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Sample records for acute vocal variability

  1. Song practice promotes acute vocal variability at a key stage of sensorimotor learning.

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    Julie E Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trial by trial variability during motor learning is a feature encoded by the basal ganglia of both humans and songbirds, and is important for reinforcement of optimal motor patterns, including those that produce speech and birdsong. Given the many parallels between these behaviors, songbirds provide a useful model to investigate neural mechanisms underlying vocal learning. In juvenile and adult male zebra finches, endogenous levels of FoxP2, a molecule critical for language, decrease two hours after morning song onset within area X, part of the basal ganglia-forebrain pathway dedicated to song. In juveniles, experimental 'knockdown' of area X FoxP2 results in abnormally variable song in adulthood. These findings motivated our hypothesis that low FoxP2 levels increase vocal variability, enabling vocal motor exploration in normal birds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After two hours in either singing or non-singing conditions (previously shown to produce differential area X FoxP2 levels, phonological and sequential features of the subsequent songs were compared across conditions in the same bird. In line with our prediction, analysis of songs sung by 75 day (75d birds revealed that syllable structure was more variable and sequence stereotypy was reduced following two hours of continuous practice compared to these features following two hours of non-singing. Similar trends in song were observed in these birds at 65d, despite higher overall within-condition variability at this age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together with previous work, these findings point to the importance of behaviorally-driven acute periods during song learning that allow for both refinement and reinforcement of motor patterns. Future work is aimed at testing the observation that not only does vocal practice influence expression of molecular networks, but that these networks then influence subsequent variability in these skills.

  2. A hypothesis on improving foreign accents by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Simmonds, Anna J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid vocal motor learning is observed when acquiring a language in early childhood, or learning to speak another language later in life. Accurate pronunciation is one of the hardest things for late learners to master and they are almost always left with a non-native accent. Here, I propose a novel hypothesis that this accent could be improved by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits during learning. Much of the neurobiology of human vocal motor learning has been inferred fr...

  3. Resting-associated vocalization emitted by captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus: acoustic structure and variability in an unusual mammalian vocalization.

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    Irena Schneiderová

    Full Text Available Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals.

  4. A hypothesis on improving foreign accents by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    Rapid vocal motor learning is observed when acquiring a language in early childhood, or learning to speak another language later in life. Accurate pronunciation is one of the hardest things for late learners to master and they are almost always left with a non-native accent. Here, I propose a novel hypothesis that this accent could be improved by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits during learning. Much of the neurobiology of human vocal motor learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Jarvis (2004) proposed the hypothesis that as in songbirds there are two pathways in humans: one for learning speech (the striatal vocal learning pathway), and one for production of previously learnt speech (the motor pathway). Learning new motor sequences necessary for accurate non-native pronunciation is challenging and I argue that in late learners of a foreign language the vocal learning pathway becomes inactive prematurely. The motor pathway is engaged once again and learners maintain their original native motor patterns for producing speech, resulting in speaking with a foreign accent. Further, I argue that variability in neural activity within vocal motor circuitry generates vocal variability that supports accurate non-native pronunciation. Recent theoretical and experimental work on motor learning suggests that variability in the motor movement is necessary for the development of expertise. I propose that there is little trial-by-trial variability when using the motor pathway. When using the vocal learning pathway variability gradually increases, reflecting an exploratory phase in which learners try out different ways of pronouncing words, before decreasing and stabilizing once the "best" performance has been identified. The hypothesis proposed here could be tested using behavioral interventions that optimize variability and engage the vocal learning pathway for longer, with the prediction that this would allow learners to develop new motor

  5. Acute Contained Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm Presenting as Left Vocal Fold Immobility

    OpenAIRE

    Gnagi, Sharon H.; Howard, Brittany E.; Hoxworth, Joseph M.; Lott, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To recognize intrathoracic abnormalities, including expansion or rupture of aortic aneurysms, as a source of acute onset vocal fold immobility. Methods. A case report and review of the literature. Results. An 85-year-old female with prior history of an aortic aneurysm presented to a tertiary care facility with sudden onset hoarseness. On laryngoscopy, the left vocal fold was immobile in the paramedian position. A CT scan obtained that day revealed a new, large hematoma surrounding ...

  6. Acute Acrolein Exposure Induces Impairment of Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Function.

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    Xinxin Liu

    Full Text Available Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants. Porcine vocal fold epithelia were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 500, 900 or 1300 μM of acrolein for 3 hours; the metabolic activity, epithelial resistance, epithelial permeability, tight junction protein (occludin and claudin 3 expression, cell membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation were investigated. The data demonstrated that acrolein exposure at 500 μM significantly reduced vocal fold epithelial metabolic activity by 27.2% (p≤0.001. Incubation with 100 μM acrolein caused a marked increase in epithelial permeability by 130.5% (p<0.05 and a reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER by 180.0% (p<0.001. While the expression of tight junctional protein did not change in acrolein-treated samples, the cell membrane integrity was significantly damaged with a 45.6% increase of lipid peroxidation as compared to controls (p<0.05. Taken together, these data provide evidence that acute acrolein exposure impairs vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Lipid peroxidation-induced cell membrane damage may play an important role in reducing the barrier function of the epithelium.

  7. Acute contained ruptured aortic aneurysm presenting as left vocal fold immobility.

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    Gnagi, Sharon H; Howard, Brittany E; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Lott, David G

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To recognize intrathoracic abnormalities, including expansion or rupture of aortic aneurysms, as a source of acute onset vocal fold immobility. Methods. A case report and review of the literature. Results. An 85-year-old female with prior history of an aortic aneurysm presented to a tertiary care facility with sudden onset hoarseness. On laryngoscopy, the left vocal fold was immobile in the paramedian position. A CT scan obtained that day revealed a new, large hematoma surrounding the upper descending aortic stent graft consistent with an acute contained ruptured aortic aneurysm. She was referred to the emergency department for evaluation and treatment by vascular surgery. She was counseled regarding surgical options and ultimately decided not to pursue further treatment. Her vocal fold immobility was subsequently treated via office-based injection medialization two weeks after presentation and again 5 months after the initial injection which dramatically improved her voice. Follow-up CT scan at 8 months demonstrated a reduction of the hematoma. The left vocal cord remains immobile to date. Conclusion. Ortner's syndrome, or cardiovocal syndrome, is hoarseness secondary to left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy caused by cardiovascular pathology. It is a rare condition and, while typically presenting gradually, may also present with acute symptomatology.

  8. Acute Contained Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm Presenting as Left Vocal Fold Immobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon H. Gnagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To recognize intrathoracic abnormalities, including expansion or rupture of aortic aneurysms, as a source of acute onset vocal fold immobility. Methods. A case report and review of the literature. Results. An 85-year-old female with prior history of an aortic aneurysm presented to a tertiary care facility with sudden onset hoarseness. On laryngoscopy, the left vocal fold was immobile in the paramedian position. A CT scan obtained that day revealed a new, large hematoma surrounding the upper descending aortic stent graft consistent with an acute contained ruptured aortic aneurysm. She was referred to the emergency department for evaluation and treatment by vascular surgery. She was counseled regarding surgical options and ultimately decided not to pursue further treatment. Her vocal fold immobility was subsequently treated via office-based injection medialization two weeks after presentation and again 5 months after the initial injection which dramatically improved her voice. Follow-up CT scan at 8 months demonstrated a reduction of the hematoma. The left vocal cord remains immobile to date. Conclusion. Ortner’s syndrome, or cardiovocal syndrome, is hoarseness secondary to left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy caused by cardiovascular pathology. It is a rare condition and, while typically presenting gradually, may also present with acute symptomatology.

  9. Vocal cord dysfunction.

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    Deckert, James; Deckert, Linda

    2010-01-15

    Vocal cord dysfunction involves inappropriate vocal cord motion that produces partial airway obstruction. Patients may present with respiratory distress that is often mistakenly diagnosed as asthma. Exercise, psychological conditions, airborne irritants, rhinosinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or use of certain medications may trigger vocal cord dysfunction. The differential diagnosis includes asthma, angioedema, vocal cord tumors, and vocal cord paralysis. Pulmonary function testing with a flow-volume loop and flexible laryngoscopy are valuable diagnostic tests for confirming vocal cord dysfunction. Treatment of acute episodes includes reassurance, breathing instruction, and use of a helium and oxygen mixture (heliox). Long-term management strategies include treatment for symptom triggers and speech therapy.

  10. South East Pacific atmospheric composition and variability sampled along 20° S during VOCALS-REx

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    G. Allen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx was conducted from 15 October to 15 November 2008 in the South East Pacific (SEP region to investigate interactions between land, sea and atmosphere in this unique tropical eastern ocean environment and to improve the skill of global and regional models in representing the region. This study synthesises selected aircraft, ship and surface site observations from VOCALS-REx to statistically summarise and characterise the atmospheric composition and variability of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL and Free Troposphere (FT along the 20° S parallel between 70° W and 85° W. Significant zonal gradients in mean MBL sub-micron aerosol particle size and composition, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and ozone were seen over the campaign, with a generally more variable and polluted coastal environment and a less variable, more pristine remote maritime regime. Gradients in aerosol and trace gas concentrations were observed to be associated with strong gradients in cloud droplet number. The FT was often more polluted in terms of trace gases than the MBL in the mean; however increased variability in the FT composition suggests an episodic nature to elevated concentrations. This is consistent with a complex vertical interleaving of airmasses with diverse sources and hence pollutant concentrations as seen by generalised back trajectory analysis, which suggests contributions from both local and long-range sources. Furthermore, back trajectory analysis demonstrates that the observed zonal gradients both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere are characteristic of marked changes in airmass history with distance offshore – coastal boundary layer airmasses having been in recent contact with the local land surface and remote maritime airmasses having resided over ocean for in excess of ten days. Boundary layer composition to the east of 75° W was observed to be dominated by coastal

  11. Acute Acrolein Exposure Induces Impairment of Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Zheng, Wei; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants. Porcine vocal fold epithelia were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 500, 900 or 1300 μM of acrolein for 3 hours; the metabolic activity, epithelial resistance, epithelial permeability, tight junction protein (occludin and claudin 3) expression, cell membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation were investigated. The data demonstrated that acrolein exposure at 500 μM significantly reduced vocal fold epithelial metabolic activity by 27.2% (p≤0.001). Incubation with 100 μM acrolein caused a marked increase in epithelial permeability by 130.5% (pacrolein-treated samples, the cell membrane integrity was significantly damaged with a 45.6% increase of lipid peroxidation as compared to controls (pacrolein exposure impairs vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Lipid peroxidation-induced cell membrane damage may play an important role in reducing the barrier function of the epithelium.

  12. Marine boundary layer over the subtropical southeast Pacific during VOCALS-REx – Part 2: Synoptic variability

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    D. A. Rahn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of this work we study the day-to-day variability of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MBL over the subtropical southeast Pacific using primarily results from a numerical simulation that covered the whole VOCALS-REx period (October–November 2008. In situ and satellite-derived observations of the MBL height in the offshore region indicate rapid, significant variations (from 500 m to 1700 m a.s.l. over a few days during October. These MBL changes are connected with the passage of midlatitude troughs that altered the large-scale environment over the VOCALS-REx region. In contrast, the synoptic forcing and MBL changes were less prominent during November. Modelled and observed MBL depth at Point Omega (20° S, 85° W compare quite well during October (but the simulation is on average 200 m lower while in November the simulation does not perform as well.

    In the prognostic local MBL height equation the height change, the horizontal MBL height advection, and the large scale vertical velocity at MBL top are calculated explicitly from the simulation. The entrainment velocity is calculated as the residual of the other terms in the equation. While the vertical velocity and residual terms are opposing and generally have the largest magnitude on average, it is the variability in the advection that explains most of the large changes in the MBL depth. Examination of several cases during VOCALS-REx suggests that the advective term is in turn largely controlled by changes in wind direction, driven by midlatitude activity, acting on a MBL that generally slopes down toward the coast. In one phase, the subtropical anticyclone is reinforced and extends toward the Chilean coast, leading to easterly wind that advects low MBL heights from the coast as far as Point Omega. The opposite phase occurs after the passage of an extratropical cyclone over southern Chile, leading to southwesterly wind that advects a deeper MBL towards subtropical

  13. Heart rate variability is reduced during acute uncomplicated diverticulitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chenxi; Alamili, Mahdi; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to report the trajectory of heart rate variability (HRV) indices during a low-grade acute inflammation and their associations to biomarkers for infection. METHODS: Twelve patients with uncomplicated acute diverticulitis completed this observational study...

  14. Analysis of within subjects variability in mouse ultrasonic vocalization: pups exhibit inconsistent, state-like patterns of call production

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    Michael Adam Rieger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV in multiple communicative contexts, including adult social interaction (e.g., male to female courtship, as well as pup calls when separated from the dam. Assessment of pup USV has been widely applied in models of social and communicative disorders, dozens of which have shown alterations to this conserved behavior. However, features such as call production rate can vary substantially even within experimental groups and it is unclear to what extent aspects of USV represent stable trait-like influences or are vulnerable to an animal's state. To address this question, we have employed a mixed modeling approach to describe consistency in USV features across time, leveraging multiple large cohorts recorded from two strains, and across ages/times. We find that most features of pup USV show consistent patterns within a recording session, but inconsistent patterns across postnatal development. This supports the conclusion that pup USV is most strongly influenced by state-like variables. In contrast, adult USV call rate and call duration show higher consistency across sessions and may reflect a stable trait. However, spectral features of adult song such as the presence of pitch jumps do not show this level of consistency, suggesting that pitch modulation is more susceptible to factors affecting the animal's state at the time of recording. Overall, the utility of this work is threefold. First, as variability necessarily affects the sensitivity of the assay to detect experimental perturbation, we hope the information provided here will be used to help researchers plan sufficiently powered experiments, as well as prioritize specific ages to study USV behavior and to decide which features to consider most strongly in analysis. Second, via the mouseTube platform, we have provided these hundreds of recordings and associated data to serve as a shared resource for other researchers interested in either benchmark data for

  15. Do vocal warm-up exercises alleviate vocal fatigue?

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    Milbrath, Rochelle L; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2003-04-01

    Vocal warm-up (WU) exercises of varying types and durations have been suggested as a way of improving vocal function. However, limited research has been conducted to assess the effects of vocal WU exercises on normal or disordered voices. This study attempted to manipulate vocal function, assessed by phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and self-perceived phonatory effort (PPE) at 3 pitches, in 8 young women who reported symptoms of chronic vocal fatigue. Predictions were that PTP and PPE would decrease after 20 min of vocal WU exercises, increase after 1 hr of loud reading, and decrease after 30 min of vocal silence. Furthermore, greater increases in PTP and PPE were expected when the loud-reading task was preceded by a placebo condition of vocal rest than by vocal WU exercises. Results failed to reveal statistically significant changes in PTP or PPE after any of the experimental tasks. High between-subject variability contributed to this result. Removal of 1 outlier from the sample resulted in a statistically significant difference for PTP across tasks, although post hoc pairwise comparisons failed to detect specific effects. Informal inspection of the data indicated that the most obvious difference was an increase in PTP after the loud-reading task at the highest pitch.

  16. Clinical Application of Heart Rate Variability after Acute Myocardial Infarction

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    Heikki Veli Huikuri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHeart rate (HR variability has been extensively studied in patients surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI. The majority of studies have shown that patients with reduced or abnormal HR variability/turbulence have an increased risk of mortality within few years after an AMI. Various measures of HR dynamics, such as time-domain, spectral, and non-linear measures of HR variability, as well as HR turbulence, have been used in risk stratification of post-AMI patients. The prognostic power of various measures, except of those reflecting rapid R-R interval oscillations, has been almost identical, albeit some non-linear HR variability measures, such as short-term fractal scaling exponent, and HR turbulence, have provided somewhat better prognostic information than the others. Abnormal HR variability predicts both sudden and non-sudden cardiac death after AMI. Because of remodeling of the arrhythmia substrate after AMI, early measurement of HR variability to identify those at high risk should likely be repeated later in order to assess the risk of fatal arrhythmia events. Future randomized trials using HR variability/turbulence as one of the pre-defined inclusion criteria will show whether routine measurement of HR variability/turbulence will become a routine clinical tool for risk stratification of post-AMI patients.

  17. Quantification of acute vocal fold epithelial surface damage with increasing time and magnitude doses of vibration exposure.

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    Tsuyoshi Kojima

    Full Text Available Because the vocal folds undergo repeated trauma during continuous cycles of vibration, the epithelium is routinely susceptible to damage during phonation. Excessive and prolonged vibration exposure is considered a significant predisposing factor in the development of vocal fold pathology. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the extent of epithelial surface damage following increased time and magnitude doses of vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit phonation model. Forty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to nine groups and received varying phonation time-doses (30, 60, or 120 minutes and magnitude-doses (control, modal intensity phonation, or raised intensity phonation of vibration exposure. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was used to quantify the degree of epithelial surface damage. Results revealed a significant reduction in microprojection density, microprojection height, and depth of the epithelial surface with increasing time and phonation magnitudes doses, signifying increased epithelial surface damage risk with excessive and prolonged vibration exposure. Destruction to the epithelial cell surface may provide significant insight into the disruption of cell function following prolonged vibration exposure. One important goal achieved in the present study was the quantification of epithelial surface damage using objective imaging criteria. These data provide an important foundation for future studies of long-term tissue recovery from excessive and prolonged vibration exposure.

  18. Heart rate variability is reduced during acute uncomplicated diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chenxi; Alamili, Mahdi; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the trajectory of heart rate variability (HRV) indices during a low-grade acute inflammation and their associations to biomarkers for infection. Twelve patients with uncomplicated acute diverticulitis completed this observational study, which composed of 3 sessions of continuous HRV recording from 9 PM to 8 AM during ongoing diverticulitis and at complete remission (baseline). The blood samples were collected at each study session measuring C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocytes. This study showed that the trajectories of the HRV indices were decreased both in time and frequency domains during acute diverticulitis compared to baseline. In particular, the indices reflecting the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic activities were affected: standard deviation of normal-to-normal beats (P = .003), low-frequency power (P diverticulitis suggesting inflammatory involvement in the observed HRV alterations. We found substantial HRV depression in relation to acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, and this was associated with the elevated CRP levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. NOAEL-dose of a neonicotinoid pesticide, clothianidin, acutely induce anxiety-related behavior with human-audible vocalizations in male mice in a novel environment.

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    Hirano, Tetsushi; Yanai, Shogo; Takada, Tadashi; Yoneda, Naoki; Omotehara, Takuya; Kubota, Naoto; Minami, Kiichi; Yamamoto, Anzu; Mantani, Youhei; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2018-01-05

    Neonicotinoids are novel systemic pesticides acting as agonists on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects. Experimental studies have revealed that neonicotinoids pose potential risks for the nervous systems of non-target species, but the brain regions responsible for their behavioral effects remain incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess the neurobehavioral effects of clothianidin (CTD), a later neonicotinoid developed in 2001 and widely used worldwide, and to explore the target regions of neonicotinoids in the mammalian brain. A single-administration of 5 or 50mg/kg CTD to male C57BL/6N mice at or below the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) induced an acute increase in anxiety during the elevated plus-maze test. In addition, mice in the CTD-administered group spontaneously emitted human-audible vocalizations (4-16kHz), which are behavioral signs of aversive emotions, and showed increased numbers of c-fos immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In conclusion, mice exposed to NOAEL-dose CTD would be rendered vulnerable to a novel environment via the activation of thalamic and hippocampal regions related to stress responses. These findings should provide critical insight into the neurobehavioral effects of neonicotinoids on mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Variability of patient safety culture in Belgian acute hospitals.

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    Vlayen, Annemie; Schrooten, Ward; Wami, Welcome; Aerts, Marc; Barrado, Leandro Garcia; Claes, Neree; Hellings, Johan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to measure differences in safety culture perceptions within Belgian acute hospitals and to examine variability based on language, work area, staff position, and work experience. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed to hospitals participating in the national quality and safety program (2007-2009). Hospitals were invited to participate in a comparative study. Data of 47,136 respondents from 89 acute hospitals were used for quantitative analysis. Percentages of positive response were calculated on 12 dimensions. Generalized estimating equations models were fitted to explore differences in safety culture. Handoffs and transitions, staffing, and management support for patient safety were considered as major problem areas. Dutch-speaking hospitals had higher odds of positive perceptions for most dimensions in comparison with French-speaking hospitals. Safety culture scores were more positive for respondents working in pediatrics, psychiatry, and rehabilitation compared with the emergency department, operating theater, and multiple hospital units. We found an important gap in safety culture perceptions between leaders and assistants within disciplines. Administration and middle management had lower perceptions toward patient safety. Respondents working less than 1 year in the current hospital had more positive safety culture perceptions in comparison with all other respondents. Large comparative databases provide the opportunity to identify distinct high and low scoring groups. In our study, language, work area, and profession were identified as important safety culture predictors. Years of experience in the hospital had only a small effect on safety culture perceptions.

  1. Macrogeographical variability in the great call of Hylobates agilis: assessing the applicability of vocal analysis in studies of fine-scale taxonomy of gibbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R; Pedersen, Adam Frederik Sander; Wang, Christian William

    2010-01-01

    Vocal characteristics have been used extensively to distinguish different taxonomic units of gibbons (family Hylobatidae). The agile gibbon (Hylobates agilis) has a disjunct distribution range in the Southeast Asian archipelago (remnants of the former Sunda landmass), and populations on different...

  2. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

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    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  3. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

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    Ingo Titze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size, range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1 laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2 nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid, so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers, increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations.

  4. Vocal economy in vocally trained actresses and untrained female subjects.

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    Master, Suely; Guzman, Marco; Dowdall, Jayme

    2013-11-01

    Vocally trained actresses are expected to have more vocal economy than nonactresses. Therefore, we hypothesize that there will be differences in the electroglottogram-based voice economy parameter quasi-output cost ratio (QOCR) between actresses and nonactresses. This difference should remain across different levels of intensity. A total of 30 actresses and 30 nonactresses were recruited for this study. Participants from both groups were required to sustain the vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/, in habitual, moderate, and high intensity levels. Acoustic variables such as sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), and glottal contact quotient (CQ) were obtained. The QOCR was then calculated. There were no significant differences among the groups for QOCR. Positive correlations were observed for QOCR versus SPL and QOCR versus F0 in all intensity levels. Negative correlation was found between QOCR and CQ in all intensity levels. Considering the differences among intensity levels, from habitual to moderate and from moderate to loud, only the CQ did not differ significantly. The QOCR, SPL, and F0 presented significant differences throughout the different intensity levels. The QOCR did not reflect the level of vocal training when comparing trained and nontrained female subjects in the present study. Both groups demonstrated more vocal economy in moderate and high intensity levels owing to more voice output without an increase in glottal adduction. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 20180311 - Variability of LD50 Values from Rat Oral Acute Toxicity Studies: Implications for Alternative Model Development (SOT)

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    Alternative models developed for estimating acute systemic toxicity are generally evaluated using in vivo LD50 values. However, in vivo acute systemic toxicity studies can produce variable results, even when conducted according to accepted test guidelines. This variability can ma...

  6. Coping strategies in teachers with vocal complaint.

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    Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Behlau, Mara

    2014-05-01

    To understand the coping strategies used by teachers with vocal complaints, compare the differences between those who seek and those who do not seek voice therapy, and investigate the relationships among coping and voice perceptual analysis, coping and signs and symptoms of voice, and coping and participation restrictions and limitations in vocal activities. Cross-sectional nonrandomized prospective study with control group. Ninety female teachers participated in the study, of similar ages, divided into three groups: group 1 (G1) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who sought voice therapy, group 2 (G2) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who never sought voice therapy, and group 3 (G3) comprised 30 teachers without vocal complaints. The following analysis were conducted: identification and characterization questionnaire, addressing personal and occupational description, recording speech material for voice perceptual analysis, Voice Signs and Symptoms Questionnaire, Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP), and Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire (VDCQ)-Brazilian Version. In relation to the voice perceptual analysis, there was statistically significant difference between the groups with vocal complaint (G1+G2), which had showed voices with mild-to-moderate deviation, and the group without vocal complaint (G1), which showed voices within the normal variability of voice quality (mean for G1 = 49.9, G2 = 43.7, and G3 = 32.3, P Teachers with vocal complaints who looked for voice therapy use more coping strategies. Moreover, they present a tendency to use more problem-focused coping strategies. Voice symptoms prompt the teachers into seeking treatment; however, they are not correlated with the coping itself. In general, the higher the perception of limitation and restriction of participating in vocal activities, the greater the use of coping strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of vocal and instrumental music on cardio respiratory variables, energy expenditure and exertion levels during sub maximal treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, D; Sejil, T V; Rao, Shwetha; Roshan, C J; Roshan, C J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vocal and instrumental music on various physiological parameters during submaximal exercise. Each subject underwent three sessions of exercise protocol without music, with vocal music, and instrumental versions of same piece of music. The protocol consisted of 10 min treadmill exercise at 70% HR(max) and 20 min of recovery. Minute to minute heart rate and breath by breath recording of respiratory parameters, rate of energy expenditure and perceived exertion levels were measured. Music, irrespective of the presence or absence of lyrics, enabled the subjects to exercise at a significantly lower heart rate and oxygen consumption, reduced the metabolic cost and perceived exertion levels of exercise (P Music having a relaxant effect could have probably increased the parasympathetic activation leading to these effects.

  8. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Emilie M. M.; Yoo, Albert J.; Beenen, Ludo F.; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; den Blanken, Mark D.; Wismans, Carrie; Niessen, Wiro J.; Majoie, Charles B.; Marquering, Henk A.; Fransen, Puck S. S.; Beumer, Debbie; van den Berg, Lucie A.; Lingsma, Hester F.; Schonewille, Wouter J.; Vos, Jan Albert; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Wermer, Marieke J. H.; van Walderveen, Marianne A. A.; Staals, Julie; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; van Oostayen, Jacques A.; Lycklama à Nijeholt, Geert J.; Boiten, Jelis; Brouwer, Patrick A.; Emmer, Bart J.; de Bruijn, Sebastiaan F.; van Dijk, Lukas C.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Lo, Rob H.; van Dijk, Ewoud J.; de Vries, Joost; de Kort, Paul L. M.; van den Berg, Jan S. P.; A A M van Hasselt, Boudewijn; Aerden, Leo A. M.; Dallinga, René J.; Visser, Marieke C.; Bot, Joseph C. J.; Vroomen, Patrick C.; Eshghi, Omid; Schreuder, Tobien H. C. M. L.; Heijboer, Roel J. J.; Keizer, Koos; Tielbeek, Alexander V.; Hertog, Heleen M. Den; Gerrits, Dick G.; van den Berg-Vos, Renske M.; Karas, Giorgos B.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Flach, H. Zwenneke; Sprengers, Marieke E. S.; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F. M.; van den Berg, René; Koudstaal, Peter J.; van Zwam, Wim H.; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; van der Lugt, Aad; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert

  9. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.M. Santos (Emilie M.); A.J. Yoo (Albert J.); L.F.M. Beenen (Ludo); O.A. Berkhemer (Olvert); M.D. Den Blanken (Mark D.); C. Wismans (Carrie); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); C.B. Majoie (Charles); H. Marquering (Henk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by

  10. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, E.M.; Yoo, A.J.; Beenen, L.F.; Berkhemer, O.A.; Blanken, M.D. den; Wismans, C.; Niessen, W.J.; Majoie, C.B.; Marquering, H.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and

  11. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Vocal Symptoms and Their Intercorrelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybacka, Ida; Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, Simberg et al. (2009) found genetic effects on a composite variable consisting of 6 vocal symptom items measuring dysphonia. The purpose of the present study was to determine genetic and environmental effects on the individual vocal symptoms in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. Method: The sample comprised 1,728 twins…

  12. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Continuous Vocalization during Kendo Exercises Suppresses Expiration of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, H; Terada, T; Takahashi, T; Kizaki, K; Imai, H; Era, S

    2015-06-01

    One distinctive trait of kendo, the Japanese martial art of fencing, is the execution of sustained, high-effort vocalizations during actions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of these vocalizations on respiratory functions. First, the intensity of 3 kendo exercises was quantified by measuring oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and comparing it with V̇O2max measured during treadmill tests of 8 university kendo athletes. Respiratory variables of these 8 athletes were then analyzed using a portable breath gas analyzer during the most intensive kendo exercise, kakari-keiko, with and without vocalization. Breathing frequency (fB) increased regardless of vocalization, but in trials with vocalization, fB and ventilation were significantly lower, and expiration time was significantly longer. Components of expired gases were also affected by vocalization. Although there was no significant difference in oxygen uptake, vocalization yielded a reduction in carbon dioxide output (V̇CO2) and an increase in fraction of end-tidal carbon dioxide (FetCO2). We thus conclude that these vocalizations greatly affect expiration breathing patterns in kendo. Moreover, repetition of kakari-keiko caused a reduction in V̇CO2 and an increase in FetCO2 and CO2 storage. We consider the possibility that the sustained high-effort vocalizations of kendo also increase cerebral blood flow. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Vocal Fold Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decades-long project to develop an electrical stimulation technology to help people avoid having a tracheotomy when both vocal folds are paralyzed. The device, which currently is being tested in animals and people, uses an implanted pacemaker to stimulate ...

  15. Impacto vocal de professores Teachers' vocal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ricarte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o impacto vocal nas atividades diárias em professores do ensino médio. Correlacionar os achado da auto-percepção do problema vocal com os aspectos: efeitos no trabalho, na comunicação diária, na comunicação social e na sua emoção. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por 107 professores, sendo 86 com queixa e 21 sem queixa, selecionados em escolas da rede particular de ensino de Maceió-AL. Cada professor respondeu individualmente o protocolo Perfil Participação em Atividades Vocais na presença da pesquisadora, assinalando suas respostas em uma escala visual que varia de 0 a 10. O protocolo é composto por 28 questões com a presença integrada em cinco aspectos englobados para avaliar a qualidade de vida e o resultado de tratamentos vocais. O protocolo oferece, ainda, dois escores adicionais: pontuação de limitação nas atividades (PLA e de restrição de participação (PRP. RESULTADOS: na comparação dos grupos com e sem queixa vocal foram verificados que todos os resultados foram estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: to analyze the vocal impact in the daily activities on high-school teachers. Correlate the finding of the auto-perception on the vocal problem with the following aspects: effects in the work, daily communication, social communication and, its emotion METHODS: the sample consisted of 107 teachers, 86 with and 21 with no complaint, selected from private teaching schools in Maceió-AL. Each teacher answered individually the Protocol for Voice Activity Participation Profile in the presence of the researcher, noting their responses on a visual scale ranging from 0 to 10. The protocol is composed of 28 questions with the presence integrated in five aspects to evaluate the quality of life and the result of vocal treatments. The protocol offers, still, two additional scores: punctuation of limitation in the activities (PLA and restriction of participation (PRP. RESULTS: comparing the groups with

  16. Glucose Variability and Mortality in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipska, Kasia J.; Venkitachalam, Lakshmi; Gosch, Kensey; Kovatchev, Boris; van den Berghe, Greet; Meyfroidt, Geert; Jones, Philip G.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.; Spertus, John A.; DeVries, J. Hans; Kosiborod, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    Background-Mean blood glucose (BG) during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an important predictor of inpatient mortality but does not capture glucose variability (GV), which has been shown to be independently associated with mortality in critically ill patients. Whether GV is associated with

  17. Heart rate variability and baroreceptor sensitivity in acute stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yperzeele, Laetitia; van Hooff, Robbert-Jan; Nagels, Guy; De Smedt, Ann; De Keyser, Jacques; Brouns, Raf

    2015-08-01

    Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is common after acute stroke and is associated with elevated risk of cardiac arrhythmia and mortality. Heart rate variability and baroreceptor sensitivity have been investigated as parameters of autonomic nervous system dysfunction for the prediction of stroke outcome. We performed a systematic literature review on heart rate variability and baroreceptor sensitivity as parameters for autonomic nervous function in acute stroke. Twenty-two studies were included. Associations between heart rate variability or baroreceptor sensitivity and stroke severity, early and late complications, dependency and mortality were reported. However, interpretability of most studies and extrapolation to general stroke population are limited due to many confounding factors such as varying methodology, small sample sizes, survival selection, and exclusion of patients with frequently occurring comorbidities in stroke. Key issues, such as the effect of thrombolytic therapy on autonomic function, autonomic nervous system dysfunction in the hyperacute phase of stroke, and correlation with the risk of recurrent stroke have not been investigated. Also, nonlinear techniques have remained largely unexplored in this domain, in spite of their advantage to provide more solid evaluation in the occurrence of arrhythmia. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction, represented by reduced heart rate variability or impaired baroreceptor sensitivity, is associated with stroke severity, early and late complications, dependency, and mortality. Large-scale prospective studies applying internationally accepted standards of measures for analysis of heart rate variability and baroreceptor sensitivity are needed in patients with acute stroke. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  18. Vocal coordination and vocal imitation: a role for mirror neurons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John D

    2014-04-01

    Some birds and mammals have vocal communication systems in which coordination between individuals is important. Examples would include duetting or antiphonal calling in some birds and mammals, rapid exchanges of the same vocalization, and vocal exchanges between paired individuals and other nearby pairs. Mirror neurons may play a role in such systems but become functional only after experience.

  19. MARATHON DESPITE UNILATERAL VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach

    2008-06-01

    vocal fold paralysis for the first time. Although a marathon race is an endurance exertion without maximum acute strain on the respiratory system (McArdle et al., 2001, the sport medical examinations also showed no restriction at maximum exertion, neither expiratory nor inspiratory. An unilateral vocal fold paralysis is apparently not such a serious obstacle to the respiratory tract that one would have to reckon with a clear-cut respiratory deficit. Exercise testing of larger samples of patients with vocal fold paralysis should be performed concerning their capacity to endure exertion.The question in the present case thus remains the causal connection between the paralysis and unspecific respiratory complaints. The laryngological examination speaks against an acute event. A possible cause of the vocal fold paralysis is the thoracotomy or the pleuritis in childhood; Due to the time lapse of over 40 years, this cannot be proven. The entire diagnostic spectrum excluded another organic cause for her respiratory complaints, so that we tend to assume a functional or psychosomatic nature. As the symptoms vanished spontaneously, no further proof of this can be offered

  20. Role of heart rate variability in predicting the severity of severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyao; Zhou, Jing; Ke, Lu; Nie, Yao; Tong, Zhihui; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2014-10-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) are major complications of acute pancreatitis which determine disease severity and outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate the value of admission heart rate variability as a marker of IPN or MODS in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients. Forty-one SAP patients within 72 h of symptoms onset were included in this prospective observational study. General demographics, laboratory data and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores were recorded at admission. 5-minute ECG signals were obtained at the same time for heart rate variability analyses to assess SAP severity. The baseline heart rate variability measurements, levels of low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) were significantly lower whereas high frequency norm (nHF) levels were significantly higher in patients who present with IPN and MODS or died (P procalcitonin. nHF and LF/HF were better than APACHE II in predicting IPN and LF/HF showed superiority over APACHE II in the prediction of MODS. Admission heart rate variability is a good marker of IPN and MODS in SAP patients.

  1. The Role of Lexical Stress on the Use of Vocal Fry in Young Adult Female Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    Vocal fry is a voice register often used by young adult women for sociolinguistic purposes. Some acoustic correlates of lexical stress, however, appear incompatible with the use of vocal fry. The objective of this study was to systematically examine the role of lexical stress in the use of vocal fry by young adult women. This is a semi-randomized controlled laboratory study. Fifty female undergraduate students were recorded repeating one-, two-, three-, and four-syllable nonwords that conformed to English phonotactics. Nonwords were presented in order from shorter to longer lengths, with stimuli randomized within syllable length. Perceptual analyses of recordings were augmented by acoustic analyses to identify each syllable in which vocal fry occurred. Eighty-six percent of participants produced at least one episode of vocal fry. Vocal fry was more likely to occur in unstressed than stressed position, and the likelihood increased as distance from the stressed syllable increased. There was considerable variability in the use of vocal fry. Frequent and infrequent users varied on the degree to which they used vocal fry in single-syllable nonwords. Vocal fry use persists among young adult women even in the absence of syntactic and pragmatic influences. Lexical stress appeared to dramatically reduce the use of vocal fry. Patterns of vocal fry use appeared to be different for frequent and infrequent users of this vocal register. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model...... of the vocal fold collision is proposed, which incorporates different procedures used in contact mechanics and mathematical optimization theories. The penalty approach and the Lagrange multiplier method are investigated. The contact force solution obtained by the penalty formulation is highly dependent...

  3. Clinical Variables Associated with Hydration Status in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Shabbir, Yasmeen; Miller, Leslie; Silliman, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Acute stroke patients with dysphagia are at increased risk for poor hydration. Dysphagia management practices may directly impact hydration status. This study examined clinical factors that might impact hydration status in acute ischemic stroke patients with dysphagia. A retrospective chart review was completed on 67 ischemic stroke patients who participated in a prior study of nutrition and hydration status during acute care. Prior results indicated that patients with dysphagia demonstrated elevated BUN/Cr compared to non-dysphagia cases during acute care and that BUN/Cr increased selectively in dysphagic patients. This chart review evaluated clinical variables potentially impacting hydration status: diuretics, parenteral fluids, tube feeding, oral diet, and nonoral (NPO) status. Exposure to any variable and number of days of exposure to each variable were examined. Dysphagia cases demonstrated significantly more NPO days, tube fed days, and parenteral fluid days, but not oral fed days, or days on diuretics. BUN/Cr values at discharge were not associated with NPO days, parenteral fluid days, oral fed days, or days on diuretics. Patients on modified solid diets had significantly higher mean BUN/Cr values at discharge (27.12 vs. 17.23) as did tube fed patients (28.94 vs. 18.66). No difference was noted between these subgroups at baseline (regular diet vs. modified solids diets). Any modification of solid diets (31.11 vs. 17.23) or thickened liquids (28.50 vs. 17.81) resulted in significantly elevated BUN/Cr values at discharge. Liquid or diet modifications prescribed for acute stroke patients with dysphagia may impair hydration status in these patients.

  4. Intraindividual variability and the effect of acute illness on immune senescence markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, Kevin P; Trader, Melissa; Pahor, Marco; Loeb, Mark

    2005-10-01

    To determine the intraindividual variability and effect of acute illness on two markers of immune senescence. Cohort study with repeated measures. Clinical research center and emergency department at two academic medical centers. Seventy-three subjects aged 65 and older enrolled in three groups: chronic underlying conditions but no acute illness, acutely ill with infection (community-acquired pneumonia), and acutely ill without infection. CD16 density on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and the proportion of CD8+ T cells that express CD28 determined twice in the nonacutely ill group and three times (Days 0, 30, and 60) in the acute illness groups. In the nonacutely ill group, PMN CD16 density demonstrated wide intraindividual variation, but there was a strong correlation for repeated measures of the percentage of CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 (correlation coefficient (r)=0.77, PDay 0 versus Day 30 for either immune marker. In contrast, a strong correlation existed between Day 30 and Day 60 values, particularly for CD8+/CD28+ percentage (r=0.58-0.86; P=.006 to days of convalescence appears adequate for it to return to baseline.

  5. Heart rate variability and muscle sympathetic nerve activity response to acute stress: the effect of breathing

    OpenAIRE

    DeBeck, Lindsay D.; Petersen, Stewart R.; Jones, Kelvin E.; Stickland, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a relationship between low-frequency power of heart rate variability (HRV; LF in normalized units, LFnu) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). However, investigations have not systematically controlled for breathing, which can modulate both HRV and MSNA. Accordingly, the aims of this experiment were to investigate the possibility of parallel responses in MSNA and HRV (LFnu) to selected acute stressors and the effect of controlled breathing. After data w...

  6. Fractal analysis of heart rate variability and mortality after an acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapanainen, Jari M; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Køber, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The recently developed fractal analysis of heart rate (HR) variability has been suggested to provide prognostic information about patients with heart failure. This prospective multicenter study was designed to assess the prognostic significance of fractal and traditional HR variability parameters...... in a large, consecutive series of survivors of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A consecutive series of 697 patients were recruited to participate 2 to 7 days after an AMI in 3 Nordic university hospitals. The conventional time-domain and spectral parameters and the newer fractal scaling indexes of HR...... variability were analyzed from 24-hour RR interval recordings. During the mean follow-up of 18.4 +/- 6.5 months, 49 patients (7.0%) died. Of all the risk variables, a reduced short-term fractal scaling exponent (alpha(1)

  7. Vocal matching by orange-fronted conures (Aratinga canicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balsby, Thorsten J S; Bradbury, Jack W

    2009-01-01

    The functions of vocal matching have been clarified in territorial songbirds, compositionally stable groups of birds and mammals, and species with multiple alarm or assembly signals. The functions of vocal matching are less well understood in fission/fusion species that are non-territorial, live...... in groups with variable composition, and lack multiple alarm signals. Here we present the results of interactive playbacks in a fission/fusion parrot species, the orange-fronted conjure (Aratinga canicularis), that provide evidence of vocal matching. A randomly selected loud contact call (chee) per trial...

  8. Vocal Quality in Theater Actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Meerschman, Iris; Claeys, Sofie; Leyns, Clara; Daelman, Julie; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate vocal quality, vocal complaints, and risk factors for developing voice disorders in theater actors. Secondly, the impact of one vocal performance on the voice was investigated by comparing objective and subjective vocal quality before and after a theater performance. Prospective study of the actors' voice prior to and after a performance METHODS: Speech samples of 26 theater actors (15 men, 11 women, mean age 41.9 years) were recorded before and after a theater performance of one and a half hour and analyzed using the software program Praat. Speech samples consisted of the combination of sustained phonation and continuous speech. For each speech sample, the Acoustic Voice Quality Index was calculated. Auditory perceptual evaluations were performed using the GRBASI scale. Questionnaires were used to inventory vocal symptoms and influencing factors. Acoustic analysis showed a mean Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) of 3.48 corresponding with a mild dysphonia. Fifty percent of the theater actors reported having (sometimes or regularly) vocal complaints after a performance. The questionnaire revealed a high presence of vocally violent behavior and poor vocal hygiene habits. Objective vocal quality, measured by the AVQI, did not change after a theater performance. The auditory perceptual evaluation of the overall grade of dysphonia showed a subtle amelioration of the vocal quality. The results of this study showed the presence of mild dysphonia, regular vocal complaints, and poor vocal hygiene habits in theater actors. A theater performance did not have an impact on the objective vocal quality. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Systolic Blood Pressure Variability is a Novel Risk Factor for Rebleeding in Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-Song; Ping-Chen; Lin, Yuan-Xiang; Lin, Zhang-Ya; Yu, Liang-Hong; Dai, Lin-Sun; Kang, De-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rebleeding of an aneurysm is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated predictors of rebleeding and effect of systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) on stroke, few data on the association between SBPV and rebleeding. Here, we sought to identify the effect of SBPV on rebleeding in acute aneurysmal SAH. Case–control study. From January 2010 to June 2015, 612 patients with aneurysmal SAH were enrolled in our tertiary care medical center. Main outcome measures: Consecutive patients with acute (ictus) aneurismal rebleeding or repair or death were retrospectively included. Antihypertensive therapy based on a predefined standardized protocol was prescribed to lower and maintain SBP between 120 and 160 mm Hg. SBP was measured hourly until a censoring event occurred. SBPV was determined as standard deviation (SD) and successive variation (SV). Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between SBPV and rebleeding. Rebleeding occurred in 61 (10.0%) of the 612 patients. We identified 47 acute rebleeding as cases and 382 early repair or early death as controls. On binary logistic regression analysis, rebleeding was associated with the SD of SBP (odds ratio [OR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.131–1.391; P < 0.001) and the SV of SBP (OR, 1.131; 95% CI, 1.039–1.231; P = 0.004). No significant difference was seen between rebleeding and mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP). SBPV is associated with increased rates of acute aneurysmal rebleeding. Further prospective research is warranted to confirm that SBP stability prevents acute aneurysm rebleeding. PMID:26986118

  10. Acute low back pain is marked by variability: An internet-based pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Jeffrey N

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain variability in acute LBP has received limited study. The objectives of this pilot study were to characterize fluctuations in pain during acute LBP, to determine whether self-reported 'flares' of pain represent discrete periods of increased pain intensity, and to examine whether the frequency of flares was associated with back-related disability outcomes. Methods We conducted a cohort study of acute LBP patients utilizing frequent serial assessments and Internet-based data collection. Adults with acute LBP (lasting ≤3 months completed questionnaires at the time of seeking care, and at both 3-day and 1-week intervals, for 6 weeks. Back pain was measured using a numerical pain rating scale (NPRS, and disability was measured using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI. A pain flare was defined as 'a period of increased pain lasting at least 2 hours, when your pain intensity is distinctly worse than it has been recently'. We used mixed-effects linear regression to model longitudinal changes in pain intensity, and multivariate linear regression to model associations between flare frequency and disability outcomes. Results 42 of 47 participants (89% reported pain flares, and the average number of discrete flare periods per patient was 3.5 over 6 weeks of follow-up. More than half of flares were less than 4 hours in duration, and about 75% of flares were less than one day in duration. A model with a quadratic trend for time best characterized improvements in pain. Pain decreased rapidly during the first 14 days after seeking care, and leveled off after about 28 days. Patients who reported a pain flare experienced an almost 3-point greater current NPRS than those not reporting a flare (mean difference [SD] 2.70 [0.11]; p ß [SE} 0.28 (0.08; p = 0.002. Conclusions Acute LBP is characterized by variability. Patients with acute LBP report multiple distinct flares of pain, which correspond to discrete increases in pain intensity. A

  11. Effects of vocalization on throwing

    OpenAIRE

    村川, 増代; 野老, 稔; Masuyo, Murakawa; Minoru, Tokoro

    2008-01-01

    Subjects were 15 female university track and field athletes. In an attempt to improve athletic performance, subjects were instructed to throw a medicine ball and put a shot with and without vocalization. In addition,grip strength was measured in order to clarify the effects of vocalization on throwing. The results showed that significant differences between with and without vocalization were observed for the standing shot put,front medicine-ball throw,and chest medicine ball throw. A signific...

  12. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Emilie M.M. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yoo, Albert J. [Texas Stroke Institute, Plano, TX (United States); Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berkhemer, Olvert A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie [AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the MR CLEAN investigators

    2016-02-15

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  13. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Emilie M.M.; Yoo, Albert J.; Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B.; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie; Niessen, Wiro J.; Marquering, Henk A.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  14. [Management of acute bronchiolitis in spanish emergency wards: variability and appropriateness analysis (aBREVIADo project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Sangrador, C; González de Dios, J

    2013-09-01

    The management of acute bronchiolitis (AB) is controversial. The aim of this multicenter nationwide study in Spain is to determine the variability in the management of AB in Primary Care centers. A cross-sectional observational study (from October 2007 to March 2008) was conducted on all cases of AB (McConnochie criteria) seen in a sample of 60 Health Care Centers from 11 regions of Spain, who did not require hospital admission. A comparison between autonomous communities was made. A total of 940 cases were collected. It was found that there was a low use of diagnostic tests, although with significant differences between communities. There was an excessive use of inhaled (64.1%) or oral (17.8%) beta 2-adrenergics, and to a lesser degree of corticosteroids (25%) and other treatments of unclear efficacy (antibiotics, bronchodilators, oral, inhaled corticosteroids, ipratropium bromide, etc...). The treatment methods in the different communities varied significantly. In the acute phase there was an inappropriate use of treatments in 74.8% of cases, and in 47.4% in the maintenance phase. There are discrepancies between routine practice and evidence-based management of outpatient AB, due to a wide use of inappropriate treatments. The variability in the prescription of bronchodilators or steroids between communities shows the lack of justification and there is scope for improvement. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of the FOUR Score (Spanish Version) in acute stroke: an interobserver variability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Luis; Fuentes, Blanca; Medina, Josmarlin; Gabaldón, Laura; Ruiz-Ares, Gerardo; Abenza, María José; Aguilar-Amat, María José; Martínez-Sánchez, Patricia; Rodríguez, Luis; Cazorla, Rubén; Martínez, Marta; Tafur, Alfonso; Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2010-01-01

    Methods to assess impaired consciousness in acute stroke typically include the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), but the verbal component has limitations in aphasic or intubated patients. The FOUR (Full Outline of UnResponsiveness) score, a new coma scale, evaluates 4 components: eye and motor responses, brainstem reflexes and respiration. We aimed to study the interobserver variability of the FOUR score in acute stroke patients. We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted from February to July 2008 to the stroke unit of our Neurology Department. Patients were evaluated by neurology residents and nurses using the FOUR score and the GCS. For both scales, we obtained paired and total weighted kappa values (Kw) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). NIH stroke scale was also recorded on admission. We obtained a total of 75 paired evaluations in 60 patients (41 cerebral infarctions, 15 cerebral hemorrhages and 4 transient ischemic attacks). Thirty-three (55%) patients were alert, 17 (28.3%) drowsy and 10 (16.7%) stuporous or comatose. The overall rater agreement was excellent in the FOUR score (Kw 0.93; 95% CI 0.89-0.97) with an ICC of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.96) and in the GCS (Kw 0.96; 95% CI 0.94-0.98) with an ICC of 0.96 (95% CI 0.93-0.97). A good correlation was found between the FOUR score and the GCS (rho 0.83; p FOUR score and the NIH stroke scale (rho -0.78; p FOUR score is a reliable scale for evaluating the level of consciousness in acute stroke patients, showing a good correlation with the GCS and the NIH stroke scale. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The effect of vocal tract impedance on the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the interaction between the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract with the flow across the vocal cords is well established. In this paper we are investigating the changes in vocal tract impedance when using the different modes of phonation according to Sadolin [1], going from...... the soft levels of the Neutral mode to the high levels of the fully ‘metallic’ Edge mode. The acoustic impedance of vocal tract as seen from the mouth opening is measured via a microphone placed close to the mouth when exciting the system with a volume velocity source [2]. At the same time a Laryngograph...... frontend is used to measure the electroglottograph signal which reflects the opening and closing pattern of the vocal folds. The measurements were carried out for all four modes (Neutral, Curbing, Overdrive and Edge) for the vowel [a] in three different pitches: C3(131 Hz), G3 (196 Hz) and C4 (262Hz...

  17. Adaptation to Delayed Speech Feedback Induces Temporal Recalibration between Vocal Sensory and Auditory Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. Participants read some sentences with specific delay times of DAF (0, 30, 75, 120 ms during three minutes to induce ‘Lag Adaptation’. After the adaptation, they then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback in producing simple voice but not speech. We found that speech production with lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  18. Intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.; Bidwell, Joseph R.; Cope, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Geis, S.; Greer, I.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kane, C.M.; May, T.W.; Neves, R.J.; Newton, T.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Whites, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the performance and variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and newly transformed juvenile mussels using the standard methods outlined in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Multiple 48-h toxicity tests with glochidia and 96-h tests with juvenile mussels were conducted within a single laboratory and among five laboratories. All tests met the test acceptability requirements (e.g., ???90% control survival). Intralaboratory tests were conducted over two consecutive mussel-spawning seasons with mucket (Actinonaias ligamentina) or fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. For the glochidia of both species, the variability of intralaboratory median effective concentrations (EC50s) for the three toxicants, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), ranged from 14 to 27% in 24-h exposures and from 13 to 36% in 48-h exposures. The intralaboratory CV of copper EC50s for juvenile fatmucket was 24% in 48-h exposures and 13% in 96-h exposures. Interlaboratory tests were conducted with fatmucket glochidia and juveniles by five laboratories using copper as a toxicant. The interlaboratory CV of copper EC50s for glochidia was 13% in 24-h exposures and 24% in 48-h exposures, and the interlaboratory CV for juveniles was 22% in 48-h exposures and 42% in 96-h exposures. The high completion success and the overall low variability in test results indicate that the test methods have acceptable precision and can be performed routinely. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  19. Medical image of the week: bilateral vocal cord paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hook CJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old morbidly obese woman with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to pulmonary emboli required emergency intubation. She was described by the anesthesiologist as having a difficult airway. The patient was liberated from the ventilator after two days. Following extubation she complained of hoarse voice and dyspnea. Physical exam revealed audible stridor. The upper airway was normal by CAT imaging. Flow-volume curve demonstrated marked flattening of both the inspiratory and expiratory limbs, consistent with a fixed extra-thoracic obstruction (Figure 1. Endoscopy revealed the vocal cords to be in the adducted position, with minimal movement throughout the respiratory cycle, consistent with bilateral vocal cord paralysis (Figure 2. Traumatic intubation follows thyroid surgery as the most common cause of bilateral vocal cord paralysis (1. In a minority of patients spontaneous recovery may occur. Surgical treatment options include cordotomy or tracheostomy. Nocturnal BIPAP has been used in patients who decline surgery (2.

  20. The relative effectiveness of vocal hygiene training and vocal function exercises in preventing voice disorders in primary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasa, Gulsen; Oates, Jennifer; Dacakis, Georgia

    2007-01-01

    Voice disorders in teachers have a significant impact on their occupational functioning and well being. Teachers are believed to have a high prevalence of voice problems because of the unfavourable acoustic environments in which they work and the high vocal demands and stress levels associated with teaching. Although the types of voice problems teachers experience should be preventable because they are caused by factors that teachers can change, there is limited information available regarding the effectiveness of different preventative strategies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vocal hygiene training (VH) and vocal function exercises (VFE) in reducing vocal symptoms and vocal misuse, and increasing knowledge of voice care, maximum phonation time, and maximum phonational frequency range in school teachers. Thirty-seven teachers from four schools in Melbourne, Australia, participated in the study. Schools were randomly allocated to one of three groups: VH, VFE, and no-treatment control. The VH and VFE participants reported improved vocal characteristics and voice knowledge after training while the control group showed deterioration on most variables. The VH participants showed greater improvements than the VFE participants. These fundings indicate that preventative voice training for teachers is likely to be effective.

  1. High Resolution ECG for Evaluation of QT Interval Variability during Exposure to Acute Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupet, P.; Finderle, Z.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Starc, V.

    2010-01-01

    Ventricular repolarization instability as quantified by the index of QT interval variability (QTVI) is one of the best predictors for risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Because it is difficult to appropriately monitor early signs of organ dysfunction at high altitude, we investigated whether high resolution advanced ECG (HR-ECG) analysis might be helpful as a non-invasive and easy-to-use tool for evaluating the risk of cardiac arrhythmias during exposure to acute hypoxia. 19 non-acclimatized healthy trained alpinists (age 37, 8 plus or minus 4,7 years) participated in the study. Five-minute high-resolution 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded (Cardiosoft) in each subject at rest in the supine position breathing room air and then after breathing 12.5% oxygen for 30 min. For beat-to-beat RR and QT variability, the program of Starc was utilized to derive standard time domain measures such as root mean square of the successive interval difference (rMSSD) of RRV and QTV, the corrected QT interval (QTc) and the QTVI in lead II. Changes were evaluated with paired-samples t-test with p-values less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. As expected, the RR interval and its variability both decreased with increasing altitude, with p = 0.000 and p = 0.005, respectively. Significant increases were found in both the rMSSDQT and the QTVI in lead II, with p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively. There was no change in QTc interval length (p = non significant). QT variability parameters may be useful for evaluating changes in ventricular repolarization caused by hypoxia. These changes might be driven by increases in sympathetic nervous system activity at ventricular level.

  2. Sleep-disordered breathing as a delayed complication of iatrogenic vocal cord trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Saadia A; Bashoura, Lara; Kodali, Lavanya; Hessel, Amy C; Evans, Scott E; Balachandran, Diwakar D

    2016-06-01

    A case of a 55-year-old woman with iatrogenic vocal cord trauma and sleep-related symptoms is reported. In particular, this case highlights sleep-disordered breathing as a delayed complication after iatrogenic vocal cord trauma. The patient developed acute stridor from a contralateral vocal cord hematoma following vocal fold injection for right vocal cord paralysis. Acute respiratory symptoms resolved with oxygen, steroids, and nebulized therapy, but nocturnal symptoms persisted and polysomnography revealed sleep-related hypoventilation and mild obstructive sleep apnea. Positive pressure therapy was successfully used to ameliorate her symptoms and treat sleep-disordered breathing until her hematoma resolved. In addition to the typically acute respiratory symptoms that may result from vocal cord dysfunction, sleep-disordered breathing may also present as a significant subacute or chronic problem. Management of the acute respiratory symptoms is relatively well established, but clinicians should be alert for more subtle nocturnal symptoms that may require further study with polysomnography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Acute Effect of Resistance Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction with Hemodynamic Variables on Hypertensive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Joamira P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the heart rate (HR before, during and after training at moderate intensity (MI, 50%-1RM and at low intensity with blood flow restriction (LIBFR. In a randomized controlled trial study, 14 subjects (average age 45±9,9 years performed one of the exercise protocols during two separate visits to the laboratory. SBP, DBP and HR measurements were collected prior to the start of the set and 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after knee extension exercises. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to identify significant variables (2 x 5; group x time. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in SBP in the LIBFR group. These results provide evidence that strength training performed acutely alters hemodynamic variables. However, training with blood flow restriction is more efficient in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive individuals than training with moderate intensity.

  4. Cervids With Different Vocal Behavior Demonstrate Different Viscoelastic Properties of Their Vocal Folds

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Tobias; Lingle, Susan; Hunter, Eric J.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and biomechanical properties covary with species-specific vocal function. They investigate mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) vocal folds, building on, and extending data on a related cervid, the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). The mule deer, in contrast to the elk, is a species with relatively little vocal activity in adult animals. Mule deer and elk vocal folds show the typical three components of the mammalian vocal fold ...

  5. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumović, Gordana; Veselinović, Mila; Arbutina, Tanja; Škrbić, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice) were also obtained by computer analysis. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (pdysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100) of adult patients and 29% (29/100) had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025) in all dysphonia parameters except SD FO and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD FO, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy) were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03). Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (pdysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affectinq diverse acoustic parameters.

  6. Affiliative processes and vocal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, C T

    1997-01-15

    Affiliative behavior is often expressed through communication, and the nature of affiliative interactions affects the ontogeny of communication. I presented three phenomena that demonstrate the importance of affiliation in vocal development in marmosets and tamarins, but the results have parallels in many other species including birds, dolphins, and humans. Pygmy marmosets use trill-like vocalizations to maintain contact with other group members. Individuals change subtle aspects of call structure when they encounter new social groups or acquire a new mate. This process of vocal accommodation is common in many other species. Infant pygmy marmosets go through a stage of "babbling." producing long sequences of vocalizations that have several similarities to the babbling of human infants. Babbling infants receive more social attention than nonbabbling infants, and these social interactions may shape vocalizations towards more adult forms. In adult cotton-top tamarins, food-associated vocalizations communicate the presence and quality of food. However, reproductively inhibited juveniles and subadults use many other types of calls in feeding situations and display a high proportion of imperfect forms of adult food-associated calls. When subadult monkeys are paired with new mates and change their reproductive status, they rapidly (within 3-6 weeks) display both adult structure and adult usage of food-associated calls, suggesting that affiliative processes can both facilitate and inhibit vocal ontogeny. Three mechanisms of how social interactions affect communication (multimodal stimulation, attentional focus, and reinforcement) were proposed and illustrated through examples of parrots learning English labels for objects and attributes and infant cotton-top tamarins acquiring food-associated vocalizations.

  7. Acute Phase Proteins and Variables of Protein Metabolism in Dairy Cows during the Pre- and Postpartal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cs. Tóthová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the concentrations of acute phase proteins and selected variables of protein metabolism in dairy cows of the Slovak Spotted breed from 4 weeks before parturition to 10 weeks after parturition. Acute phase proteins - haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA - and variables of protein metabolism - total proteins, albumin, urea, creatinine, total immunoglobulins - were evaluated in blood serum. Significant differences were found in average values of the Hp and SAA concentrations in several groups during the monitored period (P P P P P P P P P < 0.001. The above mentioned results indicate that in the time around parturition there are significant changes in concentrations of acute phase proteins, as well as in the whole protein metabolism of dairy cows. These facts suggest that the postparturient period is a critical biological phase, throughout which there is the highest incidence of metabolic disorders.

  8. Vocal handicap index in popular and erudite professional singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola-Barreiro, Camila Miranda; Silva, Marta Assumpção de Andrada E

    To compare the voice handicap index of popular and erudite professional singers according to gender, age, professional experience time, and presence or absence of self-reported vocal complaints. One hundred thirty-two professional singers, 74 popular and 58 erudite, who responded to a questionnaire with regards to identification, age, gender, professional experience time in singing, musical genres (for popular singers), vocal classification (for erudite singers), presence of self-reported vocal complaints, and the specific protocols for popular (Modern Singing Handicap Index - MSHI) and erudite (Classical Singing Handicap Index - CSHI) singing. Higher proportion of women and higher incidence of vocal complaints were observed in the popular singers compared with the erudite singers. Most of the popular singers belonged to the genre of Brazilian Popular Music. Regarding the classification of erudite singers, there was greater participation of sopranos and tenors. No statistical differences were observed with respect to age and professional experience time between the groups. Comparison of the MSHI and CSHI scores showed no statistically significant difference between these scores and genre or age in both groups of singers. Professional experience time was related to the total score and the subscales disability and impairment in the MSHI, only for popular singers with vocal complaints. There was no correlation between these variables and the CSHI for erudite singers. The impact of vocal difficulty/problem interferes differently in these two musical genres when related to vocal complaint and professional experience time. The MSHI and CSHI protocols proved to be important tools not only for the identification of problems, but also for the understanding of how these individuals relate their voices with this occupational activity.

  9. Factors associated with vocal fry among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor-Cutiva, Lady Catherine; Bottalico, Pasquale; Hunter, Eric

    2017-08-14

    Vocal fry is increasingly used in everyday speech. The purpose of this study was to identify associated factors of vocal fry among young US college-age students. Forty college students participated in a cross-sectional study. Participants produced speech under nine different room acoustic conditions (simulated). The recorded speech was perceptually evaluated by three speech-language pathologists. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables (individual, environmental) associated with the perceptual assessment of vocal fry. A high occurrence of perceptually identified vocal fry was identified among college students. Two factors were significantly associated with lower occurrence of perceptually identified vocal fry: one individual (sporadic consumption of caffeinated beverages) and one environmental factor (speaking in an environment with background noise). Similar to modal phonation, fry-like phonation seems to be influenced by individual and environmental factors. Therefore, clinicians interested in including this technique as part of their intervention programs may take into account the caffeine consumption and the background noise conditions of the room where the therapy will take place in order to facilitate the production of fry-like phonation.

  10. A Framework for Bioacoustic Vocalization Analysis Using Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Out-Nyarko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs as a recognition framework for automatic classification of animal vocalizations has a number of benefits, including the ability to handle duration variability through nonlinear time alignment, the ability to incorporate complex language or recognition constraints, and easy extendibility to continuous recognition and detection domains. In this work, we apply HMMs to several different species and bioacoustic tasks using generalized spectral features that can be easily adjusted across species and HMM network topologies suited to each task. This experimental work includes a simple call type classification task using one HMM per vocalization for repertoire analysis of Asian elephants, a language-constrained song recognition task using syllable models as base units for ortolan bunting vocalizations, and a stress stimulus differentiation task in poultry vocalizations using a non-sequential model via a one-state HMM with Gaussian mixtures. Results show strong performance across all tasks and illustrate the flexibility of the HMM framework for a variety of species, vocalization types, and analysis tasks.

  11. Sequential analysis of variable markers for predicting outcomes in pediatric patients with acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hajime; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Fukuda, Akinari; Sasaki, Kengo; Shigeta, Takanobu; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Kubota, Masaya; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Kasahara, Mureo

    2017-11-01

    Our aim was to analyze serial changes in the predictive variables and a scoring system retrospectively adapted to evaluate outcomes in pediatric patients with acute liver failure (ALF). We retrospectively collected data on 65 patients with ALF. The 65 patients were divided into two groups according to the need for liver transplantation (LT) as follows: LT group (n = 54) and non-LT group (n = 11). The early determination scoring system of the indications for LT proposed by the Intractable Hepato-Biliary Diseases Study Group of Japan (JIHBDSG) was used in our study. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was calculated for the JIHBDSG score between the LT group and non-LT group at the time of diagnosis (day 0) and day 3, and day 5 after the diagnosis. A JIHBDSG score of >3 at day 5 was found to identify the patients requiring LT with 83.7% sensitivity, 81.8% specificity, and 83.3% diagnostic accuracy. Based on a comparison of AUROC values, the JIHBDSG score on day 5 (AUROC 0.91) was higher than that on day 0 (AUROC 0.75) and day 3 (AUROC 0.84). We showed that a serial analysis of the JIHBDSG score might be useful for predicting outcomes of ALF in pediatric patients who fulfilled the criteria of LT indication in our center. However, further studies are needed to validate our results. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  12. Electroglottographic parameterization of the effects of gender, vowel and phonatory registers on vocal fold vibratory patterns: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nilanjan; Kumar, Suman; Chatterjee, Indranil; Mukherjee, Biswarup

    2011-01-01

    In-depth study on laryngeal biomechanics and vocal fold vibratory patterns reveal that a single vibratory cycle can be divided into two major phases, the closed and open phase, which is subdivided into opening and closing phases. Studies reveal that the relative time course of abduction and adduction, which in turn is dependent on the relative relaxing and tensing of the vocal fold cover and body, to be the determining factor in production of a particular vocal register like the modal (or chest), falsetto, glottal fry registers. Studies further point out Electroglottography to be particularly suitable for the study of vocal vibratory patterns during register changes. However, to date, there has been limited study on quantitative parameterization of EGG wave form in vocal fry register. Moreover, contradictory findings abound in literature regarding effects of gender and vowel types on vocal vibratory patterns, especially during phonation at different registers. The present study endeavors to find out the effects of vowel and gender differences on the vocal fold vibratory patterns in different registers and how these would be reflected in standard EGG parameters of Contact Quotient (CQ) and Contact Index (CI), taking into consideration the Indian sociolinguistic context. Electroglottographic recordings of 10 young adults (5 males and 5 females) were taken while the subjects phonated the three vowels /a/,/i/,/u/ each in two vocal registers, modal and vocal fry. Obtained raw EGG were further normalized using the Derived EGG algorithm and theCQ and CI values were derived. Obtained data were subject to statistical analysis using the 3-way ANOVA with gender, vowel and vocal register as the three variables. Post-hoc Dunnett C multiple comparison analysis were also performed. Results reveal that CQ values are significantly higher in vocal fry than modal phonation for both males and females, indicating a relatively hyperconstricted vocal system during vocal fry. The males

  13. Domestic Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris are Sensitive to the “Human” Qualities of Vocal Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Gibson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, domestic dogs have been recognized for their ability to utilize human communicative gestures in choice tasks, as well as communicate with humans through visual and auditory means. A few dogs have even demonstrated the capacity to learn hundreds to thousands of human words and object labels with extensive training. However less is known about dogs‟ understanding or perception of human vocalizations in the absence of explicit training. This study was conducted to determine what aspects of human scolding vocalizations dogs would be most responsive to when presented with a choice to consume or avoid available food items. Variables included the gender, authenticity, word clarity and the human quality of the vocal commands. Our results suggest that dogs are generally cautious about novel sounds produced in the proximity of food. However they are most likely to avoid consumption when hearing a vocalization originally produced by a scolding human, suggesting awareness of vocal qualities common to human speech.

  14. The vocal monotony of monogamy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanette

    2003-04-01

    There are four phocids in waters around Antarctica: Weddell, leopard, crabeater, and Ross seals. These four species provide a unique opportunity to examine underwater vocal behavior in species sharing the same ecosystem. Some species live in pack ice, others in factice, but all are restricted to the Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands. All breed and produce vocalizations under water. Social systems range from polygyny in large breeding colonies, to serial monogamy, to solitary species. The type of mating system influences the number of underwater vocalizations in the repertoire, with monogamous seals producing only a single call, polygynous species producing up to 35 calls, and solitary species an intermediate number of about 10 calls. Breeding occurs during the austral spring and each species carves-out an acoustic niche for communicating, with species using different frequency ranges, temporal patterns, and amplitude changes to convey their species-specific calls and presumably reduce acoustic competition. Some species exhibit geographic variations in their vocalizations around the continent, which may reflect discrete breeding populations. Some seals become silent during a vulnerable time of predation by killer whales, perhaps to avoid detection. Overall, vocalizations of these seals exhibit adaptive characteristics that reflect the co-evolution among species in the same ecosystem.

  15. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  16. Laryngeal Electromyography for Prognosis of Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Maza, Adriana; García-Lopez, Isabel; Santiago-Pérez, Susana; Gavilán, Javier

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the value of laryngeal electromyography in the prognosis of vocal fold paralysis. This is a retrospective descriptive study. This study included 80 patients diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral vocal fold paralysis on flexible laryngoscopy between 2002 and 2014 in a tertiary medical center. Laryngeal electromyography using a standardized protocol was performed; the outcome measures were classified and analyzed into two groups according to the degree of injury. Group 1 included patients with mild to moderate injury, and group 2 included patients with severe to complete injury. Prognosis was correlated with vocal fold motion recovery status with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up since the symptoms onset using positive and negative predictive values. Sixty patients showed acute or chronic recurrent laryngeal neuropathy in laryngeal electromyography. Twelve of 41 patients included in group 1 recovered motion, and 30 of 35 patients included in group 2 did not recover, resulting in 88.2% of positive predictive value and 35.7% of negative predictive value. Our data confirm that laryngeal electromyography is a useful clinical tool in predicting poor recovery in patients with vocal fold paralysis. It allows identification of candidates for early intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of active immunization against adrenocorticotropic hormone on cortisol, beta-endorphin, vocalization, and growth in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Giles, L R; Bryden, W L; Downing, J A; Collins, D C; Wynn, P C

    2005-10-01

    Because the poor growth performance of intensively housed pigs is associated with increased circulating glucocorticoid concentrations, we investigated the effects of glucocorticoid suppression by inducing a humoral immune response to ACTH on physiological and production variables in growing pigs. Grower pigs (28.6 +/- 0.9 kg) were immunized with amino acids 1 through 24 of ACTH conjugated to ovalbumin and suspended in diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) dextran-adjuvant or adjuvant alone (control) on d 1, 28, and 56. The ACTH-specific antibody titers generated suppressed increases in cortisol concentrations on d 63 in response to an acute stressor (P = 0.002; control = 71 +/- 8.2 ng/mL; ACTH-immune = 43 +/- 4.9 ng/mL) without altering basal concentrations. Plasma beta-endorphin concentrations were also increased (P immune = 63 +/- 7.3 ng/mL), presumably because of a release from negative feedback on the expression of proopiomelanocortin in pituitary corticotropes. Immunization against ACTH did not alter ADG (P = 0.120; control = 1,077 +/- 25; ACTH-immune = 1,143 +/- 25 g) or ADFI (P = 0.64; control = 2,719 +/- 42; ACTH-immune = 2,749 +/- 42 g) and did not modify behavior (P = 0.681) assessed by measuring vocalization in response to acute restraint. In summary, suppression of stress-induced cortisol responses through ACTH immunization increased beta-endorphin concentrations, but it did not modify ADG, ADFI, or restraint vocalization score in growing pigs.

  18. Prognostic value of left ventricular diastolic function and association with heart rate variability after a first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S H; Jensen, S E; Møller, J E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and its relation with autonomic balance expressed by heart rate variability (HRV) in patients after a first acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: The study population consisted of 64 consecutive patients with first...... acute myocardial infarction and 31 control subjects. Long and short term HRV indices were evaluated by 24 hour Holter monitoring, and LV systolic and diastolic function were assessed by two dimensional and Doppler echocardiography before discharge. Patients were divided into two groups: those...... independent of HRV and ejection fraction during follow up after a first acute myocardial infarction. Patients with restrictive LV filling characteristics had more reduced HRV than those with non-restrictive diastolic filling....

  19. Exploring the Variability in Acute Glycemic Responses to Exercise in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasuku Terada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore the factors associated with exercise-induced acute capillary glucose (CapBG changes in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods. Fifteen individuals with T2D were randomly assigned to energy-matched high intensity interval exercise (HI-IE and moderate intensity continuous exercise (MI-CE interventions and performed a designated exercise protocol 5 days per week for 12 weeks. The duration of exercise progressed from 30 to 60 minutes. CapBG was measured immediately before and after each exercise session. Timing of food and antihyperglycemic medication intake prior to exercise was recorded. Results. Overall, the mean CapBG was lowered by 1.9 mmol/L (P<0.001 with the change ranging from −8.9 to +2.7 mmol/L. Preexercise CapBG (44%; P<0.001, medication (5%; P<0.001, food intake (4%; P=0.043, exercise duration (5%; P<0.001, and exercise intensity (1%; P=0.007 were all associated with CapBG changes, explaining 59% of the variability. Conclusion. The greater reduction in CapBG seen in individuals with higher preexercise CapBG may suggest the importance of exercise in the population with elevated glycemia. Lower blood glucose can be achieved with moderate intensity exercise, but prolonging exercise duration and/or including brief bouts of intense exercise accentuate the reduction, which can further be magnified by performing exercise after meals and antihyperglycemic medication. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01144078.

  20. Hippotherapy acute impact on heart rate variability non-linear dynamics in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabiddu, Ramona; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Trimer, Renata; Trimer, Vitor; Ricci, Paula Angélica; Italiano Monteiro, Clara; Camargo Magalhães Maniglia, Marcela; Silva Pereira, Ana Maria; Rodrigues das Chagas, Gustavo; Carvalho, Eliane Maria

    2016-05-15

    Neurological disorders are associated with autonomic dysfunction. Hippotherapy (HT) is a therapy treatment strategy that utilizes a horse in an interdisciplinary approach for the physical and mental rehabilitation of people with physical, mental and/or psychological disabilities. However, no studies have been carried out which evaluated the effects of HT on the autonomic control in these patients. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a single HT session on cardiovascular autonomic control by time domain and non-linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The HRV signal was recorded continuously in twelve children affected by neurological disorders during a HT session, consisting in a 10-minute sitting position rest (P1), a 15-minute preparatory phase sitting on the horse (P2), a 15-minute HT session (P3) and a final 10-minute sitting position recovery (P4). Time domain and non-linear HRV indices, including Sample Entropy (SampEn), Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), were calculated for each treatment phase. We observed that SampEn increased during P3 (SampEn=0.56±0.10) with respect to P1 (SampEn=0.40±0.14, p<0.05), while DFA decreased during P3 (DFA=1.10±0.10) with respect to P1 (DFA=1.26±0.14, p<0.05). A significant SDRR increase (p<0.05) was observed during the recovery period P4 (SDRR=50±30ms) with respect to the HT session period P3 (SDRR=30±10ms). Our results suggest that HT might benefit children with disabilities attributable to neurological disorders by eliciting an acute autonomic response during the therapy and during the recovery period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prognostic value of heart rate variability indexes with regard to acute postinfarction aneurysm of left ventricle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kyselov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of Q-wave myocardial infarction complications in acute period is an actual problem of modern cardiology. Aim: to determine the prognostic value of heart rate variability indices with regard to acute left ventricular aneurysm development in patients with Q-wave myocardial infarction. Materials and мethods: time and spectral parameters of heart rate variability, number of arrhythmias and ischemia were investigated by daily monitoring of electrocardiogram in 238 patients with acute Q-wave myocardial infarction. ROC analysis with the characteristic curve construction was used to determine prognostically significant parameters. Predictive significance of indicators with regard to left ventricular aneurysms formation was assessed at a relative risk with a confidence interval of 95 %. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis of Cox proportional hazards to independent predictors of acute post-infarction left ventricular aneurysm formation determination was used. Results. In patients with Q-wave myocardial infarction and aneurysm of left ventricle it has been shown a reduction in time parameters of heart rate variability, the sympathetic-parasympathetic balance shift towards the sympathetic component activation and parasympathetic influence decreasing, increasing number of ventricular arrhythmias by means of life-threatening arrhythmias, and longer duration of corrected QT interval. The analysis of associations has made it possible to establish a close relationship between left ventricular aneurysm formation and parameters of electrocardiogram daily monitoring. With the help of ROC analysis we identified prognostically significant indicators of electrocardiogram daily monitoring with regard to acute postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm formation. Analysis of Cox proportional hazards has allowed the establishing of left ventricle aneurysm formation independent predictors. Conclusions. It has been revealed an increase in sympathetic

  2. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  3. Self-masking: Listening during vocalization. Normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Erik; Bergkvist, Christina; Gustafsson, Dan

    2009-06-01

    What underlying mechanisms are involved in the ability to talk and listen simultaneously and what role does self-masking play under conditions of hearing impairment? The purpose of the present series of studies is to describe a technique for assessment of masked thresholds during vocalization, to describe normative data for males and females, and to focus on hearing impairment. The masking effect of vocalized [a:] on narrow-band noise pulses (250-8000 Hz) was studied using the maximum vocalization method. An amplitude-modulated series of sound pulses, which sounded like a steam engine, was masked until the criterion of halving the perceived pulse rate was reached. For masking of continuous reading, a just-follow-conversation criterion was applied. Intra-session test-retest reproducibility and inter-session variability were calculated. The results showed that female voices were more efficient in masking high frequency noise bursts than male voices and more efficient in masking both a male and a female test reading. The male had to vocalize 4 dBA louder than the female to produce the same masking effect on the test reading. It is concluded that the method is relatively simple to apply and has small intra-session and fair inter-session variability. Interesting gender differences were observed.

  4. An In Vivo Study of Composite Microgels Based on Hyaluronic Acid and Gelatin for the Reconstruction of Surgically Injured Rat Vocal Folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppoolse, Jiska M. S.; Van Kooten, T. G.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc; Li, Nicole Y. K.; Thibeault, Susan L.; Pitaro, Jacob; Akinpelu, Olubunm; Daniel, Sam J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate local injection with a hierarchically microstructured hyaluronic acid-gelatin (HA-Ge) hydrogel for the treatment of acute vocal fold injury using a rat model. Method: Vocal fold stripping was performed unilaterally in 108 Sprague-Dawley rats. A volume of 25 µl saline (placebo controls),…

  5. Evaluation of signalment, clinical, and laboratory variables as prognostic indicators in dogs with acute abdominal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    SIMEONOVA, Galina; DINEV, Dinko; CHAPRAZOV, Tzvetan; ROYDEV, Rumen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mortality and to propose a new severity scoring system in dogs with acute abdominal syndrome. A retrospective study was carried out on 58 dogs presented with acute abdominal syndrome with American Society of Anesthesiologists grades III-IV and treated surgically by exploratory laparotomy. Medical records were reviewed and information regarding dog signalment, history, clinical, and laboratory data; surgical findings; and outcome was collected...

  6. Influence of acute normobaric hypoxia on physiological variables and lactate turn point determination in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner, Michael; Wonisch, Manfred; Frei, Mario; Tschakert, Gerhard; Domej, Wolfgang; Kröpfl, Julia M; Hofmann, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the response of physiological variables to acute normobaric hypoxia compared to normoxia and its influence on the lactate turn point determination according to the three-phase model of energy supply (Phase I: metabolically balanced at muscular level; Phase II: metabolically balanced at systemic level; Phase III: not metabolically balanced) during maximal incremental exercise. Ten physically active (VO2max 3.9 [0.49] l·min(-1)), healthy men (mean age [SD]: 25.3 [4.6] yrs.), participated in the study. All participants performed two maximal cycle ergometric exercise tests under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions (FiO2 = 14%). Blood lactate concentration, heart rate, gas exchange data, and power output at maximum and the first and the second lactate turn point (LTP1, LTP2), the heart rate turn point (HRTP) and the first and the second ventilatory turn point (VETP1, VETP2) were determined. Since in normobaric hypoxia absolute power output (P) was reduced at all reference points (max: 314 / 274 W; LTP2: 218 / 184 W; LTP1: 110 / 96 W), as well as VO2max (max: 3.90 / 3.23 l·min(-1); LTP2: 2.90 / 2.43 l·min(-1); LTP1: 1.66 / 1.52 l·min(-1)), percentages of Pmax at LTP1, LTP2, HRTP and VETP1, VETP2 were almost identical for hypoxic as well as normoxic conditions. Heart rate was significantly reduced at Pmax in hypoxia (max: 190 / 185 bpm), but no significant differences were found at submaximal control points. Blood lactate concentration was not different at maximum, and all reference points in both conditions. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) (max: 1.28 / 1.08; LTP2: 1.13 / 0.98) and ventilatory equivalents for O2 (max: 43.4 / 34.0; LTP2: 32.1 / 25.4) and CO2 (max: 34.1 / 31.6; LTP2: 29.1 / 26.1) were significantly higher at some reference points in hypoxia. Significant correlations were found between LTP1 and VETP1 (r = 0.778; p better the performance of the athletes the higher is the effect of hypoxiaThe HRTP and LTP2 are

  7. Vocal plasticity in a reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Henrik; Zollinger, Sue Anne

    2017-05-31

    Sophisticated vocal communication systems of birds and mammals, including human speech, are characterized by a high degree of plasticity in which signals are individually adjusted in response to changes in the environment. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first evidence for vocal plasticity in a reptile. Like birds and mammals, tokay geckos ( Gekko gecko ) increased the duration of brief call notes in the presence of broadcast noise compared to quiet conditions, a behaviour that facilitates signal detection by receivers. By contrast, they did not adjust the amplitudes of their call syllables in noise (the Lombard effect), which is in line with the hypothesis that the Lombard effect has evolved independently in birds and mammals. However, the geckos used a different strategy to increase signal-to-noise ratios: instead of increasing the amplitude of a given call type when exposed to noise, the subjects produced more high-amplitude syllable types from their repertoire. Our findings demonstrate that reptile vocalizations are much more flexible than previously thought, including elaborate vocal plasticity that is also important for the complex signalling systems of birds and mammals. We suggest that signal detection constraints are one of the major forces driving the evolution of animal communication systems across different taxa. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Acoustic correlates of human responses to domestic cat (feliscatus) vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Nicholas

    2002-05-01

    As part of ongoing research on coevolution of vocal communication between humans and domestic cats, perceptual data were collected on participants as they listened to recorded cat vocalizations. In experiment 1, human subjects were asked to rate the pleasantness of 100 meows along a 7-point scale, from most to least pleasant. In experiment 2, a different group of participants was asked to rate the urgency of the same meows along a 7-point scale, from most to least urgent. Linear regression analysis of the results showed a strong inverse correlation between pleasantness and urgency. Acoustic correlates of pleasantness included reduced frequency modulation, a downward shift in fundamental frequency, and fewer noisy segments. Correlates of urgency included increased duration, higher Wiener entropy, and acute spectral tilt. It is speculated that humans' affective responses to these acoustic qualities, in conjunction with contextual cues, may form the basis of the communication of more specific meanings by cats to humans.

  9. Acute and Chronic Effects of Isometric Handgrip Exercise on Cardiovascular Variables in Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Q. Farah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe, through a systematic review, the acute and chronic effects of isometric handgrip exercise on cardiovascular variables in hypertensive individuals. In this systematic review, we included studies that analyzed whether a single bout or a program with isometric exercises affect cardiovascular variables in hypertensive adults. The electronic database PubMed/Medline was searched for relevant studies published until May 2017. Of the 2927 studies initially identified, 2916 were excluded based on title and abstract and five on the basis of full-text assessment, leaving six studies remaining. In addition, one further study cited in the references of the included articles was included in this review, totaling seven studies included (five studies on the chronic effects of isometric handgrip exercise on cardiovascular parameters. None of the acute studies observed post-exercise hypotension. The majority of the chronic studies found decreases in office blood pressure after isometric handgrip training, with training ranging from 6 to 10 weeks, while heart rate variability parameters were improved in one study and did not change in another. Reduction in oxidative stress was observed; however, this variable was only analyzed in one study. In hypertensives, acute responses to isometric handgrip exercise are very limited due to the small number of studies, therefore more research is required. Furthermore, chronic isometric handgrip training reduces blood pressure; however, there is still a gap in the knowledge on the effects of this modality of exercise on other cardiovascular variables—such as endothelial function, oxidative stress, and cardiac autonomic modulation—which should be addressed in future studies.

  10. Effect of verapamil on heart rate variability after an acute myocardial infarction. Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner

    1998-01-01

    Because decreased heart rate variability measured after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been demonstrated to predict subsequent mortality and sudden death, and an efficacy analysis of the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II (DAVIT II) demonstrated that long-term postinfarction treatment...... with verapamil significantly reduced sudden death, the aim of the present substudy was to evaluate the effect of verapamil on heart-rate variability in the time and frequency domain, measured in two 5-minute segments during the day and night. Thirty-eight patients were examined by Holter monitoring, at 1 week......, that is, before randomization, and at 1 month after infarction; 22 of the patients were examined 12-16 months after infarction as well. In both treatment groups (verapamil and placebo) no significant alteration of heart rate variability during the day-time was demonstrated from before to after 1 and 12...

  11. Variables predictive of outcome in patients with acute hypercapneic respiratory failure treated with noninvasive ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahuddin, N.; Irfan, M.; Khan, S.; Naeem, M.; Haque, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    To assess results with NIV in acute hypercapneic respiratory failure and to identify outcome predictors. This was a retrospective observational study on consecutive patients presenting with acute type II respiratory failure and meeting criteria for NIV use over a 5 year period. Patients presenting with haemodynamic instability, inability to protect their airway, malignant arrhythmias and recent oesophageal surgery were excluded. Univariate and Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the impact on survival. A p value of 35 Meq/L (adjusted Odds ratio 0.9; 95% CI 0.83, 0.98, p < 0.015) identified those less at risk for intubation. NIV was found to be both safe and effective in the management of acute hypercapneic respiratory failure. Sepsis and serum HCO/sub 3/ at admission identified patients having poor outcomes (JPMA 60:13; 2010). (author)

  12. Determinants of the mouse ultrasonic vocal structure and repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Jesse; McGuinness, Brigit; Celikel, Tansu; Englitz, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) exhibit a high degree of complexity as demonstrated in recent years. A multitude of factors have been identified to influence USVs on the spectrotemporal as well as structural - e.g. syntactic - level. A synthesis of the various studies that attributes semantics to USV properties or sequences is still lacking. Presently, we address the factors modulating the composition of USVs, specifically age, gender, genetic background (including the targeted FoxP2 mutagenesis), behavioral state and individuality. It emerges that the different factors share a set of common influences, e.g. vocalization rate and frequency range are universally modulated across independent variables described; however, distinct influences exist for sequential structure (different effects for age, behavioral state and genetic background) or vocal repertoire (age). Recently, USV research has seen important advances based on the quantitative maturation of methods on multiple levels of vocalization. Adoption of these methods to address the natural statistics of USV will ultimately benefit several related research areas, e.g. neurolinguistics, neurodevelopmental disorders, multisensory and sensorimotor research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomechanical control of vocal plasticity in an echolocating bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinhong; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2016-03-01

    Many animal species adjust the spectral composition of their acoustic signals to variable environments. However, the physiological foundation of such spectral plasticity is often unclear. The source-filter theory of sound production, initially established for human speech, applies to vocalizations in birds and mammals. According to this theory, adjusting the spectral structure of vocalizations could be achieved by modifying either the laryngeal/syringeal source signal or the vocal tract, which filters the source signal. Here, we show that in pale spear-nosed bats, spectral plasticity induced by moderate level background noise is dominated by the vocal tract rather than the laryngeal source signal. Specifically, we found that with increasing background noise levels, bats consistently decreased the spectral centroid of their echolocation calls up to 3.2 kHz, together with other spectral parameters. In contrast, noise-induced changes in fundamental frequency were small (maximally 0.1 kHz) and were inconsistent across individuals. Changes in spectral centroid did not correlate with changes in fundamental frequency, whereas they correlated negatively with changes in call amplitude. Furthermore, while bats consistently increased call amplitude with increasing noise levels (the Lombard effect), increases in call amplitude typically did not lead to increases in fundamental frequency. In summary, our results suggest that at least to a certain degree echolocating bats are capable of adjusting call amplitude, fundamental frequency and spectral parameters independently. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Maria; Roberson, Debi; van der Vyver, Jacoba Marieta; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-04-01

    A central question in the study of human behavior is whether certain emotions, such as anger, fear, and sadness, are recognized in nonverbal cues across cultures. We predicted and found that in a concept-free experimental task, participants from an isolated cultural context (the Himba ethnic group from northwestern Namibia) did not freely label Western vocalizations with expected emotion terms. Responses indicate that Himba participants perceived more basic affective properties of valence (positivity or negativity) and to some extent arousal (high or low activation). In a second, concept-embedded task, we manipulated whether the target and foil on a given trial matched in both valence and arousal, neither valence nor arousal, valence only, or arousal only. Himba participants achieved above-chance accuracy only when foils differed from targets in valence only. Our results indicate that the voice can reliably convey affective meaning across cultures, but that perceptions of emotion from the voice are culturally variable.

  15. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares Vocal behavior of popular singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Zimmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas de canto e conhecimento sobre postura; AMADOR - não cantar dançando, não imitar vozes, ausência de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de terapia fonoaudiológica, ausência de orientações de anatomofisiologia vocal e não utilização de álcool nos ensaios; PROFISSIONAL - rouquidão, conhecimento sobre articulação, álcool durante os shows, "garganta suja" ou pigarro, dor após cantar. CONCLUSÕES: a comparação entre os sexos evidenciou que os homens utilizavam microfone no ensaio, não apresentavam problemas alérgicos ou respiratórios, nem problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas apresentavam sensação de dor ou desconforto após o canto e não possuíam noções sobre higiene vocal; e que as mulheres realizavam aulas de canto e possuíam orientações de postura. A comparação entre amadores e profissionais mostrou que os amadores não cantavam dançando, não imitavam vozes, não utilizavam álcool nos ensaios, e não apresentavam problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas não possuíam avaliação otorrinolaringológica, não realizavam terapia fonoaudiológica, e não possuíam conhecimento sobre anatomofisiologia vocal; e os profissionais apresentavam queixa de rouquidão, de "garganta suja" ou pigarro e de dor após cantar, e usavam álcool durante os shows, apesar de possuir conhecimento sobre articulação.PURPOSE: to investigate aspects of vocal history, vocal habits and

  16. An analysis of prognostic variables in acute lymphocytic leukaemia in a heterogenous South African population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesseling, PB; Buurman, M; Oud, C; Nel, ED

    The records of all 96 children below the age of 15 years diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at Tygerberg Hospital in the Republic of South African between 1983 and 1995 were reviewed to determine risk factors which may predict poor outcome. Age <2 and > 8 years, and white cell count >20 x

  17. Vocal nodules in a colombian teachers group with dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Felipe Alvarado Díaz; Carlos Eduardo Pinzón; José Rafael Tovar Cuevas; Adriana Fajardo Hoyos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study determined the prevalence of vocal nodules associated with dysphonia in teachers aged from 35 to 65 years, taking into consideration both individual and occupational variables. Methodology: Descriptive study that included the information contained in 262 medical records of teachers diagnosed with dysphonia in occupational health consultations at the institutions that provide health services in Bogotá, Colombia from March 2009 to March 2012. The presence of laryngeal nod...

  18. Recording vocalizations with Bluetooth technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona-González, Andrés; Santillán-Doherty, Ana María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita Virginia; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Aguillón-Pantaleón, Miguel Angel; Ordoñez-Gómez, José Domingo; Márquez-Arias, Alejandra

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method for capturing vocalizations that is designed to avoid some of the limiting factors found in traditional bioacoustical methods, such as the impossibility of obtaining continuous long-term registers or analyzing amplitude due to the continuous change of distance between the subject and the position of the recording system. Using Bluetooth technology, vocalizations are captured and transmitted wirelessly into a receiving system without affecting the quality of the signal. The recordings of the proposed system were compared to those obtained as a reference, which were based on the coding of the signal with the so-called pulse-code modulation technique in WAV audio format without any compressing process. The evaluation showed p < .05 for the measured quantitative and qualitative parameters. We also describe how the transmitting system is encapsulated and fixed on the animal and a way to video record a spider monkey's behavior simultaneously with the audio recordings.

  19. Nutritional variables predict chances of returning home and activities of daily living in post-acute geriatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeda K

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Keisuke Maeda,1,2 Takayuki Koga,3 Junji Akagi4 1Palliative Care Center, Aichi Medical University, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Nutrition and Dysphagia Rehabilitation, Tamana Regional Health Medical Center, Kumamoto, Japan; 3Department of Swallowing and Nutritional Therapy, Tamana Regional Health Medical Center, Kumamoto, Japan; 4Department of Surgery, Tamana Regional Health Medical Center, Kumamoto, Japan Background: Little is known about the association between malnutrition and the chances of returning home from post-acute facilities in older adult patients. This study aimed to understand whether malnutrition and malnutrition-related factors would be determinants for returning home and activities of daily living (ADL at discharge after post-acute care.Methods: Patients aged ≥65 years living at home before the onset of an acute disease and admitted to a post-acute ward were enrolled (n=207 in this prospective observational study. Malnutrition was defined based on the criteria of the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Nutritional parameters included the nutritional intake at the time of admission and oral conditions evaluated by the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT. The Barthel Index was used to assess daily activities. A Cox regression analysis of the length of stay was performed. Multivariable linear regression analyses to determine associations between malnutrition, returning home, and ADL at discharge were performed, after adjusting the variables of acute care setting.Results: The mean patient age was 84.7±6.7 years; 38% were men. European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-defined malnutrition was observed in 129 (62.3% patients, and 118 (57.0% of all patients returned home. Multivariable regression analyses showed that malnutrition was a negative predictor of returning home (hazard ratio: 0.517 [0.351–0.761], p=0.001, and an increase in the nutritional intake (kcal/kg/d was a positive predictor of the

  20. Classification of acute stress using linear and non-linear heart rate variability analysis derived from sternal ECG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, George; Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Hoppe, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress detection is an important factor in predicting and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. This work is a pilot study with a focus on developing a method for detecting short-term psychophysiological changes through heart rate variability (HRV) features. The purpose of this pilot...... features from electrocardiograms (ECG) acquired by the wireless wearable ePatch® recorder. The highest recognition rates were acquired for the neutral stage (90%), the acute stress stage (80%) and the baseline stage (80%) by sample entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis and normalized high frequency...

  1. Effect of prenatal cocaine on early postnatal thermoregulation and ultrasonic vocalization production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stephen McMurray

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal cocaine exposure can alter the postnatal care received by rat pups. Such effects could be caused in part by alterations in pup-produced stimuli that elicit early postnatal maternal care. Pup ultrasonic vocalizations are thought to be a particularly salient stimulus, and when paired with other cues, may elicit maternal attention. Cocaine is known to acutely alter thermoregulatory and cardiac function, thus prenatal cocaine may affect vocalizations through altering these functions. The data presented here determine the impact of full term prenatal cocaine exposure , saline exposure, or no exposure on thermogenic capacity, cardiac function, and the resulting ultrasonic vocalizations across the early postnatal period (days 1-5. Results indicated that while sharing many similar characteristics with saline-exposed and untreated animals, prenatal cocaine exposure was associated with specific alterations in vocalization characteristics on postnatal day 1 (PND 1, including call amplitude. Furthermore, numerous spectral parameters of their vocalizations were found altered on PND 3, including rate, call duration, and frequency, while no alterations were found on PND 5. Additionally, cocaine-exposed pups also showed a reduced thermoregulatory capacity compared to saline animals and reduced cardiac mass compared to untreated animals on PND 5. Together, these findings indicate that prenatal cocaine may be altering the elicitation of maternal care through its impact on vocalizations and thermoregulation, and suggests a potential mechanism for these effects through cocaine’s impact on developing stress systems.

  2. A bovine acellular scaffold for vocal fold reconstruction in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chet C; Chan, Roger W; Weinberger, Debra G; Efune, Guy; Pawlowski, Karen S

    2010-01-01

    With a rat model of vocal fold injury, this study examined the in vivo host response to an acellular xenogeneic scaffold derived from the bovine vocal fold lamina propria, and the potential of the scaffold for constructive tissue remodeling. Bilateral wounds were created in the posterior vocal folds of 20 rats, and bovine acellular scaffolds were implanted into the wounds unilaterally, with the contralateral vocal folds as control. The rats were humanely sacrificed after 3 days, 7 days, 1 month, and 3 months, and the coronal sections of their larynges were examined histologically. Expressions of key matrix proteins including collagen I, collagen III, elastin, fibronectin, hyaluronic acid, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were quantified with digital image analysis. Significant infiltration of host inflammatory cells and host fibroblasts in the scaffold implant was observed in the acute stage of wound repair (3 days and 7 days postsurgery). The mean relative densities of collagen I, collagen III, and GAGs in the implanted vocal folds were significantly higher than those in the control after 3 days, followed by gradual decreases over 3 months. Histological results showed that the scaffolds were apparently degraded by 3 months, with no fibrotic tissue formation or calcification. These preliminary findings suggested that the bovine acellular scaffold could be a potential xenograft for vocal fold regeneration.

  3. Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals (2.45GHz) on heart variability and blood pressure in Albinos rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saili, Linda; Hanini, Amel; Smirani, Chiraz; Azzouz, Ines; Azzouz, Amina; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Bouslama, Zihad

    2015-09-01

    Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25cm at the right side near the heart. Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that, WIFI alter catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control. These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radiofrequency can act directly and/or indirectly on cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist increases respiratory variability and complexity in acute respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Matthieu; Demoule, Alexandre; Cracco, Christophe; Gharbi, Alexandre; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Straus, Christian; Duguet, Alexandre; Gottfried, Stewart B; Similowski, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a partial ventilatory support mode where positive pressure is provided in relation to diaphragmatic electrical activity (EAdi). Central inspiratory activity is normally not monotonous, but it demonstrates short-term variability and complexity. The authors reasoned that NAVA should produce a more "natural" or variable breathing pattern than other modes. This study compared respiratory variability and complexity during pressure support ventilation (PSV) and NAVA. Flow and EAdi were recorded during routine PSV (tidal volume approximately 6-8 ml/kg) and four NAVA levels (1-4 cm H2O/microVEAdi) in 12 intubated patients. Breath-by-breath variability of flow and EAdi-related variables was quantified by the coefficient of variation (CV) and autocorrelation analysis. Complexity of flow and EAdi was described using noise titration, largest Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, and three-dimensional phase portraits. Switching from PSV to NAVA increased the CV and decreased the autocorrelation for most flow-related variables in a dose-dependent manner (P Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy for flow were greater during NAVA than PSV and increased with NAVA level (P Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy for EAdi were not influenced by ventilator mode. Compared with PSV, NAVA increases the breathing pattern variability and complexity of flow, whereas the complexity of EAdi is unchanged. Whether this improves clinical outcomes remains to be determined.

  5. Vocal Noise Cancellation From Respiratory Sounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moussavi, Zahra

    2001-01-01

    Although background noise cancellation for speech or electrocardiographic recording is well established, however when the background noise contains vocal noises and the main signal is a breath sound...

  6. Modified vocal function exercises: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Scheidt, Troy

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this case report is to highlight the modifications made to vocal function exercises to suit patient's ability. Study design. Single case report-retrospective. This case study is about a 77-year-old female with vocal fold atrophy who had difficulty demonstrating the vocal function exercises regimen. Voice therapy techniques were modified for this patient. Post-therapy examination showed significant improvement in perceptual, objective, and self-perceptual analysis of voice. The modified version can be an option for those patients unable to follow the instructions of vocal function exercises.

  7. Vocal acoustic analysis as a biometric indicator of information processing: implications for neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alex S; Dinzeo, Thomas J; Donovan, Neila J; Brown, Caitlin E; Morrison, Sean C

    2015-03-30

    Vocal expression reflects an integral component of communication that varies considerably within individuals across contexts and is disrupted in a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. There is reason to suspect that variability in vocal expression reflects, in part, the availability of "on-line" resources (e.g., working memory, attention). Thus, understanding vocal expression is a potentially important biometric index of information processing, not only across but within individuals over time. A first step in this line of research involves establishing a link between vocal expression and information processing systems in healthy adults. The present study employed a dual attention experimental task where participants provided natural speech while simultaneously engaged in a baseline, medium or high nonverbal processing-load task. Objective, automated, and computerized analysis was employed to measure vocal expression in 226 adults. Increased processing load resulted in longer pauses, fewer utterances, greater silence overall and less variability in frequency and intensity levels. These results provide compelling evidence of a link between information processing resources and vocal expression, and provide important information for the development of an automated, inexpensive and uninvasive biometric measure of information processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychogenic dysphonia: diversity of clinical and vocal manifestations in a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Garcia Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychogenic dysphonia is a functional disorder with variable clinical manifestations. Objective: To assess the clinical and vocal characteristics of patients with psychogenic dysphonia in a case series. Methods: The study included 28 adult patients with psychogenic dysphonia, evaluated at a University hospital in the last ten years. Assessed variables included gender, age, occupation, vocal symptoms, vocal characteristics, and videolaryngostroboscopic findings. Results: 28 patients (26 women and 2 men were assessed. Their occupations included: housekeeper (n = 17, teacher (n = 4, salesclerk (n = 4, nurse (n = 1, retired (n = 1, and psychologist (n = 1. Sudden symptom onset was reported by 16 patients and progressive symptom onset was reported by 12; intermittent evolution was reported by 15; symptom duration longer than three months was reported by 21 patients. Videolaryngostroboscopy showed only functional disorders; no patient had structural lesions or changes in vocal fold mobility. Conversion aphonia, skeletal muscle tension, and intermittent voicing were the most frequent vocal emission manifestation forms. Conclusions: In this case series of patients with psychogenic dysphonia, the most frequent form of clinical presentation was conversion aphonia, followed by musculoskeletal tension and intermittent voicing. The clinical and vocal aspects of 28 patients with psychogenic dysphonia, as well as the particularities of each case, are discussed.

  9. Psychogenic dysphonia: diversity of clinical and vocal manifestations in a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Ranalli, Paula Ferreira; Branco, Anete; Pessin, Adriana Bueno Benito

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic dysphonia is a functional disorder with variable clinical manifestations. To assess the clinical and vocal characteristics of patients with psychogenic dysphonia in a case series. The study included 28 adult patients with psychogenic dysphonia, evaluated at a University hospital in the last ten years. Assessed variables included gender, age, occupation, vocal symptoms, vocal characteristics, and videolaryngostroboscopic findings. 28 patients (26 women and 2 men) were assessed. Their occupations included: housekeeper (n=17), teacher (n=4), salesclerk (n=4), nurse (n=1), retired (n=1), and psychologist (n=1). Sudden symptom onset was reported by 16 patients and progressive symptom onset was reported by 12; intermittent evolution was reported by 15; symptom duration longer than three months was reported by 21 patients. Videolaryngostroboscopy showed only functional disorders; no patient had structural lesions or changes in vocal fold mobility. Conversion aphonia, skeletal muscle tension, and intermittent voicing were the most frequent vocal emission manifestation forms. In this case series of patients with psychogenic dysphonia, the most frequent form of clinical presentation was conversion aphonia, followed by musculoskeletal tension and intermittent voicing. The clinical and vocal aspects of 28 patients with psychogenic dysphonia, as well as the particularities of each case, are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between acute toxicity for Daphnia magna, Aliivibrio fischeri and physicochemical variables of the leachate produced in landfill simulator reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Restrepo, José J; Flohr, Letícia; Melegari, Silvia P; da Costa, Cristina H; Fuzinatto, Cristiane F; de Castilhos, Armando B; Matias, William G

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversified nature of municipal solid waste and the different stages of its decomposition, the formed leachates result in a complex chemical mixture with toxic potential. These chemicals can cause environmental problems, such as the contamination of surface or groundwater, thus affecting the balance of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of our study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of leachates in Daphnia magna and Aliivibrio fischeri and to identify the main physicochemical variables that influence the toxicity of the landfill leachates produced in reactors within pilot simulations. Acute toxicity tests carried out on D. magna and A. fischeri showed that the leachates produced inside the reactors are highly toxic, presenting EC50 48h  magna and EC50 15min  < 12% for A. fischeri. This result indicates that microcrustaceans are more sensitive to leachates, making them more suitable to our study. Pb showed the highest correlation with EC50 48h , suggesting that Pb is the main chemical variable indicative of toxicity for the conditions of the experiment. In smaller scale, phosphate (PO 4 3- ) and nitrate (NO 3- ) were the macronutrients that most influenced the toxicity. Clearly, this correlation should be viewed with caution because the synergistic effects of this complex mixture are difficult to observe.

  11. Vocalization characteristics of North Atlantic right whale surface active groups in the calving habitat, southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trygonis, Vasilis; Gerstein, Edmund; Moir, Jim; McCulloch, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Passive acoustic surveys were conducted to assess the vocal behavior of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in the designated critical calving habitat along the shallow coastal waters of southeastern United States. Underwater vocalizations were recorded using autonomous buoys deployed in close proximity to surface active groups (SAGs). Nine main vocalization types were identified with manual inspection of spectrograms, and standard acoustic descriptors were extracted. Classification trees were used to examine the distinguishing characteristics of calls and quantify their variability within the SAG vocal repertoire. The results show that descriptors of frequency, bandwidth, and spectral disorder are the most important parameters for partitioning the SAG repertoire, contrary to duration-related measures. The reported source levels and vocalization statistics provide sound production data vital to inform regional passive acoustic monitoring and conservation for this endangered species.

  12. Serial Holter ST-segment monitoring after first acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence, variability, and long-term prognostic importance of transient myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J

    1998-01-01

    Based on serial Holter monitoring performed 7 times within 3 years after a first acute myocardial infarction, we assessed the prevalence, variability and long-term clinical importance of transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) defined as episodes of ambulatory ST-segment depression. In all, 121...... consecutive male patients 7 Holter recordings. Considerable variability was found within and between patients...

  13. Recurrent Vocal Fold Paralysis and Parsonage-Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parsonage-Turner syndrome, or neuralgic amyotrophy (NA, is an acute brachial plexus neuritis that typically presents with unilateral shoulder pain and amyotrophy but also can affect other peripheral nerves, including the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Idiopathic vocal fold paralysis (VFP represents approximately 12% of the VFP cases and recurrence is extremely rare. Methods and Results. We report a man with isolated recurrent unilateral right VFP and a diagnosis of NA years before. Conclusions. We emphasize that shoulder pain and amyotrophy should be inquired in any patient suffering from inexplicable dysphonia, and Parsonage-Turner syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic VFP.

  14. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture...

  15. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lautenbacher

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion:. Vocalization characteristics of pain seem to be best described by an increase in pitch and in loudness. Future studies using more specific and comprehensive phonetic analyses will surely help to provide an even more precise characterization of vocalizations because of pain.

  16. Vocal communication in an avian hybrid zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Paula Maria den

    2008-01-01

    Avian vocalizations function in mate attraction and territorial defence. Vocalizations can act as behavioural barriers and play an important role in speciation processes. Hybrid zones illustrate behavioural barriers are not always impermeable and provide a natural laboratory to examine the role of

  17. Auditory–vocal mirroring in songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory–vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory–vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory–vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain. PMID:24778375

  18. Biphasic changes in fetal heart rate variability in preterm fetal sheep developing hypotension after acute on chronic lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Christopher A; Davidson, Joanne O; Booth, Lindsea C; Wassink, Guido; Galinsky, Robert; Drury, Paul P; Fraser, Mhoyra; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2014-08-15

    Perinatal exposure to infection is highly associated with adverse outcomes. Experimentally, acute, severe exposure to gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with increased fetal heart rate variability (FHRV). It is unknown whether FHRV is affected by subclinical infection with or without acute exacerbations. We therefore tested the hypothesis that FHRV would be associated with hypotension after acute on chronic exposure to LPS. Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation were exposed to a continuous low-dose LPS infusion (n = 12, 100 ng/kg over 24 h, followed by 250 ng·kg(-1)·24 h(-1) for a further 96 h) or the same volume of saline (n = 10). Boluses of either 1 μg LPS or saline were given at 48, 72, and 96 h. Low-dose infusion was not associated with hemodynamic or FHRV changes. The first LPS bolus was associated with tachycardia and suppression of nuchal electromyographic activity in all fetuses. Seven of twelve fetuses developed hypotension (a fall in mean arterial blood pressure ≥5 mmHg). FHRV was transiently increased only at the onset of hypotension, in association with increased cytokine induction and electroencephalogram suppression. FHRV then fell before the nadir of hypotension, with transient suppression of short-term FHRV. After the second LPS bolus, the hypotension group showed a biphasic pattern of a transient increase in FHRV followed by more prolonged suppression. These findings suggest that infection-related hypotension in the preterm fetus mediates the transient increase in FHRV and that repeated exposure to LPS leads to progressive loss of FHRV. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Heart rate variability measurement and clinical depression in acute coronary syndrome patients: narrative review of recent literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patricia RE; Sommargren, Claire E; Stein, Phyllis K; Fung, Gordon L; Drew, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Aim We aimed to explore links between heart rate variability (HRV) and clinical depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), through a review of recent clinical research literature. Background Patients with ACS are at risk for both cardiac autonomic dysfunction and clinical depression. Both conditions can negatively impact the ability to recover from an acute physiological insult, such as unstable angina or myocardial infarction, increasing the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. HRV is recognized as a reflection of autonomic function. Methods A narrative review was undertaken to evaluate state-of-the-art clinical research, using the PubMed database, January 2013. The search terms “heart rate variability” and “depression” were used in conjunction with “acute coronary syndrome”, “unstable angina”, or “myocardial infarction” to find clinical studies published within the past 10 years related to HRV and clinical depression, in patients with an ACS episode. Studies were included if HRV measurement and depression screening were undertaken during an ACS hospitalization or within 2 months of hospital discharge. Results Nine clinical studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies’ results indicate that there may be a relationship between abnormal HRV and clinical depression when assessed early after an ACS event, offering the possibility that these risk factors play a modest role in patient outcomes. Conclusion While a definitive conclusion about the relevance of HRV and clinical depression measurement in ACS patients would be premature, the literature suggests that these measures may provide additional information in risk assessment. Potential avenues for further research are proposed. PMID:25071372

  20. Inferior outcomes for black children with high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the impact of socioeconomic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Alexandra; Chewning, Joseph; Li, Xuelin; Dai, Chen; Whelan, Kimberly; Madan-Swain, Avi; Waterbor, John; Baskin, Monica L; Goldman, Frederick D

    2017-02-01

    While significant improvements have been made for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the United States over the past 20 years, black patients continue to have inferior outcomes. The full impact of socioeconomic variables on outcomes in this minority population is not entirely understood. Disease characteristics, demographic, and socioeconomic status (SES) variables were collected on black (n = 44) and white (n = 178) patients diagnosed at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to evaluate the influence of SES and insurance status on survival. As a cohort, 5-year overall survival (OS) was 87% (82-91%), with a median follow-up of 99 months. In univariable analysis, black race was not significantly associated with a higher risk of death or relapse and death. White and black patients with standard-risk leukemia had excellent outcomes, with 97% (91-99%) and 96% (75-99%) 5-year OS, respectively. In contrast, for high-risk disease, white patients had a statistically significant improved 5-year OS rates compared with black patients (79% [68-87%] vs. 52% [28-72%]). Black children were more likely to have public insurance, and, in multivariable analysis, this was associated with a trend toward an improved outcome. Black patients also had poorer census tract-level SES parameters, but these variables were not associated with survival. Our study demonstrates significantly inferior outcomes for black children with high-risk leukemia. These outcome disparities were not related to SES variables, including poverty or private insurance coverage, suggesting the involvement of other factors and highlighting the need for a prospective investigative analysis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Heart rate variability measured early in patients with evolving acute coronary syndrome and 1-year outcomes of rehospitalization and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patricia R E; Stein, Phyllis K; Fung, Gordon L; Drew, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to examine the prognostic value of heart rate variability (HRV) measurement initiated immediately after emergency department presentation for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Background Altered HRV has been associated with adverse outcomes in heart disease, but the value of HRV measured during the earliest phases of ACS related to risk of 1-year rehospitalization and death has not been established. Methods Twenty-four-hour Holter recordings of 279 patients with ACS were initiated within 45 minutes of emergency department arrival; recordings with ≥18 hours of sinus rhythm were selected for HRV analysis (number [N] =193). Time domain, frequency domain, and nonlinear HRV were examined. Survival analysis was performed. Results During the 1-year follow-up, 94 patients were event-free, 82 were readmitted, and 17 died. HRV was altered in relation to outcomes. Predictors of rehospitalization included increased normalized high frequency power, decreased normalized low frequency power, and decreased low/high frequency ratio. Normalized high frequency >42 ms2 predicted rehospitalization while controlling for clinical variables (hazard ratio [HR] =2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.4–3.8, P=0.001). Variables significantly associated with death included natural logs of total power and ultra low frequency power. A model with ultra low frequency power 0.3 ng/mL (HR =4.0; 95% CI =1.3–12.1; P=0.016) revealed that each contributed independently in predicting mortality. Nonlinear HRV variables were significant predictors of both outcomes. Conclusion HRV measured close to the ACS onset may assist in risk stratification. HRV cut-points may provide additional, incremental prognostic information to established assessment guidelines, and may be worthy of additional study. PMID:25143740

  2. Incremental value of biomarkers to clinical variables for mortality prediction in acutely decompensated heart failure: the Multinational Observational Cohort on Acute Heart Failure (MOCA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassus, Johan; Gayat, Etienne; Mueller, Christian; Peacock, W Frank; Spinar, Jindrich; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; van Kimmenade, Roland; Pathak, Atul; Mueller, Thomas; Disomma, Salvatore; Metra, Marco; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Laribi, Said; Logeart, Damien; Nouira, Semir; Sato, Naoki; Potocki, Michael; Parenica, Jiri; Collet, Corinne; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Januzzi, James L; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2013-10-03

    This study aims to evaluate the incremental value of plasma biomarkers to traditional clinical variables for risk stratification of 30-day and one-year mortality in acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Through an international collaborative network, individual patient data on 5306 patients hospitalized for ADHF were collected. The all-cause mortality rate was 11.7% at 30 days and 32.9% at one year. The clinical prediction model (age, gender, blood pressure on admission, estimated glomerular filtration rate NRI) was 28.7% for mid-regional adrenomedullin (MR-proADM; pNRI 10.3%), MR-proADM (NRI 9.1%), amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP; NRI 9.1%), mid-regional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP; NRI 7.4%), B-type natriuretic peptide (NRI 5.5%) and C-reactive protein (CRP; NRI 5.3%) reclassified patients with ADHF (pNRI 36.8% [pNRI 20.3%; [p<0.001] for one-year mortality). In this study, biomarkers provided incremental value for risk stratification of ADHF patients. Biomarkers such as sST2, MR-proADM, natriuretic peptides and CRP, reflecting different pathophysiologic pathways, add prognostic value to clinical risk factors for predicting both short-term and one-year mortality in ADHF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heart rate variability measurement and clinical depression in acute coronary syndrome patients: narrative review of recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris PR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Patricia RE Harris,1 Claire E Sommargren,2 Phyllis K Stein,3 Gordon L Fung,4,5 Barbara J Drew6,7 1ECG Monitoring Research Lab, 2Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Heart Rate Variability Laboratory, School of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA; 4Asian Heart & Vascular Center at Mount Zion, Division of Cardiology, University of California, 5Cardiology Consultation Service, Cardiac Noninvasive Laboratory, and The Enhanced External Counterpulsation Unit, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Medical Center, 6Division of Cardiology, 7Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Aim: We aimed to explore links between heart rate variability (HRV and clinical depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, through a review of recent clinical research literature. Background: Patients with ACS are at risk for both cardiac autonomic dysfunction and clinical depression. Both conditions can negatively impact the ability to recover from an acute physiological insult, such as unstable angina or myocardial infarction, increasing the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. HRV is recognized as a reflection of autonomic function. Methods: A narrative review was undertaken to evaluate state-of-the-art clinical research, using the PubMed database, January 2013. The search terms “heart rate variability” and “depression” were used in conjunction with “acute coronary syndrome”, “unstable angina”, or “myocardial infarction” to find clinical studies published within the past 10 years related to HRV and clinical depression, in patients with an ACS episode. Studies were included if HRV measurement and depression screening were undertaken during an ACS hospitalization or within 2 months of hospital discharge. Results: Nine clinical studies met the inclusion criteria. The

  4. Vocal cord dysfunction related to water-damaged buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kristin J; Fink, Jordan N; Vasudev, Monica; Piacitelli, Chris; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is the intermittent paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords during respiration, resulting in variable upper airway obstruction. Exposure to damp indoor environments is associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes, including asthma, but its role in the development of VCD is not well described. We describe the spectrum of respiratory illness in occupants of 2 water-damaged office buildings. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a health hazard evaluation that included interviews with managers, a maintenance officer, a remediation specialist who had evaluated the 2 buildings, employees, and consulting physicians. In addition, medical records and reports of building evaluations were reviewed. Diagnostic evaluations for VCD had been conducted at the Asthma and Allergy Center of the Medical College of Wisconsin. Two cases of VCD were temporally related to occupancy of water-damaged buildings. The patients experienced cough, chest tightness, dyspnea, wheezing, and hoarseness when in the buildings. Spirometry was normal. Methacholine challenge did not show bronchial hyperreactivity but did elicit symptoms of VCD and inspiratory flow-volume loop truncation. Direct laryngoscopy revealed vocal cord adduction during inspiration. Coworkers developed upper and lower respiratory symptoms; their diagnoses included sinusitis and asthma, consistent with recognized effects of exposure to indoor dampness. Building evaluations provided evidence of water damage and mold growth. VCD can occur with exposure to water-damaged buildings and should be considered in exposed patients with asthma-like symptoms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and associated variables in children at the Lambayeque Regional Hospital, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Silva-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the type and frequency of predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and their associated characteristics in children treated at Hospital Regional Lambayeque (HRL - Peru. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in 70 fecal samples between March and May 2015. These samples were studied by coproculture and immunochromatography for the detection of enteropathogenic bacteria and viruses, respectively, while enteroparasites were sought by direct microscopic examination, Kinyoun staining method and ELISA for the detection of coproantigens (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Leukocyte count and chemical tests (Benedict, Thevenon and Sudan III were also performed for the functional study of the diarrheal disease. Results: In 48.6% of the samples, the infectious etiology of diarrhea was detected, prevailing the parasitic cause (25.8%, followed by the bacterial (17.1% and viral (5.8% ones. The most common enteropathogens were G. lamblia (18.6% and Salmonella enteritidis (10.0%. An association between greater than 100 fecal leukocytes per field and the bacterial etiology (p=0.027 was observed, while less than 10 fecal leukocytes per field (p=0.002 and a positive Sudam III test (p=0.003 were associated with the parasitic etiology. Conclusions: In more than half of the samples (51.4% the infectious etiology of diarrhea could not be proven, whereas Giardia lamblia was the most frequent cause of diarrhea in the studied population. However, it is necessary to implement more sensitive and specific techniques for the detection of a greater range of enteropathogens with which to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease

  6. Effects of a music therapy voice protocol on speech intelligibility, vocal acoustic measures, and mood of individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneishi, E

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a Music Therapy Voice Protocol (MTVP) on speech intelligibility, vocal intensity, maximum vocal range, maximum duration of sustained vowel phonation, vocal fundamental frequency, vocal fundamental frequency variability, and mood of individuals with Parkinson's disease. Four female patients, who demonstrated voice and speech problems, served as their own controls and participated in baseline assessment (study pretest), a series of MTVP sessions involving vocal and singing exercises, and final evaluation (study posttest). In study pre and posttests, data for speech intelligibility and all acoustic variables were collected. Statistically significant increases were found in speech intelligibility, as rated by caregivers, and in vocal intensity from study pretest to posttest as the results of paired samples t-tests. In addition, before and after each MTVP session (session pre and posttests), self-rated mood scores and selected acoustic variables were collected. No significant differences were found in any of the variables from the session pretests to posttests, across the entire treatment period, or their interactions as the results of two-way ANOVAs with repeated measures. Although not significant, the mean of mood scores in session posttests (M = 8.69) was higher than that in session pretests (M = 7.93).

  7. Vocal Loading in Speaking a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Kati; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether speaking a foreign language affects the subjective notions of vocal fatigue, and whether acoustic measurements reveal a higher vocal loading. The speech samples of 20 native Finnish-speaking and 23 native English-speaking subjects were recorded in Finnish and in English. From the speech samples, fundamental frequency, equivalent sound level, total duration of voiced speech, speech rate, alpha ratio and L1-L0 level difference were analyzed. Vocal doses were calculated. According to subjective notions, the voice gets tired more quickly when speaking a foreign language. The mean fundamental frequency increased but the speech rate and total duration of voiced speech decreased significantly when speaking a foreign language. Thus, the vocal doses decreased. The subjective sensations of increased vocal fatigue may be due to increased mental stress rather than to higher vocal loading. However, a trend that speaking a foreign language may involve more loading was found in L1-L0 level difference and in the doses normalized to time dose. Longer speech samples should be studied. Voice quality-based indicators of vocal loading are worth testing in addition to the measures based on the amount of voicing in speech. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Aerodynamic and acoustic features of vocal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Allison L; Lowell, Soren Y; Colton, Raymond H

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the aerodynamic and acoustic features of speech produced at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. Prospective, quasi-experimental research design. Eighteen healthy participants with normal voice were included in this study. After task training, participants produced repeated syllable combinations at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. A pneumotachometer and vented (Rothenberg) mask were used to record aerodynamic data, with simultaneous recording of the acoustic signal for subsequent analysis. Aerodynamic measures of subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and laryngeal resistance were analyzed, along with acoustic measures of cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and its standard deviation (SD). Participants produced significantly greater subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR during maximal effort speech as compared with comfortable vocal effort. When producing speech at minimal vocal effort, participants lowered subglottal pressure, MFDR, and laryngeal resistance. Acoustic changes associated with changes in vocal effort included significantly higher CPP during maximal effort speech and significantly lower CPP SD during minimal effort speech, when each was compared with comfortable effort. For healthy speakers without voice disorders, subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR may be important factors that contribute to an increased sense of vocal effort. Changes in the cepstral signal also occur under conditions of increased or decreased vocal effort relative to comfortable effort. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Impact of Vocal Cool-down Exercises: A Subjective Study of Singers' and Listeners' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Kari

    2016-11-01

    Using subjective measures, this study investigated singers' and listeners' perceptions of changes in voice condition after vocal cool-down exercises. A single-subject crossover was designed to evaluate whether there were discernible differences in either singer or listener perceptions from pre (no vocal cool downs) to post (with cool downs) test. Subjective questionnaires were completed throughout the study. Twenty classically trained female singers documented self-ratings and perceptual judgments through the Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily survey, the Singing Voice Handicap Index, and Self-Perceptual Questionnaires after a 60-minute voice load. Recordings were made and assessed by four expert listeners. The assessed data from the Singing Voice Handicap Index, the Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily, and Daily Perceptual Questionnaires show 68%, 67%, and 74% of singers reported improvement, respectively. However, because of significant variability in the underlying scores, the amount of improvement was not deemed to be statistically significant. Expert listeners correctly identified the cool-down week 46% of the time. Singers strongly perceived positive impact from the cool-down exercises on both their speaking and singing voices. Even though the objective data were statistically insignificant, the singers' subjective data clearly indicates a perceived sense of vocal well-being after utilizing the vocal cool-down protocol. The variability in the daily life of a singer (eg, stress, menses, reflux, vocal load, and vocal hygiene) makes it difficult to objectively quantify the impact of vocal cool downs. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of acute pesticide toxicity with selected biochemical variables in suicide attempting subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, A.M.; Seehar, G.M.; Bhanger, M.I.

    2003-01-01

    Pesticide induced changes were assessed in thirty two subjects of attempted suicide cases. Among all, the farmers and their families were recorded as most frequently suicide attempting. The values obtained from seven biochemical variables of 29 years old (average age) hospitalized subjects were compared to the same number and age matched normal volunteers. The results revealed major differences in the mean values of the selected parameters. The mean difference calculate; alkaline phosphatase (178.7 mu/l), Bilirubin (7.5 mg/dl), GPT (59.2 mu/l) and glucose (38.6 mg/dl) were higher than the controls, which indicate the hepatotoxicity induced by the pesticides in suicide attempting individuals. Increase in serum creatinine and urea indicated renal malfunction that could be linked with pesticide induced nephrotoxicity among them. (author)

  11. Acute Effects of Plyometric Intervention—Performance Improvement and Related Changes in Sprinting Gait Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkała, Krzysztof; Fostiak, Marek

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a short high-intensity plyometric program on the improvement of explosive power of lower extremities and sprint performance as well as changes in sprinting stride variability in male sprinters. Fourteen healthy male sprinters (mean ± SD: age: 18.07 ± 0.73 years, body mass: 73 ± 9.14 kg, height: 180.57 ± 8.16 cm, and best 100 m: 10.89 ± 0.23) participated in the experiment. The experimental protocol included vertical jumping such as squat jump, countermovement jump, and horizontal jumps; standing long jump and standing triple jumps to assess lower-body power, maximal running velocity; a 20-m flying start sprint that evaluated variability of 10 running steps and 60-m starting block sprint. All analyzed parameters were obtained using the new technology of OptoJump-Microgate (OptoJump, Italy). The short-term plyometric training program significantly increased the explosive power of lower extremities, both vertical and horizontal jumping improvement. However, the vertical jumps increased much more than the horizontal. The 20-m improvements were derived from an increase of stride frequency from 4.31 to 4.39 Hz because of a decrease of ground contact time from 138 to 133 milliseconds. This did not translate into step length changes. Therefore, the significantly increased frequency of stride (1.8%), which is a specific expression of ground contact time reduction during support phase, resulted in an increase of speed. The training volume of 2 weeks (with 6 sessions) using high-intensity (between 180 and 250 jumps per session) plyometric exercises can be recommended as the short-term strategy that will optimize one's probability of reaching strong improvements in explosive power and sprint velocity performance.

  12. Acute myonecrosis on MRI: etiologies in an oncological cohort and assessment of interobserver variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Jane; Sharma, Richa; Kirzner, Anna; Greenspan, Daniel; Shapoval, Anton; Hwang, Sinchun; Lefkowitz, Robert; Panicek, David M.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the etiologies of myonecrosis in oncology patients and to assess interobserver variability in interpreting its MRI features. Pathology records in our tertiary cancer hospital were searched for proven myonecrosis, and MRIs of affected regions in those patients were identified. MRI reports that suggested myonecrosis were also identified. Each MRI was reviewed independently by 2 out of 6 readers to assess anatomical site, size, and signal intensities of muscle changes, and the presence of the previously reported stipple sign (enhancing foci within a region defined by rim enhancement). The stipple sign was assessed again, weeks after a training session. Cohen kappa and percentage agreement were calculated. Medical records were reviewed for contemporaneous causes of myonecrosis. MRI reports in 73 patients suggested the diagnosis of myonecrosis; pathological proof was available in another 2. Myonecrosis was frequently associated with radiotherapy (n = 34 patients, 45 %); less frequent causes included intraoperative immobilization, trauma, therapeutic embolization, ablation therapy, exercise, and diabetes. Myonecrosis usually involved the lower extremity, the pelvis, and the upper extremity; mean size was 13.0 cm. The stipple sign was observed in 55-100 % of patients at first assessment (κ = 0.09-0.42; 60-80 % agreement) and 55-100 % at second (κ = 0.0-0.58; 72-90 % agreement). Enhancement surrounded myonecrosis in 55-100 % patients (κ = 0.03-0.32; 58-70 % agreement). Myonecrosis in oncology patients usually occurred after radiotherapy, and less commonly after intraoperative immobilization, trauma, therapeutic embolization, ablation therapy, exercise, or diabetes. Although interobserver variability for MRI features of myonecrosis exists (even after focused training), a combination of findings facilitates diagnosis and conservative management. (orig.)

  13. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  14. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Javad Seyed Toutounchi; Mahmood Eydi; Samad EJ Golzari; Mohammad Reza Ghaffari; Nashmil Parvizian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis. Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such a...

  15. Multidimensional Analysis on the Effect of Vocal Function Exercises on Aged Vocal Fold Atrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Mami; Hirano, Shigeru; Tateya, Ichiro; Kishimoto, Yo; Hiwatashi, Nao; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ito, Juichi

    2015-01-01

    Age-related voice change is characterized as weak, harsh, and breathy. These changes are caused by histologic alteration of the lamina propria of the vocal fold mucosa as well as atrophy of the thyroarytenoid muscle. Several therapeutic strategies involving laryngeal framework surgery and injection laryngoplasty have been tried, but effects have been limited. Vocal function exercises (VFE) have been used to treat age-related vocal fold atrophy although the effectiveness has been shown with li...

  16. Changes in the heart rate variability in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and its response to acute CPAP treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Kufoy

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to demonstrate whether the use of CPAP produces significant changes in the heart rate or in the heart rate variability of patients with OSA in the first night of treatment and whether gender and obesity play a role in these differences. METHODS: Single-center transversal study including patients with severe OSA corrected with CPAP. Only patients with total correction after CPAP were included. Patients underwent two sleep studies on consecutive nights: the first night a basal study, and the second with CPAP. We also analyzed the heart rate changes and their relationship with CPAP treatment, sleep stages, sex and body mass index. Twenty-minute segments of the ECG were selected from the sleep periods of REM, no-REM and awake. Heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV were studied by comparing the R-R interval in the different conditions. We also compared samples from the basal study and CPAP nights. RESULTS: 39 patients (15 females, 24 males were studied. The mean age was 50.67 years old, the mean AHI was 48.54, and mean body mass index was 33.41 kg/m(2 (31.83 males, 35.95 females. Our results showed that HRV (SDNN decreased after the use of CPAP during the first night of treatment, especially in non-REM sleep. Gender and obesity did not have any influence on our results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support that cardiac variability improves as an acute effect, independently of gender or weight, in the first night of CPAP use in severe OSA patients, supporting the idea of continuous use and emphasizing that noncompliance of CPAP treatment should be avoided even if it is just once.

  17. Changes in the Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Its Response to Acute CPAP Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jon; Alegre, Manuel; Urrestarazu, Elena; Artieda, Julio; Iriarte, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to demonstrate whether the use of CPAP produces significant changes in the heart rate or in the heart rate variability of patients with OSA in the first night of treatment and whether gender and obesity play a role in these differences. Methods Single-center transversal study including patients with severe OSA corrected with CPAP. Only patients with total correction after CPAP were included. Patients underwent two sleep studies on consecutive nights: the first night a basal study, and the second with CPAP. We also analyzed the heart rate changes and their relationship with CPAP treatment, sleep stages, sex and body mass index. Twenty-minute segments of the ECG were selected from the sleep periods of REM, no-REM and awake. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were studied by comparing the R-R interval in the different conditions. We also compared samples from the basal study and CPAP nights. Results 39 patients (15 females, 24 males) were studied. The mean age was 50.67 years old, the mean AHI was 48.54, and mean body mass index was 33.41 kg/m2 (31.83 males, 35.95 females). Our results showed that HRV (SDNN) decreased after the use of CPAP during the first night of treatment, especially in non-REM sleep. Gender and obesity did not have any influence on our results. Conclusions These findings support that cardiac variability improves as an acute effect, independently of gender or weight, in the first night of CPAP use in severe OSA patients, supporting the idea of continuous use and emphasizing that noncompliance of CPAP treatment should be avoided even if it is just once. PMID:22438995

  18. Nocturnal "humming" vocalizations: adding a piece to the puzzle of giraffe vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baotic, Anton; Sicks, Florian; Stoeger, Angela S

    2015-09-09

    Recent research reveals that giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis sp.) exhibit a socially structured, fission-fusion system. In other species possessing this kind of society, information exchange is important and vocal communication is usually well developed. But is this true for giraffes? Giraffes are known to produce sounds, but there is no evidence that they use vocalizations for communication. Reports on giraffe vocalizations are mainly anecdotal and the missing acoustic descriptions make it difficult to establish a call nomenclature. Despite inconclusive evidence to date, it is widely assumed that giraffes produce infrasonic vocalizations similar to elephants. In order to initiate a more detailed investigation of the vocal communication in giraffes, we collected data of captive individuals during day and night. We particularly focussed on detecting tonal, infrasonic or sustained vocalizations. We collected over 947 h of audio material in three European zoos and quantified the spectral and temporal components of acoustic signals to obtain an accurate set of acoustic parameters. Besides the known burst, snorts and grunts, we detected harmonic, sustained and frequency-modulated "humming" vocalizations during night recordings. None of the recorded vocalizations were within the infrasonic range. These results show that giraffes do produce vocalizations, which, based on their acoustic structure, might have the potential to function as communicative signals to convey information about the physical and motivational attributes of the caller. The data further reveal that the assumption of infrasonic communication in giraffes needs to be considered with caution and requires further investigations in future studies.

  19. Comparison of particulate matter dose and acute heart rate variability response in cyclists, pedestrians, bus and train passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, Marguerite; McNabola, Aonghus; Misstear, Bruce

    2014-01-15

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of the change in cardiac autonomic function, and consistent links between PM exposure and decreased HRV have been documented in studies. This study quantitatively assesses the acute relative variation of HRV with predicted PM dose in the lungs of commuters. Personal PM exposure, HR and HRV were monitored in 32 young healthy cyclists, pedestrians, bus and train passengers. Inhaled and lung deposited PM doses were determined using a numerical model of the human respiratory tract which accounted for varying ventilation rates between subjects and during commutes. Linear mixed models were used to examine air pollution dose and HRV response relationships in 122 commutes sampled. Elevated PM2.5 and PM10 inhaled and lung deposited doses were significantly (pbus (-3.2%, 95% CI: -6.4, -0.1) and train (-1.8%, -7.5, 3.8) passengers. A similar trend was observed in the case of PM2.5 lung deposited dose and results for rMSSD (the square root of the squared differences of successive normal RR intervals) followed similar trends to SDNN. Inhaled and lung deposited doses accounting for varying ventilation rates between modes, individuals and during commutes have been neglected in other studies relating PM to HRV. The findings here indicate that exercise whilst commuting has an influence on inhaled PM and PM lung deposited dose, and these were significantly associated with acute declines in HRV, especially in pedestrians and cyclists. © 2013.

  20. Effects of fundamental frequency and vocal-tract length changes on attention to one of two simultaneous talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwin, Christopher J.; Brungart, Douglas S.; Simpson, Brian D.

    2003-11-01

    Three experiments used the Coordinated Response Measure task to examine the roles that differences in F0 and differences in vocal-tract length have on the ability to attend to one of two simultaneous speech signals. The first experiment asked how increases in the natural F0 difference between two sentences (originally spoken by the same talker) affected listeners' ability to attend to one of the sentences. The second experiment used differences in vocal-tract length, and the third used both F0 and vocal-tract length differences. Differences in F0 greater than 2 semitones produced systematic improvements in performance. Differences in vocal-tract length produced systematic improvements in performance when the ratio of lengths was 1.08 or greater, particularly when the shorter vocal tract belonged to the target talker. Neither of these manipulations produced improvements in performance as great as those produced by a different-sex talker. Systematic changes in both F0 and vocal-tract length that simulated an incremental shift in gender produced substantially larger improvements in performance than did differences in F0 or vocal-tract length alone. In general, shifting one of two utterances spoken by a female voice towards a male voice produces a greater improvement in performance than shifting male towards female. The increase in performance varied with the intonation patterns of individual talkers, being smallest for those talkers who showed most variability in their intonation patterns between different utterances.

  1. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, K. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain images as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.

  2. Real-Time Vocal Tract Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Benkrid

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, most speech synthesis techniques have relied upon the representation of the vocal tract by some form of filter, a typical example being linear predictive coding (LPC. This paper describes the development of a physiologically realistic model of the vocal tract using the well-established technique of transmission line modelling (TLM. This technique is based on the principle of wave scattering at transmission line segment boundaries and may be used in one, two, or three dimensions. This work uses this technique to model the vocal tract using a one-dimensional transmission line. A six-port scattering node is applied in the region separating the pharyngeal, oral, and the nasal parts of the vocal tract.

  3. Measurement of vocal doses in virtual classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    different acoustical conditions, that combined different kind of background noise and virtual classroom acoustics. Readings from the vocal fold vibrations were registered with an Ambulatory Phonation Monitor device. The speech signal from the talker in the center of the facility was picked up with a head...... with an artificial head (corresponding to the mouth-ears path) placed at the talker position while simulating the classrooms. Time histories of the vocal fold vibration readings, with the trend of the fundamental frequency and an estimation of the sound pressure level, sampled every 50 ms, were obtained. From...... these data the vocal doses Time dose, Vocal Loading Index, Distance Dose, Energy Dissipation Dose, and Radiated Energy Dose were calculated and correlated with the acoustical features of the classrooms....

  4. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species - SETAC Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitiv...

  5. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the 2 life stages; and the variation in se...

  6. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  7. A retrospective study of long-term treatment outcomes for reduced vocal intensity in hypokinetic dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    Reduced vocal intensity is a core impairment of hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson's disease (PD). Speech treatments have been developed to rehabilitate the vocal subsystems underlying this impairment. Intensive treatment programs requiring high-intensity voice and speech exercises with clinician-guided prompting and feedback have been established as effective for improving vocal function. Less is known, however, regarding long-term outcomes of clinical benefit in speakers with PD who receive these treatments. A retrospective cohort design was utilized. Data from 78 patient files across a three year period were analyzed. All patients received a structured, intensive program of voice therapy focusing on speaking intent and loudness. The dependent variable for all analyses was vocal intensity in decibels (dBSPL). Vocal intensity during sustained vowel production, reading, and novel conversational speech was compared at pre-treatment, post-treatment, six month follow-up, and twelve month follow-up periods. Statistically significant increases in vocal intensity were found at post-treatment, 6 months, and 12 month follow-up periods with intensity gains ranging from 5 to 17 dB depending on speaking condition and measurement period. Significant treatment effects were found in all three speaking conditions. Effect sizes for all outcome measures were large, suggesting a strong degree of practical significance. Significant increases in vocal intensity measured at 6 and 12 moth follow-up periods suggested that the sample of patients maintained treatment benefit for up to a year. These findings are supported by outcome studies reporting treatment outcomes within a few months post-treatment, in addition to prior studies that have reported long-term outcome results. The positive treatment outcomes experienced by the PD cohort in this study are consistent with treatment responses subsequent to other treatment approaches which focus on high-intensity, clinician guided motor

  8. FoxP2 expression in avian vocal learners and non-learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haesler, Sebastian; Wada, Kazuhiro; Nshdejan, A; Morrisey, Edward E; Lints, Thierry; Jarvis, Eric D; Scharff, Constance

    2004-03-31

    Most vertebrates communicate acoustically, but few, among them humans, dolphins and whales, bats, and three orders of birds, learn this trait. FOXP2 is the first gene linked to human speech and has been the target of positive selection during recent primate evolution. To test whether the expression pattern of FOXP2 is consistent with a role in learned vocal communication, we cloned zebra finch FoxP2 and its close relative FoxP1 and compared mRNA and protein distribution in developing and adult brains of a variety of avian vocal learners and non-learners, and a crocodile. We found that the protein sequence of zebra finch FoxP2 is 98% identical with mouse and human FOXP2. In the avian and crocodilian forebrain, FoxP2 was expressed predominantly in the striatum, a basal ganglia brain region affected in patients with FOXP2 mutations. Strikingly, in zebra finches, the striatal nucleus Area X, necessary for vocal learning, expressed more FoxP2 than the surrounding tissue at post-hatch days 35 and 50, when vocal learning occurs. In adult canaries, FoxP2 expression in Area X differed seasonally; more FoxP2 expression was associated with times when song becomes unstable. In adult chickadees, strawberry finches, song sparrows, and Bengalese finches, Area X expressed FoxP2 to different degrees. Non-telencephalic regions in both vocal learning and non-learning birds, and in crocodiles, were less variable in expression and comparable with regions that express FOXP2 in human and rodent brains. We conclude that differential expression of FoxP2 in avian vocal learners might be associated with vocal plasticity.

  9. Vocal nodules in a colombian teachers group with dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Alvarado Díaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study determined the prevalence of vocal nodules associated with dysphonia in teachers aged from 35 to 65 years, taking into consideration both individual and occupational variables. Methodology: Descriptive study that included the information contained in 262 medical records of teachers diagnosed with dysphonia in occupational health consultations at the institutions that provide health services in Bogotá, Colombia from March 2009 to March 2012. The presence of laryngeal nodules was based on the findings of a nasofibrolaryngoscopy procedure. Results: Nodules were found in 67 teachers, which corresponded to a rate of 25.5%, being apparently (highest observed rates associated primarily with the following variables: females, ages from 45 to 54 years, bilateral nodules, and teaching position (preschool and physical education. Of the teachers with nodules, 76.1% had fewer than five doctor's appointments, and 75% had more than 90 days of sick leave. Conclusion: A high percentage of teachers have vocal nodules associated with dysphonia. This may be apparently related to different variables such as sex, type of nodule, area and teaching position. Was observed only a statistically significant association among presence of nodules and age (p=0.018. In addition this disorder generates a large number of incapacities and employee absenteeism.

  10. Heart rate variability in acute coronary syndrome patients with major depression: influence of sertraline and mood improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Alexander H; Bigger, J Thomas; Gaffney, Michael; Van Zyl, Louis T

    2007-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) increases the risk of mortality. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV), also a predictor of mortality, is reduced in patients with MDD after ACS, and has been suggested to be a mediator of MDD mortality after ACS. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may reduce mortality post-ACS, little is known about their effects on HRV. To examine the influence of both sertraline and improvement in mood on HRV. The Sertraline Antidepressant Heart Attack Randomized Trial assessed HRV from 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram recordings at baseline in 290 patients and from a second recording in 258 of these patients 16 weeks after randomization to sertraline or placebo. Frequency domain measures of HRV included high-frequency power, low-frequency power, very low-frequency power, ultra low-frequency power, and total power. Depression severity was measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Clinical response was measured with the Clinical Global Impressions Improvement scale. At baseline, prior episodes of MDD were associated with lower HRV. Sertraline significantly increased ultra low-frequency power, while improvement in mood was associated with higher low-frequency power independent of treatment. However, the expected recovery in HRV following ACS was not observed in patients with MDD. Higher ultra low-frequency during sertraline treatment and higher low-frequency power in patients whose mood improved resulted primarily from these measures decreasing in their comparison groups. Heart rate variability recovery is impaired in depressed patients after ACS. Previously reported differences in baseline HRV between patients with and without depression after ACS grew larger in the 16 weeks following a coronary event. Both sertraline treatment and symptomatic recovery from depression were associated with increased HRV compared with placebo-treated and nonrecovered post-ACS control groups

  11. Relationships among Vocal Jazz Improvisation Achievement, Jazz Theory Knowledge, Imitative Ability, Musical Experience, Creativity, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, Patrice Dawn

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a study that examined the nature of vocal jazz improvisation and the factors that influence achievement in improvisation. Participating subjects performed two jazz improvisation tasks that were measured for tonal, rhythmic, and expressive items. Correlating independent variables included jazz theory knowledge, jazz experience, and…

  12. Classification of acute stress using linear and non-linear heart rate variability analysis derived from sternal ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanev, George; Saadi, Dorthe B; Hoppe, Karsten; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress detection is an important factor in predicting and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. This work is a pilot study with a focus on developing a method for detecting short-term psychophysiological changes through heart rate variability (HRV) features. The purpose of this pilot study is to establish and to gain insight on a set of features that could be used to detect psychophysiological changes that occur during chronic stress. This study elicited four different types of arousal by images, sounds, mental tasks and rest, and classified them using linear and non-linear HRV features from electrocardiograms (ECG) acquired by the wireless wearable ePatch® recorder. The highest recognition rates were acquired for the neutral stage (90%), the acute stress stage (80%) and the baseline stage (80%) by sample entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis and normalized high frequency features. Standardizing non-linear HRV features for each subject was found to be an important factor for the improvement of the classification results.

  13. Vocalizations of Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis): Characterization, effect of physical environment and differences between populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Thiago Orion Simões; Andriolo, Artur; Reis, Sarah S; dos Santos, Manuel E

    2016-03-01

    The vocal repertoire of the Amazon river dolphin and its geographic variations are still poorly known, especially in relation to ecological variables. Here the acoustic characteristics of low frequency pulsed vocalizations, with single or multiple pulses, recorded in two protected areas of the Amazon were described and differences in acoustic emissions related to water properties were analyzed. Both frequency and time parameters differ relative to abiotic condition of water turbidity. Changes in the animals' acoustic behavior might be due to differences in sound propagation between rich-sediment water and clear water. Geographic variation was found in frequency and time parameters, requiring further investigation.

  14. A Computerized Tomography Study of Vocal Tract Setting in Hyperfunctional Dysphonia and in Belting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldias, Marcelo; Guzman, Marco; Miranda, Gonzalo; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2018-04-03

    Vocal tract setting in hyperfunctional patients is characterized by a high larynx and narrowing of the epilaryngeal and pharyngeal region. Similar observations have been made for various singing styles, eg, belting. The voice quality in belting has been described to be loud, speech like, and high pitched. It is also often described as sounding "pressed" or "tense". The above mentioned has led to the hypothesis that belting may be strenuous to the vocal folds. However, singers and teachers of belting do not regard belting as particularly strenuous. This study investigates possible similarities and differences between hyperfunctional voice production and belting. This study concerns vocal tract setting. Four male patients with hyperfunctional dysphonia and one male contemporary commercial music singer were registered with computerized tomography while phonating on [a:] in their habitual speaking pitch. Additionally, the singer used the pitch G4 in belting. The scannings were studied in sagittal and transversal dimensions by measuring lengths, widths, and areas. Various similarities were found between belting and hyperfunction: high vertical larynx position, small hypopharyngeal width, and epilaryngeal outlet. On the other hand, belting differed from dysphonia (in addition to higher pitch) by a wider lip and jaw opening, and larger volumes of the oral cavity. Belting takes advantage of "megaphone shape" of the vocal tract. Future studies should focus on modeling and simulation to address sound energy transfer. Also, they should consider aerodynamic variables and vocal fold vibration to evaluate the "price of decibels" in these phonation types. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Vocalization patterns in young children with Down syndrome: Utilizing the language environment analysis (LENA) to inform behavioral phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Chandni; Mastergeorge, Ann M

    2017-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at higher risk for both delayed expressive language and poor speech intelligibility. The current study utilized the quantitative automated language environment analysis (LENA) to depict mother and child vocalizations and conversational patterns in the home of 43 children with DS, chronologically aged 24-64 months. Children with DS displayed fewer utterances than typically developing children; however, there was wide variability. Furthermore, children with DS did not show increased vocalization counts across their chronological ages. In contrast to previous findings, this study found that the mothers of children with DS had a reduced number of vocalizations. However, the vocalizations increased with age in comparison to mothers of typically developing children. Implications for targeted interventions that facilitate learning opportunities in bidirectional contexts for children with DS and their parents are discussed, with particular attention to quantify behavioral phenotypes utilizing a novel expressive language assessment tool.

  16. Avian vocal mimicry: a unified conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A; Igic, Branislav; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    Mimicry is a classical example of adaptive signal design. Here, we review the current state of research into vocal mimicry in birds. Avian vocal mimicry is a conspicuous and often spectacular form of animal communication, occurring in many distantly related species. However, the proximate and ultimate causes of vocal mimicry are poorly understood. In the first part of this review, we argue that progress has been impeded by conceptual confusion over what constitutes vocal mimicry. We propose a modified version of Vane-Wright's (1980) widely used definition of mimicry. According to our definition, a vocalisation is mimetic if the behaviour of the receiver changes after perceiving the acoustic resemblance between the mimic and the model, and the behavioural change confers a selective advantage on the mimic. Mimicry is therefore specifically a functional concept where the resemblance between heterospecific sounds is a target of selection. It is distinct from other forms of vocal resemblance including those that are the result of chance or common ancestry, and those that have emerged as a by-product of other processes such as ecological convergence and selection for large song-type repertoires. Thus, our definition provides a general and functionally coherent framework for determining what constitutes vocal mimicry, and takes account of the diversity of vocalisations that incorporate heterospecific sounds. In the second part we assess and revise hypotheses for the evolution of avian vocal mimicry in the light of our new definition. Most of the current evidence is anecdotal, but the diverse contexts and acoustic structures of putative vocal mimicry suggest that mimicry has multiple functions across and within species. There is strong experimental evidence that vocal mimicry can be deceptive, and can facilitate parasitic interactions. There is also increasing support for the use of vocal mimicry in predator defence, although the mechanisms are unclear. Less progress has

  17. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2004-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  18. Vocal fold elasticity of the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) – producing high fundamental frequency vocalization with a very long vocal fold

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Tobias; Titze, Ingo R.

    2008-01-01

    The vocal folds of male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) are about 3 cm long. If fundamental frequency were to be predicted by a simple vibrating string formula, as is often done for the human larynx, such long vocal folds would bear enormous stress to produce the species-specific mating call with an average fundamental frequency of 1 kHz. Predictions would be closer to 50 Hz. Vocal fold histology revealed the presence of a large vocal ligament between the vocal fold epithelium and...

  19. Individual killer whale vocal variation during intra-group behavioral dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebner, Dawn M.

    The scientific goal of this dissertation was to carefully study the signal structure of killer whale communications and vocal complexity and link them to behavioral circumstances. The overall objective of this research sought to provide insight into killer whale call content and usage which may be conveying information to conspecifics in order to maintain group cohesion. Data were collected in the summers of 2006 and 2007 in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia. For both individuals and small groups, vocalizations were isolated using a triangular hydrophone array and the behavioral movement patterns were captured by a theodolite and video camera positioned on a cliff overlooking the hyrophone locations. This dissertation is divided into four analysis chapters. In Chapter 3, discriminant analysis was used to validate the four N04 call subtypes which were originally parsed due to variations in slope segments. The first two functions of the discriminant analysis explained 97% of the variability. Most of the variability for the N04 call was found in the front convex and the terminal portions of the call, while very little variability was found in the center region of the call. This research revealed that individual killer whales produced multiple subtypes of the N04 call. No correlations of behaviors to acoustic parameters obtained were found. The aim of the Chapter 4 was to determine if killer whale calling behavior varied prior to and after the animals had joined. Pulsed call rates were found to be greater pre- compared to post-joining events. Two-way vocal exchanges were more common occurring 74% of the time during pre-joining events. In Chapter 5, initiated and first response to calls varied between age/sex class groups when mothers were separated from an offspring. Solo mothers and calves initiated pulsed calls more often than they responded. Most of the no vocal responses were due to mothers who were foraging. Finally, observations of the frequency split in N04

  20. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Bilateral vocal cord paralysis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, I

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen infantile cases with bilateral vocal cord paralysis were treated at our hospital from 1970 to 1993. All cases were diagnosed using a flexible fiberscope to examine the larynx. Direct laryngoscopy was performed under general anesthesia for the definite diagnosis and differential diagnosis from laryngomalacia, subglottic stenosis, tracheal stenosis, or laryngeal web. Bilateral vocal cord paralysis in children is a rare disease, there have been few and reported cases. Eight cases were male and 10 cases were female. Thirteen cases were congenital, 4 cases acquired and 1 case was unknown. The characteristic symptoms of bilateral vocal cord paralysis include normal or near normal phonation with inspiratory stridor which may progress to complete respiratory obstruction. Associated anomalies and diseases included 3 cases of immature infant, 2 of myelomeningocele, and single cases of Arnold-Chiari malformation, cerebral palsy, hydrocephalus, laryngomalacia, William's syndrome, Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome, hypoxia, esophageal hiatus hernia, gastroesophageal reflex, spina bifida, COFS syndrome, and cerebral atrophy. Laryngeal function was completely recovered in seven cases following growth of the children incompletely recovered in five cases, and 2 cases retained right vocal cord paralysis. Tracheostomy was performed in 2 cases. One case died from the original disease, and the other one case was unknown. Swallowing function, phonation and development were good. Our experience suggests that the airway with bilateral vocal cord paralysis in children can be managed well without the need for tracheostomy.

  2. Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roger W.

    2004-05-01

    The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

  3. Phonosurgery of vocal fold polyps, cysts and nodules is beneficial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jane Bjerg; Rasmussen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds.......This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds....

  4. Social complexity parallels vocal complexity: a comparison of three non-human primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Hélène; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-01-01

    Social factors play a key role in the structuring of vocal repertoires at the individual level, notably in non-human primates. Some authors suggested that, at the species level too, social life may have driven the evolution of communicative complexity, but this has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we use a comparative approach to address this issue. We investigated vocal variability, at both the call type and the repertoire levels, in three forest-dwelling species of Cercopithecinae presenting striking differences in their social systems, in terms of social organization as well as social structure. We collected female call recordings from twelve De Brazza's monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus), six Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) and seven red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) housed in similar conditions. First, we noted that the level of acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness found in several call types was related to their importance in social functioning. Contact calls, essential to intra-group cohesion, were the most individually distinctive regardless of the species, while threat calls were more structurally variable in mangabeys, the most "despotic" of our three species. Second, we found a parallel between the degree of complexity of the species' social structure and the size, diversity, and usage of its vocal repertoire. Mangabeys (most complex social structure) called twice as often as guenons and displayed the largest and most complex repertoire. De Brazza's monkeys (simplest social structure) displayed the smallest and simplest repertoire. Campbell's monkeys displayed an intermediate pattern. Providing evidence of higher levels of vocal variability in species presenting a more complex social system, our results are in line with the theory of a social-vocal coevolution of communicative abilities, opening new perspectives for comparative research on the evolution of communication systems in different animal taxa.

  5. Social complexity parallels vocal complexity: a comparison of three nonhuman primate species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène eBOUCHET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social factors play a key role in the structuring of vocal repertoires at the individual level, notably in nonhuman primates. Some authors suggested that, at the species level too, social life may have driven the evolution of communicative complexity, but this has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we use a comparative approach to address this issue. We investigated vocal variability, at both the call type and the repertoire levels, in three forest-dwelling species of Cercopithecinae presenting striking differences in their social systems, in terms of social organization as well as social structure. We collected female call recordings from twelve De Brazza’s monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus, six Campbell’s monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli and seven red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus housed in similar conditions. First, we noted that the level of acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness found in several call types was related to their importance in social functioning. Contact calls, essential to intra-group cohesion, were the most individually distinctive regardless of the species, while threat calls were more structurally variable in mangabeys, the most ‘despotic’ of our three species. Second, we found a parallel between the degree of complexity of the species’ social structure and the size, diversity, and usage of its vocal repertoire. Mangabeys (most complex social structure called twice as often as guenons and displayed the largest and most complex repertoire. De Brazza’s monkeys (simplest social structure displayed the smallest and simplest repertoire. Campbell’s monkeys displayed an intermediate pattern. Providing evidence of higher levels of vocal variability in species presenting a more complex social system, our results are in line with the theory of a social-vocal coevolution of communicative abilities, opening new perspectives for comparative research on the evolution of communication systems in

  6. Objectively Assessed Sleep Variability as an Acute Warning Sign of Suicidal Ideation in a Longitudinal Evaluation of Young Adults at High Suicide Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernert, Rebecca A; Hom, Melanie A; Iwata, Naomi G; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-06-01

    Young adults attempt suicide at disproportionately high rates relative to other groups and demonstrate high rates of sleep disturbance. No study has yet prospectively evaluated disturbed sleep as an acute indicator of risk using an objective index of sleep. We investigated objective and subjective parameters of disturbed sleep as a warning sign of suicidal ideation among young adults over an acute period. A longitudinal study across a 21-day observation period and 3 time points. Fifty of 4,847 participants (aged 18-23 years) were prescreened from a university undergraduate research pool (February 2007-June 2008) on the basis of suicide attempt history and recent suicidal ideation. Actigraphic and subjective sleep parameters were evaluated as acute predictors of suicidal ideation (Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation), with adjustment for baseline symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses were employed to predict residual change scores. Ninety-six percent of participants (n = 48) endorsed a suicide attempt history. Mean actigraphy values revealed objectively disturbed sleep parameters; 78% (n = 39) and 36% (n = 18) endorsed clinically significant insomnia and nightmares, respectively. When results were controlled for baseline suicidal and depressive symptoms, actigraphic and subjective sleep parameters predicted suicidal ideation residual change scores at 7- and 21-day follow-ups (P defined variability in sleep timing, insomnia, and nightmares predicted increases in suicidal ideation (P < .05). In a test of competing risk factors, sleep variability outperformed depressive symptoms in the longitudinal prediction of suicidal ideation across time points (P < .05). Objectively and subjectively measured sleep disturbances predicted acute suicidal ideation increases in this population, independent of depressed mood. Self-reported insomnia and nightmares and actigraphically assessed sleep variability emerged as acute warning signs of suicidal ideation. These findings highlight

  7. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Cory T.; Thomas, A. Wren; Nummela, Samuel U.; de la Mothe, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed ...

  8. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-Reported Acute and Chronic Voice Disorders in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable, self-reported dysphonia, was determined via a single question, "Have you noticed changes in your voice quality?" and if so, a follow-up question queried the duration of this change, acute or chronic. The independent variables were dichotomized and divided into five categories: sociodemographic and economic data; lifestyle; organizational and environmental data; health-disease processes; and voice. Analyses of associated factors were performed via a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model. The present study included 226 teachers, of whom 38.9% reported no voice disorders, 35.4% reported an acute disorder, and 25.7% reported a chronic disorder. Excessive voice use daily, consuming more than one alcoholic drink per time, and seeking medical treatment because of voice disorders were associated factors for acute and chronic voice disorders. Consuming up to three glasses of water per day was associated with acute voice disorders. Among teachers who reported chronic voice disorders, teaching for over 15 years and the perception of disturbing or unbearable noise outside the school were both associated factors. Identification of organizational, environmental, and predisposing risk factors for voice disorders is critical, and furthermore, a vocal health promotion program may address these issues. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS FOR VOCAL FOLD POLYP FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAŠA GLUVAJIĆ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vocal fold polyp is one of the most common causes for hoarseness. Many different etiological factors contribute to vocal fold polyp formation. The aim of the study was to find out whether the etiological factors for polyp formation have changed in the last 30 years.Methods: Eighty-one patients with unilateral vocal fold polyp were included in the study. A control group was composed of 50 volunteers without voice problems who matched the patients by age and gender. The data about etiological factors and the findings of phoniatric examination were obtained from the patients' medical documentation and from the questionnaires for the control group. The incidence of etiological factors was compared between the two groups. The program SPSS, Version 18 was used for statistical analysis.Results: The most frequent etiological factors were occupational voice load, GER, allergy and smoking. In 79% of patients 2 – 6 contemporary acting risk factors were found. Occupational voice load (p=0,018 and GER (p=0,004 were significantly more frequent in the patients than in the controls. The other factors did not significantly influence the polyp formation.Conclusions: There are several factors involved simultaneously in the formation of vocal fold polyps both nowadays and 30 years ago. Some of the most common factors remain the same (voice load, smoking, others are new (GER, allergy, which is probably due to the different lifestyle and working conditions than 30 years ago. Occupational voice load and GER were significantly more frequently present in the patients with polyp than in the control group. Regarding the given results it is important to instruct workers with professional vocal load about etiological factors for vocal fold polyp formation.

  11. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  12. Vocalizations of the South African cliff swallow Hirundo spilodera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vocalizations of the South African cliff swallow. Hirundo spilodera. A.A. Earle. National Museum, Bloemfontein. The vocalizations of both adult and juvenile South African cliff swallows Hirundo spilodera are described. This swallow has a large vocal repertoire considering that it is a highly colonial species, and at least seven ...

  13. Acoustic Analysis and Electroglottography in Elite Vocal Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte-Gonzalez, Rocio; Valadez-Jimenez, Victor M; Sierra-Ramirez, Jose A; Ysunza, Pablo Antonio; Chavarria-Villafuerte, Karen; Hernandez-Lopez, Xochiquetzal

    2017-05-01

    Acoustic analysis of voice (AAV) and electroglottography (EGG) have been used for assessing vocal quality in patients with voice disorders. The effectiveness of these procedures for detecting mild disturbances in vocal quality in elite vocal performers has been controversial. To compare acoustic parameters obtained by AAV and EGG before and after vocal training to determine the effectiveness of these procedures for detecting vocal improvements in elite vocal performers. Thirty-three elite vocal performers were studied. The study group included 14 males and 19 females, ages 18-40 years, without a history of voice disorders. Acoustic parameters were obtained through AAV and EGG before and after vocal training using the Linklater method. Nonsignificant differences (P > 0.05) were found between values of fundamental frequency (F 0 ), shimmer, and jitter obtained by both procedures before vocal training. Mean F 0 was similar after vocal training. Jitter percentage as measured by AAV showed nonsignificant differences (P > 0.05) before and after vocal training. Shimmer percentage as measured by AAV demonstrated a significant reduction (P performers undergoing vocal training. EGG demonstrated better efficacy for detecting improvements and provided additional parameters as compared to AAV. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, Clark A.; Mau, Ted; Remacle, Marc; Hess, Markus; Eckel, Hans E.; Young, VyVy N.; Hantzakos, Anastasios; Yung, Katherine C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2016-01-01

    The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold

  15. Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, Clark A.; Mau, Ted; Remacle, Marc; Hess, Markus; Eckel, Hans E.; Young, VyVy N.; Hantzakos, Anastasios; Yung, Katherine C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold

  16. The Development and Validation of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, William A.; Brown, Mary Helen

    1999-01-01

    Notes that presbycusis, hearing loss associated with aging, may be marked by a second dimension of hearing loss, a loss in vocalic sensitivity. Reports on the development of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test, which controls for the verbal elements in speech while also allowing for the vocalics to exercise their normal metacommunicative function of…

  17. The Importance of Vocal Parameters Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ghisa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyze communication we need to study the main parameters that describe the vocal sounds from the point of view of information content transfer efficiency. In this paper we analyze the physical quality of the “on air" information transfer, according to the audio streaming parameters and from the particular phonetic nature of the human factor. Applying this statistical analysis we aim to identify and record the correlation level of the acoustical parameters with the vocal ones and the impact which the presence of this cross-correlation can have on communication structures’ improvement.

  18. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  19. [Biofeedback in young singer vocal training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochină, Paula; Ciochină, Al D; Burlui, Ada; Zaharia, D

    2007-01-01

    Biofeedback therapy is a learning process that is based on "operant conditioning" techniques. To estimate the significance of biofeedback to an accurate and faster control of singing voice emission. Significantly, it was discovered that professional singers active in performing of both classical and music theatre repertoire with regard to the visual-kinesthetic effect of melodic contour in musical notation as it affect vocal timbre. The results of the study also indicate that the development of new technology for youth singer vocal training, may be useful to these singers.

  20. Discrimination of ultrasonic vocalizations by CBA/CaJ mice (Mus musculus is related to spectrotemporal dissimilarity of vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erikson G Neilans

    Full Text Available The function of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs produced by mice (Mus musculus is a topic of broad interest to many researchers. These USVs differ widely in spectrotemporal characteristics, suggesting different categories of vocalizations, although this has never been behaviorally demonstrated. Although electrophysiological studies indicate that neurons can discriminate among vocalizations at the level of the auditory midbrain, perceptual acuity for vocalizations has yet to be determined. Here, we trained CBA/CaJ mice using operant conditioning to discriminate between different vocalizations and between a spectrotemporally modified vocalization and its original version. Mice were able to discriminate between vocalization types and between manipulated vocalizations, with performance negatively correlating with spectrotemporal similarity. That is, discrimination performance was higher for dissimilar vocalizations and much lower for similar vocalizations. The behavioral data match previous neurophysiological results in the inferior colliculus (IC, using the same stimuli. These findings suggest that the different vocalizations could carry different meanings for the mice. Furthermore, the finding that behavioral discrimination matched neural discrimination in the IC suggests that the IC plays an important role in the perceptual discrimination of vocalizations.

  1. Vocal learning is constrained by the statistics of sensorimotor experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sober, Samuel J; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-12-18

    The brain uses sensory feedback to correct behavioral errors. Larger errors by definition require greater corrections, and many models of learning assume that larger sensory feedback errors drive larger motor changes. However, an alternative perspective is that larger errors drive learning less effectively because such errors fall outside the range of errors normally experienced and are therefore unlikely to reflect accurate feedback. This is especially crucial in vocal control because auditory feedback can be contaminated by environmental noise or sensory processing errors. A successful control strategy must therefore rely on feedback to correct errors while disregarding aberrant auditory signals that would lead to maladaptive vocal corrections. We hypothesized that these constraints result in compensation that is greatest for smaller imposed errors and least for larger errors. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the pitch of auditory feedback in singing Bengalese finches. We found that learning driven by larger sensory errors was both slower than that resulting from smaller errors and showed less complete compensation for the imposed error. Additionally, we found that a simple principle could account for these data: the amount of compensation was proportional to the overlap between the baseline distribution of pitch production and the distribution experienced during the shift. Correspondingly, the fraction of compensation approached zero when pitch was shifted outside of the song's baseline pitch distribution. Our data demonstrate that sensory errors drive learning best when they fall within the range of production variability, suggesting that learning is constrained by the statistics of sensorimotor experience.

  2. Vocal Tract and Glottal Function During and After Vocal Exercising With Resonance Tube and Straw

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guzman, M.; Laukkanen, A. M.; Krupa, P.; Horáček, Jaromír; Švec, J.G.; Geneid, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2013), "523.e19"-"523.e34" ISSN 0892-1997 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1306 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : vocal exercises * resonance tube * vocal tract impedance * computerized tomography * singer’s/speaker’s formant cluster Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.944, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08921997

  3. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bänziger

    Full Text Available We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness. While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars.

  4. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  5. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lautenbacher, Stefan; Salinas-Ranneberg, Melissa; Niebuhr, Oliver; Kunz, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: There have, yet, been only few attempts to phonetically characterize the vocalizations of pain, although there is wide agreement that moaning, groaning, or other nonverbal utterance can be indicative of pain. We studied the production of vowels "u," "a," "i", and "schwa"

  6. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  7. Vocal fold nodules: morphological and immunohistochemical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Defaveri, Julio; Custódio Domingues, Maria Aparecida; de Albuquerque E Silva, Rafael; Fabro, Alexandre

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of vocal fold nodules. The study design was prospective and retrospective. For the histological study, we reviewed 15 slides from the surgical cases of vocal fold nodules, in which we analyzed epithelium, basal membrane (bm), and lamina propria. For the transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) studies, five new cases on vocal fold nodules were included. Immunohistochemistry study was carried out in the 15 specimens, using antifibronectin, antilaminin, and anticollagen IV antibodies. The main histological alterations were epithelial hyperplasia (73.33%), basement membrane thickening (86.66%), edema, and fibrosis (93.33%). SEM--reduction in mucous lacing and increase in the desquamating cells, without epithelial erosion. TEM--hyperplasia of the epithelium, enlargement of the intercellular junctions, which was filled by fluid, subepithelial thickening of the lamina reticularis, and break points in the basal membrane. Immunohistochemistry--we identified greater immunoexpression of fibronectin on the basal membrane, on the lamina propria, and around the vessels. Antilaminin and anticollagen IV antibodies showed higher pigmentation on the endothelium of the vessels than that on the basal membrane. In vocal fold nodules, combined assessment using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry can reveal important morphological details useful in characterizing these lesions. 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of thyroplasty for vocal fold paralysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Ågot Møller; Faber, Christian; Jakobsen, John

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroplasty with silicone rubber implantation is a surgical procedure for treatment of patients with vocal fold paralysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of the operation and to monitor which of the analyses were the more beneficial. MATERIAL AND METHODS...

  9. Patterns of Vocalization and Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Donald P.; Bouma, Gary D.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the interactive behavior that accompanies verbal exchange. It specifically describes a set of experiments designed to isolate an important subset of interactive behavior, the vocal (as opposed to the verbal) and to relate this information to a wide range of social impressions resulting from verbal exchange. (Available from…

  10. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars).

  11. Measurement of vocal doses in virtual classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    with an artificial head (corresponding to the mouth-ears path) placed at the talker position while simulating the classrooms. Time histories of the vocal fold vibration readings, with the trend of the fundamental frequency and an estimation of the sound pressure level, sampled every 50 ms, were obtained. From...

  12. Vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fieldwork to study the vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptilia levaillantoides was conducted on a farm in the Heidelberg district, Gauteng province, South Africa, during August 2009 to March 2011. Orange River Francolins possess a basic repertoire of seven calls and one mechanical sound. From 83 ...

  13. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076

  14. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanna Clay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus. We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the “peep” across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility.

  15. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  16. Variable positive end-expiratory pressure can maintain oxygenation in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by oleic acid in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Lanza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP or lung recruitment maneuvers (RM to improve oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is used but it may reduce cardiac output (CO. Intermittent PEEP may avoid these complications. Our objective was to determine if variable PEEP compared with constant PEEP is capable of maintaining arterial oxygenation and minimizing hemodynamic alterations with or without RM. Eighteen dogs with ARDS induced by oleic acid were randomized into three equal groups: group 1, low variable PEEP; group 2, high variable PEEP, and group 3, RM + high variable PEEP. All groups were submitted to constant PEEP, followed by variable PEEP (PEEP was increased from 5 to 10 cmH2O in group 1, and from 5 to 18 cmH2O in the other two groups. PaO2 was higher in group 3 (356.2 ± 65.4 mmHg than in group 1 (92.7 ± 29.7 mmHg and group 2 (228.5 ± 72.4 mmHg, P 0.05. Variable PEEP is able to maintain PaO2 when performed in combination with RM in dogs with ARDS. After RM, CO was reduced and there was no relevant difference between the variable and constant PEEP periods.

  17. Iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Marcus; Dale, Rick; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Studies of gestural communication systems find that they originate from spontaneously created iconic gestures. Yet, we know little about how people create vocal communication systems, and many have suggested that vocalizations do not afford iconicity beyond trivial instances of onomatopoeia. It is unknown whether people can generate vocal communication systems through a process of iconic creation similar to gestural systems. Here, we examine the creation and development of a rudimentary vocal symbol system in a laboratory setting. Pairs of participants generated novel vocalizations for 18 different meanings in an iterative 'vocal' charades communication game. The communicators quickly converged on stable vocalizations, and naive listeners could correctly infer their meanings in subsequent playback experiments. People's ability to guess the meanings of these novel vocalizations was predicted by how close the vocalization was to an iconic 'meaning template' we derived from the production data. These results strongly suggest that the meaningfulness of these vocalizations derived from iconicity. Our findings illuminate a mechanism by which iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols, analogous to the function of iconicity in gestural communication systems.

  18. Auditory lateralization of conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Laddago, Serena; Quaranta, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Auditory lateralization in response to both conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations (dog vocalizations) was observed in 16 tabby cats (Felis catus). Six different vocalizations were used: cat "purring," "meowing" and "growling" and dog typical vocalizations of "disturbance," "isolation" and "play." The head-orienting paradigm showed that cats turned their head with the right ear leading (left hemisphere activation) in response to their typical-species vocalization ("meow" and "purring"); on the other hand, a clear bias in the use of the left ear (right hemisphere activation) was observed in response to vocalizations eliciting intense emotion (dogs' vocalizations of "disturbance" and "isolation"). Overall these findings suggest that auditory sensory domain seems to be lateralized also in cat species, stressing the role of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication and of the right hemisphere in processing threatening and alarming stimuli.

  19. Paradoxical vocal cord dysfunction: when a wheeze is not asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W C; Goh, A; Ho, L; Tang, J P L; Chay, O M

    2008-04-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is an uncommon condition which often mimics asthma in presentation and severity. We present nine- and 11-year-old female siblings with vocal cord dysfunction, which is a dysfunction of the larynx involving unintentional paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords during inspiration. We evaluated the use of exercise testing in conjunction with pulmonary function testing in suspected vocal cord dysfunction. Although normal pulmonology function tests were elicited with the patient at rest, exercise testing revealed blunting of the expiratory loop with attenuation of the inspiratory loop unique to VCD. The child underwent video laryngoscopy in the specialised voice clinic, which confirmed vocal cord dysfunction. Exercise testing is a rapid and noninvasive means of diagnosing vocal cord dysfunction in a small subset of patients, but video laryngoscopy, with training manoeuvres to elicit paradoxical vocal cord movements in VCD, remains the gold standard of diagnosis of VCD.

  20. Vocal Fold Injection: Review of Indications, Techniques, and Materials for Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mallur, Pavan S.; Rosen, Clark A.

    2010-01-01

    Vocal fold injection is a procedure that has over a 100 year history but was rarely done as short as 20 years ago. A renaissance has occurred with respect to vocal fold injection due to new technologies (visualization and materials) and new injection approaches. Awake, un-sedated vocal fold injection offers many distinct advantages for the treatment of glottal insufficiency (vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold paresis, vocal fold atrophy and vocal fold scar). A review of materials available and ...

  1. A case of bilateral vocal fold mucosal bridges, bilateral trans-vocal fold type III sulci vocales, and an intracordal polyp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Melin; Pitman, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    We present a patient with a novel finding of bilateral mucosal bridges, bilateral type III trans-vocal fold sulci vocales, and a vocal fold polyp. Although sulci and mucosal bridges occur in the vocal folds, it is rare to find multiples of these lesions in a single patient, and it is even more uncommon when they occur in conjunction with a vocal fold polyp. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a vocal fold polyp in combination with multiple vocal fold bridges and multiple type III sulci vocales in a single patient. To describe and visually present the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with an intracordal polyp, bilateral mucosal bridges, as well as bilateral type III trans-vocal fold sulci vocales. Presentation of a set of high definition intraoperative photos displaying the extent of the vocal fold lesions and the resection of the intracordal polyp. This patient presented with only 6 months of significant dysphonia. It was felt that the recent change in voice was because of the polyp and not the bridges or sulci vocales. Considering the patient's presentation and the possible morbidity of resection of mucosal bridges and sulci, only the polyp was excised. Postoperatively, the patient's voice returned to his acceptable mild baseline dysphonia, and the benefit has persisted 6 months postoperatively. The combination of bilateral mucosal bridges, bilateral type III sulcus vocalis, and an intracordal polyp in one patient is rare if not novel. Treatment of the polyp alone returned the patient's voice to his lifelong baseline of mild dysphonia. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of physiological variables during acute hypoxia and maximal stress test in adolescents clinically diagnosed with mild intermittent or mild persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Martin; Portela, Luiz Osório Cruz

    2011-01-01

    To analyze adolescents clinically diagnosed with asthma, in terms of the physiological changes occurring during acute hypoxia and during a maximal stress test. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study involving 48 adolescents (12-14 years of age) who were divided into three groups: mild intermittent asthma (MIA, n = 12); mild persistent asthma (MPA, n = 12); and control (n = 24). All subjects were induced to acute hypoxia and were submitted to maximal stress testing. Anthropometric data were collected, and functional variables were assessed before and after the maximal stress test. During acute hypoxia, the time to a decrease in SpO2 and the time to recovery of SpO2 (at rest) were determined. No significant differences were found among the groups regarding the anthropometric variables or regarding the ventilatory variables during the stress test. Significant differences were found in oxygen half-saturation pressure of hemoglobin prior to the test and in PaO2 prior to the test between the MPA and control groups (p = 0.0279 and p = 0.0116, respectively), as was in the oxygen extraction tension prior to the test between the MIA and MPA groups (p = 0.0419). There were no significant differences in terms of the SpO2 times under any of the conditions studied. Oxygen consumption and respiratory efficiency were similar among the groups. The use of a bronchodilator provided no significant benefit during the hypoxia test. No correlations were found between the hypoxia test results and the physiological variables. Our findings suggest that adolescents with mild persistent asthma have a greater capacity to adapt to hypoxia than do those with other types of asthma.

  3. Discriminating between the vocalizations of Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Soto, Alvaro; Marsh, Helene; Everingham, Yvette; Smith, Joshua N; Parra, Guido J; Noad, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins co-occur throughout most of their range in coastal waters of tropical Australia. Little is known of their ecology or acoustic repertoires. Vocalizations from humpback and snubfin dolphins were recorded in two locations along the Queensland coast during 2008 and 2010 to describe their vocalizations and evaluate the acoustic differences between these two species. Broad vocalization types were categorized qualitatively. Both species produced click trains burst pulses and whistles. Principal component analysis of the nine acoustic variables extracted from the whistles produced nine principal components that were input into discriminant function analyses to classify 96% of humpback dolphin whistles and about 78% of snubfin dolphin calls correctly. Results indicate clear acoustic differences between the vocal whistle repertoires of these two species. A stepwise routine identified two principal components as significantly distinguishable between whistles of each species: frequency parameters and frequency trend ratio. The capacity to identify these species using acoustic monitoring techniques has the potential to provide information on presence/absence, habitat use and relative abundance for each species.

  4. Vocal cord dysfunction in athletes: clinical presentation and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alwan, Ali; Kaminsky, David

    2012-05-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a syndrome characterized by the intermittent, abnormal paradoxical adduction of the true vocal cords during respiration resulting in variable upper airway obstruction. It is also commonly referred to as paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder. Patients with VCD usually present with intermittent shortness of breath of varying intensity, wheezing, stridor, choking, throat tightness, voice changes, or cough, and these symptoms often resolve quickly after relaxation or cessation of activity. Since first described as a distinct clinical entity in 1983, VCD remains underrecognized and the underlying cause(s) is not fully understood. Several studies suggest psychogenic or laryngeal hyperresponsiveness as possible underlying causes. Although VCD may have many causes, it can be a unique problem, especially in athletes because it often mimics and can be easily mistaken for exercise-induced bronchospasm, which may result in unnecessary medical treatment and delay in diagnosis. A detailed history, physical examination, and pulmonary function tests with flow-volume loops are important for excluding other diagnoses; however, the gold standard method for diagnosing VCD is by observation of the vocal cords with flexible laryngoscopy. The mainstay of treatment includes behavioral management guided by a speech-language pathologist, but optimal therapy often requires a multidisciplinary team involving a variety of specialties, including certified athletic training, pulmonology, otolaryngology, speech-language pathology, gastroenterology, allergy and immunology, and psychology, as appropriate. We reviewed the medical literature for VCD specifically in athletes, and this article discusses in detail the definition, epidemiology, possible pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment options.

  5. Multidimensional Analysis on the Effect of Vocal Function Exercises on Aged Vocal Fold Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mami; Hirano, Shigeru; Tateya, Ichiro; Kishimoto, Yo; Hiwatashi, Nao; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ito, Juichi

    2015-09-01

    Age-related voice change is characterized as weak, harsh, and breathy. These changes are caused by histologic alteration of the lamina propria of the vocal fold mucosa as well as atrophy of the thyroarytenoid muscle. Several therapeutic strategies involving laryngeal framework surgery and injection laryngoplasty have been tried, but effects have been limited. Vocal function exercises (VFE) have been used to treat age-related vocal fold atrophy although the effectiveness has been shown with limited analysis. The present study aims to determine the effectiveness of VFE for the treatment of aged atrophy using multidimensional analysis. This is a retrospective study. Sixteen patients with vocal fold atrophy aged 65-81 years underwent voice therapy using VFE. Six patients with vocal fold atrophy aged 65-85 years were involved as a historical control group. The grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain (GRBAS) scale, stroboscopic examinations, aerodynamic assessment, acoustic analysis, and Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) were performed before and after VFE. Normalized mucosal wave amplitude (NMWA), normalized glottal gap (NGG), and bowing index (BI) were measured by image analysis during stroboscopic examinations. After VFE, significant improvements were shown in GRBAS, maximum phonation time, jitter, NMWA, NGG, and VHI-10 although BI has not changed significantly. There were no significant improvements in the historical control. The data suggest that VFE produces significant improvement in subjective, objective, and patient self-evaluation and deserves further attention as a treatment for aged atrophy of the vocal fold. It was also suggested that VFE does not improve the vocal fold bowing but may improve muscular function during voicing. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Protracted and variable latency of acute lymphoblastic leukemia after TEL-AML1 gene fusion in utero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiemels, JL; Ford, AM; Van Wering, ER; Postma, A; Greaves, M

    1999-01-01

    We report a pair of identical twins with concordant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Unusually, their diagnoses were spaced 9 years apart at ages 5 and 14, Leukemic cells in both twins had a TEL-AML1 rearrangement, which was characterized at the DNA level by an adaptation of a long distance

  7. Vocal quality in university teachers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, E; Claeys, S; Wuyts, F; Van Lierde, K M

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the vocal quality of 20 male and 9 female university teachers using a multi-parameter approach. Secondly, the effect of an academic lecture on the voice profiles of the university teachers was measured. All groups underwent subjective voice evaluations (perceptual evaluation, Voice Handicap Index, anamnesis of vocal complaints and vocal abuse) and objective voice evaluations (aerodynamic and acoustic parameters, vocal performance, and the Dysphonia Severity Index). The same voice assessment was performed after an academic lecture with a mean length of one and a half hours. The mean DSI score was + 2.2 for the male teachers and + 4.0 for the female teachers. The mean VHI score was 13. Perceptually, all voice parameters were rated as normal. The questionnaire revealed a relatively high amount of vocal abuse. No changes in the objective vocal parameters were found after the lecture. Perceptually, however, the voices of the university teachers were significantly less instable after the lecture. Although no negative changes in objective vocal quality were observed, 48% of the university teachers experienced subjective vocal changes. The authors concluded that university teachers are professional voice users with good vocal quality who suffer no handicapping effect from possible voice disorders. No important changes in the vocal profile after a teaching activity of one and a half hours were found, despite the high prevalence of voice complaints.

  8. Cricothyroid muscle dysfunction impairs vocal fold vibration in unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Wong, Alice M K

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of the cricothyroid (CT) muscle in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) remains controversial. To clarify the functional significance of the CT muscle in patients with UVFP, the confounding effect of the severity of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury should be taken into consideration. In the present study, quantitative laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) was used to measure the severity of paralysis of the thyroarytenoid-lateral cricoarytenoid (TA-LCA) muscle complex to allow the functional contribution of the CT muscle to be determined. Cross-sectional study performed in an otolaryngology outpatient clinic. Thirty-one patients with a main diagnosis of UVFP were recruited. The main outcome measures included LEMG examination, quantitative LEMG analysis of the TA-LCA muscle complex, UVFP-related quality-of-life questionnaire (Voice Outcome Survey [VOS]), voice acoustics analysis, videolaryngostroboscopy, and general quality-of-life questionnaire (Short Form-36 Health Survey [SF-36]) assessments. The vocal cord position did not differ between patients with and without CT muscle impairment. Patients with both TA-LCA and CT paralysis showed poorer vocal fold vibration (P = .048) and higher fundamental frequency (P = .02), and the VOS and SF-36 were both poorer compared with patients with only TA-LCA paralysis. Although the vocal cord position was not influenced by CT muscle function, coexisting CT muscle paralysis may damage the voice by impairing vocal fold vibration in UVFP patients. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Vocal tract dynamics in an adult stutterer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Wolk

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was motivated by the clinical observation of "laryngeal spasms" during dysfluency in an adult female  stutterer. The flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscope was employed in an attempt to assess this phenomenon objectively. Findings from fiberscopic and spectrographic investigations provided evidence for a disturbance in laryngeal behaviour, and in turn served to determine the nature of the treatment programme. Asymmetry of the vocal folds  and partial abductory laryngeal behaviour, reflecting  a conflict between adductory and abductory forces, characterized the dysfluency  in this patient. A subjective evaluation after treatment revealed a reduction in both severity and frequency of stuttering behaviour. Furthermore, fiberscopic examination carried out after treatment revealed an absence of the laryngeal disturbances noted previously. Results are considered in terms of vocal tract dynamics in stuttering and its clinical applicability.

  10. Vocal caricatures reveal signatures of speaker identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sabrina; Riera, Pablo; Assaneo, María Florencia; Eguía, Manuel; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2013-12-01

    What are the features that impersonators select to elicit a speaker's identity? We built a voice database of public figures (targets) and imitations produced by professional impersonators. They produced one imitation based on their memory of the target (caricature) and another one after listening to the target audio (replica). A set of naive participants then judged identity and similarity of pairs of voices. Identity was better evoked by the caricatures and replicas were perceived to be closer to the targets in terms of voice similarity. We used this data to map relevant acoustic dimensions for each task. Our results indicate that speaker identity is mainly associated with vocal tract features, while perception of voice similarity is related to vocal folds parameters. We therefore show the way in which acoustic caricatures emphasize identity features at the cost of loosing similarity, which allows drawing an analogy with caricatures in the visual space.

  11. Mapping of Vocal Risk in Amateur Choir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Milka; Behlau, Mara

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate and map the existence of vocal risk in amateur singers, analyzing the contribution of general voice signs and symptoms, specific singing handicap, and generalized anxiety. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 526 volunteer amateur choristers-186 male and 340 female-(mean age of 42.07 years) from different choirs in the region of São Paulo. Three questionnaires were used: the Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS), the Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale. The mean total score obtained on the VoiSS was 17.57, which is almost two points higher than the protocol's passing score (16). The choristers who scored higher or equal to 16 points (51.5%, n = 271)-considered at vocal risk-and the group who scored less than 16 points (48.5%, n = 255)-healthy group-were analyzed separately. The risk group presented a mean total score of 26.34 on the VoiSS and 20.97 on the MSHI, with higher deviation on the impairment subscale, followed by the disability and handicap subscales, along with mild anxiety. The healthy group presented a mean total score of 8.27 on the VoiSS and 6.11 on the MSHI, also with higher deviation in the impairment subscale, followed by disability and handicap, and a minimum level of anxiety. Even in leisure activities, vocal care is necessary for the correct use of the singing voice, which demands individual adaptations. The use of protocols for voice symptoms and singing handicap has revealed the possibility of amateur choristers to present vocal risk. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vocal Parameters of Elderly Female Choir Singers

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    Aquino, Fernanda Salvatico de

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to increased life expectancy among the population, studying the vocal parameters of the elderly is key to promoting vocal health in old age. Objective This study aims to analyze the profile of the extension of speech of elderly female choristers, according to age group. Method The study counted on the participation of 25 elderly female choristers from the Choir of Messianic Church of São Paulo, with ages varying between 63 and 82 years, and an average of 71 years (standard deviation of 5.22. The elders were divided into two groups: G1 aged 63 to 71 years and G2 aged 72 to 82. We asked that each participant count from 20 to 30 in weak, medium, strong, and very strong intensities. Their speech was registered by the software Vocalgrama that allows the evaluation of the profile of speech range. We then submitted the parameters of frequency and intensity to descriptive analysis, both in minimum and maximum levels, and range of spoken voice. Results The average of minimum and maximum frequencies were respectively 134.82–349.96 Hz for G1 and 137.28–348.59 Hz for G2; the average for minimum and maximum intensities were respectively 40.28–95.50 dB for G1 and 40.63–94.35 dB for G2; the vocal range used in speech was 215.14 Hz for G1 and 211.30 Hz for G2. Conclusion The minimum and maximum frequencies, maximum intensity, and vocal range presented differences in favor of the younger elder group.

  13. Vocal Parameters of Elderly Female Choir Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Fernanda Salvatico de; Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Due to increased life expectancy among the population, studying the vocal parameters of the elderly is key to promoting vocal health in old age. Objective This study aims to analyze the profile of the extension of speech of elderly female choristers, according to age group. Method The study counted on the participation of 25 elderly female choristers from the Choir of Messianic Church of São Paulo, with ages varying between 63 and 82 years, and an average of 71 years (standard deviation of 5.22). The elders were divided into two groups: G1 aged 63 to 71 years and G2 aged 72 to 82. We asked that each participant count from 20 to 30 in weak, medium, strong, and very strong intensities. Their speech was registered by the software Vocalgrama that allows the evaluation of the profile of speech range. We then submitted the parameters of frequency and intensity to descriptive analysis, both in minimum and maximum levels, and range of spoken voice. Results The average of minimum and maximum frequencies were respectively 134.82-349.96 Hz for G1 and 137.28-348.59 Hz for G2; the average for minimum and maximum intensities were respectively 40.28-95.50 dB for G1 and 40.63-94.35 dB for G2; the vocal range used in speech was 215.14 Hz for G1 and 211.30 Hz for G2. Conclusion The minimum and maximum frequencies, maximum intensity, and vocal range presented differences in favor of the younger elder group.

  14. Perfil da saúde vocal de cantores amadores de igreja evangélica Vocal health profile of amateur singers from an evangelical church

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    Thaise Marcela Mota Barreto

    2011-06-01

    complaints, such as continuous hoarseness (43.6%, constant throat clearing (43.6%, voice failure (34.5%, voice loss (18.1%, dry throat (18.1%, weak voice (14.5%, and neck and cervix pain (12.7%. During singing activity, the most reported complaints were difficulties in reaching high notes (45.4%, hoarseness (30.9% and voice failure (29%. The vocal habits the singers reported regarded excessive talking (63.6%, immoderate icy beverages intake (43.6%, loud talking (40%, and repeatedly shouting (20%. Significant differences were found between genders regarding the variables voice failure, icy beverages intake, and loud talking. CONCLUSION: Amateur religious singers of both genders showed an expressive percentage of vocal complaints and habits that might be associated to lack of information about healthy vocal habits, which can contribute to the development of laryngeal alterations and voice disorders.

  15. Variability in lipid profile among patients presented with acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina and stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, N; Feng, J-P; Chen, G; Kou, L; Li, Y; Ren, P; Zhao, L-L; Qin, Q

    2014-01-01

    Despite the amply evidence and guidelines in treating coronary artery disease (CAD) with lipid-lowering therapy, physicians still have concerns in treating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients who have the low serum lipid level. We explored the adequacy of lipid-lowering therapy in treating AMI patients. Over 3000 CAD lipid profile data were collected, their data were divided into 3 groups (AMI; stable angina pectoris (SAP) and unstable angina pectoris (UAP) group) based their clinical characteristics. Statistical analyses were performed to compare their baseline lipid levels and clinical feature. The total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level in AMI patients were the lowest, followed by UAP patient group and SAP patient group. There were significant differences in white blood count (WBC) and ejection fraction (EF) between 3 groups. A good correlation was confirmed between EF% and the lipid parameters of TC, LDL-c, HDL-c, non-HDL-c. WBC did not correlate with the lipid except HDL-c. AMI is an acute inflammatory reaction that is accompanied with the change of lipid level. Although the level of TC, LDL-c and HDL-c are lower in AMI, but it is related with acute inflammatory reaction during the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Lipid-lowering therapy should not be delayed in treating AMI patients with lower lipid level.

  16. Serial Holter ST-segment monitoring after first acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence, variability, and long-term prognostic importance of transient myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J

    1998-01-01

    Based on serial Holter monitoring performed 7 times within 3 years after a first acute myocardial infarction, we assessed the prevalence, variability and long-term clinical importance of transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) defined as episodes of ambulatory ST-segment depression. In all, 121...... consecutive male patients Holter recordings varied around 20% ranging between 18 and 27%. Fifty-five of the patients (46%) had TMI on at least 1 of the 7 Holter recordings. Considerable variability was found within and between patients...... for the presence of TMI. No high-risk group for cardiac death, nonfatal reinfarction or coronary revascularization during up to 10 years of follow-up could be identified by the detection of TMI. From these results we conclude that a routine search for TMI on serial Holter monitoring cannot be recommended in male...

  17. Imaging evaluation of vocal cord paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Magalhaes, Fabiana Pizanni; Dadalto, Gabriela Bijos; Moura, Marina Vimieiro Timponi de [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelomgarcia@superig.com.br, e-mail: ce@axialmg.com.br

    2009-09-15

    Vocal cord paralysis is a common cause of hoarseness. It may be secondary to many types of lesions along the cranial nerve X pathway and its branches, particularly the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Despite the idiopathic nature of a great number of cases, imaging methods play a very significant role in the investigation of etiologic factors, such as thyroid and esophagus neoplasias with secondary invasion of the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Other conditions such as aortic and right subclavian artery aneurysms also may be found. The knowledge of local anatomy and related diseases is of great importance for the radiologist, so that he can tailor the examination properly to allow an appropriate diagnosis and therapy planning. Additionally, considering that up to 35% of patients with vocal cord paralysis are asymptomatic, the recognition of radiological findings indicative of this condition is essential for the radiologist who must warn the referring physician on the imaging findings. In the present study, the authors review the anatomy and main diseases related to vocal cord paralysis, demonstrating them through typical cases evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, besides describing radiological findings of laryngeal abnormalities indicative of this condition. (author)

  18. A retrospective study of long-term treatment outcomes for reduced vocal intensity in hypokinetic dysarthria

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    Christopher R. Watts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced vocal intensity is a core impairment of hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Speech treatments have been developed to rehabilitate the vocal subsystems underlying this impairment. Intensive treatment programs requiring high-intensity voice and speech exercises with clinician-guided prompting and feedback have been established as effective for improving vocal function. Less is known, however, regarding long-term outcomes of clinical benefit in speakers with PD who receive these treatments. Methods A retrospective cohort design was utilized. Data from 78 patient files across a three year period were analyzed. All patients received a structured, intensive program of voice therapy focusing on speaking intent and loudness. The dependent variable for all analyses was vocal intensity in decibels (dBSPL. Vocal intensity during sustained vowel production, reading, and novel conversational speech was compared at pre-treatment, post-treatment, six month follow-up, and twelve month follow-up periods. Results Statistically significant increases in vocal intensity were found at post-treatment, 6 months, and 12 month follow-up periods with intensity gains ranging from 5 to 17 dB depending on speaking condition and measurement period. Significant treatment effects were found in all three speaking conditions. Effect sizes for all outcome measures were large, suggesting a strong degree of practical significance. Conclusions Significant increases in vocal intensity measured at 6 and 12 moth follow-up periods suggested that the sample of patients maintained treatment benefit for up to a year. These findings are supported by outcome studies reporting treatment outcomes within a few months post-treatment, in addition to prior studies that have reported long-term outcome results. The positive treatment outcomes experienced by the PD cohort in this study are consistent with treatment responses subsequent to other treatment

  19. Contextual effects of noise on vocalization encoding in primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ruiye; Bender, David A; Shanechi, Amirali M; Gamble, Jeffrey R; Barbour, Dennis L

    2017-02-01

    Robust auditory perception plays a pivotal function for processing behaviorally relevant sounds, particularly with distractions from the environment. The neuronal coding enabling this ability, however, is still not well understood. In this study, we recorded single-unit activity from the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) while delivering conspecific vocalizations degraded by two different background noises: broadband white noise and vocalization babble. Noise effects on neural representation of target vocalizations were quantified by measuring the responses' similarity to those elicited by natural vocalizations as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. A clustering approach was used to describe the range of response profiles by reducing the population responses to a summary of four response classes (robust, balanced, insensitive, and brittle) under both noise conditions. This clustering approach revealed that, on average, approximately two-thirds of the neurons change their response class when encountering different noises. Therefore, the distortion induced by one particular masking background in single-unit responses is not necessarily predictable from that induced by another, suggesting the low likelihood of a unique group of noise-invariant neurons across different background conditions in A1. Regarding noise influence on neural activities, the brittle response group showed addition of spiking activity both within and between phrases of vocalizations relative to clean vocalizations, whereas the other groups generally showed spiking activity suppression within phrases, and the alteration between phrases was noise dependent. Overall, the variable single-unit responses, yet consistent response types, imply that primate A1 performs scene analysis through the collective activity of multiple neurons. The understanding of where and how auditory scene analysis is accomplished is of broad interest to neuroscientists. In this paper

  20. Direct measurement of pressures involved in vocal exercises using semi-occluded vocal tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robieux, Camille; Galant, Camille; Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Giovanni, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to rank vocal exercises using semi-occluded vocal tracts (SOVT) as a function of their effect on subglottal pressure (SGP) and on transglottal pressure (TGP). Direct measurements were performed in two healthy females. The correct realization of vocal exercises was controlled by maintaining a constant airflow at the phonation onset. TGP varied from 1.8 to 5.9 hPa among SOVT, in the same range as phonation threshold pressure values. SGP varied among subjects from 19.4 for 2-mm straw to 3.2 hPa for closed vowel. SOVT could be ranked in voice rehabilitation from the greatest to the smallest effects on SGP as following: 1) 2-mm straw; 2) 5-mm straw and fricative /v/; 3) 8-mm straw and nasals /m/ and /n/; 4) vowel /i/.

  1. Heterospecific alarm call recognition in a non-vocal reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Adelman, James S; Gregory, Nathan C; Clair, James J H St

    2007-12-22

    The ability to recognize and respond to the alarm calls of heterospecifics has previously been described only in species with vocal communication. Here we provide evidence that a non-vocal reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), can eavesdrop on the alarm call of the Galápagos mockingbird (Nesomimus parvulus) and respond with anti-predator behaviour. Eavesdropping on complex heterospecific communications demonstrates a remarkable degree of auditory discrimination in a non-vocal species.

  2. Comparison of Effects Produced by Physiological Versus Traditional Vocal Warm-up in Contemporary Commercial Music Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, María Priscilla; Rojas, Sandra; Guzman, Marco; Quezada, Camilo

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to observe whether physiological warm-up and traditional singing warm-up differently affect aerodynamic, electroglottographic, acoustic, and self-perceived parameters of voice in Contemporary Commercial Music singers. Thirty subjects were asked to perform a 15-minute session of vocal warm-up. They were randomly assigned to one of two types of vocal warm-up: physiological (based on semi-occluded exercises) or traditional (singing warm-up based on open vowel [a:]). Aerodynamic, electroglottographic, acoustic, and self-perceived voice quality assessments were carried out before (pre) and after (post) warm-up. No significant differences were found when comparing both types of vocal warm-up methods, either in subjective or in objective measures. Furthermore, the main positive effect observed in both groups when comparing pre and post conditions was a better self-reported quality of voice. Additionally, significant differences were observed for sound pressure level (decrease), glottal airflow (increase), and aerodynamic efficiency (decrease) in the traditional warm-up group. Both traditional and physiological warm-ups produce favorable voice sensations. Moreover, there are no evident differences in aerodynamic and electroglottographic variables when comparing both types of vocal warm-ups. Some changes after traditional warm-up (decreased intensity, increased airflow, and decreased aerodynamic efficiency) could imply an early stage of vocal fatigue. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. When vocal processing gets emotional: on the role of social orientation in relevance detection by the human amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Annett; Escoffier, Nicolas; Zysset, Stefan; Koester, Dirk; Striano, Tricia; Friederici, Angela D

    2008-04-15

    Previous work on vocal emotional processing provided little evidence for involvement of emotional processing areas such as the amygdala or the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Here, we sought to specify whether involvement of these areas depends on how relevant vocal expressions are for the individual. To this end, we assessed participants' social orientation--a measure of the interest and concern for other individuals and hence the relevance of social signals. We then presented task-irrelevant syllable sequences that contained rare changes in tone of voice that could be emotional or neutral. Processing differences between emotional and neutral vocal change in the right amygdala and the bilateral OFC were significantly correlated with the social orientation measure. Specifically, higher social orientation scores were associated with enhanced amygdala and OFC activity to emotional as compared to neutral change. Given the presumed role of the amygdala in the detection of emotionally relevant information, our results suggest that social orientation enhances this detection process and the activation of emotional representations mediated by the OFC. Moreover, social orientation may predict listener responses to vocal emotional cues and explain interindividual variability in vocal emotional processing.

  4. Interspecific hybridization as a tool to understand vocal divergence: the example of crowing in quail (Genus Coturnix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Derégnaucourt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that lead organisms to be separated into distinct species remains a challenge in evolutionary biology. Interspecific hybridization, which results from incomplete reproductive isolation, is a useful tool to investigate such mechanisms. In birds, interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent, despite the fact that closed species exhibit morphological and behavioural differences. Evolution of behaviour is difficult to investigate on a large timescale since it does not 'fossilize'. Here I propose that calls of hybrid non-songbirds that develop without the influence of learning may help in understanding the gradual process that leads to vocal divergence during speciation. I recorded crows produced by the European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix, the domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica and their hybrids (F1, F2 and backcrosses. Most crowing patterns were intermediate to those of the parental species; some were similar to one or the other parental species, or not present in either parental species. I also observed vocal changes in hybrid crows during the breeding season and from one year to the other. This vocal variability resembles those observed during the ontogeny of the crow in quails. It is likely that similar mechanisms involved in vocal changes during ontogeny might have driven vocal divergence in the species of Palearctic quails. I suggest that hybrid crows might have resembled those produced by intermediary forms of quails during speciation.

  5. Buccal telomere length and its associations with cortisol, heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to an acute social evaluative stressor in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Alex; Hamilton, Katrina; Livitz, Irina E; Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationship between stress and telomere length (a marker of cellular aging) is of great interest for reducing aging-related disease and death. One important aspect of acute stress exposure that may underlie detrimental effects on health is physiological reactivity to the stressor. This study tested the relationship between buccal telomere length and physiological reactivity (salivary cortisol reactivity and total output, heart rate (HR) variability, blood pressure, and HR) to an acute psychosocial stressor in a sample of 77 (53% male) healthy young adults. Consistent with predictions, greater reductions in HR variability (HRV) in response to a stressor and greater cortisol output during the study session were associated with shorter relative buccal telomere length (i.e. greater cellular aging). However, the relationship between cortisol output and buccal telomere length became non-significant when adjusting for medication use. Contrary to past findings and study hypotheses, associations between cortisol, blood pressure, and HR reactivity and relative buccal telomere length were not significant. Overall, these findings may indicate there are limited and mixed associations between stress reactivity and telomere length across physiological systems.

  6. Data on respiratory variables in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Georgopoulos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data show respiratory variables in 108 critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+ after at least 36 h on passive mechanical ventilation. PAV+ was continued for 48 h until the patients met pre-defined criteria either for switching to controlled modes or for breathing without ventilator assistance. Data during passive mechanical ventilation and during PAV+ are reported. Data are acquired from the whole population, as well as from patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. The reported variables are tidal volume, driving pressure (ΔP, the difference between static end-inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory airway pressure, respiratory system compliance and resistance, and arterial blood gasses. The data are supplemental to our original research article, which described individual ΔP in these patients and examined how it related to ΔP when the same patients were ventilated with passive mechanical ventilation using the currently accepted lung-protective strategy “Driving pressure during assisted mechanical ventilation. Is it controlled by patient brain?” [1].

  7. Data on respiratory variables in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Dimitris; Xirouchaki, Nectaria; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Younes, Magdy

    2016-09-01

    The data show respiratory variables in 108 critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+) after at least 36 h on passive mechanical ventilation. PAV+ was continued for 48 h until the patients met pre-defined criteria either for switching to controlled modes or for breathing without ventilator assistance. Data during passive mechanical ventilation and during PAV+ are reported. Data are acquired from the whole population, as well as from patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. The reported variables are tidal volume, driving pressure (ΔP, the difference between static end-inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory airway pressure), respiratory system compliance and resistance, and arterial blood gasses. The data are supplemental to our original research article, which described individual ΔP in these patients and examined how it related to ΔP when the same patients were ventilated with passive mechanical ventilation using the currently accepted lung-protective strategy "Driving pressure during assisted mechanical ventilation. Is it controlled by patient brain?" [1].

  8. Computational acoustic modeling of cetacean vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Michael Dixon

    A framework for computational acoustic modeling of hypothetical vocal production mechanisms in cetaceans is presented. As a specific example, a model of a proposed source in the larynx of odontocetes is developed. Whales and dolphins generate a broad range of vocal sounds, but the exact mechanisms they use are not conclusively understood. In the fifty years since it has become widely accepted that whales can and do make sound, how they do so has remained particularly confounding. Cetaceans' highly divergent respiratory anatomy, along with the difficulty of internal observation during vocalization have contributed to this uncertainty. A variety of acoustical, morphological, ethological and physiological evidence has led to conflicting and often disputed theories of the locations and mechanisms of cetaceans' sound sources. Computational acoustic modeling has been used to create real-time parametric models of musical instruments and the human voice. These techniques can be applied to cetacean vocalizations to help better understand the nature and function of these sounds. Extensive studies of odontocete laryngeal morphology have revealed vocal folds that are consistently similar to a known but poorly understood acoustic source, the ribbon reed. A parametric computational model of the ribbon reed is developed, based on simplified geometrical, mechanical and fluid models drawn from the human voice literature. The physical parameters of the ribbon reed model are then adapted to those of the odontocete larynx. With reasonable estimates of real physical parameters, both the ribbon reed and odontocete larynx models produce sounds that are perceptually similar to their real-world counterparts, and both respond realistically under varying control conditions. Comparisons of acoustic features of the real-world and synthetic systems show a number of consistencies. While this does not on its own prove that either model is conclusively an accurate description of the source, it

  9. [Effects of blood glucose control on glucose variability and clinical outcomes in patients with severe acute pancreatitis in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Sun, Qiuhong; Yang, Hua

    2015-05-19

    To explore the effects of blood glucose control on glucose variability and clinical outcomes in patients with severe acute pancreatitis in intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 72 ICU patients with severe acute pancreatitis were recruited and divided randomly into observation and control groups (n = 36 each). Both groups were treated conventionally. And the observation group achieved stable blood glucose at 6.1-8.3 mmol/L with intensive glucose control. The length of ICU and hospital stays, ICU mortality rate, transit operative rate, concurrent infection rate, admission blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, mean insulin dose, mean blood glucose, blood glucose value standard deviation (GLUSD), glycemic liability index (GLUGLI) and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (GLUMAGE) of two groups were compared. At the same time, the relationship between blood glucose variability, ICU mortality rate and its predictive value were analyzed by correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The lengths of ICU and hospital stays of observation group were all significantly less than those of the control group [(11.7 ± 9.9) vs (15.9 ± 8.02) days, (21.8 ± 10.8) vs (28.2 ± 12.7) days, P control group (72.22%, 38.89%, P blood glucose value and GLUSD of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group [(7.4 ± 1.1) vs (9.6 ± 1.2), (1.8 ± 1.0) vs (2.5 ± 1.3) mmol/L]. The differences were statistically significant (P control group (P control in patients with severe acute pancreatitis helps reduce the blood sugar fluctuations, lower the risks of infectious complications and promote the patient rehabilitation. And GLUGLI is positively correlated with ICU mortality rate. It has good predictive values.

  10. Vocal Learning via Social Reinforcement by Infant Marmoset Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daniel Y; Liao, Diana A; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2017-06-19

    For over half a century now, primate vocalizations have been thought to undergo little or no experience-dependent acoustic changes during development [1]. If any changes are apparent, then they are routinely (and quite reasonably) attributed to the passive consequences of growth. Indeed, previous experiments on squirrel monkeys and macaque monkeys showed that social isolation [2, 3], deafness [2], cross-fostering [4] and parental absence [5] have little or no effect on vocal development. Here, we explicitly test in marmoset monkeys-a very vocal and cooperatively breeding species [6]-whether the transformation of immature into mature contact calls by infants is influenced by contingent parental vocal feedback. Using a closed-loop design, we experimentally provided more versus less contingent vocal feedback to twin infant marmoset monkeys over their first 2 months of life, the interval during which their contact calls transform from noisy, immature calls to tonal adult-like "phee" calls [7, 8]. Infants who received more contingent feedback had a faster rate of vocal development, producing mature-sounding contact calls earlier than the other twin. The differential rate of vocal development was not linked to genetics, perinatal experience, or body growth; nor did the amount of contingency influence the overall rate of spontaneous vocal production. Thus, we provide the first experimental evidence for production-related vocal learning during the development of a nonhuman primate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fracture Toughness of Vocal Fold Tissue: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Amir K; Chen, Lei Xi; Mongrain, Rosaire; Mongeau, Luc

    2016-05-01

    A customized mechanical tester that slices thin, soft samples was used to measure the fracture toughness of vocal fold tissue. Porcine vocal fold lamina propria was subjected to quasi-static, guillotine-like tests at three equally distanced regions along the anterior-posterior direction. The central one-third where high-velocity collisions between vocal folds occur was found to have the maximum fracture toughness. In contrast, the anterior one-third featured a lower toughness. Fracture toughness can be indicative of the risk of benign and malignant lesions in vocal fold tissue. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vocal Emotion of Humanoid Robots: A Study from Brain Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driven by rapid ongoing advances in humanoid robot, increasing attention has been shifted into the issue of emotion intelligence of AI robots to facilitate the communication between man-machines and human beings, especially for the vocal emotion in interactive system of future humanoid robots. This paper explored the brain mechanism of vocal emotion by studying previous researches and developed an experiment to observe the brain response by fMRI, to analyze vocal emotion of human beings. Findings in this paper provided a new approach to design and evaluate the vocal emotion of humanoid robots based on brain mechanism of human beings.

  13. Comparison of Supraglottic Activity and Spectral Slope Between Theater Actors and Vocally Untrained Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Ortega, Andres; Olavarria, Christian; Muñoz, Daniel; Cortés, Pedro; Azocar, Maria Josefina; Cayuleo, David; Quintana, Felipe; Silva, Catalina

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess supraglottic activity in theater actors and to observe whether they present differences compared with subjects with no voice training. Acoustic and perceptual analyses were also performed. A total of 20 participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group of trained theater actors, and a comparative group of subjects with no voice training. Absence of laryngeal pathology was confirmed by rigid videostroboscopy. Flexible laryngoscopy was performed to assess supraglottic activity during speaking phonatory tasks. Voice recording was also carried out. Four blinded judges were asked to assess laryngoscopic and perceptual variables using a visual analog scale. A comparison between groups, phonatory tasks, and loudness levels was performed. Multivariate linear regression showed that trained participants had a higher degree of both laryngeal and pharyngeal activities compared with untrained participants. Moreover, phonatory tasks at high intensity showed higher activity than those at medium and low intensities for most phonatory tasks and laryngoscopic parameters. Vocally trained participants evidenced higher values for all spectral variables compared with untrained participants. Actors have a greater degree of both laryngeal and pharyngeal activities than vocally untrained subjects. Apparently, this higher activity is associated to speaking voice training and not to a hyperfunctional vocal behavior. Anterior-posterior laryngeal compression is greater than medial compression. Intensity and phonatory tasks have an effect on all laryngoscopic variables. Supraglottic activity during professional speaking voice may be not necessarily a hyperfunctional behavior, but a strategy to avoid vocal fold damage while producing the desired voice quality. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of different degrees of variability in tidal volume to prevent deterioration of respiratory system elastance in experimental acute lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, T; Silva, P L; Huhle, R; Moraes, L; Santos, R S; Felix, N S; Santos, C L; Morales, M M; Capelozzi, V L; Kasper, M; Pelosi, P; Gama de Abreu, M; Rocco, P R M

    2016-05-01

    Variable ventilation improves respiratory function, but it is not known whether the amount of variability in tidal volume (VT) can be reduced in recruited lungs without a deterioration of respiratory system elastance. Acute lung inflammation was induced by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide in 35 Wistar rats. Twenty-eight animals were anaesthetized and ventilated in volume-controlled mode. Lungs were recruited by random variation of VT (mean 6 ml kg(-1), coefficient of variation 30%, normal distribution) for 30 min. Animals were randomly assigned to different amounts of VT variability (n=7 for 90 min per group): 30, 15, 7.5, or 0%. Lung function, diffuse alveolar damage, and gene expression of biological markers associated with cell mechanical stress, inflammation, and fibrogenesis were assessed. Seven animals were not ventilated and served as controls for post-mortem analyses. A VT variability of 30%, but not 15, 7.5, or 0%, prevented deterioration of respiratory system elastance [Mean (SD) -7.5 (8.7%), Prespiratory system elastance and was not associated with lung histological damage. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Gender Differences in the Reporting of Vocal Fatigue in Teachers as Quantified by the Vocal Fatigue Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J; Banks, Russell E

    2017-12-01

    Occupational voice users report higher instances of vocal health problems. Women, who are more likely than men to report voice problems, are the largest members of some occupational voice users, such as teachers. While a common complaint among this population is vocal fatigue, it has been difficult to quantify. Therefore, the goal of this study is to quantify vocal fatigue generally in school teachers and investigate any related gender differences. Six hundred forty (518 female, 122 male) teachers were surveyed using an online questionnaire consisting in part of the Vocal Fatigue Index (VFI), an index specifically designed to quantify vocal fatigue. Compared to vocally healthy adults, the teachers surveyed were 3 times as likely to report vocal tiredness or vocal avoidance and over 3 times as likely to report physical voice discomfort. Additionally, female teachers were more likely to have scores approaching those with dysphonia. The VFI quantified elevated levels of vocal fatigue in teachers, with a significant prevalence of symptoms reported among females compared to males. Further, because the VFI indicated elevated complaints (between normal and dysphonic) in a population likely to be elevated, the VFI might be used to identify early indications of voice problems and/or track recovery.

  16. Activation of frontal neocortical areas by vocal production in marmosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano S Simões

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Primates often rely on vocal communication to mediate social interactions. Although much is known about the acoustic structure of primate vocalizations and the social context in which they are usually uttered, our knowledge about the neocortical control of audio-vocal interactions in primates is still incipient, being mostly derived from lesion studies in squirrel monkeys and macaques. To map the neocortical areas related to vocal control in a New World primate species, the common marmoset, we employed a method previously used with success in other vertebrate species: Analysis of the expression of the immediate-early gene Egr-1 in freely behaving animals. The neocortical distribution of Egr-1 immunoreactive cells in three marmosets that were exposed to the playback of conspecific vocalizations and vocalized spontaneously (H/V group was compared to data from three other marmosets that also heard the playback but did not vocalize (H/n group. The anterior cingulate cortex, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex presented a higher number of Egr-1 immunoreactive cells in the H/V group than in H/n animals. Our results provide direct evidence that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the region that comprises Broca's area in humans and has been associated with auditory processing of species-specific vocalizations and orofacial control in macaques, is engaged during vocal output in marmosets. Altogether, our results support the notion that the network of neocortical areas related to vocal communication in marmosets is quite similar to that of Old world primates. The vocal production role played by these areas and their importance for the evolution of speech in primates are discussed.

  17. Vocal cord paralysis and its etiologies: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Toutounchi, Seyed Javad; Eydi, Mahmood; Golzari, Samad Ej; Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza; Parvizian, Nashmil

    2014-01-01

    Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis. In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such as examination of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, thyroid, cervical, lung, and mediastinum, brain and heart by diagnostic imaging to investigate the cause vocal cord paralysis. The study was ended by diagnosing the reason of vocal cord paralysis at each stage of the examination and the clinical studies. The mean duration of symptoms was 18.95±6.50 months. The reason for referral was phonation changes (97.8%) and aspiration (37.8%) in the subjects. There was bilateral paralysis in 6.82%, left paralysis in 56.82% and right in 63.36% of subjects. The type of vocal cord placement was midline in 52.8%, paramedian in 44.4% and lateral in 2.8% of the subjects. The causes of vocal cords paralysis were idiopathic paralysis (31.11%), tumors (31.11%), surgery (28.89%), trauma, brain problems, systemic disease and other causes (2.2%). An integrated diagnostic and treatment program is necessary for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Possibility of malignancy should be excluded before marking idiopathic reason to vocal cord paralysis.

  18. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Seyed Toutounchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis.Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such as examination of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, thyroid, cervical, lung, and mediastinum, brain and heart by diagnostic imaging to investigate the cause vocal cord paralysis. The study was ended by diagnosing the reason of vocal cord paralysis at each stage of the examination and the clinical studies.Results: The mean duration of symptoms was 18.95±6.50 months. The reason for referral was phonation changes (97.8% and aspiration (37.8% in the subjects. There was bilateral paralysis in 6.82%, left paralysis in 56.82% and right in 63.36% of subjects. The type of vocal cord placement was midline in 52.8%, paramedian in 44.4% and lateral in 2.8% of the subjects. The causes of vocal cords paralysis were idiopathic paralysis (31.11%, tumors (31.11%, surgery (28.89%, trauma, brain problems, systemic disease and other causes (2.2%.Conclusion: An integrated diagnostic and treatment program is necessary for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Possibility of malignancy should be excluded before marking idiopathic reason to vocal cord paralysis.

  19. Long-term postoperative vocal function after thyroplasty type I and fat injection laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeno, Hirohito; Chitose, Shun-Ichi; Sato, Kiminori; Ueda, Yoshihisa; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the differences in the long-term functional results of medialization thyroplasty type I (MT) and autologous fat injection laryngoplasty (FIL) in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Forty-one patients underwent MT, and 73 patients underwent FIL. The voice functions before and after both surgeries were examined by aerodynamic, pitch and intensity, and acoustic analyses. The postoperative voice examinations were performed 12 months (median) after the MT, and 4 years (median) after the FIL. The differences between the preoperative and postoperative parameters were examined with a paired t-test for each group separately. For each variable, a comparison of the effects of surgery was conducted with an analysis of covariance model, with the change between the preoperative and postoperative values as the dependent variable and the preoperative value as the covariate. In both groups, all parameters significantly improved after surgery. In particular, there was a significant difference for the postoperative acoustic analyses. However, the aerodynamic analysis after FIL improved more significantly in comparison to that after MT because of the respiratory handicap. We found that MT and FIL provided almost the same effectiveness, and that both surgeries were reliable in improving the vocal function in patients with vocal fold paralysis.

  20. Flexible Coupling of Respiration and Vocalizations with Locomotion and Head Movements in the Freely Behaving Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Andrews Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quadrupedal mammals typically synchronize their respiration with body movements during rhythmic locomotion. In the rat, fast respiration is coupled to head movements during sniffing behavior, but whether respiration is entrained by stride dynamics is not known. We recorded intranasal pressure, head acceleration, instantaneous speed, and ultrasonic vocalizations from male and female adult rats while freely behaving in a social environment. We used high-speed video recordings of stride to understand how head acceleration signals relate to locomotion and developed techniques to identify episodes of sniffing, walking, trotting, and galloping from the recorded variables. Quantitative analysis of synchrony between respiration and head acceleration rhythms revealed that respiration and locomotion movements were coordinated but with a weaker coupling than expected from previous work in other mammals. We have recently shown that rats behaving in social settings produce high rates of ultrasonic vocalizations during locomotion bouts. Accordingly, rats emitted vocalizations in over half of the respiratory cycles during fast displacements. We present evidence suggesting that emission of these calls disrupts the entrainment of respiration by stride. The coupling between these two variables is thus flexible, such that it can be overridden by other behavioral demands.

  1. Low frequency mechanical resonance of the vocal tract in vocal exercises that apply tubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Jaromír; Radolf, Vojtěch; Laukkanen, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, August (2017), s. 39-49 ISSN 1746-8094 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01246S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : biomechanics of voice * vocal tract acoustics * phonation into tubes * water resistance voice therapy * bubbling frequency * formant frequencies Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Acoustics Impact factor: 2.214, year: 2016

  2. Acute alcohol effects on set-shifting and its moderation by baseline individual differences: a latent variable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucuoglu, Ozlem; Sher, Kenneth J; Wood, Phillip K; Saults, John Scott; Altamirano, Lee; Miyake, Akira; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2017-03-01

    To compare the acute effects of alcohol on set-shifting task performance (relative to sober baseline performance) during ascending and descending limb breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), as well as possible moderation of these effects by baseline individual differences. Shifting performance was tested during an initial baseline and a subsequent drinking session, during which participants were assigned randomly to one of three beverage conditions (alcohol, placebo or control) and one of two BrAC limb conditions [ascending and descending (A/D) or descending-only (D-only)]. A human experimental laboratory on the University of Missouri campus in Columbia, MO, USA. A total of 222 moderate-drinking adults (ages 21-30 years) recruited from Columbia, MO and tested between 2010 and 2013. The outcome measure was performance on set-shifting tasks under the different beverage and limb conditions. Shifting performance assessed at baseline was a key moderator. Although performance improved across sessions, this improvement was reduced in the alcohol compared with no-alcohol groups (post-drink latent mean comparison across groups, all Ps ≤ 0.05), and this effect was more pronounced in individuals with lower pre-drink performance (comparison of pre- to post-drink path coefficients across groups, all Ps ≤ 0.05). In the alcohol group, performance was better on descending compared with ascending limb (P ≤ 0.001), but descending limb performance did not differ across the A/D and D-only groups. Practising tasks before drinking moderates the acute effects of alcohol on the ability to switch between tasks. Greater impairment in shifting ability on descending compared with ascending breath alcohol concentration is not related to task practice. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. [CARDIOREABILITATION PECULIARITIES AND CORRECTION OF VIOLATIONS OF SISTOLIC, DIASOLIC FUNCTION AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME AND CORONARY ARTERY REVASCULARIZATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shved, M; Tsuglevych, L; Kyrychok, I; Levytska, L; Boiko, T; Kitsak, Ya

    2017-04-01

    In patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent coronary arteries revascularization, violations of hemodynamics, metabolism and heart rate variability often develop in the postoperative period, therefore, the goal of the study was to establish the features of disturbances and the effectiveness of correction of left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction and heart rate variability in stages of cardiorehabilitation in patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent coronary arteries revascularization. The experimental group included 40 patients with ACS in the postoperative period who underwent balloon angioplasty and stenting of the coronary arteries (25 patients with ST-segment elevation ACS and 15 patients without ST-segment elevation ACS). The age of examined patients was 37 to 74 years, an average of 52.6±6.7 years. The control group consisted of 20 patients, comparable in age and clinico-laboratory manifestations of ACS, who underwent drug treatment with direct anticoagulants, double antiplatelet therapy, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors and statins. Clinical efficacy of cardiorespiratory process in patients of both groups was assessed by the dynamics of general clinical symptoms and parameters of natriuretic propeptide, systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle and heart rate variability. In the initial state, clinical and laboratory-instrumental signs of myocardial ischemia disappear in patients with ACS undergoing surgical revascularization of the coronary arteries, but clinical and subclinical manifestations of heart failure were diagnosed. The use of the accelerated program of cardiac rehabilitation already during the first month of studies leads to a decreasement of the signs of systolic and diastolic dysfunction, the level of NT-proBNP and improve in the variability of the heart rhythm wich significantly improves the life quality of patients with ACS. To monitor the effectiveness and safety of cardiac rehabilitation in

  4. [Variability in the management and prognosis at short- and medium-term of myocardial infarct in Spain: the PRIAMHO study. Registration Project of Hospital Acute Myocardial Infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabadés, A; López-Bescós, L; Arós, F; Loma-Osorio, A; Bosch, X; Pabón, P; Marrugat, J

    1999-10-01

    The paucity of data on myocardial infarction management and results in Spain lead to the design of the PRIAMHO study (Proyecto de Registro de Infarto Agudo de Miocardio Hospitalario [Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Registration Project]) which developed standard methods to collect information on the management of patients with such a condition and their characteristics. The variability results among hospitals in myocardial infarction management and in one-year mortality are presented. A cohort study with a one-year follow-up was designed to register all patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction discharged from 24 Spanish hospitals that completed all the requisites to participate. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, their management during the coronary care unit stage, and the outcome and complications were prospectively registered. Standard definitions for diagnosis were used. Confidentiality regarding patient identity and participating centers was guaranteed. 5,242 (77.6%) of the 6,756 patients with myocardial infarction admitted in the 24 participating hospitals were registered in the coronary care units. Half of the centers had an on-site hemodynamic laboratory and in seven coronary surgery. The delay between symptom-onset and emergency room admission was 2 hours. Acute pulmonary edema or cardiogenic shock was developed by 16.6% of patients and 41.8% received thrombolysis. Mean time delay between symptom-onset and thrombolysis was 3 hours. A large variability in the use of beta-blockers, thrombolysis, echocardiography, coronary catheterization angiography and invasive revascularization was observed among hospitals. Mortality in the coronary care unit was 10.9% and increased to 14.0% at 28 days and to 18.5% at one year with considerable variation among hospitals. Four hospitals showed higher mortality among their patients, independently from the proportion of diabetes, hypertension, women, anterior location of myocardial

  5. Vocalization behavior and response of black rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, M.L.; Eddleman, W.R.; Buckley, P.A.; Kelly, C.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the vocal responses and movements of radio-tagged black rails (Laterallus jamaicensis) (n = 43, 26 males, 17 females) to playback of vocalizations at 2 sites in Florida during the breeding seasons of 1992-95. We used regression coefficients from logistic regression equations to model the probability of a response conditional to the birds' sex, nesting status, distance to playback source, and the time of survey. With a probability of 0.811, non-nesting male black rails were most likely to respond to playback, while nesting females were the least likely to respond (probability = 0.189). Linear regression was used to determine daily, monthly, and annual variation in response from weekly playback surveys along a fixed route during the breeding seasons of 1993-95. Significant sources of variation in the linear regression model were month (F = 3.89, df = 3, p = 0.0140), year (F = 9.37, df = 2, p = 0.0003), temperature (F = 5.44, df=1, p = 0.0236), and month*year (F = 2.69, df = 5, p = 0.0311). The model was highly significant (p account for variation in response behavior, we believe that additional variation in vocal response between sites, with breeding status, and bird density remains in question. Playback surveys along fixed routes providing a simple index of abundance would be useful to monitor populations over large geographic areas, and over time. Considering the limitations of most agency resources for webless waterbirds, index surveys may be more appropriate. Future telemetry studies of this type on other species and at other sites would be useful to calibrate information obtained from playback surveys whether reporting an index of abundance or density estimate.

  6. Changes in aerodynamics during vocal cord dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Ito, Dennis O; Schulz, Kristine; Vess, Gina; Witsell, David L

    2015-02-01

    Changes in laryngeal airflow dynamics during episodes of vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) have not been well described. Very little is known about how inspiratory airflow is impacted when the vocal cords transition from normal inhalation state to a paradoxical adducted state; and how much change in laryngeal airflow and resistance occur before symptoms of stridor and air hunger emerge. This study provides new insight on the effects of VCD on respiratory airflow using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Computed tomography images of a subject with normal vocal cords opening at the time of scanning were digitally modified to mimic an episode of VCD. To quantify and compare changes in inspiratory flow during VCD attack and normal inhalation, steady-state, laminar simulations were performed for three different breathing rates. Pressure-flow analysis during VCD revealed that increasing inspiratory effort is not as efficient as in normal inhalation. Airflow resistance at the epiglottis was higher in the normal state (0.04Pa.s/mL versus 0.02Pa.s/mL) than in VCD; while resistance at the glottis and trachea remained roughly the same (0.04Pa.s/mL) during normal inhalation, it escalated during VCD (0.11Pa.s/mL and 0.13Pa.s/mL at the glottis and trachea, respectively). Peak airflow velocity and vorticity occurred around the glottis during VCD, and at the epiglottis during normal inhalation. This pilot study demonstrates that attempting to force more inspired air will yield greater glottal resistance during VCD. Furthermore, there were evidence of abrupt laryngeal pressure gradient, chaotic airflow and high concentration of shear stresses in the glottal region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. La salud vocal en el docente :

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Romero, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo ofrece, por una parte, una revisión de los fundamentos de la fonación desde el aparato respiratorio hasta las cualidades acústicas de la voz pasando por el estudio de la laringe y el pliegue vocal y las cavidades de resonancia. Además, incluye aspectos del uso de la voz en la práctica docente como lo son la voz conversacional, la voz proyectada y la voz de apremio, la coordinación fono-respiratoria, la clasificación de las disfonías y, en concreto, la disfonía funcional, las le...

  8. Phonetic characteristics of vocalizations during pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Salinas-Ranneberg, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    (no-stimulation). The phonetic parameters extracted were pitch (mean F0), phonatory fluctuations (range F0) and loudness (acoustic energy level). Results: Only for the vowels “u” and “schwa,” which might be considered best approximations to moaning and groaning, did pitch and loudness increase during......” (central vowel, sounding like a darker “e” as in hesitations like “ehm”)—as experimental approximations to natural vocalizations. Methods: In 50 students vowel production and self-report ratings were assessed during painful and nonpainful heat stimulation (hot water immersion) as well as during baseline...

  9. When internal communication becomes multi-vocal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    ’s employees. The study not only answers questions about who participates in internal social media and the content of their communication, it also shows that when organizational culture and management support coworker communication, internal social media becomes a multi-vocal rhetorical arena where coworkers...... are likely to converse about how to solve product and customer-related challenges, and to discuss working conditions. In addition, this study shows that coworkers co-construct organizational identity when they discuss questions such as: Who are we as an organization? Which products should we provide...

  10. Vocal tract and glottal function during and after vocal exercising with resonance tube and straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Krupa, Petr; Horáček, Jaromir; Švec, Jan G; Geneid, Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the vocal tract and glottal function during and after phonation into a tube and a stirring straw. A male classically trained singer was assessed. Computerized tomography (CT) was performed when the subject produced [a:] at comfortable speaking pitch, phonated into the resonance tube and when repeating [a:] after the exercise. Similar procedure was performed with a narrow straw after 15 minutes silence. Anatomic distances and area measures were obtained from CT midsagittal and transversal images. Acoustic, perceptual, electroglottographic (EGG), and subglottic pressure measures were also obtained. During and after phonation into the tube or straw, the velum closed the nasal passage better, the larynx position lowered, and hypopharynx area widened. Moreover, the ratio between the inlet of the lower pharynx and the outlet of the epilaryngeal tube became larger during and after tube/straw phonation. Acoustic results revealed a stronger spectral prominence in the singer/speaker's formant cluster region after exercising. Listening test demonstrated better voice quality after straw/tube than before. Contact quotient derived from EGG decreased during both tube and straw and remained lower after exercising. Subglottic pressure increased during straw and remained somewhat higher after it. CT and acoustic results indicated that vocal exercises with increased vocal tract impedance lead to increased vocal efficiency and economy. One of the major changes was the more prominent singer's/speaker's formant cluster. Vocal tract and glottal modifications were more prominent during and after straw exercising compared with tube phonation. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Vocalization on Melodic Memory Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrook, Randall G.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study which reinforces prior findings on melodic memory that show a majority of students do not sing accurately enough after only one hearing of a melody to benefit from vocalization memory techniques. Questions whether vocalization can be a memory reinforcer in melodies that are shorter and simpler than those used in this research.…

  12. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-06-14

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor's songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Velthuis, A.A.; Jenner, J.A.; van de Willige, G.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    Background Hearing voices occurs in middle childhood, but little is known about prevalence, aetiology and immediate consequences. Aims To investigate prevalence, developmental risk factors and behavioural correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in 7- and 8-year-olds. Method Auditory vocal

  14. The vocal load of Reform Jewish cantors in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapner, Edie; Gilman, Marina

    2012-03-01

    Jewish cantors comprise a subset of vocal professionals that is not well understood by vocal health professionals. This study aimed to document the vocal demands, vocal training, reported incidence of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior of Reform Jewish cantors. The study used a prospective observational design to anonymously query Reform Jewish cantors using a 35-item multiple-choice survey distributed online. Demographic information, medical history, vocal music training, cantorial duties, history of voice problems, and treatment-seeking behavior were addressed. Results indicated that many of the commonly associated risk factors for developing voice disorders were present in this population, including high vocal demands, reduced vocal downtime, allergies, and acid reflux. Greater than 65% of the respondents reported having had a voice problem that interfered with their ability to perform their duties at some time during their careers. Reform Jewish cantors are a population of occupational voice users who may be currently unidentified and underserved by vocal health professionals. The results of the survey suggest that Reform Jewish cantors are occupational voice users and are at high risk for developing voice disorders. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Divya D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…

  16. Bupropion XL-induced motor and vocal tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Fatih; Uguz, Faruk; Kayhan, Ayşegül; Toktaş, Fikriye Ilay

    2014-01-01

    Tics are stereotypical repetitive involuntary movements (motor tics) or sounds (vocal tics). Although the emergence of tics were reported in a few cases with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, there was no case with bupropion extended-release (Bupropion XL). The current case report presents a male patient developing motor and vocal tics with the use of bupropion XL.

  17. Vocal Fold Mucus Aggregation in Persons with Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; White, Lisa; Kuckhahn, Kelsey; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Deliyski, Dimitar D.

    2012-01-01

    Mucus aggregation on the vocal folds is a common finding from laryngeal endoscopy. Patients with voice disorders report the presence of mucus aggregation. Patients also report that mucus aggregation causes them to clear their throat, a behavior believed to be harmful to vocal fold mucosa. Even though clinicians and patients report and discuss…

  18. The role of hydration in vocal fold physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Leydon, Ciara

    2010-06-01

    Increased vocal fold hydration is a popular target in the prevention and management of voice disorders. Current intervention strategies focus on enhancing both systemic (internal) and superficial (surface) hydration. We review relevant bench and human research on the role of hydration in vocal fold physiology. Bench and human studies provide converging evidence that systemic and superficial dehydration are detrimental to vocal fold physiology. Dehydration challenges increase the viscous properties of excised vocal fold tissue. Systemic, superficial, and combined drying challenges increase aerodynamic and acoustic measures of voice production in speakers. Emerging theoretical and clinical data suggest that increasing both systemic and superficial hydration levels may benefit voice production; however, robust evidence for positive outcomes of hydration treatments is lacking. Increased systemic and superficial vocal fold hydration as a component of vocal hygiene may improve overall health and efficiency of the vocal apparatus. However, continued exploration of biological mechanisms regulating vocal fold hydration is needed to optimize clinical hydration interventions. Specifically, the development of hydration treatments that maximize positive phonatory outcomes will necessitate understanding of the signaling pathways linking systemic and superficial hydration.

  19. BENIGN LESIONS OF THE VOCAL FOLDS - HISTOPATHOLOGY AND PHONOTRAUMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIKKERS, FG; NIKKELS, PGJ

    Benign lesions of the vocal folds have various appearances. Histopathologic examination might provide the true diagnosis. Therefore, histologic slides of 74 patients (92 vocal folds) with clinically well-defined diagnoses were single-blind examined by a pathologist. Single histologic features did

  20. Alternative measures to observe and record vocal fold vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, HK; McCafferty, G; Coman, W; Carroll, R

    1996-01-01

    Vocal fold vibration patterns form the basis for the production of vocal sound. Over the years much effort has been spend to optimize the ways to visualize and give a description of these patterns. Before video possibilities became available the description of the patterns was Very time-consuming.

  1. Vocal cord paralysis associated with Ramsay Hunt syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Mey, Kristianna

    2014-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome is defined by herpes zoster oticus and peripheral facial nerve palsy which is often associated with otalgia. The syndrome is, in rare cases, associated with other cranial nerve paralyses including the vagal nerve causing unilateral vocal cord paralysis. Vocal cord paralysis...

  2. Variability of acute physiological responses and performance profiles of youth soccer players in small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Haas, Stephen; Coutts, Aaron; Rowsell, Greg; Dawson, Brian

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the variability in physiological and perceptual responses and time-motion profiles of various small-sided soccer game (SSG) formats (2 versus 2, 4 versus 4 and 6 versus 6 players) and regimes (interval and continuous). Typical error (TE) was calculated for mean heart rate as a percentage of maximum heart rate (%HR(max)), global ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate [La(-)] and various time-motion characteristics for 16 male soccer players (mean 16.2 years, range 15.6-17.9). The TE for HR responses were 8km/h) reflected increased variability, irrespective of game format or regime. Collectively, these results suggest that SSG training can provide a reliable aerobic training stimulus.

  3. High N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels are associated with reduced heart rate variability in acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Lorgis

    Full Text Available AIM: We investigated the relationships between the autonomic nervous system, as assessed by heart rate variability (HRV and levels of N-terminal Pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: The mean of standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN, the percentage of RR intervals with >50 ms variation (pNN50, square root of mean squared differences of successive RR intervals (rMSSD, and frequency domain parameters (total power (TP, high frequency and low frequency power ratio (LF/HF were assessed by 24 h Holter ECG monitoring. 1018 consecutive patients admitted <24 h for an acute MI were included. Plasma Nt-proBNP (Elecsys, Roche was measured from blood samples taken on admission. The median (IQR Nt-proBNP level was 681(159-2432 pmol/L. Patients with the highest quartile of Nt-proBNP were older, with higher rate of risk factors and lower ejection fraction. The highest Nt-proBNP quartile group had the lowest SDNN, LF/HF and total power but similar pNN50 and rMSSD levels. Nt-proBNP levels correlated negatively with SDNN (r = -0.19, p<0.001, LF/HF (r = -0.37, p<0.001, and LF (r = -0.29, p<0.001 but not HF (r = -0.043, p = 0.172. Multiple regression analysis showed that plasma propeptide levels remained predictive of LF/HF (B(SE = -0.065(0.015, p<0.001, even after adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our population-based study highlights the importance of Nt-proBNP levels to predict decreased HRV after acute MI.

  4. Analysis of arterial pressure variability in patients with acute cerebral stroke depending on the time of occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volosovets A.O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension can cause a pronounced negative influence on the state of the cerebral vascular system and lead to significant microtraumatization of the walls of the vessels and disruption of vascular autoregulation. This predictor has the greatest influence on the onset of ischemic stroke of atherothrombotic and lacunar subtypes, however, hypertension occurs almost in all patients with acute cerebral ischemia. Interesting and not at all presented in modern scientific literature is the question of the relationship of oscillation of blood pressure with the period of the onset of the focus of ischemia, which predetermined the purpose of our work. The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between deformation of the profile of fluctuations in blood pressure of patients in the acute period of ischemic stroke, depending on the time of the occurrence of cerebrovascular accident. We examined 300 patients who suffered acute ischemic stroke (men - 196, women - 104 aged 42 to 84 years (average age - 65.2 ± 8.7 years. All patients were divided into 3 groups according to the period of the day when an ischemic stroke occurred: 1 group (n=146, patients suffering from cerebral ischemia during the day (8.00-14.59; In group 2 (n=107, patients stroke was observed in the evening (15.00-21.59; Group 3 (n=47, patients had an ischemic stroke at night (22.00-7.59. For the 1st group of patients who have had ischemic stroke during the day and as a rule with an increase in blood pressure, a marked increase in blood pressure was at 12.00 and 15.00 and a tendency towards compensatory parasympathetic effect in the form of blood pressure decrease at night (over-dipper was typical. At the same time, in the 2nd group of patients with stroke in the evening, elevated blood pressure at 18.00 and 21.00 and parasympathetic activity disorders with prevalence of insufficient reduction of blood pressure in the evening and during sleep (non-dipper was observed

  5. IMPAIRED MOBILITY OF VOCAL FOLDS - etiology and symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Pintarić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Paresis or paralysis of one or both vocal cords affects some significant aspects of a human life: breathing, swallowing and speech. The major causes for reduced mobility or even immobility are innervation damage, less often fixation of vocal cord or impaired mobility of crycoarytenoid joint. An injury of the superior or/and inferior laryngeal nerve can be a consequence of different medical procedures, tumor growth, trauma, infection, neurological disorders, radiation exposure, toxic damage, impaired circulation of the area or it is idiopathic. The symptoms are different in the case of unilateral and bilateral paresis of the vocal folds. They also depend on the cause for the impaired mobility. In the patients with unilateral vocal fold paresis, hoarseness and aspiration during swallowing are the leading symptoms. In the bilateral vocal fold paralysis, dyspnea prevails. 

  6. Activity Monitoring and Heart Rate Variability as Indicators of Fall Risk: Proof-of-Concept for Application of Wearable Sensors in the Acute Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razjouyan, Javad; Grewal, Gurtej Singh; Rishel, Cindy; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Mohler, Jane; Najafi, Bijan

    2017-07-01

    Growing concern for falls in acute care settings could be addressed with objective evaluation of fall risk. The current proof-of-concept study evaluated the feasibility of using a chest-worn sensor during hospitalization to determine fall risk. Physical activity and heart rate variability (HRV) of 31 volunteers admitted to a 29-bed adult inpatient unit were recorded using a single chest-worn sensor. Sensor data during the first 24-hour recording were analyzed. Participants were stratified using the Hendrich II fall risk assessment into high and low fall risk groups. Univariate analysis revealed age, daytime activity, nighttime side lying posture, and HRV were significantly different between groups. Results suggest feasibility of wearable technology to consciously monitor physical activity, sleep postures, and HRV as potential markers of fall risk in the acute care setting. Further study is warranted to confirm the results and examine the efficacy of the proposed wearable technology to manage falls in hospitals. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(7), 53-62.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Variability in Criteria for Emergency Medical Services Routing of Acute Stroke Patients to Designated Stroke Center Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay; Koenig, William; Bosson, Nichole; Song, Sarah; Saver, Jeffrey L; Mack, William J; Sanossian, Nerses

    2015-09-01

    Comprehensive stroke systems of care include routing to the nearest designated stroke center hospital, bypassing non-designated hospitals. Routing protocols are implemented at the state or county level and vary in qualification criteria and determination of destination hospital. We surveyed all counties in the state of California for presence and characteristics of their prehospital stroke routing protocols. Each county's local emergency medical services agency (LEMSA) was queried for the presence of a stroke routing protocol. We reviewed these protocols for method of stroke identification and criteria for patient transport to a stroke center. Thirty-three LEMSAs serve 58 counties in California with populations ranging from 1,175 to nearly 10 million. Fifteen LEMSAs (45%) had stroke routing protocols, covering 23 counties (40%) and 68% of the state population. Counties with protocols had higher population density (1,500 vs. 140 persons per square mile). In the six counties without designated stroke centers, patients meeting criteria were transported out of county. Stroke identification in the field was achieved using the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Screen in 72%, Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen in 7% and a county-specific protocol in 22%. California EMS prehospital acute stroke routing protocols cover 68% of the state population and vary in characteristics including activation by symptom onset time and destination facility features, reflecting matching of system design to local geographic resources.

  8. Crowd vocal learning induces vocal dialects in bats: Playback of conspecifics shapes fundamental frequency usage by pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Prat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vocal learning, the substrate of human language acquisition, has rarely been described in other mammals. Often, group-specific vocal dialects in wild populations provide the main evidence for vocal learning. While social learning is often the most plausible explanation for these intergroup differences, it is usually impossible to exclude other driving factors, such as genetic or ecological backgrounds. Here, we show the formation of dialects through social vocal learning in fruit bats under controlled conditions. We raised 3 groups of pups in conditions mimicking their natural roosts. Namely, pups could hear their mothers' vocalizations but were also exposed to a manipulation playback. The vocalizations in the 3 playbacks mainly differed in their fundamental frequency. From the age of approximately 6 months and onwards, the pups demonstrated distinct dialects, where each group was biased towards its playback. We demonstrate the emergence of dialects through social learning in a mammalian model in a tightly controlled environment. Unlike in the extensively studied case of songbirds where specific tutors are imitated, we demonstrate that bats do not only learn their vocalizations directly from their mothers, but that they are actually influenced by the sounds of the entire crowd. This process, which we term "crowd vocal learning," might be relevant to many other social animals such as cetaceans and pinnipeds.

  9. Heart Rate Variability Density Analysis (Dyx) and Prediction of Long-Term Mortality after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rikke Mørch; Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Levitan, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The density HRV parameter Dyx is a new heart rate variability (HRV) measure based on multipole analysis of the Poincaré plot obtained from RR interval time series, deriving information from both the time and frequency domain. Preliminary results have suggested that the parameter may provide...... of mortality (P = 0.02). Reduced Dyx also predicted cardiovascular death (P cardiovascular death (P = 0.05). In Kaplan-Meier analysis, Dyx significantly predicted mortality in patients both with and without impaired left ventricular systolic function (P

  10. Image analysis of vocal fold histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Lou; Garrett, C. Gaelyn

    2001-05-01

    To visualize the concentration gradients of collagen, elastin and ground substance in histologic sections of vocal folds, an image enhancement scheme was devised. Slides stained with Movat's solution were viewed on a light microscope. The image was digitally photographed. Using commercially available software, all pixels within a color range are selected from the mucosa presented on the image. Using the Movat's pentachrome stain, yellow to yellow-brown pixels represented mature collagen, blue to blue-green pixels represented young collagen (collagen that is not fully cross-linked) and black to dark violet pixels represented elastin. From each of the color range selections, a black and white image was created. The pixels not within the color range were black. The selected pixels within the color range were white. The image was averaged and smoothed to produce 256 levels of gray with less spatial resolution. This new grey-scale image showed the concentration gradient. These images were further enhanced with contour lines surrounding equivalent levels of gray. This technique is helpful to compare the micro-anatomy of the vocal folds. For instance, we find large concentration of the collagen deep in the mucosa and adjacent to the vocalis muscle.

  11. The Value of Vocal Extent Measure (VEM) Assessing Phonomicrosurgical Outcomes in Vocal Fold Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmen, Tatjana; Ermakova, Tatiana; Möller, Andreas; Seipelt, Matthias; Weikert, Sebastian; Rummich, Julius; Gross, Manfred; Nawka, Tadeus; Caffier, Philipp P

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to present vocal extent measure (VEM), demonstrate its changes with phonomicrosurgical treatment in patients with vocal fold polyps (VFPs), and to compare its performance to that of established vocal parameters. This is an individual cohort study. Microlaryngoscopic ablation was executed in 61 patients with manifestation of VFP (28 male, 33 female; 45 ± 13 years [mean ± SD]). Analysis of treatment outcome was based on pre- and postoperative voice function diagnostics and videolaryngostroboscopy. Examination instruments were: auditory-perceptual voice assessment (roughness, breathiness, and overall hoarseness [RBH]-status), voice range profile (VRP), acoustic-aerodynamic analysis, and patients' self-assessment of voice using the voice handicap index. The VEM, a parameter not yet commonly established in phoniatric diagnostics, was calculated from area and shape of the VRP to be compared with the dysphonia severity index (DSI) concerning diagnostic suitability. All polyps were completely excised. Three months postoperatively, mucosal wave propagation had recovered. All subjective and most objective acoustic and aerodynamic parameters showed highly significant improvement. The VHI-9i-score decreased from 15 ± 8 to 6 ± 7 points. The average total vocal range extended by 4 ± 5 semitones, the mean speaking pitch decreased by 1 ± 2 semitones. The DSI increased on average from 2.6 ± 2.1 to 4.0 ± 2.2, VEM from 83 ± 28 to 107 ± 21 (P < 0.01). VEM and DSI correlated significantly with each other (r s  = 0.65; P < 0.01). Phonomicrosurgery of VFP is an objectively and subjectively satisfactory therapy for voice improvement. The VEM represents a comprehensible and easy-to-use unidimensional measure for objective VRP evaluation. This positive measure of vocal function seems to be a compelling diagnostic addition for objective quantification of vocal performance. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation

  12. Perceived vocal fatigue and effort in relation to laryngeal functional measures in paresis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, Sheila V; Bielamowicz, Steven A

    2014-07-01

    To determine if differences in objective measures of laryngeal function can meaningfully explain different levels of self-perceptions of effort or fatigue in patients with vocal fold paresis. A retrospective chart review of 72 patients with vocal fold paresis diagnosed using laryngeal electromyography, who had either been observed (n=21), treated only by injection (n=24), or treated only by surgery (n=27). Before and after treatment/observation, patients' subjective ratings of severity of vocal effort and fatigue were assessed using the Glottal Function Index. Laryngeal function was assessed using maximum phonation time and translaryngeal flow. None of the variables demonstrated a significant linear change across time. Post hoc Tukey analyses following analysis of variance (ANOVA) found significant differences in flow among three groups, those rating symptoms of effort as no problem, moderate problem, or severe problem. Post hoc Tukey analyses following ANOVA found significant differences in the amount that flow changed among three groups, those demonstrating no difference, minor differences, or major differences in ratings of effort before and after treatment. Changes in reported symptom severity of effort were related to changes in translaryngeal midvowel flow that were not explained by passage of time. 4. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. An Investigation of Vocal Tract Characteristics for Acoustic Discrimination of Pathological Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of measures related to vocal tract characteristics in classifying normal and pathological speech. Unlike conventional approaches that mainly focus on features related to the vocal source, vocal tract characteristics are examined to determine if interaction effects between vocal folds and the vocal tract can be used to detect pathological speech. Especially, this paper examines features related to formant frequencies to see if vocal tract characteristics are affected by the nature of the vocal fold-related pathology. To test this hypothesis, stationary fragments of vowel /aa/ produced by 223 normal subjects, 472 vocal fold polyp subjects, and 195 unilateral vocal cord paralysis subjects are analyzed. Based on the acoustic-articulatory relationships, phonation for pathological subjects is found to be associated with measures correlated with a raised tongue body or an advanced tongue root. Vocal tract-related features are also found to be statistically significant from the Kruskal-Wallis test in distinguishing normal and pathological speech. Classification results demonstrate that combining the formant measurements with vocal fold-related features results in improved performance in differentiating vocal pathologies including vocal polyps and unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which suggests that measures related to vocal tract characteristics may provide additional information in diagnosing vocal disorders.

  14. Fifteen-Month-Old Infants Match Vocal Cues to Intentional Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoicka, Elena; Wang, Su-hua

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen-month-old infants detected a violation when an actor performed an action that did not match her preceding vocal cue: The infants looked reliably longer when the actor expressed a humorous vocal cue followed by a sweet action or expressed a sweet vocal cue followed by a humorous action, than when the vocal cue was followed by a matching…

  15. [Study of variability in the management of acute bronchiolitis in Spain in relation to age of patients. National multicenter study (aBREVIADo project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Dios, J; Ochoa Sangrador, C

    2010-01-01

    There are many studies on the controversial issues involved in the management of acute bronchiolitis (AB). The aim of this multicenter nationwide study in Spain was to find out the variability in the management of AB in various areas of clinical care (primary care, emergency and hospitalization) and to analyze the impact of patient age on diagnostic and therapeutic management. A cross-sectional observational study (from October 2007 to March 2008) of all cases of BA (McConnochie criteria) treated in a sample of 31 hospitals and 60 health or primary care centers in 12 autonomous regions in Spain. A questionnaire was designed to collect study variables (general information, symptoms, risk factors, diagnostic tests and treatments) and to make a comparison of variables by age groups (newborns, 1-3 months, 3-12 months and >12 months). A total of 5647 cases of AB (51.2% from emergency services, 28.9% from hospitalization, 18.3% from primary care and 1.6% from ICU), whose average age was 0.34 years (95%CI 0.32 to 0.35), with 6.6% under 1 month, 23.5% between 1 and 3 months, 60.6% from 3 to 12 months and 522 over 12 months. There is an important use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures not recommended in clinical practice guidelines. We also found differences related to age: younger infants showed an increased risk of admission, clinical differences (greater presence of rhinitis, vomiting, refusal of feedings, apnea and septic appearance and less fever and night cough; more tachypnea, retractions, hypoventilation and impaired consciousness, and lower presence of wheezing), increased number of diagnostic tests (oxygen saturation, chest x-ray, RSV test, CBC, etc.) and differences in patterns of treatment (less use of all medications before diagnosis and the maintenance phase; in the acute phase, increased use of epinephrine and parenteral corticosteroids and lower use of bronchodilators and oral corticosteroids, and more frequent use of supplemental oxygen, intravenous

  16. Effect of sugarcane biopolymer gel injected in rabbit vocal fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Augusto de Souza Leão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Alterations in the vocal folds that involve volume reduction and glottal closure failure result in exaggerated air escape during speech. For such situations, the use of implants or grafts of different materials has been proposed. OBJECTIVE: To define the effect of sugarcane biopolymer gel when implanted in the vocal folds of rabbits. METHODS: This was an experimental study. The vocal folds of rabbits injected with sugarcane biopolymer and saline solution were histologically evaluated after 21 and 90 days. RESULTS: Mild to moderate inflammation and increased volume were observed in all vocal folds injected with biopolymer, when compared to controls. There were no cases of necrosis or calcification. DISCUSSION: This study showed higher inflammatory reaction in cases than in controls and biopolymer biointegration to the vocal fold. This fibrogenic response with absence of epithelial repercussions suggests that the biopolymer in its gel form can be bioactive and preserve the normal vibratory function of the epithelium. CONCLUSION: We show that in spite of producing an inflammatory reaction in vocal fold tissues, the material remained in vocal fold throughout the study period.

  17. Spontaneous motor entrainment to music in multiple vocal mimicking species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Brady, Timothy F; Pepperberg, Irene M; Hauser, Marc D

    2009-05-26

    The human capacity for music consists of certain core phenomena, including the tendency to entrain, or align movement, to an external auditory pulse [1-3]. This ability, fundamental both for music production and for coordinated dance, has been repeatedly highlighted as uniquely human [4-11]. However, it has recently been hypothesized that entrainment evolved as a by-product of vocal mimicry, generating the strong prediction that only vocal mimicking animals may be able to entrain [12, 13]. Here we provide comparative data demonstrating the existence of two proficient vocal mimicking nonhuman animals (parrots) that entrain to music, spontaneously producing synchronized movements resembling human dance. We also provide an extensive comparative data set from a global video database systematically analyzed for evidence of entrainment in hundreds of species both capable and incapable of vocal mimicry. Despite the higher representation of vocal nonmimics in the database and comparable exposure of mimics and nonmimics to humans and music, only vocal mimics showed evidence of entrainment. We conclude that entrainment is not unique to humans and that the distribution of entrainment across species supports the hypothesis that entrainment evolved as a by-product of selection for vocal mimicry.

  18. Vocal fold ion transport and mucin expression following acrolein exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2014-05-01

    The vocal fold epithelium is exposed to inhaled particulates including pollutants during breathing in everyday environments. Yet, our understanding of the effects of pollutants on vocal fold epithelial function is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin (MUC) synthesis. These mechanisms were chosen as each plays a critical role in vocal defense and in maintaining surface hydration which is necessary for optimal voice production. Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N = 85) were excised and exposed to an acrolein or sham challenge. A 60-min acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent, increases in ion transport. Decreases in ion transport were associated with reduced sodium absorption. Within the same timeline, no significant acrolein-induced changes in MUC gene or protein expression were observed. These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health.

  19. Specific features of vocal fold paralysis in functional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowska, K.; Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, H.; Serafin, Z.; Nawrocka, E.

    2008-01-01

    Vocal fold paralysis is usually recognized in laryngological examination, and detailed vocal fold function may be established based on laryngovideostroboscopy. Additional imaging should exclude any morphological causes of the paresis, which should be treated pharmacologically or surgically. The aim of this paper was to analyze the computed tomography (CT) images of the larynx in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. CT examinations of the larynx were performed in 10 patients with clinically defined unilateral vocal fold paralysis. The examinations consisted of unenhanced acquisition and enhanced 3-phased acquisition: during free breathing, Valsalva maneuver, and phonation. The analysis included the following morphologic features of the paresis.the deepened epiglottic vallecula, the deepened piriform recess, the thickened and medially positioned aryepiglottic fold, the widened laryngeal pouch, the anteriorly positioned arytenoid cartilage, the thickened vocal fold, and the filled infraglottic space in frontal CT reconstruction. CT images were compared to laryngovideostroboscopy. The most common symptoms of vocal cord paralysis in CT were the deepened epiglottic vallecula and piriform recess, the widened laryngeal pouch with the filled infraglottic space, and the thickened aryepiglottic fold. Regarding the efficiency of the paralysis determination, the three functional techniques of CT larynx imaging used did not differ significantly, and laryngovideostroboscopy demonstrated its advantage over CT. CT of the larynx is a supplementary examination in the diagnosis of vocal fold paralysis, which may enable topographic analysis of the fold dysfunction. The knowledge of morphological CT features of the paralysis may help to prevent false-positive diagnosis of laryngeal cancer. (author)

  20. Social vocalizations of big brown bats vary with behavioral context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie A Gadziola

    Full Text Available Bats are among the most gregarious and vocal mammals, with some species demonstrating a diverse repertoire of syllables under a variety of behavioral contexts. Despite extensive characterization of big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus biosonar signals, there have been no detailed studies of adult social vocalizations. We recorded and analyzed social vocalizations and associated behaviors of captive big brown bats under four behavioral contexts: low aggression, medium aggression, high aggression, and appeasement. Even limited to these contexts, big brown bats possess a rich repertoire of social vocalizations, with 18 distinct syllable types automatically classified using a spectrogram cross-correlation procedure. For each behavioral context, we describe vocalizations in terms of syllable acoustics, temporal emission patterns, and typical syllable sequences. Emotion-related acoustic cues are evident within the call structure by context-specific syllable types or variations in the temporal emission pattern. We designed a paradigm that could evoke aggressive vocalizations while monitoring heart rate as an objective measure of internal physiological state. Changes in the magnitude and duration of elevated heart rate scaled to the level of evoked aggression, confirming the behavioral state classifications assessed by vocalizations and behavioral displays. These results reveal a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a caller.

  1. Vocal evaluation in teachers with or without symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Elaine L M; Martins, Regina H G

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to perform voice evaluation in teachers with and without vocal symptoms, identifying etiologic factors of dysphonia, voice symptoms, vocal qualities, and laryngeal lesions. Eighty teachers were divided into two groups: GI (without or sporadic symptoms, 40) and GII (with frequent vocal symptoms, 40). They answered a specific questionnaire, and were subject to a perceptual vocal assessment (maximum phonation time, glottal attack, resonance, coordination of breathing and voicing, pitch, and loudness), GIRBAS scale, and to videolaryngoscopy. Females were predominant in both groups, and the age range was from 36 to 50 years. Elementary teachers predominated, working in classes with 31-40 students. Voice symptoms and alterations in the perceptual vocal analysis and in the GIRBAS scale were more frequent in GII. In 46 teachers (GI-16; GII-30), videolaryngoscopy exams were abnormal with the vocal nodules being the most frequent lesions. These results indicate that a teacher's voice is compromised, and requires more attention including control of environmental factors and associated diseases, preventive vocal hygiene, periodic laryngeal examinations, and access to adequate specialist treatment.

  2. Discrimination of communication vocalizations by single neurons and groups of neurons in the auditory midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David M; Woolley, Sarah M N

    2010-06-01

    Many social animals including songbirds use communication vocalizations for individual recognition. The perception of vocalizations depends on the encoding of complex sounds by neurons in the ascending auditory system, each of which is tuned to a particular subset of acoustic features. Here, we examined how well the responses of single auditory neurons could be used to discriminate among bird songs and we compared discriminability to spectrotemporal tuning. We then used biologically realistic models of pooled neural responses to test whether the responses of groups of neurons discriminated among songs better than the responses of single neurons and whether discrimination by groups of neurons was related to spectrotemporal tuning and trial-to-trial response variability. The responses of single auditory midbrain neurons could be used to discriminate among vocalizations with a wide range of abilities, ranging from chance to 100%. The ability to discriminate among songs using single neuron responses was not correlated with spectrotemporal tuning. Pooling the responses of pairs of neurons generally led to better discrimination than the average of the two inputs and the most discriminating input. Pooling the responses of three to five single neurons continued to improve neural discrimination. The increase in discriminability was largest for groups of neurons with similar spectrotemporal tuning. Further, we found that groups of neurons with correlated spike trains achieved the largest gains in discriminability. We simulated neurons with varying levels of temporal precision and measured the discriminability of responses from single simulated neurons and groups of simulated neurons. Simulated neurons with biologically observed levels of temporal precision benefited more from pooling correlated inputs than did neurons with highly precise or imprecise spike trains. These findings suggest that pooling correlated neural responses with the levels of precision observed in the

  3. Efeito imediato de técnicas vocais em mulheres sem queixa vocal Immediate effect of vocal techniques in women without vocal complaint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o efeito imediato das técnicas vocais vibração, som nasal e sobrearticulação na voz e na laringe de mulheres sem queixas vocais. MÉTODO: participaram da pesquisa 32 sujeitos do sexo feminino, com idades entre 20 e 45 anos, sem queixas vocais, com qualidade vocal avaliada entre normal e alteração de grau leve Os sujeitos foram submetidos à análise perceptivo-auditiva pela escala visual analógica da vogal /ε/ e fala espontânea, análise acústica e laringoestroboscopia antes e após a realização das técnicas. RESULTADOS: a análise perceptivo-auditiva revelou melhora significante dos parâmetros impressão global da voz, rouquidão e estabilidade na vogal /ε/ e articulação na fala espontânea. A análise acústica evidenciou melhora significante do jitter e shimmer. A laringoestroboscopia evidenciou significante melhora no fechamento glótico e melhora na movimentação muco-ondulatória das pregas vocais. CONCLUSÃO: as técnicas vocais estudadas são capazes de proporcionar melhora imediata significante da qualidade vocal e da configuração laríngea.PURPOSE: to check the immediate effect of vocal techniques: vibration, nasal sound and overarticulation. METHOD: 32 female subjects with normal to mild dysphonia took part in the study, with ages from 20 to 45 years. Subjects were submitted to perceptual analysis and laryngostroboscopic exams before and after the use of vocal techniques. RESULTS: subjects' vocal classification in perceptual analysis after accomplishing the vocal techniques showed significant improvement on parameters voice global impression, hoarseness and stability; and, in spontaneous speech, one showed a significant improvement on the parameter articulation. The acoustic analysis evidenced significant improvement of the jitter and shimmer. Laryngostroboscopic examination evidenced a significant increase in the glottic closing and an increase in the mucondulatory movement of the vocal folds

  4. Structural Classification of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maxime; Gingras, Bruno; Bowling, Daniel L; Herbst, Christian T; Boeckle, Markus; Locatelli, Yann; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-04-01

    Determining whether a species' vocal communication system is graded or discrete requires definition of its vocal repertoire. In this context, research on domestic pig ( Sus scrofa domesticus ) vocalizations, for example, has led to significant advances in our understanding of communicative functions. Despite their close relation to domestic pigs, little is known about wild boar ( Sus scrofa) vocalizations. The few existing studies, conducted in the 1970s, relied on visual inspections of spectrograms to quantify acoustic parameters and lacked statistical analysis. Here, we use objective signal processing techniques and advanced statistical approaches to classify 616 calls recorded from semi-free ranging animals. Based on four spectral and temporal acoustic parameters-quartile Q25, duration, spectral flux, and spectral flatness-extracted from a multivariate analysis, we refine and extend the conclusions drawn from previous work and present a statistically validated classification of the wild boar vocal repertoire into four call types: grunts, grunt-squeals, squeals, and trumpets. While the majority of calls could be sorted into these categories using objective criteria, we also found evidence supporting a graded interpretation of some wild boar vocalizations as acoustically continuous, with the extremes representing discrete call types. The use of objective criteria based on modern techniques and statistics in respect to acoustic continuity advances our understanding of vocal variation. Integrating our findings with recent studies on domestic pig vocal behavior and emotions, we emphasize the importance of grunt-squeals for acoustic approaches to animal welfare and underline the need of further research investigating the role of domestication on animal vocal communication.

  5. A nomenclature paradigm for benign midmembranous vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Hathaway, Bridget; Simpson, C Blake; Postma, Gregory N; Courey, Mark; Sataloff, Robert T

    2012-06-01

    There is a significant lack of uniform agreement regarding nomenclature for benign vocal fold lesions (BVFLs). This confusion results in difficulty for clinicians communicating with their patients and with each other. In addition, BVFL research and comparison of treatment methods are hampered by the lack of a detailed and uniform BVFL nomenclature. Clinical consensus conferences were held to develop an initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm. Perceptual video analysis was performed to validate the stroboscopy component of the paradigm. The culmination of the consensus conferences and the video-perceptual analysis was used to evaluate the BVFL nomenclature paradigm using a retrospective review of patients with BVFL. An initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm was proposed utilizing detailed definitions relating to vocal fold lesion morphology, stroboscopy, response to voice therapy and intraoperative findings. Video-perceptual analysis of stroboscopy demonstrated that the proposed binary stroboscopy system used in the BVFL nomenclature paradigm was valid and widely applicable. Retrospective review of 45 patients with BVFL followed to the conclusion of treatment demonstrated that slight modifications of the initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm were required. With the modified BVFL nomenclature paradigm, 96% of the patients fit into the predicted pattern and definitions of the BVFL nomenclature system. This study has validated a multidimensional BVFL nomenclature paradigm. This vocal fold nomenclature paradigm includes nine distinct vocal fold lesions: vocal fold nodules, vocal fold polyp, pseudocyst, vocal fold cyst (subepithelial or ligament), nonspecific vocal fold lesion, vocal fold fibrous mass (subepithelial or ligament), and reactive lesion. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Vocal Qualities in Music Theater Voice: Perceptions of Expert Pedagogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Tracy; Kenny, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    To gather qualitative descriptions of music theater vocal qualities including belt, legit, and mix from expert pedagogues to better define this voice type. This is a prospective, semistructured interview. Twelve expert teachers from United States, United Kingdom, Asia, and Australia were interviewed by Skype and asked to identify characteristics of music theater vocal qualities including vocal production, physiology, esthetics, pitch range, and pedagogical techniques. Responses were compared with published studies on music theater voice. Belt and legit were generally described as distinct sounds with differing physiological and technical requirements. Teachers were concerned that belt should be taught "safely" to minimize vocal health risks. There was consensus between teachers and published research on the physiology of the glottis and vocal tract; however, teachers were not in agreement about breathing techniques. Neither were teachers in agreement about the meaning of "mix." Most participants described belt as heavily weighted, thick folds, thyroarytenoid-dominant, or chest register; however, there was no consensus on an appropriate term. Belt substyles were named and generally categorized by weightedness or tone color. Descriptions of male belt were less clear than for female belt. This survey provides an overview of expert pedagogical perspectives on the characteristics of belt, legit, and mix qualities in the music theater voice. Although teacher responses are generally in agreement with published research, there are still many controversial issues and gaps in knowledge and understanding of this vocal technique. Breathing techniques, vocal range, mix, male belt, and vocal registers require continuing investigation so that we can learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in music theater singing. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between patient-perceived vocal handicap and clinician-rated level of vocal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Lesley F; Bielinski, Clifford; Toles, Laura; Hamilton, Amy; Deane, Janis; Mau, Ted

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between patient-reported vocal handicap and clinician-rated measures of vocal dysfunction is not understood. This study aimed to determine if a correlation exists between the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and the Voice Functional Communication Measure rating in the National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS). Retrospective case series. Four hundred and nine voice evaluations over 12 months at a tertiary voice center were reviewed. The VHI-10 and NOMS scores, diagnoses, and potential comorbid factors were collected and analyzed. For the study population as a whole, there was a moderate negative correlation between the NOMS rating and the VHI-10 (Pearson r = -0.57). However, for a given NOMS level, there could be considerable spread in the VHI-10. In addition, as the NOMS decreased stepwise below level 4, there was a corresponding increase in the VHI-10. However, a similar trend in VHI-10 was not observed for NOMS above level 4, indicating the NOMS versus VHI-10 correlation was not linear. Among diagnostic groups, the strongest correlation was found for subjects with functional dysphonia. The NOMS versus VHI-10 correlation was not affected by gender or the coexistence of a psychiatric diagnosis. A simple relationship between VHI-10 and NOMS rating does not exist. Patients with mild vocal dysfunction have a less direct relationship between their NOMS ratings and the VHI-10. These findings provide insight into the interpretation of patient-perceived and clinician-rated measures of vocal function and may allow for better management of expectations and patient counseling in the treatment of voice disorders. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Vocal mechanisms in birds and bats: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthers Roderick A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocal signals play a very important role in the life of both birds and echolocating bats, but these two unrelated groups of flying vertebrates have very different vocal systems. They nevertheless must solve many of the same problems in producing sound. This brief review examines avian and microchiropteran motor mechanisms for: 1 coordinating the timing of phonation with the vocal motor pattern that controls its acoustic properties, and 2 achieving respiratory strategies that provide adequate ventilation for pulmonary gas exchange, while also facilitating longer duration songs or trains of sonar pulses.

  9. Comment on "Monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Monkey vocal tracts are capable of producing monkey speech, not the full range of articulate human speech. The evolution of human speech entailed both anatomy and brains. Fitch, de Boer, Mathur, and Ghazanfar in Science Advances claim that "monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready," and conclude that "…the evolution of human speech capabilities required neural change rather than modifications of vocal anatomy." Neither premise is consistent either with the data presented and the conclusions reached by de Boer and Fitch themselves in their own published papers on the role of anatomy in the evolution of human speech or with the body of independent studies published since the 1950s.

  10. From the vocal gesture to the writing of music

    OpenAIRE

    Vitale, Alessia R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study I will analyse the multifaceted functions of the external vocal gestures of the chironomical type and their influence on the first trace-forms of music writing : neumes. I will also outline the impact of vocal gestures within the dynamics of the learning process in singing and in the transitional process from oral musical culture to music writing. My aim is to extend the study of vocal gestures towards the exegesis of the writing of music. From an ontological and epistemo...

  11. Development of vocalization and hearing in American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christian; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Rasmus L

    2013-01-01

    American mink (Neovison vison) kits are born altricial and fully dependent 40 on maternal care, for which the kits' vocalisations appear essential. We used Auditory Brainstem Recording (ABR) to determine (1) hearing sensitivity of adult females from two breeding lines known to differ in maternal ....... When separated from their mothers kits vocalized loudly. Until age 22 days, 90% of all kits vocalized with no significant decline with age (P=0.27). From day 25, concurrent with the start of hearing, the number of vocalizing kits decreased with age (P...

  12. [Vocal cord dysfunction simulating severe corticoid-dependent asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debove, P; Birot, P; Doussau-Thuron, S; Pelet, R; Calas, M; Didier, A; Léophonte, P

    2000-04-01

    We report a case of severe asthma initially considered as cortico-resistant. Clinical analysis of dyspneic attacks demonstrated they were atypical, sometimes associated with dysphonia and syncopes. Severity of clinical presentation was discordant with lung function tests. The diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction was confirmed by ENT specialized examination. It showed paradoxal inspiratory adduction of the vocal cords triggered by exercise. Treatment remained however difficult, based on speech therapy, relaxation and psychotherapy. This observation underlines the influence of searching a vocal cord dysfunction in cortico-dependent asthma, especially if clinical presentation is atypical. Treatment of this condition may allow to decrease steroid treatment in such patients.

  13. [Obese woman presenting as vocal cord abductor paralysis and floppy arytenoid associated with early signs of multiple system atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuta, Hideki; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Nakajima, Itsuo; Nakamura, Toshiki; Hirata, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    In multiple system atrophy (MSA), sleep-related breathing disorders are commonly observed, including vocal cord abductor paralysis (VCAP), which can cause sudden death. In its early stage, VCAP occurs only during sleep, but as the disease progresses, it appears when both awake and asleep. We encountered a 59-year-old obese woman who had been under continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) for approximately one year but later developed acute respiratory failure because of VCAP. VCAP was the predominant finding that led to the diagnosis of MSA in our patient. On laryngoscopic examination, the movement of the patient's larynx was normal during wakefulness, but VCAP, paradoxical movements of the vocal cord and a floppy arytenoid were observed during drug-induced sleep. We suggest that detection of VCAP and laryngopharyngeal abnormalities such as floppy arytenoid in the early stage of MSA is important for determining treatment options.

  14. Vocal Problems in Sports and Fitness Instructors: A Study of Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Need for Prevention in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, Lionel; Fraval, Marie; Michon, Anne; Déjean, Sébastien; Welby-Gieusse, Muriel

    2017-03-01

    Sports and fitness instructors (SFIs) are known for being a high-risk population for voice difficulties (VD). However, past studies have encountered various methodological difficulties in determining prevalence and risk factors for VD in SFIs, such as limited population, gender and selection biases, or poor statistical power, because VD were studied as a binary variable. The present research work addresses these issues and aims at studying the prevalence of vocal problems and risk factors in French SFIs, a population in which no such study was conducted yet. Another objective is to survey the French SFIs' habits and expectations regarding vocal prevention and care. This is a cross-sectional study. Three hundred and twenty SFIs answered a questionnaire, whether in an online (n = 267) or a paper (n = 53) version. The questionnaire consisted of 31 items addressing self-reported vocal difficulties, supposed risk factors, and personal health-care history, followed by the Voice Handicap Index assessment. Prevalence of self-reported vocal difficulties is 55%. The Voice Handicap Index is significantly associated with gender, age, and variables related to work environment (noise and music) and habits (shouting, frequency of classes), as well as with daily sleeping time. Results also indicate that a minority of the SFIs (37%) received information on vocal difficulties, whereas a majority (80%) declares being interested in participating in prevention programs. This work confirms that SFIs are a high-risk population for VD, underlines the need for specific information programs in France, and provides relevant data for driving such preventive actions. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Conserved mechanisms of vocalization coding in mammalian and songbird auditory midbrain

    OpenAIRE

    Woolley, Sarah M. N.; Portfors, Christine V.

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity of social vocalization among animals provides the opportunity to identify conserved mechanisms of auditory processing that subserve vocal communication. Identifying auditory coding properties that are shared across vocal communicators will provide insight into how human auditory processing leads to speech perception. Here, we compare auditory response properties and neural coding of social vocalizations in auditory midbrain neurons of mammalian and avian vocal communicators. The ...

  16. The program complex for vocal recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konev, Anton; Kostyuchenko, Evgeny; Yakimuk, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the possibility of applying the algorithm of determining the pitch frequency for the note recognition problems. Preliminary study of programs-analogues were carried out for programs with function “recognition of the music”. The software package based on the algorithm for pitch frequency calculation was implemented and tested. It was shown that the algorithm allows recognizing the notes in the vocal performance of the user. A single musical instrument, a set of musical instruments, and a human voice humming a tune can be the sound source. The input file is initially presented in the .wav format or is recorded in this format from a microphone. Processing is performed by sequentially determining the pitch frequency and conversion of its values to the note. According to test results, modification of algorithms used in the complex was planned.

  17. BREATH OF USE AND VOCAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran ACAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breathable, who escorted us in every aspect of our lives and our survival is our primary activity, allowing for quality of life in a healthy way. quality of breaths taken the right technique, you need both health professional sense should perhaps take advantage of individuals who want to achieve success in life is the primary rule. When the diaphragm is born with assisted breathing lungs of every person's life starts to grow to keep up with the flurry lose this special and important skills. First and foremost, which is important for our body health, including every aspect of proper breathing, especially correct use of the voice carries particular importance. In this article, breathing subject discussed, correct breathing and our lives have tried to give us information about the benefits of both vocal training.

  18. Vocal dose in teachers: correlation with dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Santos, Juliana Nunes; Pedra, Elisângela de Fátima Pereira; Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Max de Castro; Casas, Estevam Barbosa de Las

    2016-04-01

    Teachers are professionals with high prevalence of dysphonia, whose main risk factors are the large work hours in classrooms with the presence of background noise. The purpose of the study was to calculate the phonation time and the cycle dose of teachers with dysphonia and teachers without voice disorders during the class. There were two groups analyzed: five teachers with functional dysphonia were the first group and five teachers without voice disorders were the second group. For the data was used the VoxLog® dosimeter and the parameters were: intensity; fundamental frequency; phonation time and cycle dose. The statistical analysis used ANOVA, Student's T-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Dysphonic teachers showed major values of phonation time and cycle dose compared with teachers without voice disorders. The dysphonia is related to extended period of speech time and greater exposure of the tissue of the vocal fold to phonotrauma.

  19. Microscopic Phonosurgery in Benign Vocal Fold Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukamal Das

    2014-06-01

    Thirty out of 32 patients showed objective improvement in fibreoptic laryngoscopy post treatment. Two patients were noncompliant to voice therapy and showed recurrence of their pathologies.Mean VHI 10 score showed significant improvement from 8 in the preoperative period to 3 in the postoperative period. Conclusion : Phonosurgery is a quick and effective treatment with uncommon and transient post-operative complications. Pre and postoperative voice therapy plays an integral role in combination with phono-micro surgery enhances the outcome in patients with benign vocal fold lesions. Objective assessment of the voice pre- and postoperatively should be used consistently to evaluate the additional impact of pre- and postoperative voice therapy.

  20. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Vocal Folds: A Study on a Chronic Vocal Fold Scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelou Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the histological effects of autologous infusion of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC on a chronic vocal fold scar in a rabbit model as compared to an untreated scar as well as in injection of hyaluronic acid. Study Design. Animal experiment. Method. We used 74 New Zealand rabbits. Sixteen of them were used as control/normal group. We created a bilateral vocal fold wound in the remaining 58 rabbits. After 18 months we separated our population into three groups. The first group served as control/scarred group. The second one was injected with hyaluronic acid in the vocal folds, and the third received an autologous adipose-derived stem cell infusion in the scarred vocal folds (ADSC group. We measured the variation of thickness of the lamina propria of the vocal folds and analyzed histopathologic changes in each group after three months. Results. The thickness of the lamina propria was significantly reduced in the group that received the ADSC injection, as compared to the normal/scarred group. The collagen deposition, the hyaluronic acid, the elastin levels, and the organization of elastic fibers tend to return to normal after the injection of ADSC. Conclusions. Autologous injection of adipose-derived stem cells on a vocal fold chronic scar enhanced the healing of the vocal folds and the reduction of the scar tissue, even when compared to other treatments.

  1. Differentiating vocal cord dysfunction from asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fretzayas A

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Fretzayas,1,2 Maria Moustaki,3 Ioanna Loukou,3 Konstantinos Douros4 1Third Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, “Attikon” University Hospital, Haidari, Greece; 2Athens Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Marousi, Greece; 3Department of Cystic Fibrosis, “Aghia Sofia”, Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece; 4Respiratory Unit, Third Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, “Attikon” University Hospital, Haidari, Greece Abstract: Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD-associated symptoms are not rare in pediatric patients. Dyspnea, wheezing, stridor, chest pain or tightness and throat discomfort are the most commonly encountered symptoms. They may occur either at rest or more commonly during exercise in patients with VCD, as well as in asthmatic subjects. The phase of respiration (inspiration rather than expiration, the location of the wheezing origin, the rapid resolution of symptoms, and the timing occurring in relation to exercise, when VCD is exercise induced, raise the suspicion of VCD in patients who may have been characterized as merely asthmatics and, most importantly, had not responded to the appropriate treatment. The gold standard method for the diagnosis of VCD is fiberoptic laryngoscopy, which may also identify concomitant laryngeal abnormalities other than VCD. However, as VCD is an intermittent phenomenon, the procedure should be performed while the patient is symptomatic. For this reason, challenges that induce VCD symptoms should be performed, such as exercise tests. Recently, for the evaluation of patients with exercise-induced VCD, continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (such as treadmill, bicycle ergometer, swimming was used. A definite diagnosis of VCD is of importance, especially for those patients who have been erroneously characterized as asthmatics, without adequate response to treatment. In these cases, another therapeutic approach is necessary, which will depend on

  2. Singers' and Nonsingers' Perception of Vocal Vibrato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Anita; Subramanian, Uma

    2015-09-01

    Vibrato, a small, nevertheless an important component in the singing voice is known to enrich the overall singing voice quality. However, in the perception of overall performance, it is often neglected. Singing performance is often appreciated by a mixed audience of those who love music, but not necessarily sing and other singers who may or may not be teachers of singing. The objectives of the present study were aimed at investigating singers' and nonsingers' perception of vocal vibrato and its effect on the ratings of singer's overall performance. Prerecorded audio samples of the chorus of a hymn (How Great Thou Art) as sung by 10 singers (both men and women) were played via a speaker to two groups of judges which consisted of three experienced singers and three experienced nonsingers. The singer judges (SJs) were vocal instructors in Western classical, music theater, pop, and contemporary styles. Seven parameters (presence of vibrato, rate, extent, conspicuousness, quality, periodicity, and type) related to vibrato were evaluated through auditory perception by these two groups of judges on a rating scale developed specifically for the study, and one parameter evaluated singer's overall performance. Cohen's Kappa statistical analysis was used for inter-rater reliability within groups. Nonsinger judges (NSJs) within the group showed varied ratings as did SJs, yet SJs did have higher agreement than NSJs. Chi-square analysis was used across groups. Both groups were distinct from each other in their perception of vibrato. Ratings of singer's overall performance were not affected for NSJs, but certainly affected for SJ. It could not be concluded that ratings on singer's overall performance was affected as a result of vibrato. Since vibrato is often over-ridden by the singer's voice. But a rare occasion can arise where a vibrato may not sound pleasant and can affect the listener's perception of the singer's performance. Often a feedback from listeners would help monitor

  3. Self-organization of early vocal development in infants and machines: the role of intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin-Frier, Clément; Nguyen, Sao M; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    vocal development and intrinsic motivation. We propose and experimentally test the hypothesis that general mechanisms of intrinsically motivated spontaneous exploration, also called curiosity-driven learning, can self-organize developmental stages during early vocal learning. We introduce a computational model of intrinsically motivated vocal exploration, which allows the learner to autonomously structure its own vocal experiments, and thus its own learning schedule, through a drive to maximize competence progress. This model relies on a physical model of the vocal tract, the auditory system and the agent's motor control as well as vocalizations of social peers. We present computational experiments that show how such a mechanism can explain the adaptive transition from vocal self-exploration with little influence from the speech environment, to a later stage where vocal exploration becomes influenced by vocalizations of peers. Within the initial self-exploration phase, we show that a sequence of vocal production stages self-organizes, and shares properties with data from infant developmental psychology: the vocal learner first discovers how to control phonation, then focuses on vocal variations of unarticulated sounds, and finally automatically discovers and focuses on babbling with articulated proto-syllables. As the vocal learner becomes more proficient at producing complex sounds, imitating vocalizations of peers starts to provide high learning progress explaining an automatic shift from self-exploration to vocal imitation.

  4. Language-specific vocal tract configurations during nonspeech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gick, Bryan; Cook, Clare

    2003-04-01

    Previous work has been found to be surprisingly low within-speaker variability in baseline articulator positions during inter-utterance nonspeech [Gick, Phonetica (2002)], raising the question of whether these baseline positions may in fact be active in speech production. If so, then they should be specified and should vary systematically across languages. A study was conducted to test for cross-language differences in inter-utterance articulator positions. Individual video frames were extracted at the midpoint of interutterance pauses in x-ray films of 5 French and 5 English speakers. Measures were made of articulator positions relative to fixed bone points, and values normalized to jaw size. Frames with potentially confounding surrounding phonetic contexts were omitted. Results for lip measures indicate that French speakers have significantly greater protrusion of the lower lip, but significantly less upper lip protrusion, than English speakers. Additional results will be presented for lingual articulators. Thus these baseline vocal tract configurations do appear to be specified differently for different languages. Additional implications will be discussed, such as possible roles these configurations may play in phonology, potential influence on vowel systems (especially schwa), and cross-language vowel normalization. [Research supported by NSERC and NIH.

  5. A Vocal Health Survey Among Amateur and Professional Voice Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekly, Edrie Means; Carroll, Linda M; Korovin, Gwen S; Fleming, Rachelle

    2017-09-22

    An international survey was conducted to provide insights into current practices related to vocal health among amateur and professional voice users. Vocalists of various genres completed an online survey related to their practice in seeking medical care for vocal health concerns, and their preferences for the type of medical help they seek. Specific vocal symptoms or conditions which the subjects feel would warrant evaluation was also queried, as well as their preference for voice use and management should laryngeal pathology be diagnosed during a medical examination. Participants were knowledgeable in both traditional and alternative medical approaches but showed a preference for those options most readily available, as opposed to those best suited for a vocal issue. Ideally, a combination of traditional and alternative management would appear to be the best long-term strategy for professional and amateur voice users. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Corrigendum: Cultural Relativity in Perceiving Emotion From Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Gendron, M., Roberson, D., van der Vyver, J. M., & Barrett, L. F. (2014). Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations. Psychological Science, 25, 911-920. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797613517239 ).

  7. Semiotic aspects of human nonverbal vocalizations: a functional imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Alter, Kai; Ischebeck, Anja; Ackermann, Hermann

    2007-12-03

    Humans produce a variety of distinct nonverbal vocalizations. Whereas affective bursts, for example, laughter, have an intrinsic communicative role bound to social behavior, vegetative sounds, for example, snoring, just signal autonomic-physiological states. However, the latter events, for example, belching, may also be used as intentional communicative actions (vocal gestures), characterized by an arbitrary culture-dependent sound-to-meaning (semiotic) relationship, comparable to verbal utterances. Using a decision task, hemodynamic responses to affective bursts, vegetative sounds, and vocal gestures were measured by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Affective bursts elicited activation of anterior left superior temporal gyrus. In contrast, arbitrary vocal gestures yielded hemodynamic reactions of the left temporo-parietal junction. Conceivably, a listener's interpretation of nonverbal utterances as intentional events depends upon a left-hemisphere temporo-parietal 'auditory-to-meaning interface' related to our mechanisms of speech processing.

  8. Phonosurgery of the vocal folds : a classification proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remacle, M; Friedrich, G; Dikkers, FG; de Jong, F

    The Phonosurgery Committee of the European Laryngological Society (ELS) has examined the definition and technical description of phonosurgical procedures. Based on this review, the committee has proposed a working classification. The current presentation is restricted to vocal fold surgery (VFS)

  9. Time course of recovery of idiopathic vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Solomon; Sadoughi, Babak; Mor, Niv; Levin, Ariana M; Sulica, Lucian

    2018-01-01

    To clarify the time course of recovery in patients with idiopathic vocal fold paralysis. Retrospective chart review. Medical records for all patients with idiopathic vocal fold paralysis over a 10-year period were reviewed to obtain demographic and clinical information, including onset of disease and recovery of vocal function. Stroboscopic exams of patients who recovered voice were reviewed blindly to assess return of vocal fold motion. Thirty-eight of 55 patients (69%) recovered vocal function. Time course of recovery could be assessed in 34 patients who did not undergo injection augmentation. The mean time to recovery was 152.8 ± 109.3 days (left, 179.8 ± 111.3 days; right, 105.3 ± 93.7 days; P = .088). Two-thirds of patients recovered within 6 months. Probability of recovery declined over time. Five of 22 patients who recovered voice had return of vocal fold motion; 17 did not. The mean time to recovery did not differ between these groups (return of motion, 127.4 ± 132.3 days; no return of motion, 160.1 ± 105.1 days; P = .290). Sixty-nine percent of patients with idiopathic vocal fold paralysis recovered vocal function, two-thirds doing so within 6 months of onset. Age, gender, laterality, use of injection augmentation did not influence recovery rate. Declining probability of recovery over time leads us to consider framework surgery after 6 months in patients with idiopathic paralysis. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:148-152, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Social ultrasonic vocalization in awake head-restrained mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weiner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We developed a novel method for head-restrained male mice (HRMM to interact with non-restrained female mice (NRFM and show that mice can emit USVs in this context. We first recorded USVs in free arena with non-restrained male mice (NRMM and NRFM. Of the NRMM, which vocalized in the free arena, the majority could be habituated to also vocalize while head-restrained but only when a female mouse was present in proximity. The USVs emitted by HRMM are similar to the USVs of NRMM in the presence of a female mouse in their spectral structure, inter syllable interval distribution and USV sequence length, and therefore are interpreted as social USVs. By analyzing vocalizations of NRMM, we established criteria to predict which individuals are likely to vocalize while head fixed based on the USV rate and average syllable duration. To characterize the USVs emitted by HRMM, we analyzed the syllable composition of HRMM and NRMM and found that USVs emitted by HRMM have higher proportions of USVs with complex spectral representation, supporting previous studies showing that mice social USVs are context dependent. Our results suggest a way to study the neural mechanisms of production and control of social vocalization in mice using advanced methods requiring head fixation.

  11. Morphometric Study of Vocal Folds in Indian Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawal J.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: -The larynx is an air passage and a sphincteric device used in respiration and phonation. The larynx, from inside outwards has a framework of mucosa surrounded by fibro-elastic membrane which in turn is surrounded by cartilages and then a layer of muscles. Vocal folds are intrinsic ligament of larynx covered by mucosal folds. Larynx generates sound through rhythmic opening and closing of the vocal folds. The perceived pitch of human voice mainly depends upon fundamental frequency of sound generated by larynx. Aim: - The aim of present study is to measure various dimensions of vocal folds in Indian cadavers. Material & Methods: - 50 larynx were obtained from embalmed cadavers, of which 10 larynx were of females. Vocal cords were dissected from the larynx and morphometric analysis was done. Results and Conclusions: - The average total length of the vocal folds was found to be 16.11 mm. ± 2.62 mm. in male and 14.10 mm. ± 1.54 mm. in female cadavers. The average width of the vocal folds was found to be 4.38 mm. ± 0.74 mm. in male and 3.60 mm. ± 0.64 mm. in female cadavers. The average total length of the membranous part of the vocal folds was found to be 11.90 mm. ± 1.86 mm. in male and 10.45 mm. ± 1.81 mm. in female cadavers. The average ratio of the length of the membranous and the cartilaginous parts of the vocal folds was calculated to be 3.10 ± 0.96in male and 2.85 ± 0.73in female cadavers.

  12. Vocal Characteristics and Laryngoscopic Findings in Future Musical Theater Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Claeys, Sofie; Meerschman, Iris; Bettens, Kim; Degeest, Sofie; Dijckmans, Caroline; De Smet, Joke; Luyten, Anke; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2017-07-01

    Musical theater performers are a special group of elite vocal performers with a high vocal load as they combine singing, acting, and physical performance. As they are absolutely depending on their voice quality and vocal capacities for their studies and their future profession, an optimal voice production is very important. The purpose of this study was to determine the voice quality of musical theater students. The voice quality of seven students was then reevaluated 1 year after the first assessment. Observational study. Thirty-one musical students (7 men and 24 women) with a mean age of 20 years participated in the study. To determine the voice quality, objective (aerodynamic measurements, voice range profile, acoustic analysis, and Dysphonia Severity Index) and subjective (videolaryngostroboscopy, Voice Handicap Indexes, and questionnaires regarding voice symptoms and risk factors) voice measurements were performed. The median Dysphonia Severity Index in male and female musical students was respectively 5.3 and 5.7, both corresponding with an overall good voice quality. The questionnaires revealed the presence of vocal fatigue, dryness of the throat, vocal tract discomfort, and harmful vocal habits in the majority of students. In 45% of the subjects, videolaryngostroboscopic evaluation of the vocal folds showed an organic lesion. The majority of these lesions are inflammatory lesions (26%). In 68% of the subjects, a certain degree of supraglottic constriction was observed. Despite the overall good voice quality, videolaryngostroboscopy showed a high presence of vocal fold lesions and supraglottic constriction during phonation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vocal accuracy and neural plasticity following micromelody-discrimination training.

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    Jean Mary Zarate

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent behavioral studies report correlational evidence to suggest that non-musicians with good pitch discrimination sing more accurately than those with poorer auditory skills. However, other studies have reported a dissociation between perceptual and vocal production skills. In order to elucidate the relationship between auditory discrimination skills and vocal accuracy, we administered an auditory-discrimination training paradigm to a group of non-musicians to determine whether training-enhanced auditory discrimination would specifically result in improved vocal accuracy.We utilized micromelodies (i.e., melodies with seven different interval scales, each smaller than a semitone as the main stimuli for auditory discrimination training and testing, and we used single-note and melodic singing tasks to assess vocal accuracy in two groups of non-musicians (experimental and control. To determine if any training-induced improvements in vocal accuracy would be accompanied by related modulations in cortical activity during singing, the experimental group of non-musicians also performed the singing tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Following training, the experimental group exhibited significant enhancements in micromelody discrimination compared to controls. However, we did not observe a correlated improvement in vocal accuracy during single-note or melodic singing, nor did we detect any training-induced changes in activity within brain regions associated with singing.Given the observations from our auditory training regimen, we therefore conclude that perceptual discrimination training alone is not sufficient to improve vocal accuracy in non-musicians, supporting the suggested dissociation between auditory perception and vocal production.

  14. The variability of hepatitis B envelope is associated with HBs antigen persistence in either chronic or acute HBV genotype A infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschlimann, Marine; Malvé, Brice; Velay, Aurélie; Fenaux, Honorine; Berger, Sibel; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Zoulim, Fabien; Bensenane, Mouni; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Goehringer, François; May, Thierry; Jeulin, Hélène; Schvoerer, Evelyne

    2017-09-01

    More than 240 million people are chronically infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. Envelope proteins play a crucial role in viral cellular entry and immune recognition. The loss of HBs antigen (HBsAg) correlated with a good clinical prognosis is rarely achieved with or without treatment (3-16%). HBV envelope variability was investigated according to HBsAg persistence. The cohort consisted of 15 HBV genotype A-infected patients divided into "resolvers", with HBsAg clearance, and "non-resolvers", with HBsAg persistence and in subgroups: acute (n=5, AHBV) or chronic infection (n=4, CHBV) and HBV/HIV coinfection (n=6, CHBV/HIV). HBV S and preS sequences were studied by direct and ultra-deep sequencing. Amino acid sequences were analyzed with bioinformatics for predicted antigenicity. In S gene, the complexity was lower in AHBV than in chronic-infected patients (p=0.046). Major mutations, detected using direct sequencing, were more frequent in AHBV developing chronicity (p=0.01) than in AHBV resolvers. In the Major Hydrophilic Region, more frequent mutations were observed in non-resolvers versus resolvers (p=0.047) and non-resolvers tended to have more haplotypes with a reduced predicted antigenicity (p=0.07). Most of the mutations in preS/S region were found rather in epitopic than in non-epitopic areas (p=0.025). Interestingly, the mutation sY161F found in 3/8 non-resolvers was associated with a decrease in predicted antigenicity (28%; AnTheProt). HBsAg persistence was correlated with mutations and deletions in areas playing a key role in immune recognition. These data suggest that variability in HBV envelope could favor immune escape in various clinical settings of HBV genotype A-infected patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Vocal Hygiene and Behavior Modification Instruction on the Self-Reported Vocal Health Habits of Public School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…

  16. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Wells, Randall S.; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother–calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources. PMID:23427174

  17. Vocal interaction between children with Down syndrome and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy S; Warren, Steven F; Brady, Nancy; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe differences in parent input and child vocal behaviors of children with Down syndrome (DS) compared with typically developing (TD) children. The goals were to describe the language learning environments at distinctly different ages in early childhood. Nine children with DS and 9 age-matched TD children participated; 4 children in each group were ages 9-11 months, and 5 were between 25 and 54 months. Measures were derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processor measured the richness of the child's language environment, including number of adult words, conversational turns, and child vocalizations. Analyses indicated no significant differences in words spoken by parents of younger versus older children with DS and significantly more words spoken by parents of TD children than parents of children with DS. Differences between the DS and TD groups were observed in rates of all vocal behaviors, with no differences noted between the younger versus older children with DS, and the younger TD children did not vocalize significantly more than the younger DS children. Parents of children with DS continue to provide consistent levels of input across the early language learning years; however, child vocal behaviors remain low after the age of 24 months, suggesting the need for additional and alternative intervention approaches.

  18. Vocal cord paralysis due to extralaryngeal causes : evaluation with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Mo, Jong Hyun; Moon, Sung Hee; Na, Dong Gyu; Byun, Hong Sik; Cho, Jae Min; Han, Boo Kyung; Son, Young Ik; Baek, Chung Whan

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the use of CT in patients with vocal cord paralysis due to extralaryngeal causes, and to use CT for the assessment of extralaryngeal diseases causing vocal cord paralysis. We prospectively studied the results of CT in 41 patients with vocal cord paralysis in whom laryngoscopy revealed no laryngeal cause and physical examination demonstrated no definite extralaryngeal cause. The extralaryngeal cause of vocal cord palsy was determined after comprehensive clinical diagnosis. Enhanced CT scans were acquired from the skull base and continued to the level of the aorticopulmonary window. We used CT to assess the detection rate for extralaryngeal causes and to extimate the extent of extralaryngeal disease and the distribution of lesions. CT revealed that in 20 of 41 patients(49%) the extralarygeal causes of vocal paralysis were as follows : thyroid cancer(n=10), nodal disease(n=6), esophageal cancer(n=2), neurogenic tumor(n=1), aortic aneurysm(n=1). Lesions were located on the left side in 13 patients(65%), and in the tracheoesophageal groove in 15(75%). In patients with vocal cord paralysis in whom no definite lesion is seen on physical examination , CT could be a useful primary imaging method for the assessment of extralaryngeal causes

  19. Aeroelastic-aeroacoustic measurements in a self-oscillating physical model of the human vocal folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Michael; Cates, Zachary

    2009-11-01

    Measurements are presented characterizing the relationship between the structure of physical models of the human vocal folds and the sound produced by their vibration by airflow from the lungs. The model vocal folds are fabricated by molding two layers of silicone rubber of specified stiffness, approximating the body/cover structure. These are mounted in a model vocal tract, where the prephonatory gap adjusted using micropositioners. Measurements conducted in an anechoic chamber include radiated sound pressure, and high-speed video of the vibrating model vocal folds, using prephonatory separation, body stiffness, and subglottal pressure as input parameters.. Essential behavior of the vocal fold models is presented. Vibration fundamental frequency and radiated sound pressure level outside the model vocal tract as a function of subglottal pressure and prephonatory gap are presented for the cases of two identical vocal folds and one vocal fold with lower stiffness, approximating vocal fold paralysis.

  20. Comparative analysis of mineralocorticoid receptor expression among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar) and non-vocal learners (quail and ring dove) has implications for the evolution of avian vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Suzuki, Kenta; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor is the receptor for corticosteroids such as corticosterone or aldosterone. Previously, we found that mineralocorticoid receptor was highly expressed in song nuclei of a songbird, Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica). Here, to examine the relationship between mineralocorticoid receptor expression and avian vocal learning, we analyzed mineralocorticoid receptor expression in the developing brain of another vocal learner, budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and non-vocal learners, quail (Coturnix japonica) and ring dove (Streptopelia capicola). Mineralocorticoid receptor showed vocal control area-related expressions in budgerigars as Bengalese finches, whereas no such mineralocorticoid receptor expressions were seen in the telencephalon of non-vocal learners. Thus, these results suggest the possibility that mineralocorticoid receptor plays a role in vocal development of parrots as songbirds and that the acquisition of mineralocorticoid receptor expression is involved in the evolution of avian vocal learning. © 2011 The Authors. Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2011 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  1. The vocal quality in female student teachers during the 3 years of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lierde, K M; Claeys, S; Dhaeseleer, E; Deley, S; Derde, K; Herregods, I; Strybol, I; Wuyts, F

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the objective vocal quality and the vocal characteristics (vocal risk factors, vocal and corporal complaints) in 143 female student teachers during the 3 years of study. The objective vocal quality was measured by means of the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). Perceptual voice assessment, the Voice Handicap Index, questionnaires addressing vocal risks, and vocal and corporal complaints during and/or after voice usage were performed. Student teachers have a normal perceptual and objective vocal quality corresponding with a DSI% of 76. The analysis of variance revealed a significant improvement of the vocal quality between the first and the third year of study. No psychosocial handicapping effect of the voice was observed, though there are some vocal complaints and almost all student teachers reported the presence of corporal pain during and/or after speaking. Especially sore throat and headache were mentioned as the most present corporal pain symptoms. Due to the decreased awareness and the multifactorial genesis of the potential vocal risk factors, the student teachers are at risk for developing an occupational dysphonia during their teaching career. Because teaching is a high-risk profession for the development of voice problems, the incorporation of a direct vocal training technique to increase vocal endurance during teaching together with a vocal hygiene program, dietetics, and a stress management training program during the 3 years of study is needed to prevent occupational dysphonia. 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Envelhecimento vocal em idosos instucionalizados Vocal aging of institutionalized elderly people

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    Letícia Neiva de Menezes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar de forma perceptivo-auditiva as características vocais de idosos institucionalizados, identificar se essas características interferem no processo de comunicação e correlacioná-las com a avaliação das estruturas do sistema estomatognático e do padrão de fala. MÉTODOS: estudo clínico do tipo transversal, no qual foram realizadas anamneses e avaliações fonoaudiológicas em uma amostra aleatória de 48 indivíduos idosos, residentes na Casa do Ancião Francisco Azevedo - Belo Horizonte/MG, que não apresentavam nenhum tipo de alteração neurológica, uma vez que, buscou-se traçar as manifestações fonoaudiológicas de idosos em processo de envelhecimento sadio. Utilizou-se protocolos específicos, desenvolvidos pelas autoras, de acordo com os aspectos pertinentes aos objetivos do presente estudo. RESULTADOS: na avaliação perceptivo-auditiva da qualidade vocal, constatou-se predominantemente qualidade vocal rouca (70,8%, em grau moderado (33,3%, loudness reduzida (56,2%, pitch grave (62,5% e tempos máximos de fonação reduzidos (81,2%. Dos 48 participantes, 85,4% relataram que a voz não interfere no processo de comunicação. Em relação aos padrões de fala, predominaram inteligibilidade preservada (83,3%, articulação preservada (72,9% e precisão articulatória preservada (83,3%. CONCLUSÕES: existem alterações nos parâmetros referentes à voz decorrentes da idade, sendo que elas não interferem na comunicação e mantêm relação diversa com outras mudanças nas estruturas do sistema estomatognático. Este estudo veio complementar as pesquisas na área de voz envolvendo indivíduos da terceira idade, sob processo de envelhecimento sadio e residentes em instituições de longa permanência.PURPOSES: to investigate vocal aspects related to healthy aging in the institutionalized elderly people, and to identify if these aspects interfer with communication and correlate vocal changes with motor oral system

  3. Deficits in auditory processing contribute to impairments in vocal affect recognition in autism spectrum disorders: A MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Carly; Hopkins, Joyce; Kopald, Brandon E; Paulson, Kim; Doyle, Lauren; Andrews, Whitney E; Lewine, Jeffrey David

    2015-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between magnetoencephalography-based (MEG) indices of basic cortical auditory processing and vocal affect recognition (VAR) ability in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). MEG data were collected from 25 children/adolescents with ASD and 12 control participants using a paired-tone paradigm to measure quality of auditory physiology, sensory gating, and rapid auditory processing. Group differences were examined in auditory processing and vocal affect recognition ability. The relationship between differences in auditory processing and vocal affect recognition deficits was examined in the ASD group. Replicating prior studies, participants with ASD showed longer M1n latencies and impaired rapid processing compared with control participants. These variables were significantly related to VAR, with the linear combination of auditory processing variables accounting for approximately 30% of the variability after controlling for age and language skills in participants with ASD. VAR deficits in ASD are typically interpreted as part of a core, higher order dysfunction of the "social brain"; however, these results suggest they also may reflect basic deficits in auditory processing that compromise the extraction of socially relevant cues from the auditory environment. As such, they also suggest that therapeutic targeting of sensory dysfunction in ASD may have additional positive implications for other functional deficits. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Verbal learning in the context of background music: no influence of vocals and instrumentals on verbal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Brügger, Eliane; Brummer, Moritz; Scherrer, Stephanie; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2014-03-26

    Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still a matter of dispute. In this study we investigated the influence of vocal and instrumental background music on verbal learning. 226 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups (one control group and 4 experimental groups). All participants were exposed to a verbal learning task. One group served as control group while the 4 further groups served as experimental groups. The control group learned without background music while the 4 experimental groups were exposed to vocal or instrumental musical pieces during learning with different subjective intensity and valence. Thus, we employed 4 music listening conditions (vocal music with high intensity: VOC_HIGH, vocal music with low intensity: VOC_LOW, instrumental music with high intensity: INST_HIGH, instrumental music with low intensity: INST_LOW) and one control condition (CONT) during which the subjects learned the word lists. Since it turned out that the high and low intensity groups did not differ in terms of the rated intensity during the main experiment these groups were lumped together. Thus, we worked with 3 groups: one control group and two groups, which were exposed to background music (vocal and instrumental) during verbal learning. As dependent variable, the number of learned words was used. Here we measured immediate recall during five learning sessions (recall 1 - recall 5) and delayed recall for 15 minutes (recall 6) and 14 days (recall 7) after the last learning session. Verbal learning improved during the first 5 recall sessions without any strong difference between the control and experimental groups. Also the delayed recalls were similar for the three groups. There was only a trend for attenuated verbal learning for the group passively listened to vocals. This learning attenuation diminished during the following learning sessions. The exposure to vocal or instrumental background music during encoding did not

  5. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  6. A new measure of child vocal reciprocity in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, Amy L; Woynaroski, Tiffany G; Tapp, Jon; Wade, Joshua W; Warlaumont, Anne S; Yoder, Paul J

    2018-03-06

    Children's vocal development occurs in the context of reciprocal exchanges with a communication partner who models "speechlike" productions. We propose a new measure of child vocal reciprocity, which we define as the degree to which an adult vocal response increases the probability of an immediately following child vocal response. Vocal reciprocity is likely to be associated with the speechlikeness of vocal communication in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Two studies were conducted to test the utility of the new measure. The first used simulated vocal samples with randomly sequenced child and adult vocalizations to test the accuracy of the proposed index of child vocal reciprocity. The second was an empirical study of 21 children with ASD who were preverbal or in the early stages of language development. Daylong vocal samples collected in the natural environment were computer analyzed to derive the proposed index of child vocal reciprocity, which was highly stable when derived from two daylong vocal samples and was associated with speechlikeness of vocal communication. This association was significant even when controlling for chance probability of child vocalizations to adult vocal responses, probability of adult vocalizations, or probability of child vocalizations. A valid measure of children's vocal reciprocity might eventually improve our ability to predict which children are on track to develop useful speech and/or are most likely to respond to language intervention. A link to a free, publicly-available software program to derive the new measure of child vocal reciprocity is provided. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Children and adults often engage in back-and-forth vocal exchanges. The extent to which they do so is believed to support children's early speech and language development. Two studies tested a new measure of child vocal reciprocity using computer-generated and real

  7. An Unusual Case of Neuralgic Amyotrophy Presenting with Bilateral Phrenic Nerve and Vocal Cord Paresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Holtbernd

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuralgic amyotrophy (brachial plexus neuropathy, brachial plexus neuritis, or Parsonage-Turner syndrome is an uncommon inflammatory condition typically characterized by acute and severe shoulder pain followed by paresis with muscle weakness and atrophy of the upper limb or shoulder girdle. We report an unusual clinical manifestation of neuralgic amyotrophy, namely bilateral phrenic nerve palsy with concomitant laryngeal paresis. Case Report: A 55-year-old male presented with orthopnea and aphonia after an episode of bilateral shoulder pain preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection. Spirometry, chest X-ray and videolaryngoscopy revealed bilateral and simultaneous paresis of the diaphragm and the vocal cords. Clinical examination at admission and at the 2-month follow-up did not show upper limb weakness or atrophy, except for a mild atrophy of the right supraspinatus muscle. An electromyography of the upper limb muscles and nerve conduction studies did not reveal signs of denervation. Analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid and an MRI of the neuraxis were unremarkable. After treatment with prednisolone, vocal cord function markedly improved within 8 weeks, whereas paresis of the diaphragm persisted. Conclusion: Shoulder pain followed by diaphragmatic paralysis with dyspnea and hoarseness may be a manifestation of neuralgic amyotrophy even if upper limb or shoulder girdle palsies are absent.

  8. [Vocal care: question of prevention and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Valeriana de Castro; Viana, Maria Aparecida do Divino Espírito Santo Reis; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Paiva, Maria Luiza de Faria; Tavares, João Antonio Gomes; Camargo, Leandro Azevedo de

    2010-09-01

    Planned by Brazilian doctors, the National Week of the Voice (Semana Nacional da Voz) conquered the world due to the huge reached success. This study has the objective to demonstrate the results reached during the 9th National Week of the Voice (9ª Semana Nacional da Voz) that took place in the Hospital das Clínicas of the Federal University of Goiás. During the event, 125 patients had been selected by the phonoaudiology team and manually filled a questionnaire elaborated for the campaign in the validity of possible pharyngolaryngeal alterations. The patients had been examined by the otorhinolaryngologist using indirect laryngoscopy and, when necessary, submitted to videolaryngoscopy. After medical evaluation, it was observed that 52 people (41.6%) had presented alterations in the speech organs or in proximal regions, in one patient paralysis of left vocal fold was detected and one patient presented tumoral injury. Considering all the patients attended, only one presented malignant neoplasm (squamous cell carcinoma), confirmed later by biopsy.

  9. Facial biases on vocal perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2017-06-01

    Does a speaker's face influence the way their voice is heard and later remembered? This question was addressed through two experiments where in each, participants listened to middle-aged voices accompanied by faces that were either age-appropriate, younger or older than the voice or, as a control, no face at all. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated each voice on various acoustical dimensions and speaker characteristics. The results showed that facial displays influenced perception such that the same voice was heard differently depending on the age of the accompanying face. Experiment 2 further revealed that facial displays led to memory distortions that were age-congruent in nature. These findings illustrate that faces can activate certain social categories and preconceived stereotypes that then influence vocal and person perception in a corresponding fashion. Processes of face/voice integration are very similar to those of music/film, indicating that the two areas can mutually inform one another and perhaps, more generally, reflect a centralized mechanism of cross-sensory integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Automatic Transcription of Polyphonic Vocal Music

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    Andrew McLeod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for automatic music transcription applied to audio recordings of a cappella performances with multiple singers. We propose a system for multi-pitch detection and voice assignment that integrates an acoustic and a music language model. The acoustic model performs spectrogram decomposition, extending probabilistic latent component analysis (PLCA using a six-dimensional dictionary with pre-extracted log-spectral templates. The music language model performs voice separation and assignment using hidden Markov models that apply musicological assumptions. By integrating the two models, the system is able to detect multiple concurrent pitches in polyphonic vocal music and assign each detected pitch to a specific voice type such as soprano, alto, tenor or bass (SATB. We compare our system against multiple baselines, achieving state-of-the-art results for both multi-pitch detection and voice assignment on a dataset of Bach chorales and another of barbershop quartets. We also present an additional evaluation of our system using varied pitch tolerance levels to investigate its performance at 20-cent pitch resolution.

  11. Finite element modelling of vocal tract changes after voice therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vampola T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two 3D finite element (FE models were constructed, based on CT measurements of a subject phonating on [a:] before and after phonation into a tube. Acoustic analysis was performed by exciting the models with acoustic flow velocity at the vocal folds. The generated acoustic pressure of the response was computed in front of the mouth and inside the vocal tract for both FE models. Average amplitudes of the pressure oscillations inside the vocal tract and in front of the mouth were compared to display the cost-efficiency of sound energy transfer at different formant frequencies. The formants F1–F3 correspond to classical vibration modes also solvable by 1D vocal tract model. However, for higher formants, there occur more complicated transversal modes which require 3D modelling. A special attention is given to the higher frequency range (above 3.5 Hz where transversal modes exist between piriform sinuses and valleculae. Comparison of the pressure oscillation inside and outside the vocal tract showed that formants differ in their efficiency, F4 (at about 3.5 kHz, i.e. at the speaker’s or singer’s formant region being the most effective. The higher formants created a clear formant cluster around 4 kHz after the vocal exercise with the tube. Since the human ear is most sensitive to frequencies between 2 and 4 kHz concentration of sound energy in this frequency region (F4–F5 is effective for communication. The results suggest that exercising using phonation into tubes help in improving the vocal economy.

  12. Simulated Reflux Decreases Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Elizabeth; Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The vocal fold epithelium provides a barrier to the entry of inhaled and systemic challenges. However, the location of the epithelium makes it vulnerable to damage. Past research suggests, but does not directly demonstrate, that exposure to gastric reflux adversely affects the function of the epithelial barrier. Understanding the nature of reflux-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction is necessary to better recognize the mechanisms for vocal fold susceptibility to this disease. Therefore, we examined the effects of physiologically relevant reflux challenges on vocal fold transepithelial resistance and gross epithelial and subepithelial appearance. Study Design Ex vivo, mixed design with between-group and repeated-measures analyses. Methods Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N = 52) were exposed to physiologically relevant acidic pepsin, acid-only, or pepsin-only challenges and examined with electrophysiology and light microscopy. For all challenges, vocal folds exposed to a neutral pH served as control. Results Acidic pepsin and acid-only challenges, but not pepsin-only or control challenges significantly reduced transepithelial resistance within 30 minutes. Reductions in transepithelial resistance were irreversible. Challenge exposure produced minimal gross changes in vocal fold epithelial or subepithelial appearance as evidenced by light microscopy. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that acidic environments characteristic of gastric reflux compromise epithelial barrier function without gross structural changes. In healthy, native vocal folds, reductions in transepithelial resistance could reflect reflux-related epithelial disruption. These results might guide the development of pharmacologic and therapeutic recommendations for patients with reflux, such as continued acid-suppression therapy and patient antireflux behavioral education. PMID:20564752

  13. Acoustic, respiratory kinematic and electromyographic effects of vocal training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ana Paula De Brito Garcia

    The longitudinal effects of vocal training on the respiratory, phonatory and articulatory systems were investigated in this study. During four semesters, fourteen voice major students were recorded while speaking and singing. Acoustic, temporal, respiratory kinematic and electromyographic parameters were measured to determine changes in the three systems as a function of vocal training. Acoustic measures of the speaking voice included fundamental frequency, sound pressure level (SPL), percent jitter and shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Temporal measures included duration of sentences, diphthongs and the closure durations of stop consonants. Acoustic measures of the singing voice included fundamental frequency and sound pressure level of the phonational range, vibrato pulses per second, vibrato amplitude variation and the presence of the singer's formant. Analysis of the data revealed that vocal training had a significant effect on the singing voice. Fundamental frequency and SPL of the 90% level and 90--10% of the phonational range increased significantly during four semesters of vocal training. Physiological data was collected from four subjects during three semesters of vocal training. Respiratory kinematic measures included lung volume, rib cage and abdominal excursions extracted from spoken sung samples. Descriptive statistics revealed that rib cage and abdominal excursions increased from the 1st to the 2nd semester and decrease from the 2nd to the 3rd semester of vocal training. Electromyographic measures of the pectoralis major, rectus abdominis and external obliques muscles revealed that burst duration means decreased from the 1st to the 2nd semester and increased from the 2nd to the 3rd semester. Peak amplitude means increased from the 1st to the 2nd and decreased from the 2nd to the 3rd semester of vocal training. Chest wall excursions and muscle force generation of the three muscles increased as the demanding level and the length of the phonatory

  14. Recognizing vocal emotions in Mandarin Chinese: a validated database of Chinese vocal emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Pell, Marc D

    2012-12-01

    To establish a valid database of vocal emotional stimuli in Mandarin Chinese, a set of Chinese pseudosentences (i.e., semantically meaningless sentences that resembled real Chinese) were produced by four native Mandarin speakers to express seven emotional meanings: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, happiness, pleasant surprise, and neutrality. These expressions were identified by a group of native Mandarin listeners in a seven-alternative forced choice task, and items reaching a recognition rate of at least three times chance performance in the seven-choice task were selected as a valid database and then subjected to acoustic analysis. The results demonstrated expected variations in both perceptual and acoustic patterns of the seven vocal emotions in Mandarin. For instance, fear, anger, sadness, and neutrality were associated with relatively high recognition, whereas happiness, disgust, and pleasant surprise were recognized less accurately. Acoustically, anger and pleasant surprise exhibited relatively high mean f0 values and large variation in f0 and amplitude; in contrast, sadness, disgust, fear, and neutrality exhibited relatively low mean f0 values and small amplitude variations, and happiness exhibited a moderate mean f0 value and f0 variation. Emotional expressions varied systematically in speech rate and harmonics-to-noise ratio values as well. This validated database is available to the research community and will contribute to future studies of emotional prosody for a number of purposes. To access the database, please contact pan.liu@mail.mcgill.ca.

  15. Contributions of sensory tuning to auditory-vocal interactions in marmoset auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliades, Steven J; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-05-01

    During speech, humans continuously listen to their own vocal output to ensure accurate communication. Such self-monitoring is thought to require the integration of information about the feedback of vocal acoustics with internal motor control signals. The neural mechanism of this auditory-vocal interaction remains largely unknown at the cellular level. Previous studies in naturally vocalizing marmosets have demonstrated diverse neural activities in auditory cortex during vocalization, dominated by a vocalization-induced suppression of neural firing. How underlying auditory tuning properties of these neurons might contribute to this sensory-motor processing is unknown. In the present study, we quantitatively compared marmoset auditory cortex neural activities during vocal production with those during passive listening. We found that neurons excited during vocalization were readily driven by passive playback of vocalizations and other acoustic stimuli. In contrast, neurons suppressed during vocalization exhibited more diverse playback responses, including responses that were not predictable by auditory tuning properties. These results suggest that vocalization-related excitation in auditory cortex is largely a sensory-driven response. In contrast, vocalization-induced suppression is not well predicted by a neuron's auditory responses, supporting the prevailing theory that internal motor-related signals contribute to the auditory-vocal interaction observed in auditory cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring Psychosocial Variables in Patients With (Sub) Acute Low Back Pain Complaints, at Risk for Chronicity A Validation Study of the Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire-Dutch Language Version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heneweer, Hans; van Woudenberg, Nienke J.; van Genderen, Frank; Vanhees, Luc; Wittink, Harriet

    2010-01-01

    Study Design. A validation study of the Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire Dutch Language Version (ALBPSQ-DLV). Objective. To determine internal consistency, construct and convergent validity of the ALBPSQ-DLV in a population of patients with (sub) acute low back pain (LBP) referred to

  17. Pulmonary disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A; Grammer, Leslie C

    2010-02-01

    The lung is a very complex immunologic organ and responds in a variety of ways to inhaled antigens, organic or inorganic materials, infectious or saprophytic agents, fumes, and irritants. There might be airways obstruction, restriction, neither, or both accompanied by inflammatory destruction of the pulmonary interstitium, alveoli, or bronchioles. This review focuses on diseases organized by their predominant immunologic responses, either innate or acquired. Pulmonary innate immune conditions include transfusion-related acute lung injury, World Trade Center cough, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Adaptive immunity responses involve the systemic and mucosal immune systems, activated lymphocytes, cytokines, and antibodies that produce CD4(+) T(H)1 phenotypes, such as for tuberculosis or acute forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and CD4(+) T(H)2 phenotypes, such as for asthma, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vocal Fry and Vowel Height in Simulated Room Acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor-Cutiva, Lady Catherine; Bottalico, Pasquale; Ishi, Carlos Toshinori; Hunter, Eric James

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of room acoustics in the relationship between vowel height and vocal fry. This was a cross-sectional study. Participants (college students, n = 40) read the first six sentences of "The Rainbow Passage" under nine simulated room acoustic conditions. Using two words with low vowels (act, pot) and two words with high vowels (shape, strikes) preceding a voiceless stop, the presence/absence of vocal fry was assessed using an automatic detection script. Generalized estimation equations were used to investigate the relationship between percentage of vocal fry, vowel height, and room acoustics. The percentage of vocal fry was significantly higher for the low-height vowels compared with the high-height vowels (β = 1.21; standard er ror = 0.35), and for pink background noise present (β = 0.89; standard error = 0.35) compared with the condition without artificial noise added. The results of this study indicate that young college students are more likely to produce fry phonation when producing low-height vowels under pink background noise condition compared with no noise conditions and high-height vowels. This result is of special interest for voice clinicians when designing therapy plans and vocal assessment protocols with fry-like components. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Effect of pneumotach on measurement of vocal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Gage; McPhail, Michael; Krane, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Aerodynamic and acoustic measurements of vocal function were performed in a physical model of the human airway with and without a pneumotach (Rothenberg mask), used by clinicians to measure vocal volume flow. The purpose of these experiments was to assess whether the device alters acoustic and aerodynamic conditions sufficiently to change phonation behavior. The airway model, which mimics acoustic behavior of an adult human airway from trachea to mouth, consists of a 31.5cm long straight duct with a 2.54cm square cross section. Model vocal folds comprised of molded silicone rubber were set into vibration by introducing airflow from a compressed air source. Measurements included transglottal pressure difference, mean volume flow, vocal fold vibratory motion, and sound pressure measured at the mouth. The experiments show that while the pneumotach imparted measurable aerodynamic and acoustic loads on the system, measurement of mean glottal resistance was not affected. Acoustic pressure levels were attenuated, however, suggesting clinical acoustic measurements of vocal function need correction when performed in conjunction with a pneumotach Acknowledge support from NIH DC R01005642-11.

  20. Modeling Vocal Fold Intravascular Flow using Synthetic Replicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Aaron D.; Ricks, Matthew T.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2017-11-01

    Vocal fold vibration that is induced by air flowing from the lungs is believed to decrease blood flow through the vocal folds. This is important due to the critical role of blood flow in maintaining tissue health. However, the precise mechanical relationships between vocal fold vibration and blood perfusion remain understudied. A platform for studying liquid perfusion in a synthetic, life-size, self-oscillating vocal fold replica has recently been developed. The replicas are fabricated using molded silicone with material properties comparable to those of human vocal fold tissues and that include embedded microchannels through which liquid is perfused. The replicas are mounted on an air flow supply tube to initiate flow-induced vibration. A liquid reservoir is attached to the microchannel to cause liquid to perfuse through replica in the anterior-posterior direction. As replica vibration is initiated and amplitude increases, perfusion flow rate decreases. In this presentation, the replica design will be presented, along with data quantifying the relationships between parameters such as replica vibration amplitude, stiffness, microchannel diameter, and perfusion flow rate. This work was supported by Grant NIDCD R01DC005788 from the National Institutes of Health.

  1. Retromolar laryngoscopy: a randomized crossover vocal cords visualization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterer, Christian; Waltl, Barbara; Kabon, Barbara; Schramm, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    Vocal cords visualization is a major determinant for successful tracheal intubation. The aim of our study was to compare vocal cord visualization by using conventional direct laryngoscopy with retromolar direct laryngoscopy in patients with an existing retromolar gap at the right mandible. We enrolled 100 adults needing endotracheal intubation for elective surgery. In each patient, the vocal cords were visualized and scored according to Cormack and Lehane with a Macintosh blade #3 for conventional technique and with a Miller blade #4 for the retromolar technique in a randomized sequence. Finally, tracheal intubation was performed primarily by conventional laryngoscopy and in the case of failing retromolar laryngoscopy was used as the rescue method. Overall 100 laryngoscopies with the conventional method and 100 laryngoscopies with the retromolar method were scored according to Cormack and Lehane. The retromolar technique achieved significant (P=0.000003) lower Cormack and Lehane scores compared to the conventional technique. In eleven patients, intubation by conventional laryngoscopy failed and seven of those patients were successfully intubated by the retromolar technique. A BURP-maneuver significantly improved vocal cord visualization during both methods. In summary, laryngoscopy via the retromolar method by using a Miller blade #4 lead to a significantly better vocal cord visualization compared to the conventional method performed with a Macintosh blade #3 in patients with an existing retromolar gap on the right side.

  2. MOTIVATIONAL AND ADAPTATIVE ASPECT OF PROSPECTIVE MUSIC TEACHERS’ VOCAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with motivational and adaptive direction of vocal training of the Art Faculty students of the Pedagogical University. Motivational and adaptive phase consisted in identifying the real state of prospective music teachers’ readiness to work with educational vocal choirs. The criterion of formation of motivational and adaptive component is defined as personal motivation in acquiring high-quality vocal and choral training. The author developed an experimental technique that involves a number of empirical research methods: special and long-term monitoring of the content and progress of the educational process; analysis, control and objectivity of teaching methods; testing; perform creative tasks; test activities; conversations and interviews that were conducted among students, faculty and trainers professional disciplines teaching practice.The mentioned criterion implies that Chinese students have sustained professional focus on improving their own vocal and choral training, awareness of the importance and prospects of this profession in their practical activities in educational conditions in China. Motivation in learning vocal and choral activities, Chinese students made the so-called "immunity" to the difficulties related with the new learning environment in universities Ukraine increases the desire to intensify and optimize the process of conducting and choral training, there is awareness of the need for new development knowledge, skills, new experience and carry it into practice national music and teacher education.

  3. Effect of Vocal Fry on Voice and on Velopharyngeal Sphincter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias, Vanessa Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It is known that the basal sound promotes shortening and adduction of the vocal folds and leaves the mucosa looser. However there are few studies that address the supralaryngeal physiological findings obtained using the technique. Objective To check the effectiveness of using vocal fry on the voice and velopharingeal port closure of five adult subjects, whose cleft palate has been corrected with surgery. Methods Case study with five subjects who underwent otolaryngology examination by means of nasopharyngoscopy for imaging and measurement of the region of velopharyngeal port closure before and after using the vocal fry technique for three minutes. During the exam, the subjects sustained the isolated vowel /a:/ in their usual pitch and loudness. The emission of the vowel /a:/ was also used for perceptual analysis and spectrographic evaluation of their voices. Results Four subjects had an improvement in the region of velopharyngeal port closure; the results of the spectrographic evaluation were indicative of decreased hypernasality, and the results of the auditory-perceptual analysis suggested improved overall vocal quality, adequacy of loudness, decreased hypernasality, improvement of type of voice and decreased hoarseness. Conclusion This study showed a positive effect of vocal fry on voice and greater velopharyngeal port closure.

  4. Voice Disorders in Occupations with Vocal Load in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltežar, Lučka; Šereg Bahar, Maja

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the prevalence of voice disorders and the risk factors for them in different occupations with a vocal load in Slovenia. A meta-analysis of six different Slovenian studies involving teachers, physicians, salespeople, catholic priests, nurses and speech-and-language therapists (SLTs) was performed. In all six studies, similar questions about the prevalence of voice disorders and the causes for them were included. The comparison of the six studies showed that more than 82% of the 2347 included subjects had voice problems at some time during their career. The teachers were the most affected by voice problems. The prevalent cause of voice problems was the vocal load in teachers and salespeople and respiratory-tract infections in all the other occupational groups. When the occupational groups were compared, it was stated that the teachers had more voice problems and showed less care for their voices than the priests. The physicians had more voice problems and showed better consideration of vocal hygiene rules than the SLTs. The majority of all the included subjects did not receive instructions about voice care during education. In order to decrease the prevalence of voice disorders in vocal professionals, a screening program is recommended before the beginning of their studies. Regular courses on voice care and proper vocal technique should be obligatory for all professional voice users during their career. The inclusion of dysphonia in the list of occupational diseases should be considered in Slovenia as it is in some European countries.

  5. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pereira Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline, feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger, with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets.

  6. Treatment of vocal fold bowing using neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagorio, Lisa A; Carnaby-Mann, Giselle D; Crary, Michael A

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the clinical effectiveness and safety of a novel behavioral voice therapy program combining structured vocal exercise with adjunctive neuromuscular electrical stimulation for rehabilitating dysphonia secondary to vocal fold bowing. Prospective interventional clinical case series with a 3-month follow-up. Outpatient speech and hearing clinic in an academic medical center. Convenience sample of 7 patients diagnosed by an otolaryngologist as having chronic dysphonia for at least 3 months due to bilateral vocal fold bowing. A novel voice therapy program incorporating exercise principles and sustained phonations of increasing length, volume, and pitch paired with concurrent transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Change in maximum phonation time, highest attainable pitch, glottal closure, supraglottic compression, and Voice Handicap Index. Maximum phonation time for /i/ increased significantly (z = -2.201, P vocal fold bowing, resulting in improved acoustic, laryngeal, and patient-centered outcomes. Maximum phonation time and glottal closure results imply increased vocal fold tension secondary to enhanced thyroarytenoid or cricothyroid muscle function after voice therapy.

  7. Failure of operant control of vocal learning in budgerigars

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    Yoshimasa Seki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Budgerigars were trained by operant conditioning to produce contact calls immediately after hearing a stimulus contact call. In Experiments 1 and 2, playback stimuli were chosen from two different contact call classes from the bird’s repertoire. Once this task was learned, the birds were then tested with other probe stimulus calls from its repertoire, which differed from the original calls drawn from the two classes. Birds failed to mimic the probe stimuli but instead produced one of the two call classes as in the training sessions, showing that birds learned that each stimulus call served as a discriminative stimulus but not as a vocal template for imitation. In Experiment 3, birds were then trained with stimulus calls falling along a 24-step acoustic gradient which varied between the two sounds representing the two contact call categories. As before, birds obtained a reward when the bird’s vocalization matched that of the stimulus above a criterion level. Since the first step and the last step in the gradient were the birds’ original contact calls, these two patterns were easily matched. Intermediate contact calls in the gradient were much harder for the birds to match. After extensive training, one bird learned to produce contact calls that had only a modest similarity to the intermediate contact calls along the gradient. In spite of remarkable vocal plasticity under natural conditions, operant conditioning methods with budgerigars, even after extensive training and rigorous control of vocal discriminative stimuli, failed to show vocal learning.

  8. Biases in facial and vocal emotion recognition in chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut eDondaine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been extensive research on impaired emotion recognition in schizophrenia in the facial and vocal modalities. The literature points to biases toward non-relevant emotions for emotional faces but few studies have examined biases in emotional recognition across different modalities (facial and vocal. In order to test emotion recognition biases, we exposed 23 patients with stabilized chronic schizophrenia and 23 healthy controls to emotional facial and vocal tasks asking them to rate emotional intensity on visual analog scales. Results showed that patients performed poorer than healthy controls whatever the task. However, we showed that patients with schizophrenia provided higher intensity ratings on the nontarget scales (e.g. surprise scale for fear stimuli than healthy controls for the both tasks. Furthermore, with the exception of neutral vocal stimuli, they provided the same intensity ratings on the target scales as the healthy controls. These findings suggest that patients with chronic schizophrenia have emotional biases when judging emotional stimuli in the visual and vocal modalities. These biases may stem from a basic sensorial deficit, a high-order cognitive dysfunction, or both. The respective roles of prefrontal-subcortical circuitry and the basal ganglia are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of Singing Vocal Health in Yakshagana Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjawate, Dhanshree R; Aithal, Venkataraja U; Devadas, Usha; Guddattu, Vasudeva

    2017-03-01

    Yakshagana, a popular traditional folk art from Karnataka, India, includes singing and dancing. Yakshagana singer or Bhagavata plays an important role in singing and conducting the performance. The present study aims to assess the singing vocal health using Singing Voice Handicap Index-10 (SVHI-10) in these singers and to compare between those who report voice problem and those who do not. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 26 Bhagavata using demographic questionnaire and SVHI-10 in the Kannada language. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the data. Independent sample t test was used to compare the responses for demographic variables between the two groups of singers with and without voice problems. The difference in scores of SVHI-10 between the two groups was analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test. Of the Bhagavata, 38% reported to have experienced voice problems, which affected their singing, with higher total SVHI-10 score (31.2 ± 5.7) compared with those who did not report any problems (16.81 ± 9.56). A statistically significant difference between the groups was noted in the emotional domain and total scores. The present study provides preliminary information on the voice handicap reported by Bhagavata. The singers reporting voice problems scored higher on SVHI-10. A healthy singing voice is essential for Yakshagana singers, and voice problems can have a significant impact on their performance and livelihood. Hence, results of the present study indicate the need to understand these singers' voice problems and their impact more comprehensively, and educate them about voice care. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between vocal tract symptoms and modern singing handicap index in church gospel singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Joel; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Ramos, Janine Santos; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Zambon, Fabiana; Behlau, Mara

    2017-08-24

    To verify the correlation between vocal tract discomfort symptoms and perceived voice handicaps in gospel singers, analyzing possible differences according to gender. 100 gospel singers volunteered, 50 male and 50 female. All participants answered two questionnaires: Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) scale and the Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) that investigates the vocal handicap perceived by singers, linking the results of both instruments (phandicaps and also more frequent and higher intensity vocal tract discomfort. Furthermore, the more frequent and intense the vocal tract symptoms, the higher the vocal handicap for singing. Female gospel singers present higher frequency and intensity of vocal tract discomfort symptoms, as well as higher voice handicap for singing than male gospel singers. The higher the frequency and intensity of the laryngeal symptoms, the higher the vocal handicap will be.

  11. Studying the Vocal Fold Vibration Using a Nonlinear Finite-Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack. J.; Zhang, Yu

    2006-05-01

    The vocal fold vibration and voice production are highly complex nonlinear processes. Nonlinear relationship of glottal pressure to airflow and the nonlinearities of vocal fold collision are two important nonlinear factors of vocal fold vibration. In this paper, we will study the vocal fold vibration using a nonlinear finite-element model. In this model, the nonlinear relationship of glottal pressure to airflow, the nonlinearities of vocal fold collision, and the interaction between the airflow and vocal folds are taken into account. The impact pressure, vocal fold vibration, and glottal pressure under various lung pressures are studies. The results show that the nonlinear finite-element model is a useful tool for studying the voice production and predicting mechanical trauma leading to injurious abuse, misuse of the voice and vocal nodule.

  12. Ontogeny of swift fox Vulpes velox vocalizations: production, usage and response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine Klem; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    Three processes, production, usage, and response, can be used to describe vocal ontogeny. They may develop independently of each other for a given vocalization and a given species as a result of the different selective pressures associated with each process. We have investigated vocal ontogeny...... in the swift fox Vulpes velox, using recordings and observations of captive foxes from the time of natal den emergence (age 3-4 weeks) to the time of natal dispersal in the wild (age 4-5 months). We first classified adult vocalizations used during the mating and pup rearing seasons into vocal types (19 types...... in total) and found that swift foxes have a vocal repertoire comparable in size and diversity to other canids. The repertoire of juvenile foxes contained 16 of the 19 adult-type vocalizations and one juvenile vocalization by age 10 weeks, after which no new types appeared by the end of the study period...

  13. Lamina propria of the mucosa of benign lesions of the vocal folds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, FG; Nikkels, PGJ

    1999-01-01

    Objective/Hypothesis: To demonstrate a correlation between the duration and specific pattern of trauma of benign lesions of the vocal folds and their histopathologic appearance, Benign lesions of the vocal folds have various macroscopic appearances. Investigations demonstrate characteristic

  14. Caracterização vocal de pacientes com hipertireoidismo e hipotireoidismo Vocal characterization of patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

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    Roberta Werlang Isolan-Cury

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a qualidade vocal, por meio de análise computadorizada e perceptivo-auditiva, de pacientes com hipertireoidismo (grupo A e hipotireoidismo (grupo B. MÉTODOS: Vinte mulheres não fumantes, com idades entre 18 e 55 anos, atendidas no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia da instituição, foram avaliadas após o diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de hipertireoidismo ou hipotireoidismo. Os parâmetros investigados foram: tempo da doença, presença de queixa vocal, tempos máximos de fonação /a/, /s/ e /z/, freqüência fundamental (F0, ruído glótico (GNE. Os aspectos avaliados na análise perceptivo-auditiva, foram: coordenação pneumo-fonoarticulatória (coordenada ou incoordenada, pitch, loudness, ataque vocal, ressonância, velocidade de fala e qualidade vocal, que poderia ter até duas das seguintes classificações: neutra, rouca, soprosa, áspera ou tensa, e grau: leve, moderado ou severo. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados estatisticamente através do programa EPI-INFO 6.04b, método qualitativo Fisher, com nível de significância menor do que 0.05. RESULTADOS: A análise perceptivo-auditiva mostrou que sete pacientes hipotireoideos e nove pacientes hipertireoideos apresentaram alteração na qualidade vocal. Oito pacientes em ambos os grupos apresentaram incoordenação pneumo-fonoarticulatória. Oito pacientes do grupo A e seis pacientes do grupo B referiam queixas vocais como rouquidão e voz grossa, respectivamente. Na análise acústica, nove pacientes apresentaram o ruído glótico alterado. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados evidenciaram grande incidência de alteração vocal nos grupos estudados (grupos dos pacientes com hipertireoidismo e com hipotireoidismo, o que demonstra a relação entre disfonia e disfunções tireoideanas.PURPOSE: To characterize the vocal quality of subjects with hyperthyroidism (group A, and hypothyroidism (group B through a computer-aided and auditory-perceptive analysis. METHODS

  15. Vessel noise cuts down communication space for vocalizing fish and marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putland, Rosalyn L; Merchant, Nathan D; Farcas, Adrian; Radford, Craig A

    2018-04-01

    Anthropogenic noise across the world's oceans threatens the ability of vocalizing marine species to communicate. Some species vocalize at key life stages or whilst foraging, and disruption to the acoustic habitat at these times could lead to adverse consequences at the population level. To investigate the risk of these impacts, we investigated the effect of vessel noise on the communication space of the Bryde's whale Balaenoptera edeni, an endangered species which vocalizes at low frequencies, and bigeye Pempheris adspersa, a nocturnal fish species which uses contact calls to maintain group cohesion while foraging. By combining long-term acoustic monitoring data with AIS vessel-tracking data and acoustic propagation modelling, the impact of vessel noise on their communication space was determined. Routine vessel passages cut down communication space by up to 61.5% for bigeyes and 87.4% for Bryde's whales. This influence of vessel noise on communication space exceeded natural variability for between 3.9 and 18.9% of the monitoring period. Additionally, during the closest point of approach of a large commercial vessel, space of both species was reduced by a maximum of 99% compared to the ambient soundscape. These results suggest that vessel noise reduces communication space beyond the evolutionary context of these species and may have chronic effects on these populations. To combat this risk, we propose the application or extension of ship speed restrictions in ecologically significant areas, since our results indicate a reduction in sound source levels for vessels transiting at lower speeds. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Menstrual Cycle, Vocal Performance, and Laryngeal Vascular Appearance: An Observational Study on 17 Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffel-Havakuk, Hagit; Carmel-Neiderman, Narin N; Halperin, Doron; Shapira Galitz, Yael; Levin, Dan; Haimovich, Yaara; Cohen, Oded; Abitbol, Jean; Lahav, Yonatan

    2018-03-01

    To assess the anatomical and functional features of the vocal folds during different phases of the female menstrual cycle. An observational study of 17 healthy fertile female volunteers not using hormonal contraception was carried out. Each volunteer underwent two examinations: first, during the early days of the menstrual cycle when progesterone levels are low (p-depletion), and second, during premenstruation when progesterone levels are high (p-peak). The workup included blood hormone levels, Voice Handicap Index, acoustic analysis, rigid telescopy, stroboscopy, and narrow band imaging. The videos were evaluated by blinded observers. The participants' mean age was 31.7 ± 5.6 (range 23-43). Progesterone levels were 13- to 45-fold higher in p-peak relative to p-depletion. No significant differences were detected in Voice Handicap Index scores, stroboscopic reports, or acoustic analysis between p-peak and p-depletion examinations. Analyzing the rigid telescopy and narrow band imaging videos, the observers tended to estimate the different laryngeal subsites more vascularized during the p-peak examination. Moreover, this tendency was significantly correlated with blood progesterone levels during the p-depletion examinations; the lower the blood progesterone levels were during p-depletion, the higher the probability for the observers to estimate the p-peak examinations more vascularized (P value = 0.024). Alterations in laryngeal vascular characteristics are evident throughout the menstrual cycle and may suggest increased congestion during premenstrual days. Variations in progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle correlate with laryngeal vascular changes. Hormone-related alterations in vocal folds' vascularity may have a role in the variability of vocal performance in certain women. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vocal cord dysfunction diagnosis may be improved by a screening check list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Lucia Helena Eduardo; Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Cukier-Blaj, Sabrina; Stelmach, Rafael; Cukier, Alberto; Kalil, Jorge; Agondi, Rosana Câmara; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Many patients with vocal cord dysfunction (VCD), with or without asthma, receive inappropriate treatment because they are misdiagnosed as having difficult-to-control asthma alone. We developed a clinical screening check list designed to aid the diagnosis of VCD. A prospective observational study involving 80 patients aged ≥18 years, diagnosed with severe asthma. After anamnesis and physical examination, physicians completed a check list with 6 questions to identify VCD, for which the answer "yes" counted one point. Then patients underwent spirometry and laryngoscopy. On the basis of the laryngoscopic findings, we created three patient groups: VCD (vocal cord adduction during inspiration, n = 14); unconfirmed VCD (inconclusive findings, n = 29); and control (normal findings, n = 37). We attempted to determine whether any of those groups were associated with the responses to individual questions or sets of questions on the check list. The proportion of affirmative answers to the question "Does pulmonary auscultation reveal wheezing, predominantly in the cervical region, and/or stridor?" was significantly higher for the VCD group than for the other two groups (P = 0.006), notably in elderly patients. The variable "4 or more affirmative answers" was more common in VCD and unconfirmed VCD groups in comparison to controls (P = 0.022). A finding of wheezing or stridor on auscultation of the cervical region is suggestive of vocal cord dysfunction, especially in elderly patients, and such dysfunction can be confirmed through laryngoscopy. Our VCD screening check list proved to be useful in the screening of VCD among patients with severe asthma. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of age of cochlear implantation on vocal characteristics in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Knight

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early cochlear implantation aids auditory feedback and supports better communication and self-monitoring of the voice. The objective of this study was to determine whether the age of cochlear implantation has an impact on vocal development in children implanted before age 4. Method and procedures: The study consisted of 19 participants in total. All implant recipients (experimental group were 3–5 years post-implantation, including four prelingual (0–2 years and five perilingual (2–4 years implant recipients. The control group consisted of 10 children whose hearing was within normal limits between the ages 3–6 years and 10 months, which was compared to the experimental group. Established paediatric norms were used for additional comparison. A questionnaire was used to gather information from each of the participant’s caregivers to determine whether other personal and contextual factors had an impact on voice production. An acoustic analysis was conducted for each participant using the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program of the Computerized Speech Lab. Results: When the experimental group and the control group were compared, similar results were yielded for fundamental frequency and short-term perturbation (jitter and shimmer. More variability was noted in long-term frequency and amplitude measures, with significantly higher differences, and therefore further outside the norms, in the prelingual group when compared to the perilingual and control groups. Conclusion: In this study, age of implantation did not impact vocal characteristics. Further research should include larger sample sizes, with participants that are age and gender matched. Keywords: cochlear implant; vocal development; age of implantation; prelingual; lingual

  19. The Vocal Repertoire of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus): Structure and Function of Calls

    OpenAIRE

    Favaro, Livio; Ozella, Laura; Pessani, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is a highly social and vocal seabird. However, currently available descriptions of the vocal repertoire of African Penguin are mostly limited to basic descriptions of calls. Here we provide, for the first time, a detailed description of the vocal behaviour of this species by collecting audio and video recordings from a large captive colony. We combine visual examinations of spectrograms with spectral and temporal acoustic analyses to determine vocal c...

  20. An acoustic glottal source for vocal tract physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannukainen, Antti; Kuortti, Juha; Malinen, Jarmo; Ojalammi, Antti

    2017-11-01

    A sound source is proposed for the acoustic measurement of physical models of the human vocal tract. The physical models are produced by fast prototyping, based on magnetic resonance imaging during prolonged vowel production. The sound source, accompanied by custom signal processing algorithms, is used for two kinds of measurements from physical models of the vocal tract: (i) amplitude frequency response and resonant frequency measurements, and (ii) signal reconstructions at the source output according to a target pressure waveform with measurements at the mouth position. The proposed source and the software are validated by computational acoustics experiments and measurements on a physical model of the vocal tract corresponding to the vowels [] of a male speaker.

  1. Facial, Olfactory, and Vocal Cues to Female Reproductive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Röder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues may advertise women's fertility. However, most of the evidence for this proposal has come from studies of changes in young adult women's attractiveness over the menstrual cycle. By contrast with this emphasis on changes in attractiveness over the menstrual cycle, possible changes in women's attractiveness over their lifespan have received little attention. The present study investigated men's ratings of young girls' (11–15 years old, adult women's (19–30 years old and circum-menopausal women's (50–65 years old facial, body odor, and vocal attractiveness and femininity. Faces and voices, but not body odors, of young girls and adult women were perceived to be significantly more attractive and feminine than those of circum-menopausal women. These data suggest that facial and vocal cues may be cues to women's reproductive value, but that body odor cues do not necessarily advertise this information.

  2. Social behaviors and acoustic vocalizations in different strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Alexis; Pittaras, Elsa; Nosjean, Anne; Chabout, Jonathan; Cressant, Arnaud; Granon, Sylvie

    2017-03-01

    Proposing a framework for the study of core functions is valuable for understanding how they are altered in multiple mental disorders involving prefrontal dysfunction, for understanding genetic influences and for testing therapeutic compounds. Social and communication disabilities are reported in several major psychiatric disorders, and social communication disorders also can occur independently. Being able to study social communication involving interactions and associated acoustic vocalizations in animal models is thus important. All rodents display extensive social behaviors, including interactions and acoustic vocalizations. It is therefore important to pinpoint potential genetic-related strain differences -and similarities- in social behavior and vocalization. One approach is to compare different mouse strains, and this may be useful in choosing which strains may be best suitable in modeling psychiatric disorders where social and communication deficits are core symptoms. We compared social behavior and ultrasonic acoustic vocalization profiles in males of four mouse strains (129S2/Sv, C57BL/6J, DBA/2, and CD-1) using a social interaction task that we previously showed to rely on prefrontal network activity. Our social interaction task promotes a high level of ultrasonic vocalization with both social and acoustic parameters, and further allows other measures of social behaviors. The duration of social contact, dominance and aggressiveness varied with the mouse strains. Only C57BL/6J mice showed no attacks, with social contact being highly affiliative, whereas others strains emitted aggressive attacks. C57BL/6J mice also exhibited a significantly higher rate of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), especially during social interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal Resolution and Active Auditory Discrimination Skill in Vocal Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar, Prawin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group. We used duration discrimination using pure-tones, pulse-train duration discrimination, and gap detection threshold tasks to assess temporal processing skills in both groups. Similarly, we assessed active auditory discrimination skill in both groups using Differential Limen of Frequency (DLF. All tasks were done using MATLab software installed in a personal computer at 40dBSL with maximum likelihood procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0. Result Descriptive statistics showed better threshold for vocal musicians compared with non-musicians for all tasks. Further, independent t-test showed that vocal musicians performed significantly better compared with non-musicians on duration discrimination using pure tone, pulse train duration discrimination, gap detection threshold, and differential limen of frequency. Conclusion The present study showed enhanced temporal resolution ability and better (lower active discrimination threshold in vocal musicians in comparison to non-musicians.

  4. Temporal Resolution and Active Auditory Discrimination Skill in Vocal Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prawin; Sanju, Himanshu Kumar; Nikhil, J

    2016-10-01

    Introduction  Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective  The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method  The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group. We used duration discrimination using pure-tones, pulse-train duration discrimination, and gap detection threshold tasks to assess temporal processing skills in both groups. Similarly, we assessed active auditory discrimination skill in both groups using Differential Limen of Frequency (DLF). All tasks were done using MATLab software installed in a personal computer at 40dBSL with maximum likelihood procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0). Result  Descriptive statistics showed better threshold for vocal musicians compared with non-musicians for all tasks. Further, independent t -test showed that vocal musicians performed significantly better compared with non-musicians on duration discrimination using pure tone, pulse train duration discrimination, gap detection threshold, and differential limen of frequency. Conclusion  The present study showed enhanced temporal resolution ability and better (lower) active discrimination threshold in vocal musicians in comparison to non-musicians.

  5. Vocal problems among teachers: evaluation of a preventive voice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Roberto; Galceran, Marta; Petruccelli, Joseph; Hatzopoulos, Stavros

    2007-11-01

    Vocal education programs for teachers may prevent the emergence of vocal disorders; however, only a few studies have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of these preventive programs, particularly in the long term. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects, mostly kindergarten and primary school female teachers, participated in a course on voice care, including a theoretical seminar (120 minutes) and a short voice group therapy (180 minutes, small groups of 20 subjects). For 3 months, they had to either attend the vocal ergonomics norms and, as psychological reinforcement, they had to make out a daily report of vocal abuse, or to follow the given exercises for a more efficient vocal technique, reporting on whether the time scheduled was respected or not. The effectiveness of the course was assessed in a group of 21 female teachers through a randomized controlled study. Evaluation comprehended stroboscopy, perceptual and electro-acoustical voice analysis, Voice Handicap Index, and a course benefit questionnaire. A group of 20 teachers matched for age, working years, hoarseness grade, and vocal demand served as a control group. At 3 months evaluation, participants demonstrated amelioration in the global dysphonia rates (P=0.0003), jitter (P=0.0001), shimmer (P=0.0001), MPT (P=0.0001), and VHI (P=0.0001). Twelve months after the course, the positive effects remained, although they were slightly reduced. In conclusion, a course inclusive of two lectures, a short group voice therapy, home-controlled voice exercises, and hygiene, represents a feasible and cost-effective primary prevention of voice disorders in a homogeneous and well-motivated population of teachers.

  6. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Vocal Fold Scarring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Vibe Lindeblad; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Jensen, David H

    2016-01-01

    parameters revealed a decreased dynamic viscosity (η') and elastic modulus (G'), i.e., decreased resistance and stiffness, in scarred vocal folds treated with mesenchymal stem cells compared to non-treated scarred vocal folds. Mucosal wave amplitude was increased in scarred vocal folds treated...

  7. Phonatory and Phonetic Characteristics of Prelinguistic Vocal Development in Cri Du Chat Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohner, Linda; Mitchell, Pamela

    1991-01-01

    Vocal samples were collected from a child with cri du chat syndrome from the age of 8 to 26 months. Analyses indicated that the high vocal fundamental was characteristic of comfort state vocalizations of the child. There was a predominance of falling intonation contours and limited interutterance variation of fundamental frequency, and phonetic…

  8. Quantitative Study of Vibrational Symmetry of Injured Vocal Folds via Digital Kymography in Excised Canine Larynges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausert, Christopher R.; Ying, Di; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Digital kymography and vocal fold curve fitting are blended with detailed symmetry analysis of kymograms to provide a comprehensive characterization of the vibratory properties of injured vocal folds. Method: Vocal fold vibration of 12 excised canine larynges was recorded under uninjured, unilaterally injured, and bilaterally injured…

  9. Peripheral Mechanisms for Vocal Production in Birds--Differences and Similarities to Human Speech and Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Goller, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Song production in songbirds is a model system for studying learned vocal behavior. As in humans, bird phonation involves three main motor systems (respiration, vocal organ and vocal tract). The avian respiratory mechanism uses pressure regulation in air sacs to ventilate a rigid lung. In songbirds sound is generated with two independently…

  10. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-06

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357030-11$15.00/0.

  11. Coos, booms, and hoots: The evolution of closed-mouth vocal behavior in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Eliason, Chad M; Miller, Edward H; Goller, Franz; Clarke, Julia A

    2016-08-01

    Most birds vocalize with an open beak, but vocalization with a closed beak into an inflating cavity occurs in territorial or courtship displays in disparate species throughout birds. Closed-mouth vocalizations generate resonance conditions that favor low-frequency sounds. By contrast, open-mouth vocalizations cover a wider frequency range. Here we describe closed-mouth vocalizations of birds from functional and morphological perspectives and assess the distribution of closed-mouth vocalizations in birds and related outgroups. Ancestral-state optimizations of body size and vocal behavior indicate that closed-mouth vocalizations are unlikely to be ancestral in birds and have evolved independently at least 16 times within Aves, predominantly in large-bodied lineages. Closed-mouth vocalizations are rare in the small-bodied passerines. In light of these results and body size trends in nonavian dinosaurs, we suggest that the capacity for closed-mouth vocalization was present in at least some extinct nonavian dinosaurs. As in birds, this behavior may have been limited to sexually selected vocal displays, and hence would have co-occurred with open-mouthed vocalizations. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Sex Differences in Vocal Interaction with Mother and Stranger in Greek Infants: Some Cognitive Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Kiki V.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined home-reared and institutionalized infants in Greece to find sex differences in social-vocal behaviors as assessed by Differential Vocal Responsiveness (DVR) to mother/caretaker versus stranger interactions. Results suggest that early differences in vocal-interactional patterns, and possibly cognitive processing, may be attributable to…

  13. Vocal Function in Introverts and Extraverts during a Psychological Stress Reactivity Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Maria; Verdolini Abbott, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the proposal that introversion predictably influences extralaryngeal and vocal behavior in vocally healthy individuals compared with individuals with extraversion and whether differences are of a nature that may support a risk hypothesis for primary muscle tension dysphonia. Method: Fifty-four vocally healthy female adults…

  14. Apoptosis and Vocal Fold Disease: Clinically Relevant Implications of Epithelial Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Carter, Bruce D.; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Ridner, Sheila H.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Vocal fold diseases affecting the epithelium have a detrimental impact on vocal function. This review article provides an overview of apoptosis, the most commonly studied type of programmed cell death. Because apoptosis can damage epithelial cells, this article examines the implications of apoptosis on diseases affecting the vocal fold…

  15. Individual Monitoring of Vocal Effort with Relative Fundamental Frequency: Relationships with Aerodynamics and Listener Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Yu-An S.; Michener, Carolyn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) was investigated as a potential objective measure to track variations in vocal effort within and across individuals. Method: Twelve speakers with healthy voices created purposeful modulations in their vocal effort during speech tasks. RFF and an aerodynamic measure of vocal effort,…

  16. Relevance of the Implementation of Teeth in Three-Dimensional Vocal Tract Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traser, Louisa; Birkholz, Peter; Flügge, Tabea Viktoria; Kamberger, Robert; Burdumy, Michael; Richter, Bernhard; Korvink, Jan Gerrit; Echternach, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, efforts have been made to investigate the vocal tract using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to technical limitations, teeth were omitted in many previous studies on vocal tract acoustics. However, the knowledge of how teeth influence vocal tract acoustics might be important in order to estimate the necessity of…

  17. Impact of Vagal Nerve Stimulation on Objective Vocal Quality: a Pilot Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. D'haeseleer; M. Krystopava; S. Gadeyne; K. van Lierde; Anke Luyten; L. Bruneel; G. van Maele; N. Piens; K. Vonck; B. Boehme

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) on the vocal quality using the dysphonia severity index (DSI). It was hypothesized that the objective vocal quality and other vocal characteristics are disordered in comparison with an age- and gender-matched

  18. Injeção de gordura na prega vocal: efeitos do local de injeção sobre a configuração glótica e a distribuição espacial da gordura injetada Fat injection into the vocal fold: effects of the place of injection on the configuration of the glottis and the spatial distribution of the fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Imamura

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A injeção intracordal de gordura tem sido utilizada para medializar a prega vocal em casos de paralisia laríngea, com resultados variáveis. A ausência de consenso entre os autores em relação a diversos aspectos técnicos, como o local de injeção, pode contribuir, em parte, para essa variação. OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito do local de injeção em relação à distribuição espacial da gordura dentro da prega vocal e à configuração glótica após essas injeções. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Seis laringes adultas excisadas foram utilizadas. Gordura colhida por lipoaspiração foi injetada, por meio de uma seringa de pressão, no ponto médio da prega vocal em três laringes e lateralmente ao processo vocal da aritenóide em outras três. Fotografias digitais em vista cranial da glote foram obtidas antes e após as injeções. Após fixação e descalcificação, as laringes foram cortadas no plano frontal nos terços anterior, médio e posterior da prega vocal e no nível da cartilagem aritenóide, para estudar a distribuição da gordura. RESULTADOS: Somente a injeção de gordura lateralmente ao processo vocal da aritenóide permitiu o fechamento da glote posterior. A gordura tendeu a ocupar um espaço cilíndrico dentro do músculo tireoaritenóideo, ao longo do maior eixo da prega vocal, mesmo quando injetada próximo ao processo vocal. CONCLUSÕES: O local de injeção da gordura teve influência sobre a configuração glótica após a injeção, apesar da gordura tender a ocupar um espaço cilíndrico ao longo da prega vocal em ambos os grupos.Intracordal fat injection has been used for vocal fold medialization in cases of laryngeal paralysis with variable results. A lack of consensus among the authors concerning various technical aspects, such as the site of injection, may contribute, in part, to this variation. AIM: To study the effects of the place of fat injection on the spatial distribution of fat and

  19. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  20. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-08-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat's perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Classification of Marmoset Vocalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalmar K Turesson

    Full Text Available Automatic classification of vocalization type could potentially become a useful tool for acoustic the monitoring of captive colonies of highly vocal primates. However, for classification to be useful in practice, a reliable algorithm that can be successfully trained on small datasets is necessary. In this work, we consider seven different classification algorithms with the goal of finding a robust classifier that can be successfully trained on small datasets. We found good classification performance (accuracy > 0.83 and F1-score > 0.84 using the Optimum Path Forest classifier. Dataset and algorithms are made publicly available.

  2. Ultrasonic vocalizations in mouse models for speech and socio-cognitive disorders: insights into the evolution of vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J; Hammerschmidt, K

    2011-02-01

    Comparative analyses used to reconstruct the evolution of traits associated with the human language faculty, including its socio-cognitive underpinnings, highlight the importance of evolutionary constraints limiting vocal learning in non-human primates. After a brief overview of this field of research and the neural basis of primate vocalizations, we review studies that have addressed the genetic basis of usage and structure of ultrasonic communication in mice, with a focus on the gene FOXP2 involved in specific language impairments and neuroligin genes (NL-3 and NL-4) involved in autism spectrum disorders. Knockout of FoxP2 leads to reduced vocal behavior and eventually premature death. Introducing the human variant of FoxP2 protein into mice, in contrast, results in shifts in frequency and modulation of pup ultrasonic vocalizations. Knockout of NL-3 and NL-4 in mice diminishes social behavior and vocalizations. Although such studies may provide insights into the molecular and neural basis of social and communicative behavior, the structure of mouse vocalizations is largely innate, limiting the suitability of the mouse model to study human speech, a learned mode of production. Although knockout or replacement of single genes has perceptible effects on behavior, these genes are part of larger networks whose functions remain poorly understood. In humans, for instance, deficiencies in NL-4 can lead to a broad spectrum of disorders, suggesting that further factors (experiential and/or genetic) contribute to the variation in clinical symptoms. The precise nature as well as the interaction of these factors is yet to be determined. © 2010 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  3. The effect of stretch-and-flow voice therapy on measures of vocal function and handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Christopher R; Diviney, Shelby S; Hamilton, Amy; Toles, Laura; Childs, Lesley; Mau, Ted

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the efficacy of stretch-and-flow voice therapy as a primary physiological treatment for patients with hyperfunctional voice disorders. Prospective case series. Participants with a diagnosis of primary muscle tension dysphonia or phonotraumatic lesions due to hyperfunctional vocal behaviors were included. Participants received stretch-and-flow voice therapy structured once weekly for 6 weeks. Outcome variables consisted of two physiologic measures (s/z ratio and maximum phonation time), an acoustic measure (cepstral peak prominence [CPP]), and a measure of vocal handicap (voice handicap index [VHI]). All measures were obtained at baseline before treatment and within 2 weeks posttreatment. The s/z ratio, maximum phonation time, sentence CPP, and VHI showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvement through therapy. Effect sizes reflecting the magnitude of change were large for s/z ratio and VHI (d = 1.25 and 1.96 respectively), and moderate for maximum phonation time and sentence CPP (d = 0.79 and 0.74, respectively). This study provides supporting evidence for preliminary efficacy of stretch-and-flow voice therapy in a small sample of patients. The treatment effect was large or moderate for multiple outcome measures. The data provide justification for larger, controlled clinical trials on the application of stretch-and-flow voice therapy in the treatment of hyperfunctional voice disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of the vocal profiles of male seduction: from exhibition to self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anolli, Luigi; Ciceri, Rita

    2002-04-01

    The authors analyzed the suprasegmental (temporary) vocal profiles of 19 young men (not married) during their seductive interaction with 19 young women (not married) whom they had not known previously. The aim of the research was to verify the specificity, the sequential temporal stream, and the efficacy of the acoustical features of the seducer's voice during seductive interaction. In an ecological laboratory situation, the male participants were asked to meet their female partners. Participant-by-participant analysis showed that the male seductive voice is characterized by strong variations during the course of the seductive sequence. At the beginning of the sequence it had a higher pitch and an elevated intensity, as well as a faster rate of articulation than it did during normal speech (the exhibition voice). In the following phases it became gradually lower, weaker, and warmer (the self-disclosure voice). The modulation and variability of the vocal profiles during the seductive interaction were significantly stressed in the 9 successful seducers (those who succeeded in arranging a subsequent meeting with the partner), compared with the 10 unsuccessful seducers. The results have been interpreted as an ability to perform an effective local management of seductive communication.

  5. Examining dog-human play: the characteristics, affect, and vocalizations of a unique interspecific interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Alexandra; Hecht, Julie

    2016-07-01

    Despite the growing interest in research on the interaction between humans and dogs, only a very few research projects focus on the routines between dogs and their owners. In this study, we investigated one such routine: dog-human play. Dyadic interspecific play is known to be a common interaction between owner and charge, but the details of what counts as play have not been thoroughly researched. Similarly, though people represent that "play" is pleasurable, no study has yet undertaken to determine whether different forms of play are associated with different affective states. Thus, we aimed to generate an inventory of the forms of dyadic play, the vocalizations within play, and to investigate the relationship of affect to elements of play. Via a global citizen science project, we solicited videotapes of dog-human play sessions from dog owners. We coded 187 play bouts via frame-by-frame video playback. We then assessed the relationship between various intra-bout variables and owner affect (positive or neutral) during play (dog affect was overwhelmingly positive). Amount of physical contact ("touch"), level of activity of owner ("movement"), and physical closeness of dog-owner dyad ("proximity") were highly correlated with positive affect. Owner vocalizations were found to contain different elements in positive- and neutral-affect play. One novel category of play, "tease", was found. We conclude that not all play is created equal: the experience of play to the owner participant is strongly related to a few identifiable characteristics of the interaction.

  6. Medialization vs. Reinnervation for Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniello, Randal C.; Edgar, Julia D.; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Piccirillo, Jay F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Vocal fold medialization laryngoplasty (ML) and laryngeal reinnervation (LR) as treatments for unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) were compared in a multicenter, prospective, randomized clinical trial. Methods Previously untreated patients with UVFP were randomized to undergo either ML or LR. Voice results were compared pre-treatment and at 6 and 12 months post-treatment using perceptual ratings by untrained listeners (RUL), blinded speech pathologist GRBAS scores, and voice-related quality of life (VRQOL) scores. Other secondary data included maximum phonation time (MPT), cepstral analysis, and EMG findings. Results 24 patients from 9 sites completed the study, 12 in each group. There were no significant intergroup differences in pre-treatment variables. At 12 months, both study groups showed significant improvement in RUL, GRBAS and VRQOL scores, but no significant differences were found between the two groups. However, patient age significantly affected the LR, but not the ML, group results. The age52 LR subgroup, and had better RUL and GRBAS scores than the age52 ML subgroup results were significantly better than the age>52 LR subgroup. The secondary data generally followed the primary data, except that the MPTs for the ML patients were significantly longer than for the LR patients. Conclusion ML and LR are both effective surgical options for patients with UVFP. Laryngeal reinnervation should be considered in younger patients, while medialization laryngoplasty should be favored in older patients. PMID:21898419

  7. Pre-linguistic children with cleft palate: growth of gesture, vocalization, and word use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Nancy J; Boyce, Sarah; Martin, Gerri

    2013-12-01

    Children with cleft lip and/or palate show early delays in speech and vocabulary development that may have an impact on later communication and social development. While delays in the complexity of babbling may put children at risk for later delays in speech and language development, there is considerable variability in development. This study focused on the rate of children's communication acts, canonical vocalizations, and word use as they made the transition from the pre-linguistic to linguistic development. The study included 15 children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate who were seen at three time points between 17-34 months age. Communication rates were calculated from parent-child language samples collected during play activities. Assignment to linguistic stages was based on the children's expressive vocabulary, as reported on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences. From the pre-linguistic to linguistic level, the children's average rate per minute of: communicative acts overall increased significantly from 1.49 to 3.07 per minute; canonical vocalizations from 0.21 to 0.90 per minute; and word use from 0.16 to 3.61 per minute. Rates of communicative acts were associated with later word use. It appears that children with clefts rely on non-verbal communicative acts when verbal development is delayed.

  8. Sintomas vocais e perfil de professores em um programa de saúde vocal Vocal symptoms and profile of teachers in a vocal health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Choi-Cardim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar sintomas vocais de dois grupos de professores que foram avaliados em momentos distintos de um programa de saúde vocal. MÉTODOS: correlacionar condições de trabalho e hábitos com o número de sintomas vocais apresentados por 411 professores, agrupados em G1 (256 sujeitos a serem submetidos ao programa preventivo e G2 (155 sujeitos a serem submetidos ao programa preventivo e de tratamento. RESULTADOS: em ambos os grupos observou-se predomínio de mulheres (p = 0,550, entre 31 e 40 anos (p = 0,557, lecionando para mais de um grau de ensino (p = 0,345 com até 30 alunos/sala (p = 0,521, com presença de ruído no trabalho (p = 0,660, que relataram cuidados vocais (p = 0,231 e utilizavam voz extra-profissionalmente (p = 0,713, não tabagistas (p = 0,010 nem alcoolistas (p = 0,029. Em contrapartida, no G1 observou-se carga horária diária de trabalho de até 5 horas, enquanto a maior parte do G2 trabalhava de 6 a 10 horas (p 4 os grupos; sendo a média de 3,5 (57% para G1 e 5,8 (98,05% para G2 - (p PURPOSE: to analyze vocal symptoms from two groups of teachers assessed during two different instances of a vocal health program. METHODS: correlate work conditions and habits with the number of vocal symptoms submitted by 411 teachers divided into G1 (256 subjects to be submitted to a prevention program and G2 (155 subjects to be submitted to a prevention and treatment program. RESULTS: it was observed that in both groups there was a larger number of women (p=0.550, aged 31 to 40 years (p=0.557, teaching for more than one grade (p=0.345 and with up to 30 students per class (p=0.521; they related presence of noise in their work environment (p=0.660, used to take care of their voices (p=0.231, were non-smokers (p=0.010, used their voices in extra-professional activities and did not have the habit of drinking. On the other hand, both groups were different upon relating daily work hours; in G1 most teachers worked up to 5 hours a day

  9. The Effect of a Voice Therapy Program Based on the Taxonomy of Vocal Therapy in Women with Behavioral Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Vanessa Veis; de Oliveira, Amanda Gabriela; da Silva Vitor, Jhonatan; Siqueira, Larissa Thais Donalonso; Moreira, Pamela Aparecida Medeiros; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to propose and analyze the effect of a voice therapy program (VTP) in women with behavioral dysphonia. This is a controlled, blinded, and nonrandomized cohort study. Participants of this study were 22 women with behavioral dysphonia divided into two groups: G1, 11 women with behavioral dysphonia who received the VTP, and G2, 11 women with behavioral dysphonia who did not receive any intervention. Before and after 6 weeks, the outcome variables evaluated in both groups were auditory-perceptual evaluation of the global degree of vocal quality (vowel /a/ and counting), instrumental acoustic parameters, Voice-Related Quality of Life, vocal and larynx symptoms, and musculoskeletal pain. The statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney tests (P dysphonia. The proposal, based on the taxonomy of voice therapy, seems to have promoted a phonatory balance, muscle relaxation, and improvement in the vocal resistance of this population. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Expression of Communicative Intentions in Gesture and Vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barten, Sybil S.

    Data on four infants between the ages of 12 and 20 months were collected to answer two questions about children's communication behavior. (1) Is there a correspondence between communicative intentions expressed in gestures and vocal utterances? If both spring from common organismic tendencies, it should be possible to discern an "indicating"…

  11. A Framework for Automated Marmoset Vocalization Detection And Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    7] G. Epple, “Comparative Studies on Vocalization in Marmoset Monkeys,” Folia Primatol. ( Basel ), vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–40, 1968. [8] C.-J. Chang...odontocetes in the Southern California Bight,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 467–475, 2011. [25] V. Berisha, A. Wisler, A. O. Hero III

  12. Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.…

  13. Radiology findings in adult patients with vocal fold paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S. [Helsinki Medical Imaging Centre, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu, Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: s.robinson@dzu.at; Pitkaeranta, A. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Haartmaninkatu, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-10-15

    Aim: To compile imaging findings in patients with vocal fold paralysis. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical charts of 100 consecutive patients, admitted to our department with vocal fold paralysis was undertaken. After laryngoscopy, patients were referred for radiological work-up depending on their clinical history and clinical findings. Ultrasound of the neck and/or contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography (CT) of the neck and mediastinum was performed, extending to include the whole chest if necessary. In one patient, CT of the brain and in two patients, magnetic resonance angiography was undertaken. Analysis of the clinical and radiological data was performed to assess the most frequent causes for vocal fold paralysis. Results: In 66% of patients, the paralysis was related to previous surgery. Thirty-four percent of cases were labelled idiopathic after clinical examination. After imaging and follow-up, only 8% remained unexplained. Nine patients suffered from neoplasms, four from vascular disease, and 12 from infections. One patient developed encephalomyelitis disseminata on follow-up. Conclusion: Thorough radiological work-up helps to reduce the amount of idiopathic cases of vocal fold paralysis and guides appropriate therapy.

  14. Radiology findings in adult patients with vocal fold paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.; Pitkaeranta, A.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To compile imaging findings in patients with vocal fold paralysis. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical charts of 100 consecutive patients, admitted to our department with vocal fold paralysis was undertaken. After laryngoscopy, patients were referred for radiological work-up depending on their clinical history and clinical findings. Ultrasound of the neck and/or contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography (CT) of the neck and mediastinum was performed, extending to include the whole chest if necessary. In one patient, CT of the brain and in two patients, magnetic resonance angiography was undertaken. Analysis of the clinical and radiological data was performed to assess the most frequent causes for vocal fold paralysis. Results: In 66% of patients, the paralysis was related to previous surgery. Thirty-four percent of cases were labelled idiopathic after clinical examination. After imaging and follow-up, only 8% remained unexplained. Nine patients suffered from neoplasms, four from vascular disease, and 12 from infections. One patient developed encephalomyelitis disseminata on follow-up. Conclusion: Thorough radiological work-up helps to reduce the amount of idiopathic cases of vocal fold paralysis and guides appropriate therapy

  15. Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K Moore

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all animals exploit vocal signals for a range of ecologically-motivated purposes: detecting predators prey and marking territory, expressing emotions, establishing social relations and sharing information. Whether it is a bird raising an alarm, a whale calling to potential partners,a dog responding to human commands, a parent reading a story with a child, or a business-person accessing stock prices using emph{Siri}, vocalisation provides a valuable communication channel through which behaviour may be coordinated and controlled, and information may be distributed and acquired.Indeed, the ubiquity of vocal interaction has led to research across an extremely diverse array of fields, from assessing animal welfare, to understanding the precursors of human language, to developing voice-based human-machine interaction. Opportunities for cross-fertilisation between these fields abound; for example, using artificial cognitive agents to investigate contemporary theories of language grounding, using machine learning to analyse different habitats or adding vocal expressivity to the next generation of language-enabled autonomous social agents. However, much of the research is conducted within well-defined disciplinary boundaries, and many fundamental issues remain. This paper attempts to redress the balance by presenting a comparative review of vocal interaction within-and-between humans, animals and artificial agents (such as robots, and it identifies a rich set of open research questions that may benefit from an inter-disciplinary analysis.

  16. Vocal Fold Pathologies and Three-Dimensional Flow Separation Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, Adam G.; Weiland, Kelley S.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Polyps and nodules are two different pathologies, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, and have been shown to significantly disrupt a person's ability to communicate. Although the mechanism by which the vocal folds self-oscillate and the three-dimensional nature of the glottal jet has been studied, the effect of irregularities caused by pathologies is not fully understood. Examining the formation and evolution of vortical structures created by a geometric protuberance is important, not only for understanding the aerodynamic forces exerted by these structures on the vocal folds, but also in the treatment of the above-mentioned pathological conditions. Using a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, the present investigation considers three-dimensional flow separation induced by a model vocal fold polyp. Building on previous work using skin friction line visualization, both the velocity flow field and wall pressure measurements around the model polyp are presented and compared. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  17. Bilateral vocal cord injury following anterior cervical discectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a rare case of bilateral vocal cord injury (BVCI) following anterior cervical discectomy with fusion (ACD/F) in a 47 year old man. The patient experienced postextubation stridor and whispering voice in the recovery room. Clinical assessment led to the diagnosis of BVCI. The patient was treated by tracheostomy ...

  18. Vocal Tract Representation in the Recognition of Cerebral Palsied Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzicz, Frank; Hirst, Graeme; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored articulatory information as a means of improving the recognition of dysarthric speech by machine. Method: Data were derived chiefly from the TORGO database of dysarthric articulation (Rudzicz, Namasivayam, & Wolff, 2011) in which motions of various points in the vocal tract are measured during speech.…

  19. Gelada vocal sequences follow Menzerath’s linguistic law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustison, Morgan L.; Semple, Stuart; Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Bergman, Thore J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying universal principles underpinning diverse natural systems is a key goal of the life sciences. A powerful approach in addressing this goal has been to test whether patterns consistent with linguistic laws are found in nonhuman animals. Menzerath’s law is a linguistic law that states that, the larger the construct, the smaller the size of its constituents. Here, to our knowledge, we present the first evidence that Menzerath’s law holds in the vocal communication of a nonhuman species. We show that, in vocal sequences of wild male geladas (Theropithecus gelada), construct size (sequence size in number of calls) is negatively correlated with constituent size (duration of calls). Call duration does not vary significantly with position in the sequence, but call sequence composition does change with sequence size and most call types are abbreviated in larger sequences. We also find that intercall intervals follow the same relationship with sequence size as do calls. Finally, we provide formal mathematical support for the idea that Menzerath’s law reflects compression—the principle of minimizing the expected length of a code. Our findings suggest that a common principle underpins human and gelada vocal communication, highlighting the value of exploring the applicability of linguistic laws in vocal systems outside the realm of language. PMID:27091968

  20. Evidence of auditory insensitivity to vocalization frequencies in two frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Sandra; Mason, Matthew J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and maintenance of animal communication systems requires the co-evolution of signal and receiver. Frogs and toads rely heavily on acoustic communication for coordinating reproduction and typically have ears tuned to the dominant frequency of their vocalizations, allowing discriminat...

  1. Religiosity in young adolescents with auditory vocal hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Laura A.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Jenner, Jack A.; Aleman, André; Bruggeman, Richard; Nauta, Maaike H.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current exploratory study examined the associations between auditory vocal hallucinations (AVH) and delusions and religiosity in young adolescents. 337 children from a population-based case-control study with and without AVH, were assessed after five years at age 12 and 13, on the presence and

  2. Song evolution, speciation, and vocal learning in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Nicholas A; Burns, Kevin J; Tobias, Joseph A; Claramunt, Santiago; Seddon, Nathalie; Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2017-03-01

    Phenotypic divergence can promote reproductive isolation and speciation, suggesting a possible link between rates of phenotypic evolution and the tempo of speciation at multiple evolutionary scales. To date, most macroevolutionary studies of diversification have focused on morphological traits, whereas behavioral traits─including vocal signals─are rarely considered. Thus, although behavioral traits often mediate mate choice and gene flow, we have a limited understanding of how behavioral evolution contributes to diversification. Furthermore, the developmental mode by which behavioral traits are acquired may affect rates of behavioral evolution, although this hypothesis is seldom tested in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we examine evidence for rate shifts in vocal evolution and speciation across two major radiations of codistributed passerines: one oscine clade with learned songs (Thraupidae) and one suboscine clade with innate songs (Furnariidae). We find that evolutionary bursts in rates of speciation and song evolution are coincident in both thraupids and furnariids. Further, overall rates of vocal evolution are higher among taxa with learned rather than innate songs. Taken together, these findings suggest an association between macroevolutionary bursts in speciation and vocal evolution, and that the tempo of behavioral evolution can be influenced by variation in developmental modes among lineages. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Using Response Interruption and Redirection to Reduce Vocal Stereotypy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehey, Patricia H.; Wells, Jenny C.

    2018-01-01

    Response interruption and redirection, commonly referred to as RIR, is an evidence-based intervention that has been demonstrated to quickly reduce moderate to high levels of vocal stereotypy in children with autism spectrum disorder. The RIR intervention is a simple, three-step procedure that can be embedded in classroom instruction with minimal…

  4. Non-Linguistic Vocal Event Detection Using Online Random

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    areas such as object detection, face recognition, and audio event detection. This paper proposes to use online random forest technique for detecting laughter and filler and for analyzing the importance of various features for non-linguistic vocal event classification through permutation. The results...

  5. Acetylcholinesterase in central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Co-occurrence with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) indicates efferent cholinergic projections. The cholinergic presence in parts of the zebra finch vocal control system, such as the area X, that is also intricately wired with parts of the basal ganglia, the descending fibre tracts and brain stem nuclei could underlie this ...

  6. Using Vocal and Silent Reading Approaches for the Enhancement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Silent reading involves reading without vocalization. No sound and no noise ... mastered this process of reading from left to right because order and memory not only requires the student to perceive words .... that there was no significant difference in the background knowledge of the students used for the study. Hence, any ...

  7. Vocal performance reflects individual quality in a nonpasserine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janicke, T.; Hahn, S.M.; Ritz, M.S.; Peter, H.-U.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies on mate-quality recognition in passerines showed that females use subtle differences in sound production to assess males. We analysed long calls of brown skuas, Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi, to test whether vocal performance could serve as an indicator of individual quality in a

  8. Glottal aerodynamics in compliant, life-sized vocal fold models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Michael; Dowell, Grant; Krane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    This talk presents high-speed PIV measurements in compliant, life-sized models of the vocal folds. A clearer understanding of the fluid-structure interaction of voiced speech, how it produces sound, and how it varies with pathology is required to improve clinical diagnosis and treatment of vocal disorders. Physical models of the vocal folds can answer questions regarding the fundamental physics of speech, as well as the ability of clinical measures to detect the presence and extent of disorder. Flow fields were recorded in the supraglottal region of the models to estimate terms in the equations of fluid motion, and their relative importance. Experiments were conducted over a range of driving pressures with flow rates, given by a ball flowmeter, and subglottal pressures, given by a micro-manometer, reported for each case. Imaging of vocal fold motion, vector fields showing glottal jet behavior, and terms estimated by control volume analysis will be presented. The use of these results for a comparison with clinical measures, and for the estimation of aeroacoustic source strengths will be discussed. Acknowledge support from NIH R01 DC005642.

  9. Cricothyroid muscle function and vocal fold stability in exercising horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Susan J; Rodriguez, Katie; Lane, Jennifer; Caron, John P

    2006-08-01

    To determine (1) if the cricothyroid muscle had respiratory-related electromyographic (EMG) activity that increased with respiratory effort and (2) if bilateral cricothyroid myotomy resulted in vocal fold instability and collapse in exercising horses. Experimental. Seven (3 EMG; 4 cricothyroid myotomy) Standardbred horses. Three horses exercised on a treadmill at speeds corresponding to the speed that produced maximum heart rate (HR(max)), 75% of maximum heart rate (HR(75%max)), and 50% of maximum heart rate (HR(50%max)) for 60 seconds at each speed while EMG activity of the cricothyroid muscle and nasopharyngeal pressures were measured. Another 4 normal horses were exercised on the treadmill at HR(max) and HR(75%max) for 60 seconds at each speed before and after bilateral cricothyroid myotomy. Upper airway pressures were measured and videoendoscopic examinations were performed and videotaped at each speed. Peak phasic EMBG activity of the cricothyroid muscle was coincident with inspiration and increased with treadmill speed. Bilateral cricothyroid myotomy resulted in vocal fold collapse in all horses. Mean peak inspiratory pressures were significantly more negative compared with control values at both HR(max) and HR(75%max). Cricothyroid muscle dysfunction may be implicated in vocal fold collapse and likely causes inspiratory airway obstruction in exercising horses. Conditions compromising cricothyroid muscle function or motor innervation could result in vocal fold collapse.

  10. Endolaryngeal Surgery of Bilateral Vocal Cord Abductor Paralysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-12-04

    Dec 4, 1971 ... Bilateral abductor paralysis of the vocal cords is uncommon ... Spontaneous recovery of neuromuscular function may .... Her exercise tolerance is far greater than at any time over the past 20 years. The voice deteriorated considerably during the first few post- operative weeks, but later returned to its ...

  11. Vocal Pitch Shift in Congenital Amusia (Pitch Deafness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25…

  12. Aprendizaje vocal y dialectos de canto en las aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo L. Tubaro

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Bird song díalects, that Is the existence of particular types of song shared by birds which inhabit a local area, have been functionally explained in terms of a mechanism which reduces gene flow between neighbouring populatíons, manipulation of territorial competítors, or adaptation of a signal to long range communícation in a partieular habitat. However, no one of these hypotheses has successfully accounted for the díalect diversity present in the species studied. In terms proximal causes, dialects are the product of vocal learning that take place during different stages of bird Iífe, in the context of a partieular life history. In this paper. we show the need of acomparative study of vocal learning processes, using species which are phylogeneticaly close but ecologically distinct, and unrelated species which occupy similar ecological niches, to understand the selective condítíons which have shaped the vocal ontogeny and, in turn, make clear the origin of Intraspecific vocal diversity

  13. Measurement of flow separation in a human vocal folds model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šidlof, Petr; Doaré, O.; Cadot, O.; Chaigne, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2011), s. 123-136 ISSN 0723-4864 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB200760801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : vocal folds * flow separation * physical model Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.735, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/t81114611760jp23/

  14. Anatomical study of minor alterations in neonate vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriano Rezende; Machado, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. To evaluate the existence and anatomical characterization of minor structural alterations in the vocal folds of newborns. 56 larynxes excised from neonates of both genders were studied. They were examined fresh, or defrosted after conservation via freezing, under a microscope at magnifications of 25× and 40×. The vocal folds were inspected and palpated by two examiners, with the aim of finding minor structural alterations similar to those described classically, and other undetermined minor structural alterations. Larynges presenting abnormalities were submitted to histological examination. Six cases of abnormalities were found in different larynges: one (1.79%) compatible with a sulcus vocalis and five (8.93%) compatible with a laryngeal micro-diaphragm. No cases of cysts or mucosal bridges were found. The observed abnormalities had characteristics similar to those described in other age groups. Abnormalities similar to sulcus vocalis or micro-diaphragm may be present at birth. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Occupational Vocal Health of Elite Sports Coaches: An Exploratory Pilot Study of Football Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Katie L; O'Halloran, Paul D; Oates, Jennifer M

    2015-07-01

    To explore the occupational voice use and vocal health of elite football coaches. This pilot study explored coaches' voice use patterns and vocal demands across workplace environments. Each coach's experiences of voice symptoms and voice problems were also investigated. Twelve Australian professional football coaches participated in a mixed-methods data collection approach. Data were collected through acoustic voice measurement (Ambulatory Phonation Monitor), semistructured interviews, and a voice symptom questionnaire (Voice Capabilities Questionnaire). Acoustic measures suggested heavy vocal loads for coaches during player training. All participants reported experiencing voice symptoms. They also suggested that the structure of their working week, workplace tasks, and vocal demands impacted on their voices. Despite this, participants reported little previous reflection or awareness of what impacted on their voices. Coaches typically did not consider how to support their voices during daily work and discussed experiencing voice symptoms as an inevitable part of their jobs. This study demonstrates that occupational vocal demands may negatively impact on sports coaches' vocal health. This is particularly important, considering coaches' heavy vocal loads across coaching tasks and reported negative occupational vocal health experience. Furthermore, coaches' limited insight into voice use and vocal health management may impact on their vocal performance and health. Given the exploratory nature of this study, further research into coaches' occupational vocal health is warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The vocal sac of Hylodidae (Amphibia, Anura): Phylogenetic and functional implications of a unique morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Costa, Agustin J; Montesinos, Rachel; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2017-11-01

    Anuran vocal sacs are elastic chambers that recycle exhaled air during vocalizations and are present in males of most species of frogs. Most knowledge of the diversity of vocal sacs relates to external morphology; detailed information on internal anatomy is available for few groups of frogs. Frogs of the family Hylodidae, which is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil and adjacent Argentina and Paraguay, have three patterns of vocal sac morphology-that is, single, subgular; paired, lateral; and absent. The submandibular musculature and structure of the vocal sac mucosa (the internal wall of the vocal sac) of exemplar species of this family and relatives were studied. In contrast to previous accounts, we found that all species of Crossodactylus and Hylodes possess paired, lateral vocal sacs, with the internal mucosa of each sac being separate from the contralateral one. Unlike all other frogs for which data are available, the mucosa of the vocal sacs in these genera is not supported externally by the mm. intermandibularis and interhyoideus. Rather, the vocal sac mucosa projects through the musculature and is free in the submandibular lymphatic sac. The presence of paired, lateral vocal sacs, the internal separation of the sac mucosae, and their projection through the m. interhyoideus are synapomorphies of the family. Furthermore, the specific configuration of the m. interhyoideus allows asymmetric inflation of paired vocal sacs, a feature only reported in species of these diurnal, stream-dwelling frogs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Vocal fry may undermine the success of young women in the labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rindy C; Klofstad, Casey A; Mayew, William J; Venkatachalam, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fry is speech that is low pitched and creaky sounding, and is increasingly common among young American females. Some argue that vocal fry enhances speaker labor market perceptions while others argue that vocal fry is perceived negatively and can damage job prospects. In a large national sample of American adults we find that vocal fry is interpreted negatively. Relative to a normal speaking voice, young adult female voices exhibiting vocal fry are perceived as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive, and less hirable. The negative perceptions of vocal fry are stronger for female voices relative to male voices. These results suggest that young American females should avoid using vocal fry speech in order to maximize labor market opportunities.

  18. Vocal fry may undermine the success of young women in the labor market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindy C Anderson

    Full Text Available Vocal fry is speech that is low pitched and creaky sounding, and is increasingly common among young American females. Some argue that vocal fry enhances speaker labor market perceptions while others argue that vocal fry is perceived negatively and can damage job prospects. In a large national sample of American adults we find that vocal fry is interpreted negatively. Relative to a normal speaking voice, young adult female voices exhibiting vocal fry are perceived as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive, and less hirable. The negative perceptions of vocal fry are stronger for female voices relative to male voices. These results suggest that young American females should avoid using vocal fry speech in order to maximize labor market opportunities.

  19. Black Jacobin hummingbirds vocalize above the known hearing range of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christopher R; Fernández-Vargas, Marcela; Portfors, Christine V; Mello, Claudio V

    2018-03-05

    Hummingbirds are a fascinating group of birds, but some aspects of their biology are poorly understood, such as their highly diverse vocal behaviors. We show here that the predominant vocalization of black jacobins (Florisuga fusca), a hummingbird prevalent in the mountains of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, consists of a triplet of syllables with high fundamental frequency (mean F0 ∼11.8 kHz), rapid frequency oscillations and strong ultrasonic harmonics and no detectable elements below ∼10 kHz. These are the most common vocalizations of these birds, and their frequency range is above the known hearing range of any bird species recorded to date, including hearing specialists such as owls. These observations suggest that black jacobins either have an atypically high frequency hearing range, or alternatively their primary vocalization has a yet unknown function unrelated to vocal communication. Black jacobin vocalizations challenge current notions about vocal communication in birds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acoustic Tonal and Vector Properties of Red Hind Grouper Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron Anthony

    Vertebrates are the most prodigious vocalizing animals in existence, and the most diverse methods of acoustic communication among vertebrates can be found in the ocean. Relatively many teleost fish are gifted with the ability to communicate acoustically, and the family of serranidae often performs this as a function of the swim bladder. Epinephelus Guttatus (E. guttatus), or more commonly the red hind grouper, is equipped with a drum shaped swim bladder acting as a monopole under typical ocean conditions. This configuration allows for what is understood to be omnidirectional projection of tones approximately centered between 40 and 440 Hz and spanning anywhere from 40 to 200 Hz of bandwidth and modulation effects based on observed data provided by researchers. Prior studies on many other fish show correlation in acoustic communication profile with length, size and sexual identity. In the red hind, sexual dimorphism leads to an inherent female identity in all juvenile fish which converts to male according to environmental factors, recommending at least consistent organs across both sexes be assumed even if not in use. Much research has been performed on male fish vocalization in terms of spectral content. Communication in fish is a complex multi-modal process, with acoustic communication being important for many of the species, particularly those in the littoral regions of the worlds' oceans. If identifying characteristics of the red hind vocalization can be isolated based on detection, classification, tracking and localizing methodologies, then these identifying characteristics may indeed lead to passive feature identification that allows for estimation of individual fish mass. Hypotheses based on vector, cyclostationary and classical tonal mechanics are presented for consideration. A battery of test data collection events, applying pre-recorded fish vocalizations to a geolocated undersea sound source were conducted. The results are supplied with the intent of

  1. IMRT for Image-Guided Single Vocal Cord Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, Sarah O.S., E-mail: s.osman@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Astreinidou, Eleftheria; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Keskin-Cambay, Fatma; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Voet, Peter; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Levendag, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: We have been developing an image-guided single vocal cord irradiation technique to treat patients with stage T1a glottic carcinoma. In the present study, we compared the dose coverage to the affected vocal cord and the dose delivered to the organs at risk using conventional, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) coplanar, and IMRT non-coplanar techniques. Methods and Materials: For 10 patients, conventional treatment plans using two laterally opposed wedged 6-MV photon beams were calculated in XiO (Elekta-CMS treatment planning system). An in-house IMRT/beam angle optimization algorithm was used to obtain the coplanar and non-coplanar optimized beam angles. Using these angles, the IMRT plans were generated in Monaco (IMRT treatment planning system, Elekta-CMS) with the implemented Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm. The organs at risk included the contralateral vocal cord, arytenoids, swallowing muscles, carotid arteries, and spinal cord. The prescription dose was 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Results: For the conventional plans and coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, the population-averaged mean dose {+-} standard deviation to the planning target volume was 67 {+-} 1 Gy. The contralateral vocal cord dose was reduced from 66 {+-} 1 Gy in the conventional plans to 39 {+-} 8 Gy and 36 {+-} 6 Gy in the coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, respectively. IMRT consistently reduced the doses to the other organs at risk. Conclusions: Single vocal cord irradiation with IMRT resulted in good target coverage and provided significant sparing of the critical structures. This has the potential to improve the quality-of-life outcomes after RT and maintain the same local control rates.

  2. IMRT for Image-Guided Single Vocal Cord Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Sarah O.S.; Astreinidou, Eleftheria; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Keskin-Cambay, Fatma; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Voet, Peter; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We have been developing an image-guided single vocal cord irradiation technique to treat patients with stage T1a glottic carcinoma. In the present study, we compared the dose coverage to the affected vocal cord and the dose delivered to the organs at risk using conventional, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) coplanar, and IMRT non-coplanar techniques. Methods and Materials: For 10 patients, conventional treatment plans using two laterally opposed wedged 6-MV photon beams were calculated in XiO (Elekta-CMS treatment planning system). An in-house IMRT/beam angle optimization algorithm was used to obtain the coplanar and non-coplanar optimized beam angles. Using these angles, the IMRT plans were generated in Monaco (IMRT treatment planning system, Elekta-CMS) with the implemented Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm. The organs at risk included the contralateral vocal cord, arytenoids, swallowing muscles, carotid arteries, and spinal cord. The prescription dose was 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Results: For the conventional plans and coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, the population-averaged mean dose ± standard deviation to the planning target volume was 67 ± 1 Gy. The contralateral vocal cord dose was reduced from 66 ± 1 Gy in the conventional plans to 39 ± 8 Gy and 36 ± 6 Gy in the coplanar and non-coplanar IMRT plans, respectively. IMRT consistently reduced the doses to the other organs at risk. Conclusions: Single vocal cord irradiation with IMRT resulted in good target coverage and provided significant sparing of the critical structures. This has the potential to improve the quality-of-life outcomes after RT and maintain the same local control rates.

  3. Causes of Acquired Vocal Cord Palsy in Indian Scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Sebastian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Vocal cord paresis or paralysis occurs due to lesion in the vagus nerve. Vocal cord paralysis can lead to dysphonia as well as dysphagia which lead the patient to frustration and emotional problems. The literature available on the etiology and the problems faced by them in Indian population is very scanty. Hence a prospective study was done on 41 Patients with vocal cord palsy who were referred to the Department of ENT for voice assessment and management from March 1st 2012 till 1st August 2012. The medical and surgical reports were examined. They were evaluated by an otorhinolaryngologist, and a Speech Language Pathologist. Diagnosis was made based on video stroboscopic findings. We also examined voice-related quality of life (V-RQOL outcomes in these patients. In this study, endo-tracheal intubation (15/41; 36.5% was the major cause of vocal cord palsy. The second major cause for vocal cord palsy in our study was surgical trauma (iatrogenic which constituted 26.8% (11/41, out of which thyroidectomy contributed to 81.81% (9/11 and cardiac surgery (Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG contributed to 18.18% (2/11. Neurological problems caused 14.63% (6/41 of the total cases. Non-surgical trauma constituted 9.75% (4/41 of the total patients. Left recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis was found as a complication of heart disease in 7.3%(3/41. Tuberculosis of lungs and cancer of lungs accounted to be the rarest causes. Hoarseness of voice was the most common symptom with associated dysphagia in a few. The voice related quality of life of these patients was found to be poor. They were found to have problems in the social-emotional domain and physical functioning domain.

  4. Voice Disorders in Teachers: Clinical, Videolaryngoscopical, and Vocal Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Eny Regina Bóia Neves; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Martins, Regina Helena Garcia

    2015-09-01

    Dysphonia is more prevalent in teachers than among the general population. The objective of this study was to analyze clinical, vocal, and videolaryngoscopical aspects in dysphonic teachers. Ninety dysphonic teachers were inquired about their voice, comorbidities, and work conditions. They underwent vocal auditory-perceptual evaluation (maximum phonation time and GRBASI scale), acoustic voice analysis, and videolaryngoscopy. The results were compared with a control group consisting of 90 dysphonic nonteachers, of similar gender and ages, and with professional activities excluding teaching and singing. In both groups, there were 85 women and five men (age range 31-50 years). In the controls, the majority of subjects worked in domestic activities, whereas the majority of teachers worked in primary (42.8%) and secondary school (37.7%). Teachers and controls reported, respectively: vocal abuse (76.7%; 37.8%), weekly hours of work between 21 and 40 years (72.2%; 80%), under 10 years of practice (36%; 23%), absenteeism (23%; 0%), sinonasal (66%; 20%) and gastroesophageal symptoms (44%; 22%), hoarseness (82%; 78%), throat clearing (70%; 62%), and phonatory effort (72%; 52%). In both groups, there were decreased values of maximum phonation time, impairment of the G parameter in the GRBASI scale (82%), decrease of F0 and increase of the rest of acoustic parameters. Nodules and laryngopharyngeal reflux were predominant in teachers; laryngopharyngeal reflux, polyps, and sulcus vocalis predominated in the controls. Vocal symptoms, comorbidities, and absenteeism were predominant among teachers. The vocal analyses were similar in both groups. Nodules and laryngopharyngeal reflux were predominant among teachers, whereas polyps, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and sulcus were predominant among controls. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphology of nerve endings in vocal fold of human newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva Leite, Janaina; Costa Cavalcante, Maria Luzete; Fechine-Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo; de Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria; Leite, José Alberto Dias; Nascimento Coelho, Dulce Maria; Rabelo de Freitas, Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Sensory receptors are distributed throughout the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Laryngeal sensitivity is crucial for maintaining safe swallowing, thus avoiding silent aspiration. Morphologic description of different receptor types present in larynx vary because of the study of many different species, from mouse to humans. The most commonly sensory structures described in laryngeal mucosa are free nerve endings, taste buds, muscle spindles, glomerular and corpuscular receptors. This study aimed at describing the morphology and the distribution of nerve endings in premature newborn glottic region. Transversal serial frozen sections of the whole vocal folds of three newborns were analyzed using an immuno-histochemical process with a pan-neuronal marker anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). Imaging was done using a confocal laser microscope. Nerve fiber density in vocal cord was calculated using panoramic images in software Morphometric Analysis System v1.0. Some sensory structures, i.e. glomerular endings and intraepithelial free nerve endings were found in the vocal cord mucosa. Muscle spindles, complex nerve endings (Meissner-like, spherical, rectangular and growing) spiral-wharves nerve structures were identified in larynx intrinsic muscles. Nervous total mean density in vocal cord was similar in the three newborns, although they had different gestational age. The mean nerve fiber density was higher in the posterior region than anterior region of vocal cord. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of different morphotypes of sensory corpuscles and nerve endings premature newborn glottic region and provide information on their sensory systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychosocial variables in patients with (sub) acute low back pain: an inception cohort in primary care physical therapy in The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heneweer, H.; AufdemKampe, G.; van Tulder, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. A prospective cohort study of patients with episodes of acute or subacute low back pain, seeking physical therapy in primary care, with follow-up at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. OBJECTIVES. To evaluate the association between psychosocial factors and the transition from acute or subacute...... at 12 weeks were not associated. CONCLUSIONS. The study strongly revealed pain-related items to be essential factors in the development of chronicity and long-term disability in primary care physical therapy. Health status at 8 weeks seems crucial in developing chronicity. © 2007 Lippincott Williams...

  7. Adapted to roar: functional morphology of tiger and lion vocal folds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Klemuk

    Full Text Available Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and morphological data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary function is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice.

  8. Auditory and audio-vocal responses of single neurons in the monkey ventral premotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R

    2018-03-20

    Monkey vocalization is a complex behavioral pattern, which is flexibly used in audio-vocal communication. A recently proposed dual neural network model suggests that cognitive control might be involved in this behavior, originating from a frontal cortical network in the prefrontal cortex and mediated via projections from the rostral portion of the ventral premotor cortex (PMvr) and motor cortex to the primary vocal motor network in the brainstem. For the rapid adjustment of vocal output to external acoustic events, strong interconnections between vocal motor and auditory sites are needed, which are present at cortical and subcortical levels. However, the role of the PMvr in audio-vocal integration processes remains unclear. In the present study, single neurons in the PMvr were recorded in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while volitionally producing vocalizations in a visual detection task or passively listening to monkey vocalizations. Ten percent of randomly selected neurons in the PMvr modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. More than four-fifths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of the vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the PMvr might be well positioned to mediate higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output to the primary vocal motor network. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the premotor cortex might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect on long-term average spectrum of pop singers' vocal warm-up with vocal function exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Angulo, Mabel; Muñoz, Daniel; Mayerhoff, Ross

    2013-04-01

    Abstract This case-control study aimed to investigate if there is any change on the spectral slope declination immediately after vocal function exercises (VFE) vs traditional vocal warm-up exercises in normal singers. Thirty-eight pop singers with perceptually normal voices were divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 18). One single session with VFE for the experimental group and traditional singing warm-up exercises for the control group was applied. Voice was recorded before and after the exercises. The recorded tasks were to read a phonetically balanced text and to sing a song. Long-term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis included alpha ratio, L1-L0 ratio, and singing power ratio (SPR). Acoustic parameters of voice samples pre- and post-training were compared. Comparison between VFE and control group was also performed. Significant changes after treatment included the alpha ratio and singing power ratio in speaking voice, and SPR in the singing voice for VFE group. The traditional vocal warm-up of the control group also showed pre-post changes. Significant differences between VFE group and control group for alpha ratio and SPR were found in speaking voice samples. This study demonstrates that VFE have an immediate effect on the spectrum of the voice, specifically a decrease on the spectral slope declination. The results of this study provide support for the advantageous effect of VFE as vocal warm-up on voice quality.

  10. Influence of abusive vocal habits, hydration, mastication, and sleep in the occurrence of vocal symptoms in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leslie Piccolotto; de Oliveira Latorre, Maria do Rosario Dias; Pinto Giannini, Susana Pimentel; de Assis Moura Ghirardi, Ana Carolina; de Fraga e Karmann, Delmira; Silva, Eliana Egerland; Figueira, Silmara

    2010-01-01

    Some vocal disorders in teachers are associated with occupational factors, but there are few studies that analyze the influence of vocal habits, fluid intake, mastication, and sleep on these disorders. The objective was to analyze the occurrence of vocal fatigue, hoarseness, and dry throat in elementary and high school teachers and their association with vocal habits, fluid intake, mastication, and sleep. A sample of 422 elementary and secondary school teachers was studied using a specific questionnaire. The multiple regression analysis showed that hoarseness was associated with absence of water intake (odds ratio (OR)=1.7; P=0.047), yelling/speaking loudly (OR=1.6; P=0.058), jaw-opening limitations (OR=3.8; P=0.003), average of 6 hours of sleep/night (OR=1.7; P=0.039), and waking-up feeling replenished (OR=2.0; P=0.020). The presence of vocal fatigue was significantly associated with yelling/speaking loudly (OR=2.2; P=0.013), speaking excessively (OR=2.4; P=0.023), difficulty to open the mouth to masticate (OR=6.6; P=0.003), less than 6 hours of sleep (OR=4.0; P=0.008), and waking-up feeling replenished (sometimes OR=2.8; P=0.003; or never OR=3.3; P=0.002). The presence of dry throat was associated with being a former smoker (OR=3.3; P=0.011) and having jaw-opening limitations (OR=3.9; P=0.021). In recent years, speech and hearing interventions with teachers have focused on health-care promotion actions and prevention of vocal disorders, prioritizing issues related with hydration and healthy vocal use habits. However, the findings in the present study show the need to further focus on lifestyle habits related to sleep and eating habits. Copyright 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Imaging of acute pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, Elmar M.; Goerich, Johannes [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Ulm, Steinhoevel Strasse 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is defined as an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of peripancreatic tissues or remote organ systems. This article reports the current classification, definition and terminology, epidemiology and etiology, pathogenesis and pathological findings, clinical and laboratory findings, and finally imaging findings of acute pancreatitis with emphasis on cross-sectional imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  12. Semi-occluded vocal tract exercises: aerodynamic and electroglottographic measurements in singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargin, Troy Clifford; Searl, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe changes in aerodynamic and electroglottographic (EGG) measures immediately after completing three semi-occluded vocal tract (SOVT) exercises. Prospective case series. Aerodynamic and EGG measurements were obtained before and immediately after performing three SOVTs (straw phonation, lip trill, and tongue trill) in four singers for prepost comparisons to evaluate laryngeal changes persisting beyond the execution of SOVTs. Mean air flow, sound pressure level, and EGG closed quotient tended to increase after completing SOVTs. The magnitude of change and consistency of change in measures across the SOVTs varied from subject-to-subject. Aerodynamic and EGG changes did occur during and immediately after completing SOVTs. However, there was marked variability within and across participants. Further investigation is needed to better understand which SOVTs are likely to benefit a particular individual. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Louzada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. Objective: To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. Material and methods: For this study, 28 voice recordings of women from 19 to 54 years old, diagnosed with dysphonia and submitted to a voice assessment from speech pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist, were used. The control group included 30 nondysphonic women evaluated in prior research from normal adults. The analysis parameters like number and duration of emissions, as well as the regularity of the repetition of syllables "pa", "ta", "ka" and the vowels "a" and "i," were provided by the Advanced Motor Speech Profile program (MSP Model-5141, version-2.5.2 (KayPentax. The DDK sequence "pataka" was analyzed quantitatively through the Sound Forge 7.0 program, as well as manually with the audio-visual help of sound waves. Average values of oral and vocal fold DDK dysphonic and nondysphonic women were compared using the "t Student" test and were considered significant when p<0.05. Results: The findings showed no significant differences between populations; however, the coefficient of variation of period (CvP and jitter of period (JittP average of the "ka," "a" and "i" emissions, respectively, were higher in dysphonic women (CvP=10.42%, 12.79%, 12.05%; JittP=2.05%, 6.05%, 3.63% compared to the control group (CvP=8.86%; 10.95%, 11.20%; JittP=1.82%, 2.98%, 3.15%. Conclusion: Although the results do not indicate any difficulties in oral and laryngeal motor control in the dysphonic group, the largest instability in vocal fold DDK in the experimental group should be considered, and

  14. Fossil evidence of the avian vocal organ from the Mesozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Julia A; Chatterjee, Sankar; Li, Zhiheng; Riede, Tobias; Agnolin, Federico; Goller, Franz; Isasi, Marcelo P; Martinioni, Daniel R; Mussel, Francisco J; Novas, Fernando E

    2016-10-27

    From complex songs to simple honks, birds produce sounds using a unique vocal organ called the syrinx. Located close to the heart at the tracheobronchial junction, vocal folds or membranes attached to modified mineralized rings vibrate to produce sound. Syringeal components were not thought to commonly enter the fossil record, and the few reported fossilized parts of the syrinx are geologically young (from the Pleistocene and Holocene (approximately 2.5 million years ago to the present)). The only known older syrinx is an Eocene specimen that was not described or illustrated. Data on the relationship between soft tissue structures and syringeal three-dimensional geometry are also exceptionally limited. Here we describe the first remains, to our knowledge, of a fossil syrinx from the Mesozoic Era, which are preserved in three dimensions in a specimen from the Late Cretaceous (approximately 66 to 69 million years ago) of Antarctica. With both cranial and postcranial remains, the new Vegavis iaai specimen is the most complete to be recovered from a part of the radiation of living birds (Aves). Enhanced-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) of syrinx structure in twelve extant non-passerine birds, as well as CT imaging of the Vegavis and Eocene syrinxes, informs both the reconstruction of ancestral states in birds and properties of the vocal organ in the extinct species. Fused rings in Vegavis form a well-mineralized pessulus, a derived neognath bird feature, proposed to anchor enlarged vocal folds or labia. Left-right bronchial asymmetry, as seen in Vegavis, is only known in extant birds with two sets of vocal fold sound sources. The new data show the fossilization potential of the avian vocal organ and beg the question why these remains have not been found in other dinosaurs. The lack of other Mesozoic tracheobronchial remains, and the poorly mineralized condition in archosaurian taxa without a syrinx, may indicate that a complex syrinx was a late arising feature

  15. Conversational Entrainment of Vocal Fry in Young Adult Female American English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrie, Stephanie A; Delfino, Christine R

    2017-07-01

    Conversational entrainment, the natural tendency for people to modify their behaviors to more closely match their communication partner, is examined as one possible mechanism modulating the prevalence of vocal fry in the speech of young American women engaged in spoken dialogue. Twenty young adult female American English speakers engaged in two spoken dialogue tasks-one with a young adult female American English conversational partner who exhibited substantial vocal fry and one with a young adult female American English conversational partner who exhibited quantifiably less vocal fry. Dialogues were analyzed for proportion of vocal fry, by speaker, and two measures of communicative success (efficiency and enjoyment). Participants employed significantly more vocal fry when conversing with the partner who exhibited substantial vocal fry than when conversing with the partner who exhibited quantifiably less vocal fry. Further, greater similarity between communication partners in their use of vocal fry tracked with higher scores of communicative efficiency and communicative enjoyment. Conversational entrainment offers a mechanistic framework that may be used to explain, to some degree, the frequency with which vocal fry is employed by young American women engaged in spoken dialogue. Further, young American women who modulated their vocal patterns during dialogue to match those of their conversational partner gained more efficiency and enjoyment from their interactions, demonstrating the cognitive and social benefits of entrainment. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vocalizations during electroejaculation in anaesthetized adult and young pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, F; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the vocalizations produced during electroejaculation under general anaesthesia in pampas deer males and to determine whether the characteristics of those vocalizations differ in adult and young pampas deer males. Electroejaculation was applied to 13 adults (AM) and 13 young (YM) males under general anaesthesia. Vocalizations were digitally recorded, and the number and duration of vocalizations, the latency in relation to each voltage, the total time vocalizing, and the structure of the fundamental frequency (F0) [initial frequency (F(start)), maximal frequency (F(max)), minimal frequency (F(min)) and final frequency (F(end))] were analysed. No male vocalized with 0 V; the number of animals that vocalized increased at 2 and 3 V and increased again at 4, 5 and 6 V (p V (p V (p p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Similarly, the fundamental frequencies were higher in YM than AM (p ≤ 0.05). Overall, we concluded that the vocalizations emitted during electroejaculation in pampas deer under general anaesthesia are related to the voltage applied during the process. Young males vocalize more time, probably due to a greater sensibility to the electric stimulation. The differences in the characteristics of the vocalizations between adult and young males may be related to the anatomic differences in the neck of adult or young males. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. The Anatomy of Vocal Divergence in North American Elk and European Red Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Roland; Riede, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Loud and frequent vocalizations play an important role in courtship behavior in Cervus species. European red deer (Cervus elaphus) produce low-pitched calls, whereas North American elk (Cervus canadensis) produce high-pitched calls, which is remarkable for one of the biggest land mammals. Both species engage their vocal organs in elaborate maneuvers but the precise mechanism is unknown. Vocal organs were compared by macroscopic and microscopic dissection. The larynx is sexually dimorphic in red deer but not in elk. The laryngeal lumen is more constricted in elk, and narrows further during ontogeny. Several elements of the hyoid skeleton and two of four vocal tract segments are longer in red deer than in elk allowing greater vocal tract expansion and elongation. We conclude that elk submit the larynx and vocal tract to much higher tension than red deer, whereby, enormously stressed vocal folds of reduced effective length create a high resistance glottal source. The narrow, high impedance laryngeal vestibulum matches glottal and vocal tract impedance allowing maximum power transfer. In red deer longer and relaxed vocal folds create a less resistant glottal source and a wider vestibulum matches the low glottal impedance to the vocal tract, thereby also ensuring maximum power transfer. PMID:23225193

  18. Risk of Vocal Palsy After Thyroidectomy with Identification of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yu Chiang

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of vocal palsy after thyroidectomy with identification of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN during surgery. In all, 521 patients treated by the same surgeon were enrolled in this study. Temporary and permanent vocal palsy rates were analyzed for patient groups classified according to surgery for primary benign thyroid disease, thyroid cancer, Graves' disease, and reoperation. Measurement of the vocal palsy rate was based on the number of nerves at risk. Twentysix intentionally sacrificed RLNs were excluded from analysis. Forty patients developed postoperative unilateral vocal palsy. Complete recovery of vocal palsy was documented for 35 of the 37 patients (94.6% whose RLN integrity had been ensured intraoperatively. Recovery from temporary vocal palsy ranged from 3 days to 4 months (mean, 30.7 days. The overall incidences of temporary and permanent vocal palsy were 5.1% and 0.9%, respectively. The rates of temporary/permanent vocal palsy in groups classified according to underlying disease were 4.0%/0.2% for benign thyroid disease, 2.0%/0.7% for thyroid cancer, 12.0%/1.1% for Graves' disease, and 10.8%/8.1% for reoperation. Surgery for thyroid cancer, Graves' disease, and recurrent goiter were associated with significantly higher vocal palsy rates. Most patients without documented nerve damage during the operation recovered from postoperative vocal palsy. Total lobectomy with routine RLN identification is recommended as a basic procedure in thyroid surgery.

  19. A study of vocal nonlinearities in humpback whale songs: from production mechanisms to acoustic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazau, Dorian; Adam, Olivier; Aubin, Thierry; Laitman, Jeffrey T.; Reidenberg, Joy S.

    2016-10-01

    Although mammalian vocalizations are predominantly harmonically structured, they can exhibit an acoustic complexity with nonlinear vocal sounds, including deterministic chaos and frequency jumps. Such sounds are normative events in mammalian vocalizations, and can be directly traceable to the nonlinear nature of vocal-fold dynamics underlying typical mammalian sound production. In this study, we give qualitative descriptions and quantitative analyses of nonlinearities in the song repertoire of humpback whales from the Ste Marie channel (Madagascar) to provide more insight into the potential communication functions and underlying production mechanisms of these features. A low-dimensional biomechanical modeling of the whale’s U-fold (vocal folds homolog) is used to relate specific vocal mechanisms to nonlinear vocal features. Recordings of living humpback whales were searched for occurrences of vocal nonlinearities (instabilities). Temporal distributions of nonlinearities were assessed within sound units, and between different songs. The anatomical production sources of vocal nonlinearities and the communication context of their occurrences in recordings are discussed. Our results show that vocal nonlinearities may be a communication strategy that conveys information about the whale’s body size and physical fitness, and thus may be an important component of humpback whale songs.

  20. The human vocal fold layers. Their delineation inside vocal fold as a background to create 3D digital and synthetic glottal model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klepáček, I.; Jirák, D.; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Janoušková, Olga; Vampola, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2016), s. 529-537 ISSN 0892-1997 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/1306 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : human vocal fold * vocal ligamentous complex * lamina propria Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.381, year: 2016

  1. The impact of a voice counseling procedure to select students with normal vocal characteristics for starting a master program in speech language pathology: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Wuyts; N. Baudonck; S. Claeys; Anke Luyten; K. van Lierde; S. de Ley; E. D'haeseleer

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine objective vocal quality, vocal characteristics, and vocal habits in future speech language pathology (SLP) students and to evaluate the possible impact of a provided vocal counseling procedure. A comparison of vocal data was done in SLP students

  2. Vocal cord dysfunction in former World Trade Center (WTC) rescue and recovery workers and volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Rafael E; Shohet, Michael R; Bienenfeld, Laura A; Afilaka, Aboaba A; Levin, Stephen M; Herbert, Robin

    2008-03-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a condition characterized by paradoxical partial adduction of the vocal cords on inspiration. It has been associated with exposures to irritants, as well as with psychological illnesses and conditions. Workers who participated in the recovery of the WTC disaster site were exposed to a large amount of irritants as well as considerable psychological stressors. We describe the clinical characteristics of 10 symptomatic former WTC workers diagnosed with this condition, as well as the frequency of spirometric findings suggestive of variable extrathoracic obstruction. Workers who became symptomatic after their WTC work experience have been evaluated clinically by a multidisciplinary team at an academic medical center. The evaluation included history, physical examination, chest radiograph, blood tests, and pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry in all patients. Additional evaluations and diagnostic tests included otolaryngological evaluation with flexible rhinolaryngoscopy and stroboscopy, gastroenterological and psychiatric evaluations. A randomly selected sample of 172 spirometry results were reviewed for evidence of inspiratory flow limitation. Variable extrathoracic obstruction was found in 18.6% of the spirometries. Ten patients were diagnosed with VCD. In addition to symptoms suggestive of co-morbid conditions (particularly rhinitis and acid reflux disease), most of the 10 patients had (1) hoarseness, (2) dyspnea that was not associated with bronchial hyperreactivity, or (3) dyspnea associated with asthma, with either mild bronchial hyperreactivity and/or poor response to asthma treatment. VCD appears to be part of the spectrum of airway disorders caused by occupational exposures at the WTC disaster site. Further study of this association is warranted.

  3. Acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... well it can be treated. Complications of acute pancreatitis may include: Acute kidney failure Long-term lung damage (ARDS) Buildup ...

  4. Vocal Music Therapy for Chronic Pain Management in Inner-City African Americans: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Norris, Marisol; Shim, Minjung; Gracely, Edward J; Gerrity, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    To date, research on music for pain management has focused primarily on listening to prerecorded music for acute pain. Research is needed on the impact of active music therapy interventions on chronic pain management. The aim of this mixed methods research study was to determine feasibility and estimates of effect of vocal music therapy for chronic pain management. Fifty-five inner-city adults, predominantly African Americans, with chronic pain were randomized to an 8-week vocal music therapy treatment group or waitlist control group. Consent and attrition rates, treatment compliance, and instrument appropriateness/burden were tracked. Physical functioning (pain interference and general activities), self-efficacy, emotional functioning, pain intensity, pain coping, and participant perception of change were measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Focus groups were conducted at the 12-week follow-up. The consent rate was 77%. The attrition rate was 27% at follow-up. We established acceptability of the intervention. Large effect sizes were obtained for self-efficacy at weeks 8 and 12; a moderate effect size was found for pain interference at week 8; no improvements were found for general activities and emotional functioning. Moderate effect sizes were obtained for pain intensity and small effect sizes for coping, albeit not statistically significant. Qualitative findings suggested that the treatment resulted in enhanced self-management, motivation, empowerment, a sense of belonging, and reduced isolation. This study suggests that vocal music therapy may be effective in building essential stepping-stones for effective chronic pain management, namely enhanced self-efficacy, motivation, empowerment, and social engagement. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Short-term blood pressure variability in acute stroke: post hoc analysis of the controlling hypertension and hypotension immediately post stroke and continue or stop post-stroke antihypertensives collaborative study trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Lisa S; Mistri, Amit K; Potter, John; Rothwell, Peter M; Robinson, Thompson G

    2015-06-01

    Short-term blood pressure variability (BPV) may predict outcome in acute stroke. We undertook a post hoc analysis of data from 2 randomized controlled trials to determine the effect of short-term BPV on 2-week outcome. Controlling Hypertension and Hypotension Immediately Post Stroke (CHHIPS) was a trial of BP-lowering, enrolling 179 acute stroke patients (onset3) at 2 weeks. Seven hundred six (92.5%) and 171 (95.5%) participants were included in the analysis for the COSSACS and CHHIPS data sets, respectively. Adjusted logistic regression analyses revealed no statistically significant associations between any of the included BPV parameters with 2-week death or disability in either study data set: COSSACS, odds ratio SD systolic BP 0.98 (0.78-1.23); CHHIPS, odds ratio SD systolic BP 0.97 (0.90-1.11). When derived from casual cuff BP measures, short-term BPV is not a useful predictor of early (2 weeks) outcome after acute stroke. Differing methodology may account for the discordance with previous studies indicating long-term (casual BPV) and short-term (beat-to-beat BPV) prognostic value. COSSACS was registered on the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Register; URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN89712435. CHHIPS was registered on the National Research Register; URL: http://public.ukcrn.org.uk. Unique identifier: N0484128008. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Eficacia de la reeducación vocal en diez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Gutiérrez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El programa de rehabilitación vocal debe basarse en un diagnóstico funcional siendo indispensable lainformación que la estroboscopia proporciona para diseñar un programa de terapia específico. Losequipos de Foniatría y Logopedia colaboran en este diseño e intervención, lo que reduce la duración deltratamiento con un mejor rendimiento y menor coste para el sistema sanitario. Para verificar la eficacia dela rehabilitación con 10 sesiones de tratamiento, se realiza un estudio con pacientes tratados por unequipo formado por un Foniatra y dos Logopedas. Se realiza una evaluación pre y post-tratamiento conherramientas subjetivas y objetivas: cuestionario de confort vocal, examen perceptual de la voz y análisisacústico. Los resultados avalan la eficacia del tratamiento realizado en tan solo diez sesiones.

  7. Framework Surgery for Treatment of Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniero, James J.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Francis, David O.

    2014-01-01

    Laryngeal framework surgery is the current gold standard treatment for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. It provides a permanent solution to glottic insufficiency caused by injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Various modifications to the original Isshiki type I laryngoplasty procedure have been described to improve voice and swallowing outcomes. The success of this procedure is highly dependent on the experience of the surgeon as it epitomizes the intersection of art and science in the field. The following article reviews the evidence, controversies, and complications related to laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. It also provides a detailed analysis of how and when arytenoid-positioning procedures should be considered, and summarizes the literature on postoperative outcomes. PMID:24883239

  8. The multisensory roles for auditory cortex in primate vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2009-12-01

    Primate vocal communication is a fundamentally multisensory behavior and this will be reflected in the different roles brain regions play in mediating it. Auditory cortex is illustrative, being influenced, I will argue, by the visual, somatosensory, proprioceptive and motor modalities during vocal communication. It is my intention that the data reviewed here suggest that investigating auditory cortex through the lens of a specific behavior may lead to a much clearer picture of its functions and dynamic organization. One possibility is that, beyond its tonotopic and cytoarchitectural organization, the auditory cortex may be organized according to ethologically-relevant actions. Such action-specific representations would be overlayed on top of traditional mapping schemes and would help mediate motor and multisensory processes related to a particular type of behavior.

  9. Primate vocalization, gesture, and the evolution of human language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A; Liebal, Katja; Pika, Simone

    2008-12-01

    The performance of language is multimodal, not confined to speech. Review of monkey and ape communication demonstrates greater flexibility in the use of hands and body than for vocalization. Nonetheless, the gestural repertoire of any group of nonhuman primates is small compared with the vocabulary of any human language and thus, presumably, of the transitional form called protolanguage. We argue that it was the coupling of gestural communication with enhanced capacities for imitation that made possible the emergence of protosign to provide essential scaffolding for protospeech in the evolution of protolanguage. Similarly, we argue against a direct evolutionary path from nonhuman primate vocalization to human speech. The analysis refines aspects of the mirror system hypothesis on the role of the primate brain's mirror system for manual action in evolution of the human language-ready brain.

  10. The Effect of Syllable Repetition Rate on Vocal Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topbas, Oya; Orlikoff, Robert F.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether mean vocal fundamental frequency ("F"[subscript 0]) or speech sound pressure level (SPL) varies with changes in syllable repetition rate. Twenty-four young adults (12 M and 12 F) repeated the syllables/p[inverted v]/,/p[inverted v]t[schwa]/, and/p[inverted v]t[schwa]k[schwa]/at a modeled "slow" rate of approximately one…

  11. Noise pollution filters bird communities based on vocal frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton D Francis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human-generated noise pollution now permeates natural habitats worldwide, presenting evolutionarily novel acoustic conditions unprecedented to most landscapes. These acoustics not only harm humans, but threaten wildlife, and especially birds, via changes to species densities, foraging behavior, reproductive success, and predator-prey interactions. Explanations for negative effects of noise on birds include disruption of acoustic communication through energetic masking, potentially forcing species that rely upon acoustic communication to abandon otherwise suitable areas. However, this hypothesis has not been adequately tested because confounding stimuli often co-vary with noise and are difficult to separate from noise exposure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a natural experiment that controls for confounding stimuli, we evaluate whether species vocal features or urban-tolerance classifications explain their responses to noise measured through habitat use. Two data sets representing nesting and abundance responses reveal that noise filters bird communities nonrandomly. Signal duration and urban tolerance failed to explain species-specific responses, but birds with low-frequency signals that are more susceptible to masking from noise avoided noisy areas and birds with higher frequency vocalizations remained. Signal frequency was also negatively correlated with body mass, suggesting that larger birds may be more sensitive to noise due to the link between body size and vocal frequency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that acoustic masking by noise may be a strong selective force shaping the ecology of birds worldwide. Larger birds with lower frequency signals may be excluded from noisy areas, whereas smaller species persist via transmission of higher frequency signals. We discuss our findings as they relate to interspecific relationships among body size, vocal amplitude and frequency and suggest that they are

  12. Noise pollution filters bird communities based on vocal frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Clinton D; Ortega, Catherine P; Cruz, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Human-generated noise pollution now permeates natural habitats worldwide, presenting evolutionarily novel acoustic conditions unprecedented to most landscapes. These acoustics not only harm humans, but threaten wildlife, and especially birds, via changes to species densities, foraging behavior, reproductive success, and predator-prey interactions. Explanations for negative effects of noise on birds include disruption of acoustic communication through energetic masking, potentially forcing species that rely upon acoustic communication to abandon otherwise suitable areas. However, this hypothesis has not been adequately tested because confounding stimuli often co-vary with noise and are difficult to separate from noise exposure. Using a natural experiment that controls for confounding stimuli, we evaluate whether species vocal features or urban-tolerance classifications explain their responses to noise measured through habitat use. Two data sets representing nesting and abundance responses reveal that noise filters bird communities nonrandomly. Signal duration and urban tolerance failed to explain species-specific responses, but birds with low-frequency signals that are more susceptible to masking from noise avoided noisy areas and birds with higher frequency vocalizations remained. Signal frequency was also negatively correlated with body mass, suggesting that larger birds may be more sensitive to noise due to the link between body size and vocal frequency. Our findings suggest that acoustic masking by noise may be a strong selective force shaping the ecology of birds worldwide. Larger birds with lower frequency signals may be excluded from noisy areas, whereas smaller species persist via transmission of higher frequency signals. We discuss our findings as they relate to interspecific relationships among body size, vocal amplitude and frequency and suggest that they are immediately relevant to the global problem of increases in noise by providing critical insight as

  13. Positive therapy of andrographolide in vocal fold leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jue; Xue, Tao; Bao, Ying; Wang, Dong-Hai; Ma, Bing-Liang; Yin, Chen-Yi; Yang, Guang-Hui; Ren, Gang; Lan, Long-Jiang; Wang, Jian-Qiu; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Zhao, Yu-Qin

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold leukoplakia is a premalignant precursor of squamous cell carcinoma. Although many efforts have been contributed to therapy of this disease, none exhibits a satisfactory result. The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of andrographolide therapy in vocal fold leukoplakia and to explore the preliminary mechanism underlying. Forty-one eligible patients were enrolled in the study. The patients were treated for 10-minute exposures of 5 ml (25mg/ml) andrographolide injection aerosols twice a day, and 2 weeks was considered as one treatment course. Electronic laryngoscope was used to observe the condition of vocal fold leukoplakia during the treatment. Every patient received one or two treatment courses, and the follow-up was carried out for 12 months. Toxic reactions of treatments were evaluated on the basis of the standards of the United States MD Anderson Cancer Center. Moreover, laryngeal carcinoma cell line Hep2 was applied to explore the mechanism of effect of andrographolide. Anti-proliferative effect on Hep2, cell nuclear morphology, express of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and pro-apoptotic protein were detected after andrographolide treatment. We found that andrographolide exhibited significant curative effects on treatments, which were accompanied by thinning of the lesion of leukoplakia, reduction in the whitish surface area, and return of pink or red epithelium. A complete response up to 85% was observed, and no toxic side effect events occurred during the study. No patient with a complete response had a recurrence in the follow-up. Moreover, cellular experiments in Hep2 indicated that andrographolide activated MAPK pathway and caspase cascade, and finally induced apoptosis in laryngeal carcinoma cell. The advantages of andrographolide are connected with minimally invasive and localized character of the treatment and no damage of collagenous tissue structures, which are more convenient and less painful

  14. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesson, Hjalmar K; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular, and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing) and symbolic (referential) signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet). We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols). To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders.

  15. Dysfunction of vocal chords as cause of dyspnoea and sibilance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanabria Rodriguez, Oscar; Bermudez Gomez, Mary; Lobelo, Rafael; Londono Trujillo, Dario; Solarte Rodriguez, Ivan

    2001-01-01

    From the years 80 have been identified the dysfunction and the paralysis of vocal chords (DPVC), like cause of dyspnoea, sibilance and in many occasions truly critical clinical squares that simulate asthmatic crisis. Patients' reports that have required orotracheal intubations and stay in intensive care, when this illness is presented; they improve in a remarkable way when the correct diagnosis of DPVC settles down. The paper include the presentation of the case and discussion

  16. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalmar Kosmos Turesson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing and symbolic (referential signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet. We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols. To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus. The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders.

  17. Morphological, olfactory, and vocal development in big brown bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather W. Mayberry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a within subjects design, we documented morphological, bioacoustical and behavioral developmental changes in big brown bats. Eptesicus fuscus pups are born naked and blind but assume an adult-like appearance by post-natal day (PND 45 and flight by PND 30. Adult females use spatial memory, acoustic and olfactory cues to reunite with offspring, but it is unclear if pups can recognize maternal scents. We tested the olfactory discrimination abilities of young E. fuscus pups and found they exhibited no odor preferences. Pups also emit distinct vocalizations called isolation calls (i-calls that facilitate mother-offspring reunions, but how pups shift their vocalizations from i-calls to downward frequency modulated (FM sweeps used in echolocation remains unclear. Between PND 0–9, pups emitted mainly long duration, tonal i-calls rich in harmonics, but after they switched to short duration, downward FM sweeps with fewer harmonics. Call maximum frequency and repetition rate showed minor changes across development. Signal duration, bandwidth, and number of harmonics decreased, whereas the maximum, minimum and bandwidth of the fundamental, and peak spectral frequency all increased. We recorded vocalizations during prolonged maternal separation and found that isolated pups called longer and at a faster rate, presumably to signal for maternal assistance. To assess how PND 13 pups alter their signals during interactions with humans we compared spontaneous and provoked vocalizations and found that provoked calls were spectrally and temporally more similar to those of younger bats suggesting that pups in distress emit signals that sound like younger bats to promote maternal assistance.

  18. Dose Vocal: uma revisão integrativa da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Perpétuo Assad

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar uma revisão da literatura referente aos tipos de dose vocal e aos resultados destas medidas em diferentes situações comunicativas. Houve levantamento da literatura nacional e internacional, publicada nos idiomas Inglês, Espanhol ou Português, utilizando-se as bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, IBECS e ISI (Web of Science, dos últimos 21 anos, cujos artigos estavam disponíveis na íntegra. Quinze estudos contemplaram os critérios propostos. A maioria dos artigos estudou professores, visto que são mais vulneráveis para a ocorrência de disfonia. Os tipos de dose encontrados foram porcentagem de fonação, dose temporal, dose cíclica, dose de distância, dose de energia radiada e dose de energia dissipada. O aumento da dose vocal está associado ao uso excessivo e prolongado da voz na atividade docente, principalmente entre os professores da educação infantil e os de canto. As altas doses vocais correlacionam-se também à presença de disfonia, ao maior nível de ruído ambiental, à grande variação prosódica na fala e à autopercepção de fadiga vocal. Pacientes com disfonia comportamental (nódulos e pólipos apresentam maiores doses vocais que pacientes com outros quadros disfônicos. Fatores como repouso de voz e uso do amplificador vocal indicam a diminuição da dose da voz.

  19. Hereditary distal spinal muscular atrophy with vocal cord paralysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, I D; Harper, P S

    1980-01-01

    A large kindred is described in which an unusual form of spinal muscular atrophy is segregating in an autosomal dominant manner. The disease presents most commonly in the teens with small muscle wasting in the hands, particularly involving median nerve musculature. Subsequently distal muscle wasting and weakness occur in the lower limbs. Vocal cord paralysis is a characteristic and potentially hazardous feature. No previous report of this condition has been found.

  20. [Vocal cord functions in patients with asthma attack].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Burcu; Selçuk, Omer Tarik; Ardiç, Sadik; Saylam, Güleser; Yüceege, Melike; Bilgin, Esra; Korkmaz, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This study was planned to evaluate vocal cord functions and to establish underlying vocal cord dysfunctions (VCD) in patients with asthma attack. All patients admitted to emergency service of our hospital with asthma attack between February 01, 2007 and June 01, 2007 were included in the evaluation. After the evaluation, all patients regarded to have asthma attacks based on GINA 2006 guide were enrolled in the study. After first intervention, patients underwent endoscopic larynx examination for the evaluation of vocal cord functions. Twenty four (65.7%) male and 11 female (31.4%), overall 35 patients diagnosed with asthma and who did not have the history of another disease were included in the study. At endoscopic larynx examination carried out after first medical examination, at the moment of asthma attack, tongue, tongue base, epiglottis and arytenoid were observed to be within normal limits. In 9 (25.7%) patients, upper respiratory tract was hyperemic and in 2 (5.7%) odematous. One patient had nasal polyposis (p> 0.05). In the evaluation of vocal cord functions, restriction in adduction was observed in merely one patient. All other functions were normal. Rima opening width was established to be mean 8.34 + or - 0.725. VCD was deteced in none of the patients included in the study. Although we did not detect VCD in any patient, VCD should be borne in mind in cases which presents with the clinical picture of asthma and responds weakly to the treatment or in cases of unexplained shortness of breath. This may prevent many unnecessary procedures such as medication, entubation, tracheostomy and iatrogenic mortality. Further longutudial studies are required in order to shed light on the assocation of asthma with VCD.

  1. Development of vocalization and hearing in American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Christian; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Rasmus L; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-09-15

    American mink (Neovison vison) kits are born altricial and fully dependent on maternal care, for which the kits' vocalizations appear essential. We used auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to determine: (1) hearing sensitivity of adult females from two breeding lines known to differ in maternal behaviour and (2) development of hearing in kits 8-52 days of age. We also studied sound production in 20 kits throughout postnatal days 1 to 44. Adult female mink had a broad hearing range from 1 kHz to above 70 kHz, with peak sensitivity (threshold of 20 dB SPL) at 8-10 kHz, and no difference in sensitivity between the two breeding lines (P>0.22) to explain the difference in maternal care. Mink kits showed no signs of hearing up to postnatal day 24. From day 30, all kits had ABRs indicative of hearing. Hearing sensitivity increased with age, but was still below the adult level at postnatal day 52. When separated from their mothers, kits vocalized loudly. Until the age of 22 days, 90% of all kits vocalized with no significant decline with age (P=0.27). From day 25, concurrent with the start of hearing, the number of vocalizing kits decreased with age (P<0.001), in particular in kits that were re-tested (P=0.004). Large numbers of mink are kept in fur industry farms, and our results are important to the understanding of sound communication, which is part of their natural behaviour. Our results also suggest mink as an interesting model for studying the development of mammalian hearing and its correlation to sound production.

  2. Finite element modelling of vocal tract changes after voice therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vampola, T.; Laukkanen, A. M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Švec, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2011), s. 77-88 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : biomechanics of human voice * voice production modelling * vocal excersing * voice training Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.kme.zcu.cz/acm/index.php/acm/article/view/138

  3. Evidence of auditory insensitivity to vocalization frequencies in two frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Sandra; Mason, Matthew J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and maintenance of animal communication systems requires the co-evolution of signal and receiver. Frogs and toads rely heavily on acoustic communication for coordinating reproduction and typically have ears tuned to the dominant frequency of their vocalizations, allowing discriminat...... by their high toxicity might help to explain why calling has not yet disappeared, and that visual communication may have replaced auditory in these colourful, diurnal frogs....

  4. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesson, Hjalmar K.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular, and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing) and symbolic (referential) signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet). We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols). To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders. PMID:26500583

  5. Fixity of vocal cords and laryngocele in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, S; Ferone, D; Colao, A; Merola, B; Motta, G; Lombardi, G

    1997-12-01

    Acromegalic patients have a reduced life expectancy mainly due to cardio-, cerebrovascular and respiratory disorders and increased prevalence of neoplasias. Particularly, the pathogenesis of respiratory disorders in acromegalics is debated. Laryngeal abnormalities are not yet well clarified even if they are frequently involved in the occurrence of respiratory insufficiency. In this study, we report on a 65 year-old acromegalic male suffering from frequent and severe dyspnea attacks and clinical findings of respiratory upperway obstruction, besides the common acromegalic features. At the external examination of the larynx, a bilateral painless and soft mass, located in the laterocervical region under the hyoid bone, was detected. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy, showed bilateral swelling between the aryepiglottic fold and the false vocal cords, whose size increased during the expiration and the phonation, fixity of the vocal cords in paramedian position, with a marked reduction of the respiratory space and increase in arytenoid cartilage size and mucosal edema. Neck and mediastinum CT scan showed the presence of an air containing bilateral swelling, crossing the thyrohyoid membrane. Bilateral cricoarytenoidal joint chondrocalcification, associated to a mixed-type bilateral laryngocele, was diagnosed. Laryngoceles were both surgically removed and a left monolateral arytenoidectomy was performed, using fiberoptic microlaryngoscopy with CO2 laser. The clinical evaluation, one month later, confirmed the complete disappearance of dyspnea and a partial improvement of phonation. Three months later, laryngoscopy showed the bilateral restoration of vocal cords motility and a significant improvement of phonation. This case presents an uncommon and severe respiratory problem in acromegaly such as the fixity of vocal cords associated to laryngocele. Circulating GH and IGF-I hypersecretion caused edema and laxity of laryngeal mucosa as well as bilateral ankylosis of cricoarytenoidal

  6. Neuromuscular compensation mechanisms in vocal fold paralysis and paresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Karuna; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew; Soofer, Donna; Chhetri, Dinesh K

    2017-07-01

    Vocal fold paresis and paralysis are common conditions. Treatment options include augmentation laryngoplasty and voice therapy. The optimal management for this condition is unclear. The objective of this study was to assess possible neuromuscular compensation mechanisms that could potentially be used in the treatment of vocal fold paresis and paralysis. In vivo canine model. In an in vivo canine model, we examined three conditions: 1) unilateral right recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) paresis and paralysis, 2) unilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) paralysis, and 3) unilateral vagal nerve paresis and paralysis. Phonatory acoustics and aerodynamics were measured in each of these conditions. Effective compensation was defined as improved acoustic and aerodynamic profile. The most effective compensation for all conditions was increasing RLN activation and decreasing glottal gap. Increasing RLN activation increased the percentage of possible phonatory conditions that achieved phonation onset. SLN activation generally led to decreased number of total phonation onset conditions within each category. Differential effects of SLN (cricothyroid [CT] muscle) activation were seen. Ipsilateral SLN activation could compensate for RLN paralysis; normal CT compensated well in unilateral SLN paralysis; and in vagal paresis/paralysis, contralateral SLN and RLN displayed antagonistic relationships. Methods to improve glottal closure should be the primary treatment for large glottal gaps. Neuromuscular compensation is possible for paresis. This study provides insights into possible compensatory mechanisms in vocal fold paresis and paralysis. NA Laryngoscope, 127:1633-1638, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Unilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis of a Great Jewish Opera Singer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duek, Irit; Cohen, Jacob T.; Gil, Ziv

    2018-01-01

    George London was one of the most compelling vocal artists of the early twentieth century. At the age of 47, the great bass-baritone retired from singing. It has been suggested that the premature ending of his operatic career was due to unilateral vocal cord palsy (UVCP). When London retired, the common belief was that this UVCP was caused by viral hepatitis, although there is no evidence to support such an etiology. London’s medical records eliminate the possible etiology of a neck neoplasm, and the long period of time between a heart attack he experienced and his diagnosis of UVCP makes a cardiovascular etiology an unlikely causative factor. London’s relatively young age, the diagnosis of laryngitis prior to his UVCP, and the course of his disease indicate that the underlying cause of the termination of his singing career was post-viral neuropathy. This paper describes the clinical evidence related to London’s vocal cord function and explores the possible causes for his UVCP, which apparently led to his early retirement. PMID:29406848

  8. Child vocalization composition as discriminant information for automatic autism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmi

    2009-01-01

    Early identification is crucial for young children with autism to access early intervention. The existing screens require either a parent-report questionnaire and/or direct observation by a trained practitioner. Although an automatic tool would benefit parents, clinicians and children, there is no automatic screening tool in clinical use. This study reports a fully automatic mechanism for autism detection/screening for young children. This is a direct extension of the LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) system, which utilizes speech signal processing technology to analyze and monitor a child's natural language environment and the vocalizations/speech of the child. It is discovered that child vocalization composition contains rich discriminant information for autism detection. By applying pattern recognition and machine learning approaches to child vocalization composition data, accuracy rates of 85% to 90% in cross-validation tests for autism detection have been achieved at the equal-error-rate (EER) point on a data set with 34 children with autism, 30 language delayed children and 76 typically developing children. Due to its easy and automatic procedure, it is believed that this new tool can serve a significant role in childhood autism screening, especially in regards to population-based or universal screening.

  9. Systemic hydration: relating science to clinical practice in vocal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Naomi A; Thibeault, Susan L

    2014-09-01

    To examine the current state of the science regarding the role of systemic hydration in vocal function and health. Literature review. Literature search spanning multiple disciplines, including speech-language pathology, nutrition and dietetics, medicine, sports and exercise science, physiology, and biomechanics. The relationship between hydration and physical function is an area of common interest among multiple professions. Each discipline provides valuable insight into the connection between performance and water balance, as well as complimentary methods of investigation. Existing voice literature suggests a relationship between hydration and voice production; however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet defined and a treatment effect for systemic hydration remains to be demonstrated. Literature from other disciplines sheds light on methodological shortcomings and, in some cases, offers an alternative explanation for observed phenomena. A growing body of literature in the field of voice science is documenting a relationship between hydration and vocal function; however, greater understanding is required to guide best practice in the maintenance of vocal health and management of voice disorders. Integration of knowledge and technical expertise from multiple disciplines facilitates analysis of existing literature and provides guidance as to future research. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Generalizing prosodic patterns by a non-vocal learning mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Juan M; Hoeschele, Marisa

    2017-03-01

    Prosody, a salient aspect of speech that includes rhythm and intonation, has been shown to help infants acquire some aspects of syntax. Recent studies have shown that birds of two vocal learning species are able to categorize human speech stimuli based on prosody. In the current study, we found that the non-vocal learning rat could also discriminate human speech stimuli based on prosody. Not only that, but rats were able to generalize to novel stimuli they had not been trained with, which suggests that they had not simply memorized the properties of individual stimuli, but learned a prosodic rule. When tested with stimuli with either one or three out of the four prosodic cues removed, the rats did poorly, suggesting that all cues were necessary for the rats to solve the task. This result is in contrast to results with humans and budgerigars, both of which had previously been studied using the same paradigm. Humans and budgerigars both learned the task and generalized to novel items, but were also able to solve the task with some of the cues removed. In conclusion, rats appear to have some of the perceptual abilities necessary to generalize prosodic patterns, in a similar though not identical way to the vocal learning species that have been studied.

  11. Modeling and imaging of the vocal fold vibration for voice health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba

    of vibration, showing dierent characteristics in normal and abnormal phonation. In the last part of this thesis research, the optical ow algorithm for data acquisition as well as the biomechanical model of the vocal fold are used to formulate a nonstationary statistical inverse problem for vocal fold features......, analysis and inference. This thesis deals with biomechanical models of the vocal fold, specially of the collision, and laryngeal videoendoscopic analysis procedures suitable for the inference of the underlying vocal fold characteristics. The rst part of this research is devoted to frictionless contact...... modeling during asymmetric vocal fold vibration. The prediction problem is numerically addressed with a self-sustained three-dimensional nite element model of the vocal fold with position-based contact constraints. A novel contact detection mechanism is shown to successfully detect collision in asymmetric...

  12. Reduced auditory processing capacity during vocalization in children with Selective Mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arie, Miri; Henkin, Yael; Lamy, Dominique; Tetin-Schneider, Simona; Apter, Alan; Sadeh, Avi; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2007-02-01

    Because abnormal Auditory Efferent Activity (AEA) is associated with auditory distortions during vocalization, we tested whether auditory processing is impaired during vocalization in children with Selective Mutism (SM). Participants were children with SM and abnormal AEA, children with SM and normal AEA, and normally speaking controls, who had to detect aurally presented target words embedded within word lists under two conditions: silence (single task), and while vocalizing (dual task). To ascertain specificity of auditory-vocal deficit, effects of concurrent vocalizing were also examined during a visual task. Children with SM and abnormal AEA showed impaired auditory processing during vocalization relative to children with SM and normal AEA, and relative to control children. This impairment is specific to the auditory modality and does not reflect difficulties in dual task per se. The data extends previous findings suggesting that deficient auditory processing is involved in speech selectivity in SM.

  13. Vocal Acoustic and Auditory-Perceptual Characteristics During Fluctuations in Estradiol Levels During the Menstrual Cycle: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Polyanna; Diniz da Rosa, Marine Raquel; Almeida, Larissa Nadjara Alves; de Araujo Pernambuco, Leandro; Almeida, Anna Alice

    2018-03-07

    Estradiol production varies cyclically, changes in levels are hypothesized to affect the voice. The main objective of this study was to investigate vocal acoustic and auditory-perceptual characteristics during fluctuations in the levels of the hormone estradiol during the menstrual cycle. A total of 44 volunteers aged between 18 and 45 were selected. Of these, 27 women with regular menstrual cycles comprised the test group (TG) and 17 combined oral contraceptive users comprised the control group (CG). The study was performed in two phases. In phase 1, anamnesis was performed. Subsequently, the TG underwent blood sample collection for measurement of estradiol levels and voice recording for later acoustic and auditory-perceptual analysis. The CG underwent only voice recording. Phase 2 involved the same measurements as phase 1 for each group. Variables were evaluated using descriptive and inferential analysis to compare groups and phases and to determine relationships between variables. Voice changes were found during the menstrual cycle, and such changes were determined to be related to variations in estradiol levels. Impaired voice quality was observed to be associated with decreased levels of estradiol. The CG did not demonstrate significant vocal changes during phases 1 and 2. The TG showed significant increases in vocal parameters of roughness, tension, and instability during phase 2 (the period of low estradiol levels) when compared with the CG. Low estradiol levels were also found to be negatively correlated with the parameters of tension, instability, and jitter and positively correlated with fundamental voice frequency. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. DYSFUNCTION OF THE VOCAL CORDS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS. CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Navazo-Eguía AI; Arias-Tobalina H; Suárez-Muñiz E; Mata-Franco G

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) or laryngeal asthma is characterized by paroxysmal episodes of adduction of the vocal cords during inspiration and / or expiration, leading to episodes of dyspnea and stridor.CASE REPORT A 13 year old female with a history of exercise-related asthma is admitted to Hospital with a episode of stridor and dyspnea. Pulmonary function curve showed flattening of inspiratory and expiratory curve. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy: adducion of both vocal cords duri...

  15. Unilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis cases in KOHI - Etiologic Review of Mediastinal Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Sefa, A; Nagavci, L; Imeraga, D

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between unilateral vocal cord paralysis and meditational pathology. To review the anatomical relationship of mediastinal structures to the path of the unilateral vocal cord paralysis. Methods: Cross sectional study,analytical held at the Occupational Health Institute. The sample consisted of patients with Unilateral Vocal Cord paralysis of sex and age between 40-80 years.Nasolaryngoscopy flexible, CT scan, Magnetic resonance, biopsy are diagnostic...

  16. A Systematic Review of Psychological Interventions for Adult and Pediatric Patients with Vocal Cord Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Guglani, Loveleen; Atkinson, Sarah; Hosanagar, Avinash; Guglani, Lokesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD) or Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion (PVFM) is a functional disorder of the vocal cords that requires multidisciplinary treatment. Besides relaxation techniques, the use of psychological interventions can help treat the underlying psychological co-morbidities. There is currently no literature that examines the effectiveness of psychological interventions for VCD/PVFM. Objectives: To review the evidence for psychological interventions used for the treatment...

  17. Cross-cultural decoding of positive and negative non-linguistic emotion vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Laukka, Petri; Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Söder, Nela; Nordström, Henrik; Althoff, Jean; Chui, Wanda; Iraki, Frederick K.; Rockstuhl, Thomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S.

    2013-01-01

    Which emotions are associated with universally recognized non-verbal signals?We address this issue by examining how reliably non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts) can convey emotions across cultures. Actors from India, Kenya, Singapore, and USA were instructed to produce vocalizations that would convey nine positive and nine negative emotions to listeners. The vocalizations were judged by Swedish listeners using a within-valence forced-choice procedure, where positive and negative emot...

  18. Cross-cultural decoding of positive and negative nonlinguistic emotion vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Petri eLaukka; Hillary Anger eElfenbein; Nela eSöder; Henrik eNordström; Jean eAlthoff; Wanda eChui; Frederick Kang'ethe eIraki; Thomas eRockstuhl; Nutankumar S. Thingujam

    2013-01-01

    Which emotions are associated with universally recognized nonverbal signals? We address this issue by examining how reliably nonlinguistic vocalizations (affect bursts) can convey emotions across cultures. Actors from India, Kenya, Singapore and USA were instructed to produce vocalizations that would convey 9 positive and 9 negative emotions to listeners. The vocalizations were judged by Swedish listeners using a within-valence forced-choice procedure, where positive and negative emotions wer...

  19. Ultrasonic vocalizations: a tool for behavioural phenotyping of mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Crawley, Jacqueline; Ricceri, Laura

    2008-01-01

    In neonatal mice ultrasonic vocalizations have been studied both as an early communicative behavior of the pup-mother dyad and as a sign of an aversive affective state. Adult mice of both sexes produce complex ultrasonic vocalization patterns in different experimental/social contexts. All these vocalizations are becoming an increasingly valuable assay for behavioral phenotyping throughout the mouse life-span and alterations of the ultrasound patterns have been reported in several mouse models...

  20. THE UTILITY OF ASSESSING MUSICAL PREFERENCE BEFORE IMPLEMENTATION OF NONCONTINGENT MUSIC TO REDUCE VOCAL STEREOTYPY

    OpenAIRE

    Lanovaz, Marc J.; Rapp, John T.; Ferguson, Stéphanie

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a modified paired-choice preference assessment and used a multielement design to examine the effects of noncontingent access to high- and low-preference music on vocal stereotypy exhibited by children with autism. For 3 of the 4 participants, high-preference music (a) produced lower levels of vocal stereotypy than low-preference music and (b) reduced vocal stereotypy when compared to a no-interaction condition. Results underscore the potential importance of assessing musical pref...

  1. A retrospective study of long-term treatment outcomes for reduced vocal intensity in hypokinetic dysarthria

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Reduced vocal intensity is a core impairment of hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Speech treatments have been developed to rehabilitate the vocal subsystems underlying this impairment. Intensive treatment programs requiring high-intensity voice and speech exercises with clinician-guided prompting and feedback have been established as effective for improving vocal function. Less is known, however, regarding long-term outcomes of clinical benefit in speaker...

  2. The distribution and timing of bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) vocalizations reflect changing environmental conditions in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Kalyn Quintin

    The Arctic is experiencing dramatic shifts in climate that have led to changes in sea ice distribution, extent, and timing that pose adaptability challenges for Arctic species. Ice obligate species, such as the bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus, are inherently vulnerable to Arctic warming due to their reliance on seasonal sea ice as a platform for pupping and molting. Bearded seals are a highly vocal pan-Arctic species, in which males produce underwater vocal displays as part of courtship behavior during mating season. Bearded seal vocalizations were once believed to be a spring phenomenon, but results of this study have revealed year-round acoustic activity by bearded seals in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas (BCB). This new insight suggests that passive acoustic monitoring can be employed as an effective method to examine bearded seal distribution, migration patterns, and population structure year-round. This study provides a more complete understanding of bearded seal behavior and ecology through the analysis of year-round passive acoustic data collected in the BCB between 2008 and 2011. The BCB comprises three ecologically distinct bodies of water connected by the currents that flow northward from the Pacific Ocean through the Bering Strait and into the Arctic. The fine- and broad-scale oceanographic and physiographic variability that exists among the BCB may directly or indirectly (through sea ice conditions) affect bearded seal distributions. Analysis of seal vocal presence relative to sea ice distribution helped to clarify the relationships between bearded seal vocal behavior, habitat preferences and sea ice conditions. Regional and recording-site variability in call activity was largely related to sea ice conditions and geography, however oceanographic variability may contribute to the fine-scale variability in call activity that was present between closely located sites. This research provides a contemporary baseline of bearded seal distributions

  3. Life Experience of Patients With Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David O; Sherman, Ariel E; Hovis, Kristen L; Bonnet, Kemberlee; Schlundt, David; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Davies, Louise

    2018-04-05

    Clinicians and patients benefit when they have a clear understanding of how medical conditions influence patients' life experiences. Patients' perspectives on life with unilateral vocal fold paralysis have not been well described. To promote patient-centered care by characterizing the patient experiences of living with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. This study used mixed methods: surveys using the voice and dysphagia handicap indexes (VHI and DHI) and semistructured interviews with adults with unilateral vocal cord paralysis recruited from a tertiary voice center. Recorded interviews were transcribed, coded using a hierarchical coding system, and analyzed using an iterative inductive-deductive approach. Symptom domains of the patient experience. In 36 patients (26 [72%] were female, and the median age and interquartile range [IQR] were 63 years [48-68 years]; median interview duration, 42 minutes), median VHI and DHI scores were 96 (IQR, 77-108) and 55.5 (IQR, 35-89) at the time of interviews, respectively. Frustration, isolation, fear, and altered self-identity were primary themes permeating patients' experiences. Frustrations related to limitations in communication, employment, and the medical system. Sources of fear included a loss of control, fear of further dysfunction or permanent disability, concern for health consequences (eg, aspiration pneumonia), and/or an inability to call for help in emergency situations. These experiences were modified by the following factors: resilience, self-efficacy, perceived sense of control, and social support systems. Effects of unilateral vocal fold paralysis extend beyond impaired voice and other somatic symptoms. Awareness of the extent to which these patients experience frustration, isolation, fear, and altered self-identity is important. A patient-centered approach to optimizing unilateral vocal fold paralysis treatment is enhanced by an understanding of both the physical dimension of this condition and how patients

  4. Vocalizations associated with pectoral fin contact in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Wilent, J; Dudzinski, K M

    2013-11-01

    Pectoral fin contact in bottlenose dolphins represents one form of tactile communication. Acoustic communication associated with pectoral fin contact is an additional level of communication that may change or enhance the tactile message between two individuals. In this study, we examine vocalization types associated with pectoral fin contact in a group of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). From 2006 to 2009, vocalizations potentially associated with 748 pectoral fin contacts were examined: whistles, click trains and overlap of whistles and click trains were documented when associated with fin contact. Dolphins were also documented not vocalizing when exchanging pectoral fin contacts. Call type associated with pectoral fin contact was compared for the proportion of the type of pectoral fin contact, vocalizer sex, initiator and receiver roles, and gender pair. Overall, vocalizations differed significantly by vocalizer role as rubber or rubbee, initiator, and sex. Receivers and rubbees clicked and used overlap vocalizations more frequently, and males produced overlap vocalizations more frequently. These results suggest that whistles may be used to initiate pectoral fin contact or show preference for a particular partner, while click trains may be used to show disinterest in pectoral fin contact or to signal the end of a contact. Examining vocalizations produced in conjunction with tactile contact is a relatively new approach in the study of individual dolphin behavior and may be useful for understanding dolphin social alliances and social preferences for various individuals within a population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inadequate vocal hygiene habits associated with the presence of self-reported voice symptoms in telemarketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-López, Eduardo; Fuente, Adrian; Contreras, Karem V

    2017-12-18

    The aim of this study is to determine possible associations between vocal hygiene habits and self-reported vocal symptoms in telemarketers. A cross-sectional study that included 79 operators from call centres in Chile was carried out. Their vocal hygiene habits and self-reported symptoms were investigated using a validated and reliable questionnaire created for the purposes of this study. Forty-five percent of telemarketers reported having one or more vocal symptoms. Among them, 16.46% reported that their voices tense up when talking and 10.13% needed to clear their throat to make their voices clearer. Five percent mentioned that they always talk without taking a break and 40.51% reported using their voices in noisy environments. The number of working hours per day and inadequate vocal hygiene habits were associated with the presence of self-reported symptoms. Additionally, an interaction between the use of the voice in noisy environments and not taking breaks during the day was observed. Finally, the frequency of inadequate vocal hygiene habits was associated with the number of symptoms reported. Using the voice in noisy environments and talking without taking breaks were both associated with the presence of specific vocal symptoms. This study provides some evidence about the interaction between these two inadequate vocal hygiene habits that potentiates vocal symptoms.

  6. Sex differences in vocal patterns in the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo, Luisa F; Mendes, Francisco D C; Strier, Karen B

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether sex differences in spatial dynamics correlate with rates of staccato and neigh vocalizations in northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) at the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural-Feliciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 2,727 10 min focal subject samples were collected on 32 adult females and 31 adult males between April 2007 and March 2008. Compared with males, females spent a significantly lower proportion of their time in proximity to other group members and gave staccatos at significantly higher rates while feeding, resting, and traveling. Conversely, males emitted neigh vocalizations at significantly higher rates than females when feeding and resting only. Both sexes gave significantly more staccatos when feeding than when they were engaged in other activities, but their respective rates of neighs did not vary across activities. Both females and males emitted staccato vocalizations at significantly higher rates during times of the year when preferred foods were scarce, but no seasonal differences in the rates of neigh vocalizations were observed in either sex. Females and males showed a reduction in the number of neighbors following staccato vocalizations and an increase in the number of neighbors following neigh vocalizations. Our findings of sex differences in the rates of staccato and neigh vocalizations and the effects of these vocalizations on interindividual spacing are consistent with sex differences in spatial dynamics, and confirm the role of vocal communication in mediating spatial associations in this species.

  7. VOCAL DEVELOPMENT AS A MAIN CONDITION IN EARLY SPEECH AND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne HOLM

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is the evident positive vocal development in pre-lingual deaf children, who underwent a Cochlea Implantation in early age. The presented research compares the vocal speech expressions of three hearing impaired children and two children with normal hearing from 10 months to 5 years. Comparisons of the spontaneous vocal expressions were conducted by sonagraphic analyses. The awareness of the own voice as well as the voices of others is essential for the child’s continuous vocal development from crying to speech. Supra-segmental factors, such as rhythm, dynamics and melody play a very important role in this development.

  8. High-frequency viscoelastic shear properties of vocal fold tissues: implications for vocal fold tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Sean S; Farran, Alexandra J E; Xiao, Longxi; Jiao, Tong; Duncan, Randall L; Clifton, Rodney J; Jia, Xinqiao

    2012-10-01

    The biomechanical function of the vocal folds (VFs) depends on their viscoelastic properties. Many conditions can lead to VF scarring that compromises voice function and quality. To identify candidate replacement materials, the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of native tissues need to be understood at phonation frequencies. Previously, the authors developed the torsional wave experiment (TWE), a stress-wave-based experiment to determine the linear viscoelastic shear properties of small, soft samples. Here, the viscoelastic properties of porcine and human VFs were measured over a frequency range of 10-200 Hz. The TWE utilizes resonance phenomena to determine viscoelastic properties; therefore, the specimen test frequency is determined by the sample size and material properties. Viscoelastic moduli are reported at resonance frequencies. Structure and composition of the tissues were determined by histology and immunochemistry. Porcine data from the TWE are separated into two groups: a young group, consisting of fetal and newborn pigs, and an adult group, consisting of 6-9-month olds and 2+-year olds. Adult tissues had an average storage modulus of 2309±1394 Pa and a loss tangent of 0.38±0.10 at frequencies of 36-200 Hz. The VFs of young pigs were significantly more compliant, with a storage modulus of 394±142 Pa and a loss tangent of 0.40±0.14 between 14 and 30 Hz. No gender dependence was observed. Histological staining showed that adult porcine tissues had a more organized, layered structure than the fetal tissues, with a thicker epithelium and a more structured lamina propria. Elastin fibers in fetal VF tissues were immature compared to those in adult tissues. Together, these structural changes in the tissues most likely contributed to the change in viscoelastic properties. Adult human VF tissues, recovered postmortem from adult patients with a history of smoking or disease, had an average storage modulus of 756±439 Pa and a loss tangent of 0

  9. Differences in ultrasonic vocalizations between wild and laboratory California mice (Peromyscus californicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matina C Kalcounis-Rueppell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs emitted by muroid rodents, including laboratory mice and rats, are used as phenotypic markers in behavioral assays and biomedical research. Interpretation of these USVs depends on understanding the significance of USV production by rodents in the wild. However, there has never been a study of muroid rodent ultrasound function in the wild and comparisons of USVs produced by wild and laboratory rodents are lacking to date. Here, we report the first comparison of wild and captive rodent USVs recorded from the same species, Peromyscus californicus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used standard ultrasound recording techniques to measure USVs from California mice in the laboratory (Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center, SC, USA and the wild (Hastings Natural History Reserve, CA, USA. To determine which California mouse in the wild was vocalizing, we used a remote sensing method that used a 12-microphone acoustic localization array coupled with automated radio telemetry of all resident Peromyscus californicus in the area of the acoustic localization array. California mice in the laboratory and the wild produced the same types of USV motifs. However, wild California mice produced USVs that were 2-8 kHz higher in median frequency and significantly more variable in frequency than laboratory California mice. SIGNIFICANCE: The similarity in overall form of USVs from wild and laboratory California mice demonstrates that production of USVs by captive Peromyscus is not an artifact of captivity. Our study validates the widespread use of USVs in laboratory rodents as behavioral indicators but highlights that particular characteristics of laboratory USVs may not reflect natural conditions.

  10. INTERRELATIONSHIP OF OUTCOME MEASURES AND PROCESS VARIABLES IN EARLY RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS - A COMPARISON OF RADIOLOGIC DAMAGE, PHYSICAL-DISABILITY, JOINT COUNTS, AND ACUTE-PHASE REACTANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, MA; VANDERHEIJDE, DMFM; VANRIJSWIJK, MH; HOUTMAN, PM; VANRIEL, PLCM; VANDEPUTTE, LBA; LIMBURG, PC

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between different outcome and process measures in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. A 5-year prospective study of 149 patients with early RA (symptoms <1 year at entry). Results of serial measurements of process variables were transformed into time

  11. Preliminary study of a novel transfection modality for in vivo siRNA delivery to vocal fold fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraja, Iv; Bing, Renjie; Hiwatashi, Nao; Rousseau, Bernard; Nalband, Danielle; Kirshenbaum, Kent; Branski, Ryan C

    2017-07-01

    An obstacle to clinical use of RNA-based gene suppression is instability and inefficiency of current delivery modalities. Nanoparticle delivery likely holds great promise, but the kinetics and transfection conditions must be optimized prior to in vivo utility. We investigated a RNA nanoparticle complex incorporating a lipitoid transfection reagent in comparison to a commercially available reagent. In vitro. We investigated which variables influence transfection efficiency of lipitoid oligomers and a commercially available reagent across species, in vitro. These variables included duration, dose, and number of administrations, as well as serum and media conditions. The target gene was Smad3, a signaling protein in the transforming growth factor-β cascade implicated in fibroplasia in the vocal folds and other tissues. The two reagents suppressed Smad3 mRNA for up to 96 hours; lipitoid performed favorably and comparably. Both compounds yielded 60% to 80% mRNA knockdown in rat, rabbit, and human vocal fold fibroblasts (P transfection conditions. These preliminary data are encouraging, and lipitoid warrants further investigation with the goal of clinical utility. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:E231-E237, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Extensão vocal de idosos coralistas e não coralistas Vocal range in aged choristers and non-choristers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Rocha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a extensão vocal de idosos coralistas e não coralistas e analisar a influência da prática do canto-coral amador na extensão vocal dos mesmos. MÉTODOS: extração dos valores da extensão vocal em semitons por meio de um teclado musical e análise comparativa do número de semitons entre 40 idosos coralistas e 40 não coralistas. RESULTADOS: o número de semitons atingido pelos coralistas é significativamente maior que o atingido pelos não coralistas. O perfil de extensão vocal dos idosos coralistas foi de 27 a 39 semitons, perfazendo um total de 3 oitavas, 1 tom e 1 semitom. O perfil de extensão vocal dos idosos não coralistas foi de 18 a 35 semitons, perfazendo um total de 2 oitavas, 5 tons e 1 semitom. CONCLUSÃO: a prática do canto coral amador aumenta a extensão vocal de idosos coralistas.PURPOSE: compare the vocal extension of senior choristers and non-choristers and analyze the influence of the practice of the amateur coral-song in the vocal extension of the aforementioned subjects. METHODS: extracting the vocal extension through a musical keyboard and comparative analysis of the number of half-notes among 40 senior choristers and 40 non-choristers. RESULTS: the number of half-notes achieved by the choristers is significantly higher than the one achieved by the non-choristers. The vocal extension profile of the seniors choristers was from 27 to 39 half-notes, totalizing a sum of 3 octaves, 1 tone and 1 half-note. The profile of the no-choristers seniors' vocal extension was from 18 to 35 half-notes, totalizing a sum of 2 octaves, 5 tones and 1 half-note. CONCLUSION: The practice of the amateur coral song increases the choristers seniors' vocal extension.

  13. Inhibition does not affect the timing code for vocalizations in the mouse auditory midbrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G Dimitrov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many animals use a diverse repertoire of complex acoustic signals to convey different types of information to other animals. The information in each vocalization therefore must be coded by neurons in the auditory system. One way in which the auditory system may discriminate among different vocalizations is by having highly selective neurons, where only one or two different vocalizations evoke a strong response from a single neuron. Another strategy is to have specific spike timing patterns for particular vocalizations such that each neural response can be matched to a specific vocalization. Both of these strategies may occur in the auditory midbrain of mice. However, the neural mechanisms underlying rate and time coding are unclear, but it is likely that inhibition plays a role. Here, we examined whether inhibition is involved in creating neural selectivity to vocalizations via rate and/or time coding in the mouse inferior colliculus. We examined extracellular single unit responses to vocalizations before and after iontophoretically blocking GABA_A and glycine receptors in the IC of awake mice. In general, we found that pharmacologically blocking inhibitory receptors in the IC increased response rate to vocalizations but did not dramatically affect spike timing. We observed two main effects when inhibition was locally blocked: 1 Highly selective neurons maintained their selectivity and the information about the stimuli did not change, but response rate increased slightly. 2 Neurons that responded to vocalizations in the control condition, also responded to the same stimuli in the test condition, with similar timing and pattern, but with a greater number of spikes, and, in some cases, greater reliability. Interestingly, in some neurons, blocking inhibition had no effect on vocalization-evoked responses. Overall, we found that inhibition in the IC does not play a substantial role in creating the reliable neuronal temporal patterns in response to

  14. Transcutaneous ultrasound for evaluation of vocal fold movement in patients with thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cheng-Ping; Chen, Tseng-Cheng; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Chun-Nan; Lin, Chin-Fon; Lou, Pei-Jen; Hu, Ya-Ling; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Hsieh, Fon-Jou

    2012-01-01

    Background: Preoperative evaluation of recurrent laryngeal nerve function is important in the context of thyroid surgery. Transcutaneous ultrasound may be useful to visualize vocal fold movement when evaluating thyroid disease. Methods: A 7–18 MHz linear array transducer was placed transversely on the midline of the thyroid cartilage at the anterior neck of patients with thyroid disease. The gray-scale technique was used, with the scan setting for the thyroid gland. Results: Between August 2008 and March 2010, 705 patients, including 672 patients with normal vocal fold movement and 33 patients with vocal fold paralysis were enrolled. They included 159 male and 546 female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 88 years. Vocal fold movement could be seen by ultrasound in 614 (87%) patients, including 589 (88%) patients with normal vocal fold movement and 25 (76%) patients with vocal fold paralysis (p = 0.06). The mean age of patients with visible and invisible vocal fold movement was 46.6 and 57.9 years old, respectively (p = 0.001). Ultrasound was able to see vocal fold movement in 533 (98%) female patients but only in 81 (51%) male patients (p = 0.001). Among the patients with vocal fold paralysis, ultrasound revealed palsied vocal folds in 17 of 18 (94%) female patients but in only 8 of 15 (53%) male patients (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Transcutaneous ultrasound represents an alternative tool to evaluate vocal fold movement for more than 85% of patients with thyroid disease, including more than 90% of female patients and about half of male patients.

  15. Convergent differential regulation of parvalbumin in the brains of vocal learners.

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    Erina Hara

    Full Text Available Spoken language and learned song are complex communication behaviors found in only a few species, including humans and three groups of distantly related birds--songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds. Despite their large phylogenetic distances, these vocal learners show convergent behaviors and associated brain pathways for vocal communication. However, it is not clear whether this behavioral and anatomical convergence is associated with molecular convergence. Here we used oligo microarrays to screen for genes differentially regulated in brain nuclei necessary for producing learned vocalizations relative to adjacent brain areas that control other behaviors in avian vocal learners versus vocal non-learners. A top candidate gene in our screen was a calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV. In situ hybridization verification revealed that PV was expressed significantly higher throughout the song motor pathway, including brainstem vocal motor neurons relative to the surrounding brain regions of all distantly related avian vocal learners. This differential expression was specific to PV and vocal learners, as it was not found in avian vocal non-learners nor for control genes in learners and non-learners. Similar to the vocal learning birds, higher PV up-regulation was found in the brainstem tongue motor neurons used for speech production in humans relative to a non-human primate, macaques. These results suggest repeated convergent evolution of differential PV up-regulation in the brains of vocal learners separated by more than 65-300