the PAG uses the NRA as a tool to gain access to the motoneurons generating vocalization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A note on acoustic analysis of dairy calves’ vocalizations at 1 day after separation from dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Hwan Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The vocalizations of animals are very useful in assessing an emotional state and welfare because they involve information about various emotions. Hence, the findings of the acoustic features of vocalization can be used to improve the productivity and welfare of animals. This study was conducted to analyse the vocalizations of dairy calves separated from the dam. At 6 days after birth, 12 dairy calves were moved into an individual calf pen (3.0m×2.0m bedded with sawdust and straw. One and a half litres of whole milk were fed twice daily and free access to water was allowed. The calves’ vocalizations were divided into humming vocalizations (HVs: low continuous calls without tone changed, semi-humming vocalizations (SHVs: low continuous calls with tone changed, and general vocalizations (GVs. These vocalizations were classified, based on the shapes of waveforms and spectrograms. Differences in the duration, fundamental frequency, intensity, and formants among the classified vocalizations were found (P<0.0001. Acoustic parameters except intensity and 3rd formant were not different between HVs and SHVs. These results suggest that vocalization analysis could be a useful tool in assessing the emotions of calves. Acoustic parameters are also useful in classifying vocalizations. Also, intensity and 3rd formant are advantageous in distinguishing HVs and SHVs.

  9. Cross-fostering alters advertisement vocalizations of grasshopper mice (Onychomys): Evidence for the developmental stress hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Bret; Abbasi, Mustafa Z; Wilson, Macey; Zhao, Daniel; Searle, Jeremy B; Webster, Michael S; Rice, Aaron N

    2016-04-01

    Nutritional stress can have lasting impacts on the development of traits involved in vocal production. Cross-fostering experiments are often used to examine the propensity for vocal learning in a variety of taxa, but few studies assess the influence of malnourishment that can occur as a byproduct of this technique. In this study, we reciprocally cross-fostered sister taxa of voluble grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys) to explore their propensity for vocal learning. Vocalizations of Onychomys leucogaster did not differ between control and cross-fostered animals, but cross-fostered Onychomys arenicola produced vocalizations that were higher in frequency in a direction away from tutors. These same animals exhibited a transient reduction in body mass early in development, indicative of malnutrition. Our findings simultaneously refute vocal learning and support the developmental stress hypothesis to highlight the importance of early ontogeny on the production of vocalizations later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vocal fry may undermine the success of young women in the labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rindy C; Klofstad, Casey A; Mayew, William J; Venkatachalam, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fry is speech that is low pitched and creaky sounding, and is increasingly common among young American females. Some argue that vocal fry enhances speaker labor market perceptions while others argue that vocal fry is perceived negatively and can damage job prospects. In a large national sample of American adults we find that vocal fry is interpreted negatively. Relative to a normal speaking voice, young adult female voices exhibiting vocal fry are perceived as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive, and less hirable. The negative perceptions of vocal fry are stronger for female voices relative to male voices. These results suggest that young American females should avoid using vocal fry speech in order to maximize labor market opportunities.

  11. Vocal fry may undermine the success of young women in the labor market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindy C Anderson

    Full Text Available Vocal fry is speech that is low pitched and creaky sounding, and is increasingly common among young American females. Some argue that vocal fry enhances speaker labor market perceptions while others argue that vocal fry is perceived negatively and can damage job prospects. In a large national sample of American adults we find that vocal fry is interpreted negatively. Relative to a normal speaking voice, young adult female voices exhibiting vocal fry are perceived as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive, and less hirable. The negative perceptions of vocal fry are stronger for female voices relative to male voices. These results suggest that young American females should avoid using vocal fry speech in order to maximize labor market opportunities.

  12. Acoustic Tonal and Vector Properties of Red Hind Grouper Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron Anthony

    Vertebrates are the most prodigious vocalizing animals in existence, and the most diverse methods of acoustic communication among vertebrates can be found in the ocean. Relatively many teleost fish are gifted with the ability to communicate acoustically, and the family of serranidae often performs this as a function of the swim bladder. Epinephelus Guttatus (E. guttatus), or more commonly the red hind grouper, is equipped with a drum shaped swim bladder acting as a monopole under typical ocean conditions. This configuration allows for what is understood to be omnidirectional projection of tones approximately centered between 40 and 440 Hz and spanning anywhere from 40 to 200 Hz of bandwidth and modulation effects based on observed data provided by researchers. Prior studies on many other fish show correlation in acoustic communication profile with length, size and sexual identity. In the red hind, sexual dimorphism leads to an inherent female identity in all juvenile fish which converts to male according to environmental factors, recommending at least consistent organs across both sexes be assumed even if not in use. Much research has been performed on male fish vocalization in terms of spectral content. Communication in fish is a complex multi-modal process, with acoustic communication being important for many of the species, particularly those in the littoral regions of the worlds' oceans. If identifying characteristics of the red hind vocalization can be isolated based on detection, classification, tracking and localizing methodologies, then these identifying characteristics may indeed lead to passive feature identification that allows for estimation of individual fish mass. Hypotheses based on vector, cyclostationary and classical tonal mechanics are presented for consideration. A battery of test data collection events, applying pre-recorded fish vocalizations to a geolocated undersea sound source were conducted. The results are supplied with the intent of

  13. Voice Disorders in Occupations with Vocal Load in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOLTEŽAR, Lučka; ŠEREG BAHAR, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this paper is to compare the prevalence of voice disorders and the risk factors for them in different occupations with a vocal load in Slovenia. Methods A meta-analysis of six different Slovenian studies involving teachers, physicians, salespeople, catholic priests, nurses and speech-and-language therapists (SLTs) was performed. In all six studies, similar questions about the prevalence of voice disorders and the causes for them were included. Results The comparison of the six studies showed that more than 82% of the 2347 included subjects had voice problems at some time during their career. The teachers were the most affected by voice problems. The prevalent cause of voice problems was the vocal load in teachers and salespeople and respiratory-tract infections in all the other occupational groups. When the occupational groups were compared, it was stated that the teachers had more voice problems and showed less care for their voices than the priests. The physicians had more voice problems and showed better consideration of vocal hygiene rules than the SLTs. The majority of all the included subjects did not receive instructions about voice care during education. Conclusions In order to decrease the prevalence of voice disorders in vocal professionals, a screening program is recommended before the beginning of their studies. Regular courses on voice care and proper vocal technique should be obligatory for all professional voice users during their career. The inclusion of dysphonia in the list of occupational diseases should be considered in Slovenia as it is in some European countries. PMID:27669516

  14. [Quality of life and vocal health of teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Regina Zanella; Pereira, Isabel Maria Teixeira Bicudo

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate aspects of teachers' quality of life and describe associated factors to their vocal health. A sample comprising 128 high school teachers from four state schools in the city of Rio Claro, Southeastern Brazil, was studied in 2002. The World Health Organization Quality of Life/bref and Voice-Related Quality of Life questionnaires were applied and there were calculated the averages, standard deviation values for the first questionnaire scores and the self-evaluation question of the Voice-Related Quality of Life. The Wilcoxon's test was used to compare teachers' genders; the Kruskal-Wallis's test was used to compare schools and Spearman's correlation coefficient and t-test were performed to assess the association between the domains of quality of life, the vocal self-evaluation question and age, and the number of working shifts by a teacher. Most teachers evaluated their voice as good (42.2%) and the mean score of the quality of life questionnaire was 66, with the highest scores in the domain of social relations, and the lowest ones in the environment domain. The most affected aspects were leisure opportunities, financial conditions, work environment and access to information. The number of hours worked by a teacher had a positive significant correlation with vocal self-evaluation. There were no significant differences between genders. There were significant differences in the physical domain when comparing schools. Although teachers showed to be reasonably satisfied with their vocal and life quality, they showed misperceptions of their health disorder process and evidenced neglected aspects of life quality and health needs that may compromise teachers' voice/vocal health.

  15. Did auditory sensitivity and vocalization evolve independently in otophysan fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladich, F

    1999-01-01

    Otophysine fishes have a series of bones, the Weberian ossicles, which acoustically couple the swimbladder to the inner ear. These fishes have evolved a diversity of sound-generating organs and acoustic signals, although some species, such as the goldfish, are not known to be vocal. Utilizing a recently developed auditory brainstem response (ABR)-recording technique, the auditory sensitivities of representatives of seven families from all four otophysine orders were investigated and compared to the spectral content of their vocalizations. All species examined detect tone bursts from 100 Hz to 5 kHz, but ABR-audiograms revealed major differences in auditory sensitivities, especially at higher frequencies (>1 kHz) where thresholds differed by up to 50 dB. These differences showed no apparent correspondence to the ability to produce sounds (vocal versus non-vocal species) or to the spectral content of species-specific sounds. All fishes have maximum sensitivity between 400 Hz and 1,500 Hz, whereas the major portion of the energy of acoustic signals was in the frequency range of 100-400 Hz (swimbladder drumming sounds) and of 1-3 kHz (stridulatory sounds). Species producing stridulatory sounds exhibited better high-frequency hearing sensitivity (pimelodids, doradids), except for callichthyids, which had poorest hearing ability in this range. Furthermore, fishes emitting both low- and high-frequency sounds, such as pimelodid and doradid catfishes, did not possess two corresponding auditory sensitivity maxima. Based on these results it is concluded that selective pressures involved in the evolution of the Weberian apparatus and the design of vocal signals in otophysines were others (primarily predator or prey detection in quiet freshwater habitats) than those serving to optimize acoustical communication.

  16. Epidemiological study on vocal disorders in paediatric age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelillo, N; Di Costanzo, B; Angelillo, M; Costa, G; Barillari, M R; Barillari, U

    2008-03-01

    Few studies analyzed the diffusion of vocal alterations especially in childhood. Aim of our study was to quantify the numbers of subjects, in paediatric age, in which dysphonia was diagnosed in our department of Phoniatrics, during a period of 5 years, (January 2002-December 2006), and also to evaluate the influence of some potential risk factors. In the considered period it emerged that the diagnosis of dysphonia was made in 312 children (17.2% of the patients affected from dysphonia), aged between 2 and 16-years-old, with a major prevalence amongst males (57%) than females (43%). On the contrary in the adult population the prevalence was: 23% in males and 77% in females. In paediatric population, the most affected range of age is the one between 8 and 14, in both male and female gender (59.6%). In 82.4% of the cases there were vocal fold lesions. The 90.3% of children with vocal fold alterations presented lesions secondary to vocal abuse and misuse and classifiable as functional dysphonia. The proportion of functional dysphonia in our sample was 92%. The 65% of children belonged to large families with more than two children, and the 30% had a family history of dysphonia (brothers, parents). The study of the behavioural characteristics has shown aggressive and hyperactive attitudes in 83% of the cases. Since in the ethiopathogenesis of the childhood dysphonia the tendency to vocal abuse has a predominant role, it would be useful to encourage the diffusion of programmes of information to show the risks linked to this abuse in children, in order to prevent the development of dysphonia in paediatric age.