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Sample records for acute viral infection

  1. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in dengue viral infection.

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    Wan Sulaiman, Wan Aliaa; Inche Mat, Liyana Najwa; Hashim, Hasnur Zaman; Hoo, Fan Kee; Ching, Siew Mooi; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohamed, Mohd Hazmi; Basri, Hamidon

    2017-09-01

    Dengue is the most common arboviral disease affecting many countries worldwide. An RNA virus from the flaviviridae family, dengue has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DEN-1-DEN-4). Neurological involvement in dengue can be classified into dengue encephalopathy immune-mediated syndromes, encephalitis, neuromuscular or dengue muscle dysfunction and neuro-ophthalmic involvement. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system following recent infection or vaccination. This monophasic illness is characterised by multifocal white matter involvement. Many dengue studies and case reports have linked ADEM with dengue virus infection but the association is still not clear. Therefore, this article is to review and discuss concerning ADEM in dengue as an immune-medicated neurological complication; and the management strategy required based on recent literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement of prophylax and treatment of acute respiratory viral infections

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    Yershov F.I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to estimate prophylactic and clinical efficacy of cycloferon concerning acute respiratory viral infection among military men in the period of formation of military units. Material and methods. 1300 military men were under observation in the period of formation of military units. There was calculated efficiency coefficient. Index of efficiency, and severity of disease, frequency of development and character of complications were established. Results. It is established that application of both prophylactic and clinical course of tablet of cycloferon in the period of seasonal increase of morbidity of acute respiratory viral infection in the period of formation of military units enables to increase significantly efficiency of prophylactic and clinical activities, to decrease morbidity, frequency of severe and complicated forms of disease. Conclusion. According to these results, the perspectives of cycloferon use in prophylaxis and treatment of acute respiratory viral infection in the closed units were worked out.

  3. Estimating Acute Viral Hepatitis Infections From Nationally Reported Cases

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    Liu, Stephen; Roberts, Henry; Jiles, Ruth B.; Holmberg, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Because only a fraction of patients with acute viral hepatitis A, B, and C are reported through national surveillance to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we estimated the true numbers. Methods. We applied a simple probabilistic model to estimate the fraction of patients with acute hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C who would have been symptomatic, would have sought health care tests, and would have been reported to health officials in 2011. Results. For hepatitis A, the frequencies of symptoms (85%), care seeking (88%), and reporting (69%) yielded an estimate of 2730 infections (2.0 infections per reported case). For hepatitis B, the frequencies of symptoms (39%), care seeking (88%), and reporting (45%) indicated 18 730 infections (6.5 infections per reported case). For hepatitis C, the frequency of symptoms among injection drug users (13%) and those infected otherwise (48%), proportion seeking care (88%), and percentage reported (53%) indicated 17 100 infections (12.3 infections per reported case). Conclusions. These adjustment factors will allow state and local health authorities to estimate acute hepatitis infections locally and plan prevention activities accordingly. PMID:24432918

  4. Limited durability of viral control following treated acute HIV infection.

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    Daniel E Kaufmann

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Early treatment of acute HIV infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy, followed by supervised treatment interruption (STI, has been associated with at least transient control of viremia. However, the durability of such control remains unclear. Here we present longitudinal follow-up of a single-arm, open-label study assessing the impact of STI in the setting of acute HIV-1 infection.Fourteen patients were treated during acute HIV-1 infection and subsequently subjected to an STI protocol that required retreatment if viral load exceeded 50,000 RNA copies/ml plasma or remained above 5,000 copies/ml for more than three consecutive weeks. Eleven of 14 (79% patients were able to achieve viral loads of less than 5,000 RNA copies/ml for at least 90 d following one, two, or three interruptions of treatment. However, a gradual increase in viremia and decline in CD4+ T cell counts was observed in most individuals. By an intention-to-treat analysis, eight (57%, six (43%, and three (21% of 14 patients achieved a maximal period of control of 180, 360, and 720 d, respectively, despite augmentation of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. The magnitude of HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses before treatment interruption did not predict duration of viremia control. The small sample size and lack of concurrent untreated controls preclude assessment of possible clinical benefit despite failure to control viremia by study criteria.These data indicate that despite initial control of viremia, durable viral control to less than 5,000 RNA copies/ml plasma in patients following treated acute HIV-1 infection occurs infrequently. Determination of whether early treatment leads to overall clinical benefit will require a larger and randomized clinical trial. These data may be relevant to current efforts to develop an HIV-1 vaccine designed to retard disease progression rather than prevent infection since they indicate that durable maintenance of low

  5. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

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    Eliana C.A. Benites

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of infection by respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with cancer and acute respiratory infection (ARI and/or fever. METHODS: cross-sectional study, from January 2011 to December 2012. The secretions of nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed in children younger than 21 years with acute respiratory infections. Patients were treated at the Grupo em Defesa da Criança Com Câncer (Grendacc and University Hospital (HU, Jundiaí, SP. The rapid test was used for detection of influenza virus (Kit Biotrin, Inc. Ireland, and real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD, Respiratory pathogens, multiplex Fast Trade Kit, Malta for detection of influenza virus (H1N1, B, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parechovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, and human coronavirus. The prevalence of viral infection was estimated and association tests were used (χ2 or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: 104 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were analyzed. The median age was 12 ± 5.2 years, 51% males, 68% whites, 32% had repeated ARIs, 32% prior antibiotic use, 19.8% cough, and 8% contact with ARIs. A total of 94.3% were in good general status. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (42.3% was the most prevalent neoplasia. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50 samples: rhinoviruses (23.1%, respiratory syncytial virus AB (8.7%, and coronavirus (6.8%. Co-detection occurred in 19% of cases with 2 viruses and in 3% of those with 3 viruses, and was more frequent between rhinovirus and coronavirus 43. Fever in neutropenic patients was observed in 13%, of which four (30.7 were positive for viruses. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co-detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.

  6. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

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    Benites, Eliana C A; Cabrini, Dayane P; Silva, Andrea C B; Silva, Juliana C; Catalan, Daniel T; Berezin, Eitan N; Cardoso, Maria R A; Passos, Saulo D

    2014-01-01

    to estimate the prevalence of infection by respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with cancer and acute respiratory infection (ARI) and/or fever. cross-sectional study, from January 2011 to December 2012. The secretions of nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed in children younger than 21 years with acute respiratory infections. Patients were treated at the Grupo em Defesa da Criança Com Câncer (Grendacc) and University Hospital (HU), Jundiaí, SP. The rapid test was used for detection of influenza virus (Kit Biotrin, Inc. Ireland), and real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD, Respiratory pathogens, multiplex Fast Trade Kit, Malta) for detection of influenza virus (H1N1, B), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parechovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, and human coronavirus. The prevalence of viral infection was estimated and association tests were used (χ(2) or Fisher's exact test). 104 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were analyzed. The median age was 12 ± 5.2 years, 51% males, 68% whites, 32% had repeated ARIs, 32% prior antibiotic use, 19.8% cough, and 8% contact with ARIs. A total of 94.3% were in good general status. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (42.3%) was the most prevalent neoplasia. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50 samples: rhinoviruses (23.1%), respiratory syncytial virus AB (8.7%), and coronavirus (6.8%). Co-detection occurred in 19% of cases with 2 viruses and in 3% of those with 3 viruses, and was more frequent between rhinovirus and coronavirus 43. Fever in neutropenic patients was observed in 13%, of which four (30.7) were positive for viruses. There were no deaths. the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co-detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Viral acute lower respiratory infections impair CD8+ T cells through PD-1.

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    Erickson, John J; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Hastings, Andrew K; Tollefson, Sharon J; Johnson, Monika; Downing, Melissa B; Boyd, Kelli L; Johnson, Joyce E; Kim, Annette S; Joyce, Sebastian; Williams, John V

    2012-08-01

    Viruses are leading causes of severe acute lower respiratory infections (LRIs). These infections evoke incomplete immunity, as individuals can be repeatedly reinfected throughout life. We report that acute viral LRI causes rapid pulmonary CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (TCD8) functional impairment via programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) signaling, a pathway previously associated with prolonged antigenic stimulation during chronic infections and cancer. PD-1-mediated TCD8 impairment occurred acutely in mice following infection with human metapneumovirus or influenza virus. Viral antigen was sufficient for PD-1 upregulation, but induction of PD-L1 was required for impairment. During secondary viral infection or epitope-only challenge, memory TCD8 rapidly reexpressed PD-1 and exhibited severe functional impairment. Inhibition of PD-1 signaling using monoclonal antibody blockade prevented TCD8 impairment, reduced viral titers during primary infection, and enhanced protection of immunized mice against challenge infection. Additionally, PD-1 and PD-L1 were upregulated in the lungs of patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, or parainfluenza virus infection. These results indicate that PD-1 mediates TCD8 functional impairment during acute viral infection and may contribute to recurrent viral LRIs. Therefore, the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may represent a therapeutic target in the treatment of respiratory viruses.

  8. The adenoviral infections in children admitted to hospital with pneumonia, acute bronchiolitis or respiratory viral infections.

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    Tecu, Cristina; Mihai, Maria E; Alexandrescu, Viorel I; Orăşanu, Dumitru; Zapucioiu, Carmen; Matei, Dumitru; Craiu, M; Cochino, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the percent of infections with adenovirus (ADV) in children who had pneumonia, acute bronchiolitis or viral respiratory infections and were admitted to two pediatrics hospitals in Bucharest (Grigore Alexandrescu Hospital and Alfred Rusescu Hospital). 70 children aged one month - five years, admitted to the above mentioned pediatrics hospitals in Bucharest, who were negative for the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and the human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) by Reverse Transcription -Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). 48 of them presented pneumonia upon admission to hospital, 6--acute bronchiolitis and 16 respiratory viral infections. Samples (nasal swabs) were taken from patients and introduced in viral transport medium. RT-PCR for RSV and hMPV, Multiplex PCR by seeplex multi-detection system with Seeplex RV/PB 18 ASE Detection for detection of 5 pneumonial bacteria and Real-Time PCR, Duplica Real Time Adenovirus Detection for ADV. Of the total 70 patients negative for RSV, hMPV and 5 pneumonial bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila), 10 were ADV positive; none of the children < 6 months (N = 16) presented ADV infection. In the 6 months - 2 years group (N = 35), 6 were ADV positive. In the 2 - 5 years group (N = 19), 4 were ADV positive. The percent of ADV infections in children hospitalized with acute respiratory infections (ARI) caused by neither RSV or hMPV is 14.2%. ADV is most frequently encountered in the 6 months - 2 years and then 2 - 5 years groups, but the most severe pneumonia forms can be seen in the 6 months - 2 years group. In children < 6 months with acute bronchiolitis ADV was not found to be an etiologic agent.

  9. Clinical features of acute respiratory viral infections in children in conjunction with pathology of pharyngeal tonsil

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    Олександр Іванович Сміян

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study clinical features of the clinical course of an acute respiratory viral infection in conjunction with pathology of pharyngeal tonsil in children of preschool age. Methods: generally clinical;Laboratory and instrumental;Statistical.Separation of viral infection was done using the methods of lumicroscopy and polymerase chain reaction from nasopharynx lavage.Statistical processing of received results was carried out with the help of standard statistical computer system «MicrosoftExcel» (2007 adapted for medical and biological studies. Result:In the clinical presentation of respiratory viral infection prevailed rhinorrhea, short cough, subfibrilitet with usual duration near 3 days. On the contrary in children with acute respiratory viral infections with pathology of the pharyngeal tonsil prevailed stuffiness in nose, productive cough, snore and decrease of hearing, ear ache, polyadenopathy. Fever had fibril and hectic character with duration more than 3 days. . Dyspeptic syndrome was demonstrated more intensively in children with acute respiratory viral infections with pathology of the pharyngeal tonsil and characterized with thickening on tongue, periodic ache in stomach, meteorism, constipation, stool instability. Conclusions: The main syndromes in the clinical presentation of an acute respiratory viral infection were: intoxicational, catarrhal and dyspeptic. In children with pathology of the pharyngeal tonsil the clinical course of ARVI was more evident with long course and increase of the frequency of complications of ARVI

  10. Clinical features of acute respiratory viral infections in children in conjunction with pathology of pharyngeal tonsil

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    Олександр Іванович Сміян; Євгенія Василівна Дмітрова; Олена Геннадіївна Васильєва

    2015-01-01

    Aim: to study clinical features of the clinical course of an acute respiratory viral infection in conjunction with pathology of pharyngeal tonsil in children of preschool age. Methods: generally clinical;Laboratory and instrumental;Statistical.Separation of viral infection was done using the methods of lumicroscopy and polymerase chain reaction from nasopharynx lavage.Statistical processing of received results was carried out with the help of standard statistical computer system «MicrosoftExc...

  11. Acute viral infections of the central nervous system, 2014-2016, Greece.

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    Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida

    2017-11-23

    In order to investigate the viral etiology of acute infections of central nervous system (CNS), multiplex and single PCRs combined with serology for arboviruses were applied on samples from 132 hospitalized patients in Greece during May 2014-December 2016. A viral pathogen was detected in 52 of 132 (39.4%) cases with acute CNS infection. Enteroviruses predominated (15/52, 28.8%), followed by West Nile virus (9/52, 17.3%). Phleboviruses, varicella-zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus accounted for 15.4%, 13.5%, and 11.5% of the cases, respectively. The study gives an insight into the etiology of viral CNS infections in a Mediterranean country, where arboviruses should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute CNS infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Regulatory T cells in acute dengue viral infection.

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    Jayaratne, Eresha; Wijeratne, Dulharie; Fernando, Samitha; Kamaladasa, Achala; Gomes, Laksiri; Wijewickrama, Ananda; Ogg, Graham Stuart; Malavige, Gathsaurie Neelika

    2017-11-15

    Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to be expanded in acute dengue, their role in pathogenesis and their relationship to clinical disease severity, and extent of viraemia have not been fully evaluated. The frequency of Tregs was assessed in 56 adult patients with acute dengue, by determining the proportion of FOXP3 expressing CD4+ CD25+ T cells (FOXP3+ cells). DENV viral loads were measured by quantitative real time PCR and DENV specific T cell responses were measured by ex vivo IFNγ ELISpot assays to overlapping peptide pools of DENV-NS3, NS1 and NS5. CD45RA and CCR4 were used to phenotype different subset of T cells and their suppressive potential was assessed by their expression of CTLA-4 and Fas. While the frequency of FOXP3+ cells, in patients was significantly higher (pT cell responses. The FOXP3+ cells of patients with acute dengue were predominantly CD45RA+ FOXP3low , followed by CD45RA-FOXP3low , with only a small proportion of FOXP3+ cells being of the highly suppressive effector Treg subtype. Expression of CCR4 was also low in the majority of T cells, with only CCR4 only being expressed at high levels in the effector Treg population. Therefore, although FOXP3+ cells are expanded in acute dengue, they predominantly consist of naive Tregs, with poor suppressive capacity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute Viral Respiratory Infection Rapidly Induces a CD8+ T Cell Exhaustion-like Phenotype.

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    Erickson, John J; Lu, Pengcheng; Wen, Sherry; Hastings, Andrew K; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Joyce, Sebastian; Shyr, Yu; Williams, John V

    2015-11-01

    Acute viral infections typically generate functional effector CD8(+) T cells (TCD8) that aid in pathogen clearance. However, during acute viral lower respiratory infection, lung TCD8 are functionally impaired and do not optimally control viral replication. T cells also become unresponsive to Ag during chronic infections and cancer via signaling by inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). PD-1 also contributes to TCD8 impairment during viral lower respiratory infection, but how it regulates TCD8 impairment and the connection between this state and T cell exhaustion during chronic infections are unknown. In this study, we show that PD-1 operates in a cell-intrinsic manner to impair lung TCD8. In light of this, we compared global gene expression profiles of impaired epitope-specific lung TCD8 to functional spleen TCD8 in the same human metapneumovirus-infected mice. These two populations differentially regulate hundreds of genes, including the upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors by lung TCD8. We then compared the gene expression of TCD8 during human metapneumovirus infection to those in acute or chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. We find that the immunophenotype of lung TCD8 more closely resembles T cell exhaustion late into chronic infection than do functional effector T cells arising early in acute infection. Finally, we demonstrate that trafficking to the infected lung alone is insufficient for TCD8 impairment or inhibitory receptor upregulation, but that viral Ag-induced TCR signaling is also required. Our results indicate that viral Ag in infected lungs rapidly induces an exhaustion-like state in lung TCD8 characterized by progressive functional impairment and upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Viral etiology and epidemiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in Korean children.

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    Yun, B Y; Kim, M R; Park, J Y; Choi, E H; Lee, H J; Yun, C K

    1995-12-01

    Viral etiologic agents of acute lower respiratory tract infections were studied from November, 1990, through April, 1994, in Korean children. From 712 children who visited or were admitted to Seoul National University Children's Hospital because of acute lower respiratory tract infections, 804 nasal aspirates were collected; viral agents were detected by virus isolation and virus antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescent staining. One or more viral agents were identified in 369 (45.9%) cases; of which 3.3% were mixed infections. The pathogens identified were respiratory syncytial virus (27.2%), parainfluenza virus type 3 (7.8%), influenza A virus (3.9%), adenovirus (3.9%), parainfluenza virus type 1 (1.7%), influenza B virus (1.4%), parainfluenza virus type 2 (0.5%), measles virus (0.1%) and others (0.9%). The clinical patterns of viral lower respiratory tract included pneumonia (56.6%), bronchiolitis (35.2%), croup (6.5%) and tracheo-bronchitis (1.6%). Infections with respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus types 1 and 3 and influenza A and B virus occurred in epidemics, whereas adenovirus was isolated sporadically throughout the study period. The data expand our understanding of the epidemiology of acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in Korean children and may be helpful to the clinicians and researchers interested in the control of viral respiratory tract infections.

  15. Gene Expression Profiles Link Respiratory Viral Infection, Platelet Response to Aspirin, and Acute Myocardial Infarction.

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    Rose, Jason J; Voora, Deepak; Cyr, Derek D; Lucas, Joseph E; Zaas, Aimee K; Woods, Christopher W; Newby, L Kristin; Kraus, William E; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Influenza infection is associated with myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that respiratory viral infection may induce biologic pathways that contribute to MI. We tested the hypotheses that 1) a validated blood gene expression signature of respiratory viral infection (viral GES) was associated with MI and 2) respiratory viral exposure changes levels of a validated platelet gene expression signature (platelet GES) of platelet function in response to aspirin that is associated with MI. A previously defined viral GES was projected into blood RNA data from 594 patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization and used to classify patients as having evidence of viral infection or not and tested for association with acute MI using logistic regression. A previously defined platelet GES was projected into blood RNA data from 81 healthy subjects before and after exposure to four respiratory viruses: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) (n=20), Human Rhinovirus (HRV) (n=20), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (H1N1) (n=24), Influenza A Virus subtype H3N2 (H3N2) (n=17). We tested for the change in platelet GES with viral exposure using linear mixed-effects regression and by symptom status. In the catheterization cohort, 32 patients had evidence of viral infection based upon the viral GES, of which 25% (8/32) had MI versus 12.2% (69/567) among those without evidence of viral infection (OR 2.3; CI [1.03-5.5], p=0.04). In the infection cohorts, only H1N1 exposure increased platelet GES over time (time course p-value = 1e-04). A viral GES of non-specific, respiratory viral infection was associated with acute MI; 18% of the top 49 genes in the viral GES are involved with hemostasis and/or platelet aggregation. Separately, H1N1 exposure, but not exposure to other respiratory viruses, increased a platelet GES previously shown to be associated with MI. Together, these results highlight specific genes and pathways that link viral infection, platelet activation, and MI especially in the

  16. Gene Expression Profiles Link Respiratory Viral Infection, Platelet Response to Aspirin, and Acute Myocardial Infarction.

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    Jason J Rose

    Full Text Available Influenza infection is associated with myocardial infarction (MI, suggesting that respiratory viral infection may induce biologic pathways that contribute to MI. We tested the hypotheses that 1 a validated blood gene expression signature of respiratory viral infection (viral GES was associated with MI and 2 respiratory viral exposure changes levels of a validated platelet gene expression signature (platelet GES of platelet function in response to aspirin that is associated with MI.A previously defined viral GES was projected into blood RNA data from 594 patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization and used to classify patients as having evidence of viral infection or not and tested for association with acute MI using logistic regression. A previously defined platelet GES was projected into blood RNA data from 81 healthy subjects before and after exposure to four respiratory viruses: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV (n=20, Human Rhinovirus (HRV (n=20, Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (H1N1 (n=24, Influenza A Virus subtype H3N2 (H3N2 (n=17. We tested for the change in platelet GES with viral exposure using linear mixed-effects regression and by symptom status.In the catheterization cohort, 32 patients had evidence of viral infection based upon the viral GES, of which 25% (8/32 had MI versus 12.2% (69/567 among those without evidence of viral infection (OR 2.3; CI [1.03-5.5], p=0.04. In the infection cohorts, only H1N1 exposure increased platelet GES over time (time course p-value = 1e-04.A viral GES of non-specific, respiratory viral infection was associated with acute MI; 18% of the top 49 genes in the viral GES are involved with hemostasis and/or platelet aggregation. Separately, H1N1 exposure, but not exposure to other respiratory viruses, increased a platelet GES previously shown to be associated with MI. Together, these results highlight specific genes and pathways that link viral infection, platelet activation, and MI especially in the

  17. Study of maternal and prenatal outcome in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection

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    Sunita Mishra; Rajesh Kumar Jha; Ratna Thakur; Sindhuja Tiwari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is a major aspect of hepatitis and death in the developing countries and asymmetrical source of deaths in among of pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine the maternal and prenatal outcome in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection in Malwa, India. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional study. The study population was pregnant women with acute hepatitis E infection confirmed by ELISA technique. Pregnant women with othe...

  18. Encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by a viral infection in an immunocompetent young adult: a case report

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    Khattab Mahmoud

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cytomegalovirus generally causes self-limited, mild and asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent patients. An aggressive course in immunocompetent healthy patients is unusual. Case presentation We report the case of an immunocompetent 16-year-old Egyptian boy with encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by viral infection with a complete recovery following antiviral treatment. Conclusion We believe that this case adds to the understanding of the molecular biology, clinical presentation and increasing index of suspicion of many viral infections.

  19. Viral respiratory tract infections among patients with acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

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    Phuong, Hoang Lan; Nga, Tran T. T.; van Doornum, Gerard J.; Groen, Jan; Binh, Tran Q.; Giao, Phan T.; Hung, Le Q.; Nams, Nguyen V.; Kager, P. A.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the proportion of viral respiratory tract infections among acute undifferentiated fevers (AUFs) at primary health facilities in southern Vietnam during 2001-2005, patients with AUF not caused by malaria were enrolled at twelve primary health facilities and a clinic for malaria control

  20. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

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    Eliana C.A. Benites

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co‐detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.

  1. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections

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    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. Methods A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1–4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A—F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011–2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12–24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV—Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV—bocavirus / bocavirus—influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12–24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis. PMID:26332375

  2. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections.

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    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1-4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A-F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011-2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12-24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV-Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV-bocavirus / bocavirus-influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12-24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis.

  3. An accurate two-phase approximate solution to the acute viral infection model

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    Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    During an acute viral infection, virus levels rise, reach a peak and then decline. Data and numerical solutions suggest the growth and decay phases are linear on a log scale. While viral dynamic models are typically nonlinear with analytical solutions difficult to obtain, the exponential nature of the solutions suggests approximations can be found. We derive a two-phase approximate solution to the target cell limited influenza model and illustrate the accuracy using data and previously established parameter values of six patients infected with influenza A. For one patient, the subsequent fall in virus concentration was not consistent with our predictions during the decay phase and an alternate approximation is derived. We find expressions for the rate and length of initial viral growth in terms of the parameters, the extent each parameter is involved in viral peaks, and the single parameter responsible for virus decay. We discuss applications of this analysis in antiviral treatments and investigating host and virus heterogeneities.

  4. [Viral respiratory co-infections in pediatric patients admitted for acute respiratory infection and their impact on clinical severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Pamela; Cordero, Jaime; Valverde, Cristián; Unanue, Nancy; Dalmazzo, Roberto; Piemonte, Paula; Vergara, Ivonne; Torres, Juan P

    2012-04-01

    Respiratory viruses are the leading cause of acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in children. It has been reported that viral respiratory co-infection could be associated with severe clinical course. To describe the frequency of viral co-infection in children admitted for AlRI and evaluate whether this co-infection was associated with more severe clinical course. Prospective, descriptive study in pediatric patients who were hospitalized for ARI, with molecular detection of at least 1 respiratory virus in nasopharyngeal sample studied by PCR-Microarray for 17 respiratory viruses. 110 out of 147 patients with detection of > 1 respiratory virus were included. Viral co-infection was detected in 41/110 (37%). 22/110 children (20%) were classified as moderate to severe clinical course and 88/110 (80%) were classified as mild clinical course. In the group of moderate to severe clinical course, viral respiratory co-infection was detected in 6/22 (27.3%), compared to 35/88 (39.8 %) in the mild clinical course group. No statistically significant difference was found regarding the presence of co-infection between groups (p = 0.33). We detected high rates of viral co-infection in children with ARI. It was not possible to demonstrate that viral co-infections were related with severe clinical course in hospitalized children.

  5. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Sabetta

    Full Text Available Declining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D seen in the fall and winter as distance increases from the equator may be a factor in the seasonal increased prevalence of influenza and other viral infections. This study was done to determine if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations correlated with the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections.In this prospective cohort study serial monthly concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured over the fall and winter 2009-2010 in 198 healthy adults, blinded to the nature of the substance being measured. The participants were evaluated for the development of any acute respiratory tract infections by investigators blinded to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. The incidence of infection in participants with different concentrations of vitamin D was determined. One hundred ninety-five (98.5% of the enrolled participants completed the study. Light skin pigmentation, lean body mass, and supplementation with vitamin D were found to correlate with higher concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Concentrations of 38 ng/ml or more were associated with a significant (p<0.0001 two-fold reduction in the risk of developing acute respiratory tract infections and with a marked reduction in the percentages of days ill.Maintenance of a 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration of 38 ng/ml or higher should significantly reduce the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections and the burden of illness caused thereby, at least during the fall and winter in temperate zones. The findings of the present study provide direction for and call for future interventional studies examining the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the incidence and severity of specific viral infections, including influenza, in the general population and in subpopulations with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, such as pregnant women, dark skinned individuals, and the obese.

  6. PD-L1-Expressing Dendritic Cells Contribute to Viral Resistance during Acute HSV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Bryant-Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory receptor, Programmed Death 1 (PD-1, and its ligands (PD-L1/PD-L2 are thought to play a role in immune surveillance during chronic viral infection. The contribution of the receptor/ligand pair during an acute infection is less understood. To determine the role of PD-L1 and PD-L2 during acute ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection, HSV-1-infected mice administered neutralizing antibody to PD-L1 or PD-L2 were assessed for viral burden and host cellular immune responses. Virus titers were elevated in cornea and trigeminal ganglia (TG of anti-PD-L1-treated mice which corresponded with a reduced number of CD80-expressing dendritic cells, PD-L1+ dendritic cells, and HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cells within the draining (mandibular lymph node (MLN. In contrast, anti-PD-L2 treatment had no effect on viral replication or changes in the MLN population. Notably, analysis of CD11c-enriched MLN cells from anti-PD-L1-treated mice revealed impaired functional capabilities. These studies indicate PD-L1-expressing dendritic cells are important for antiviral defense during acute HSV-1 infection.

  7. CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGIC GROUNDS FOR LOCAL INTERFERON USE IN ACUTE VIRAL INFECTION TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Zakharova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Broad spectrum of antiviral activity of interferons lays grounds to its use in complex therapy of acute viral infections. It has been shown that antiviral and antibacterial interferon activity reveals itself while used both systematically and locally. Clinical efficacy of locally applied viferon is accompanied by nasal mucosa cytokine status changes, as has been shown in nasal swabs. There has been shown dependency of local immune response on the age, severity of the disease, clinical forms of respiratory syndrome, bacterial complications, if present, intensity and characteristics of viral contamination against the background of viferon treatment. Key words: acute respiratory viral disease, interferon, cell immunity, humoral immunity, interferon status, cytokine status, recombinant α-interferon, immunocorrection. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (5: 117–123.

  8. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and the Incidence of Acute Viral Respiratory Tract Infections in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetta, James R.; DePetrillo, Paolo; Cipriani, Ralph J.; Smardin, Joanne; Burns, Lillian A.; Landry, Marie L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Declining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D seen in the fall and winter as distance increases from the equator may be a factor in the seasonal increased prevalence of influenza and other viral infections. This study was done to determine if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations correlated with the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections. Methodology/Findings In this prospective cohort study serial monthly concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured over the fall and winter 2009–2010 in 198 healthy adults, blinded to the nature of the substance being measured. The participants were evaluated for the development of any acute respiratory tract infections by investigators blinded to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. The incidence of infection in participants with different concentrations of vitamin D was determined. One hundred ninety-five (98.5%) of the enrolled participants completed the study. Light skin pigmentation, lean body mass, and supplementation with vitamin D were found to correlate with higher concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Concentrations of 38 ng/ml or more were associated with a significant (prespiratory tract infections and with a marked reduction in the percentages of days ill. Conclusions/Significance Maintenance of a 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration of 38 ng/ml or higher should significantly reduce the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections and the burden of illness caused thereby, at least during the fall and winter in temperate zones. The findings of the present study provide direction for and call for future interventional studies examining the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the incidence and severity of specific viral infections, including influenza, in the general population and in subpopulations with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, such as pregnant women, dark skinned individuals, and the obese. PMID:20559424

  9. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetta, James R; DePetrillo, Paolo; Cipriani, Ralph J; Smardin, Joanne; Burns, Lillian A; Landry, Marie L

    2010-06-14

    Declining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D seen in the fall and winter as distance increases from the equator may be a factor in the seasonal increased prevalence of influenza and other viral infections. This study was done to determine if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations correlated with the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections. In this prospective cohort study serial monthly concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured over the fall and winter 2009-2010 in 198 healthy adults, blinded to the nature of the substance being measured. The participants were evaluated for the development of any acute respiratory tract infections by investigators blinded to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. The incidence of infection in participants with different concentrations of vitamin D was determined. One hundred ninety-five (98.5%) of the enrolled participants completed the study. Light skin pigmentation, lean body mass, and supplementation with vitamin D were found to correlate with higher concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Concentrations of 38 ng/ml or more were associated with a significant (prespiratory tract infections and with a marked reduction in the percentages of days ill. Maintenance of a 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration of 38 ng/ml or higher should significantly reduce the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections and the burden of illness caused thereby, at least during the fall and winter in temperate zones. The findings of the present study provide direction for and call for future interventional studies examining the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the incidence and severity of specific viral infections, including influenza, in the general population and in subpopulations with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, such as pregnant women, dark skinned individuals, and the obese.

  10. Does Viral Co-Infection Influence the Severity of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011-2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role.

  11. Acute Respiratory Viral Infection in Children: Modern Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Baranov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in children. ARVI take one of the leading places in a childhood morbidity structure. The article provides an overview of the clinical guidelines developed and approved by the professional association «Union of Pediatricians of Russia» for acute respiratory infections in children. These guidelines summarize the experience of the leading world and domestic specialists, contain scientific and practical data that correspond to the most relevant trends in the management of children with this pathology. The authors present modern information on the etiology, pathogenesis, classification, clinical findings and differential diagnosis of various nosological forms of acute respiratory tract infections in the pediatric population. The general (strategic principles of drug-free and drug treatment are discussed in detail.

  12. Acute enterovirus infection followed by myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and viral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, J; Chia, A; Voeller, M; Lee, T; Chang, R

    2010-02-01

    Enteroviruses are well-known causes of acute respiratory and/or gastrointestinal infections and non-specific flu-like illness. Although enterovirus protein, RNA and non-cytopathic viruses have been demonstrated in the stomach biopsies of patients with myalgia encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), causality for chronic diseases is difficult to establish without having well-documented cases of acute enterovirus infections. The aim of this study was to link acute enteroviral infection to viral persistence in patients with ME/CFS. Patients admitted to the hospital with acute febrile illnesses were screened for enteroviral infections. Acutely infected patients were followed longitudinally, and those who developed symptoms of ME/CFS underwent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsies of the antrum to document viral persistence by immunoperoxidase staining for viral protein and viral RNA assay. Three representative patients with different manifestations of acute enterovirus infections progressed to have chronic symptoms of ME/CFS. Persistent viral infection was demonstrated in the antrum years later. After acute infections, enteroviruses can persist in patients resulting in manifestation of ME/CFS. Chronic enterovirus infection in an immunocompetent host may be an example of a stalemate between attenuated, intracellular viruses and an ineffective immune response.

  13. INFLUENZA AND ACUTE VIRAL RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN THE PRACTICE OF THE EMERGENCY CREWS OF MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Plavunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza and acute viral respiratory infections have a great social significance during epidemic rise of morbidity and demand differential diagnosis of pneumonia with bacterial etiology and consultation with an infectious disease doctor in case of seeing patients in non-core hospitals. This article highlights the problem of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections’ early diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of influenza and other respiratory extremely similar. The differential diagnosis must take into account the presence of mixed infection in the same patient. According to the results of consultative infectious ambulance teams in 2014-2016, quality of diagnostics of this infectious pathology was examined. Observed deaths in persons later seeking medical treatment, not receiving timely antiviral therapy and related to high-risk groups: patients with obesity, chronic alcohol intoxication, diabetes, pregnant women. Influenza and acute viral respiratory infections, more complicated by pneumonia, people in the older age group, indicating the need for timely medical evacuation of patients older than 60 years. In some cases, in the diagnosis of influenza was helped by the results of laboratory studies (especially the trend to leukopenia and a positive rapid test. It should be noted that a negative rapid test for influenza was not a reason for exclusion of the diagnosis “influenza”.

  14. Viral Etiologies of Acute Respiratory Infections among Hospitalized Vietnamese Children in Ho Chi Minh City, 2004-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do, A.H.L.; van Doorn, H.R.; Nghiem, M.N.; Bryant, J.E.; Hoang, T.H.T.; Do, Q.H.; Le Van, T.; Tran, T.T.; Wills, B.; Nguyen, V.C.; Vo, M.H.; Vo, C.K.; Nguyen, M.D.; Farrar, J.; Tran, T.H.; de Jong, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The dominant viral etiologies responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are poorly understood, particularly among hospitalized children in resource-limited tropical countries where morbidity and mortality caused by ARIs are highest. Improved etiological insight is needed to

  15. [Autochthonous acute viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system (meningitis and encephalitis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Vicente, Diego; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2008-07-01

    Rapid diagnosis of acute viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system (meningitis and encephalitis) is highly important for the clinical management of the patient and helps to establish early therapy that may solve life-threatening situations, to avoid unnecessary empirical treatments, to reduce hospital stay, and to facilitate appropriate interventions in the context of public health. Molecular techniques, especially real-time polymerase chain reaction, have become the fastest and most sensitive diagnostic procedures for autochthonous viral meningitis and encephalitis, and their role is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and control of most frequent acute bacterial meningitides. Automatic and closed systems may encourage the widespread and systematic use of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of these neurological syndromes in most laboratories.

  16. Does Viral Co-Infection Influence the Severity of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. Objectives To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Methods We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011–2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value < 0.001) and longer hospital length of stay (OR: 1.468; P-value < 0.001). In addition, pneumococcal vaccination was found to be a protective factor in terms of degree of respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role. PMID:27096199

  17. Diagnosing viral and bacterial respiratory infections in acute COPD exacerbations by an electronic nose : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Wouter H.; Bruins, Marcel; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infections, viral or bacterial, are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A rapid, point-of-care, and easy-to-use tool distinguishing viral and bacterial from other causes would be valuable in routine clinical care. An electronic nose

  18. Distribution of viral RNA in mouse tissues during acute phase of coxsackievirus B5 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Mi Sun; Joo, Chul Hyun; Hwang, In Seok; Ye, Jeong Sook; Jun, Eun Jung; Lee, Hui Sun; Kim, Donghou; Lee, Min-Jae; Lee, Heuiran; Kim, Yoo Kyum

    2005-01-01

    To investigate histopathological changes and distribution of coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) RNA in mouse heart, liver, and pancreas during the acute phase of infection. C3H/HeJ male mice, aged 3-4 weeks, were inoculated intraperitoneally with 5 x 10(5) plaque-forming units of CVB5 and sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 10 days postinfection (p.i.). Inflammation of the heart, liver, and pancreatic tissue sections was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and virus was detected using antibody to viral coat protein VP1. A quantitative real-time RT-PCR method, using primers and probe targeted to the highly conserved sequences in the 5'-untranslated region of the virus, was used to evaluate the kinetics of CVB5 RNA during the development of myocarditis or pancreatitis. Marginal inflammatory changes were observed in the heart tissues although viral RNA was constantly present between 1 and 10 days p.i., peaking at 4 days p.i. The pancreatic tissues displayed massive lymphocyte infiltration and loss of acinar cells at day 4 p.i. and viral RNA was detected between 1 and 10 days p.i., peaking at 2-3 days p.i. In the liver, viral RNA was detected between 1 and 7 days. No mortality was observed. CVB5 induced acute pancreatitis without subsequent development of myocarditis. Clearance of CVB5 RNA from the pancreas and heart was slower than clearance from the liver. Our real-time RT-PCR method, which is more sensitive than conventional plaque assay, may provide valuable insight into viral RNA kinetics during CVB5 infection. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. A novel host-proteome signature for distinguishing between acute bacterial and viral infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kfir Oved

    Full Text Available Bacterial and viral infections are often clinically indistinguishable, leading to inappropriate patient management and antibiotic misuse. Bacterial-induced host proteins such as procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP, and Interleukin-6, are routinely used to support diagnosis of infection. However, their performance is negatively affected by inter-patient variability, including time from symptom onset, clinical syndrome, and pathogens. Our aim was to identify novel viral-induced host proteins that can complement bacterial-induced proteins to increase diagnostic accuracy. Initially, we conducted a bioinformatic screen to identify putative circulating host immune response proteins. The resulting 600 candidates were then quantitatively screened for diagnostic potential using blood samples from 1002 prospectively recruited patients with suspected acute infectious disease and controls with no apparent infection. For each patient, three independent physicians assigned a diagnosis based on comprehensive clinical and laboratory investigation including PCR for 21 pathogens yielding 319 bacterial, 334 viral, 112 control and 98 indeterminate diagnoses; 139 patients were excluded based on predetermined criteria. The best performing host-protein was TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 0.91, which was consistently up-regulated in viral infected patients. We further developed a multi-protein signature using logistic-regression on half of the patients and validated it on the remaining half. The signature with the highest precision included both viral- and bacterial-induced proteins: TRAIL, Interferon gamma-induced protein-10, and CRP (AUC of 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92 to 0.96. The signature was superior to any of the individual proteins (P<0.001, as well as routinely used clinical parameters and their combinations (P<0.001. It remained robust across different physiological systems

  20. Burden and Seasonality of Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections among Outpatients in Southern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David; Bodinayake, Champica K; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kurukulasooriya, Ruvini; Hsiang, Jeremy; Nicholson, Bradley; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan; Østbye, Truls; Reller, Megan E; Woods, Christopher W; Tillekeratne, L Gayani

    2017-07-01

    In tropical and subtropical settings, the epidemiology of viral acute respiratory tract infections varies widely between countries. We determined the etiology, seasonality, and clinical presentation of viral acute respiratory tract infections among outpatients in southern Sri Lanka. From March 2013 to January 2015, we enrolled outpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). Nasal/nasopharyngeal samples were tested in duplicate using antigen-based rapid influenza testing and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for respiratory viruses. Monthly proportion positive was calculated for each virus. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify associations between sociodemographic/clinical information and viral detection. Of 571 subjects, most (470, 82.3%) were ≥ 5 years of age and 53.1% were male. A respiratory virus was detected by PCR in 63.6% ( N = 363). Common viral etiologies included influenza (223, 39%), human enterovirus/rhinovirus (HEV/HRV, 14.5%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 4.2%), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV, 3.9%). Both ILI and influenza showed clear seasonal variation, with peaks from March to June each year. RSV and hMPV activity peaked from May to July, whereas HEV/HRV was seen year-round. Patients with respiratory viruses detected were more likely to report pain with breathing (odds ratio [OR] = 2.60, P = 0.003), anorexia (OR = 2.29, P respiratory viruses detected. ILI showed clear seasonal variation in southern Sri Lanka, with most activity during March to June; peak activity was largely due to influenza. Targeted infection prevention activities such as influenza vaccination in January-February may have a large public health impact in this region.

  1. SELECTIVE PROPHYLAXIS OF RHINO-SINUSITIS IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aleksandrovna Mashkova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of treatment of 52 children with acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI aged from 4 to 10 years were studied based onobservation diaries, filled by parents, and data of the otorhinolaryngologists examinations on the 7th and 10th days from the onset of the disease. The children were divided into 2 groups: 1 group consisted of 30 children, which were treated with Sinupret monotherapy; 2 group consisted of 22 children, which were treated with endonasal irrigation, decongestants and antiseptics. The parallel analysis of the treatment results of children with ARVI showed, that Sinupret is well-tolerated by patients, contributes to milder course of the disease. Due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-viral actions this drug prevents development of such complications of respiratory tract infections as acute purulent rhino-sinusitis and acute otitis media. Sinupret also precipitates the processes of convalescence on 45% at the average and shorten the prolongation of disease on 5 days at the average, so it can be recommended to be included into the standard protocol of treatment children with ARVI.

  2. Diagnosing viral and bacterial respiratory infections in acute COPD exacerbations by an electronic nose: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Wouter H; Bruins, Marcel; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2016-06-16

    Respiratory infections, viral or bacterial, are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A rapid, point-of-care, and easy-to-use tool distinguishing viral and bacterial from other causes would be valuable in routine clinical care. An electronic nose (e-nose) could fit this profile but has never been tested in this setting before. In a single-center registered trial (NTR 4601) patients admitted with AECOPD were tested with the Aeonose(®) electronic nose, and a diagnosis of viral or bacterial infection was obtained by bacterial culture on sputa and viral PCR on nose swabs. A neural network with leave-10%-out cross-validation was used to assess the e-nose data. Forty three patients were included. In the bacterial infection model, 22 positive cases were tested versus the negatives; and similarly 18 positive cases were tested in the viral infection model. The Aeonose was able to distinguish between COPD-subjects suffering from a viral infection and COPD patients without infection, showing an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.74. Similarly, for bacterial infections, an AUC of 0.72 was obtained. The Aeonose e-nose yields promising results in 'smelling' the presence or absence of a viral or bacterial respiratory infection during an acute exacerbation of COPD. Validation of these results using a new and large cohort is required before introduction into clinical practice.

  3. Signs and symptoms that differentiate acute sinusitis from viral upper respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nader; Hoberman, Alejandro; Kearney, Diana H; Colborn, D Kathleen; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Jeong, Jong H; Haralam, Mary Ann; Bowen, A'Delbert; Flom, Lynda L; Wald, Ellen R

    2013-10-01

    Differentiating acute bacterial sinusitis from viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is challenging; 20% to 40% of children diagnosed with acute sinusitis based on clinical criteria likely have an uncomplicated URI. The objective of this study was to determine which signs and symptoms could be used to identify the subgroup of children who meet current clinical criteria for sinusitis but who nevertheless have a viral URI. We obtained sinus radiographs in consecutive children meeting a priori clinical criteria for acute sinusitis. We considered the subgroup of children with completely normal sinus radiographs to have an uncomplicated URI despite meeting the clinical diagnostic criteria for sinusitis. We examined the utility of signs and symptoms in identifying children with URI. Of 258 children enrolled, 54 (20.9%) children had completely normal radiographs. The absence of green nasal discharge, the absence of disturbed sleep and mild symptoms were associated with a diagnosis of URI. No physical exam findings were particularly helpful in distinguishing between children with normal versus abnormal radiographs. Among children meeting current criteria for the diagnosis of acute sinusitis, those with mild symptoms are significantly more likely to have a URI than those with severe symptoms. In addition to assessing overall severity of symptoms, practitioners should ask about sleep disturbance and green nasal discharge when assessing children with suspected sinusitis; their absence favors a diagnosis of URI.

  4. Viral etiology and clinical profiles of children with severe acute respiratory infections in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available No comprehensive analysis is available on the viral etiology and clinical characterization among children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI in China during 2009 H1N1 pandemic and post-pandemic period.Cohort of 370 hospitalized children (1 to 72 months with SARI from May 2008 to March 2010 was enrolled in this study. Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA specimens were tested by a commercial assay for 18 respiratory viral targets. The viral distribution and its association with clinical character were statistically analyzed.Viral pathogen was detected in 350 (94.29% of children with SARI. Overall, the most popular viruses were: enterovirus/rhinovirus (EV/RV (54.05%, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV (51.08%, human bocavirus (BoCA (33.78%, human parainfluenzaviruse type 3 (PIV3 (15.41%, and adenovirus (ADV (12.97%. Pandemic H1N1 was the dominant influenza virus (IFV but was only detected in 20 (5.41% of children. Moreover, detection rate of RSV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV among suburb participants were significantly higher than that of urban area (P<0.05. Incidence of VSARI among suburb participants was also significant higher, especially among those of 24 to 59 months group (P<0.05.Piconaviruses (EV/RV and paramyxoviruses are the most popular viral pathogens among children with SARI in this study. RSV and hMPV significantly increase the risk of SARI, especially in children younger than 24 months. Higher incidence of VSARI and more susceptibilities to RSV and hMPV infections were found in suburban patients.

  5. Constrained pattern of viral evolution in acute and early HCV infection limits viral plasticity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfafferott, Katja; Gaudieri, Silvana; Ulsenheimer, Axel; James, Ian; Heeg, Malte; Nolan, David; John, Mina; Rauch, Andri; Mallal, Simon; Lucas, Andrew; Klenerman, Paul; Diepolder, Helmut M; Lucas, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    .... Most mutations were maintained into the chronic phase of HCV infection (75%). The lack of reversion of adaptations and high proportion of silent substitutions suggests that HCV has structural and functional limitations that constrain evolution...

  6. Viral etiology among the elderly presenting acute respiratory infection during the influenza season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aripuanã Sakurada Aranha Watanabe

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory tract infections are the most common illness in all individuals. Rhinoviruses have been reported as the etiology of more than 50% of respiratory tract infections worldwide. The study prospectively evaluated 47 elderly individuals from a group of 384 randomly assigned for acute respiratory viral infections (cold or flu and assessed the occurrence of human rhinovirus (HRV, influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus (hMPV in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Forty-nine nasal swabs collected from 47 elderly individuals following inclusion visits from 2002 to 2003 were tested by GenScan RT-PCR. HRV-positive samples were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: No sample was positive for influenza A/B or RSV. HRV was detected in 28.6% (14/47 and hMPV in 2% (1/47. Of 14 positive samples, 9 isolates were successfully sequenced, showing the follow group distribution: 6 group A, 1 group B and 2 group C HRVs. CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence of HRV during the months of the influenza season requires further study regarding HRV infection impact on respiratory complications among this population. Infection caused by HRV is very frequent and may contribute to increasing the already high demand for healthcare during the influenza season.

  7. [Relationship between viral load of human bocavirus and clinical characteristics in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Bing; Zhong, Li-Li; Xie, Le-Yun; Xiao, Ni-Guang

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human bocavirus (HBoV) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection and to explore the relationship between the viral load of HBoV and the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. A total of 1 554 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children who were hospitalized due to acute lower respiratory tract infection between March 2011 and March 2014 were collected. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect 12 RNA and 2 DNA viruses, adenovirus (ADV) and HBoV, and to measure the viral load of HBoV in HBoV-positive children. A comprehensive analysis was performed with reference to clinical symptoms and indicators. In the 1 554 specimens, 1 212 (77.99%) were positive for viruses, and 275 (17.70%) were HBoV-positive. In HBoV-positive cases, 94.9% were aged infection, and 230 (83.64%) had mixed infection. There was no significant difference in viral load between children with single infection and mixed infection (P>0.05). The patients with fever had a significantly higher viral load than those without fever (Pacute lower respiratory tract infection (P>0.05). HBoV is one of the important pathogens of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. Children with a higher viral load of HBoV are more likely to experience symptoms such as fever and wheezing. However, the severity of disease and mixed infection are not significantly related to viral load.

  8. Viral etiologies of hospitalized acute lower respiratory infection patients in China, 2009-2013.

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    Luzhao Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs are an important cause of acute illnesses and mortality worldwide and in China. However, a large-scale study on the prevalence of viral infections across multiple provinces and seasons has not been previously reported from China. Here, we aimed to identify the viral etiologies associated with ALRIs from 22 Chinese provinces. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Active surveillance for hospitalized ALRI patients in 108 sentinel hospitals in 24 provinces of China was conducted from January 2009-September 2013. We enrolled hospitalized all-age patients with ALRI, and collected respiratory specimens, blood or serum collected for diagnostic testing for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human influenza virus, adenoviruses (ADV, human parainfluenza virus (PIV, human metapneumovirus (hMPV, human coronavirus (hCoV and human bocavirus (hBoV. We included 28,369 ALRI patients from 81 (of the 108 sentinel hospitals in 22 (of the 24 provinces, and 10,387 (36.6% were positive for at least one etiology. The most frequently detected virus was RSV (9.9%, followed by influenza (6.6%, PIV (4.8%, ADV (3.4%, hBoV (1.9, hMPV (1.5% and hCoV (1.4%. Co-detections were found in 7.2% of patients. RSV was the most common etiology (17.0% in young children aged <2 years. Influenza viruses were the main cause of the ALRIs in adults and elderly. PIV, hBoV, hMPV and ADV infections were more frequent in children, while hCoV infection was distributed evenly in all-age. There were clear seasonal peaks for RSV, influenza, PIV, hBoV and hMPV infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could serve as robust evidence for public health authorities in drawing up further plans to prevent and control ALRIs associated with viral pathogens. RSV is common in young children and prevention measures could have large public health impact. Influenza was most common in adults and influenza vaccination should be implemented on a wider scale in China.

  9. Clinical Features of Acute Respiratory Viral Infections in Infants with Thymomegaly

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    T.V. Sorokman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Peculiarities of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in children with increased size of the thymus are associated with the presence of more or less significant immunodeficiency and dyshormonosis with manifestations of adrenal insufficiency. Objective — to study the features of acute respiratory viral infections and to investigate adrenal function in infants with thymomegaly. Material and methods. 41 children aged 1 month to 3 years with thymomegaly and complicated forms of ARVI were involved in clinical studies. Etiological decoding of ARVI has been carried out with the use of paired serum samples. The content of cortisol in the blood plasma was determined by immunoenzyme method. 36 children with thymomegaly without ARVI manifestations within at least 3 months were in comparison group. Results. Analysis of the anamnesis in patients with thymomegaly showed that most of them experienced adverse conditions at different stages of antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal development. Analysis of the data on the size of the thymus gland showed that 3rd — 4th degree of thymomegaly is often observed in children with signs of constrictive laryngotracheitis (75.0 %. 23.5 % of patients with obstructive bronchitis had 1st degree thymomegaly, the rest — 3rd and 4th degrees. In case of nonobstructive lesions of the bronchi, the opposite trend took place: the least degree of thymomegaly was diagnosed in 62.5 %, and 3rd and 4th — in 37.5 % (p < 0.05 of patients. The lowest supply of cortisol was noted in the acute period of constrictive laryngotracheitis (409.4 ± 10.2 nmol/ml against 537.7 ± 11.5 nmol/ml in the comparison group; p < 0.05. In the acute period of ARVI complicated by bronchitis, cortisol levels were not increased — 432.3 ± 32.3 nmol/ml. In the group of patients with pneumonia, we have recorded reliable, probably compensatory increase of cortisol level (787.3 ± 2.0 nmol/ml, p < 0.05. In the acute period of

  10. Molecular viral epidemiology and clinical characterization of acute febrile respiratory infections in hospitalized children in Taiwan.

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    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chang, Yu-Fen; Lee, Chia-Lin; Wu, Meng-Che; Ho, Chi-Lin; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chan, Yu-Jiun

    2015-11-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a leading cause of morbidity and hospitalization in children. To profile the viruses causing ARI in children admitted to a community-based hospital in central Taiwan, a cross-sectional study was conducted on children under 14 years of age that were hospitalized with febrile ARI. Viral etiology was determined using conventional cell culture and a commercial respiratory virus panel fast assay (xTAG RVP), capable of detecting 19 different respiratory viruses and subtype targets. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded and analyzed. The RVP fast assay identified at least one respiratory virus in 130 of the 216 specimens examined (60.2%) and rose to 137 (63.4%) by combining the results of cell culture and RVP fast assay. In order of frequency, the etiological agents identified were, rhinovirus/enterovirus (24.6%), respiratory syncytial virus (13.8%), adenovirus (11.5%), parainfluenza virus (9.2%), influenza B (8.4%), influenza A (5.4%), human metapneumovirus (4.6%), human coronavirus (2%), and human bocavirus (2%). Co-infection did not result in an increase in clinical severity. The RVP assay detected more positive specimens, but failed to detect 6 viruses identified by culture. The viral detection rate for the RVP assay was affected by how many days after admission the samples were taken (P = 0.03). In conclusion, Rhinovirus/enterovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus were prevalent in this study by adopting RVP assay. The viral detection rate is influenced by sampling time, especially if the tests are performed during the first three days of hospitalization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Viral etiology of acute respiratory infections among Iranian Hajj pilgrims, 2006.

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    Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Aelami, Mohammad Hasan; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar; Jamalidoust, Marzieh; Moeini, Mahsa; Pourabbas, Bahman; Abbasian, Amin

    2009-01-01

    Every year more than 2 million pilgrims from different countries in the world including Iran participate in the annual Hajj in Saudi Arabia. Respiratory diseases have been the most common cause of illnesses among Iranian pilgrims. Direct fluorescent staining and viral culture were performed on nasal wash specimens of Iranian Hajj pilgrims with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections at Shiraz (a city in southern Iran) airport on return from the Hajj during December 2006 to January 2007. They were screened for influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1 to 3, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by viral culture and immunofluorecent staining. Rhinovirus and enterovirus were diagnosed based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction methods. The patients aged between 19 and 82 years (mean: 52.4 years) consisting of 135 females and 120 males. Cough in 213(83.5%) and sore throat in 209 (82%) were the most common symptoms. Eighty-three patients (32.5%) had viral pathogens: influenza in 25 (9.8%), parainfluenza in 19 (7.4%), rhinovirus in 15 (5.9%), adenovirus in14 (5.4%), enterovirus in 5 (2%), and RSV in 4 (1.6%) and coinfection with two viruses in 1 patient (0.4%). Influenza virus was identified more in unvaccinated than in vaccinated pilgrims (16.5% vs. 9.2%) but statistically insignificant (p= 0.19). According to the results, each of the above-mentioned viruses played a role in the development of respiratory diseases among Iranian pilgrims, with influenza virus as the commonest one. Because influenza vaccine could not prevent respiratory infections in Hajj pilgrims statistically, the possibility of the appearance of new drift variants not included in vaccine and also inappropriate vaccine handling and storage might be considered. So it is also advisable to check if the circulating influenza strains were different from the vaccine strains.

  12. A 3-year prospective study of the epidemiology of acute respiratory viral infections in hospitalized children in Shenzhen, China.

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    He, Ying; Lin, Guang-Yu; Wang, Qiong; Cai, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Yin-Hui; Lin, Chuang-Xing; Lu, Chang-Dong; Lu, Xue-Dong

    2014-07-01

    The epidemiology of local viral etiologies is essential for the management of viral respiratory tract infections. Limited data are available in China to describe the epidemiology of viral respiratory infections, especially in small-medium cities and rural areas. To determine the viral etiology and seasonality of acute respiratory infections in hospitalized children, a 3-year study was conducted in Shenzhen, China. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from eligible children were collected. Influenza and other respiratory viruses were tested by molecular assays simultaneously. Data were analyzed to describe the frequency and seasonality. Of the 2025 children enrolled in the study, 971 (48.0%) were positive for at least one viral pathogen, in which 890 (91.7%) were prevalent viruses were influenza A (IAV; 35.8%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; 30.5%) and human rhinovirus (HRV; 21.5%). Co-infections were found in 302 cases (31.1%), and dual viral infection was dominant. RSV, HRV and IAV were the most frequent viral agents involved in co-infection. On the whole, the obvious seasonal peaks mainly from March to May were observed with peak strength varying from 1 year to another. This study provides a basic profile of the epidemiology of acute respiratory viral infection in hospitalized children in Shenzhen. The spectrum of viruses in the study site is similar to that in other places, but the seasonality is closely related to geographic position, different from that in big cities in northern China and neighboring Hong Kong. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Induction of Gag-Specific CD4 T Cell Responses during Acute HIV Infection Is Associated with Improved Viral Control

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    Schieffer, Miriam; Jessen, Heiko K.; Oster, Alexander F.; Pissani, Franco; Soghoian, Damien Z.; Lu, Richard; Jessen, Arne B.; Zedlack, Carmen; Schultz, Bruce T.; Davis, Isaiah; Ranasinghe, Srinika; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Alter, Galit; Schumann, Ralf R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Effector CD4 T cell responses have been shown to be critically involved in the containment and clearance of viral pathogens. However, their involvement in the pathogenesis of HIV infection is less clear, given their additional role as preferred viral targets. We previously demonstrated that the presence of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses is somewhat associated with HIV control and that specific CD4 T cell functions, such as direct cytolytic activity, can contribute to control of HIV viremia. However, little is known about how the induction of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses during acute HIV infection influences disease progression and whether responses induced during the early phase of infection are preferentially depleted. We therefore longitudinally assessed, in a cohort of 55 acutely HIV-infected individuals, HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses from acute to chronic infection. Interestingly, we found that the breadth, magnitude, and protein dominance of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses remained remarkably stable over time. Moreover, we found that the epitopes targeted at a high frequency in acute HIV infection were recognized at the same frequency by HIV-specific CD4 T cells in chronic HIV infection. Interestingly the induction of Gag-specific CD4 T cell responses in acute HIV infection was significantly inversely correlated with viral set point in chronic HIV infection (R = −0.5; P = 0.03), while the cumulative contribution of Env-specific CD4 T cell responses showed the reverse effect. Moreover, individuals with HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses dominantly targeting Gag over Env in acute HIV infection remained off antiretroviral therapy significantly longer (P = 0.03; log rank). Thus, our data suggest that the induction of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses during acute HIV infection is beneficial overall and does not fuel disease progression. IMPORTANCE CD4 T cells are critical for the clearance and control of viral infections. However, HIV

  14. Viral Etiology of acute respiratory tract infections in hospitalized children and adults in Shandong Province, China.

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    Liu, Ti; Li, Zhong; Zhang, Shengyang; Song, Shaoxia; Julong, Wu; Lin, Yi; Guo, Nongjian; Xing, Chunyan; Xu, Aiqiang; Bi, Zhenqiang; Wang, Xianjun

    2015-10-14

    The dominant viral etiologies responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are poorly understood, particularly among hospitalized patients. Improved etiological insight is needed to improve clinical management and prevention of ARIs. Clinical and demographic information and throat swabs were collected from 607 patients from 2011 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China. Multiplex RT-PCR (SeeplexTM RV detection, Seegene) was performed to detected 12 respiratory viral pathogens. A total of 607 hospitalized patients were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. Viruses were identified in 35.75 % (217/607) of cases, including 78 influenza virus A and B (IVA and IVB), 47 para-influenza viruses (PIVs), 41 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and 38 adenovirus (ADV). For the children under 15 year old, the common detected viruses were influenza viruses, RSV, PIVS and ADV, while the principal respiratory viruses were human coronaviruses (HCoV), PIVs, influenza viruses for the old adults. Co-infections with multiple viruses were detected in 15.67 % of patients. Children under 5 years were more likely to have one or more detectable virus associated with their ARI. The peak of ARI caused by the respiratory viruses occurred in winter. This study demonstrated respiratory viruses were the major cause of hospitalized ARI patients in Shandong Province, influenza virus was the most common detected, RSV was the highest incidence among the young children (≤5 years). These findings also gave a better understand of virus distribution among different age and seasons, which help to consider potential therapeutic approaches and develop effective prevention strategies for respiratory virus infection.

  15. [Prevalence and risk factors of respiratory viral infection in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

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    Du, X B; Ma, X; Gao, Y; Wen, L F; Li, J; Wang, Z Z; Liu, S

    2017-04-12

    Objective: To study the prevalence of respiratory viral infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) exacerbations and to find the factors associated with susceptibility to viral infections. Methods: Eighty patients with exacerbations of COPD and 50 stable COPD patients were recruited. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for a range of 18 different respiratory viruses using PCR. Results: Among the COPD exacerbations, viral infection was detected in 18 episodes (22.5%) . The most common virus was rhinovirus (33.3%), followed by coronavirus(27.8%), parainfluenza(22.2%), metapneumovirus(11.1%) and influenza virus B(5.6%). The prevalence of viral infection was 8% in the stable COPD patients. In multivariate regression analysis fever was found to be significantly associated with viral infections in COPD exacerbations (Odds ratio 4.99, 95% CI 1.51-16.48, P =0.008). Conclusion: Viral respiratory pathogens were more often detected in respiratory specimens from hospitalized patients with AECOPD than those with stable COPD. Rhinovirus was the most common infecting agent identified. The symptom of fever was associated with viral detection.

  16. Efficacy of passively transferred antibodies in cats with acute viral upper respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Yvonne; Schulz, Bianka; Knebl, Anne; Helps, Chris; Truyen, Uwe; Hartmann, Katrin

    2014-09-01

    A commercial hyperimmune serum, containing antibodies against feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), and feline panleukopenia virus, is available for treatment of cats with feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD), but its efficacy has not been rigorously evaluated in scientific studies. The aim of this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of passive immunisation in cats with acute viral FURTD caused by FCV and/or FHV-1 infection. All cats received symptomatic treatment during the study period. Hyperimmune serum was administered to one group (n = 22) and an equivalent amount of saline was administered to the control group (n = 20) as placebo, for 3 consecutive days. In the treatment group, cats ≤12 weeks old received 2 mL, cats >12 weeks old received 4 mL, subcutaneously once daily and topically into eyes, nostrils, and mouth every 8 h. Clinical signs, including a 'FURTD score' and general health status, were recorded daily for 8 days and again on day 21. FCV shedding was determined by quantitative PCR on days 0 and 21. Clinical signs and health status in both groups improved significantly over time (P < 0.001). Cats receiving hyperimmune serum significantly improved in terms of 'FURTD score' (P = 0.046) and general health status (P = 0.032) by day 3, while cats in the placebo group only improved significantly by day 7. There was no significant difference in the number of cats shedding FCV between the two groups. Thus, administration of hyperimmune serum led to a more rapid improvement of clinical signs in cats with acute viral FURTD, but by day 7, clinical signs had improved equally in both groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Outcome of Severe Dengue Viral Infection-caused Acute Liver Failure in Thai Children.

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    Laoprasopwattana, Kamolwish; Jundee, Puthachat; Pruekprasert, Pornpimol; Geater, Alan

    2016-06-01

    To determine clinical course and outcomes of liver functions in children with dengue viral infection-caused acute liver failure (ALF), the records of patients aged failure including respiratory failure, massive bleeding and acute kidney injury occurred in 80.0%, 96.0% and 84.0% of the ALF cases, respectively, with an overall fatality rate of 68.3%. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were highest on the day that the patient developed ALF. Lactate dehydrogenase levels had positive correlations with AST (r = 0.95) and ALT (r = 0.87) (all p < 0.01). The median (interquartile range) days before the AST and ALT levels returned to lower than 200 U/L after the ALF were 10.5 (8.8, 12.8) and 10.5 (7.8, 14.0) days, respectively. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Symptomatic and asymptomatic respiratory viral infections in the first year of life: association with acute otitis media development.

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    Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Alvarez-Fernandez, Pedro; Jennings, Kristofer; Trujillo, Rocio; Marom, Tal; Loeffelholz, Michael J; Miller, Aaron L; McCormick, David P; Patel, Janak A; Pyles, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive diagnostic assays have increased the detection of viruses in asymptomatic individuals. The clinical significance of asymptomatic respiratory viral infection in infants is unknown. High-throughput, quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were used to detect 13 common respiratory viruses from nasopharyngeal specimens collected during 2028 visits from 362 infants followed from near birth up to 12 months of age. Specimens were collected at monthly interval (months 1-6 and month 9) and during upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) episodes. Subjects were followed closely for acute otitis media (AOM) development. Viruses were detected in 76% of 394 URTI specimens and 27% of asymptomatic monthly specimens. Rhinovirus was detected most often; multiple viruses were detected in 29% of the specimens. Generalized mixed-model analyses associated symptoms with increasing age and female sex; detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, rhinovirus, metapneumovirus, and adenovirus was highly associated with symptoms. Increasing age was also associated with multiple virus detection. Overall, 403 asymptomatic viral infections in 237 infants were identified. Viral load was significantly higher in URTI specimens than asymptomatic specimens but did not differentiate cases of URTI with and without AOM complication. The rate of AOM complicating URTI was 27%; no AOM occurred following asymptomatic viral infections. AOM development was associated with increasing age and infection with RSV, rhinovirus, enterovirus, adenovirus, and bocavirus. Compared to symptomatic infection, asymptomatic viral infection in infants is associated with young age, male sex, low viral load, specific viruses, and single virus detection. Asymptomatic viral infection did not result in AOM. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Efficacy of Chistonos for Children in the Treatment and Prevention of Acute Respiratory Viral Infections in Preschool Children

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    I.V. Dahaieva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex of treatment of acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI, acute rhinitis in 43 preschool children was supplemented by endonasal irrigations of Chistonos for children, which is a dosing gel spray containing sea salt, β-carotene, aloe and calendula extracts. A marked local symptomatic relief was registered, as well as an acceleration of the regression of inflammatory changes in the nasal cavity and a significant decrease in the number of complications after acute respiratory disease. Prophylactic use of the product in the preseason allowed to decrease the ARVI (including influenza morbidity rate and to reduce the incidence of the severe form of the disease.

  20. ARGUMENTATION OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTIONS NONSPECIFIC PREVENTION IN GROUPS OF CHILDREN

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    L. R. Ishrefova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI and influenza are among the topical problems of healthcare. The children’s morbidity index in preschool educational institutions in Krasnoselsky district of St. Petersburg in 2008–2014 varied from 1359.6 to 1768.5 per 1000 children attending these institutions. In general educational schools the morbidity index in the aforesaid period were 422.6–521.6 (p < 0.001. From 49.3 to 55.4% of children were vaccinated against influenza; from 3600 to 4700 children annually stayed unimmunized due to medical contraindications and parents’ refusals from prophylactic immunization. The research objective is clinical-epidemiological substantiation of effectiveness of application of Echinacea botanical medicine to reduce the ARVI morbidity and the rate of complications after the disease among children attending educational institutions. As a result of the research it was established that the ARVI morbidity index in the group of the children who received the Echinacea preparation was 76.8; in the comparison group it was 94.2 per 100 people (p < 0.01; RR = 0.80; CI = 0.7–0.9. The rate of complications (bronchitis, otitis, adenoiditis, pneumonia, sinusitis among the children who received the preparation was 2–4.8 times lower.

  1. Acute Bacterial Sinusitis Complicating Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Tal; Alvarez-Fernandez, Pedro E.; Jennings, Kristofer; Patel, Janak A.; McCormick, David P.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) is a common complication of viral upper respiratory tract infections (URI). Clinical characteristics of URIs complicated by ABS in young children have not been well studied. Methods We identified ABS episodes in a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of 294 children (6 to 35 months of age at enrollment), who were followed-up for one year to capture all URI episodes and complications. At the initial URI visit seen by the study personnel (median day=4 from symptoms onset), nasopharyngeal samples were obtained for bacterial cultures and viral studies. Results Of 1295 documented URI episodes, 103 (8%) episodes (in 73 children) were complicated by ABS, 32 of which were concurrent with acute otitis media. The majority (72%) of ABS episodes were diagnosed based on persistent symptoms or a biphasic course. Average age at ABS diagnosis was 18.8±7.2 months; white children were more likely to have ABS episodes than blacks (p=0.01). Hispanic/Latino ethnicity (p<0.0001) was negatively associated, and adequate PCV-7 immunization status (p=0.001) appeared to increase the risk of ABS. Girls had more ABS episodes than boys (0.5±0.8 vs 0.3±0.6 episodes/year, respectively, p=0.03). Viruses were detected in 63% during the initial URI visit; rhinovirus detection was positively correlated with ABS risk (p=0.01). Bacterial cultures were positive in 82/83 (99%) available samples obtained at the initial URI visit; polymicrobial (56%), Moraxella catarrhalis (20%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (10%) were the most common cultures. Presence of pathogenic bacteria overall and presence of M. catarrhalis during URI were positively correlated with the risk for ABS (p=0.04 for both). Conclusion ABS complicates 8% of URI in young children. Girls have more frequent ABS episodes than boys. Presence of rhinovirus and M. catarrhalis during URI are positively correlated with the risk for ABS complication. PMID:24717966

  2. The Superiority of IFN-λ as a Therapeutic Candidate to Control Acute Influenza Viral Lung Infection.

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    Kim, Sujin; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Kang, Ju Wan; Shin, Ha Kyung; Kim, Dong-Young; Won, Tae-Bin; Han, Doo Hee; Rhee, Chae Seo; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2017-02-01

    Here, we studied the IFN-regulated innate immune response against influenza A virus (IAV) infection in the mouse lung and the therapeutic effect of IFN-λ2/3 in acute IAV lung infection. For viral infections, IAV (WS/33, H1N1, PR8 H1N1, H5N1) were inoculated into wild-type mice by intranasal delivery, and IAV mRNA level and viral titer were measured. To compare the antiviral effect of IFNs in vivo in the lung, neutralizing antibodies and recombinant IFNs were used. After intranasal inoculation of IAV into mice, viral infection peaked at 7 days postinfection, and the IAV titer also reached its peak at this time. We found that IFN-β and IFN-λ2/3 were preferentially induced after IAV infection and the IFN-λ2/3-mediated innate immune response was specifically required for the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) transcription in the mouse respiratory tract. Neutralization of secreted IFN-λ2/3 aggravated acute IAV lung infection in mice with intact IFN-β induction; consistent with this finding, the transcription of ISGs was significantly reduced. Intranasal administration of IFN-λ2/3 significantly suppressed various strains of IAV infection, including WS/33 (H1N1), PR (H1N1), and H5N1 in the mouse lung, and was accompanied by greater up-regulation of ISGs. Taken together, our data indicate that the IFN-λ2/3-mediated innate immune response is necessary to protect the lungs from IAV infection, and intranasally delivered IFN-λ2/3 has the potential to be a useful therapeutic strategy for treating acute IAV lung infection.

  3. Multiple Inhibitory Pathways Contribute to Lung CD8+ T Cell Impairment and Protect against Immunopathology during Acute Viral Respiratory Infection.

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    Erickson, John J; Rogers, Meredith C; Tollefson, Sharon J; Boyd, Kelli L; Williams, John V

    2016-07-01

    Viruses are frequent causes of lower respiratory infection (LRI). Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) signaling contributes to pulmonary CD8(+) T cell (TCD8) functional impairment during acute viral LRI, but the role of TCD8 impairment in viral clearance and immunopathology is unclear. We now find that human metapneumovirus infection induces virus-specific lung TCD8 that fail to produce effector cytokines or degranulate late postinfection, with minimally increased function even in the absence of PD-1 signaling. Impaired lung TCD8 upregulated multiple inhibitory receptors, including PD-1, lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3), T cell Ig mucin 3, and 2B4. Moreover, coexpression of these receptors continued to increase even after viral clearance, with most virus-specific lung TCD8 expressing three or more inhibitory receptors on day 14 postinfection. Viral infection also increased expression of inhibitory ligands by both airway epithelial cells and APCs, further establishing an inhibitory environment. In vitro Ab blockade revealed that multiple inhibitory receptors contribute to TCD8 impairment induced by either human metapneumovirus or influenza virus infection. In vivo blockade of T cell Ig mucin 3 signaling failed to enhance TCD8 function or reduce viral titers. However, blockade of LAG-3 in PD-1-deficient mice restored TCD8 effector functions but increased lung pathology, indicating that LAG-3 mediates lung TCD8 impairment in vivo and contributes to protection from immunopathology during viral clearance. These results demonstrate that an orchestrated network of pathways modifies lung TCD8 functionality during viral LRI, with PD-1 and LAG-3 serving prominent roles. Lung TCD8 impairment may prevent immunopathology but also contributes to recurrent lung infections. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. The transcription factor TCF-1 initiates the differentiation of T(FH) cells during acute viral infection.

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    Xu, Lifan; Cao, Yi; Xie, Zhunyi; Huang, Qizhao; Bai, Qiang; Yang, Xia; He, Ran; Hao, Yaxing; Wang, Haoqiang; Zhao, Tingting; Fan, Zhonglei; Qin, Aijian; Ye, Jianqiang; Zhou, Xinyuan; Ye, Lilin; Wu, Yuzhang

    2015-09-01

    Induction of the transcriptional repressor Bcl-6 in CD4(+) T cells is critical for the differentiation of follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells), which are essential for B cell-mediated immunity. In contrast, the transcription factor Blimp1 (encoded by Prdm1) inhibits T(FH) differentiation by antagonizing Bcl-6. Here we found that the transcription factor TCF-1 was essential for both the initiation of T(FH) differentiation and the effector function of differentiated T(FH) cells during acute viral infection. Mechanistically, TCF-1 bound directly to the Bcl6 promoter and Prdm1 5' regulatory regions, which promoted Bcl-6 expression but repressed Blimp1 expression. TCF-1-null T(FH) cells upregulated genes associated with non-T(FH) cell lineages. Thus, TCF-1 functions as an important hub upstream of the Bcl-6-Blimp1 axis to initiate and secure the differentiation of T(FH) cells during acute viral infection.

  5. Contemporary issues epidemiology of acute intestinal infections of viral etiology in the north-eastern region of Ukraine

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    N. G. Malysh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective epidemiological analysis of the incidence of acute intestinal infections in 2008–2012 in Sumy region. Indicators of the incidence ranged from 172,8 to 181,7 per 100 thousand of the population. Absolute growth of acute diarrheal infections was +5,2%. In 29,8% of the samples retrieved from the feces of children and 7.5% of adults with acute intestinal infections, viruses isolated. In the structure of the viral landscape dominated by rota-, adeno- and noroviruses. The results of studies on detection of virus in samples of faeces methods of analysis immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay analysis and polymerase chain reaction were not significantly different (p >0,05.

  6. REVIEW OF CLINICAL CASES OF DRUG ALLERGIC REACTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTIONS

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    Sydorchuk A.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Problem of drug-induced allergic reaction is especially actual both in well-developing countries as well as in countries of Eastern European region. By the WHO data, distribution of allergy is up to 30 %, and main reasons for that are increasing of pharmaceuticals consumption by a person, change of nutrition style towards more chemicals synthetic substitutions. Generally, a quantity of Europeans with allergy reach 150 mln. Reactions of hypersensitivity to medications is so serious discussion question among physicians and their patients, since it is the most important reason to stop treatment and for refuse remedies. Authors hope, that presenting here clinical material will bring benefit both clinicians and patients like cases of drug-induced allergic reactions due to self-prescribed treatment (antipyretics, antibiotics. Thus, this research paper aimed to analyze the clinical cases of drug-induced allergy in patients with acute respiratory illnesses, which had admitted to Infectious diseases department of Municipal Clinical Hospital of Chernivtsi city (Ukraine. Materials & Methods. Descriptional clinical study enrolled six clinical cases of drug-induced allergy in male patients admitted in different time to the Infectious Diseases Department of Municipal Clinical Hospital of Chernivtsi city (Ukraine with clinical manifestation and epidemiological data of acute respiratory viral infections. Mostly cases of drug-induced allergy confirmed by the indirect immune-termomistry for determination of role of a drug. Results & discussion. First case in male 52 years old patient with signs of polymorphic exudative erythema induced by pills against common cold named «Coldflu». Patient had manifestation clinical features of acute respiratory viral infection and was hospitalized to the Department of Droplet infections for detoxicative and desensitization treatment. Within few days his infectious problem had solved, nevertheless skin rash still

  7. High Prevalence of Respiratory Viral Infections in Patients Hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit for Acute Respiratory Infections as Detected by Nucleic Acid-Based Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Legoff, Jérôme; Guérot, Emmanuel; Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Matta, Mathieu; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Gutmann, Laurent; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Bélec, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Forty-seven bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were obtained from 41 patients with acute pneumonia attending an intensive care unit. By molecular diagnosis, 30% of total BAL and 63% of bacteria-negative BAL were positive for respiratory viruses. Molecular detection allows for high-rate detection of respiratory viral infections in adult patients suffering from severe pneumonia.

  8. Acute viral hepatitis morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis E virus infection: Uzbekistan surveillance data

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    Margolis Harold S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uzbekistan, routine serologic testing has not been available to differentiate etiologies of acute viral hepatitis (AVH. To determine the age groups most affected by hepatitis E virus (HEV during documented AVH epidemics, trends in AVH-associated mortality rate (MR per 100,000 over a 15-year period and reported incidence of AVH over a 35-year period were examined. Methods Reported AVH incidence data from 1971 to 2005 and AVH-associated mortality data from 1981 to 1995 were examined. Serologic markers for infection with hepatitis viruses A, B, D, and E were determined from a sample of hospitalized patients with AVH from an epidemic period (1987 and from a sample of pregnant women with AVH from a non-epidemic period (1992. Results Two multi-year AVH outbreaks were identified: one during 1975–1976, and one during 1985–1987. During 1985–1987, AVH-associated MRs were 12.3–17.8 per 100,000 for the general population. Highest AVH-associated MRs occurred among children in the first 3 years of life (40–190 per 100,000 and among women aged 20–29 (15–21 per 100,000. During 1988–1995 when reported AVH morbidity was much lower in the general population, AVH-associated MRs were markedly lower among these same age groups. In 1988, AVH-associated MRs were higher in rural (21 per 100,000 than in urban (8 per 100,000 populations (RR 2.6; 95% CI 1.16–5.93; p Conclusion In the absence of the availability of confirmatory testing, inferences regarding probable hepatitis epidemic etiologies can sometimes be made using surveillance data, comparing AVH incidence with AVH-associated mortality with an eye to population-based viral hepatitis control measures. Data presented here implicate HEV as the probable etiology of high mortality observed in pregnant women and in children less than 3 years of age in Uzbekistan during 1985–1987. High mortality among pregnant women but not among children less than 3 years has been observed in

  9. Acute viral hepatitis morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis E virus infection: Uzbekistan surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, Makhmudkhan B; Favorov, Michael O; Yashina, Tatiana L; Brown, Matthew S; Onischenko, Gennady G; Margolis, Harold S; Chorba, Terence L

    2009-03-25

    In Uzbekistan, routine serologic testing has not been available to differentiate etiologies of acute viral hepatitis (AVH). To determine the age groups most affected by hepatitis E virus (HEV) during documented AVH epidemics, trends in AVH-associated mortality rate (MR) per 100,000 over a 15-year period and reported incidence of AVH over a 35-year period were examined. Reported AVH incidence data from 1971 to 2005 and AVH-associated mortality data from 1981 to 1995 were examined. Serologic markers for infection with hepatitis viruses A, B, D, and E were determined from a sample of hospitalized patients with AVH from an epidemic period (1987) and from a sample of pregnant women with AVH from a non-epidemic period (1992). Two multi-year AVH outbreaks were identified: one during 1975-1976, and one during 1985-1987. During 1985-1987, AVH-associated MRs were 12.3-17.8 per 100,000 for the general population. Highest AVH-associated MRs occurred among children in the first 3 years of life (40-190 per 100,000) and among women aged 20-29 (15-21 per 100,000). During 1988-1995 when reported AVH morbidity was much lower in the general population, AVH-associated MRs were markedly lower among these same age groups. In 1988, AVH-associated MRs were higher in rural (21 per 100,000) than in urban (8 per 100,000) populations (RR 2.6; 95% CI 1.16-5.93; p Uzbekistan during 1985-1987. High mortality among pregnant women but not among children less than 3 years has been observed in previous descriptions of epidemic hepatitis E. The high mortality among younger children observed in an AVH outbreak associated with hepatitis E merits corroboration in future outbreaks.

  10. Treatment of Acute Viral Bronchiolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limiting mild disease and can be safely managed at home with careful attention to feeding and respiratory status. Criteria for referral and admission vary between hospitals as do clinical practice in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, and there is confusion and lack of evidence over the best treatment for this condition. Supportive care, including administration of oxygen and fluids, is the cornerstone of current treatment. The majority of infants and children with bronchiolitis do not require specific measures. Bronchodilators should not be routinely used in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, but may be effective in some patients. Most of the commonly used management modalities have not been shown to have a clear beneficial effect on the course of the disease. For example, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies, antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and chest physiotherapy should not be used routinely in the management of bronchiolitis. The potential effect of hypertonic saline on the course of the acute disease is promising, but further studies are required. In critically ill children with bronchiolitis, today there is little justification for the use of surfactant and heliox. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in children with severe bronchiolitis but a large trial is needed to determine its value. Finally, very little is known on the effect of the various

  11. Non-oncogenic Acute Viral Infections Disrupt Anti-cancer Responses and Lead to Accelerated Cancer-Specific Host Death

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    Frederick J. Kohlhapp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In light of increased cancer prevalence and cancer-specific deaths in patients with infections, we investigated whether infections alter anti-tumor immune responses. We report that acute influenza infection of the lung promotes distal melanoma growth in the dermis and leads to accelerated cancer-specific host death. Furthermore, we show that during influenza infection, anti-melanoma CD8+ T cells are shunted from the tumor to the infection site, where they express high levels of the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1. Immunotherapy to block PD-1 reverses this loss of anti-tumor CD8+ T cells from the tumor and decreases infection-induced tumor growth. Our findings show that acute non-oncogenic infection can promote cancer growth, raising concerns regarding acute viral illness sequelae. They also suggest an unexpected role for PD-1 blockade in cancer immunotherapy and provide insight into the immune response when faced with concomitant challenges.

  12. Behçet's disease diagnosed after acute HIV infection: viral replication activating underlying autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Clay; Kinney, Rebecca; Gilles, Ryan; Blue, Sky

    2015-05-01

    Behçet's disease is an autoimmune systemic vasculitis that can occur after exposure to infectious agents. Behçet's disease also has been associated with HIV infection, including de novo development of this condition during chronic HIV infection and resolution of Behçet's disease symptoms following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. We describe a patient who presented with systemic vasculitis with skin and mucous membrane ulcerations in the setting of acute HIV infection, who was eventually diagnosed with Behçet's disease, demonstrating a possible link between acute HIV infection, immune activation and development of autoimmunity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Detection of viral acute lower respiratory tract infection in hospitalized infants using real-time PCR

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    Bassant Meligy

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: RV was the most commonly detected virus in children under 3 years admitted with acute lower respiratory tract infections. Coinfection was present in the majority of our patients; however it was not related significantly to parameters of disease severity.

  14. Induction of anti-viral genes during acute infection with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John D.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.; Grady, Courtney; Gregg, Jacob L.; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with the aquatic rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa results in high mortality in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and is hypothesized to be a potential limiting factor for herring recovery. To investigate anti-viral immunity in the Pacific herring, four immune response genes were identified: the myxovirus resistance (Clpa-Mx), a major histocompatibility complex IB (named Clpa-UAA.001), the inducible immunoproteosome subunit 9 (Clpa-PSMB9) and the neutrophil chemotactic factor (Clpa-LECT2). Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were developed based on these gene sequences to investigate the host immune response to acute VHSV infection following both injection and immersion challenge. Virus levels were measured by both plaque assay and RT-qPCR and peaked at day 6 during the 10-day exposure period for both groups of fish. The interferon stimulated genes (Clpa-Mx, −UAA.001, and −PSMB9) were significantly up-regulated in response to VHSV infection at both 6 and 10 days post-infection in both spleen and fin. Results from this study indicate that Pacific herring mount a robust, early antiviral response in both fin and spleen tissues. The immunological tools developed in this study will be useful for future studies to investigate antiviral immunity in Pacific herring.

  15. A temporal gate for viral enhancers to co-opt Toll-like-receptor transcriptional activation pathways upon acute infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai A Kropp

    2015-04-01

    macrophages. In a series of pharmacologic, siRNA and genetic loss-of-function experiments we determined that signalling mediated by the TLR-adaptor protein MyD88 plays a vital role for governing the inflammatory activation of the CMV enhancer in macrophages. Downstream TLR-regulated transcription factor binding motif disruption for NFκB, AP1 and CREB/ATF in the CMV enhancer demonstrated the requirement of these inflammatory signal-regulated elements in driving viral gene expression and growth in cells as well as in primary infection of neonatal mice. Thus, this study shows that the prototypical CMV enhancer, in a restricted time-gated manner, co-opts through DNA regulatory mimicry elements, innate-immune transcription factors to drive viral expression and replication in the face of on-going pro-inflammatory antiviral responses in vitro and in vivo and; suggests an unexpected role for inflammation in promoting acute infection and has important future implications for regulating latency.

  16. Regulatory T cells expressing granzyme B play a critical role in controlling lung inflammation during acute viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebbermann, J; Thornton, H; Durant, L; Sparwasser, T; Webster, K E; Sprent, J; Culley, F J; Johansson, C; Openshaw, P J

    2012-01-01

    The inflammatory response to lung infections must be tightly regulated, enabling pathogen elimination while maintaining crucial gas exchange. Using recently described “depletion of regulatory T cell” (DEREG) mice, we found that selective depletion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection enhanced viral clearance but increased weight loss, local cytokine and chemokine release, and T-cell activation and cellular influx into the lungs. Conversely, inflammation was decreased when Treg numbers and activity were boosted using interleukin-2 immune complexes. Unexpectedly, lung (but not draining lymph node) Tregs from RSV-infected mice expressed granzyme B (GzmB), and bone marrow chimeric mice with selective loss of GzmB in the Treg compartment displayed markedly enhanced cellular infiltration into the lung after infection. A crucial role for GzmB-expressing Tregs has not hitherto been described in the lung or during acute infections, but may explain the inability of children with perforin/GzmB defects to regulate immune responses to infection. The effects of RSV infection in mice with defective immune regulation closely parallel the observed effects of RSV in children with bronchiolitis, suggesting that the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis may involve an inability to regulate virus-induced inflammation. PMID:22236998

  17. Viral etiologies of acute respiratory infections among hospitalized Vietnamese children in Ho Chi Minh City, 2004-2008.

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    Anh Ha Lien Do

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dominant viral etiologies responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs are poorly understood, particularly among hospitalized children in resource-limited tropical countries where morbidity and mortality caused by ARIs are highest. Improved etiological insight is needed to improve clinical management and prevention.We conducted a three-year prospective descriptive study of severe respiratory illness among children from 2 months to 13 years of age within the largest referral hospital for infectious diseases in southern Vietnam.Molecular detection for 15 viral species and subtypes was performed on three types of respiratory specimens (nose, throat swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates using a multiplex RT-PCR kit (Seeplex™ RV detection, Seegene and additional monoplex real-time RT-PCRs.A total of 309 children were enrolled from November 2004 to January 2008. Viruses were identified in 72% (222/309 of cases, including respiratory syncytial virus (24%, influenza virus A and B (17%, human bocavirus (16%, enterovirus (9%, human coronavirus (8%, human metapneumovirus (7%, parainfluenza virus 1-3 (6%, adenovirus (5%, and human rhinovirus A (4%. Co-infections with multiple viruses were detected in 20% (62/309 of patients. When combined, diagnostic yields in nose and throat swabs were similar to nasopharyngeal aspirates.Similar to other parts in the world, RSV and influenza were the predominant viral pathogens detected in Vietnamese hospitalized children. Combined nasal and throat swabs are the specimens of choice for sensitive molecular detection of a broad panel of viral agents. Further research is required to better understand the clinical significance of single versus multiple viral coinfections and to address the role of bacterial (co-infections involved in severe respiratory illness.

  18. Viral etiologies of acute respiratory infections among hospitalized Vietnamese children in Ho Chi Minh City, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Anh Ha Lien; van Doorn, H Rogier; Nghiem, My Ngoc; Bryant, Juliet E; Hoang, Thanh Hang thi; Do, Quang Ha; Van, Tan Le; Tran, Tan Thanh; Wills, Bridget; Nguyen, Vinh Chau van; Vo, Minh Hien; Vo, Cong Khanh; Nguyen, Minh Dung; Farrar, Jeremy; Tran, Tinh Hien; de Jong, Menno D

    2011-03-24

    The dominant viral etiologies responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are poorly understood, particularly among hospitalized children in resource-limited tropical countries where morbidity and mortality caused by ARIs are highest. Improved etiological insight is needed to improve clinical management and prevention. We conducted a three-year prospective descriptive study of severe respiratory illness among children from 2 months to 13 years of age within the largest referral hospital for infectious diseases in southern Vietnam. Molecular detection for 15 viral species and subtypes was performed on three types of respiratory specimens (nose, throat swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates) using a multiplex RT-PCR kit (Seeplex™ RV detection, Seegene) and additional monoplex real-time RT-PCRs. A total of 309 children were enrolled from November 2004 to January 2008. Viruses were identified in 72% (222/309) of cases, including respiratory syncytial virus (24%), influenza virus A and B (17%), human bocavirus (16%), enterovirus (9%), human coronavirus (8%), human metapneumovirus (7%), parainfluenza virus 1-3 (6%), adenovirus (5%), and human rhinovirus A (4%). Co-infections with multiple viruses were detected in 20% (62/309) of patients. When combined, diagnostic yields in nose and throat swabs were similar to nasopharyngeal aspirates. Similar to other parts in the world, RSV and influenza were the predominant viral pathogens detected in Vietnamese hospitalized children. Combined nasal and throat swabs are the specimens of choice for sensitive molecular detection of a broad panel of viral agents. Further research is required to better understand the clinical significance of single versus multiple viral coinfections and to address the role of bacterial (co-)infections involved in severe respiratory illness.

  19. Prevalence and risk of viral infection in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Chen, Du; Gu, Xiaoling; Su, Xin; Song, Yong; Shi, Yi

    2014-07-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lead to substantial morbidity and mortality. Viral infections could be an important cause of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) and only a few studies report the prevalence of respiratory viruses on this disease. We aimed to update the review on the prevalence of respiratory viral infection in patients with AECOPD with a meta-analysis. We reviewed the prevalence of respiratory viruses on this disease by searching PubMed systematically to identify primary studies published from Jan 1990 to March 2012. Studies met with seven criteria were extracted for meta-analysis. A total of 17 studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. Weighted overall prevalence of respiratory viruses in patients with AECOPD was 39.3% (95% CI 36.9-41.6) with a high degree of a heterogeneity (I (2) > 75%). In contrast, the rate in stable COPD patients from four studies was 13.6% (95% CI 9.0-18.2) without any apparent heterogeneity. Pooled risk ratio for respiratory viral infection was 4.1 (95% CI 2.0-8.5) for AECOPD as compared with stable COPD. Rhinovirus was the most common virus and with a weighted prevalence of 14.8% (95% CI 13.3-16.5). Respiratory viruses probably are important etiological agents in patients with AECOPD as compared with the stable COPD patients. This result would help to provide better strategies for management of AECOPD and health-care planning.

  20. [Pharmacoepidemiological study of the course of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections in risk groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgakova, V A; Poromov, A A; Grekova, A I; Pshenichnaya, N Yu; Selkova, E P; Lvov, N I; Leneva, I A; Shestakova, I V; Maleev, V V

    To identify risk factors (RFs) for the development of bacterial complications and the prolonged course of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections (ARVIs) among inpatients treated in Russian healthcare facilities in the post-pandemic period; to determine the clinical presentation of the disease (flu-like syndrome) in risk-group people and to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral therapy with arbidol (umifenovir). The investigators retrospectively analyzed randomly selected medical records of inpatients with influenza and other ARVI in 88 hospitals from 50 regions of the Russian Federation: those of 3532 and 1755 patients in the 2010-2011 and 2014-2015 seasons, respectively, by applying parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. The built database of patients with influenza-like syndrome contained data from the histories of 2072 men and 2537 women, of whom there were 317 (12.49%) pregnant women; gender evidence was not given in the medical records for 678 patients. 382 (7.2%) were vaccinated against influenza. 1528 (28.9%) people were admitted to hospital with various complications. Information on laboratory tests was available in 1691 (31.98%) patients; of these, 1291 (76.4%) were detected to have influenza and other respiratory viruses. Influenza viruses were found in 1026 (60.7%) examinees; influenza A viruses in 712 (42.1%) people while pandemic strain of swine influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 viruses was detected in 487 (28.8%) and 107 (6.3%) patients, respectively; influenza A subtype was indicated in 118 (7%) persons with laboratory-confirmed influenza virus. Influenza B viruses were found in 314 (18.6%) examinees. Other types of respiratory viruses were detected in 265 (15.7%) patients. The body mass index exceeded 30 kg/m2 in 227 (4.3%) patients. Single-factor analysis of variance revealed factors influencing the course of flu-like syndrome and identified risk groups: children younger than 2 years old and adults over 65, pregnant women, and

  1. Burden and viral aetiology of influenza-like illness and acute respiratory infection in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramuto, Fabio; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Napoli, Giuseppe; Mammina, Caterina; Casuccio, Alessandra; Cala', Cinzia; Amodio, Emanuele; Vitale, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the viral aetiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) and acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) among patients requiring intensive care unit admission. A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out in Sicily over a 4-year period. A total of 233 respiratory samples of patients with ILI/ARTI admitted to intensive care units were molecularly analyzed for the detection of a comprehensive panel of aetiologic agents of viral respiratory infections. About 45% of patients was positive for at least one pathogen. Single aetiology occurred in 75.2% of infected patients, while polymicrobial infection was found in 24.8% of positive subjects. Influenza was the most common aetiologic agent (55.7%), especially among adults. Most of patients with multiple aetiology (76.9%) were adults and elderly. Mortality rates among patients with negative or positive aetiology did not significantly differ (52.4% and 47.6%, respectively). Highly transmissible respiratory pathogens are frequently detected among patients with ILI/ARTI admitted in intensive care units, showing the occurrence of concurrent infections by different viruses. The knowledge of the circulation of several types of microorganisms is of crucial importance in terms of appropriateness of therapies, but also for the implication in prevention strategies and hospital epidemiology. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Acute infectious gastroenteritis in Rio Cuarto: clinic, diagnosis and epidemiology with special reference to viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soñez, Carlos A; Mugnaini, María T; Godino, Sergio; Soñez, María V; Sánchez, Oscar; Fernández, Sol

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the present study are to describe the clinics view of acute infectious gastroenteritis (GE) at the community, in primary and secondary attention health centers, with special references to viral aetiology (VIGE); to correlate with drinkable water and excrete treatment; to develop for the first time a fast diagnostic using electron microscopy in Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina, considering the university and community collaboration in the viral diagnostic. It has been during one year, 122 cases of acute GE, over its clinics epidemiology and diagnostic aspects (1999-2000). With conventional laboratory methods, it has been determined the bacteria and micotic aetiology (NOVIGE); the virology diagnostic with electron microscopy; and the use of the statistics for the data analysis. The microbial findings has been: pathogenics bacteria (31.7%), fungus (17%), parasites (1.2%), rotavirus (16.4%), calicivirus (1.6%), adenovirus and coronavirus (1.6%). The clinics findings are presents like digestive and extra-digestive signs, separated in NOVIGE (and no-diagnosticated) and VIGE groups. The seasonal viral and no-viral distributions are present in fig. 5. There are statistics signification: the NOVIGE in summer period (49%) against the VIGE (12.5%) (p 2 years) and season (winter-summer) with the 16% for the first in VIGE (62.5% rotavirus); the absence of health systems at the NOVIGE (70%) and with both (29%); and others epidemiology considerations of the sequence. With came to conclusion that in our city: 1. there are VIGE with signficative participation of rotavirus; 2. its distribution are winter and age group, also considering the other age groups and virosis; 3. the NOVIGE may difference at the clinic sign like vomit, between all the possible sintomatology; 4. the principal cause of diarrhoea and the no seasonal distribution are the NOVIGE; 5. there are not a strong relationship of diarrhoea by shortage environmental health in this study; 6. it's possible

  3. Unsupervised learning techniques reveal heterogeneity in memory CD8(+) T cell differentiation following acute, chronic and latent viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyong; Barton, Erik S; Jennings, Ryan N; Oldenburg, Darby G; Whirry, Juliann M; White, Douglas W; Grayson, Jason M

    2017-09-01

    CD8(+) T lymphocytes are critical for the control of gammaherpesvirus latency. To determine how memory CD8(+) T cells generated during latency differ from those primed during acute or chronic viral infection, we adoptively transferred naive P14 CD8(+) T cells into uninfected recipients, and examined surface proteins, cytokines and transcription factors following infection with the Armstrong (acute) or Clone 13 (chronic) strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), or murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) expressing the LCMV epitope D(b)GP33-41. By performing k-means clustering and generating self organizing maps (SOM), we observed increased short-lived effector-like, CD27(l)(o) CD62L(l)(o) and Bcl-6(l)(o) CD8(+) T cells following latent infection. In addition, we found that memory CD8(+) T cells from latent primed mice underwent less expansion following adoptive transfer and antigen rechallenge. Data from cluster models were combined and visualized by principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrating memory CD8(+) T cells from latent infection occupy an intermediate differentiation space. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. [Vasculitis and viral infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Aguilar, N E; Guido Bayardo, R; Vargas Camaño, M E; Compañ González, D; Miranda Feria, A J

    1997-01-01

    Viruses have been implicated in vasculitis. To determine activity of viral infection associated with vasculitis. 17 patients with vasculitis had been in immunological and antiviral antibodies evaluation. Twenty five healthy controls sex and age matched with hematic biometry (BH) and AA. All subjects were negative to HIV and HBV. Viral activity was demonstrated in eight patients; vascular purpura (5), Takayasu disease (1), polyarteritis nodosa (1), erythema nodosum (1). None subject of control group had IgM activity. Antibodies response of IgG in patients were of lesser intensity than in control group. 14 abnormalities in BH were found in patients and 4 in control group. Immune response in patients, measured by lymphocyte subpopulations and circulating immune complexes was abnormal. In conclusion 47% showed viral activity, but the dominant feature was abnormal immune response in 82%.

  5. Viral aetiology in adults with acute upper respiratory tract infection in Jinan, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanqin; Tong, Jiabei; Pei, Fengyan; Yang, Yanping; Xu, Dong; Ji, Mingyu; Xing, Chunyan; Jia, Pingdong; Xu, Chao; Wang, Yunshan; Li, Gongchao; Chai, Zhenbin; Liu, Yan; Han, Jinxiang

    2013-01-01

    Our study investigated the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in adult patients with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) between August 2009 and September 2010 in Jinan, northern China. Nasal and throat swabs (n = 596) were collected from adult patients with URTIs. Nine respiratory-related viruses, including IFV, PIV, HRV, HMPV, HBoV, HCoV, ADV, RSV, and EV, were detected in all samples by conventional and reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions. Positive detection rate for respiratory virus was 38.76% and codetection rate was 4.70% in adults with acute respiratory tract infections. IFV (20.81%) was the dominant agent detected and IFVB had a higher incidence (12.58%) than IFVA (7.72%). Detection rates of 8.22%, 5.03%, 3.69%, and 2.52% were observed for HBoV, HRV, EV, and RSV, respectively. HCoV had the lowest detection rate of 0.50%. HBoV, HRV, EV, and ADV infection rates were higher in the 14-25-year-old group than in the 26-65-year-old group. Codetection rates were higher (7.52%) in the 14-25-year-old group than in the older age group (2.64%). The spectrum of respiratory virus infection in adult patients with URTIs was different in Jinan compared with other cities in China.

  6. Acute viral respiratory infections among children in MERS-endemic Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbo, Shamsudeen F; Garbati, Musa A; Hasan, Rami; AlShahrani, Dayel; Al-Shehri, Mohamed; AlFawaz, Tariq; Hakawi, Ahmed; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Skakni, Leila

    2017-02-01

    The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in Saudi Arabia has intensified focus on Acute Respiratory Infections [ARIs]. This study sought to identify respiratory viruses (RVs) associated with ARIs in children presenting at a tertiary hospital. Children (aged ≤13) presenting with ARI between January 2012 and December 2013 tested for 15 RVs using the Seeplex R RV15 kit were retrospectively included. Epidemiological data was retrieved from patient records. Of the 2235 children tested, 61.5% were ≤1 year with a male: female ratio of 3:2. Viruses were detected in 1364 (61.02%) children, 233 (10.4%) having dual infections: these viruses include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (24%), human rhinovirus (hRV) (19.7%), adenovirus (5.7%), influenza virus (5.3%), and parainfluenzavirus-3 (4.6%). Children, aged 9-11 months, were most infected (60.9%). Lower respiratory tract infections (55.4%) were significantly more than upper respiratory tract infection (45.3%) (P < 0.001). Seasonal variation of RV was directly and inversely proportional to relative humidity and temperature, respectively, for non MERS coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, and OC43). The study confirms community-acquired RV associated with ARI in children and suggests modulating roles for abiotic factors in RV epidemiology. However, community-based studies are needed to elucidate how these factors locally influence RV epidemiology. J. Med. Virol. 89:195-201, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  8. Epidemiology of viral-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection among children prevalence setting, South Africa, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Cheryl; Walaza, Sibongile; Moyes, Jocelyn; Groome, Michelle; Tempia, Stefano; Pretorius, Marthi; Hellferscee, Orienka; Dawood, Halima; Chhagan, Meera; Naby, Fathima; Haffejee, Summaya; Variava, Ebrahim; Kahn, Kathleen; Nzenze, Susan; Tshangela, Akhona; von Gottberg, Anne; Wolter, Nicole; Cohen, Adam L; Kgokong, Babatyi; Venter, Marietjie; Madhi, Shabir A

    2015-01-01

    Data on the epidemiology of viral-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) from high HIV prevalence settings are limited. We aimed to describe LRTI hospitalizations among South African children aged prevalence among tested children was 12% (705/5964). The overall prevalence of respiratory viruses identified was 78% (6517/8393), including 37% rhinovirus, 26% respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), 7% influenza and 5% human metapneumovirus. Four percent (253/6612) tested positive for pneumococcus. The annual incidence of LRTI hospitalization ranged from 2530 to 3173/100,000 population and was highest in infants (8446-10532/100,000). LRTI incidence was 1.1 to 3.0-fold greater in HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected children. In multivariable analysis, compared to HIV-uninfected children, HIV-infected children were more likely to require supplemental-oxygen [odds ratio (OR): 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-1.7)], be hospitalized >7 days (OR: 3.8, 95% CI: 2.8-5.0) and had a higher case-fatality ratio (OR: 4.2, 95% CI: 2.6-6.8). In multivariable analysis, HIV-infection (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.2-6.1), pneumococcal coinfection (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.6), mechanical ventilation (OR: 6.9, 95% CI: 2.7-17.6) and receipt of supplemental-oxygen (OR: 27.3, 95% CI: 13.2-55.9) were associated with death. HIV-infection was associated with an increased risk of LRTI hospitalization and death. A viral pathogen, commonly RSV, was identified in a high proportion of LRTI cases.

  9. Experimental depletion of CD8+ cells in acutely SIVagm-Infected African Green Monkeys results in increased viral replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apetrei Cristian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vivo CD8+ cell depletions in pathogenic SIV infections identified a key role for cellular immunity in controlling viral load (VL and disease progression. However, similar studies gave discordant results in chronically-infected SMs, leading some authors to propose that in natural hosts, SIV replication is independent of cellular immunity. To assess the role of cellular immune responses in the control of SIV replication in natural hosts, we investigated the impact of CD8+ cell depletion during acute SIV infection in AGMs. Results Nine AGMs were infected with SIVagm.sab and were followed up to day 225 p.i. Four were intravenously infused with the cM-T807 antibody on days 0 (50 mg/kg, 6, and 13 (10 mg/kg, respectively post infection (p.i.. CD8+ cells were depleted for up to 28 days p.i. in peripheral blood and LNs in all treated AGMs. Partial CD8+ T cell depletion occurred in the intestine. SIVagm VLs peaked at similar levels in both groups (107-108 RNA copies/ml. However, while VLs were controlled in undepleted AGMs, reaching set-point levels (104-105 RNA copies/ml by day 28 p.i., high VLs (>106 RNA copies/ml were maintained by day 21 p.i. in CD8-depleted AGMs. By day 42 p.i., VLs were comparable between the two groups. The levels of immune activation and proliferation remained elevated up to day 72 p.i. in CD8-depleted AGMs and returned to preinfection levels in controls by day 28 p.i. None of the CD8-depleted animals progressed to AIDS. Conclusion CD8+ cells are responsible for a partial control of postacute viral replication in SIVagm.sab-infected AGMs. In contrast to macaques, the SIVagm-infected AGMs are able to control viral replication after recovery of the CD8+ T cells and avoid disease progression.

  10. Pediatric Asthma and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, M Luz; Calvo Rey, Cristina; Del Rosal Rabes, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory viral infections, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus, are the most importance risk factors for the onset of wheezing in infants and small children. Bronchiolitis is the most common acute respiratory infection in children under 1year of age, and the most common cause of hospitalization in this age group. RSV accounts for approximately 70% of all these cases, followed by rhinovirus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and bocavirus. The association between bronchiolitis caused by RSV and the development of recurrent wheezing and/or asthma was first described more than 40years ago, but it is still unclear whether bronchiolitis causes chronic respiratory symptoms, or if it is a marker for children with a genetic predisposition for developing asthma in the medium or long term. In any case, sufficient evidence is available to corroborate the existence of this association, which is particularly strong when the causative agent of bronchiolitis is rhinovirus. The pathogenic role of respiratory viruses as triggers for exacerbations in asthmatic patients has not been fully characterized. However, it is clear that respiratory viruses, and in particular rhinovirus, are the most common causes of exacerbation in children, and some type of respiratory virus has been identified in over 90% of children hospitalized for an episode of wheezing. Changes in the immune response to viral infections in genetically predisposed individuals are very likely to be the main factors involved in the association between viral infection and asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Type I Interferon Induced Epigenetic Regulation of Macrophages Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Acute Respiratory Viral Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N Kroetz

    2015-12-01

    alveolar Mϕ in the lungs. Finally, Setdb2 expression by Mϕ suppressed IL-2, IL-10, and IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells in vitro, as well as proliferation in IAV-infected lungs. Collectively, these findings identify Setdb2 as a novel regulator of the immune system in acute respiratory viral infection.

  12. Effect of BSA Antigen Sensitization during the Acute Phase of Influenza A Viral Infection on CD11c+ Pulmonary Antigen Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Sato

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: BSA antigen sensitization during the acute phase of influenza A viral infection enhanced IL-10 production from naive CD4+ T cell interaction with CD11c+ pulmonary APCs. The IL-10 secretion evoked Th2 responses in the lungs with downregulation of Th1 responses and was important for the eosinophil recruitment into the lungs after BSA antigen challenge.

  13. Predictors of severe disease in a hospitalized population of children with acute viral lower respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Bernal, Angela M; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Acuña-Cordero, Ranniery

    2016-05-01

    Although predictors of severe viral acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) in children have been reported, there have been few research studies performed in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of the present study was to determine predictors of disease severity in a population of Colombian children disease conditions and the infecting respiratory viruses as predictor variables of severe disease. We defined severe disease as the necessity of pediatric intensive care unit admission. Of a total of 1,180 patients admitted with a diagnosis of ALRI, 416 (35.3%) were included because they were positive for any kind of respiratory virus. After controlling for potential confounders, it was found that a history of pulmonary hypertension (RR 3.62; CI 95% 2.38-5.52; P disease. The present study shows that respiratory viruses are significant causes of ALRI in infants and young children in Colombia, a typical tropical LMIC, especially during the rainy season. Additionally, the results of the present study show that clinical variables such as a history of pulmonary hypertension and a history of recurrent wheezing are more relevant for predicting ALRI severity than the infecting respiratory viruses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. HIV-1 Vpr Accelerates Viral Replication during Acute Infection by Exploitation of Proliferating CD4+ T Cells In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kei; Misawa, Naoko; Iwami, Shingo; Satou, Yorifumi; Matsuoka, Masao; Ishizaka, Yukihito; Ito, Mamoru; Aihara, Kazuyuki; An, Dong Sung; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The precise role of viral protein R (Vpr), an HIV-1-encoded protein, during HIV-1 infection and its contribution to the development of AIDS remain unclear. Previous reports have shown that Vpr has the ability to cause G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HIV-1-infected cells in vitro. In addition, vpr is highly conserved in transmitted/founder HIV-1s and in all primate lentiviruses, which are evolutionarily related to HIV-1. Although these findings suggest an important role of Vpr in HIV-1 pathogenesis, its direct evidence in vivo has not been shown. Here, by using a human hematopoietic stem cell-transplanted humanized mouse model, we demonstrated that Vpr causes G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis predominantly in proliferating CCR5+ CD4+ T cells, which mainly consist of regulatory CD4+ T cells (Tregs), resulting in Treg depletion and enhanced virus production during acute infection. The Vpr-dependent enhancement of virus replication and Treg depletion is observed in CCR5-tropic but not CXCR4-tropic HIV-1-infected mice, suggesting that these effects are dependent on the coreceptor usage by HIV-1. Immune activation was observed in CCR5-tropic wild-type but not in vpr-deficient HIV-1-infected humanized mice. When humanized mice were treated with denileukin diftitox (DD), to deplete Tregs, DD-treated humanized mice showed massive activation/proliferation of memory T cells compared to the untreated group. This activation/proliferation enhanced CCR5 expression in memory CD4+ T cells and rendered them more susceptible to CCR5-tropic wild-type HIV-1 infection than to vpr-deficient virus. Taken together, these results suggest that Vpr takes advantage of proliferating CCR5+ CD4+ T cells for enhancing viremia of CCR5-tropic HIV-1. Because Tregs exist in a higher cycling state than other T cell subsets, Tregs appear to be more vulnerable to exploitation by Vpr during acute HIV-1 infection. PMID:24339781

  15. Acute Viral Hepatitis in Pediatric Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhamshu KC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our clinical experience showed that there has been no decrease in pediatric cases of acute viral hepatitis in Kathmandu. The objective of the study was to analyze the etiology, clinical features, laboratory parameters, sonological findings and other to determine the probable prognostic factors of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Methods: Consecutive patients of suspected Acute Viral Hepatitis, below the age of 15 years, attending the liver clinic between January 2006 and December2010were studied. After clinical examination they were subjected to blood tests and ultrasound examination of abdomen. The patients were divided in 3 age groups; 0–5, 5–10 and 5–15 years. Clinical features, laboratory parameters, ultrasound findings were compared in three age groups. Results: Etiology of Acute Viral Hepatitis was Hepatitis A virus 266 (85%, Hepatitis E virus in 24 (8%, Hepatitis B virus in 15 (5%. In 7(2% patients etiology was unknown. Three patients went to acute liver failure but improved with conservative treatment. There was no statistical difference in most of the parameters studied in different age groups. Ascites was more common in 5-10 years age group. Patients with secondary bacterial infection, ultrasound evidence of prominent biliary tree and ascites were associated with increased duration of illness. Patients with history of herbal medications had prolonged cholestasis. Conclusions: Hepatitis A is most common cause of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Improper use of herbal medications, secondary bacterial infection and faulty dietary intake was associated with prolonged illness. Patients with prominent biliary radicals should be treated with antibiotics even with normal blood counts for earlier recovery. Keywords: Acute viral hepatitis; hepatitis A; hepatitis E; herbal medications.

  16. Assessment of the role of microorganisms of respiratory tract in patients with progressive acute respiratory viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgasova О.А.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the review of literature for the period from 1987 till 2012. It has been shown that the spread of acute respiratory viral infections (ARI and the incidence of complications is of great social and economic importance worldwide. Therefore, the identification of etiological factors and associated development of ARI is an urgent task for practical health care. It is of great importance to determine both the type of pathogen and the presence of its pathogenic factors. The etiological agent of bacterial complications of ARI becomes Moraxella catarrhalis, featuring a large set of markers of virulence. In the development of the pathological process in the respiratory tract, adhesins, a number of enzymes and toxins produced by M.catarrhalis are important. It allows to persist and multiply in the body of the patient. Dangerous strains of M.catarrhalis, resistant to (3-lactam antibiotics and characterized by multiresistance greatly reduce the effectiveness of the therapy. Lack of laboratory studies in acute inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract leads to the reduction of the etiological interpretation of these diseases, inadequate etiotropic treatment and as a consequence — the development of complications that reduces the effectiveness of therapy. In conclusion it is necessary to improve the system of microbiological diagnostics and tactics of treatment of ARI patients.

  17. Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and Encephalitis Associated with Zika Virus Infection in Brazil: Detection of Viral RNA and Isolation of Virus during Late Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Ferreira, Maria Lucia; Antunes de Brito, Carlos Alexandre; Moreira, Álvaro José Porto; de Morais Machado, Maria Íris; Henriques-Souza, Adélia; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; de Azevedo Marques, Ernesto Torres; Pena, Lindomar José

    2017-11-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in Brazil in 2015, which was followed by an increase of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) cases. We report the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory findings of the first six neurological cases associated with ZIKV in Brazil seen in a reference neurology hospital in Pernambuco, Brazil. In all cases, ZIKV was detected in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. In this case series, four cases were defined as GBS, one as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and the other as encephalitis. ZIKV was detected in all cases by RT-PCR and virus isolation was successful in two patients. The time between ZIKV acute symptoms and the development of neurological manifestations varied from 3 to 13 days and ZIKV was detected between 15 and 34 days after the initial symptoms. Our results highlight the need to include ZIKV as a differential diagnosis for neurological syndromes in countries with circulation of this arbovirus. Because the viremia in these patients appears to persist longer, direct diagnostic techniques such as RT-PCR and viral isolation should be considered even if it is after the acute phase of viral infection.

  18. Innate Lymphoid Cells Are Depleted Irreversibly during Acute HIV-Infection in the Absence of Viral Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Henrik N.; Kazer, Samuel W.; Mjösberg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role in the response to infection by secreting cytokines crucial for immune regulation, tissue homeostasis, and repair. Although dysregulation of these systems is central to pathology, the impact of HIV-on ILCs remains unknown. We found that human blood...... ILCs were severely depleted during acute viremic HIV-infection and that ILC numbers did not recover after resolution of peak viremia. ILC numbers were preserved by antiretroviral therapy (ART), but only if initiated during acute infection. Transcriptional profiling during the acute phase revealed...... mechanistic link between acute HIV-infection, lymphoid tissue breakdown, and persistent immune dysfunction....

  19. Acute lung injury in children : from viral infection and mechanical ventilation to inflammation and apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bern, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI), ook bekend als acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is een uitgebreide ontstekingsreactie in beide longen door een longziekte of een aandoening elders in het lichaam. Kinderen lijken minder gevoelig voor de ziekte dan volwassenen, wellicht door de manier waarop de

  20. Rare HIV-1 transmitted/founder lineages identified by deep viral sequencing contribute to rapid shifts in dominant quasispecies during acute and early infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Buell, Eric; Chenine, Agnes-Laurence; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Thomas, Rasmi; Harbolick, Elizabeth A.; Bose, Meera; Pham, Phuc; Oropeza, Celina; Poltavee, Kultida; O’Sullivan, Anne Marie; Costanzo, Margaret C.; Warren, Joanna A.; Slike, Bonnie; Li, Hui; Peachman, Kristina K.; Gao, Feng; Cicala, Claudia; Arthos, James; O’Connell, Robert J.; Sinei, Samuel; Maganga, Lucas; Rao, Mangala; Marovich, Mary A.; Krebs, Shelly J.; Rolland, Morgane; Shaw, George M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to inform the rational design of HIV-1 preventive and cure interventions it is critical to understand the events occurring during acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). Using viral deep sequencing on six participants from the early capture acute infection RV217 cohort, we have studied HIV-1 evolution in plasma collected twice weekly during the first weeks following the advent of viremia. The analysis of infections established by multiple transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses revealed novel viral profiles that included: a) the low-level persistence of minor T/F variants, b) the rapid replacement of the major T/F by a minor T/F, and c) an initial expansion of the minor T/F followed by a quick collapse of the same minor T/F to low frequency. In most participants, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) escape was first detected at the end of peak viremia downslope, proceeded at higher rates than previously measured in HIV-1 infection, and usually occurred through the exploration of multiple mutational pathways within an epitope. The rapid emergence of CTL escape variants suggests a strong and early CTL response. Minor T/F viral strains can contribute to rapid and varied profiles of HIV-1 quasispecies evolution during AHI. Overall, our results demonstrate that early, deep, and frequent sampling is needed to investigate viral/host interaction during AHI, which could help identify prerequisites for prevention and cure of HIV-1 infection. PMID:28759651

  1. Rare HIV-1 transmitted/founder lineages identified by deep viral sequencing contribute to rapid shifts in dominant quasispecies during acute and early infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H Kijak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to inform the rational design of HIV-1 preventive and cure interventions it is critical to understand the events occurring during acute HIV-1 infection (AHI. Using viral deep sequencing on six participants from the early capture acute infection RV217 cohort, we have studied HIV-1 evolution in plasma collected twice weekly during the first weeks following the advent of viremia. The analysis of infections established by multiple transmitted/founder (T/F viruses revealed novel viral profiles that included: a the low-level persistence of minor T/F variants, b the rapid replacement of the major T/F by a minor T/F, and c an initial expansion of the minor T/F followed by a quick collapse of the same minor T/F to low frequency. In most participants, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL escape was first detected at the end of peak viremia downslope, proceeded at higher rates than previously measured in HIV-1 infection, and usually occurred through the exploration of multiple mutational pathways within an epitope. The rapid emergence of CTL escape variants suggests a strong and early CTL response. Minor T/F viral strains can contribute to rapid and varied profiles of HIV-1 quasispecies evolution during AHI. Overall, our results demonstrate that early, deep, and frequent sampling is needed to investigate viral/host interaction during AHI, which could help identify prerequisites for prevention and cure of HIV-1 infection.

  2. Acute bacterial and viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartt, Russell

    2012-12-01

    Most cases of acute meningitis are infectious and result from a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Acute meningitis is infectious in most cases and caused by a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. Shifts in the epidemiology of bacterial pathogens have been influenced by changes in vaccines and their implementation. Seasonal and environmental changes influence the likely viral and rickettsial pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Pertinent testing and treatment can vary with the clinical presentation, season, and possible exposures. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of acute meningitis.

  3. T Cell Exhaustion During Persistent Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Shannon M.; Wherry, E. John; Zajac, Allan J.

    2015-01-01

    Although robust and highly effective anti-viral T cells contribute to the clearance of many acute infections, viral persistence is associated with the development of functionally inferior, exhausted, T cell responses. Exhaustion develops in a step-wise and progressive manner, ranges in severity, and can culminate in the deletion of the anti-viral T cells. This disarming of the response is consequential as it compromises viral control and potentially serves to dampen immune-mediated damage. Exhausted T cells are unable to elaborate typical anti-viral effector functions. They are characterized by the sustained upregulation of inhibitory receptors and display a gene expression profile that distinguishes them from prototypic effector and memory T cell populations. In this review we discuss the properties of exhausted T cells; the virological and immunological conditions that favor their development; the cellular and molecular signals that sustain the exhausted state; and strategies for preventing and reversing exhaustion to favor viral control. PMID:25620767

  4. Clinical and biochemical features of acute viral hepatitis | Spearman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viral hepatitis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Acute viral hepatitis, although a generalised systemic infection, presents with clinical manifestations relating directly to inflammation of the liver with hepatocellular dysfunction and jaundice. The most important causes of acute and chronic hepatitis are the ...

  5. [Oral viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Adults hospitalised with acute respiratory illness rarely have detectable bacteria in the absence of COPD or pneumonia; viral infection predominates in a large prospective UK sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tristan W; Medina, Marie-jo; Batham, Sally; Curran, Martin D; Parmar, Surendra; Nicholson, Karl G

    2014-11-01

    Many adult patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness have viruses detected but the overall importance of viral infection compared to bacterial infection is unclear. Patients were recruited from two acute hospital sites in Leicester (UK) over 3 successive winters. Samples were taken for viral and bacterial testing. Of the 780 patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness 345 (44%) had a respiratory virus detected. Picornaviruses were the most commonly isolated viruses (detected in 23% of all patients). Virus detection rates exceeded 50% in patients with exacerbation of asthma (58%), acute bronchitis and Influenza-like-illness (64%), and ranged from 30 to 50% in patients with an exacerbation of COPD (38%), community acquired pneumonia (36%) and congestive cardiac failure (31%). Bacterial detection was relatively frequent in patients with exacerbation of COPD and pneumonia (25% and 33% respectively) but was uncommon in all other groups. Antibiotic use was high across all clinical groups (76% overall) and only 21% of all antibiotic use occurred in patients with detectable bacteria. Respiratory viruses are the predominant detectable aetiological agents in most hospitalised adults with acute respiratory illness. Antibiotic usage in hospital remains excessive including in clinical conditions associated with low rates of bacterial detection. Efforts at reducing excess antibiotic use should focus on these groups as a priority. Registered International Standard Controlled Trial Number: 21521552. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Acute malignant myocarditis and pleurodynia as the manifestation of a probable Coxsackie B viral infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, V A; Sitnikova, T I; Semenov, I G; Ogurtsov, P P; Moiseev, V S

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe a 45-year-old female patient suffering from rapid-progressing myocarditis with growing disorders in conduction, repolarization alterations and heart dilatation seen for 3 days. The patient died on the 10th day of the disease which started from fever and catarrhal phenomena. Attack-like pains in the right half of the chest and abdomen, removable by narcotics, were a remarkable disease manifestation. The diagnosis of myocarditis was verified morphologically. The disease may be interpreted as infection with Coxsackie B virus associated with myocarditis and pleurodynia.

  8. Clinical characteristics and viral load of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in children hospitaled for acute lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Li; Li, Yu-Ning; Tang, Yi-Jie; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-Chun; Yang, Xue-Mei; Li, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Jun; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two common viral pathogens in acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI). However, the association of viral load with clinical characteristics is not well-defined in ALRTI. To explore the correlation between viral load and clinical characteristics of RSV and HMPV in children hospitalized for ALRTI in Lanzhou, China. Three hundred and eighty-seven children hospitalized for ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were sampled from each children. Real-time PCR was used to screen RSV, HMPV, and twelve additional respiratory viruses. Bronchiolitis was the leading diagnoses both in RSV and HMPV positive patients. A significantly greater frequency of wheezing (52% vs. 33.52%, P = 0.000) was noted in RSV positive and negative patients. The RSV viral load was significant higher in children aged infections (P = 0.000). No difference was found in the clinical features of HMPV positive and negative patients. The HMPV viral load had no correlation with any clinical characteristics. The incidences of severe disease were similar between single infection and coinfection for the two viruses (RSV, P = 0.221; HMPV, P = 0.764) and there has no statistical significance between severity and viral load (P = 0.166 and P = 0.721). Bronchiolitis is the most common disease caused by RSV and HMPV. High viral load or co-infection may be associated with some symptoms but neither has a significant impact on disease severity for the two viruses. J. Med. Virol. 89:589-597, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Greater numbers of nucleotide substitutions are introduced into the genomic RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus during acute infections of pregnant cattle than of non-pregnant cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neill John D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains circulating in livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucleotide changes were introduced into the BVDV genomic RNA during the establishment of a single fetal persistent infection than following a series of acute infections of naïve cattle. However, it was not known if nucleotide changes were introduce when the virus crossed the placenta and infected the fetus or during the acute infection of the dam. Methods The sequence of the open reading frame (ORF from viruses isolated from four acutely infected pregnant heifers following exposure to persistently infected (PI calves was compared to the sequences of the virus from the progenitor PI calf and the virus from the resulting progeny PI calf to determine when genetic change was introduced. This was compared to genetic change found in viruses isolated from a pregnant PI cow and its PI calf, and in three viruses isolated from acutely infected, non-pregnant cattle exposed to PI calves. Results Most genetic changes previously identified between the progenitor and progeny PI viruses were in place in the acute phase viruses isolated from the dams six days post-exposure to the progenitor PI calf. Additionally, each progeny PI virus had two to three unique nucleotide substitutions that were introduced in crossing the placenta and infection of the fetus. The nucleotide sequence of two acute phase viruses isolated from steers exposed to PI calves revealed that six and seven nucleotide changes were introduced during the acute infection. The sequence of the BVDV-2 virus isolated from an acute infection of a PI calf (BVDV-1a co-housed with a BVDV-2 PI calf had ten nucleotides that were different from the progenitor PI virus. Finally, twenty nucleotide changes were

  10. Imaging in viral infections of the central nervous system: can images speak for an acutely ill brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Vijetha Vinod; Bathla, Girish; Moritani, Toshio; Helton, Kathleen J

    2017-06-01

    Viral infections involving the central nervous system (CNS) may result from a wide variety of agents and have clinically overlapping manifestations. The diagnosis is often made based on a combination of the clinical exam, local epidemiology, imaging, and biochemical findings. Despite the advances in medicine and imaging, the diagnosis often remains elusive. Imaging, however, still plays a vital role in suggesting the diagnosis in typical cases, excluding potential mimics, and in evaluating changes with therapy. Herein, the authors present a review of various common and rare viral encephalitides with emphasis on the imaging literature.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of neuroinflammation and injury during acute viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shives, Katherine D; Tyler, Kenneth L; Beckham, J David

    2017-07-15

    Viral infections in the central nervous system are a major cause of encephalitis. West Nile virus (WNV) and Herpes simplex virus (HSV) are the most common causes of viral encephalitis in the United States. We review the role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of WNV and HSV infections in the central nervous system (CNS). We discuss the role of the innate and cell-mediated immune responses in peripheral control of viral infection, viral invasion of the CNS, and in inflammatory-mediated neuronal injury. By understanding the role of specific inflammatory responses to viral infections in the CNS, targeted therapeutic approaches can be developed to maximize control of acute viral infection while minimizing neuronal injury in the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Viral Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Li (Juan)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractMuch of liver pathology is related to infection with HBV and HCV and it is important to define factors associated with clinical behavior of disease following infection with these viruses. Thus in this thesis I first focus on the natural history of chronic viral diseases associated

  13. ACUTE ATAXIA, TAKING PLACE AFTER ACUTE RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTION IN 2 Y. O. GIRL, AS A DEBUT NEUROLOGIC SIGN OF THE ANGELMAN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Voropanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angleman syndrome (АS – is a chromosomal syndrome, which is manifested through atypical autism with feeble minding, epilepsy, outrage of the speech development, movement disorders, ataxia, as well as special (happy behavior of patients, combined with outbursts of laugh. The disease is caused by the mutation of 15q11.2–13 maternal locus or by the gene of UBE3A ubiquitinated complex. Such genes regulate the functional activity of hippocampus neurons, of olfactory bulbs, of the parastriate cortex, of the tentorium. We demonstrate the atypical AS case, which clinical presentation developed after acute respiratory viral infection with febrile temperature. The disease started with episodes of acute ataxia, interrupting daily activities of the child. Step by step the speech development was regressing – several words have fallen out,leaving the space for babbling sounds. Also appeared stereotypic movements of upper extremities (bending of arms in elbow joints, its retraction and joggling of hands, unmotivated laugh. Due to the nonrelevant starting presentation in the acute period following conditions were differentially diagnosed: 1 opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome; 2 cerebral circulation diseases; 3 epilepsy with absences and atonic attacks; 4 paroxysmal dyskenisias and ataxias; 5 start of the neurodegenerative disease; 6 early childhood autism. Results of laboratory research allowed to exclude opsoclonus-myoclonus, the magnetic and resonance tomography and vessels research allowed to exclude the cerebrovascular pathology. Changes, revealed in the course of the videoelectroencephalographic monitoring, as well as anamnesis data (clinical symptoms after fever allowed to narrow the diagnostic search; AS suspected. Provided the combination of ataxia with movement disorders, it was decided to carry out not molecular & genetic, but also micromatrix analysis, in order to exclude the channelopathy, as well as other genetic reasons. The method of

  14. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  15. Viral Infections and Febrile Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of febrile seizures (FS in a cohort of children, ages 3 months to 5 years, living in a Netherlands province was compared with the incidence of common viral infections reported to a national registry and the results reported from the Department of Medical Microbiology, Public Health Laboratory Friesland, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.

  16. Risk of Severe Acute Exacerbation of Chronic HBV Infection Cancer Patients Who Underwent Chemotherapy and Did Not Receive Anti-Viral Prophylaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-An Shih

    Full Text Available Reactivation of HBV replication with an increase in serum HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity has been reported in 20-50% of hepatitis B carriers undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Manifestation of HBV reactivation ranges from asymptomatic self-limiting hepatitis to severe progressive hepatic failure and fatal consequences.To investigate the risk of severe acute exacerbation of chronic HBV infection in HBsAg-positive cancer patients with solid tumors or hematological malignancies who underwent chemotherapy without antiviral prophylaxis.A retrospective review of charts was conducted for HBsAg-positive cancer patients in our institution who underwent chemotherapy and did not receive anti-viral prophylaxis between the periods of July 2007 to January 2013. We investigate the incidence of severe acute exacerbation of chronic HBV infection if these patients with a variety of solid tumors and hematological malignancies.A total of 156 patients (hematological malignancies: 16; solid tumors: 140 were included. The incidence of severe acute HBV exacerbation in the patients with hematological malignancy was higher than that in solid tumors (25.0% [4/16] vs 4.3% [6/140]; P = 0.005. Additionally, patients receiving rituximab-based chemotherapy had higher acute exacerbation rate than those with non-rituximab-based chemotherapy (40.0% vs 4.1%, P = 0.001. Among the patients with solid tumors, the incidences of severe acute exacerbation of chronic HBV in hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, gynecological cancer, urological tract cancer, head/neck cancer and other solid malignancies were 2.3%, 4.0%, 7.1%, 9.0%, 16.7%, 6.7%, 0% and 0%, respectively.Severe acute exacerbation of chronic HBV infection may occur in HBsAg-positive patients with a variety of solid tumors who received chemotherapy without adequate anti-viral prophylaxis. Hematological malignancy and rituximab-based chemotherapy are

  17. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  18. Respiratory Virus-Associated Severe Acute Respiratory Illness and Viral Clustering in Malawian Children in a Setting With a High Prevalence of HIV Infection, Malaria, and Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ingrid; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Kennedy, Neil; Ho, Antonia; Newberry, Laura; SanJoaquin, Miguel A; Menyere, Mavis; Alaerts, Maaike; Mapurisa, Gugulethu; Chilombe, Moses; Mambule, Ivan; Lalloo, David G; Anderson, Suzanne T; Katangwe, Thembi; Cunliffe, Nigel; Nagelkerke, Nico; McMorrow, Meredith; Widdowson, Marc-Allain; French, Neil; Everett, Dean; Heyderman, Robert S

    2016-12-01

     We used data from 4 years of pediatric severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) sentinel surveillance in Blantyre, Malawi, to identify factors associated with clinical severity and coviral clustering.  From January 2011 to December 2014, 2363 children aged 3 months to 14 years presenting to the hospital with SARI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for influenza virus and other respiratory viruses. We assessed risk factors for clinical severity and conducted clustering analysis to identify viral clusters in children with viral codetection.  Hospital-attended influenza virus-positive SARI incidence was 2.0 cases per 10 000 children annually; it was highest among children aged infected children aged 5-9 years (6.0 cases per 10 000). A total of 605 SARI cases (26.8%) had warning signs, which were positively associated with HIV infection (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.9), respiratory syncytial virus infection (aRR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-3.0) and rainy season (aRR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8). We identified 6 coviral clusters; 1 cluster was associated with SARI with warning signs.  Influenza vaccination may benefit young children and HIV-infected children in this setting. Viral clustering may be associated with SARI severity; its assessment should be included in routine SARI surveillance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. ACUTE VIRAL BRONCHIOLITIS IN INFANTS (REVIEW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhaidze, I; Zirakishvili, D

    2017-03-01

    Bronchiolitis is a common condition in children less than 2 years of age and is a leading cause of infant hospitalization. Acute bronchiolitis is characterized by acute wheezing in infants or children and is associated with signs or symptoms of respiratory infection; the most common etiologic agent is respiratory syncytial virus. There is a lack of consensus regarding the clinical definition of acute viral bronchiolitis in children and hence the management varies across the globe. Usually it does not require investigation, treatment is merely supportive and a conservative approach seems adequate in the majority of children, especially for the youngest ones. Managing bronchiolitis, both in the outpatient and inpatient setting remains a challenge to the treating pediatrician. Several recent evidence-based reviews have suggested that bronchodilators or corticosteroids lack efficacy in bronchiolitis and should not be routinely used. The cornerstones of the management of viral bronchiolitis are the administration of oxygen and appropriate fluid therapy, and overall a "minimal handling approach" is recommended. Inhaled adrenaline is commonly used in some countries, but the evidences are sparse. Recently, inhalation with hypertonic saline has been suggested as an optional treatment. When medical treatment fails to stabilize the infants, non-invasive and invasive ventilation may be necessary to prevent respiratory failure. The key to reducing the morbidity and mortality in children with RSV bronchiolitis is through prevention of infection through immunoprophylaxis especially in high-risk children. This review focuses on the epidemiological, clinical, radiographic, and pathologic characteristics, as well as the recent advances in management of acute bronchiolitis.

  20. ASTHMA AND VIRAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sh. Macharadze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most common pathogens of acute respiratory diseases — most often causing mild symptoms of common cold: cough, runny nose, temperature increases. At the same time, 1/3 of children have the following symptoms of lower respiratory tract disorders: shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, respiratory failure. Virus-induced wheezing are risk factors for development of asthma in childhood. Recent clinical and scientific data suggest: the more difficult are viral respiratory infections in young children, the higher their risk of asthma later on. Another feature is that children with allergic diseases are much more likely to have viral respiratory infections(and with longer clinical course, compared with children without atopy. The use of ibuprofen is safe for children over 3 months, including suffering from bronchial asthma.

  1. Acute renal failure associated with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A

    OpenAIRE

    Sarawgi, S.; Gupta, A K; Arora, D S; Jasuja, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis A runs a benign course in children, but may have atypical presentations in adults. Very rarely acute renal failure complicates nonfulminant hepatitis A. We report a patient with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A with multiorgan involvement. Patient had biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis, acute pancreatitis, acute myocarditis and required hemodialysis for 6 weeks.

  2. Defining acute kidney injury in dengue viral infection by conventional and novel classification systems (AKIN and RIFLE): a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain; Khan, Amer Hayat; Sarriff, Azmi; Adnan, Azreen Syazril; Khan, Yusra Habib; Jummaat, Fauziah

    2016-02-01

    Several criteria have been used to stratify acute kidney injury (AKI) in dengue infection and have resulted in variations in its incidence as well as clinic-laboratory characteristics. The current study was aimed to compare three commonly used criteria of AKI among patients with dengue. 667 patients with dengue were defined and staged according to the conventional definition (CD), the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, End stage renal disease (RIFLE) criteria. Appropriate statistical methods were used to compare these three criteria. The incidence of AKI during dengue infection was 14.2% by AKIN criteria, 12.6% by RIFLE criteria and 4.2% by CD. AKIN and RIFLE criteria were comparable while AKIN-I identified 11 more patients with AKI than RIFLE-R (76.8% vs. 73.8%, p=0.023). CD was found to be less sensitive than AKIN and RIFLE due to stratification of only severe AKI cases with serum creatinine ≥176.8 µmol/L. Overall mortality was 1.2% and severe stages of AKI were associated with increased mortality (p<0.001). AKIN criteria identified seven risk factors, RIFLE identified six and CD identified three risk factors. Old age, severe dengue and the use of nephrotoxic drugs were found to be independent predictors identified by all criteria while hypertension was only identified by AKIN. The incidence of AKI in dengue infection, the risk factors for its development and clinico-laboratory characteristics vary significantly according to the diagnostic criteria used. In our analysis, AKIN and RIFLE were comparable to each other and superior to CD with regard to early diagnosis and sensitivity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Viral etiology, seasonality and severity of hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infections in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Katherine C; Dueger, Erica L; Kandeel, Amr; Abdallat, Mohamed; El-Kholy, Amani; Al-Awaidy, Salah; Kohlani, Abdul Hakim; Amer, Hanaa; El-Khal, Abel Latif; Said, Mayar; House, Brent; Pimentel, Guillermo; Talaat, Maha

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the role of viral respiratory pathogens in the etiology, seasonality or severity of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Sentinel surveillance for SARI was conducted from December 2007 through February 2014 at 20 hospitals in Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Qatar and Yemen. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from hospitalized patients meeting SARI case definitions and were analyzed for infection with influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (AdV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and human parainfluenza virus types 1-3 (hPIV1-3). We analyzed surveillance data to calculate positivity rates for viral respiratory pathogens, describe the seasonality of those pathogens and determine which pathogens were responsible for more severe outcomes requiring ventilation and/or intensive care and/or resulting in death. At least one viral respiratory pathogen was detected in 8,753/28,508 (30.7%) samples tested for at least one pathogen and 3,497/9,315 (37.5%) of samples tested for all pathogens-influenza in 3,345/28,438 (11.8%), RSV in 3,942/24,503 (16.1%), AdV in 923/9,402 (9.8%), hMPV in 617/9,384 (6.6%), hPIV1 in 159/9,402 (1.7%), hPIV2 in 85/9,402 (0.9%) and hPIV3 in 365/9,402 (3.9%). Multiple pathogens were identified in 501/9,316 (5.4%) participants tested for all pathogens. Monthly variation, indicating seasonal differences in levels of infection, was observed for all pathogens. Participants with hMPV infections and participants less than five years of age were significantly less likely than participants not infected with hMPV and those older than five years of age, respectively, to experience a severe outcome, while participants with a pre-existing chronic disease were at increased risk of a severe outcome, compared to those with no reported pre-existing chronic disease. Viral respiratory pathogens are common among SARI patients in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Ongoing surveillance is

  4. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Vale-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC, and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  9. β2-Adrenergic receptor promoter haplotype influences the severity of acute viral respiratory tract infection during infancy: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingsheng; Larkin, Emma K; Reiss, Sara S; Carroll, Kecia N; Summar, Marshall L; Minton, Patricia A; Woodward, Kimberly B; Liu, Zhouwen; Islam, Jessica Y; Hartert, Tina V; Moore, Paul E

    2015-09-14

    Despite the significant interest in β2-Adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) polymorphisms related to asthma, whether ADRB2 genetic variants are similarly associated with acute respiratory tract infections have not been studied. We hypothesized that genetic variants in ADRB2 associated with a response to asthma therapy during an asthma exacerbation were also associated with severity of acute respiratory tract infections. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped 5 common polymorphisms in the promoter region and coding block of the ADRB2 gene (loci -2387, -2274, -1343, +46, and +79) from 374 Caucasian and African American term infants who were enrolled at the time of acute respiratory illness over four respiratory viral seasons. Severity of respiratory tract infections was measured using a bronchiolitis severity score (BSS; range = 0-12, clinically significant difference = 0.5) with a higher score indicating more severe disease. We assigned the promoter, coding and combined promoter and coding haplotypes to the unphased genotype data. The associations between each of these five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as the haplotypes and infant BSS were analyzed using nonparametric univariate analysis and multivariable proportional odds model separately in Caucasians and African Americans. There was no significant association between infant BSS and each of the SNPs in both Caucasians and African Americans. However, promoter haplotype CCA was associated with a decreased BSS in African Americans in a dose dependent manner. The median (interquartile range) BSS of infants with no copies of the CCA haplotype, one copy, and two copies of the CCA haplotype were 5.5 (2.0, 8.0), 4.0 (1.0, 7.5), and 3.0 (1.0, 4.0), respectively. This dose dependent relationship persisted after adjusting for infant age, gender, daycare exposure, secondhand smoke exposure, prior history of breastfeeding, siblings at home, and enrollment season (adjusted odds ratio: 0.59, 95% confidence

  10. Viral etiology of acute respiratory infections among children in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Etiologia viral das infecções respiratórias agudas em Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selir M. Straliotto

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Although acute respiratory infections (ARIs are a major cause of child morbidity and mortality in Southern Brazil, little information is available on their seasonality and viral etiology. This study was conducted on children under 5 years of age with ARI to assess viral etiology in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, from 1990 to 1992. A total of 862 nasopharyngeal secretion (NPS samples were tested using indirect immunofluorescence. The results showed that 316 (36.6% NPS samples were positive: 26.2% for RSV, 6% for adenovirus, 1.7% for influenzaviruses, 1.5% for parainfluenzaviruses, and 1.2% for mixed infection. The mean viral prevalence rates in out-patient services, emergency wards, and in-patient hospital wards were 26.7%, 53% and 42.3%, respectively. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and adenovirus accounted for 91.4 % of the viral diagnoses. RSV was more frequent in children under one year of age at the three levels of health care and was prevalent in infants under six months. Adenovirus was the most prevalent pathogen in hospitalized children, in 1992. Influenza A virus showed an increased prevalence with age among out-patient children. This study shows the annual occurence of viral respiratory infections in the coldest months, with a significant annual variation in the frequency of RSV infection.Embora as IRAs sejam importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade infantil no sul do Brasil, poucas e esparsas informações são disponíveis sobre sazonalidade e etiologia viral. Este estudo foi realizado em crianças menores de 5 anos de idade com IRAs para avaliar a importância da etiologia viral no Rio Grande do Sul, no período de 1990 a 1992. Foram processadas 862 secreções de nasofaringe, por imunofluorescência indireta. Os resultados mostraram que 316 (36,6% amostras foram positivas: 26,2% para vírus respiratório sincicial (VRS, 6% para adenovírus, 1,7% para vírus influenza, 1,5% para vírus parainfluenza e 1,2% para infecção mista

  11. [Viral etiology in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections plus platelet disorders in Changsha, China: an analysis of 255 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; He, Xiang-Ling; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ni-Guang; You, Ya-Lan; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the viral etiology in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) plus platelet disorders. A total of 255 children with ALRTI plus platelet disorders and 442 children with ALRTI and normal platelets, all of whom were hospitalized between March 2010 and February 2011, were included in the study. Their nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected, and RT-PCR or PCR was performed to detect 14 viruses. Of 255 ALRTI patients with platelet disorders, thrombocytosis was found in 253 cases (99.2%) and thrombocytopenia in 2 cases (0.8%). Among ALRTI patients with platelet disorders, 173 (67.8%) were infected with at least one virus, with human rhinovirus as the most common one, followed by parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The detection rate of PIV3 in the abnormal platelet group was significantly higher than in the normal platelet group (PThrombocytosis is often found in children with ALRTI caused by viruses, especially PIV3, but infection with IFVB seldom causes platelet disorders. Hospitalized children with ALRTI under one year tend to develop platelet disorders.

  12. Viral etiologies and epidemiology of patients with acute respiratory infections based on sentinel hospitals in Gansu Province, Northwest China, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechao; Li, Juansheng; Meng, Lei; Zhu, Wanqi; Liu, Xinfeng; Yang, Mei; Yu, Deshan; Niu, Lixia; Shen, Xiping

    2018-02-01

    Understanding etiological role and epidemiological profile is needed to improve clinical management and prevention of acute respiratory infections (ARIs). A 5-year prospective study about active surveillance for outpatients and inpatients with ARIs was conducted in Gansu province, China, from January 2011 to November 2015. Respiratory specimens were collected from patients and tested for eight respiratory viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In this study, 2768 eligible patients with median age of 43 years were enrolled including pneumonia (1368, 49.2%), bronchitis (435, 15.7%), upper respiratory tract infection or URTI (250, 9.0%), and unclassified ARI (715, 25.8%). Overall, 29.2% (808/2768) were positive for any one of eight viruses, of whom 130 cases were identified with two or more viruses. Human rhinovirus (HRV) showed the highest detection rate (8.6%), followed by influenza virus (Flu, 7.3%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 6.1%), human coronavirus (hCoV, 4.3%), human parainfluenza (PIV, 4.0%), adenovirus (ADV, 2.1%), human metapneumovirus (hMPV, 1.6%), and human bocavirus (hBoV, 0.7%). Compared with URTI, RSV was more likely identified in pneumonia (χ 2  = 12.720, P infections. These findings could serve as a reference for local health authorities in drawing up further plans to prevent and control ARIs associated with viral etiologies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Viral Infection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Cukuranovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infection after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered, the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection, and other host factors governing susceptibility. Although cytomegalovirus is the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients, numerous other viruses have also affected outcomes. In some cases, preventive measures such as pretransplant screening, prophylactic antiviral therapy, or posttransplant viral monitoring may limit the impact of these infections. Recent advances in laboratory monitoring and antiviral therapy have improved outcomes. Studies of viral latency, reactivation, and the cellular effects of viral infection will provide clues for future strategies in prevention and treatment of viral infections. This paper will summarize the major viral infections seen following transplant and discuss strategies for prevention and management of these potential pathogens.

  14. Neonatal bronchial hyperresponsiveness precedes acute severe viral bronchiolitis in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L K; Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus and other respiratory tract viruses lead to common colds in most infants, whereas a minority develop acute severe bronchiolitis often requiring hospitalization. We hypothesized that such an excessive response to respiratory tract viral infection is caused by host factors...

  15. CHOLESTASIS IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Uchaikin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed 43 patients with cholestasis (21 — with acute viral hepatitis A and B and 22 — with chronic viral hepatitis B and C. Etiological diagnosis was based on the identification of specific markers of the spectrum. These 43 patients in addition to basic therapy ursodeoxycholic acid as a drug Ursosan of company «PRO.MED.CS Praha a.s.» (CzechRepublic. The control group consisted of 17 patients with acute viral hepatitis. Clinical signs are jaundice and itching of the skin, abdominal pain, significant hepatomegaly. Serum bilirubin level rises due to the conjugated fraction, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. When ultrasound revealed dilated bile ducts in the liver parenchyma, reactive edema of the gallbladder wall, signs gipomotornoy dyskinesia. Appointment ursosan in acute and chronic viral hepatitis occurring with cholestasis leads to the clinical and biochemical effects, and has a beneficial effect on the state of the liver and gall bladder.

  16. [Cycloferon, as an agent in the therapy and urgent prophylaxis of influenza and acute respiratory tract viral infection (multicentre randomized controlled comparative study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sologub, T V; Shul'diakov, A A; Romantsov, M G; Zhekalov, A N; Petlenko, S V; Erofeeva, M K; Maksakova, V L; Isakov, V A; Zarubaev, V V; Gatsan, V V; Kovalenko, A L

    2009-01-01

    Data on the study of the efficacy of the tablets of cycloferon, an early inductor of types 1 and 2 interferon, in the treatment of influenza and acute respiratory tract viral infections in adults are presented. The study enrolled 522 patients with moderate influenza of type A (H1N1) verified in 61% of the patients and type A (H3N2) verified in 7.5% of the cases. The patients were randomized with the envelope procedure. In the patients treated with cycloferon the intensity and period of the fever were stopped earlier and averaged from 1.8 to 3 days vs. 5 days in the reference group (symptomatic therapy). The improvement signs in the general state of the patients treated with cycloferon were noted on the 2nd day. The influenza complication as pneumonia was recorded in 2.2% of the patients treated with cycloferon, whereas in the patients under the symptomatic therapy the complications as bronchitis, pneumonia, angina were stated in 21.4% of the cases. For urgent prophylaxis of the influenza and respiratory tract viral infections (epidemiologic study) a group of 3717 subjects randomized with the table of random numbers was observed. 2080 patients were treated with cycloferon and 1637 patients were under the symptomatic therapy. The results were evaluated by the efficacy index and the protection estimate (T. A. Semenenko, 1991). The total efficacy index and the protection estimate in all the patients of the group were 4.9 and 79.8% respectively. The complicated forms of the disease were recorded in 1.5% of the patients treated with cycloferon and in 10.5 and 11.3% of the patients not treated with cycloferon.

  17. A touchdown nucleic acid amplification protocol as an alternative to culture backup for immunofluorescence in the routine diagnosis of acute viral respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feeney Susan A

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunofluorescence and virus culture are the main methods used to diagnose acute respiratory virus infections. Diagnosing these infections using nucleic acid amplification presents technical challenges, one of which is facilitating the different optimal annealing temperatures needed for each virus. To overcome this problem we developed a diagnostic molecular strip which combined a generic nested touchdown protocol with in-house primer master-mixes that could recognise 12 common respiratory viruses. Results Over an 18 month period a total of 222 specimens were tested by both immunofluorescence and the molecular strip. The specimens came from 103 males (median age 3.5 y, 80 females (median age 9 y and 5 quality assurance scheme specimens. Viruses were recovered from a number of specimen types including broncho-alveolar lavage, nasopharyngeal secretions, sputa, post-mortem lung tissue and combined throat and nasal swabs. Viral detection by IF was poor in sputa and respiratory swabs. A total of 99 viruses were detected in the study from 79 patients and 4 quality control specimens: 31 by immunofluorescence and 99 using the molecular strip. The strip consistently out-performed immunofluorescence with no loss of diagnostic specificity. Conclusions The touchdown protocol with pre-dispensed primer master-mixes was suitable for replacing virus culture for the diagnosis of respiratory viruses which were negative by immunofluorescence. Results by immunofluorescence were available after an average of 4–12 hours while molecular strip results were available within 24 hours, considerably faster than viral culture. The combined strip and touchdown protocol proved to be a convenient and reliable method of testing for multiple viruses in a routine setting.

  18. The impact of the H1N1 influenza pandemic on clinical presentations and viral epidemiology of acute respiratory infection in preschool children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkner-Corbett, David W; Duarte, Maria Carmo M B; Rose, Katie; Fonceca, Angela; Bezerra, Patricia; Hopkins, Mark; Britto, Murilo; Cuevas, Luis E; Correia, Jailson B; McNamara, Paul Stephen

    2012-06-01

    We assessed the impact of the H1N1 influenza pandemic on acute respiratory infection in young children from low-income families in Brazil. Influenza (specifically H1N1) detection in acute respiratory infection quintupled during the pandemic and, during its peak, it was associated with 30% of all acute respiratory infection visits to the emergency department. H1N1 was also associated with increased risk of hospitalization and coinfection.

  19. Viral and atypical bacterial etiology of acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years old living in a rural tropical area of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jonathan; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Randriamarotia, Martin; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Najjar, Josette; Vernet, Guy; Contamin, Bénédicte; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia

    2012-01-01

    In Madagascar, very little is known about the etiology and prevalence of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a rural tropical area. Recent data are needed to determine the viral and atypical bacterial etiologies in children with defined clinical manifestations of ARIs. During one year, we conducted a prospective study on ARIs in children between 2 to 59 months in the community hospital of Ampasimanjeva, located in the south-east of Madagascar. Respiratory samples were analyzed by multiplex real-time RT-PCR, including 18 viruses and 2 atypical bacteria. The various episodes of ARI were grouped into four clinical manifestations with well-documented diagnosis: "Community Acquired Pneumonia"(CAP, group I), "Other acute lower respiratory infections (Other ALRIs, group II)", "Upper respiratory tract infections with cough (URTIs with cough, group III)"and "Upper respiratory tract infections without cough (URTIs without cough, group IV)". 295 children were included in the study between February 2010 and February 2011. Viruses and/or atypical bacteria respiratory pathogens were detected in 74.6% of samples, the rate of co-infection was 27.3%. Human rhinovirus (HRV; 20.5%), metapneumovirus (HMPV A/B, 13.8%), coronaviruses (HCoV, 12.5%), parainfluenza virus (HPIV, 11.8%) and respiratory syncytial virus A and B (RSV A/B, 11.8%) were the most detected. HRV was predominantly single detected (23.8%) in all the clinical groups while HMPV A/B (23.9%) was mainly related to CAP (group I), HPIV (17.3%) to the "Other ALRIs" (group II), RSV A/B (19.5%) predominated in the group "URTIs with cough" (group III) and Adenovirus (HAdV, 17.8%) was mainly detected in the "without cough" (group IV). This study describes for the first time the etiology of respiratory infections in febrile children under 5 years in a malaria rural area of Madagascar and highlights the role of respiratory viruses in a well clinically defined population of ARIs.

  20. Viral and atypical bacterial etiology of acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years old living in a rural tropical area of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Hoffmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Madagascar, very little is known about the etiology and prevalence of acute respiratory infections (ARIs in a rural tropical area. Recent data are needed to determine the viral and atypical bacterial etiologies in children with defined clinical manifestations of ARIs. METHODS: During one year, we conducted a prospective study on ARIs in children between 2 to 59 months in the community hospital of Ampasimanjeva, located in the south-east of Madagascar. Respiratory samples were analyzed by multiplex real-time RT-PCR, including 18 viruses and 2 atypical bacteria. The various episodes of ARI were grouped into four clinical manifestations with well-documented diagnosis: "Community Acquired Pneumonia"(CAP, group I, "Other acute lower respiratory infections (Other ALRIs, group II", "Upper respiratory tract infections with cough (URTIs with cough, group III"and "Upper respiratory tract infections without cough (URTIs without cough, group IV". RESULTS: 295 children were included in the study between February 2010 and February 2011. Viruses and/or atypical bacteria respiratory pathogens were detected in 74.6% of samples, the rate of co-infection was 27.3%. Human rhinovirus (HRV; 20.5%, metapneumovirus (HMPV A/B, 13.8%, coronaviruses (HCoV, 12.5%, parainfluenza virus (HPIV, 11.8% and respiratory syncytial virus A and B (RSV A/B, 11.8% were the most detected. HRV was predominantly single detected (23.8% in all the clinical groups while HMPV A/B (23.9% was mainly related to CAP (group I, HPIV (17.3% to the "Other ALRIs" (group II, RSV A/B (19.5% predominated in the group "URTIs with cough" (group III and Adenovirus (HAdV, 17.8% was mainly detected in the "without cough" (group IV. INTERPRETATION: This study describes for the first time the etiology of respiratory infections in febrile children under 5 years in a malaria rural area of Madagascar and highlights the role of respiratory viruses in a well clinically defined population of ARIs.

  1. Development of a monoclonal antibody specific to granulocytes and its application for variation of granulocytes in scallop Chlamys farreri after acute viral necrobiotic virus (AVNV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhan, Wenbin

    2011-06-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb 6H7) specific to granulocytes of scallop Chlamys farreri was produced by immunising mice with separated granulocytes as an antigen. Characterised using a flow cytometric immunofluorescence assay, MAb 6H7 reacted to granulocytes by 87.1% of total positive haemocytes. At the ultrastructural level, MAb 6H7 demonstrated epitope in cytoplasmic granules of granulocytes. Western blotting analysis indicated that a peptide of 155 kDa was recognised by MAb 6H7. It was therefore used to investigate granulocyte variation in C. farreri after acute viral necrobiotic virus (AVNV) infection using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The result illustrated that granulocytes varied greatly by AVNV infection, and their amount significantly increased on day 1 post-injection, then decreased on days 2, 3 and 4, thereafter, rebounded and approached to a second peak on day 6, finally went down gradually to the control level on day 8. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute viral hepatitis - should the current screening strategy be modified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvala, Heli; Wong, Vincent; Simmonds, Peter; Johannessen, Ingolfur; Ramalingam, Sandeep

    2014-03-01

    The epidemiology of viral hepatitis has changed. Since the introduction of safe and effective vaccines for hepatitis A and B in 1980s, the incidence of acute infections caused by these viruses has been declining in the UK. At the same time, hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been recognised as an increasingly important cause of acute hepatitis, but testing is not widely available. The aim of this study was to establish the viral causes of acute hepatitis, and use that data to modify the current diagnostic algorithm. A Cognos search was performed to collate subjects tested for HAV, HBV, HCV, HEV, EBV and CMV between June 2010 and December 2012. Information included virological result and their ALT level if done within 5 days from virological testing. From 3462 subjects with suspected acute viral hepatitis, only 25% had biochemical evidence of acute hepatitis (n=854; ALT>100IU/l). The frequency of detection of acute HEV infection (25/409) was over 31-times higher than that of HAV (6/3462), and 7-times higher than that of HBV (24/3462). Most cases of acute HAV, HEV, EBV and CMV infections presented with abnormal ALT levels. Most EBV infections were associated with lymphadenopathy (23/34); in comparison most of CMV infections were not associated with lymphadenopathy (18/22). HEV screening should be included in the initial testing panel for acute hepatitis and screening at least for HAV and HEV might be limited to those with abnormal ALT levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nasopharyngeal polymicrobial colonization during health, viral upper respiratory infection and upper respiratory bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingfu; Wischmeyer, Jareth; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pichichero, Michael E

    2017-07-01

    We sought to understand how polymicrobial colonization varies during health, viral upper respiratory infection (URI) and acute upper respiratory bacterial infection to understand differences in infection-prone vs. non-prone patients. Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples were collected from 74 acute otitis media (AOM) infection-prone and 754 non-prone children during 2094 healthy visits, 673 viral URI visits and 631 AOM visits. Three otopathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) were identified by culture. NP colonization rates of multiple otopathogens during health were significantly lower than during viral URI, and during URI they were lower than at onset of upper respiratory bacterial infection in both AOM infection-prone and non-prone children. AOM infection-prone children had higher polymicrobial colonization rates than non-prone children during health, viral URI and AOM. Polymicrobial colonization rates of AOM infection-prone children during health were equivalent to that of non-prone children during viral URI, and during viral URI were equivalent to that of non-prone during AOM infection. Spn colonization was positively associated with NTHi and Mcat colonization during health, but negatively during AOM infection. The infection-prone patients more frequently have multiple potential bacterial pathogens in the NP than the non-prone patients. Polymicrobial interaction in the NP differs during health and at onset of infection. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. transfusion transmissible viral infections among potential blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Key words: Transfusion Transmissible Infections, HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Blood Donors,. University College Hospital (UCH), ELISA. INTRODUCTION. The most common diseases transmitted in blood transfusions are viral infections. Transfusion- transmissible infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus ...

  5. Differences in viral load among human respiratory syncytial virus genotypes in hospitalized children with severe acute respiratory infections in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadji, Francois Marie Ngako; Okamoto, Michiko; Furuse, Yuki; Tamaki, Raita; Suzuki, Akira; Lirio, Irene; Dapat, Clyde; Malasao, Rungnapa; Saito, Mariko; Pedrera-Rico, Gay Anne Granada; Tallo, Veronica; Lupisan, Socorro; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-06-27

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading viral etiologic agent of pediatric lower respiratory infections, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Two antigenic subgroups, HRSV-A and B, each contain several genotypes. While viral load may vary among HRSV genotypes and affect the clinical course of disease, data are scarce regarding the actual differences among genotypes. Therefore, this study estimated and compared viral load among NA1 and ON1 genotypes of HRSV-A and BA9 of HRSV-B. ON1 is a newly emerged genotype with a 72-nucleotide duplication in the G gene as observed previously with BA genotypes in HRSV-B. Children <5 years of age with an initial diagnosis of severe or very severe pneumonia at a hospital in the Philippines from September 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled. HRSV genotypes were determined and the viral load measured from nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS). The viral load of HRSV genotype NA1 were significantly higher than those of ON1 and BA9. Regression analysis showed that both genotype NA1 and younger age were significantly associated with high HRSV viral load. The viral load of NA1 was higher than that of ON1 and BA9 in NPS samples. HRSV genotypes may be associated with HRSV viral load. The reasons and clinical impacts of these differences in viral load among HRSV genotypes require further evaluation.

  6. Analysis of viral testing in nonacetaminophen pediatric acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Kathleen B; Dell Olio, Dominic; Lobritto, Steven J; Lopez, M James; Rodriguez-Baez, Norberto; Yazigi, Nada A; Belle, Steven H; Zhang, Song; Squires, Robert H

    2014-11-01

    Viral infections are often suspected to cause pediatric acute liver failure (PALF), but large-scale studies have not been performed. We analyzed the results of viral testing among nonacetaminophen PALF study participants. Participants were enrolled in the PALF registry. Diagnostic evaluation and final diagnosis were determined by the site investigator and methods for viral testing by local standard of care. Viruses were classified as either causative viruses (CVs) or associated viruses (AVs). Supplemental testing for CV was performed if not done clinically and serum was available. Final diagnoses included "viral," "indeterminate," and "other." Of 860 participants, 820 had at least 1 test result for a CV or AV. A positive viral test was found in 166/820 (20.2%) participants and distributed among "viral" (66/80 [82.5%]), "indeterminate" (52/420 [12.4%]), and "other" (48/320 [15.0%]) diagnoses. CVs accounted for 81/166 (48.8%) positive tests. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was positive in 39/335 (11.6%) who were tested 26/103 (25.2%) and 13/232 (5.6%) among infants 0 to 6 and >6 months, respectively. HSV was not tested in 61.0% and 53% of the overall cohort and those 0 to 6 months, respectively. Supplemental testing yielded 17 positive, including 5 HSV. Viral testing in PALF occurs frequently but is often incomplete. The evidence for acute viral infection was found in 20.2% of those tested for viruses. HSV is an important viral cause for PALF in all age groups. The etiopathogenic role of CV and AV in PALF requires further investigation.

  7. FEATURES OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE DURING VIRAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to select using cluster analysis and comparatively characterize immune disorders types in acute and chronic viral infections. Patients with acute and chronic viral infections (n = 896 were examined: 77 patients with acute viral hepatitis B, 94 — chronic viral hepatitis B, 119 — chronic hepatitis C, 531 — recurrent herpes, 75 — human papillomavirus infection. Healthy persons (n = 466 were examined as control. The research of blood lymphocyte phenotype was performed by flow cytometry. Four-color immunophenotyping were used in the following panels: Т-lymphocytes (CD3+CD19–CD16/56–CD45+, Т-helpers (CD3+CD4+CD45+, cytotoxic Т-cells (CD3+CD8+CD45+, NKcells (CD3–CD16/56+CD45+, B-lymphocytes (CD3–CD19+CD16/56+CD45+. Absolute values were obtained on a dualplatform technology using the results of haematological analysis. The immunoglobulin concentrations were determined by ELISA. The clustering was performed by a single linkage method. The number of clusters was determined on the basis of calculating the values of the Euclidean distance between the mean group values. It was found that the parameters, characterizing the functional state of the various parts of the immune system in acute and chronic viral infections, considerable diversity values. Custer analysis allows to allocate 6 immunotypes defined different states of innate and adaptive immunity: characterized by activation of the innate (increasing the number of neutrophils and NK-cells and adaptive immunity humoral response (increasing the concentration of IgG, characterized by hyperreaction of adaptive immunity (a significant increase in the concentration of IgG, discoordinated (multidirectional changes in the values of immunological parameters, immunodeficiency and unresponsiveness (did not differ from the control parameters immunotypes. It is proved that in patients with viral infections most often determined by the

  8. Neurological manifestations of dengue viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carod-Artal FJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Javier Carod-Artal1,21Neurology Department, Raigmore hospital, Inverness, UK; 2Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (UIC, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. There is increased evidence for dengue virus neurotropism, and neurological manifestations could make part of the clinical picture of dengue virus infection in at least 0.5%–7.4% of symptomatic cases. Neurological complications have been classified into dengue virus encephalopathy, dengue virus encephalitis, immune-mediated syndromes (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, Guillain–Barré syndrome, neuritis brachialis, acute cerebellitis, and others, neuromuscular complications (hypokalemic paralysis, transient benign muscle dysfunction and myositis, and dengue-associated stroke. Common neuro-ophthalmic complications are maculopathy and retinal vasculopathy. Pathogenic mechanisms include systemic complications and metabolic disturbances resulting in encephalopathy, direct effect of the virus provoking encephalitis, and postinfectious immune mechanisms causing immune-mediated syndromes. Dengue viruses should be considered as a cause of neurological disorders in endemic regions. Standardized case definitions for specific neurological complications are still needed. Keywords: encephalitis, encephalopathy, dengue fever, neurological complications

  9. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Ershova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays phytotherapy is increasingly being implemented into medical practice, especially for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Acute respiratory viral infections are most common in childhood and in adults. Acute rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and acute laryngitis refer to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main reason for respiratory diseases in recurrent respiratory infection child is disorders of mucociliary and immune protection. The therapeutic value of medicinal plants is determined by their biologically active substances. The method of application of phytotherpy is an integral part of traditional medicine. Herbal medicine can be used at home and does not require special equipment. The main indications for the herbal medicine use in pediatrics are the initial stage of the disease as a primary method of treatment due to mild and low toxicity; as a supporting treatment for enhancing the protective forces of the child’s body during the disease deterioration. During the recovery period herbal medicine again occupies a leading position, especially in case of chronic diseases because it can be used for a long time and is well combined with synthetic drugs. The terms of appointment of herbs for children: prescription of medicinal plants for children must be individual according to indications, taking into account the child’s age; it is recommended to take into account the form and nature of the course of the main disease and comorbidities as well; at the initial stage of the treatment it is better to use some medicinal plants or species consisting of 2–3 plants and in the future a more complex composition; therapy with medicinal plants requires a long period to be used use, especially in chronic diseases; in the treatment of chronic diseases a good effect preventive courses of herbal medicine was revealed, which are appointed during seasonal exacerbations; in case of intolerance

  10. Viral infection and host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W A; De Clercq, E

    1974-12-27

    Double-stranded RNA, made as an intermediary substance in the replication of most, if not all, viruses, may play a much more important role in the pathogenesis and the recovery from virus infections than has hitherto been suspected. Apparently, dsRNA is used by both the challenge virus and the host cell in an attempt to gain "molecular control." Double-stranded RNA exerts a set of effects, which may be well balanced, not only at the level of the individual cell but also at the complex assemblage of these cells termed the organism (Fig. 1). In the cell, interferon synthesis is triggered, although interferon mRNA translation may not occur if dsRNA shuts off protein synthesis too quickly. In the whole organism, the disease severity will depend on how certain toxic reactions evoked by infection (such as cell necrosis and fever) are counterbalanced by an increase in the host defense mechanisms (for example, immune responsiveness and interferon production). Many aspects of the response, relating to either progress of, or recovery from, the disease, can be explained on the basis of a dsRNA. In addition to drawing attention to the biodynamic role of dsRNA, our hypothesis suggests specific experimental vectors designed to enhance our information on the molecular basis of the morbid process which occurs with viral infection. Finally, we suggest that, although the dsRNA molecule may be viewed as a rather simple unit structure, the opportunity for further diversity in the biological activity of a given dsRNA molecule always exists. Namely, each deviation from a perfectly double-helical arrangement introduces the possibility for emphasizing one biological reactivity at the expense of another. This latter structure-activity property may partially account for the extreme apparent diversity, commonly encountered, in the presentations of virologic illness. Appendix note added in proof. Subsequent to submission of this text, we have found that the potent mitogen effect of dsRNA for

  11. Sequeale of acute viral hepatitis type B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnicar, J; Ferluga, D; Lesnicar, G

    1977-08-01

    In 1976 we undertook to evaluate the incidence of chronic liver lesions in 161 patients treated in hospital during the years 1970-1975 for their serologically established acute viral hepatitis type B (AVH-B). At systematic control examination mode in 1976, after a period from 1-5 years since the acute onset of disease, it was established that in 133 individuals (82.6%) the antigen HBs had disappeared from blood and the BLT had become normal. Persistent HBs antigenemia was established in 20 (12.4%) individuals. In 15 (9.2%) patients persistent HBs antigenemia was accompanied by pathologic BLT, in 5 (3.1%) cases liver function became returned to normal yet with the persistent HBs antigenemia after their recovery from A VH-B. In 8 (4.9%) patients pathologic BLT persisted although HBsAg had disappeared from blood. Among 28 persons with persistent pathological BLT or with persistent HBs antigenemia out of a total of 161 patients who had had A VH-B, there were 11 (6.8%) cases with the bioptically proved CPHf, 8 (5.0%) cases with CPH, 5 (3.1%) cases with CAH, while 4 (2.5%) patients showed fatty liver metamorphosis or had by light microskopy completely normal liver. CAH was established only in cases with persistent BHs antigenemia and pathological BLT. The incidence of the chronic liver lesion and of the persistent antigenemia was among our patients who had had A VH-B in inverse ratio to the intensity of their initial infection. Our study suggests that no prodisposition for persistent HBs antigenemia is created by the prednisolone therapy.

  12. Visualizing viral transport and host infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kwangmin; Guasto, Jeffrey; Cubillos-Ruiz, Andres; Sullivan, Matthew; Stocker, Roman; MIT Team

    2013-11-01

    A virus is a non-motile infectious agent that can only replicate inside a living host. They consist of a virus-host encounter/adsorption dynamics and subsequently the effectiveness of various tail morphologies for viral infection. Viral transport and the role of viral morphology in host-virus interactions are critical to our understanding of both ecosystem dynamics and human health, as well as to the evolution of virus morphology.

  13. Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio) Pain Prevention Recovery Substance ... as sharing drug-use equipment and having unprotected sex, which can lead to these infections. Getting treatment. ...

  14. Tracking of peptide-specific CD4+ T-cell responses after an acute resolving viral infection: a study of parvovirus B19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasprowicz, Victoria; Isa, Adiba; Tolfvenstam, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    to those for a cohort of B19-specific immunoglobulin M-negative (IgM(-)), IgG(+) remotely infected individuals. Both cohorts of individuals were found to make broad CD4(+) responses. However, while the responses following acute infection were detectable ex vivo, responses in remotely infected individuals...... were only detected after culture. One epitope (LASEESAFYVLEHSSFQLLG) was consistently targeted by both acutely (10/12) and remotely (6/7) infected individuals. This epitope was DRB1*1501 restricted, and a major histocompatibility complex peptide tetramer stained PBMCs from acutely infected individuals...... in the range of 0.003 to 0.042% of CD4(+) T cells. Tetramer-positive populations were initially CD62L(lo); unlike the case for B19-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses, however, CD62L was reexpressed at later times, as responses remained stable or declined slowly. This first identification of B19 CD4(+) T...

  15. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.morinet@sls.aphp.fr [Centre des Innovations Thérapeutiques en Oncologie et Hématologie (CITOH), CHU Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris (France); Casetti, Luana [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Hématologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne (France); Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelynes, Versailles (France); Pillet, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie-Hygiène, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France); Université de Lyon et Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, GIMAP EA3064, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, Lyon (France)

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  16. RATIONAL ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN OUTPATIENT CLINIC

    OpenAIRE

    M.G. Lukashevich

    2008-01-01

    An epidemiology and clinical symptomatology of frequently occurred acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) and opportunities of treatment of patients with these diseases in outpatient clinics are described. New information about effectiveness and safety of antiviral medications in treatment and prophylaxis of ARVI in children are discussed.Key words: children, acute respiratory viral infections, antiviral medications, interferon, interferon inductors.

  17. RATIONAL ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN OUTPATIENT CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Lukashevich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiology and clinical symptomatology of frequently occurred acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI and opportunities of treatment of patients with these diseases in outpatient clinics are described. New information about effectiveness and safety of antiviral medications in treatment and prophylaxis of ARVI in children are discussed.Key words: children, acute respiratory viral infections, antiviral medications, interferon, interferon inductors.

  18. Lactoferrin for prevention of common viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Oda, Hirotsugu; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2014-11-01

    Although lactoferrin has many biological functions, the host-protective effects against pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses are regarded as one of the most important. Here, we review research on the protective role of lactoferrin administration against common viral infections. Many studies have shown the in vitro antiviral activity of lactoferrin against viral pathogens that cause common infections such as the common cold, influenza, gastroenteritis, summer cold, and herpes, where lactoferrin inhibits mainly viral attachment to the target cells. Recently, studies indicating the in vivo protective effects of lactoferrin by oral administration against common viral infections have been increasing. For instance, norovirus is an extremely important emerging human pathogen that causes a majority of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide that may be a target candidate for lactoferrin. Lactoferrin consumption reduced the incidence of noroviral gastroenteritis in children and a similar effect was observed in a wide range of ages in a preliminary survey. A recent in vitro study reported that lactoferrin inhibits both cellular attachment of the murine norovirus, a virus closely-related to the human norovirus, and viral replication in the cells by inducing antiviral cytokines interferon (IFN)-α/β. Lactoferrin administration also enhances NK cell activity and Th1 cytokine responses, which lead to protection against viral infections. In conclusion, lactoferrin consumption may protect the host from viral infections through inhibiting the attachment of a virus to the cells, replication of the virus in the cells, and enhancement of systemic immune functions. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of female sex, viral genotype and IL28B genotype on spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebely, Jason; Page, Kimberly; Sacks-Davis, Rachel; van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Rice, Thomas M.; Bruneau, Julie; Morris, Meghan D.; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Amin, Janaki; Cox, Andrea L.; Kim, Arthur Y.; McGovern, Barbara H.; Schinkel, Janke; George, Jacob; Shoukry, Naglaa H.; Lauer, Georg M.; Maher, Lisa; Lloyd, Andrew R.; Hellard, Margaret; Dore, Gregory J.; Prins, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although 20–40% of persons with acute HCV infection demonstrate spontaneous clearance, the time-course and factors associated with clearance remain poorly understood. We investigated the time to spontaneous clearance and predictors among participants with acute HCV using Cox proportional hazards analyses. Data for this analysis were drawn from an international collaboration of nine prospective cohorts evaluating outcomes following acute HCV infection. Among 632 participants with acute HCV, 35% were female, 82% were Caucasian, 49% had IL28B CC genotype (rs12979860), 96% had injected drugs ever, 47% were infected with HCV genotype 1 and 5% had HIV co-infection. Twenty-eight percent were HCV antibody negative/RNA positive at the time of acute HCV detection (early acute HCV). During follow-up, spontaneous clearance occurred in 173 of 632 and at one year following infection, 25% (95%CI: 21%, 29%) had cleared virus. Among those with clearance, the median time to clearance was 16.5 weeks (IQR: 10.5, 33.4 weeks), with 34%, 67% and 83% demonstrating clearance at three, six and twelve months. Adjusting for age, factors independently associated with time to spontaneous clearance included female sex [adjusted hazards ratio (AHR) 2.16; 95%CI 1.48, 3.18], IL28B CC genotype (vs. CT/TT, AHR 2.26; 95%CI 1.52, 3.34), and HCV genotype 1 (vs. non-genotype 1, AHR 1.56; 95%CI 1.06, 2.30). The effect of IL28B genotype and HCV genotype on spontaneous clearance was greater among females compared to males. Conclusions Female sex, favorable IL28B genotype and HCV genotype 1 are independent predictors of spontaneous clearance. Further research is required to elucidate the observed sex-based differences in HCV control. PMID:23908124

  20. Generation and maintenance of human memory cells during viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Rabih; Doroudchi, Mehrnoosh; Yassine-Diab, Bader; Janbazian, Loury; Shi, Yu; Said, Elias A; Haddad, Elias K; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre

    2006-11-01

    Long-term maintenance of memory T cell response is the hallmark of immune protection and hence the holy grail of most vaccine development studies. Persistent memory cells, developed after either viral infection or vaccination, ensure the generation of an antiviral response upon reexposure to the pathogen. During acute viral infections, as in the case of measles and influenza viruses, strong T cell effector functions, which eradicate the virus and protect patients against reexposure, are achieved by the generation of persistent protective memory cells. However, in chronic infections, T cells drastically lose effector functions before acquiring a memory phenotype. Chronic infections can be categorized into infections where viremia is controlled and protective memory cells are maintained as in the case of EBV and CMV infections, or where the virus persists and memory cells are exhausted and disrupted as in the case of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In this review, we will discuss the different phenotypical and functional characteristics of memory cells subsets, the importance of the role they play during acute and chronic infections, and the mechanisms behind their effectiveness and persistence.

  1. Factors influencing the severity of acute viral hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Il; Jung, Young Kul; Kwon, Oh Sang; Kim, Yeon Suk; Ku, Yang Suh; Choi, Duck Joo; Kim, Ju Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Most patients with acute viral hepatitis A have a favorable course, but a few of them suffer from severe forms of hepatitis such as fulminant hepatitis. This study was carried out to identify the factors influencing the severity of acute viral hepatitis A. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 713 patients with acute hepatitis A, who were divided into two groups: severe hepatitis A (N=87) and non-severe hepatitis A (N=626). Severe hepatitis was defined as fulminant hepatitis or prolongation of prothrombin time (INR≥1.5). Clinical variables were compared between the two groups. Results The incidence of fulminant hepatitis was 1.4% (10/713) in patients with acute hepatitis A. Thirty-three (4.6%) cases exhibited HBsAg positivity. In multivariate analyses, significant alcohol intake and the presence of HBsAg were significant predictive factors of fulminant hepatitis A, and significant alcohol intake and age were significant predictive factors of severe hepatitis A. HBeAg and HBV-DNA status did not affect the clinical course of hepatitis A in chronic hepatitis B carriers. Conclusions While most patients with acute hepatitis A have an uncomplicated clinical course, our data suggest that a more-severe clinical course is correlated with being older, significant alcohol intake, and chronic hepatitis-B-virus infection. PMID:20924212

  2. Liver Failure due to Acute Viral Hepatitis (A-E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manka, Paul; Verheyen, Jens; Gerken, Guido; Canbay, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis is still one of the key causes of acute liver failure (ALF) in the world. Methods A selective literature search of the PubMed database was conducted, including current studies, reviews, meta-analyses, and guidelines. We obtained an overview of ALF due to viral hepatitis in terms of epidemiology, course, and treatment options. Results Most fulminant viral courses are reported after infection with hepatitis A, B, and B/D, but not with hepatitis C. Hepatitis E is also known to cause ALF but has not gained much attention in recent years. However, more and more autochthonous hepatitis E virus infections have been recently observed in Europe. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) under immunosuppressive conditions, such as after intensive chemotherapy, is also an increasing problem. For most viral-induced cases of ALF, liver transplantation represented the only therapeutic option in the past. Today, immediate treatment of HBV-induced ALF with nucleotide or nucleoside analogs is well tolerated and beneficially affects the course of the disease. Conclusion Although numbers in Western European countries are decreasing rapidly, reliable diagnostic screening for hepatitis A-E is necessary to identify the etiology and to determine those most at risk of developing ALF. PMID:27413724

  3. Viral hepatitis B, C and HIV infection in Croatian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, V; Horvat, J; Butorac, K; Mikulić, R

    2010-11-01

    Incarcerated persons comprise about 0.4% of the Croatian population, of whom 25-30% misuse drugs. We attempted to determine the structure of the prison population, prevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV markers, co-infections with HBV, HCV and HIV and acute HBV, HCV and HIV infection. In total, 25.9% of prisoners were positive for some markers for viral hepatitis (HBV 11.3%, HCV 8.3%, HBV/HCV 6.3%). Prevalence of HBV infection in intravenous drug users (IDUs) was 26.2% (highly promiscuous group 20.4%, individuals with psychiatric diseases and personality disorders 16.0%). HCV infection in IDUs was 52.0% and 4.9% in the highly promiscuous group. HBV/HCV co-infection was registered in 34.9% of prisoners positive for HBV markers (203/582). Acute HBV infection was detected in 0.5%, and HCV in 1.2%. Only 0.15% (5/3348) of prisoners were anti-HIV positive. It appears that individuals with psychiatric diseases and personality disorders could be an additional risk population for these viral infections.

  4. Optimal cytoplasmic transport in viral infections.

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    Maria R D'Orsogna

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available For many viruses, the ability to infect eukaryotic cells depends on their transport through the cytoplasm and across the nuclear membrane of the host cell. During this journey, viral contents are biochemically processed into complexes capable of both nuclear penetration and genomic integration. We develop a stochastic model of viral entry that incorporates all relevant aspects of transport, including convection along microtubules, biochemical conversion, degradation, and nuclear entry. Analysis of the nuclear infection probabilities in terms of the transport velocity, degradation, and biochemical conversion rates shows how certain values of key parameters can maximize the nuclear entry probability of the viral material. The existence of such "optimal" infection scenarios depends on the details of the biochemical conversion process and implies potentially counterintuitive effects in viral infection, suggesting new avenues for antiviral treatment. Such optimal parameter values provide a plausible transport-based explanation of the action of restriction factors and of experimentally observed optimal capsid stability. Finally, we propose a new interpretation of how genetic mutations unrelated to the mechanism of drug action may nonetheless confer novel types of overall drug resistance.

  5. Fatty acid dynamics during viral infection of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bale, N.J.; Maat, D.S.; Hopmans, E.C.; Mets, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Schouten, S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that viral infection can affect the lipid distribution of phytoplankton, specifically the fatty acid (FA) distribution, and has been hypothesized to affect the nutritional value of phytoplankton for higher trophic levels. Here, we report the bulk FA distribution as well

  6. Incidência de infecção viral do trato respiratório em asma aguda atendida em sala de emergência Incidence of viral infection of the respiratory tract in acute asthma patients treated in the emergency room

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    Ivete Terezinha Machado da Rocha

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência de infecção viral em asma aguda em pacientes atendidos em setor de adultos de um serviço de emergência. MÉTODOS: Conduzimos um estudo de coorte de pacientes que se apresentaram com asma aguda no setor de adultos do Serviço de Emergência do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (idade > 12 anos. Um aspirado nasofaríngeo foi obtido para detecção de antígenos com a técnica de coloração de imunofluorescência indireta para os vírus sincicial respiratório, adenovírus, influenza e parainfluenza tipos 1, 2, 3 e 4. Foram coletados dados referentes a características demográficas, história médica pregressa, crise que levou à atual visita ao serviço de emergência e desfechos da crise. RESULTADOS: No período de março a julho de 2004, 49 pacientes foram examinados para infecção viral do trato respiratório. Foram identificados vírus respiratórios em 6 pacientes (3 com adenovírus, 2 com influenza A e 1 com parainfluenza tipo 1. Os pacientes com infecção viral do trato respiratório apresentaram média de idade de 61,7 ± 11,5 anos, enquanto que os pacientes sem infecção viral apresentaram média de idade de 41,7 ± 20,9 anos (p = 0,027. Não houve outras diferenças significativas quanto às características clínicas e desfechos. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo mostra uma incidência de 12,24% de infecção viral do trato respiratório na asma aguda em pacientes com idade igual ou maior que doze anos atendidos em sala de emergência, o que confirma a infecção viral como um desencadeante nessa faixa etária.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of viral infection in patients with acute asthma treated in the emergency room. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of patients aged 12 and older presenting to the emergency room of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre with acute asthma. Nasopharyngeal aspirate was collected, and antigens were detected through indirect immunofluorescence staining for

  7. Hepatitis E virus incidence in patients with non-identified acute viral hepatitis in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Berebichez-Fridman, R.; Vázquez-Campuzano, R.; Galnares-Olalde, J.A.; Blachman-Braun, R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the identified pathogens that cause acute viral hepatitis in Mexico. It has been observed that the presence of this particular pathogen represents a great risk in pregnant women and solid organ transplant recipients. In Mexico there are no formal epidemiological reports about HEV. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of HEV infection in Mexican patients with non-identified viral infection, and to provide a general perspectiv...

  8. Human Hendra virus infection causes acute and relapsing encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K T; Robertson, T; Ong, B B; Chong, J W; Yaiw, K C; Wang, L F; Ansford, A J; Tannenberg, A

    2009-06-01

    To study the pathology of two cases of human Hendra virus infection, one with no clinical encephalitis and one with relapsing encephalitis. Autopsy tissues were investigated by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In the patient with acute pulmonary syndrome but not clinical acute encephalitis, vasculitis was found in the brain, lung, heart and kidney. Occasionally, viral antigens were demonstrated in vascular walls but multinucleated endothelial syncytia were absent. In the lung, there was severe inflammation, necrosis and viral antigens in type II pneumocytes and macrophages. The rare kidney glomerulus showed inflammation and viral antigens in capillary walls and podocytes. Discrete necrotic/vacuolar plaques in the brain parenchyma were associated with antigens and viral RNA. Brain inflammation was mild although CD68(+) microglia/macrophages were significantly increased. Cytoplasmic viral inclusions and antigens and viral RNA in neurones and ependyma suggested viral replication. In the case of relapsing encephalitis, there was severe widespread meningoencephalitis characterized by neuronal loss, macrophages and other inflammatory cells, reactive blood vessels and perivascular cuffing. Antigens and viral RNA were mainly found in neurones. Vasculitis was absent in all the tissues examined. The case of acute Hendra virus infection demonstrated evidence of systemic infection and acute encephalitis. The case of relapsing Hendra virus encephalitis showed no signs of extraneural infection but in the brain, extensive inflammation and infected neurones were observed. Hendra virus can cause acute and relapsing encephalitis and the findings suggest that the pathology and pathogenesis are similar to Nipah virus infection.

  9. Virion-targeted viral inactivation: new therapy against viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, N; Kitamura, Y; Kobayashi, N; Sakuma, R; Ishikawa, T; Kitamura, T

    2001-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is resistant to all current therapy. Gene therapy is an attractive alternative or additive to current, unsatisfactory AIDS therapy. To develop an antiviral molecule targeting viral integrase (HIV IN), we generated a single-chain antibody, termed scAb, which interacted with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IN and inhibited virus replication at the integration step when expressed intracellularly. To reduce infectivity from within the virus particles, we made expression plasmids (pC-scAbE-Vpr, pC-scAbE-CA, and pC-scAbE-WXXF), which expressed the anti-HIV IN scAb fused to the N-terminus of HIV-1-associated accessory protein R (Vpr), capsid protein (CA), and specific binding motif to Vpr (WXXF), respectively. All fusion proteins were tagged with a nine-amino acid peptide derived from influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) at the C terminus. The fusion molecules, termed scAbE-Vpr, scAbE-CA, and scAbE-WXXF, interacted specifically with HIV IN immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane. Immunoblot analysis showed that scAbE-Vpr, scAbE-CA, and scAbE-WXXF were incorporated into the virions produced by cotransfection of 293T cells with HIV-1 infectious clone DNA (pLAI) and pC-scAbE-Vpr, pC-scAbE-WXXF. A multinuclear activation galactosidase indicator (MAGI) assay revealed that the virions released from 293T cells cotransfected with pLAI and pC-scAbE-Vpr, pC-scAbE-WXXF had as little 1000-fold of the infectivity of the control wild-type virions, which were produced from the 293T cells transfected with pLAI alone. Furthermore, the virions produced from the 293T cells cotransfected with pLAI and an scAb expression vector (pC-scAb) showed only 1% of the infectivity of the control HIV-1 in a MAGI assay, although scAb was not incorporated into the virions. In either instance, the total quantity of the progeny virions released from the transfected 293T cells and the patterns of the virion proteins were hardly affected by the presence of

  10. FEATURES OF A COURSE OF THE INFECTION CAUSED BY A VIRUS OF HERPES OF THE 6TH TYPE AMONG CHILDREN OF EARLY AGE IN THE SETTING OF A ACUTE RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTION

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    N. V. Okolysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 95 children aged from 5 months till 3 years (middle age 1,7 ±1,1, who were admitted in children's infectious department of theClinicalInfectionsHospital№1 by diagnosis acute respiratory virus infection in the height of disease. Anti-genes of sharp respiratory viruses by the IF method, markers of HHV-6 type, and also a cytomegalovirus of the person (CMV and Epstein-Barre's virus the ELISA methods and PTsR-rv are studied. Respiratory viruses are found among the hospitalized children in 46,3% of cases, from them paraflu (32,6% in comparison with flu (9,5% and a respiratornosintsitialny virus (4,2%, р < 0,05 statistically significantly is more often revealed. Markers of HHV are revealed at 73,7% of children. During the mixed infection HHV-6 markers are found in the vast majority of children (79,4% in combination with this or that representative of Herpesviridae, is statistically significantly more often with CMV(16,8%, р < 0,05. DNA of HHV-6 is statistically significantly more often (41% and with more viral load (53 400 copies/ml is revealed in a saliva in comparison with blood and urine. DNA of HHV-6 ina saliva statistically significantly is defined among the children visiting child care centers more often, than at unorganized children (72% against 40,4%, р = 0,0001 that testifies about a horizontal transmission of infection. It is observed that markers of HHV-6 are defined statistically significantly more often among children aged from 7 till 12 months (50% and among children older by 1 year (49,2% in comparison with children aged from 0 till 6 months (10%, р < 0,05. It is shown that among children of an early age the exanthema at HHV-6-of an infection is associated with presence of DNA of HHV-6 with high concentration (more than 120 000 copies/ml in blood.

  11. Rapid identification viruses from nasal pharyngeal aspirates in acute viral respiratory infections by RT-PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Fu; Rothman, Richard E; Ramachandran, Padmini; Blyn, Lawrence; Sampath, Rangarajan; Ecker, David J; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2011-04-01

    Diagnosis of the etiologic agent of respiratory viral infection relies traditionally on culture or antigen detection. This pilot evaluation compared performance characteristics of the RT-PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS) platform to conventional virologic methods for identifying multiple clinically relevant respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates. The RT-PCR/ESI-MS respiratory virus surveillance kit was designed to detect respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1-4, adenoviridae types A-F, coronaviridae, human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus. Patients (N=192) attending an emergency department during the 2007-2008 respiratory season consented, and "excess" frozen archived nasopharyngeal aspirates were analysed; 46 were positive by conventional virology and 69 by RT-PCR/ESI-MS, among which there were six samples with multiple viral pathogens detected. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 89.1% and 80.3%, respectively. Additional viruses that were not identified by conventional virology assays were detected (4 human bocaviruses and 7 coronaviruses). Samples in which the RT-PCR/ESI-MS results disagreed with conventional virology were sent for analysis by a third method using a commercial RT-PCR-based assay, which can identify viruses not detectable by conventional virologic procedures. Time to first result of RT-PCR/ESI-MS was 8h. RT-PCR/ESI-MS demonstrated capacity to detect respiratory viruses identifiable and unidentifiable by conventional methods rapidly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanostructures for the Inhibition of Viral Infections

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    Sabine Szunerits

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multivalent interactions are omnipresent in biology and confer biological systems with dramatically enhanced affinities towards different receptors. Such multivalent binding interactions have lately been considered for the development of new therapeutic strategies against bacterial and viral infections. Multivalent polymers, dendrimers, and liposomes have successfully targeted pathogenic interactions. While a high synthetic effort was often needed for the development of such therapeutics, the integration of multiple ligands onto nanostructures turned to be a viable alternative. Particles modified with multiple ligands have the additional advantage of creating a high local concentration of binding molecules. This review article will summarize the different nanoparticle-based approaches currently available for the treatment of viral infections.

  13. A Viral Infection Model with a Nonlinear Infection Rate

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    Nieto JuanJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A viral infection model with a nonlinear infection rate is constructed based on empirical evidences. Qualitative analysis shows that there is a degenerate singular infection equilibrium. Furthermore, bifurcation of cusp-type with codimension two (i.e., Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation is confirmed under appropriate conditions. As a result, the rich dynamical behaviors indicate that the model can display an Allee effect and fluctuation effect, which are important for making strategies for controlling the invasion of virus.

  14. Management of acute viral bronchiolitis in children: Evidence beyond guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is one of the leading causes of worldwide admission of children under 2 years of age during winter months. There is a lack of consensus regarding the clinical definition of acute viral bronchiolitis in children and hence the management varies across the globe. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, assessment and management of children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis. The available evidence in the worldwide literature suggests that supportive and symptomatic management is still the mainstay of management in this condition. The key to reducing the morbidity and mortality in children with RSV bronchiolitis is through prevention of infection through immunoprophylaxis especially in high-risk children. What is already known Despite bronchiolitis being a leading cause of childhood admissions under 2 years of age, there is a lack of consensus in its definition and management worldwide. According to the evidence based guidelines, supportive management is still the mainstay of management of this condition What this review adds Newer viruses continue to be isolated and identified as causative agents. In addition to supportive care, the following can be added to the guidelines in management of acute viral bronchiolitis: Infant beds need to be separated in bays by at least 3 feet to prevent iatrogenic spread. Racemic epinephrine appears to offer slight edge over salbutamol and can be offered as a bronchodilator trial in emergency room settings in infants with atopic predisposition. Hypertonic saline or high volume normal saline seems to reduce clinical severity scores by possibly decreasing mucosal oedema and improving mucociliary clearance. PMID:27500927

  15. Hepatitis E virus is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian, Scotland

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    I. Kokki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute viral hepatitis affects all ages worldwide. Hepatitis E virus (HEV is increasingly recognized as a major cause of acute hepatitis in Europe. Because knowledge of its characteristics is limited, we conducted a retrospective study to outline demographic and clinical features of acute HEV in comparison to hepatitis A, B and C in Lothian over 28 months (January 2012 to April 2014. A total of 3204 blood samples from patients with suspected acute hepatitis were screened for hepatitis A, B and C virus; 913 of these samples were also screened for HEV. Demographic and clinical information on patients with positive samples was gathered from electronic patient records. Confirmed HEV samples were genotyped. Of 82 patients with confirmed viral hepatitis, 48 (59% had acute HEV. These patients were older than those infected by hepatitis A, B or C viruses, were more often male and typically presented with jaundice, nausea, vomiting and/or malaise. Most HEV cases (70% had eaten pork or game meat in the few months before infection, and 14 HEV patients (29% had a recent history of foreign travel. The majority of samples were HEV genotype 3 (27/30, 90%; three were genotype 1. Acute HEV infection is currently the predominant cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian and presents clinically in older men. Most of these infections are autochthonous, and further studies confirming the sources of infection (i.e. food or blood transfusion are required.

  16. Management of viral infections in AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, J L; King, D H

    1987-01-01

    Viral infections, predominantly those of the herpes virus family, account for up to 16% of all clinically significant infections in AIDS patients. Acyclovir has provided successful treatment in AIDS patients suffering from severe herpes simplex and herpes zoster virus infections. Preliminary results are presented on newly developed acyclovir analogues. Desciclovir, an oral prodrug of acyclovir which is metabolized to acyclovir in vivo, allows treatment of virus infections per os, where high serum levels are needed, e.g. in Epstein-Barr virus infections. BW B759U, another analogue of acyclovir, has been used for the treatment of life-threatening or sight-threatening cytomegalovirus infections in AIDS patients. More than 80% of the patients treated for retinitis experienced stabilization or clinical improvement. Antiviral efficacy was demonstrated in 73% of the patients. Azidothymidine, a nucleoside analogue of thymidine, has been developed specifically to treat the HIV infection. Its antiviral activity is based on inhibition of reverse transcriptase. Phase I studies have demonstrated that azidothymidine is well tolerated. Its ability to cross the blood brain barrier makes it an attractive candidate for treatment of HIV. Trials to determine efficacy are in progress.

  17. [Senegalese experience with acute viral conjunctivitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, A S; Kane, H; Ka, A M; Hanne, F T; Ndiaye, J M M; Diagne, J-P; Nguer, M; Sow, S; Saheli, Y; Sy, E H M; De Meideros Quenum, M E; Ndoye Roth, P A; Ba, E A; Ndiaye, P A

    2017-04-01

    To study the epidemiological and clinical aspects of acute enteroviral and adenoviral conjunctivitis. A prospective study was conducted between January 1st and October 31st, 2015, jointly between two Ophthalmology services and a virology laboratory, which identified 51 patients. Were included all patients who presented a painful red eye without loss of visual acuity associated with secretions,evolving for less than 4weeks RESULTS: The mean age was 32 years, and the sex ratio 1:1. Over half of our patients (61%) came from populous districts. A history of the virus "going around" was reported by 30 patients (59% of cases). Virological testing was positive in 35 patients (68.7% of cases). Over 90% of samples collected during the first week of clinical signs were positive. Viral conjunctivitis is a contagious condition, the spread of which is favored by promiscuity. Adenovirus and enterovirus are the main causative agents. They are present on an endemic scale in Senegal; thus, the need for better epidemiological surveillance in order to limit spread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. T cell responses to viral infections - opportunities for peptide vaccination

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    Sietske eRosendahl Huber

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An effective immune response against viral infections depends on the activation of cytotoxic T cells that can clear the infection by killing virus-infected cells. Proper activation of these T cells depends on professional antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs. In this review, we will discuss the potential of peptide-based vaccines for prevention and treatment of viral diseases. We will describe features of an effective response against both acute and chronic infections, such as an appropriate magnitude, breadth and quality and discuss requirements for inducing such an effective antiviral immune response. We will address modifications that affect presentation of vaccine components by DCs, including choice of antigen, adjuvants, and formulation. Furthermore, we will describe differences in design between preventive and therapeutic peptide-based vaccines. The ultimate goal in the design of preventive vaccines, is to develop a universal vaccine that cross-protects against multiple strains of the virus. For therapeutic vaccines, cross-protection is of less importance, but enhancing existing T cell responses is essential. Although peptide vaccination is successful in inducing responses in Human Papilloma Virus (HPV infected patients, there are still several challenges such as choosing the right target epitopes, choosing safe adjuvants that improve immunogenicity of these epitopes, and steering the immune response in the desired direction. We will conclude with an overview of the current status of peptide vaccination, hurdles to overcome, and prospects for the future.

  19. Efficacy of four commercially available multivalent modified-live virus vaccines against clinical disease, viremia, and viral shedding in early-weaned beef calves exposed simultaneously to cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and cattle acutely infected with bovine herpesvirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Passler, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto; Newcomer, Benjamin W; Riddell, Kay P; Gard, Julie; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of 4 commercially available multivalent modified-live virus vaccines against clinical disease, viremia, and viral shedding caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in early-weaned beef calves. 54 early-weaned beef steers (median age, 95 days). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups and administered PBSS (group A [control]; n = 11) or 1 of 4 commercially available modified-live virus vaccines that contained antigens against BHV1, BVDV types 1 (BVDV1) and 2 (BVDV2), parainfluenza type 3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (groups B [11], C [10], D [11], and E [11]). Forty-five days after vaccination, calves were exposed simultaneously to 6 cattle persistently infected with BVDV and 8 calves acutely infected with BHV1 for 28 days (challenge exposure). For each calf, serum antibody titers against BVDV and BHV1 were determined before vaccination and before and after challenge exposure. Virus isolation was performed on nasal secretions, serum, and WBCs at predetermined times during the 28-day challenge exposure. None of the calves developed severe clinical disease or died. Mean serum anti-BHV1 antibody titers did not differ significantly among the treatment groups at any time and gradually declined during the study. Mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers appeared to be negatively associated with the incidence of viremia and BVDV shedding. The unvaccinated group (A) had the lowest mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers. The mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers for group D were generally lower than those for groups B, C, and E. Results indicated differences in vaccine efficacy for the prevention of BVDV viremia and shedding in early-weaned beef calves.

  20. Phylodynamic analysis of a viral infection network

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    Teiichiro eShiino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections by sexual and droplet transmission routes typically spread through a complex host-to-host contact network. Clarifying the transmission network and epidemiological parameters affecting the variations and dynamics of a specific pathogen is a major issue in the control of infectious diseases. However, conventional methods such as interview and/or classical phylogenetic analysis of viral gene sequences have inherent limitations and often fail to detect infectious clusters and transmission connections. Recent improvements in computational environments now permit the analysis of large datasets. In addition, novel analytical methods have been developed that serve to infer the evolutionary dynamics of virus genetic diversity using sample date information and sequence data. This type of framework, termed phylodynamics, helps connect some of the missing links on viral transmission networks, which are often hard to detect by conventional methods of epidemiology. With sufficient number of sequences available, one can use this new inference method to estimate theoretical epidemiological parameters such as temporal distributions of the primary infection, fluctuation of the pathogen population size, basic reproductive number, and the mean time span of disease infectiousness. Transmission networks estimated by this framework often have the properties of a scale-free network, which are characteristic of infectious and social communication processes. Network analysis based on phylodynamics has alluded to various suggestions concerning the infection dynamics associated with a given community and/or risk behavior. In this review, I will summarize the current methods available for identifying the transmission network using phylogeny, and present an argument on the possibilities of applying the scale-free properties to these existing frameworks.

  1. Flavonoids: promising natural compounds against viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Arabyan, Erik; Oo, Adrian; Zandi, Keivan

    2017-09-01

    Flavonoids are widely distributed as secondary metabolites produced by plants and play important roles in plant physiology, having a variety of potential biological benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity. Different flavonoids have been investigated for their potential antiviral activities and several of them exhibited significant antiviral properties in in vitro and even in vivo studies. This review summarizes the evidence for antiviral activity of different flavonoids, highlighting, where investigated, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action on viruses. We also present future perspectives on therapeutic applications of flavonoids against viral infections.

  2. Eicosanoids and Respiratory Viral Infection: Coordinators of Inflammation and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K. McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are frequent causes of respiratory infection, and viral respiratory infections are significant causes of hospitalization, morbidity, and sometimes mortality in a variety of patient populations. Lung inflammation induced by infection with common respiratory pathogens such as influenza and respiratory syncytial virus is accompanied by increased lung production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, lipid mediators with a wide range of effects on host immune function. Deficiency or pharmacologic inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene production often results in a dampened inflammatory response to acute infection with a respiratory virus. These mediators may, therefore, serve as appealing therapeutic targets for disease caused by respiratory viral infection.

  3. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) A & B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) A & B - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute, by type) C - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) A & B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) A & B - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  6. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  7. Cardiac Function Remains Impaired Despite Reversible Cardiac Remodeling after Acute Experimental Viral Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Moritz Becher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infection with Coxsackievirus B3 induces myocarditis. We aimed to compare the acute and chronic phases of viral myocarditis to identify the immediate effects of cardiac inflammation as well as the long-term effects after resolved inflammation on cardiac fibrosis and consequently on cardiac function. Material and Methods. We infected C57BL/6J mice with Coxsackievirus B3 and determined the hemodynamic function 7 as well as 28 days after infection. Subsequently, we analyzed viral burden and viral replication in the cardiac tissue as well as the expression of cytokines and matrix proteins. Furthermore, cardiac fibroblasts were infected with virus to investigate if viral infection alone induces profibrotic signaling. Results. Severe cardiac inflammation was determined and cardiac fibrosis was consistently colocalized with inflammation during the acute phase of myocarditis. Declined cardiac inflammation but no significantly improved hemodynamic function was observed 28 days after infection. Interestingly, cardiac fibrosis declined to basal levels as well. Both cardiac inflammation and fibrosis were reversible, whereas the hemodynamic function remains impaired after healed viral myocarditis in C57BL/6J mice.

  8. Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis - United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Danni; Grytdal, Scott; Wasley, Annemarie

    2009-05-22

    In the United States, acute viral hepatitis most frequently is caused by infection with any of three distinct viruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV). These unrelated viruses are transmitted through different routes and have different epidemiologic profiles. Safe and effective vaccines have been available for hepatitis B since 1981 and for hepatitis A since 1995. No vaccine exists against hepatitis C. HBV and HCV can persist as chronic infections and represent a leading cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. Cases in 2007, the most recent year for which data are available, are compared with those from previous years. Cases of acute viral hepatitis are reported voluntarily to CDC by state and territorial health departments via CDC's National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS). Reports are received electronically via CDC's National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS). Acute hepatitis A incidence has declined 92%, from 12.0 cases per 100,000 population in 1995 to 1.0 case per 100,000 population in 2007, the lowest rate ever recorded. Declines were greatest among children and in those states where routine vaccination of children was recommended beginning in 1999. Acute hepatitis B incidence has declined 82%, from 8.5 cases per 100,000 population in 1990 to 1.5 cases per 100,000 population in 2007, the lowest rate ever recorded. Declines occurred among all age groups but were greatest among children aged acute hepatitis C declined; however, since 2003, rates have plateaued. In 2007, as in previous years, the majority of these cases occurred among adults, and injection-drug use was the most common risk factor. The results documented in this report suggest that implementation of the 1999 recommendations for routine childhood hepatitis A vaccination in areas of the United States with consistently elevated hepatitis A rates has reduced rates of

  9. Metagenomic detection of viral pathogens in Spanish honeybees: co-infection by Aphid Lethal Paralysis, Israel Acute Paralysis and Lake Sinai Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Granberg

    Full Text Available The situation in Europe concerning honeybees has in recent years become increasingly aggravated with steady decline in populations and/or catastrophic winter losses. This has largely been attributed to the occurrence of a variety of known and "unknown", emerging novel diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that colonies often can harbour more than one pathogen, making identification of etiological agents with classical methods difficult. By employing an unbiased metagenomic approach, which allows the detection of both unexpected and previously unknown infectious agents, the detection of three viruses, Aphid Lethal Paralysis Virus (ALPV, Israel Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV, and Lake Sinai Virus (LSV, in honeybees from Spain is reported in this article. The existence of a subgroup of ALPV with the ability to infect bees was only recently reported and this is the first identification of such a strain in Europe. Similarly, LSV appear to be a still unclassified group of viruses with unclear impact on colony health and these viruses have not previously been identified outside of the United States. Furthermore, our study also reveals that these bees carried a plant virus, Turnip Ringspot Virus (TuRSV, potentially serving as important vector organisms. Taken together, these results demonstrate the new possibilities opened up by high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic analysis to study emerging new diseases in domestic and wild animal populations, including honeybees.

  10. Parvovirus B19 in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient with Acute Liver Failure: An Underdiagnosed Cause of Acute Non-A-E Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kee Ho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There are occasional pediatric reports of parvovirus B19-associated transient acute hepatitis and hepatic failure. A case of a 34-year-old immunocompetent woman who developed severe and prolonged but self-limited acute hepatitis and myelosuppression following acute parvovirus B19 infection is reported. Parvovirus B19 may be the causative agent in some adult cases of acute non-A-E viral hepatitis and acute liver failure.

  11. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF VIRAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Markovа

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of viral infections, ophthalmologists, pediatricians and general practitioners should all be aware of ocular manifestations of these diseases. According to our observations, despite the presence of corneal disorders, in 95 percent of children changes were reversible and in 1.5 months visual acuity was high. Only in five percent of cases despite the intensive therapy, patients had bacterial complications, causing a decrease in visual acuity.The combined  efforts of infectious disease specialists and ophthalmologists as well as timely and proper treatment are required to reduce the inflammation symptoms and prevent complications. By adding Ophtalmoferon® medication to the complex therapy of ocular surface diseases we observed its high therapeutic efficacy and a good safety profile. This medication is available in the form of ready-to-use eye drops, unlike other antiviral agents, improving  its compliance in outpatients.

  12. [Associated infections in acute bronchopulmonary infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A; Bokovoĭ, A G; Karazhas, N V; Evseeva, L F

    2003-01-01

    A total of 189 children with bacterial complications of the acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)--primarily with pneumonia and bronchitis--were dynamically examined for typical and atypical pneumotropic causative agents of the infection process (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumocystis carini, and Citomegalovirus). A high frequency rate of the associative infection involving mycoplasmas and pneumocysts was registered (45-50%); it was lower in the cases involving Chlamydias, hemophilic bacteria, pneumococcus, and cytomegalovirus--up to 25-30%. No sharp difference was found between the indices of an infection degree and those of an active clinical infectious process involving the same pneumotropic agent: the biggest difference was observed in Chlamydia infections (9.4%) and the lowest one--in mycoplasma infections (3%). A dynamic comparison of different classes of immunoglobulins revealed that, in acute bronchitis and pneumonias, the Chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infections are, primarily, of the persistent nature; the hemophilic and pneumocystic infections are of a mixed nature; and the pneumococcus one is of the acute nature. The Mycoplasma infection, which is more often encountered in pre-school children, is of the primary type with a trend towards a prolonged clinical course. All pneumonias had a typical clinical course; the clinical picture was compared in 128 patients with the etiological factor (including a description of characteristic symptoms).

  13. The laboratory diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis | Spearman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The definitive diagnosis of viral hepatitis depends on the demonstration of the virus or of serological markers of recent infection. The serological tests to establish the aetiology of viral hepatitis vary from laboratory to laboratory. Those commonly performed are discussed here. An algorithm (Fig. 1) is provided as a guide to the ...

  14. CTL Escape and Viral Fitness in HIV/SIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Sayuri; Matano, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses exert a suppressive effect on HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. Under the CTL pressure, viral CTL escape mutations are frequently selected with viral fitness costs. Viruses with such CTL escape mutations often need additional viral genome mutations for recovery of viral fitness. Persistent HIV/SIV infection sometimes shows replacement of a CTL escape mutation with an alternative escape mutation toward higher viral fitness. Thus, multiple viral genome changes under CTL pressure are observed in the chronic phase of HIV/SIV infection. HIV/SIV transmission to HLA/MHC-mismatched hosts drives further viral genome changes including additional CTL escape mutations and reversions under different CTL pressure. Understanding of viral structure/function and host CTL responses would contribute to prediction of HIV evolution and control of HIV prevalence.

  15. The 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) coincides with changes in the epidemiology of other viral pathogens causing acute respiratory tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröndahl, B; Ankermann, T; von Bismarck, P; Rockahr, S; Kowalzik, F; Gehring, S; Meyer, C; Knuf, M; Puppe, W

    2014-04-01

    In Germany, the outbreak of the novel pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus A(H1N1)pdm09 caused a wave of high activity between November 2009 and January 2011. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of 19 respiratory pathogens in children hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infections during the winter influenza seasons of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 and to observe a possible impact of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 on the epidemiology of other epidemic viruses. Specimens were nasopharyngeal aspirates which had been collected from children admitted to the participating hospitals in the area of Mainz, Wiesbaden, and Kiel, Germany, with acute community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. The specimens were subjected to a previously described multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay to detect the following microorganisms: enterovirus, influenza virus types A and B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenzavirus types 1-4, adenovirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), coronavirus OC43 and 229E, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Legionella pneumophila. A total of 3,998 clinical specimens were collected from July 2009 to March 2011, of which 296 were positive for A(H1N1)pdm09. An epidemic of seasonal influenza A or B was not observed in the 2009/2010 season, but a minor epidemic of seasonal influenza B was observed in January/February 2011. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 coincided with the absence of the seasonal influenza A of former years. The RSV and hMPV epidemics of 2009/2010 erupted several weeks later than expected based on data collected in the PID-ARI-Network during the past 10 years, whereas in the 2010/2011 influenza season they occurred as expected. The emergence of the novel influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus may have been influenced the epidemiology of other epidemic viruses, such as the RSV and hMPV. No epidemic of seasonal influenza was

  16. Neuro-intensive care of patients with acute CNS infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Infections in the central nervous system (CNS) are caused by a wide range of microorganisms resulting in distinct clinical syndromes including meningitis, encephalitis, and pyogenic infections, such as empyema and brain abscess. Bacterial and viral infections in the CNS can be rapidly fatal and can result in severe disability in survivors. Appropriate identification and acute management of these infections often occurs in a critical care setting and is vital to improving outcomes in this group of patients. This review of diagnosis and management of acute bacterial and viral infections in the CNS provides a general approach to patients with a suspected CNS infection and also provides a more detailed review of the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected bacterial meningitis, viral encephalitis, brain abscess, and subdural empyema.

  17. Bacterial vs. Viral Infections: How Do They Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the difference between a bacterial infection and a viral infection? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M.D. ... causing your symptoms. Many ailments — such as pneumonia, meningitis and diarrhea — can be caused by either bacteria ...

  18. Effects of cannabinoids and their receptors on viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtan, Alireza; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Rygiel, Tomasz P; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Salimi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoids, the active ingredient in marijuana, and their derivatives have received remarkable attention in the last two decades because they can affect tumor growth and metastasis. There is a large body of evidence from in vivo and in vitro models showing that cannabinoids and their receptors influence the immune system, viral pathogenesis, and viral replication. The present study reviews current insights into the role of cannabinoids and their receptors on viral infections. The results reported here indicate that cannabinoids and their receptors have different sequels for viral infection. Although activation or inhibition of cannabinoid receptors in the majority of viral infections are proper targets for development of safe and effective treatments, caution is required before using pharmaceutical cannabinoids as a treatment agent for patients with viral infections. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Immunological and molecular epidemiological characteristics of acute and fulminant viral hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus is an infection of liver; it is hyperendemic in vast areas of the world including India. In most cases it causes an acute self limited illness but rarely fulminant. There is growing concern about change in pattern from asymptomatic childhood infection to an increased incidence of symptomatic disease in the adult population. Objective In-depth analysis of immunological, viral quantification and genotype of acute and fulminant hepatitis A virus. Methods Serum samples obtained from 1009 cases of suspected acute viral hepatitis was employed for different biochemical and serological examination. RNA was extracted from blood serum, reverse transcribed into cDNA and amplified using nested PCR for viral quantification, sequencing and genotyping. Immunological cell count from freshly collected whole blood was carried out by fluorescence activated cell sorter. Results Fulminant hepatitis A was mostly detected with other hepatic viruses. CD8+ T cells count increases in fulminant hepatitis to a significantly high level (P = 0.005) compared to normal healthy control. The immunological helper/suppressor (CD4+/CD8+) ratio of fulminant hepatitis was significantly lower compared to acute cases. The serologically positive patients were confirmed by RT-PCR and total of 72 (69.2%) were quantified and sequenced. The average quantitative viral load of fulminant cases was significantly higher (P hepatitis A. Phylogenetic analysis of acute and fulminant hepatitis A confirmed genotypes IIIA as predominant against IA with no preference of disease severity. PMID:21605420

  20. Viral coinfection in childhood respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Roig, A; Salvadó, M; Caballero-Rabasco, M A; Sánchez-Buenavida, A; López-Segura, N; Bonet-Alcaina, M

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of molecular techniques has enabled better understanding of the etiology of respiratory tract infections in children. The objective of the study was to analyze viral coinfection and its relationship to clinical severity. Hospitalized pediatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of respiratory infection were studied during the period between 2009-2010. Clinical and epidemiological data, duration of hospitalization, need for oxygen therapy, bacterial coinfection and need for mechanical ventilation were collected. Etiology was studied by multiplex PCR and low-density microarrays for 19 viruses. A total of 385 patients were positive, 44.94% under 12 months. The most frequently detected viruses were RSV-B: 139, rhinovirus: 114, RSV-A: 111, influenza A H1N1-2009: 93 and bocavirus: 77. Coinfection was detected in 61.81%, 36.36% with 2 viruses, 16.10% and 9.35% with 3 to 4 or more. Coinfection was higher in 2009 with 69.79 vs. 53.88% in 2010. Rhinovirus/RSV-B on 10 times and RSV-A/RSV-B on 5 times were the most detected coinfections. Hospitalization decreased with greater number of viruses (Prespiratory disease and its correlation with the clinical severity. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Respiratory viral infections among pediatric inpatients and outpatients in Taiwan from 1997 to 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H P; Kuo, P H; Liu, C C; Wang, J R

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined the association of specific virus infections with acute respiratory tract conditions among hospitalized and outpatient children in a subtropical country. A total of 2,295 virus infections were detected in 6,986 patients between 1997 and 1999, including infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (1.7%), parainfluenza virus (2.0%), influenza B virus (2.6%), adenovirus (4.0%), herpes simplex virus type 1 (4. 4%), influenza A virus (5.5%), and enterovirus (12.7%). There were 61 mixed infections, and no consistent seasonal variation was found. One or more viruses were detected among 24.8% of hospitalized patients and 35.0% of outpatients. The frequencies and profiles of detection of various viruses among in- and outpatients were different. The occurrence of enterovirus infections exceeded that of other viral infections detected in 1998 and 1999 due to outbreaks of enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A10. RSV was the most prevalent virus detected among hospitalized children, whereas influenza virus was the most frequently isolated virus in the outpatient group. Most respiratory viral infections (39.3%) occurred in children between 1 and 3 years old. RSV (P tonsilitis (45.5%). These data expand our understanding of the etiology of acute respiratory tract viral infections among in- and outpatients in a subtropical country and may contribute to the prevention and control of viral respiratory tract infections.

  2. RT-PCR em pools de soros sangüíneos para o diagnóstico da infecção aguda e de animais persistentemente infectados pelo vírus da diarréia viral bovina RT-PCR in pools of bovine blood serum to detect acute infection and persistently infected animals with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pilz

    2007-02-01

    of serum from groups D and H resulted in positive reactions in serum samples from 11 cows and 12 calves. For the identification of persistently infected (PI animals, three months after the first examination, blood serum samples from 23 positive animals were reevaluated by RT-PCR, resulting in five positive calves. In two of these calves the BVDV was isolated in MDBK cell culture. The specificity of RT-PCR amplicons from one cow with acute infection, one PI calf, and two wild type BVDV strains isolated in cell culture were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. The use of RT-PCR in pools of blood sera proved to be a quick and low cost strategy for the etiological diagnosis of the acute infection as well as to detect PI animals thereby favoring the implementation of control and prophylaxis measures.

  3. Massive Hemolysis Causing Renal Failure in Acute Hepatitis E Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Pragya; Malik, Sarthak; Mallick, Bipadabhanjan; Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S

    2016-12-28

    Acute viral hepatitis is usually a self-limiting illness. However, it can lead to complications that can be life-threatening, such as acute liver failure. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the setting of acute viral hepatitis can lead to a massive hemolysis, manifesting as acute kidney injury and markedly raised bilirubin levels; although cases are rare. Here, we report such a case. The patient had a viral hepatitis E infection and presented with kidney injury requiring dialysis. Examination showed very high mixed hyperbilirubinemia due to massive intravascular hemolysis. The patient experienced a long, protracted course of illness, requiring renal replacement therapy with other supportive management, which led to improvement over a period of four weeks. This case highlights the importance of recognizing associated hemolysis in a patient with viral hepatitis who presents with very high bilirubin levels or associated kidney injury. Such patients will require aggressive supportive care with prompt fluid and electrolyte management.

  4. Clinical disease severity of respiratory viral co-infection versus single viral infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Sandra A Asner

    Full Text Available Results from cohort studies evaluating the severity of respiratory viral co-infections are conflicting. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical severity of viral co-infections as compared to single viral respiratory infections.We searched electronic databases and other sources for studies published up to January 28, 2013. We included observational studies on inpatients with respiratory illnesses comparing the clinical severity of viral co-infections to single viral infections as detected by molecular assays. The primary outcome reflecting clinical disease severity was length of hospital stay (LOS. A random-effects model was used to conduct the meta-analyses.Twenty-one studies involving 4,280 patients were included. The overall quality of evidence applying the GRADE approach ranged from moderate for oxygen requirements to low for all other outcomes. No significant differences in length of hospital stay (LOS (mean difference (MD -0.20 days, 95% CI -0.94, 0.53, p = 0.59, or mortality (RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.86, 6.91, p = 0.09 were documented in subjects with viral co-infections compared to those with a single viral infection. There was no evidence for differences in effects across age subgroups in post hoc analyses with the exception of the higher mortality in preschool children (RR 9.82, 95% CI 3.09, 31.20, p<0.001 with viral co-infection as compared to other age groups (I2 for subgroup analysis 64%, p = 0.04.No differences in clinical disease severity between viral co-infections and single respiratory infections were documented. The suggested increased risk of mortality observed amongst children with viral co-infections requires further investigation.

  5. Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    illness in this region and mimic Lassa fever, we tested patient serum samples that were negative for malaria parasites and LASV. Using IgM-capture...ELISAs, we evaluated samples for antibodies to arthropod -borne and other hemorrhagic fever viruses. Approximately 25% of LASV-negative patients had...investigated what other arthropod - borne and hemorrhagic fever viral diseases might be causing serious illness in the region and confounding the

  6. Viral and Bacterial Etiology of Acute Diarrhea among Children under 5 Years of Age in Wuhan, China

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    Xu-Hui Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The etiology of acute diarrhea varies in children of different age groups. The high frequency of infection with viruses suggests the urgent demand for new viral vaccine development. Proper use of antibiotics in the treatment of acute diarrhea is crucial due to the high level of antibiotic resistance.

  7. Acute Systemic Viral Infection Masquerading as an Infiltrating Lymphoma in an Elderly Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Hani M. Babiker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection occurs mainly in adolescents and young adults, with more than 90% of adults having serological evidence of past infection. Primary infection in those over the age of 40 is associated with an atypical and often more severe presentation that can lead to more extensive and invasive, and often unnecessary, diagnostic testing. The incidence of severe EBV-related illness in older adults has been observed to be increasing in industrialized nations. The characteristic presentation of infectious mononucleosis (IM syndrome in elderly patients (age > 65 is not clearly defined in the literature. Here, we describe a case of primary EBV infection in an 80-year-old female and review the literature regarding primary seroconversion in elderly patients.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Respiratory Viral Infections in Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hyun Jung; Park, Dong Won; Kim, Jee Eun; Park, Min Kyung; Koo, Gun Woo; Park, Tai Sun; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Tae Hyung; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Sang-Heon

    2016-10-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lead to high morbidity and mortality. Respiratory virus infection is considered as one of the important causes of COPD exacerbations. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of respiratory virus infection in COPD exacerbations and to find the factors associated with susceptibility to viral infections. Furthermore, we tried to examine if COPD exacerbations caused by viral infections have more severe clinical outcomes in comparison with those with non-viral causes. We enrolled the patients with acute exacerbations of COPD who were hospitalized in a university hospital, over a 2-year period. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken and viruses were identified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. A total of 278 episodes of COPD exacerbations were recorded in 213 patients with COPD (number of females = 73). Among the COPD exacerbations, viral infection was detected in 78 episodes (28.1%) from 67 subjects. The most common virus was rhinovirus (38.8%), followed by respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, influenza A, parainfluenza, adenovirus and metapneumovirus. In multivariate regression analysis adjusting for sex, age, BMI, lung function and history of exacerbations, female subjects were found to be significantly associated with viral infections in COPD exacerbations (Odds ratio 2.58, 95%CI 1.25-5.31, P = 0.010). The severity of COPD exacerbations were not different between positive and negative viral detections. In conclusion, the prevalence of viral infection was 28.1% in the hospitalized patients with COPD exacerbations. Moreover, female subjects are at significantly higher risk for viral infections in COPD exacerbations.

  9. Haematological Parameters in Nigerians with Acute Viral Hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell count (WBC), platelet count, prothrombin Time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time in kaolin (PTTK) were reviewed in 50 patients with acute viral hepatitis at the Gastroenterology and Haematology clinics of the University College Hospital Ibadan compared with controls.

  10. Acute Viral Hepatitis C-Induced Jaundice in Pregnancy

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    Tsung-Ying Hsieh

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion: Mothers and fetuses with acute viral hepatitis C-induced jaundice during pregnancy are at great risk of mortality and morbidity. Timely termination may be one of the choices of treatment when fetal maturity has been reached and the maternal condition has deteriorated.

  11. Invariant NKT cells: regulation and function during viral infection.

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    Jennifer A Juno

    Full Text Available Natural killer T cells (NKT cells represent a subset of T lymphocytes that express natural killer (NK cell surface markers. A subset of NKT cells, termed invariant NKT cells (iNKT, express a highly restricted T cell receptor (TCR and respond to CD1d-restricted lipid ligands. iNKT cells are now appreciated to play an important role in linking innate and adaptive immune responses and have been implicated in infectious disease, allergy, asthma, autoimmunity, and tumor surveillance. Advances in iNKT identification and purification have allowed for the detailed study of iNKT activity in both humans and mice during a variety of chronic and acute infections. Comparison of iNKT function between non-pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infection models and chronic HIV-infected patients implies a role for iNKT activity in controlling immune activation. In vitro studies of influenza infection have revealed novel effector functions of iNKT cells including IL-22 production and modulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, but ex vivo characterization of human iNKT cells during influenza infection are lacking. Similarly, as recent evidence suggests iNKT involvement in dengue virus pathogenesis, iNKT cells may modulate responses to a number of emerging pathogens. This Review will summarize current knowledge of iNKT involvement in responses to viral infections in both human and mouse models and will identify critical gaps in knowledge and opportunities for future study. We will also highlight recent efforts to harness iNKT ligands as vaccine adjuvants capable of improving vaccination-induced cellular immune responses.

  12. Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today's diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarino, Andrea; Boelaert, Johan R; Cassone, Antonio; Majori, Giancarlo; Cauda, Roberto

    2003-11-01

    Chloroquine is a 9-aminoquinoline known since 1934. Apart from its well-known antimalarial effects, the drug has interesting biochemical properties that might be applied against some viral infections. Chloroquine exerts direct antiviral effects, inhibiting pH-dependent steps of the replication of several viruses including members of the flaviviruses, retroviruses, and coronaviruses. Its best-studied effects are those against HIV replication, which are being tested in clinical trials. Moreover, chloroquine has immunomodulatory effects, suppressing the production/release of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6, which mediate the inflammatory complications of several viral diseases. We review the available information on the effects of chloroquine on viral infections, raising the question of whether this old drug may experience a revival in the clinical management of viral diseases such as AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome, which afflict mankind in the era of globalisation.

  13. Respiratory viral infections in infants with clinically suspected pertussis

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    Angela E. Ferronato

    2013-11-01

    Conclusion: the results suggest that viral infection can be present in hospitalized infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis, and etiological tests may enable a reduction in the use of macrolides in some cases. However, the etiological diagnosis of respiratory virus infection, by itself, does not exclude the possibility of infection with BP.

  14. The laboratory diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arbuthnot P, Kew MC, Fitschen W. c-fos and c-myc oncoprotein expression in human hepatocellular carcinomas ... Abelson murine leukemia virus encoded protein present in transformed fibroblasts and lymphoid cells. ... hepatocellular carcinoma from liver cirrhosis with persistent hepatitis S virus infection.lnt J Cancer 1980; ...

  15. Acute liver failure complicating viral hepatitis A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rui Diniz-Santos

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A is one of the most frequent infectious liver diseases affecting children worldwide. The disease is usually mild and self-limited, and complications are very rare. Nevertheless, hepatitis A can sometimes cause acute liver failure (ALF, a severe, life-threatening condition. Herein is reported a case of a child who presented ALF during a course of hepatitis A. The need for early identification of possible ALF cases among hepatitis A patients, and for effective ways of evaluating such a possibility, are discussed. We also emphasize the importance of prevention measures, especially vaccination.

  16. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis After Human Parechovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Patrick E; Karsch, Katharina; Hoppe, Christian; Seeber, Lea; Schneider, Joanna; Mühlhans, Susann; Chen, Xi; Tief, Franziska; Kaindl, Angela M; Weschke, Bernhard; Böttcher, Sindy; Diedrich, Sabine; Rath, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease occurring several weeks after viral infection. Enteroviruses have been described as potential triggers of ADEM, but the closely related parechoviruses have not. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence and disease presentation of ADEM after parechovirus infection in a syndromic surveillance program for pediatric infection/inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). The surveillance was conducted at the Charité Department of Pediatrics in Berlin, Germany, from November 2010 to November 2014. All hospitalized children meeting predefined case criteria underwent highly standardized prospective clinical assessments based on the published case definitions, including for ADEM. Stool samples were independently analyzed by enterovirus and parechovirus real-time polymerase chain reaction at the Robert Koch Institute. Of 105,557 patients screened, 774 (0.7%) fulfilled entry criteria for CNS infection/inflammation, with 114 cases ascertained as ADEM. Parechoviruses were detected in 2.5% of patients with CNS infection/inflammation, including 1 case fulfilling ADEM case criteria with the highest level of diagnostic certainty. We report a first case of ADEM after parechovirus infection in a 5-year-old female presenting with acute hemiparesis 2 weeks after a respiratory illness. Parechovirus disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of ADEM.

  17. Lower respiratory tract viral infections: Diagnostic role of exfoliative cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2017-07-01

    Viral lower respiratory tract infections (VLRTI) remain one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. For many years, the diagnosis of VLRTI was based on laboratory techniques such as viral isolation in cell culture, antigen detection by direct fluorescent antibody staining, and rapid enzyme immunoassay. Radiological imaging and morphology also play an important role in diagnosing these infections. Exfoliative cytology provides a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and valuable means to diagnose and manage VLRTI. Here we review viral-associated cytomorphological changes seen in exfoliated cells of the lower respiratory tract. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:614-620. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Keystone Meeting Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara W. Bird

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Newly observed mechanisms for viral entry, assembly, and exit are challenging our current understanding of the replication cycle of different viruses. To address and better understand these mechanisms, a Keystone Symposium was organized in the snowy mountains of Colorado (“The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Entry, Assembly, Exit, and Spread”; 30 March–4 April 2014, Beaver Run Resort, Breckenridge, Colorado, organized by Karla Kirkegaard, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, and Eric O. Freed. The meeting served to bring together cell biologists, structural biologists, geneticists, and scientists expert in viral pathogenesis to discuss emerging mechanisms of viral ins and outs. The conference was organized around different phases of the viral replication cycle, including cell entry, viral assembly and post-assembly maturation, virus structure, cell exit, and virus spread. This review aims to highlight important topics and themes that emerged during the conference.

  19. Acute viral hepatitis C-induced jaundice in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Ying; Yu, Chen-Hsiang; Kuo, Pao-Lin; Chang, Fong-Ming

    2006-06-01

    Acute viral hepatitis C-induced jaundice in pregnancy is very rare and may be fatal. Here, we report a complicated case with acute hepatitis C-induced jaundice in pregnancy with successful management. A 27-year-old pregnant woman, gravida 2, para 1, with gestational age of 36 weeks and 5 days, was referred to our hospital due to jaundice and elevated liver enzymes of undetermined cause. She had been suffering from general weakness, diarrhea and vomiting for 1 week, and jaundice with tea-colored urine for 3 days. At our medical center, acute viral hepatitis C-induced jaundice was suspected. Since her general condition deteriorated at 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation, we decided to induce labor. A male baby was born smoothly via the vaginal route, with birth weight 2,857 g, birth length 48.6 cm, and 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores of 7 and 9, respectively. Maternal condition improved dramatically after delivery and her serum liver enzymes and bilirubin levels gradually approached normal ranges. Mothers and fetuses with acute viral hepatitis C-induced jaundice during pregnancy are at great risk of mortality and morbidity. Timely termination may be one of the choices of treatment when fetal maturity has been reached and the maternal condition has deteriorated.

  20. Sonographic changes of liver and gallbladder in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Daryani N

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatomegaly, decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and increase in the gallbladder wall thickness has been shown in acute viral hepatitis. The present study was done to determine sonographic changes in acute viral hepatitis. We performed liver and bile ducts sonography and specific tests on 42 patients (mean age: 31.5 and 61% male with acute viral hepatitis. Gallbladder wall thickness was seen in 45.2% and hepatomegaly in 33.3% of patients and liver paranchymal echo was decreased in 19.3%. Age, sex, type of hepatitis, cholecystitis like symptoms, aspartate aminotransfrase, alanine aminotransfrase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin did not significantly corralate with these changes. Only raised prothrombin time was strongly correlated to the thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and cholesistic like symptoms we can postulate that thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo is not dependent on the severity and speed of the paranchymal necrosis (as considered with ALT and AST but they depend on the liver function disturbance (as considered with PT because the thickening of the gall bladder is present in 45% of the patients and 10% of the normal population have gallbladder stones, one should not perform the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, only on the basis of sonographic report without attention to the clinical and laboratory data.

  1. Respiratory viral infections in children with asthma: do they matter and can we prevent them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahanchian Hamid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a major public health problem with a huge social and economic burden affecting 300 million people worldwide. Viral respiratory infections are the major cause of acute asthma exacerbations and may contribute to asthma inception in high risk young children with susceptible genetic background. Acute exacerbations are associated with decreased lung growth or accelerated loss of lung function and, as such, add substantially to both the cost and morbidity associated with asthma. Discussion While the importance of preventing viral infection is well established, preventive strategies have not been well explored. Good personal hygiene, hand-washing and avoidance of cigarette smoke are likely to reduce respiratory viral infections. Eating a healthy balanced diet, active probiotic supplements and bacterial-derived products, such as OM-85, may reduce recurrent infections in susceptible children. There are no practical anti-viral therapies currently available that are suitable for widespread use. Summary Hand hygiene is the best measure to prevent the common cold. A healthy balanced diet, active probiotic supplements and immunostimulant OM-85 may reduce recurrent infections in asthmatic children.

  2. Factors Associated With the Control of Viral Replication and Virologic Breakthrough in a Recently Infected HIV-1 Controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Sperling, Victoria E; Pohlmeyer, Christopher W; Veenhuis, Rebecca T; May, Megan; Luna, Krystle A; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Cox, Andrea L; Carrington, Mary; Bailey, Justin R; Arduino, Roberto C; Blankson, Joel N

    2017-02-01

    HIV-1 controllers are patients who control HIV-1 viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. Control is achieved very early in the course of infection, but the mechanisms through which viral replication is restricted are not fully understood. We describe a patient who presented with acute HIV-1 infection and was found to have an HIV-1 RNA level of HIV-1 infection in some patients without protective HLA alleles and that NK cell responses may contribute to this early control of viral replication. © 2016.

  3. HIV Exploits Antiviral Host Innate GCN2-ATF4 Signaling for Establishing Viral Replication Early in Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guochun; Santos Rocha, Clarissa; Hirao, Lauren A; Mendes, Erica A; Tang, Yuyang; Thompson, George R; Wong, Joseph K; Dandekar, Satya

    2017-05-02

    Antiviral innate host defenses against acute viral infections include suppression of host protein synthesis to restrict viral protein production. Less is known about mechanisms by which viral pathogens subvert host antiviral innate responses for establishing their replication and dissemination. We investigated early innate defense against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and viral evasion by utilizing human CD4 + T cell cultures in vitro and a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model of AIDS in vivo Our data showed that early host innate defense against the viral infection involves GCN2-ATF4 signaling-mediated suppression of global protein synthesis, which is exploited by the virus for supporting its own replication during early viral infection and dissemination in the gut mucosa. Suppression of protein synthesis and induction of protein kinase GCN2-ATF4 signaling were detected in the gut during acute SIV infection. These changes diminished during chronic viral infection. HIV replication induced by serum deprivation in CD4 + T cells was linked to the induction of ATF4 that was recruited to the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) to promote viral transcription. Experimental inhibition of GCN2-ATF4 signaling either by a specific inhibitor or by amino acid supplementation suppressed the induction of HIV expression. Enhancing ATF4 expression through selenium administration resulted in reactivation of latent HIV in vitro as well as ex vivo in the primary CD4 + T cells isolated from patients receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). In summary, HIV/SIV exploits the early host antiviral response through GCN2-ATF4 signaling by utilizing ATF4 for activating the viral LTR transcription to establish initial viral replication and is a potential target for HIV prevention and therapy. IMPORTANCE Understanding how HIV overcomes host antiviral innate defense response in order to establish infection and dissemination is critical for developing prevention and

  4. Type-I Interferon Responses: From Friend to Foe in the Battle against Chronic Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murira, Armstrong; Lamarre, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-I) have long been heralded as key contributors to effective antiviral responses. More widely understood in the context of acute viral infection, the role of this pleiotropic cytokine has been characterized as triggering antiviral states in cells and potentiating adaptive immune responses. Upon induction in the innate immune response, IFN-I triggers the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which upregulate the effector function of immune cells (e.g., dendritic cells, B cells, and T cells) toward successful resolution of infections. However, emerging lines of evidence reveal that viral persistence in the course of chronic infections could be driven by deleterious immunomodulatory effects upon sustained IFN-I expression. In this setting, elevation of IFN-I and ISGs is directly correlated to viral persistence and elevated viral loads. It is important to note that the correlation among IFN-I expression, ISGs, and viral persistence may be a cause or effect of chronic infection and this is an important distinction to make toward establishing the dichotomous nature of IFN-I responses. The aim of this mini review is to (i) summarize the interaction between IFN-I and downstream effector responses and therefore (ii) delineate the function of this cytokine on positive and negative immunoregulation in chronic infection. This is a significant consideration given the current therapeutic administration of IFN-I in chronic viral infections whose therapeutic significance is projected to continue despite emergence of increasingly efficacious antiviral regimens. Furthermore, elucidation of the interplay between virus and the antiviral response in the context of IFN-I will elucidate avenues toward more effective therapeutic and prophylactic measures against chronic viral infections.

  5. Viral infections and malformations of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R T

    1971-02-01

    Experimental viral infections are described which cause malformations of the developing nervous system. These include influenza virus infection of chick embryos causing defects in neural tube closure and flexion, parvovirus infections of rodents and cats resulting in a granuloprival cerebellar malformation, and myxovirus infections of rodents inducing stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius. In each experimental model the pathogenesis of the malformation is different, but in each the resultant noninflammatory malformation bears resemblances to malformations in man considered to have a genetic basis.

  6. Aetiology of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Hospitalised Children in Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Jan; Panayiotou, Christakis; Tryfonos, Christina; Koptides, Dana; Koliou, Maria; Kalogirou, Nikolas; Georgiou, Eleni; Christodoulou, Christina

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve clinical management and prevention of viral infections in hospitalised children improved etiological insight is needed. The aim of the present study was to assess the spectrum of respiratory viral pathogens in children admitted to hospital with acute respiratory tract infections in Cyprus. For this purpose nasopharyngeal swab samples from 424 children less than 12 years of age with acute respiratory tract infections were collected over three epidemic seasons and were analy...

  7. Interval Between Infections and Viral Hierarchy Are Determinants of Viral Interference Following Influenza Virus Infection in a Ferret Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Karen L.; Guarnaccia, Teagan A.; Carolan, Louise A.; Yan, Ada W. C.; Aban, Malet; Petrie, Stephen; Cao, Pengxing; Heffernan, Jane M.; McVernon, Jodie; Mosse, Jennifer; Kelso, Anne; McCaw, James M.; Barr, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Epidemiological studies suggest that, following infection with influenza virus, there is a short period during which a host experiences a lower susceptibility to infection with other influenza viruses. This viral interference appears to be independent of any antigenic similarities between the viruses. We used the ferret model of human influenza to systematically investigate viral interference. Methods. Ferrets were first infected then challenged 1–14 days later with pairs of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, influenza A(H3N2), and influenza B viruses circulating in 2009 and 2010. Results. Viral interference was observed when the interval between initiation of primary infection and subsequent challenge was virus specific and occurred between antigenically related and unrelated viruses. Coinfections occurred when 1 or 3 days separated infections. Ongoing shedding from the primary virus infection was associated with viral interference after the secondary challenge. Conclusions. The interval between infections and the sequential combination of viruses were important determinants of viral interference. The influenza viruses in this study appear to have an ordered hierarchy according to their ability to block or delay infection, which may contribute to the dominance of different viruses often seen in an influenza season. PMID:25943206

  8. CHOLECYSTITIS AS A CAUSE OF ABDOMINAL PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS A AND B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Radunović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder wall, usually caused by gallstones in the cystic duct, which causes attacks of severe pain. At least 95% of the population with acute inflammation of the gallbladder have gallstones. Acute viral hepatitis is the liver inflammation accompanied by nausea, faintness, vomiting, pain below the right rib arch, jaundice. The presence of acute cholecystitis intensifies the existing symptoms. The aim of the paper was to show the incidence of the gallbladder inflammation in patients with acute hepatitis A or B. This retrospective-prospective study involved 110 patients treated for viral hepatitis A or B and had severe abdominal pain during hospitalization. The selected sample involved more male examinees - 63 (62% compared to female ones - 47 (38%. The most frequent age of examinees was 30-50 years, 82 (83%, and cholecystitis during hepatitis was also most common in the age group 30-50 years, 28 (73% patients. Cholecystitis was more common in patients with acute hepatitis B - 21 (55% examinees than in patients with acute hepatitis A - 17 (45% examinees. Ultrasound examination, performed in 24 (63% examinees showed gallstones in inflamed gallbladder, while 14 (37% examinees had the inflammation of the gallbladder without gallstones. The most common cause of severe abdominal pain in patients with acute liver infection caused by HAV and HBV infection was the gallbladder, 38 (34.5% patients. Cholecystitis was more common in patients with acute hepatitis B, 21 (55% examinees, than in those with an acute hepatitis A, 17 (45% examinees.

  9. Вocavirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Krasnova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the data on the most important causative factors of acute gastroenteritis in children and on relatively new pathogens, such as bocavirus (HBoV, considering modern potential for verification of viral disorders. Human HBoV, belonging to Parvoviridae family, has been isolated from nasopharyngeal discharge in children with acute respiratory viral infection in 2005. Later on it was registered as a respiratory pathogen. Despite symptoms of an acute respiratory disease, HBoVinfected patients frequently present with acute gastroenteritis. In various regions of the world, fecal HBoV DNA has been found in children with acute intestinal infection by means of the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent sequencing. Molecular genetic studies showed the presence of 4 genetically different viral types. HBoV genotype 1 is more frequently found in nasopharyngeal smears from children with acute respiratory viral infection, whereas HBoV genotypes 2, 3, and 4 are isolated from feces in those with acute gastroenteritis. If HBoV is an intestinal pathogen, remain an unresolved issue. There is a  high rate of HBoV co-infection (up to 60% and more with other intestinal viruses in children with acute gastroenteritis. High fecal DNA titers found in the studies in children with acute gastroenteritis have shown that HBoV is not only present in the bowel, but also is replicating there. The importance of studies on characteristics of molecular evolution of bocavirus is undoubted, while there are gaps in knowledge on its life cycle, mechanisms of genome replication; there is neither cultivation technique for this virus, nor animal models for disorders it may cause. The assay for anti-HBoV detection in human serum has been studied only in acute respiratory disease; high rates of HBoV seropositive patients and high antibody titers have been found in children correlating with a high viral load. It could be relevant to study prevalence and genetic variance

  10. Redox Imbalance and Viral Infections in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Limongi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are essential molecules for many physiological functions and act as second messengers in a large variety of tissues. An imbalance in the production and elimination of ROS is associated with human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years the notion that neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by chronic viral infections, which may result in an increase of neurodegenerative diseases progression, emerged. It is known in literature that enhanced viral infection risk, observed during neurodegeneration, is partly due to the increase of ROS accumulation in brain cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of viral infection, occurring during the progression of neurodegeneration, remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent knowledge regarding the role of influenza, herpes simplex virus type-1, and retroviruses infection in ROS/RNS-mediated Parkinson’s disease (PD, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS.

  11. Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Hepatitis B: The Dilemma of Differentiation from Acute Viral Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    Exacerbations of chronic hepatitis B are common in endemic countries. Acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB-AE) causing derangement of liver functions may be seen in a flare of HBV in immune clearance phase or as a reactivation of HBV in patients with inactive or resolved HBV infection. While reactivation of HBV is usually seen in HBsAg positive patients, it is being increasingly recognized in patients with apparently resolved HBV infection who do not have HBsAg in serum but have IgG antibody to core antigen (anti-HBc) in the serum, especially so in patients on chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In an icteric patient who is HBsAg positive, it may be difficult to differentiate CHB-AE from acute viral hepatitis B (AVH-B). Both may have similar clinical presentation and even IgM anti-HBc, the traditional diagnostic marker of AVH-B, may also appear at the time of exacerbation of CHB. The differentiation between CHB-AE and AVH-B is important not only for prognostication but also because management strategies are different. Most cases of AVH-B will resolve on their own, HBsAg clearance is achieved spontaneously in 90–95% of adults and treatment is rarely indicated except in the few with severe/fulminant disease. In contrast, in CHB-AE, the onset of jaundice may lead to decompensation of liver disease and treatment is warranted. The mechanisms of acute exacerbation and the differentiating features between AVH-B and CHB-AE are reviewed. PMID:25755518

  12. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model for viral marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Suhaila; Akil, Ku Azlina Ku; Chulan, Majdah; Sharif, Noorzila

    2017-11-01

    Viral marketing is a marketing strategy utilizes social media to spread information about a product or services provided. It is the most powerful way to share information in a short amount of time. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic of viral marketing within a time duration in the point of view of mathematics. This study used the epidemiological model known as Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR). The model consists of a system of three differential equations with three state variables namely susceptible (S), infected (I) and recovered (R). It considers a case of SIR model with demography. Numerical experiments have been performed. The results show that viral marketing reaches its peak within two days. The online messages shared will become higher if the initial number of the infected individual has been increased.

  13. Neutrophil subset responses in infants with severe viral respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortjens, Bart; Ingelse, Sarah A; Calis, Job C; Vlaar, Alexander P; Koenderman, Leo; Bem, Reinout A; van Woensel, Job B

    2017-03-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells recruited to the respiratory tract as part of the innate immune response to viral infections. Recent reports indicate the existence of distinct functional neutrophil subsets in the circulatory compartment of adults, following severe inflammatory conditions. Here, we evaluated the occurrence of neutrophil subsets in blood and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during severe viral respiratory infection in infants based on CD16/CD62L expression. We show that during the course of severe respiratory infection infants may develop four heterogeneous neutrophil subsets in blood (mature, immature, progenitor, and suppressive neutrophils), each with distinct activation states. However, while isolated viral respiratory infection was characterized by a relative absence of suppressive neutrophils in both blood and lungs, only patients with bacterial co-infection were shown to produce suppressive neutrophils. These data suggest the occurrence of distinct and unique neutrophil subset responses during severe viral and (secondary) bacterial respiratory infection in infants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. NK cell subset redistribution during the course of viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico eLugli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are important effectors of innate immunity that play a critical role in the control of human viral infections. Indeed, given their capability to directly recognize virally infected cells without the need of specific antigen presentation, NK cells are on the first line of defense against these invading pathogens. By establishing cellular networks with a variety of cell types such as dendritic cells, NK cells can also amplify anti-viral adaptive immune responses. In turn, viruses evolved and developed several mechanisms to evade NK cell-mediated immune activity. It has been reported that certain viral diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 as well as cytomegalovirus (CMV infections, are associated with a pathologic redistribution of NK cell subsets in the peripheral blood. In particular, it has been observed the expansion of unconventional CD56neg NK cells, whose effector functions are significantly impaired as compared to that of conventional CD56pos NK cells. In this review, we address the impact of chronic viral infections on the functional and phenotypic perturbations of human NK cell compartment.

  15. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Viral Infections and Acyclovir: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amy P.

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections have high morbidity and mortality rates. Optimization of treatment and prevention strategies are imperative to improve the care and outcomes of neonates infected with HSV. Management of HSV includes reducing neonatal transmission, treating acute infections, and limiting adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and future cutaneous outbreaks after acute infections. Transmission risk may be affected by route of delivery and maternal suppressive therapy. Neonatal HSV infections are divided into 3 categories: localized skin, eyes, or mouth; localized central nervous system; or disseminated infections. Parenteral acyclovir, the pharmacologic agent of choice, is used when treating each type of infection. However, dosage strategies and durations of therapy may vary based on disease state severity, presentation, and patient characteristics. Oral acyclovir may be used as suppressive therapy after acute treatment completion in specific neonatal populations, reducing long-term adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and future skin eruptions. The mortality rate remains high even with treatment. PMID:28469532

  16. Perinatal HIV-infection in Sankt Petersburg and Modern Therapy Concomitant Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Timchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included 338 HIV-infected children (B-23 and 350 children with perinatal contact HIV infection (R-75, consisting on the dispensary in the department of maternal and child the St. Petersburg City AIDS Center. In 32 persons (9.5% diagnosed with secondary infections. In the structure of viral opportunistic infections (herpesvirus, SARS amounted to 39.8%, bacterial (bronchitis, tonsillitis, pyoderma, tuberculosis — 34.8%, fungal and parasitic (candidiasis of the oral mucosa, PCP — 25.4 %. Combined therapy (causal, pathogenetic, symptomatic SARS in children with B-23 and R-75, allows you to get in early (6th d. Treatment regress the main symptoms of acute respiratory diseases. Modern therapy of congenital cytomegalovirus infection (VTSMI in children with B-23 and R-75 of the first year of life with antitsitomegalovirusnogo immunoglobulin and preparation of human recombinant interferon alfa-2b in the form of rectal suppositories — VIFERON, causes persistent normalization of clinical and laboratory parameters.

  17. Viral infections as controlling factors for the deep biosphere? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, B.; Engelhardt, T.; Sahlberg, M.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere represents the largest biotope on Earth. Throughout the last years, we have obtained interesting insights into its microbial community composition. However, one component that was completely overlooked so far is the viral inventory of deep-subsurface sediments. While viral infections were identified to have a major impact on the benthic microflora of deep-sea surface sediments (Danavaro et al. 2008), no studies were performed on deep-biosphere samples, so far. As grazers probably play only a minor role in anoxic and highly compressed deep sediments, viruses might be the main “predators” for indigenous microorganisms. Furthermore, the release of cell components, called “the viral shunt”, could have a major impact on the deep biosphere in providing labile organic compounds to non-infected microorganisms in these generally nutrient depleted sediments. However, direct counting of viruses in sediments is highly challenging due to the small size of viruses and the high background of small particles. Even molecular surveys using “universal” PCR primers that target phage-specific genes fail due to the vast phage diversity. One solution for this problem is the lysogenic viral life cycle as many bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the host genome. It is estimated that up to 70% of cultivated bacteria contain prophages within their genome. Therefore, culture collections (Batzke et al. 2007) represent an archive of the viral composition within the respective habitat. These prophages can be induced to become free phage particles in stimulation experiments in which the host cells are set under certain stress situations such as a treatment with UV exposure or DNA-damaging antibiotics. The study of the viral component within the deep biosphere offers to answer the following questions: To which extent are deep-biosphere populations controlled by viral infections? What is the inter- and intra-specific diversity and the host-specific viral

  18. Acute respiratory infections in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Hana; Dallas, Ronald; Zhou, Yinmei; Pei, Dequing; Cheng, Cheng; Flynn, Patricia M; Pui, Ching-Hon; Jeha, Sima

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge regarding the incidence, clinical course, and impact of respiratory viral infections in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is limited. A retrospective cohort of patients with newly diagnosed ALL who were treated on the Total Therapy XVI protocol at St Jude Children's Research Hospital between 2007 and 2011 was evaluated. Of 223 children, 95 (43%) developed 133 episodes of viral acute respiratory illness (ARI) (incidence, 1.1 per 1000 patient-days). ARI without viral etiology was identified in 65 patients (29%) and no ARI was detected in 63 patients (28%). There were no significant associations noted between race, sex, age, or ALL risk group and the development of ARI. Children receiving induction chemotherapy were found to be at the highest risk of viral ARI (incidence, 2.3 per 1000 patient-days). Influenza virus was the most common virus (38%) followed by respiratory syncytial virus (33%). Of 133 episodes of viral ARI, 61% of patients were hospitalized, 26% experienced a complicated course, 80% had their chemotherapy delayed, and 0.7% of patients died. Twenty-four patients (18%) developed viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), 5 of whom (21%) had complications. Patients with viral LRTI had a significantly lower nadir absolute lymphocyte count; were sicker at the time of presentation; and were more likely to have respiratory syncytial virus, to be hospitalized, and to have their chemotherapy delayed for longer compared with those with viral upper respiratory tract infections. Despite the low incidence of viral ARI in children with ALL, the associated morbidity, mortality, and delay in chemotherapy remain clinically significant. Viral LRTI was especially associated with high morbidity requiring intensive care-level support. Cancer 2016;122:798-805. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  19. SYMPTOMATIC THERAPY OF COUGH DURING SEASONAL INCREASE OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS PREVALENCE

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Volkov; L. S. Namazova-Baranova; N. I. Voznesenskaya; V. A. Barannik; K. E. Efendieva

    2014-01-01

    Cough is the main symptom of the respiratory tract disorders. Mostly it occurs in viral, bacterial and mixed (viral and bacterial) respiratory tract infections. The highest rates of respiratory tract infections are among children: it is known that children have respiratory tract infections 3–4 times as much as adults. Available drugs used in acute respiratory tract infections are numerous and various and cover almost all methods of influence on the infectious process. Nowadays the problem of ...

  20. FEVER IN CHILDREN WITH RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTIONS: EFFECTIVE AND SAFE METHODS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Taranushenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important — the problem of treatment of fever in children with respiratory viral infections — is discussed in this article. It is fever as one of the first symptoms of disease which often frightens parents and leads to inappropriate and excess usage of antipyretic agents, which in its turn can cause unfavorable consequences. The authors represent their own data on frequency of antipyretic drugs usage in children with respiratory viral infections, as well as the answers of pediatricians to the questionnaires on methods of choice in temperature normalization. According to the modern Russian as well as European and American clinical guidelines on treatment of fever in children the management of selection of patients demanding antipyretic treatment is detailed, indications and contraindications to such therapy are described, the most effective methods of temperature normalization in children with acute respiratory infection are discussed. The authors suggested the data on recommended dosages of paracetamol, which were revised in 2011 by the UK Medicines Control Agency, to be very useful. The current information on advantages of ibuprofen in comparison to paracetamol in treatment of fever in children with respiratory viral infections is shown. The main target of this article is understanding and acceptance by pediatricians of the modern recommendation on differential and reasonable approach to administration of antipyretic drugs in children with respiratory viral infections.

  1. Mechanism of Neurodegeneration Following Viral Infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maheshwari, Radha

    2001-01-01

    The long term goal of this proposal is to delineate the mechanism(s) for neurodegeneration and neuropathogenesis following infection with a neurovirulent virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE...

  2. Viral infections in allergy and immunology: How allergic inflammation influences viral infections and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael R; Strong, Katherine; Cameron, Aoife; Walton, Ross P; Jackson, David J; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2017-10-01

    Viral respiratory tract infections are associated with asthma inception in early life and asthma exacerbations in older children and adults. Although how viruses influence asthma inception is poorly understood, much research has focused on the host response to respiratory viruses and how viruses can promote; or how the host response is affected by subsequent allergen sensitization and exposure. This review focuses on the innate interferon-mediated host response to respiratory viruses and discusses and summarizes the available evidence that this response is impaired or suboptimal. In addition, the ability of respiratory viruses to act in a synergistic or additive manner with TH2 pathways will be discussed. In this review we argue that these 2 outcomes are likely linked and discuss the available evidence that shows reciprocal negative regulation between innate interferons and TH2 mediators. With the renewed interest in anti-TH2 biologics, we propose a rationale for why they are particularly successful in controlling asthma exacerbations and suggest ways in which future clinical studies could be used to find direct evidence for this hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of viral infections on hematopoiesis: From beneficial to detrimental effects on bone marrow output.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Pascutti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the bone marrow (BM to generate the copious amounts of blood cells required on a daily basis depends on a highly orchestrated process of proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs. This process can be rapidly adapted under stress conditions, such as infections, to meet the specific cellular needs of the immune response and the ensuing physiological changes. This requires a tight regulation in order to prevent either hematopoietic failure or transformation. Although adaptation to bacterial infections or systemic inflammation has been studied and reviewed in depth, specific alterations of hematopoiesis to viral infections have received less attention thus far. Viruses constantly pose a significant health risk and demand an adequate, balanced response from our immune system, which also affects the BM. In fact, both the virus itself and the ensuing immune response can have a tremendous impact on the hematopoietic process. On one hand, this can be beneficial: it helps to boost the cellular response of the body to resolve the viral infection. But on the other hand, when the virus and the resulting anti-viral response persist, the inflammatory feedback to the hematopoietic system will become chronic, which can be detrimental for a balanced BM output. Chronic viral infections frequently have clinical manifestations at the level of blood cell formation and we summarize which viruses can lead to BM pathologies, like aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH, lymphoproliferative disorders and malignancies. Regarding the underlying mechanisms, we address specific effects of acute and chronic viral infections on blood cell production. As such, we distinguish four different levels in which this can occur: 1. direct viral infection of HSPCs, 2. viral recognition by HSPCs, 3. indirect effects on HSPCs by inflammatory mediators and 4. the role of the BM microenvironment on

  4. Post encephalitic parkinsonism following dengue viral infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bopeththa, B. V. K. M.; Ralapanawa, U.

    2017-01-01

    Background Incidence of dengue fever as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever is increasing in Sri Lanka especially among elderly population. As the number of cases is rising, rare complications of dengue illness also can be seen in clinical practice when compared to the past few years. Prompt identification and treatment of such complications is challenging due to lack of awareness and unavailability of standard treatment. Case presentation 69 years old man presented with acute onset fever and wa...

  5. The Incubation Period of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Viral Dynamics and Immunologic Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Dunmire

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a human herpesvirus that causes acute infectious mononucleosis and is associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. While many studies have been performed examining acute disease in adults following primary infection, little is known about the virological and immunological events during EBV's lengthy 6 week incubation period owing to the challenge of collecting samples from this stage of infection. We conducted a prospective study in college students with special emphasis on frequent screening to capture blood and oral wash samples during the incubation period. Here we describe the viral dissemination and immune response in the 6 weeks prior to onset of acute infectious mononucleosis symptoms. While virus is presumed to be present in the oral cavity from time of transmission, we did not detect viral genomes in the oral wash until one week before symptom onset, at which time viral genomes were present in high copy numbers, suggesting loss of initial viral replication control. In contrast, using a sensitive nested PCR method, we detected viral genomes at low levels in blood about 3 weeks before symptoms. However, high levels of EBV in the blood were only observed close to symptom onset-coincident with or just after increased viral detection in the oral cavity. These data imply that B cells are the major reservoir of virus in the oral cavity prior to infectious mononucleosis. The early presence of viral genomes in the blood, even at low levels, correlated with a striking decrease in the number of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells well before symptom onset, which remained depressed throughout convalescence. On the other hand, natural killer cells expanded only after symptom onset. Likewise, CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells decreased two fold, but only after symptom onset. We observed no substantial virus specific CD8 T cell expansion during the incubation period, although polyclonal CD8 activation was detected in

  6. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  7. MODERN POSSIBILITIES AND PRINCIPLES OF RATIONAL TREATMENT OF INFLUENZA AND OTHER ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Zaplatnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern possibilities and principles of rational treatment of influenza and other acute respiratory infection in children are demonstrated in this article. Epidemiology and etiology characteristics of acute respiratory infections during the period of seasonal morbidity of 2012–2013 and early period of 2013–2014 epidemic season are analyzed. The issues of safe and effective use of various etiotropic and symptomatic agents in influenza and acute respiratory viral infections of non-influenza etiology in children are discussed.

  8. MODERN POSSIBILITIES AND PRINCIPLES OF RATIONAL TREATMENT OF INFLUENZA AND OTHER ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    A. L. Zaplatnikov; E. I. Burtseva; A. A. Girina; N. V. Koroid; E. A. Garina

    2014-01-01

    Modern possibilities and principles of rational treatment of influenza and other acute respiratory infection in children are demonstrated in this article. Epidemiology and etiology characteristics of acute respiratory infections during the period of seasonal morbidity of 2012–2013 and early period of 2013–2014 epidemic season are analyzed. The issues of safe and effective use of various etiotropic and symptomatic agents in influenza and acute respiratory viral infections of non-influenza etio...

  9. viral infections of the central nervous system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, can restore this pathway. Shyam Biswal at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, and colleagues, exposed defective macrophages from the lungs of 43 people with COPD to two bacterial strains that are common causes of COPD-associated infections. In the presence of.

  10. HIV infection and treatment: beyond viral control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger, Herman

    2017-01-01

    Since 1996, Infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) can be successfully treated with a combination therapy of 3 antiviral drugs from 2 different classes. Life expectancy has increased dramatically by this treatment. Especially in the early years these combination therapies had many

  11. Current approaches on viral infection: proteomics and functional validations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eZheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Viruses could manipulate cellular machinery to ensure their continuous survival and thus become parasites of living organisms. Delineation of sophisticated host responses upon virus infection is a challenging task. It lies in identifying the repertoire of host factors actively involved in the viral infectious cycle and characterizing host responses qualitatively and quantitatively during viral pathogenesis. Mass spectrometry based proteomics could be used to efficiently study pathogen-host interactions and virus-hijacked cellular signaling pathways. Moreover, direct host and viral responses upon infection could be further investigated by activity based functional validation studies. These approaches involve drug inhibition of secretory pathway, immunofluorescence staining, dominant negative mutation of protein target, real time PCR, small interfering siRNA-mediated knockdown, and molecular cloning studies. In this way, functional validation could gain novel insights into the high-content proteomic dataset in an unbiased and comprehensive way.

  12. Hepatic transcriptome analysis of hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees defines unique gene expression patterns associated with viral clearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Nanda

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus infection leads to a high rate of chronicity. Mechanisms of viral clearance and persistence are still poorly understood. In this study, hepatic gene expression analysis was performed to identify any molecular signature associated with the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in chimpanzees. Acutely HCV-infected chimpanzees with self-limited infection or progression to chronicity were studied. Interferon stimulated genes were induced irrespective of the outcome of infection. Early induction of a set of genes associated with cell proliferation and immune activation was associated with subsequent viral clearance. Specifically, two of the genes: interleukin binding factor 3 (ILF3 and cytotoxic granule-associated RNA binding protein (TIA1, associated with robust T-cell response, were highly induced early in chimpanzees with self-limited infection. Up-regulation of genes associated with CD8+ T cell response was evident only during the clearance phase of the acute self-limited infection. The induction of these genes may represent an initial response of cellular injury and proliferation that successfully translates to a "danger signal" leading to induction of adaptive immunity to control viral infection. This primary difference in hepatic gene expression between self-limited and chronic infections supports the concept that successful activation of HCV-specific T-cell response is critical in clearance of acute HCV infection.

  13. Viral infections as potential triggers of type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Nienke; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Rozing, Jan; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    During the last decades, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has increased significantly, reaching percentages of 3% annually worldwide. This increase suggests that besides genetical factors environmental perturbations (including viral infections) are also involved in the pathogenesis of T1D. T1D

  14. Viral infections among couples for assisted reproduction in a fertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-28

    Sep 28, 2012 ... Aims: To assess the burden of viral infection among couples that present for assisted reproductive technology (ART) with a view to evaluating implications for their care. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among 138 couples at a private fertility clinic in. Nigeria. Materials and ...

  15. Viral dynamics of HIV-1 infection | Martin | Southern African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Viral dynamics of HIV-1 infection. D Martin ...

  16. A simulation framework to investigate in vitro viral infection dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bankhead, A.; Mancini, E.; Sims, A.C.; Baric, R.S.; McWeeney, S.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Virus infection is a complex biological phenomenon for which in vitro experiments provide a uniquely concise view where data is often obtained from a single population of cells, under controlled environmental conditions. Nonetheless, data interpretation and real understanding of viral dynamics is

  17. Quantum virology : improved management of viral infections through quantitative measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalpoe, Jaijant Satishkumar

    2007-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of PCR has strongly supported the increased diagnostic use of nucleic acid detection assays in clinical virology. Particularly the improvements in the ability to quantify target nucleic acid sequences offer new opportunities in the management of viral infections. Real-time PCR

  18. Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2013-01-01

    The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately...

  19. Prevalence and incidence of bloodborne viral infections among Danish prisoners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, P B; Krarup, H B; Niesters, H G; Norder, H; Georgsen, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and incidence of bloodborne viral infections among prisoners, we conducted a prospective study in a Danish medium security prison for males. The prisoners were offered an interview and blood test for hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus HIV at inclusion as

  20. Nasopharyngeal Protein Biomarkers of Acute Respiratory Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Burke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of respiratory mucosa with viral pathogens triggers complex immunologic events in the affected host. We sought to characterize this response through proteomic analysis of nasopharyngeal lavage in human subjects experimentally challenged with influenza A/H3N2 or human rhinovirus, and to develop targeted assays measuring peptides involved in this host response allowing classification of acute respiratory virus infection. Unbiased proteomic discovery analysis identified 3285 peptides corresponding to 438 unique proteins, and revealed that infection with H3N2 induces significant alterations in protein expression. These include proteins involved in acute inflammatory response, innate immune response, and the complement cascade. These data provide insights into the nature of the biological response to viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, and the proteins that are dysregulated by viral infection form the basis of signature that accurately classifies the infected state. Verification of this signature using targeted mass spectrometry in independent cohorts of subjects challenged with influenza or rhinovirus demonstrates that it performs with high accuracy (0.8623 AUROC, 75% TPR, 97.46% TNR. With further development as a clinical diagnostic, this signature may have utility in rapid screening for emerging infections, avoidance of inappropriate antibacterial therapy, and more rapid implementation of appropriate therapeutic and public health strategies.

  1. Prevalence of viral aetiologies in children with acute respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under five years in developing countries. Viruses have been long established to be causes of ARIs, but there is little information in developing countries especially Africa. This cross-sectional study was carried out ...

  2. Viral Infections of Toronto Children During 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D. M.; Coleman, Marjorie A.; Larke, R. P. B.; McNaughton, G. A.

    1966-01-01

    Enteroviruses were isolated from feces and/or cerebrospinal fluid of 29 of 43 Toronto children who contracted aseptic meningitis, pleurodynia, abdominal pain or febrile upsets between June and October, 1965. Coxsackie A9 virus was the dominant agent in aseptic meningitis and Coxsackie B1 virus in pleurodynia and other syndromes. Sero-logical evidence of recent Coxsackie B1 and Echo 6 infection was obtained in two additional patients with aseptic meningitis who did not yield virus, and elevated Coxsackie B1 antibody titres were found in one patient with pericarditis. A newborn infant died with myocarditis due to Coxsackie B1 virus following infection of the mother during the immediate antenatal period. Paired sera collected only two to four days apart from patients with enteroviral syndromes or mumps meningoencephalitis frequently showed four-fold or greater increases of antibody levels. PMID:5932085

  3. Viral bacterial co-infection of the respiratory tract during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brealey, Jaelle C; Sly, Peter D; Young, Paul R; Chappell, Keith J

    2015-05-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is an important cause of morbidity in children. Mixed aetiology is frequent, with pathogenic viruses and bacteria co-detected in respiratory secretions. However, the clinical significance of these viral/bacterial co-infections has long been a controversial topic. While severe bacterial pneumonia following influenza infection has been well described, associations are less clear among infections caused by viruses that are more common in young children, such as respiratory syncytial virus. Although assessing the overall contribution of bacteria to disease severity is complicated by the presence of many confounding factors in clinical studies, understanding the role of viral/bacterial co-infections in defining the outcome of paediatric ARI will potentially reveal novel treatment and prevention strategies, improving patient outcomes. This review summarizes current evidence for the clinical significance of respiratory viral/bacterial co-infections in young children, discusses possible mechanisms of cooperative interaction between these pathogens and highlights areas that require further investigation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Pericardial Tamponade in an Adult Suffering from Acute Mumps Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Kahlfuss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensive vaccination regimens in western civilizations, our case highlights mumps as an important differential diagnosis also in adults, where the virus can induce life-threatening complications such as pericardial tamponade.

  5. Robust classification of bacterial and viral infections via integrated host gene expression diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Timothy E; Wong, Hector R; Khatri, Purvesh

    2016-07-06

    Improved diagnostics for acute infections could decrease morbidity and mortality by increasing early antibiotics for patients with bacterial infections and reducing unnecessary antibiotics for patients without bacterial infections. Several groups have used gene expression microarrays to build classifiers for acute infections, but these have been hampered by the size of the gene sets, use of overfit models, or lack of independent validation. We used multicohort analysis to derive a set of seven genes for robust discrimination of bacterial and viral infections, which we then validated in 30 independent cohorts. We next used our previously published 11-gene Sepsis MetaScore together with the new bacterial/viral classifier to build an integrated antibiotics decision model. In a pooled analysis of 1057 samples from 20 cohorts (excluding infants), the integrated antibiotics decision model had a sensitivity and specificity for bacterial infections of 94.0 and 59.8%, respectively (negative likelihood ratio, 0.10). Prospective clinical validation will be needed before these findings are implemented for patient care. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. [Pulmonary blood flow distribution in acute viral bronchiolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo R A; Cunha, Renato D; Barreto, Sérgio S Menna

    2002-01-01

    To assess lung perfusion patterns in inpatients with acute viral bronchiolitis using quantitative 99mTc-MAA scintigraphy so as to establish an association with clinical and radiological findings. A comparative, prospective case series study with a focus on diagnosis was carried out in a population of patients with acute viral bronchiolitis admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Inclusion criteria were age between 1 and 24 months and first sudden-onset wheezing episode, suggesting bronchiolitis. The patients in the study were submitted to clinical, radiological and 99mTc-MAA lung perfusion evaluation during the first 24 hours of admission. Statistical analysis employed t test, taking into consideration a significance level of 0.05. The regional distribution of lung blood flow in the 38 patients studied was more pronounced in the upper section of the left lung in relation to the right lung (P1.0 in the upper and middle sections of both lungs. In the lower section it was >1.0 only in the right lung (Pbronchiolitis; only a tendency to redirect lung blood flow towards upper lung sections was observed.

  7. Current treatment for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2003-08-01

    This paper provides an update and critical review of available data on the treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis in previously healthy infants, with special focus on new or promising therapies. The main potential benefits of medical assistance in these patients reside in the careful monitoring of their clinical status, the maintenance of adequate hydration and oxygenation, the preservation of the airway opened and cleared of secretions and the option to perform parental education. There is no convincing evidence that any other form of therapy will reliably provide beneficial effects in infants with bronchiolitis and currently, any treatment beyond supportive care should be prescribed on a case-by-case basis with watchful appraisal of its effects. Therapies such as ribavirin, IFN, vitamin A, antibiotics, mist therapy or anticholinergics, have not demonstrated any measurable clinical effect. Several studies and meta-analyses with beta(2)-agonists and corticosteroids have failed to show any benefit of significant extent, however, physicians keep favouring their use. Presently, adrenaline has received rather consistent support from clinical trials but it is not yet widely prescribed. There are other therapeutic strategies, for instance, heliox, hypertonic saline, noninvasive ventilation, physical therapy techniques, thickened feeds or palivizumab that have shown promising potential benefits, but evidence supporting its use is still limited and further studies should be warranted. In the meantime, infants with acute viral bronchiolitis should be treated following evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, keeping the patient central in the process and being sensitive to social, cultural and familiar influences on their treatment strategy.

  8. Lymphatic Vessels Balance Viral Dissemination and Immune Activation following Cutaneous Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Christopher P; Nelson, Nicholas A; Lane, Ryan S; Booth, Jamie L; Loprinzi Hardin, Sofia C; Thomas, Archana; Slifka, Mark K; Nolz, Jeffrey C; Lund, Amanda W

    2017-09-26

    Lymphatic vessels lie at the interface between peripheral sites of pathogen entry, adaptive immunity, and the systemic host. Though the paradigm is that their open structure allows for passive flow of infectious particles from peripheral tissues to lymphoid organs, virus applied to skin by scarification does not spread to draining lymph nodes. Using cutaneous infection by scarification, we analyzed the effect of viral infection on lymphatic transport and evaluated its role at the host-pathogen interface. We found that, in the absence of lymphatic vessels, canonical lymph-node-dependent immune induction was impaired, resulting in exacerbated pathology and compensatory, systemic priming. Furthermore, lymphatic vessels decouple fluid and cellular transport in an interferon-dependent manner, leading to viral sequestration while maintaining dendritic cell transport for immune induction. In conclusion, we found that lymphatic vessels balance immune activation and viral dissemination and act as an "innate-like" component of tissue host viral defense. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coxsackie viral infection and orofacial cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnarova, A; Petrovicova, A; Fedeles, J; Bopegamage, S; Horakova, E

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of orofacial cleft (OC) in newborns was compared with the occurrence of virus-neutralizing antibodies to coxsackie viruses in the serum of newborns and their mothers. No significant difference was found when comparing the seropositivity rates between the group of patients and the control group of healthy newborns. If the patients were divided according to the place of residence however, marked differences occurred between the regions. The lowest incidence of both--coxsackie infection and OC was determined in the region of Bratislava and the highest in the region of Zilina. The explanation of these findings recquires a more detailed analysis of genetic background, social and hygienic status, style of life and other factors, known to influence the development of OC as multi-etiological developmental disorder. (Tab. 2, Fig. 4, Ref. 12.).

  10. A Bioorthogonal Chemical Reporter of Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Anne B; Pernot, Lucile; Schreier, Verena N; Scapozza, Leonardo; Luedtke, Nathan W

    2015-06-26

    Pathogen-selective labeling was achieved by using the novel gemcitabine metabolite analogue 2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluoro-5-ethynyluridine (dF-EdU) and click chemistry. Cells infected with Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1), but not uninfected cells, exhibit nuclear staining upon the addition of dF-EdU and a fluorescent azide. The incorporation of the dF-EdU into DNA depends on its phosphorylation by a herpes virus thymidine kinase (TK). Crystallographic analyses revealed how dF-EdU is well accommodated in the active site of HSV-1 TK, but steric clashes prevent dF-EdU from binding human TK. These results provide the first example of pathogen-enzyme-dependent incorporation and labeling of bioorthogonal functional groups in human cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Plasma Viral miRNAs Indicate a High Prevalence of Occult Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Fuentes-Mattei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8 varies greatly in different populations. We hypothesized that the actual prevalence of KSHV/HHV8 infection in humans is underestimated by the currently available serological tests. We analyzed four independent patient cohorts with post-surgical or post-chemotherapy sepsis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and post-surgical patients with abdominal surgical interventions. Levels of specific KSHV-encoded miRNAs were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, and KSHV/HHV-8 IgG were measured by immunoassay. We also measured specific miRNAs from Epstein Barr Virus (EBV, a virus closely related to KSHV/HHV-8, and determined the EBV serological status by ELISA for Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1 IgG. Finally, we identified the viral miRNAs by in situ hybridization (ISH in bone marrow cells. In training/validation settings using independent multi-institutional cohorts of 300 plasma samples, we identified in 78.50% of the samples detectable expression of at least one of the three tested KSHV-miRNAs by RT-qPCR, while only 27.57% of samples were found to be seropositive for KSHV/HHV-8 IgG (P < 0.001. The prevalence of KSHV infection based on miRNAs qPCR is significantly higher than the prevalence determined by seropositivity, and this is more obvious for immuno-depressed patients. Plasma viral miRNAs quantification proved that EBV infection is ubiquitous. Measurement of viral miRNAs by qPCR has the potential to become the “gold” standard method to detect certain viral infections in clinical practice.

  12. Plasma Viral miRNAs Indicate a High Prevalence of Occult Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Giza, Dana Elena; Shimizu, Masayoshi; Ivan, Cristina; Manning, John T; Tudor, Stefan; Ciccone, Maria; Kargin, Osman Aykan; Zhang, Xinna; Mur, Pilar; do Amaral, Nayra Soares; Chen, Meng; Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Lupu, Florea; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J; Vasilescu, Catalin; Yeung, Sai-Ching Jim; Calin, George A

    2017-06-01

    Prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) varies greatly in different populations. We hypothesized that the actual prevalence of KSHV/HHV8 infection in humans is underestimated by the currently available serological tests. We analyzed four independent patient cohorts with post-surgical or post-chemotherapy sepsis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and post-surgical patients with abdominal surgical interventions. Levels of specific KSHV-encoded miRNAs were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and KSHV/HHV-8 IgG were measured by immunoassay. We also measured specific miRNAs from Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), a virus closely related to KSHV/HHV-8, and determined the EBV serological status by ELISA for Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) IgG. Finally, we identified the viral miRNAs by in situ hybridization (ISH) in bone marrow cells. In training/validation settings using independent multi-institutional cohorts of 300 plasma samples, we identified in 78.50% of the samples detectable expression of at least one of the three tested KSHV-miRNAs by RT-qPCR, while only 27.57% of samples were found to be seropositive for KSHV/HHV-8 IgG (P<0.001). The prevalence of KSHV infection based on miRNAs qPCR is significantly higher than the prevalence determined by seropositivity, and this is more obvious for immuno-depressed patients. Plasma viral miRNAs quantification proved that EBV infection is ubiquitous. Measurement of viral miRNAs by qPCR has the potential to become the "gold" standard method to detect certain viral infections in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Parallel epigenomic and transcriptomic responses to viral infection in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, David A; Yang, Xingyu; Niño, Elina Lastro; Yi, Soojin; Grozinger, Christina

    2015-03-01

    Populations of honey bees are declining throughout the world, with US beekeepers losing 30% of their colonies each winter. Though multiple factors are driving these colony losses, it is increasingly clear that viruses play a major role. However, information about the molecular mechanisms mediating antiviral immunity in honey bees is surprisingly limited. Here, we examined the transcriptional and epigenetic (DNA methylation) responses to viral infection in honey bee workers. One-day old worker honey bees were fed solutions containing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), a virus which causes muscle paralysis and death and has previously been associated with colony loss. Uninfected control and infected, symptomatic bees were collected within 20-24 hours after infection. Worker fat bodies, the primary tissue involved in metabolism, detoxification and immune responses, were collected for analysis. We performed transcriptome- and bisulfite-sequencing of the worker fat bodies to identify genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation patterns associated with viral infection. There were 753 differentially expressed genes (FDRcharacteristics of these sets of genes were quite distinct. Our results indicate that honey bees have two distinct molecular pathways, mediated by transcription and methylation, that modulate protein levels and/or function in response to viral infections.

  14. Mechanism of action and application of virocids in health care-associated viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Shahbaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are important causes of acute and chronic diseases in humans. Newer viruses are still being discovered. Apart from frequently causing infections in the general community, many types of viruses are significant nosocomial pathogens that with emerging viruses has become a real issue in medical field. There are specific treatments, vaccine and physical barrier to fight some of these infections. Health care-associated viral infections are an important source of patient’s morbidity and mortality. The method of sterilization or disinfection depends on the intended use of the medical devices (comprising critical, semicritical and noncritical items and failure to perform proper sterilization or disinfection of these items may leads to introduction of viruses, resulting in infection. Disinfection is an essential way in reducing or disruption of transmission of viruses by environmental surfaces, instruments and hands which achieves by chemical disinfectants and antiseptics, respectively. This review discusses about chemical agents with virocids properties (e.g. alcohols, chlorine compounds, formaldehyde, phenolic compounds, glutaraldehyde, ortho-phthaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, iodophor, ammonium compounds quaternary, bigunides and so on., mechanisms of action and their applications in health care-associated viral infection control. As well as, we described an overview for hierarchy of viruses in challenge with disinfantans, effective agents on viral inactivation, i.e.targect viruses, viral stability or survival duration time in enviromental surfaces and hands. We explained disinfection of surfaces, challenges in emerging viral pathogens inactivation, viral resistance to chemical disinfectants and antiseptics. Because, there are laboratory studies and clinical evidences for some viruses which viral resistance to biocide or failure to perform proper disinfection can lead to infection outbreaks. Also, we described virucidal

  15. Viral infection drives tissue fibrosis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea P. Malizia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by loss of alveolar epithelial cells, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. In this study we utilised a microarray-based differential gene expression analysis strategy to identify molecular drivers of EBV associated with lung fibrosis. A549 cells and an alveolar epithelial cell line infected with EBV (VAAK were used to identify genes whose expression was altered by EBV reactivation. EBV reactivation by TGFbeta1 drives alterations in expression of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT, the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. Cell invasion, EMT correlated transcripts expression, GSK-3b and c-Jun activation were altered in response to non-canonical Wnt pathway regulation. The role of EBV in promoting fibrosis can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signalling. Activation of non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of tissue fibrosis. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  16. FilmArray® Gastrointestinal (GI) Panel for Viral Acute Gastroenteritis Detection in Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Neena; Jackson, Jami; Duffy, Susan; Chapin, Kimberle; Cohen, Daniel; Leber, Amy; Daly, Judy a; Pavia, Andrew; Larsen, Chari; Baca, Tanya; Bender, Jeffery; Bard, Jennifer Dien; Festekjian, Ara; Holmberg, Kristen; Bourzac, Kevin; Selvarangan, Rangaraj

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute viral gastroenteritis is one of the leading causes of diarrheal diseases. The FilmArray GI Panel is a PCR based assay that detects 22 different enteric pathogens including five viruses (Adenovirus F 40/41, Astrovirus, Norovirus GI/GII, Rotavirus A, and Sapovirus (I, II, IV, and V)) in an hour. The epidemiology and management of acute viral gastroenteritis is described. Methods Children with acute gastroenteritis were prospectively enrolled at emergency departments of five geographically different pediatric facilities during 2015–2016. Stool specimens were collected and tested by the FilmArray GI Panel. Results A total of 1157 subjects were enrolled in the study. Stool specimens from 961 subjects were collected. Subjects with viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiology as identified by the FilmArray GI Panel were 429 (44.6%), 392 (40.8%), and 41 (4.3%), respectively. Viral AGE was common in winter months from October through March (274/429; 63.9%); norovirus was the leading viral agent (205/429; 47.8%) and was more commonly detected in winter months (147/205; 71.7%). Other viruses detected include Adenovirus F 40/41, Astrovirus, Rotavirus, and Sapovirus in 94 (9.8%), 49 (5.1%), 28 (2.9%), and 97 (10.1%) specimens, respectively. Co-infections with multiple pathogens was found in 244 (25.4%) of all specimens tested. Only 39/961 subjects received a viral standard of care (SOC) test result. The FilmArray GI panel detected viruses in higher percentage of stool specimens when SOC was not requested 45% (415/922) vs. requested 36% (14/39) [P = 0.32]. Viral infections were the highest among 148 hospitalizations: virus (26.4%), bacteria (22.9%), bacteria and virus (16.9%), and parasite (0.6%) and norovirus was the leading viral etiology associated with hospitalizations (n = 27; 69.2%). AGE due to viral (24.6%) or bacterial (27.6%) causes had similar repeat visits to hospital [P = 0.45]. Conclusion Viruses are leading cause of AGE resulting in ED

  17. Airway CD8(+) T Cells Are Associated with Lung Injury during Infant Viral Respiratory Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Thomas J; Ravindranath, Thyyar M; Bickham, Kara L; Gordon, Claire L; Zhang, Feifan; Levin, Bruce; Baird, John S; Farber, Donna L

    2016-06-01

    Infants and young children are disproportionately susceptible to severe complications from respiratory viruses, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Recent studies show that the T cell response in the lung is important for protective responses to respiratory infections, although details on the infant/pediatric respiratory immune response remain sparse. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the local versus systemic immune response in infants and young children with respiratory failure from viral respiratory tract infections and its association to disease severity. Daily airway secretions were sampled from infants and children 4 years of age and younger receiving mechanical ventilation owing to respiratory failure from viral infection or noninfectious causes. Samples were examined for immune cell composition and markers of T cell activation. These parameters were then correlated with clinical disease severity. Innate immune cells and total CD3(+) T cells were present in similar proportions in airway aspirates derived from infected and uninfected groups; however, the CD8:CD4 T cell ratio was markedly increased in the airways of patients with viral infection compared with uninfected patients, and specifically in infected infants with acute lung injury. T cells in the airways were phenotypically and functionally distinct from those in blood with activated/memory phenotypes and increased cytotoxic capacity. We identified a significant increase in airway cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in infants with lung injury from viral respiratory tract infection that was distinct from the T cell profile in circulation and associated with increasing disease severity. Airway sampling could therefore be diagnostically informative for assessing immune responses and lung damage.

  18. Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Sager, Ramon; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Stolz, Daiana; Tamm, Michael; Bouadma, Lila; Luyt, Charles E; Wolff, Michel; Chastre, Jean; Tubach, Florence; Kristoffersen, Kristina B; Burkhardt, Olaf; Welte, Tobias; Schroeder, Stefan; Nobre, Vandack; Wei, Long; Bucher, Heiner C; Bhatnagar, Neera; Annane, Djillali; Reinhart, Konrad; Branche, Angela; Damas, Pierre; Nijsten, Maarten W N; de Lange, Dylan W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815497; Deliberato, Rodrigo O; Lima, Stella Ss; Maravić-Stojković, Vera; Verduri, Alessia; Cao, Bin; Shehabi, Yahya; Beishuizen, Albertus; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik S; Corti, Caspar; van Oers, Jos A; Falsey, Ann R; de Jong, Evelien; Oliveira, Carolina F; Beghe, Bianca; Briel, Matthias; Mueller, Beat

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) comprise of a large and heterogeneous group of infections including bacterial, viral, and other aetiologies. In recent years, procalcitonin (PCT), a blood marker for bacterial infections, has emerged as a promising tool to improve decisions about

  19. Atypical presentations of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Ansuya; Paruk, Hoosain; Bhagwan, Bhupendra; Moodley, Anand

    2017-02-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a monophasic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system associated with various viral infections including HIV infection. We present the findings of seven HIV-infected patients with mild to moderate immunosuppression presenting with atypical features. Four patients had a multiphasic course; three patients had tumefactive lesions, and two patients had corpus callosum lesions. Two patients with the multiphasic course also had tumefactive lesions. Their clinical and radiological findings are presented. Despite the few cases, we propose that the dysimmune process lying between marked immunosuppression (CD4  500 cells/μL) might be responsible for these atypical presentations.

  20. Association between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) plasma viral RNA load, concentration of acute phase proteins and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Rebecca K C; Seddon, Jennifer M; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Henning, Joerg; Meers, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    Veterinarians have few tools to predict the rate of disease progression in FIV-infected cats. In contrast, in HIV infection, plasma viral RNA load and acute phase protein concentrations are commonly used as predictors of disease progression. This study evaluated these predictors in cats naturally infected with FIV. In older cats (>5 years), log10 FIV RNA load was higher in the terminal stages of disease compared to the asymptomatic stage. There was a significant association between log10 FIV RNA load and both log10 serum amyloid A concentration and age in unwell FIV-infected cats. This study suggests that viral RNA load and serum amyloid A warrant further investigation as predictors of disease status and prognosis in FIV-infected cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Clinical and epidemiological description of acute intestinal infections in children of the lower Volga region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkin, A V; Kharchenko, G A

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the results of laboratory diagnostics, carried out by bacteriological, serological and PCR methods, the etiological structure of acute bacterial and viral intestinal infections, most frequently occurring in children of the Astrakhan region, is presented. An important role of viral diarrhea cases, prevailing among the total number of cases of intestinal infections in children, is emphasized. The data on the irregular distribution of morbidity by months, especially in viral intestinal infections and salmonellosis with the prevalent involvement of children aged up to 2 years into the epidemic process, are presented. Infections affect mainly children given artificial feeding, as well as those with complicated premorbid state and frequently having acute respiratory viral infections.

  2. DMPD: Innate immune response to viral infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18694646 Innate immune response to viral infection. Koyama S, Ishii KJ, Coban C, Ak...ira S. Cytokine. 2008 Sep;43(3):336-41. Epub 2008 Aug 9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Innate immune resp...onse to viral infection. PubmedID 18694646 Title Innate immune response to viral infection. Authors Koyama

  3. DMPD: Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18280610 Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. Thompson JM...how Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. PubmedID 18280610 Title Toll-like recepto...rs regulation of viral infection and disease. Authors Thompson JM, Iwasaki A. Pub

  4. INADEQUATE ANTIBODY-RESPONSE AGAINST RESPIRATORY VIRAL-INFECTION IN LONG-SURVIVING RAT LUNG ALLOGRAFTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WINTER, JB; GROEN, M; VANDERLOGT, K; WILDEVUUR, CRH; PROP, J

    1995-01-01

    Lung transplant recipients suffer from a high number of viral infections. It has been suggested that the defense against viral infections is impaired in lung transplants, Therefore, we investigated in rat lung transplants whether antibody responses against an intrapulmonary viral infection were

  5. Bacterial and Viral Infections in Atopic Dermatitis: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Peck Y; Leung, Donald Y M

    2016-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common allergic skin disease in the general population. It is a chronic inflammatory skin disease complicated by recurrent bacterial and viral infections that, when left untreated, can lead to significant complications. The current article will review immunologic and molecular mechanisms underlying the propensity of AD patients to microbial infections. These infections include Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) skin infections, eczema herpeticum, eczema vaccinatum, and eczema coxsackium. Previous studies have shown that skin barrier defects, a decrease in antimicrobial peptides, increased skin pH, or Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 are potential contributing factors for the increased risk of skin infections in AD. In addition, bacterial virulence such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) produces significantly higher number of superantigens that increase their potential in causing infection and more severe cutaneous inflammation in AD patients. More recent studies suggest that skin microbiome including Staphylococcus epidermidis or other coagulase-negative staphylococci may play an important role in controlling S. aureus skin infections in AD. Other studies also suggest that genetic variants in the innate immune response may predispose AD patients to increased risk of viral skin infections. These genetic variants include thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), type I interferon (α, ß, ω), type II interferon (γ), and molecular pathways that lead to the production of interferons (interferon regulatory factor 2). A common staphylococcal toxin, α-toxin, may also play a role in enhancing herpes simplex virus skin infections in AD. Further understanding of these disease processes may have important clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of skin infections in this common skin disease.

  6. Acute viral bronchiolitis and its sequelae in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; Teper, Alejandro; Colom, Alejandro J

    2002-12-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB) is a common disease found throughout the world. Various aspects of it are being studied: its epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Most of these studies are being conducted in developed countries, with only a few taking place in developing countries. Risk factors such as poor nutrition, an adverse environment and early weaning should be studied where these features are common. Treatment aspects such as cost-effectiveness in low income settings need further study. Use of ribavirin and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-immunoglobulin are good examples. Post-bronchiolitic sequelae also need to be studied in low income countries. There is evidence that bronchiolitis obliterans is unusually frequent in some Latin-American countries such as Argentina and Brazil. It will be helpful to undertake combined studies in countries with the same socio-economics, investigating the preventive and management aspects of AVB and its sequelae to reduce the morbidity and mortality.

  7. [Clinical signs of dysphagia in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lisiane De Rosa; Gomes, Erissandra; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno

    2014-09-01

    To determine the occurrence of clinical signs of dysphagia in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis, to compare the respiratory parameters during deglutition, and to ensure the intra- and inter- examiners agreement, as well as to accomplish intra and interexaminators concordance of the clinical evaluation of the deglutition. This was a cross-sectional study of 42 infants aged 0-12 months. The clinical evaluation was accompanied by measurements of respiratory rate and pulse oximetry. A score of swallowing disorders was designed to establish associations with other studied variables and to ensure the intra- and interrater agreement of clinical feeding assessments. Caregivers also completed a questionnaire about feeding difficulties. Significance was set at pdysphagia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical signs of dysphagia in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lisiane De Rosa; Gomes, Erissandra; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of clinical signs of dysphagia in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis, to compare the respiratory parameters during deglutition, and to ensure the intra- and inter- examiners agreement, as well as to accomplish intra and interexaminators concordance of the clinical evaluation of the deglutition. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 42 infants aged 0-12 months. The clinical evaluation was accompanied by measurements of respiratory rate and pulse oximetry. A score of swallowing disorders was designed to establish associations with other studied variables and to ensure the intra- and interrater agreement of clinical feeding assessments. Caregivers also completed a questionnaire about feeding difficulties. Significance was set at pdysphagia. PMID:25479843

  9. Effects of Viral and Bacterial Infections on Marginal Periodontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhari Csilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several risk factors, general and local, which favor the onset of periodontal destruction, and their knowledge is essential to their correct identification and for the adoption of a suitable therapeutic management. The aim of the study was to assess periodontal health status of patients suffering from viral and bacterial infections and to determine the eventual relationship between periodontal diseases and infectious diseases.

  10. Évolution De La Prevalence Des Infections Virales Transmissibles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion : Notre étude a montré que le VIH, le VHC et le VHB constituent encore de véritables freins à la sécurité transfusionnelle en Côte d'Ivoire. Une augmentation du taux de fidélisation des donneurs de sang pourrait en partie diminuer les risques de transmission de ces infections virales. Mots clés : Prévalence, VIH, ...

  11. Sunscreens cause coral bleaching by promoting viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Bongiorni, Lucia; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Giovannelli, Donato; Damiani, Elisabetta; Astolfi, Paola; Greci, Lucedio; Pusceddu, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    Coral bleaching (i.e., the release of coral symbiotic zooxanthellae) has negative impacts on biodiversity and functioning of reef ecosystems and their production of goods and services. This increasing world-wide phenomenon is associated with temperature anomalies, high irradiance, pollution, and bacterial diseases. Recently, it has been demonstrated that personal care products, including sunscreens, have an impact on aquatic organisms similar to that of other contaminants. Our goal was to evaluate the potential impact of sunscreen ingredients on hard corals and their symbiotic algae. In situ and laboratory experiments were conducted in several tropical regions (the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, and the Red Sea) by supplementing coral branches with aliquots of sunscreens and common ultraviolet filters contained in sunscreen formula. Zooxanthellae were checked for viral infection by epifluorescence and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Sunscreens cause the rapid and complete bleaching of hard corals, even at extremely low concentrations. The effect of sunscreens is due to organic ultraviolet filters, which are able to induce the lytic viral cycle in symbiotic zooxanthellae with latent infections. We conclude that sunscreens, by promoting viral infection, potentially play an important role in coral bleaching in areas prone to high levels of recreational use by humans.

  12. Viral Co-infection and Leprosy Outcomes: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo R L; Machado, Lídia M; Shibuya, Mayume; Rego, Jamile; Johnson, Warren D; Glesby, Marshall J

    2015-01-01

    The role of the host immunity in determining leprosy clinical forms and complications is well recognized, implying that changes in the immune status may interfere with several aspects of the disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that the presence of viral co-infections and associated immunological changes will have a clinical impact on leprosy outcomes. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on the development of reactions, neuritis, neuropathy and relapses. Cohort study in 245 leprosy subjects from Bahia, Brazil. Patients were followed from the time of diagnosis until at least the end of multidrug therapy. Viral co-infection was detected in 36 out of the 245 patients (14.7%). Specific co-infection rates were 10.6% for HBV, 2.9% for HIV, 2.5% for HTLV-1 and 0.8% for HCV. All four groups of co-infected patients had higher rates of neuritis and nerve function impairment compared to non co-infected leprosy subjects. The relapse rate was also higher in the co-infected group (8.3%) versus patients without co-infection (1.9%); relative risk 4.37, 95% confidence interval 1.02-18.74. Leprosy patients should be screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV-1 co-infections. Besides contributing to better health care, this measure will facilitate the early detection of severe complications through targeting of higher risk patients.

  13. Semen banking: consideration on viral contamination in the era of new emerging viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To construct a semen bank, the collection of donated semen has to be done and an important concern is the safety of collected semen. The contamination is a big problem. Basically, the infectious pathogens can exist within donated semen, hence, a good donor screening is very important. Although viruses have an indirect role in sperm quality, but the evidence in banked semen is presently lack. This does not mean that there is no viral contamination but it might imply the inadequate concern on this issue. Contaminated semen usually means poor quality and hazardous to the recipient. The contamination of the virus in banked semen is a common problem in animal semen banking (1. The safety and transmission of each problematic virus is widely studied and well clarified in animal semen banking (2. However, this issue is not widely concerned in human semen banking. For sure, this case is an actual direct contamination and this cannot be detected if there is no specific screening in the banking process. The scenario of important new emerging viral infections will be specifically detailed in this report. West Nile virus is an emerging problematic viral infection that can cause a deadly clinical disorder. Basically, West Nile virus is classified as an arbovirus that is mainly transmitted by mosquito. However, the uncommon modes of transmissions such as transfusion related transmission are reported (3. The contamination of West Nile virus in semen is an important question in andrology. There is no evidence indicating for the presence of West Nile virus in the semen of the patients. However, American Society for Reproductive Medicine/Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology recommended that practitioners defer gamete donors who have confirmed or suspected West Nile virus infections (4. SARS is another deadly emerging viral infection. The new coronavirus infection is transmitted via respiratory route. The serious symptom due to this infection leads to death

  14. Respiratory metapneumoviral infection without co-infection in association with acute and chronic lung allograft dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosanjh A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amrita DosanjhDepartment of Pediatrics, Rady Children’s Hospital, San Diego, CA, USABackground: Metapneumoviral respiratory infection is a community-acquired respiratory viral (CARV infection. Lung transplantation recipients exposed to CARV are at risk for development of allograft rejection. The cellular and molecular pathways initiated by viral infection leading to allograft dysfunction are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to identify human metapneumoviral (hMPV cases in association with allograft rejection.Methods: A literature search was conducted to identify cases of both hMPV and allograft rejection within 6 months of the initial infection. This resulted in 1,007 lung transplantation recipients, with a total of 2,883 samples identified. Of these, 57 demonstrated isolated hMPV without co-infection with other agents.Results: The results of the study indicate that 35% of acute hMPV infections without co-infection, at the time of detection by molecular diagnostic platforms, were associated with acute cellular rejection within 3 months. There were 9.4% of the cases subsequently associated with chronic allograft dysfunction/bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, which was collectively termed chronic rejection for purposes of analysis. In conclusion, the prompt identification of isolated hMPV from lung transplantation patients is an important treatable risk factor for subsequent allograft dysfunction. The cellular and molecular pathogenesis of viral-induced allograft rejection remains a topic of future study.Keywords: viral infection, bronchiolitis obliterans, acute cellular rejection, allograft, lung, metapneumovirus

  15. Complexities in Isolation and Purification of Multiple Viruses from Mixed Viral Infections: Viral Interference, Persistence and Exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    Full Text Available Successful purification of multiple viruses from mixed infections remains a challenge. In this study, we investigated peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV mixed infection in goats. Rather than in a single cell type, cytopathic effect (CPE of the virus was observed in cocultured Vero/BHK-21 cells at 6th blind passage (BP. PPRV, but not FMDV could be purified from the virus mixture by plaque assay. Viral RNA (mixture transfection in BHK-21 cells produced FMDV but not PPRV virions, a strategy which we have successfully employed for the first time to eliminate the negative-stranded RNA virus from the virus mixture. FMDV phenotypes, such as replication competent but noncytolytic, cytolytic but defective in plaque formation and, cytolytic but defective in both plaque formation and standard FMDV genome were observed respectively, at passage level BP8, BP15 and BP19 and hence complicated virus isolation in the cell culture system. Mixed infection was not found to induce any significant antigenic and genetic diversity in both PPRV and FMDV. Further, we for the first time demonstrated the viral interference between PPRV and FMDV. Prior transfection of PPRV RNA, but not Newcastle disease virus (NDV and rotavirus RNA resulted in reduced FMDV replication in BHK-21 cells suggesting that the PPRV RNA-induced interference was specifically directed against FMDV. On long-term coinfection of some acute pathogenic viruses (all possible combinations of PPRV, FMDV, NDV and buffalopox virus in Vero cells, in most cases, one of the coinfecting viruses was excluded at passage level 5 suggesting that the long-term coinfection may modify viral persistence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented evidence describing a natural mixed infection of FMDV and PPRV. The study not only provides simple and reliable methodologies for isolation and purification of two epidemiologically and economically important groups of

  16. Acute viral bronchiolitis in South Africa: Strategies for management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zar, H J; Madhi, S A; White, D A; Masekela, R; Risenga, S; Lewis, H; Feldman, C; Morrow, B; Jeena, P

    2016-04-01

    Management of acute viral bronchiolitis is largely supportive. There is currently no proven effective therapy other than oxygen for hypoxic children. The evidence indicates that there is no routine benefit from inhaled, rapid short-acting bronchodilators, adrenaline or ipratropium bromide for children with acute viral bronchiolitis. Likewise, there is no demonstrated benefit from routine use of inhaled or oral corticosteroids, inhaled hypertonic saline nebulisation, montelukast or antibiotics. The last should be reserved for children with severe disease, when bacterial co-infection is suspected. Prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease remains a challenge. A specific RSV monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, administered as an intramuscular injection, is available for children at risk of severe bronchiolitis, including premature infants, young children with chronic lung disease, immunodeficiency, or haemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Prophylaxis should be commenced at the start of the RSV season and given monthly during the season. The development of an RSV vaccine may offer a more effective alternative to prevent disease, for which the results of clinical trials are awaited. Education of parents or caregivers and healthcare workers about diagnostic and management strategies should include the following: bronchiolitis is caused by a virus; it is seasonal; it may start as an upper respiratory tract infection with low-grade fever; symptoms are cough and wheeze, often with fast breathing; antibiotics are generally not needed; and the condition is usually self limiting, although symptoms may occur for up to four weeks in some children.

  17. Broad and persistent Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses are associated with viral control but rarely drive viral escape during primary HIV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebe, Mopo; Gounder, Kamini; Mokgoro, Mammekwa; Ndhlovu, Zaza M.; Mncube, Zenele; Mkhize, Lungile; van der Stok, Mary; Jaggernath, Manjeetha; Walker, Bruce D.; Ndung’u, Thumbi

    2015-01-01

    Objective We characterized protein-specific CD8+ T-cell immunodominance patterns during the first year of HIV-1 infection, and their impact on viral evolution and immune control. Methods We analyzed CD8+ T-cell responses to the full HIV-1 proteome during the first year of infection in eighteen antiretroviral-naïve individuals with acute HIV-1 subtype C infection, all identified prior to seroconversion. Ex vivo and cultured IFN-γ ELISPOT assays were performed and viruses from plasma were sequenced within defined CTL Gag epitopes. Results Nef-specific CD8+ T-cell responses were dominant during the first 4 weeks post infection and made up 40% of total responses at this time, yet by 1 year responses against this region had declined and Gag responses made up to 47% of all T-cell responses measured. An inverse correlation between the breadth of Gag-specific responses and viral load set point was evident at 26 weeks post infection (p=0.0081; r= −0.60) and beyond. An inverse correlation between the number of persistent responses targeting Gag and viral set point was also identified (p=0.01; r=−0.58). Gag-specific responses detectable by the cultured ELISPOT assay correlated negatively with viral load set point (p=0.0013; r=−0.91). Sequence evolution in targeted and non-targeted Gag epitopes in this cohort was infrequent. Conclusions These data underscore the importance of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, particularly to the Gag protein, in the maintenance of low viral load levels during primary infection and show that these responses are initially poorly elicited by natural infection. These data have implications for vaccine design strategies. PMID:25387316

  18. Functional Role of Infective Viral Particles on Metal Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, John D.

    2014-04-01

    A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites was based on the immobilization of U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Previous studies identified Geobacter sp., including G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens, as predominant U(VI)-reducing bacteria under acetate-oxidizing and U(VI)-reducing conditions. Examination of the finished genome sequence annotation of the canonical metal reducing species Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA and G. metallireduceans strain GS-15 as well as the draft genome sequence of G. uraniumreducens strain Rf4 identified phage related proteins. In addition, the completed genome for Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and the draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G20, two more model metal-reducing bacteria, also revealed phage related sequences. The presence of these gene sequences indicated that Geobacter spp., Anaeromyxobacter spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. are susceptible to viral infection. Furthermore, viral populations in soils and sedimentary environments in the order of 6.4×10{sup 6}–2.7×10{sup 10} VLP’s cm{sup -3} have been observed. In some cases, viral populations exceed bacterial populations in these environments suggesting that a relationship may exist between viruses and bacteria. Our preliminary screens of samples collected from the ESR FRC indicated that viral like particles were observed in significant numbers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential functional role viruses play in metal reduction specifically Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, the environmental parameters affecting viral infection of metal reducing bacteria, and the subsequent effects on U transport.

  19. New insights into IDO biology in bacterial and viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Viktoria Schmidt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Initially, IDO has been introduced as a bactericidal effector mechanism and has been linked to T cell immunosuppression and tolerance. In recent years, evidence has been accumulated that IDO also plays an important role during viral infections including HIV, influenza and hepatitis B and C. Moreover, novel aspects about the role of IDO in bacterial infections and sepsis have been revealed. Here we review these recent findings highlighting the central role of IDO and tryptophan metabolism in many major human infections. Moreover, we also shed light on issues concerning human-specific and mouse-specific host - pathogen interactions that need to be considered when studying the biology of IDO in the context of infections.

  20. Etiology and prognosis of acute viral encephalitis and meningitis in Chinese children: a multicentre prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Junhong; Xie, Zhengde; Liu, Gang; Chen, Zongbo; Yang, Yong; Li, Yuning; Chen, Jing; Zheng, Guo; Shen, Kunling

    2017-07-14

    In China, there were few studies about the pathogens of acute viral encephalitis and meningitis in children in recent years. The aims of this study were to characterize the etiology and prognosis of acute viral encephalitis and meningitis in Chinese children. This was a multicentre prospective study. Two hundred and sixty one viral encephalitis patients and 285 viral meningitis patients were enrolled. The mean age of viral encephalitis and meningitis were 5.88 ± 3.60 years and 6.39 ± 3.57 years, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription PCR and multiplex PCR were used to detect human enteroviruses and herpes viruses in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with encephalitis or meningitis. The enzyme-linked immune absorbent assay (ELISA) was used for detecting IgM antibody against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in CSF and against mumps virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), dengue virus and rubella virus in acute serum. The clinical and outcome data were collected during patients' hospitalization. The etiology of viral encephalitis was confirmed in 52.5% patients. The primary pathogen was human enteroviruses (27.7%) in viral encephalitis. The incidence of sequelae and the fatality rate of viral encephalitis with confirmed etiology were 7.5% and 0.8%, respectively. The etiology of viral meningitis was identified in 42.8% cases. The leading pathogen was also human enteroviruses (37.7%) in viral meningitis. The prognosis of viral meningitis was favorable with only 0.7% patients had neurological sequelae. Human enteroviruses were the leading cause both in acute viral encephalitis and viral meningitis in children. The incidence of sequelae and fatality rate of viral encephalitis with confirmed etiology were 7.5% and 0.8%, respectively. The prognosis of viral meningitis was favorable compared to viral encephalitis.

  1. Perinatal HIV-infection in Sankt Petersburg and Modern Therapy Concomitant Viral Infections

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Timchenko; E. B. Yastrebova; O. V. Bulina

    2016-01-01

    The study included 338 HIV-infected children (B-23) and 350 children with perinatal contact HIV infection (R-75), consisting on the dispensary in the department of maternal and child the St. Petersburg City AIDS Center. In 32 persons (9.5%) diagnosed with secondary infections. In the structure of viral opportunistic infections (herpesvirus, SARS) amounted to 39.8%, bacterial (bronchitis, tonsillitis, pyoderma, tuberculosis) — 34.8%, fungal and parasitic (candidiasis of the oral mucosa, PCP) —...

  2. ChemR23 dampens lung inflammation and enhances anti-viral immunity in a mouse model of acute viral pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bondue

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases of the respiratory tract, which include influenza pandemic, children acute bronchiolitis, and viral pneumonia of the elderly, represent major health problems. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play an important role in anti-viral immunity, and these cells were recently shown to express ChemR23, the receptor for the chemoattractant protein chemerin, which is expressed by epithelial cells in the lung. Our aim was to determine the role played by the chemerin/ChemR23 system in the physiopathology of viral pneumonia, using the pneumonia virus of mice (PVM as a model. Wild-type and ChemR23 knock-out mice were infected by PVM and followed for functional and inflammatory parameters. ChemR23(-/- mice displayed higher mortality/morbidity, alteration of lung function, delayed viral clearance and increased neutrophilic infiltration. We demonstrated in these mice a lower recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and a reduction in type I interferon production. The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells was further addressed by performing depletion and adoptive transfer experiments as well as by the generation of chimeric mice, demonstrating two opposite effects of the chemerin/ChemR23 system. First, the ChemR23-dependent recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells contributes to adaptive immune responses and viral clearance, but also enhances the inflammatory response. Second, increased morbidity/mortality in ChemR23(-/- mice is not due to defective plasmacytoid dendritic cells recruitment, but rather to the loss of an anti-inflammatory pathway involving ChemR23 expressed by non-leukocytic cells. The chemerin/ChemR23 system plays important roles in the physiopathology of viral pneumonia, and might therefore be considered as a therapeutic target for anti-viral and anti-inflammatory therapies.

  3. Serum leptin levels in children with acute viral hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, I; Selimoglu, M A; Yazgi, H; Ertekin, V

    2006-12-01

    In acute viral hepatitis A (AVH-A), involvement of the liver is through cytotoxic cells and cytokine levels are increased Immune response of the host determines the severity of the disease. Leptin stimulates cytokines, therefore, the authors hypothesized that the relationship between leptin and cellular immunity might cause different clinical presentations of the disease. Twenty-eight children with AVH-A and 10 healthy children formed the basis of the study. Serum leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) levels were determined There was significant positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and leptin levels both in patients and controls (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001 respectively). No significant difference in serum leptin, CRP or A1AT levels between patients and controls was detected (p > 0.05). Presence of icterus or fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) did not affect serum leptin level (p > 0.05). Mean A1AT level was significantly higher in children with FHF (p children with AVH-A. In the convalescence period, leptin increased parallel to BMI. It is suggested that expected increment in leptin due to inflammation might be balanced with the decrease due to loss of appetite during acute illness or it might be entirely due to loss of production.

  4. Human Metapneumovirus Infection and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Alina; McLaren, Rodney; Saunders, Paul; Karakash, Scarlett; Minkoff, Howard

    2017-09-01

    Human metapneumovirus has recently been recognized as an important cause of severe respiratory viral infections and of viral infections in patients admitted to intensive care units. Little is known about the course of this infection in pregnancy. A late-preterm primigravid woman was admitted to the intensive care unit for acute respiratory distress syndrome and subsequently diagnosed with human metapneumovirus. Because of worsening maternal respiratory status, she was intubated and a primary cesarean delivery was performed. The patient's respiratory status continued to decline postpartum, and she ultimately required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. She was treated supportively until her respiratory status improved, at which time she was extubated and weaned off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and subsequently discharged home. Human metapneumovirus can lead to severe respiratory illness during pregnancy.

  5. Managing the Morbidity Associated with Respiratory Viral Infections in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Geskey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with congenital heart disease (CHD are at risk for increased morbidity from viral lower respiratory tract infections because of anatomical cardiac lesions than can worsen an already compromised respiratory status. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV remains an important pathogen in contributing toward the morbidity in this population. Although the acute treatment of RSV largely remains supportive, the development of monoclonal antibodies, such as palivuzumab, has reduced the RSV-related hospitalization rate in children with CHD. This review highlights the specific cardiac complications of RSV infection, the acute treatment of bronchiolitis in patients with CHD, and the search for new therapies against RSV, including an effective vaccine, because of the high cost associated with immunoprophylaxis and its lack of reducing RSV-related mortality.

  6. Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ricardo M; Bialy, Liza M; Vandermeer, Ben; Tjosvold, Lisa; Plint, Amy C; Patel, Hema; Johnson, David W; Klassen, Terry P; Hartling, Lisa

    2013-06-04

    Previous systematic reviews have not shown clear benefit of glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis, but their use remains considerable. Recent large trials add substantially to current evidence and suggest novel glucocorticoid-including treatment approaches. To review the efficacy and safety of systemic and inhaled glucocorticoids in children with acute viral bronchiolitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1950 to January week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1980 to January 2013), LILACS (1982 to January 2013), Scopus® (1823 to January 2013) and IRAN MedEx (1998 to November 2009). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing short-term systemic or inhaled glucocorticoids versus placebo or another intervention in children under 24 months with acute bronchiolitis (first episode with wheezing). Our primary outcomes were: admissions by days 1 and 7 for outpatient studies; and length of stay (LOS) for inpatient studies. Secondary outcomes included clinical severity parameters, healthcare use, pulmonary function, symptoms, quality of life and harms. Two authors independently extracted data on study and participant characteristics, interventions and outcomes. We assessed risk of bias and graded strength of evidence. We meta-analysed inpatient and outpatient results separately using random-effects models. We pre-specified subgroup analyses, including the combined use of bronchodilators used in a protocol. We included 17 trials (2596 participants); three had low overall risk of bias. Baseline severity, glucocorticoid schemes, comparators and outcomes were heterogeneous. Glucocorticoids did not significantly reduce outpatient admissions by days 1 and 7 when compared to placebo (pooled risk ratios (RRs) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78 to 1.08 and 0.86; 95% CI 0.7 to 1.06, respectively). There was no benefit in LOS for inpatients (mean difference -0.18 days; 95% CI -0.39 to 0.04). Unadjusted results from a

  7. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Moon, Hong Ju; Chang, Hye Young; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH). Methods We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT) of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128). Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH) (n = 642). Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer. Results In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041), peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001), bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (HR = 1.001, Phepatitis A. PMID:26090677

  8. Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Viral Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiss, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is responsible for approximately 40,000 congenital infections in the United States each year. Congenital CMV disease frequently produces serious neurodevelopmental disability, as well as vision impairment and sensorineural hearing loss. Development of a CMV vaccine is therefore considered to be a major public health priority. The mechanisms by which CMV injures the fetus are complex and likely include a combination of direct fetal injury induced by pathologic virally-encoded gene products, an inability of the maternal immune response to control infection, and the direct impact of infection on placental function. CMV encodes gene products that function, both at the RNA and the protein level, to interfere with many cellular processes. These include gene products that modify the cell cycle; interfere with apoptosis; induce an inflammatory response; mediate vascular injury; induce site-specific breakage of chromosomes; promote oncogenesis; dysregulate cellular proliferation; and facilitate evasion of host immune responses. This minireview summarizes current concepts regarding these aspects of the molecular virology of CMV and the potential pathogenic impact of viral gene expression on the developing fetus. Areas for potential development of novel therapeutic intervention are suggested for improving the outcome of this disabling congenital infection. PMID:21827434

  9. Effect of synaptic transmission on viral fitness in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia L Komarova

    Full Text Available HIV can spread through its target cell population either via cell-free transmission, or by cell-to-cell transmission, presumably through virological synapses. Synaptic transmission entails the transfer of tens to hundreds of viruses per synapse, a fraction of which successfully integrate into the target cell genome. It is currently not understood how synaptic transmission affects viral fitness. Using a mathematical model, we investigate how different synaptic transmission strategies, defined by the number of viruses passed per synapse, influence the basic reproductive ratio of the virus, R(0, and virus load. In the most basic scenario, the model suggests that R(0 is maximized if a single virus particle is transferred per synapse. R(0 decreases and the infection eventually cannot be maintained for larger numbers of transferred viruses, because multiple infection of the same cell wastes viruses that could otherwise enter uninfected cells. To explain the relatively large number of HIV copies transferred per synapse, we consider additional biological assumptions under which an intermediate number of viruses transferred per synapse could maximize R(0. These include an increased burst size in multiply infected cells, the saturation of anti-viral factors upon infection of cells, and rate limiting steps during the process of synapse formation.

  10. Modoc Viral Infections in the Deer Mouse Peromyscus maniculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James W.; Hardy, James L.; Reeves, William C.

    1974-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Modoc virus and its mechanism of transmission were investigated in Peromyscus maniculatus gambeli (deer mouse) as a model to understand the natural history of this virus. Animals were readily infected by the intranasal or subcutaneous route of inoculation. Virus could be detected by direct isolation techniques in many organs and body fluids during the first 7 to 9 days after intranasal inoculation. Increases in viral titers were detectable first in lungs and then the spleen, salivary-submaxillary glands, and lymph nodes. Viremias were low titered and ephemeral. Virus was recovered from urine and throat swabs 4 to 6 days and 4 to 7 days after inoculation, respectively. Serum dilution neutralization, hemagglutination inhibition, or complement fixation antibodies were detected in sera of some animals 13 days after infection and in all animals after 20 days. Antibodies persisted for the 168-day period of observation. Persistent viral infection was demonstrable by in vitro culturing of lungs or pooled lungs, salivary glands, and kidneys from 14 of 69 mice that were sacrificed from 1 to 6 months after intranasal inoculation. Attempts to demonstrate horizontal or vertical transmission of Modoc virus among mice were generally unsuccessful. Female deer mice infected with virus before mating passed maternal antibodies to their young. PMID:4215763

  11. Defensins Potentiate a Neutralizing Antibody Response to Enteric Viral Infection.

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    Anshu P Gounder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available α-defensins are abundant antimicrobial peptides with broad, potent antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities in vitro. Although their contribution to host defense against bacteria in vivo has been demonstrated, comparable studies of their antiviral activity in vivo are lacking. Using a mouse model deficient in activated α-defensins in the small intestine, we show that Paneth cell α-defensins protect mice from oral infection by a pathogenic virus, mouse adenovirus 1 (MAdV-1. Survival differences between mouse genotypes are lost upon parenteral MAdV-1 infection, strongly implicating a role for intestinal defenses in attenuating pathogenesis. Although differences in α-defensin expression impact the composition of the ileal commensal bacterial population, depletion studies using broad-spectrum antibiotics revealed no effect of the microbiota on α-defensin-dependent viral pathogenesis. Moreover, despite the sensitivity of MAdV-1 infection to α-defensin neutralization in cell culture, we observed no barrier effect due to Paneth cell α-defensin activation on the kinetics and magnitude of MAdV-1 dissemination to the brain. Rather, a protective neutralizing antibody response was delayed in the absence of α-defensins. This effect was specific to oral viral infection, because antibody responses to parenteral or mucosal ovalbumin exposure were not affected by α-defensin deficiency. Thus, α-defensins play an important role as adjuvants in antiviral immunity in vivo that is distinct from their direct antiviral activity observed in cell culture.

  12. Antibody maturation and viral diversification in HIV-infected women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M James

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Post-exposure Prophylaxis in Infants (PEPI-Malawi trial evaluated infant antiretroviral regimens for prevention of post-natal HIV transmission. A multi-assay algorithm (MAA that includes the BED capture immunoassay, an avidity assay, CD4 cell count, and viral load was used to identify women who were vs. were not recently infected at the time of enrollment (MAA recent, N = 73; MAA non-recent, N = 2,488; a subset of the women in the MAA non-recent group known to have been HIV infected for at least 2 years before enrollment (known non-recent, N = 54. Antibody maturation and viral diversification were examined in these women. METHODS: Samples collected at enrollment (N = 2,561 and 12-24 months later (N = 1,306 were available for serologic analysis using the BED and avidity assays. A subset of those samples was used for analysis of viral diversity, which was performed using a high resolution melting (HRM diversity assay. Viral diversity analysis was performed using all available samples from women in the MAA recent group (61 enrollment samples, 38 follow-up samples and the known non-recent group (43 enrollment samples, 22 follow-up samples. Diversity data from PEPI-Malawi were also compared to similar data from 169 adults in the United States (US with known recent infection (N = 102 and known non-recent infection (N = 67. RESULTS: In PEPI-Malawi, results from the BED and avidity assays increased over time in the MAA recent group, but did not change significantly in the MAA non-recent group. At enrollment, HIV diversity was lower in the MAA recent group than in the known non-recent group. HRM diversity assay results from women in PEPI-Malawi were similar to those from adults in the US with known duration of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody maturation and HIV diversification patterns in African women provide additional support for use of the MAA to identify populations with recent HIV infection.

  13. Parallel epigenomic and transcriptomic responses to viral infection in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Galbraith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Populations of honey bees are declining throughout the world, with US beekeepers losing 30% of their colonies each winter. Though multiple factors are driving these colony losses, it is increasingly clear that viruses play a major role. However, information about the molecular mechanisms mediating antiviral immunity in honey bees is surprisingly limited. Here, we examined the transcriptional and epigenetic (DNA methylation responses to viral infection in honey bee workers. One-day old worker honey bees were fed solutions containing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV, a virus which causes muscle paralysis and death and has previously been associated with colony loss. Uninfected control and infected, symptomatic bees were collected within 20-24 hours after infection. Worker fat bodies, the primary tissue involved in metabolism, detoxification and immune responses, were collected for analysis. We performed transcriptome- and bisulfite-sequencing of the worker fat bodies to identify genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation patterns associated with viral infection. There were 753 differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05 in infected versus control bees, including several genes involved in epigenetic and antiviral pathways. DNA methylation status of 156 genes (FDR<0.1 changed significantly as a result of the infection, including those involved in antiviral responses in humans. There was no significant overlap between the significantly differentially expressed and significantly differentially methylated genes, and indeed, the genomic characteristics of these sets of genes were quite distinct. Our results indicate that honey bees have two distinct molecular pathways, mediated by transcription and methylation, that modulate protein levels and/or function in response to viral infections.

  14. Glycyrrhizin therapy for viral infections | Numazaki | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glycyrrhizin (GL) was reported as the most active in inhibiting replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus. Therapeutic effect of GL for liver dysfunction associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in immunocompetent individuals was evaluated. Liver dysfunction in 4 cases ...

  15. Acute calcific tendinitis simulating tendon sheath infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omololu, B; Alonge, T O; Ogunlade, S O

    2001-01-01

    Tendon sheath infection has catastrophic consequences if not diagnosed. We present acute calcific tendinitis, a simulator of tendon sheath infection with a good prognosis in a 14 year old athletic tennis player.

  16. Impact of the Respiratory Microbiome on Host Responses to Respiratory Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Pichon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are responsible for most of both upper and lower acute respiratory infections (ARIs. The microbiome—the ecological community of microorganisms sharing the body space, which has gained considerable interest over the last decade—is modified in health and disease states. Even if most of these disturbances have been previously described in relation to chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal microbiome, after a short reminder of microbiome characteristics and methods of characterization, this review will describe the impact of the microbiome (mainly respiratory on host responses to viral ARIs. The microbiome has a direct environmental impact on the host cells but also an indirect impact on the immune system, by enhancing innate or adaptive immune responses. In microbial infections, especially in viral infections, these dramatic modifications could lead to a dramatic impact responsible for severe clinical outcomes. Studies focusing on the microbiome associated with transcriptomic analyses of the host response and deep characterization of the pathogen would lead to a better understanding of viral pathogenesis and open avenues for biomarker development and innovative therapeutics.

  17. Association between high nasopharyngeal viral load and disease severity in children with human metapneumovirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosis, Samantha; Esposito, Susanna; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Tremolati, Elena; Begliatti, Enrica; Tagliabue, Claudia; Corti, Fabiola; Principi, Nicola; Niesters, Hubert G. M.

    Background: Previous studies have shown that viral genotype and viral load may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of viral infections. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate these aspects of hMPV infections in children and their household contacts. Study design: Between I

  18. Dynamics of viral spread in bluetongue virus infected calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt-Boyes, S M; MacLachlan, N J

    1994-06-01

    The kinetics of viremia and sites of viral replication in bluetongue virus (BTV) infected calves were characterized by virus isolation, serology and immunofluorescence staining procedures. In addition, the role of the regional lymph node and lymphatics draining inoculated skin in the pathogenesis of BTV infection was determined by analyzing efferent lymph collected from indwelling cannulas. Viremia persisted for 35 to 42 days after inoculation (DAI) and virus co-circulated with neutralizing antibodies for 23 to 26 days. Virus was first isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells at 3 DAI, after stimulation of PBM cells with interleukin 2 and mitogen. BTV was frequently isolated from erythrocytes, platelets and stimulated PBM cells but never from granulocytes and rarely from plasma during viremia. Virus was consistently isolated from erythrocytes late in the course of viremia. Interruption of efferent lymph flow by cannulation delayed the onset of viremia to 7 DAI. BTV was infrequently isolated from lymph cells, and few fluorescence positive cells were observed after lymph and PBM cells were labelled with a BTV-specific monoclonal antibody. Virus was isolated from spleen by 4 DAI and most tissues by 6 DAI, whereas virus was isolated from bone marrow only at 10 DAI. Virus was not isolated from any tissue after termination of viremia. It is concluded that primary viral replication occurred in the local lymph node and BTV then was transported in low titer to secondary sites of replication via infected lymph and PBM cells. We speculate that virus replication in spleen resulted in release of virus into the circulation and non-selective infection of blood cells which disseminated BTV to other tissues. Virus association with erythrocytes likely was responsible for prolonged viremia, although infected erythrocytes eventually were cleared from the circulation and persistent BTV infection of calves did not occur.

  19. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  20. Acute focal infections of dental origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses

  1. Viral infections acquired indoors through airborne, droplet or contact transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina La Rosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indoor human environments, including homes, offices, schools, workplaces, transport systems and other settings, often harbor potentially unsafe microorganisms. Most previous studies of bioaerosols in indoor environments have addressed contamination with bacteria or fungi. Reports on the presence of viral aerosols in indoor air are scarce, however, despite the fact that viruses are probably the most common cause of infection acquired indoor. OBJECTIVE: This review discusses the most common respiratory (influenza viruses, rhino-viruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, and enteroviruses and gastrointestinal (noroviruses viral pathogens which can be easily transmitted in indoor environments. RESULTS: The vast majority of studies reviewed here concern hospital and other health facilities where viruses are a well-known cause of occupational and nosocomial infections. Studies on other indoor environments, on the other hand, including homes, non-industrial workplaces and public buildings, are scarce. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of regulations, threshold values and standardized detection methods for viruses in indoor environments, make both research and interpretation of results difficult in this field, hampering infection control efforts. Further research will be needed to achieve a better understanding of virus survival in aerosols and on surfaces, and to elucidate the relationship between viruses and indoor environmental characteristics.

  2. Type I IFN Signaling Is Dispensable during Secondary Viral Infection.

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    Martin P Hosking

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune responses in general, and type I interferons (T1IFNs in particular, play an important and often essential role during primary viral infections, by directly combatting the virus and by maximizing the primary adaptive immune response. Several studies have suggested that T1IFNs also contribute very substantially to the secondary (recall response; they are thought (i to be required to drive the early attrition of memory T cells, (ii to support the subsequent expansion of surviving virus-specific memory cells, and (iii to assist in the suppression and clearance of the infectious agent. However, many of these observations were predicated upon models in which T1IFN signaling was interrupted prior to a primary immune response, raising the possibility that the resulting memory cells might be intrinsically abnormal. We have directly addressed this by using an inducible-Cre model system in which the host remains genetically-intact during the primary response to infection, and in which T1IFN signaling can be effectively ablated prior to secondary viral challenge. We report that, in stark contrast to primary infection, T1IFN signaling is not required during the recall response. IFNαβR-deficient memory CD8+ and CD4+ memory T cells undergo attrition and expansion with kinetics that are indistinguishable from those of receptor-sufficient cells. Moreover, even in the absence of functional T1IFN signaling, the host's immune capacity to rapidly suppress, and then to eradicate, a secondary infection remains intact. Thus, this study shows that T1IFN signaling is dispensable during the recall response to a virus infection. Moreover, two broader implications may be drawn. First, a T cell's requirement for a cytokine is highly dependent on the cell's maturation / differentiation status. Consequently, second, these data underscore the importance of evaluating a gene's impact by modulating its expression or function in a temporally-controllable manner.

  3. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Ayse; Tanir, Gonul; Ozkan, Mehpare; Oguz, Melek; Yıldız, Yasemin Tasci

    2013-03-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, which principally affects the brain and spinal cord. It usually follows a benign infection or vaccination in children. Although a number of infectious agents have been implicated in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Toxoplasma gondii infection has not been described previously in children. Acquired T. gondii infection presents with lymphadenopathy and fever and usually spontaneously resolves in immunocompetent patients. We describe a previously healthy 10-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with acute acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection, the symptoms of which initially began with nuchal stiffness, difficulty in walking, and urinary and stool incontinence; he later had development of motor and sensory impairment in both lower extremities and classical magnetic resonance imaging lesions suggestive of the disease. The patient recovered completely after the specific therapy for acquired T. gondii infection and pulse prednisolone. Although acute acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection has not been reported previously in association with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, clinicians should keep in mind this uncommon cause of a common disease when evaluating a patient with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SYMPTOMATIC THERAPY OF COUGH DURING SEASONAL INCREASE OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS PREVALENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough is the main symptom of the respiratory tract disorders. Mostly it occurs in viral, bacterial and mixed (viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections. The highest rates of respiratory tract infections are among children: it is known that children have respiratory tract infections 3–4 times as much as adults. Available drugs used in acute respiratory tract infections are numerous and various and cover almost all methods of influence on the infectious process. Nowadays the problem of usage of effective and at the same time safe agents in acute respiratory tract infections in children is very topical. The modern approaches to treatment of acute respiratory tract infections in children are discussed in the article. A special attention is given to symptomatic therapy. The authors describe the approaches to treatment of cough according to its character, intensity and other characteristics.

  5. Evaluating of Clinical and Laboratory Findings of Patients with Acute Viral Hepatitis A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taşkesen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute viral hepatitis A is usually, which asymptomatic and anicteric, has often been seen in children. In this study, the files of 42 patients with acute viral hepatitis A infection who were admitted at the Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty, Dicle University, between January 2006 and February 2007, were evaluated retrospectively. Male/female rate was determined to be 1.4, and the mean ages of patients were 6.9±3.5 years (18months to14 years. The most common symptoms on admission were jaundice (73.8%, vomiting (52.3%, fever (42.8% and abdominal pain (38%. The seasons on admission were winter (47.6%, autumn (38.1% and spring (14.3%. In laboratory findings mean of aspartate aminotransferase (AST 1875U/L (82-6340U/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT 1697U/L (144-4876 U/L, total bilirubin 12.1mg/dl (0.9-47mg/dl, and direct bilirubin 8.9mg/dl (0.4-27.3 mg/dl were determined. The most frequent complications were anemia, hepatic encephalopathy, thrombocytopenia, and the mortality rate was determined as 2.4%.

  6. [Evaluation of serum specific IgM detection in diagnosis of respiratory viral infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qin-wei; Zhu, Ru-nan; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Lin-qing; Sun, Yu; Ding, Ya-xin; Qian, Yuan

    2012-06-01

    The present study was designed to explore the practical application of the rapid etiological diagnosis by detecting specific IgM antibody against common respiratory viruses in children with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI). Clinical specimens including nasopharyngeal aspirates and serum of acute phase from hospitalized children were collected from 207 infants and children with acute lower respiratory infections from March 2009 to September 2010. Seven common respiratory virus antigens were identified from the collected nasopharyngeal aspirates by direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA). ELISA was used to detect specific IgM antibody against RSV, ADV, IFVA, IFVB and PIV, while indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was used to detect specific IgM antibody against RSV, ADV, IFVA, IFVB, PIV1, PIV2 and PIV3 in collected acute phase serum. The overall positive rates to detect viral antigen by using DFA, ELISA and IFA was 67.6%, 57.5% and 39.6%, respectively. The consistent rate of ELISA and IFA versus accepted DFA were 21.7% and 31.4%, respectively. The average days from onset of the symptoms to blood sample collection for those with the consistent results by ELISA and DFA were 12.0 d for ADV, 9.6 d for PIV2, 9.5 d for IFV, and 5.3 d for RSV, respectively, and by IFA and DFA were 15.0 d for PIV3, 9.2 d for ADV, and 7.4 d for RSV, respectively. Among all age groups, the consistent rate of serum viral IgM and antigen detections was highest in children younger than 3 years old. Although there were differences between serum IgM antibody and viral antigen detections, specific IgM antibody detection was of value in early and rapid etiological diagnosis of pediatric ALRI, especially for young children. It could provide serologic evidence of respiratory virus infection. The diagnostic rate of pathogen could be improved if it was used in combination with viral antigen diagnostic methods.

  7. HEV, TTV and GBV-C/HGV markers in patients with acute viral hepatitis

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    Lyra A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of HEV, TTV and GBV-C/GBV-C/HGV in patients with acute viral hepatitis A, B and non-A-C. We evaluated sera of 94 patients from a sentinel program who had acute hepatitis A (N = 40, B (N = 42 and non-A-C (N = 12; 71 blood donors served as controls. IgM and anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected by enzyme immunoassay using commercial kits. TTV and GBV-C/HGV were detected by nested PCR; genotyping was done by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Anti-HEV IgG was present in 38, 10 and 17% of patients with hepatitis A, B and non-A-C. Four patients with hepatitis A and 1 with non-A-C hepatitis also had anti-HEV IgM detected in serum. TTV was detected in 21% of patients with acute hepatitis and in 31% of donors. GBV-C/HGV was detected in 9% of patients with hepatitis, and in 10% of donors. We found TTV isolates of genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 and GBV-C/HGV isolates of genotypes 1 and 2. Mean aminotransferase levels were lower in patients who were TTV or GBV-C/HGV positive. In conclusion, the detection of anti-HEV IgM in some acute hepatitis A cases suggests co-infection with HEV and hepatitis E could be the etiology of a few cases of sporadic non-A-C hepatitis in Salvador, Brazil. TTV genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 isolates and GBV-C/HGV genotype 1 and 2 strains are frequent in the studied population. TTV and GBV-C/HGV infection does not appear to have a role in the etiology of acute hepatitis.

  8. HEV, TTV and GBV-C/HGV markers in patients with acute viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, A C; Pinho, J R R; Silva, L K; Sousa, L; Saraceni, C P; Braga, E L; Pereira, J E; Zarife, M A S; Reis, M G; Lyra, L G C; Silva, L C da; Carrilho, F J

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of HEV, TTV and GBV-C/GBV-C/HGV in patients with acute viral hepatitis A, B and non-A-C. We evaluated sera of 94 patients from a sentinel program who had acute hepatitis A (N = 40), B (N = 42) and non-A-C (N = 12); 71 blood donors served as controls. IgM and anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected by enzyme immunoassay using commercial kits. TTV and GBV-C/HGV were detected by nested PCR; genotyping was done by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Anti-HEV IgG was present in 38, 10 and 17% of patients with hepatitis A, B and non-A-C. Four patients with hepatitis A and 1 with non-A-C hepatitis also had anti-HEV IgM detected in serum. TTV was detected in 21% of patients with acute hepatitis and in 31% of donors. GBV-C/HGV was detected in 9% of patients with hepatitis, and in 10% of donors. We found TTV isolates of genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 and GBV-C/HGV isolates of genotypes 1 and 2. Mean aminotransferase levels were lower in patients who were TTV or GBV-C/HGV positive. In conclusion, the detection of anti-HEV IgM in some acute hepatitis A cases suggests co-infection with HEV and hepatitis E could be the etiology of a few cases of sporadic non-A-C hepatitis in Salvador, Brazil. TTV genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 isolates and GBV-C/HGV genotype 1 and 2 strains are frequent in the studied population. TTV and GBV-C/HGV infection does not appear to have a role in the etiology of acute hepatitis.

  9. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

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    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  10. [Viral respiratory tract infections in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Carrasco, E; Calvo, C; García-García, M L; Beato, M; Muñoz-Archidona, C; Pozo, F; Casas, I

    2015-04-01

    Viral respiratory infections cause major morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. We have performed a prospective study in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to determine the incidence of respiratory infections, their impact and the epidemiology and outcome in high risk neonates. From September 2011 to May 2013 a prospective study was conducted in all preterm infants respiratory symptoms a new NPA was collected in this moment. A clinical form was filled by the physician. A total of 60 infants were analyzed: 30 (50%) had a gestational age infection (2 patients had two different episodes with negative control between them). The most frequently identified virus was rhinovirus in (19) 79% of cases. The most frequent clinical data was the presence or increased of apneas (75%) and the needed of oxygenotherapy. HRV infections are prevalent in the NICU, and preterm infants have a high risk of infections with clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention and treatment of viral respiratory infections by traditional Chinese herbs.

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    Wang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Zejing

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on current knowledge of traditional Chinese herbs on prevention and treatment of viral respiratory infections, especially caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndromes (SARS) virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza viruses. The data used in this review were obtained from PubMed and CNKI up to May 2013. Terms of Chinese herbs and infections of respiratory tract were used in the search. Articles related that Chinese herbs preventing and treating infections in respiratory tract were retrieved and reviewed. The risk of bias of included studies was assessed by the method in the "Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reveiws of Interventionsand studies" with high risk of bias were excluded. Four criteria for selections were set as following: randomized controlled trial, particular effective compound or derivative, reproducible result and animal test. Infectious respiratory tract diseases cause most mortality among infectious illnesses around the world. As traditional medicines, Chinese herbs have been widely used to deal with diseases for centuries and have been proved effective in practice. The administration of some Chinese herbs stimulates, suppresses or regulates the activity of immune system, thus protecting the respiratory tract or relieving infections of pathogens. Many herbs have remarkable antiviral effects, therefore they are used as substitutes of antimicrobial drugs. Based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, mix-using herbs provide a synergistic benefit on preventing and healing respiratory tract infections. Many commercial herbal medicines containing one or more compounds have been successfully applied to prevent and treat viral infections of respiratory tract clinically. Traditional Chinese herbs could directly inhibit pathogens infecting respiratory tract, or coordinate the activity of immune system to avoid or relieve infections. With the emergence of antidrug pathogens or new variants, Chinese herbs give strong

  12. Dengue viral infections as a cause of encephalopathy

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    Malavige G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and poor prognostic factors associated with high mortality in dengue encephalopathy. Fifteen patients with confirmed dengue infections, who developed encephalopathy, were recruited from two tertiary care hospitals in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Among the factors that contributed to encephalopathy were: Acute liver failure (73%, electrolyte imbalances (80% and shock (40%. Five (33.3% patients developed seizures. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was seen in five (33.3%. Secondary bacterial infections were observed in 8 (53.3% of our patients. The overall mortality rate was 47%.

  13. Superinfection exclusion is absent during acute Junin virus infection of Vero and A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Raphaël; Kirchhausen, Tomas

    2015-11-09

    Many viruses have evolved strategies of so-called "superinfection exclusion" to prevent re-infection of a cell that the same virus has already infected. Although Old World arenavirus infection results in down-regulation of its viral receptor and thus superinfection exclusion, whether New World arenaviruses have evolved such a mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that acute infection by the New World Junin virus (JUNV) failed to down-regulate the transferrin receptor and did not induce superinfection exclusion. We observed that Vero cells infected by a first round of JUNV (Candid1 strain) preserve an ability to internalize new incoming JUNV particles that is comparable to that of non-infected cells. Moreover, we developed a dual infection assay with the wild-type Candid1 JUNV and a recombinant JUNV-GFP virus to discriminate between first and second infections at the transcriptional and translational levels. We found that Vero and A549 cells already infected by JUNV were fully competent to transcribe viral RNA from a second round of infection. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis of viral protein expression indicated that viral translation was normal, regardless of whether cells were previously infected or not. We conclude that in acutely infected cells, Junin virus lacks a superinfection exclusion mechanism.

  14. Infiltrating regulatory B cells control neuroinflammation following viral brain infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutnal, Manohar B; Hu, Shuxian; Schachtele, Scott J; Lokensgard, James R

    2014-12-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of a subset of B lymphocytes, regulatory B cells (Bregs), which modulate immune function. In this study, in vivo and in vitro experiments were undertaken to elucidate the role of these Bregs in controlling neuroinflammation following viral brain infection. We used multicolor flow cytometry to phenotype lymphocyte subpopulations infiltrating the brain, along with in vitro cocultures to assess their anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory roles. This distinctive subset of CD19(+)CD1d(hi)CD5(+) B cells was found to infiltrate the brains of chronically infected animals, reaching highest levels at the latest time point tested (30 d postinfection). B cell-deficient Jh(-/-) mice were found to develop exacerbated neuroimmune responses as measured by enhanced accumulation and/or retention of CD8(+) T cells within the brain, as well as increased levels of microglial activation (MHC class II). Conversely, levels of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells were found to be significantly lower in Jh(-/-) mice when compared with wild-type (Wt) animals. Further experiments showed that in vitro-generated IL-10-secreting Bregs (B10) were able to inhibit cytokine responses from microglia following stimulation with viral Ags. These in vitro-generated B10 cells were also found to promote proliferation of regulatory T cells in coculture studies. Finally, gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that reconstitution of Wt B cells into Jh(-/-) mice restored neuroimmune responses to levels exhibited by infected Wt mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Bregs modulate T lymphocyte as well as microglial cell responses within the infected brain and promote CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cell proliferation in vitro. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Viral Infection of the Central Nervous System and Neuroinflammation Precede Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption during Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Wang, Yueyun; Yu, Lan; Cao, Shengbo; Wang, Ke; Yuan, Jiaolong; Wang, Chong; Wang, Kunlun; Cui, Min; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis is an acute zoonotic, mosquito-borne disease caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Japanese encephalitis is characterized by extensive inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the pathogenic mechanisms contributing to the BBB disruption are not known. Here, using a mouse model of intravenous JEV infection, we show that virus titers increased exponentially in the brain from 2 to 5 days postinfection. This was accompanied by an early, dramatic increase in the level of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the brain. Enhancement of BBB permeability, however, was not observed until day 4, suggesting that viral entry and the onset of inflammation in the CNS occurred prior to BBB damage. In vitro studies revealed that direct infection with JEV could not induce changes in the permeability of brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. However, brain extracts derived from symptomatic JEV-infected mice, but not from mock-infected mice, induced significant permeability of the endothelial monolayer. Consistent with a role for inflammatory mediators in BBB disruption, the administration of gamma interferon-neutralizing antibody ameliorated the enhancement of BBB permeability in JEV-infected mice. Taken together, our data suggest that JEV enters the CNS, propagates in neurons, and induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which result in the disruption of the BBB. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, resulting in 70,000 cases each year, in which approximately 20 to 30% of cases are fatal, and a high proportion of patients survive with serious neurological and psychiatric sequelae. Pathologically, JEV infection causes an acute encephalopathy accompanied by BBB dysfunction; however, the mechanism is not clear. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of BBB disruption in JEV infection is important. Our data demonstrate

  16. [Infections in the child with acute leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, J M; Jiménez, E; Jiménez, R

    1981-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-five febrile episodes in 82 children with acute leukemia were studied; 46% of the patients were from urban and 54% from rural areas. The origin of the fever was identified in 91% of the episodes, prevailing pneumonia, septicemia, chickenpox and herpes zoster. The etiological agent was identified in 46% of the cases. A viral predominance was evident, and among them varicela-zoster, following in importance gram-negative bacteria. Histoplasma capsulatum and Pneumocystis carinii were isolated in two occassions each. Sepsis was found more frequently in children with active leukemia than in those in remission (p less than 0.001). Forty-four febrile episodes occurred in patients with less than 1,000 neutrophils/ul. The daily-risk rate of infection was higher in children fom rural than in those from urban areas (p less than 0.001). After clinical and laboratory studies, methicillin and gentamicin were used, in addition to carbenicillin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is selected cases. This treatment was effective in 86% of the cases. Twelve (15%) children died, 6 of whom were in remission at that moment.

  17. Prognostic Value of Cytochrome C and Cytokines in Acute Viral Encephalopathy

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum cytochrome c and cytokines were evaluated as prognostic predictors in 29 children (ages 9 mos to 9 yrs 11 mos with viral acute encephalopathies and multiple organ failure at Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Japan.

  18. First case report of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis following Plasmodium vivax infection

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    V Venugopal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE, Hurst′s disease is a rare hyperacute variant of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM characterized by severe, rapidly progressive clinical illness and hemorrhagic necrosis of white matter. Like ADEM, it is often preceded by viral illness or vaccination. Plasmodium vivax infection is usually uncomplicated and non-fatal with only a handful of reports of central nervous system complications. In this article, we report a previously unknown association between AHLE and P. vivax infection.

  19. Hepatitis E virus is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Kokki, I.; D. Smith; Simmonds, P; Ramalingam, S; Wellington, L.; Willocks, L.; Johannessen, I.; Harvala, H.

    2016-01-01

    Acute viral hepatitis affects all ages worldwide. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is increasingly recognized as a major cause of acute hepatitis in Europe. Because knowledge of its characteristics is limited, we conducted a retrospective study to outline demographic and clinical features of acute HEV in comparison to hepatitis A, B and C in Lothian over 28 months (January 2012 to April 2014). A total of 3204 blood samples from patients with suspected acute hepatitis were screened for hepatitis A, B a...

  20. Nuclear domain 10 components upregulated via interferon during human cytomegalovirus infection potently regulate viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Caroline L; Glass, Mandy S; Abendroth, Allison; McSharry, Brian P; Slobedman, Barry

    2017-07-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous betaherpesvirus that causes life-threatening disease in immunocompromised and immunonaïve individuals. Type I interferons (IFNs) are crucial molecules in the innate immune response to HCMV and are also known to upregulate several components of the interchromosomal multiprotein aggregates collectively referred to as nuclear domain 10 (ND10). In the context of herpesvirus infection, ND10 components are known to restrict gene expression. This raises the question as to whether key ND10 components (PML, Sp100 and hDaxx) act as anti-viral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) during HCMV infection. In this study, analysis of ND10 component transcription during HCMV infection demonstrated that PML and Sp100 were significantly upregulated whilst hDaxx expression remained unchanged. In cells engineered to block the production of, or response to, type I IFNs, upregulation of PML and Sp100 was not detected during HCMV infection. Furthermore, pre-treatment with an IFN-β neutralizing antibody inhibited upregulation of PML and Sp100 during both infection and treatment with HCMV-infected cell supernatant. The significance of ND10 components functioning as anti-viral ISGs during HCMV infection was determined through knockdown of PML, Sp100 and hDaxx. ND10 knockdown cells were significantly more permissive to HCMV infection, as previously described but, in contrast to control cells, could support HCMV plaque formation following IFN-β pre-treatment. This ability of HCMV to overcome the potently anti-viral effects of IFN-β in ND10 expression deficient cells provides evidence that ND10 component upregulation is a key mediator of the anti-viral activity of IFN-β.

  1. A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jae Eun; Lee, Jun-Bum; Cho, Yu Na; Suh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ja Kyung; Lee, Kyung-Yul

    2012-07-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a monophasic autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which typically follows acute viral or bacterial infection or vaccination. We report a case of ADEM associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) anti-HCV antibody. After steroid treatment, neurologic symptoms were improved. Virus triggers autoimmunity or direct viral invasion plays a part in the genesis of ADEM. This is the first reported case of ADEM with anti-HCV antibody in the CSF.

  2. Factors Associated With the Control of Viral Replication and Virologic Breakthrough in a Recently Infected HIV-1 Controller

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    Victoria E. Walker-Sperling

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 controllers are patients who control HIV-1 viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. Control is achieved very early in the course of infection, but the mechanisms through which viral replication is restricted are not fully understood. We describe a patient who presented with acute HIV-1 infection and was found to have an HIV-1 RNA level of <100 copies/mL. She did not have any known protective HLA alleles, but significant immune activation of CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK cells was present, and both cell types inhibited viral replication. Virus cultured from this patient replicated as well in vitro as virus isolated from her partner, a patient with AIDS who was the source of transmission. Virologic breakthrough occurred 9 months after her initial presentation and was associated with an increase in CD4+ T cell activation levels and a significant decrease in NK cell inhibitory capacity. Remarkably, CD8+ T cell inhibitory capacity was preserved and there were no new escape mutations in targeted Gag epitopes. These findings suggest that fully replication-competent virus can be controlled in acute HIV-1 infection in some patients without protective HLA alleles and that NK cell responses may contribute to this early control of viral replication.

  3. Management of Viral Central Nervous System Infections: A Primer for Clinicians

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    P Brandon Bookstaver

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are a common cause of central nervous system (CNS infections with many host, agent, and environmental factors influencing the expression of viral diseases. Viruses can be responsible for CNS disease through a variety of mechanisms including direct infection and replication within the CNS resulting in encephalitis, infection limited to the meninges, or immune-related processes such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Common pathogens including herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster, and enterovirus are responsible for the greatest number of cases in immunocompetent hosts. Other herpes viruses (eg, cytomegalovirus, John Cunningham virus are more common in immunocompromised hosts. Arboviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus and Zika virus are important pathogens globally, but the prevalence varies significantly by geographic region and often season. Early diagnosis from radiographic evidence and molecular (eg, rapid diagnostics is important for targeted therapy. Antivirals may be used effectively against some pathogens, although several viruses have no effective treatment. This article provides a review of epidemiology, diagnostics, and management of common viral pathogens in CNS disease.

  4. Pitfalls in interpretation of CT-values of RT-PCR in children with acute respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishaupt, Jérôme O; Ploeg, Tjeerd van der; Smeets, Leo C; Groot, Ronald de; Versteegh, Florens G A; Hartwig, Nico G

    2017-05-01

    The relation between viral load and disease severity in childhood acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) is not fully understood. To assess the clinical relevance of the relation between viral load, determined by cycle threshold (CT) value of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays and disease severity in children with single- and multiple viral ARI. 582 children with ARI were prospectively followed and tested for 15 viruses. Correlations were calculated between CT values and clinical parameters. In single viral ARI, statistically significant correlations were found between viral loads of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and hospitalization and between viral loads of Human Coronavirus (HCoV) and a disease severity score. In multiple-viral ARI, statistically significant correlations between viral load and clinical parameters were found. In RSV-Rhinovirus (RV) multiple infections, a low viral load of RV was correlated with a high length of hospital stay and a high duration of extra oxygen use. The mean CT value for RV, HCoV and Parainfluenza virus was significantly lower in single- versus multiple infections. Although correlations between CT values and clinical parameters in patients with single and multiple viral infection were found, the clinical importance of these findings is limited because individual differences in host-, viral and laboratory factors complicate the interpretation of statistically significant findings. In multiple infections, viral load cannot be used to differentiate between disease causing virus and innocent bystanders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnosis of viral infections using myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Ilka; Dubos, François; Lobert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Houssin, Claire; Degas, Vanessa; Sardet, Anne; Decoster, Anne; Dewilde, Anny; Martinot, Alain; Hober, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Myxoma resistance protein 1 (MxA) is induced during viral infections. MxA testing could be helpful to differentiate between viral and bacterial infections. A prospective multicenter cohort study was performed in pediatric emergency departments. MxA blood values were measured in children with confirmed viral or bacterial infections, uninfected controls, and infections of unknown origin. First patients were used to determine MxA threshold for viral infection. The diagnostic performance of MxA was determined by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Sensitivities (Se), specificities (Sp), and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR-) were calculated. The study included 553 children; 44 uninfected controls and 77 confirmed viral infections (mainly respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus) were used to determine an MxA threshold at 200 ng/mL. In the 193 other patients with confirmed infections and uninfected controls (validation group), MxA was significantly higher in patients with viral than in those with bacterial infections and uninfected controls (P < .0001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) were 0.98, with 96.4% Se and 85.4% Sp, for differentiating uninfected from virus-infected patients and 0.89, with 96.4% Se and 66.7% Sp, for differentiating bacterial and viral infections. MxA levels were significantly higher in patients with clinically diagnosed viral versus clinically diagnosed bacterial infections (P < .001). Some patients with Streptococcus pneumonia infections had high MxA levels. Additional studies are required to elucidate whether this was due to undiagnosed viral coinfections. MxA is viral infection marker in children, at least with RSV and rotavirus. MxA could improve the management of children with signs of infection. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Therapy of respiratory viral infections with intranasal siRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen; Lu, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Chemically synthesized short interfering RNA (siRNA) has ushered a new era in the application of RNA interference (RNAi) against viral genes. We have paid particular attention to respiratory viruses that wreak heavy morbidity and mortality worldwide. The clinically significant ones include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV) (two Paramyxoviruses), and influenza virus (an Orthomyxovirus). As the infection by these viruses is clinically restricted to the respiratory tissues, mainly the lungs, the logical route for the application of the siRNA was also the same, i.e., via the nasal route. Following the initial success of single intranasal siRNA against RSV, we now offer two new strategies: (1) second-generation siRNAs, used against the paramyxoviral RNA polymerase large subunit (L), (2) siRNA cocktail with a novel transfection reagent, used against influenza virus. Based on these results, we propose the following consensus for designing intranasal antiviral siRNAs: (a) modified 19-27 nt-long double-stranded siRNAs are functional in the lung, (b) excessive 2'-OMe and 2'-F modifications in either or both strands of these siRNAs reduce efficacy, (c) limited modifications in the sense strand are beneficial, although their precise efficacy may be position-dependent, (d) cocktail of multiple siRNAs can be highly effective against multiple viral strains and subtypes.

  7. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A.

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    Hyun Woong Lee

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH.We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128. Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH (n = 642. Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer.In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041, peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001, bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003, alanine aminotransferase (ALT (HR = 1.001, P < 0.001, initial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH (HR = 1.000, P = 0.045 and total cholesterol (HR = 0.978, P < 0.001 were independent factors for s-AH. Serum HAV RNA was detected in 20/20 (100% patients with s-AH and 22/28 (78.6% patients with m-AH. In a multivariate analysis of the 48 patients who were tested for HAV RNA, peak ALT (HR = 1.001, P = 0.004 and HAV RNA titer (HR = 2.076, P = 0.012 were independent factors for s-AH.Clinical factors including age, peak creatinine, bilirubin, ALT, initial LDH and total cholesterol were independent factors for s-AH in a multivariate analysis. In particular, HAV load strongly correlated with the severity of hepatitis A.

  8. Epidemiological investigation of selected pigeon viral infections in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, T A; Pestka, D; Tykałowski, B; Śmiałek, M; Koncicki, A

    2012-12-01

    Due to a lack of data in regard to the spread of viral infections in Polish pigeon populations, studies were undertaken to assess the frequency of adeno-, circo- and herpesvirus infections in flocks of pigeons across the entire country. In total, 107 flocks were examined, of which 61 per cent consisted of racing and 39 per cent of fancy pigeons. The flocks were divided into groups according to breed (racing and fancy pigeons) as well as physical condition (healthy and sick). In the studied pigeon flocks, the pigeon circovirus (PiCV) genetic material was the most frequently detected (44.5-100 per cent depending on the group), pigeon herpesvirus genetic material was second in frequency (0-30 per cent depending on the group), while genetic material of pigeon adenovirus was found only in two flocks of young birds with clinical symptoms of Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS). The presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genetic material was not detected in any of the studied flocks. Results obtained demonstrate a wide spread of circovirus in pigeon flocks in Poland, and substantiate earlier theories proposed by other authors, that immunosuppression evoked by PiCV infection is one of the main causative agents of YPDS.

  9. Viral respiratory infections among Hajj pilgrims in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasheed, Osamah; Rashid, Harunor; Alfelali, Mohammad; Tashani, Mohamed; Azeem, Mohammad; Bokhary, Hamid; Kalantan, Nadeen; Samkari, Jamil; Heron, Leon; Kok, Jen; Taylor, Janette; El Bashir, Haitham; Memish, Ziad A; Haworth, Elizabeth; Holmes, Edward C; Dwyer, Dominic E; Asghar, Atif; Booy, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has emerged in the Arabian Gulf region, with its epicentre in Saudi Arabia, the host of the 'Hajj' which is the world's the largest mass gathering. Transmission of MERS-CoV at such an event could lead to its rapid worldwide dissemination. Therefore, we studied the frequency of viruses causing influenza-like illnesses (ILI) among participants in a randomised controlled trial at the Hajj 2013. We recruited 1038 pilgrims from Saudi Arabia, Australia and Qatar during the first day of Hajj and followed them closely for four days. A nasal swab was collected from each pilgrim who developed ILI. Respiratory viruses were detected using multiplex RT-PCR. ILI occurred in 112/1038 (11%) pilgrims. Their mean age was 35 years, 49 (44%) were male and 35 (31%) had received the influenza vaccine pre-Hajj. Forty two (38%) pilgrims had laboratory-confirmed viral infections; 28 (25%) rhinovirus, 5 (4%) influenza A, 2 (2%) adenovirus, 2 (2%) human coronavirus OC43/229E, 2 (2%) parainfluenza virus 3, 1 (1%) parainfluenza virus 1, and 2 (2%) dual infections. No MERS-CoV was detected in any sample. Rhinovirus was the commonest cause of ILI among Hajj pilgrims in 2013. Infection control and appropriate vaccination are necessary to prevent transmission of respiratory viruses at Hajj and other mass gatherings.

  10. Global analysis of viral infection in an archaeal model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid S. Maaty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The origin and evolutionary relationship of viruses is poorly understood. This makes archaeal virus-host of particular interest because the hosts generally root near the base of phylogenetic trees, while some of the viruses have clear structural similarities to those that infect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Despite the advantageous position for use in evolutionary studies, little is known about archaeal viruses or how they interact with their hosts, compared to viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition, many archaeal viruses have been isolated from extreme environments and present a unique opportunity for elucidating factors that are important for existence at the extremes.. In this article we focus on virus-host interactions using a proteomics approach to study Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus (STIV infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2. Using cultures grown from the ATCC cell stock, a single cycle of STIV infection was sampled 6 times over a 72 hr period. More than 700 proteins were identified throughout the course of the experiments. Seventy one host proteins were found to change by nearly two-fold (p<0.05 with 40 becoming more abundant and 31 less abundant. The modulated proteins represent 30 different cell pathways and 14 COG groups. 2D gel analysis showed that changes in post translational modifications were a common feature of the affected proteins. The results from these studies showed that the prokaryotic antiviral adaptive immune system CRISPR associated proteins (CAS proteins were regulated in response to the virus infection. It was found that regulated proteins come from mRNAs with a shorter than average half-life. In addition, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP profiling on 2D gels showed caspase, hydrolase and tyrosine phosphatase enzyme activity labeling at the protein isoform level. Together, this data provides a more detailed global view of archaeal cellular responses to viral infection, demonstrates the

  11. Transient Oral Human Cytomegalovirus Infections Indicate Inefficient Viral Spread from Very Few Initially Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Bryan T; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Swan, David; Ferrenberg, James; Simmons, Karen; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna; Schiffer, Joshua T; Gantt, Soren

    2017-06-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is acquired by the oral route in children, and primary infection is associated with abundant mucosal replication, as well as the establishment of latency in myeloid cells that results in lifelong infection. The efficiency of primary CMV infection in humans following oral exposure, however, is unknown. We consistently detected self-limited, low-level oral CMV shedding events, which we termed transient CMV infections, in a prospective birth cohort of 30 highly exposed CMV-uninfected infants. We estimated the likelihood of transient oral CMV infections by comparing their observed frequency to that of established primary infections, characterized by persistent high-level shedding, viremia, and seroconversion. We developed mathematical models of viral dynamics upon initial oral CMV infection and validated them using clinical shedding data. Transient infections comprised 76 to 88% of oral CMV shedding events. For this high percentage of transient infections to occur, we identified two mathematical prerequisites: a very small number of initially infected oral cells (1 to 4) and low viral infectivity (<1.5 new cells infected/cell). These observations indicate that oral CMV infection in infants typically begins with a single virus that spreads inefficiently to neighboring cells. Thus, although the incidence of CMV infection is high during infancy, our data provide a mechanistic framework to explain why multiple CMV exposures are typically required before infection is successfully established. These findings imply that a sufficiently primed immune response could prevent CMV from establishing latent infection in humans and support the achievability of a prophylactic CMV vaccine. IMPORTANCE CMV infects the majority of the world's population and is a major cause of birth defects. Developing a vaccine to prevent CMV infection would be extremely valuable but would be facilitated by a better understanding of how natural human CMV infection is acquired. We

  12. Infection prevention and control measures for acute respiratory infections in healthcare settings: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, W H; Conly, J M; Pessoa-Silva, C L; Malik, M; Eremin, S

    2013-01-01

    Viruses account for the majority of the acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) globally with a mortality exceeding 4 million deaths per year. The most commonly encountered viruses, in order of frequency, include influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and adenovirus. Current evidence suggests that the major mode of transmission of ARls is through large droplets, but transmission through contact (including hand contamination with subsequent self-inoculation) and infectious respiratory aerosols of various sizes and at short range (coined as "opportunistic" airborne transmission) may also occur for some pathogens. Opportunistic airborne transmission may occur when conducting highrisk aerosol generating procedures and airborne precautions will be required in this setting. General infection control measures effective for all respiratory viral infections are reviewed and followed by discussion on some of the common viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and the recently discovered novel coronavirus.

  13. Interplay between viral infections and genetic alterations in liver cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Hainaut

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    With over 500 000 annual deaths, Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and a leading cause of death in developing countries where about 80% of the cases arise. Risk factors include chronic hepatitis infections (hepatitis B, (HBV and hepatitis C (HCV viruses, alcohol, dietary contaminants such as falatoxins The incidence shows important geographic variations, accor In southern Asia, HCC development is mainly related to the endemic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV infection, cases with hot spot mutation in codon 249 (249ser of TP53 tumor suppressor gene were also described and associated to a low-intermediate exposure rate to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. Presence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection was also detected in 12 - 17% of HCC cases. Despite the increasing number of studies identifying viral/host interactions in viro-induced HCC or describing potential pathways for hepatocarcinogenesis, precise mechanism has not been identified so far. HBV was demonstrated to enhance hepatocarcinogenesis by different manners; HBV chronic infection is associated to active hepatitis (CAH and cirrhosis which are hepatic complications considered as early stage for HCC development. These complications mobilise the host immune response, the resulting inflammation initiates and selects the first genetic alteration at the origin of loss of cell control. Moreover, HBV can also promote carcinogenesis through genetic instability generated by its common integration in host DNA. HBV proteins, as HBx, was proven to interact with a variety of targets in the host cell including protein or host transcription factor such as, in particular, the p53 protein or the transcription factor E4F, which is implicated in growth, differenciation and senescence. Specific HBV mutations or distinct HBV genotypes are associated to higher risks factors for HCC or hepatic complications leading

  14. High numbers of IL-2-producing CD8+ T cells during viral infection: correlation with stable memory development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2002-01-01

    Using infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and vesicular stomatitis virus in mice as model systems, we have investigated the ability of antigen-primed CD8+ T cells generated in the context of viral infections to produce IL-2. Our results indicate that acute immunizing infection...... normally leads to generation of high numbers of IL-2-producing antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. By costaining for IL-2 and IFN-gamma intracellularly, we found that IL-2-producing cells predominantly constitute a subset of cells also producing IFN-gamma. Comparison of the kinetics of generation revealed...... that IL-2-producing cells appear slightly delayed compared with the majority of IFN-gamma producing cells, and the relative frequency of the IL-2-producing subset increases with transition into the memory phase. In contrast to acute immunizing infection, few IL-2-producing cells are generated during...

  15. Platelets and infection — an emerging role of platelets in viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eAssinger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are anucleate blood cells that play a crucial role in the maintenance of hemostasis. While platelet activation and elevated platelet counts (thrombocytosis are associated with increased risk of thrombotic complications, low platelet counts (thrombocytopenia and several platelet function disorders increase the risk of bleeding. Over the last years more and more evidence has emerged that platelets and their activation state can also modulate innate and adaptive immune responses and low platelet counts have been identified as a surrogate marker for poor prognosis in septic patients.Viral infections often coincide with platelet activation. Host inflammatory responses result in the release of platelet activating mediators and a pro-oxidative and pro-coagulant environment, which favours platelet activation. However, viruses can also directly interact with platelets and megakaryocytes and modulate their function. Furthermore, platelets can be activated by viral antigen-antibody complexes and in response to some viruses B-lymphocytes also generate anti-platelet antibodies.All these processes contributing to platelet activation result in increased platelet consumption and removal and often lead to thrombocytopenia, which is frequently observed during viral infection. However, virus-induced platelet activation does not only modulate platelet count, but also shapes immune responses. Platelets and their released products have been reported to directly and indirectly suppress infection and to support virus persistence in response to certain viruses, making platelets a double-edged sword during viral infections. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on platelet interaction with different types of viruses, the viral impact on platelet activation and platelet-mediated modulations of innate and adaptive immune responses.

  16. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

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    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  17. Viral and atypical bacterial infections in the outpatient pediatric cystic fibrosis clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Nielsen, Lars P; Schiotz, Peter Oluf

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral and atypical bacterial infections are associated with pulmonary exacerbations and hospitalisations in cystic fibrosis patients. We wanted to study the impact of such infections on children attending the outpatient clinic. METHODS: Seventy-five children were followed...

  18. Aberrant Epstein–Barr viral infection in systemic lupus erythematosus☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Brian D.; Templeton, Amanda K.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Brown, Eric J.; Harley, John B.; James, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Serologic association, cross-reactivity of select EBV-specific antibodies with SLE autoantigens, SLE-like autoimmunity after immunization with EBV peptides, increased EB viral load in SLE patients, and SLE-specific alterations in EBV humoral and cellular immunity implicate Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To investigate SLE-specific differences in EBV gene expression, levels of eight EBV genes were compared between SLE patients and controls by using both ex vivo-infected and un-manipulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Expression levels of mRNA were significantly greater by Wilcoxen signed rank test in the ex vivo-infected SLE patient-derived cells for 4 of 8 EBV genes, including BLLF1, 3.2-fold (p<0.004); LMP-2, 1.7-fold (p<0.008); EBNA-1, 1.7-fold (p<0.01); and BcRF1, a proposed DNA binding protein, 1.7-fold (p<0.02). The frequency of LMP-1 gene expression was significantly greater by Chi square analysis in the peripheral blood from SLE patients than controls (44% of patients, 10% of controls p<0.05). PBMCs from SLE patients had greater expression of latent genes as well as increased expression of both latent and lytic genes after infection, suggesting that EBV may participate in SLE etiology through several mechanisms. Such altered infection patterns may contribute to the increased levels of EBV and the molecular mimicry seen in sera from SLE patients. PMID:19167523

  19. Pseudo-nitzschia challenged with co-occurring viral communities display diverse infection phenotypes

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    Michael Curtis Grier Carlson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are catalysts of biogeochemical cycling, architects of microbial community structure, and terminators of phytoplankton blooms. Viral lysis of diatoms, a key group of eukaryotic phytoplankton, has the potential to impact carbon export and marine food webs. However, the impact of viruses on diatom abundance and community composition is unknown. Diatom-virus dynamics were explored by sampling every month at 2 coastal and estuarine locations in Washington state, USA resulting in 41 new isolates of the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia and 20 environmental virus samples. We conducted a total of 820 pair-wise crosses of the Pseudo-nitzschia isolates and viral communities. Viral communities infected Pseudo-nitzschia isolates in 8% of the crosses overall and 16% of crosses when the host and viral communities were isolated from the same sample. Isolates ranged in their permissivity to infection with some isolates not infected by any viral samples and others infected by up to 10 viral communities. Isolates that were infected by the most viral communities also had the highest maximum observed viral titers (as high as 16000 infectious units ml-1. Titers of the viral communities were host dependent, as titers for one viral sample on 8 different hosts spanned 4 orders of magnitude. Sequencing of the Pseudo-nitzschia Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1 of the revealed multiple subgroups of hosts with 100% ITS1 identity that were infected by different viral communities. Indeed, we repeatedly isolated groups of isolates with identical ITS1 sequences from the same water sample that displayed different viral infection phenotypes. The interactions between Pseudo-nitzschia and the viral communities highlight the diversity of diatoms and emphasize the complexity and variability of diatom-virus dynamics in the ocean.

  20. Selection pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives sequence evolution during acute infection with hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Kimberly A; Netski, Dale M; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Cox, Andrea L; Ray, Stuart C

    2009-06-01

    Despite recent characterization of hepatitis C virus-specific neutralizing antibodies, it is not clear to what extent immune pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives viral sequence evolution in vivo. This lack of understanding is particularly evident in acute infection, the phase when elimination or persistence of viral replication is determined and during which the importance of the humoral immune response has been largely discounted. We analyzed envelope glycoprotein sequence evolution and neutralization of sequential autologous hepatitis C virus pseudoparticles in 8 individuals throughout acute infection. Amino acid substitutions occurred throughout the envelope genes, primarily within the hypervariable region 1 of E2. When individualized pseudoparticles expressing sequential envelope sequences were used to measure neutralization by autologous sera, antibodies neutralizing earlier sequence variants were detected at earlier time points than antibodies neutralizing later variants, indicating clearance and evolution of viral variants in response to pressure from neutralizing antibodies. To demonstrate the effects of amino acid substitution on neutralization, site-directed mutagenesis of a pseudoparticle envelope sequence revealed amino acid substitutions in hypervariable region 1 that were responsible for a dramatic decrease in neutralization sensitivity over time. In addition, high-titer neutralizing antibodies peaked at the time of viral clearance in all spontaneous resolvers, whereas chronically evolving subjects displayed low-titer or absent neutralizing antibodies throughout early acute infection. These findings indicate that, during acute hepatitis C virus infection in vivo, virus-specific neutralizing antibodies drive sequence evolution and, in some individuals, play a role in determining the outcome of infection.

  1. Etiological spectrum of viral hepatitis and prevalence of markers of hepatitis A and B virus infection in north India*

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, B. N.; Gandhi, B. M.; Joshi, Y. K.

    1984-01-01

    The etiological spectrum of viral hepatitis and the prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis A and B virus infection in healthy persons in north India were studied. Hepatitis A virus was found to be the most common cause of acute hepatitis in children (67%). It was a less frequent cause of this disease in adults (14%). Hepatitis A virus was only rarely the cause of acute (12%) and subacute (4%) liver failure. It was recorded as the etiological agent in an epidemic among schoolchildren. ...

  2. Viruses as Sole Causative Agents of Severe Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesker, Fleur M; van Kampen, Jeroen J A; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; de Hoog, Matthijs; Koopmans, Marion P G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fraaij, Pieter L A

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A viruses are known to cause severe acute respiratory tract infections (SARIs) in children. For other viruses like human rhinoviruses (HRVs) this is less well established. Viral or bacterial co-infections are often considered essential for severe manifestations of these virus infections. The study aims at identifying viruses that may cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections, at identifying disease characteristics associated with these single virus infections, and at identifying a possible correlation between viral loads and disease severities. Between April 2007 and March 2012, we identified children (acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) (controls). Data were extracted from the clinical and laboratory databases of our tertiary care paediatric hospital. Patient specimens were tested for fifteen respiratory viruses with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays and we selected patients with a single virus infection only. Typical bacterial co-infections were considered unlikely to have contributed to the PICU or MC admission based on C-reactive protein-levels or bacteriological test results if performed. We identified 44 patients admitted to PICU with SARI and 40 patients admitted to MC with ARTI. Twelve viruses were associated with SARI, ten of which were also associated with ARTI in the absence of typical bacterial and viral co-infections, with RSV and HRV being the most frequent causes. Viral loads were not different between PICU-SARI patients and MC-ARTI patients. Both SARI and ARTI may be caused by single viral pathogens in previously healthy children as well as in children with a medical history. No relationship between viral load and disease severity was identified.

  3. DNA viral infection in patients following allogeneic transplantation of bone marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Hubáček, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Infectious complications are very common after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Beside bacterial and mycotic infections, viral infections are important cause of morbidity and mortality of these patients. Among viral infections, the most common are infections caused by DNA viruses. Between January 2001 and October 2008, we have tested samples from 217 paediatric and 382 adult patients after HSCT. In total, we have tested 15 757 samples (median 31 samples for children, 20 for ad...

  4. Lymphocytes Negatively Regulate NK Cell Activity via Qa-1b following Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng C. Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available NK cells can reduce anti-viral T cell immunity during chronic viral infections, including infection with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. However, regulating factors that maintain the equilibrium between productive T cell and NK cell immunity are poorly understood. Here, we show that a large viral load resulted in inhibition of NK cell activation, which correlated with increased expression of Qa-1b, a ligand for inhibitory NK cell receptors. Qa-1b was predominantly upregulated on B cells following LCMV infection, and this upregulation was dependent on type I interferons. Absence of Qa-1b resulted in increased NK cell-mediated regulation of anti-viral T cells following viral infection. Consequently, anti-viral T cell immunity was reduced in Qa-1b- and NKG2A-deficient mice, resulting in increased viral replication and immunopathology. NK cell depletion restored anti-viral immunity and virus control in the absence of Qa-1b. Taken together, our findings indicate that lymphocytes limit NK cell activity during viral infection in order to promote anti-viral T cell immunity.

  5. Recombinant Glycoprotein Vaccines for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children and Their Effects on Viral Quasispecies

    OpenAIRE

    Essajee, Shaffiq M; Yogev, Ram; Pollack, Henry; Greenhouse, Bryan; Krasinski, Keith; Borkowsky, William

    2002-01-01

    In individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), specific immunity is associated with a more diverse viral repertoire and slower disease progression. Attempts to enhance antiviral immunity with therapeutic vaccination have shown that recombinant glycoprotein (RGP) vaccines are safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic, but the effect of RGP vaccines on the viral repertoire is unknown. We evaluated diversification of the viral envelope in 12 HIV-infected children who recei...

  6. Viral infection affects sucrose responsiveness and homing ability of forager honey bees, Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Chen, Yanping; Zhang, Shaowu; Chen, Shenglu; Li, Wenfeng; Yan, Limin; Shi, Liangen; Wu, Lyman; Sohr, Alex; Su, Songkun

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER) assays and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. The pollen forager honey bees originated from colonies that had no detectable level of honey bee viruses and were manually inoculated with IAPV to induce the viral infection. The results showed that IAPV-inoculated honey bees were more responsive to low sucrose solutions compared to that of non-infected foragers. After two days of infection, around 10⁷ copies of IAPV were detected in the heads of these honey bees. The homing ability of IAPV-infected foragers was depressed significantly in comparison to the homing ability of uninfected foragers. The data provided evidence that IAPV infection in the heads may enable the virus to disorder foraging roles of honey bees and to interfere with brain functions that are responsible for learning, navigation, and orientation in the honey bees, thus, making honey bees have a lower response threshold to sucrose and lose their way back to the hive.

  7. B cell intrinsic T-bet expression is required to control chronic viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Burton E.; Staupe, Ryan P.; Odorizzi, Pamela M.; Palko, Olesya; Tomov, Vesselin T.; Mahan, Alison E.; Gunn, Bronwyn; Chen, Diana; Paley, Michael A.; Alter, Galit; Reiner, Steven L.; Lauer, Georg M.; Teijaro, John; Wherry, E. John

    2016-01-01

    The role of antibody and B cells in preventing infection is established. In contrast, the role of B cell responses in containing chronic infections remains poorly understood. IgG2a (IgG1 in humans) can prevent acute infections and T-bet promotes IgG2a isotype switching. However, whether IgG2a and B cell-expressed T-bet influence the host-pathogen balance during persisting infections is unclear. Here we demonstrate that B cell specific loss of T-bet prevents control of persisting viral infection. T-bet in B cells not only controlled IgG2a production, but also mucosal localization, proliferation, glycosylation, and a broad transcriptional program. T-bet controlled a broad antiviral program in addition to IgG2a since T-bet in B cells was important even in the presence of virus-specific IgG2a. Our data supports a model in which T-bet is a universal controller of antiviral immunity across multiple immune lineages. PMID:27430722

  8. Viral infection affects sucrose responsiveness and homing ability of forager honey bees, Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Li

    Full Text Available Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV, on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L. were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER assays and radio frequency identification (RFID systems. The pollen forager honey bees originated from colonies that had no detectable level of honey bee viruses and were manually inoculated with IAPV to induce the viral infection. The results showed that IAPV-inoculated honey bees were more responsive to low sucrose solutions compared to that of non-infected foragers. After two days of infection, around 10⁷ copies of IAPV were detected in the heads of these honey bees. The homing ability of IAPV-infected foragers was depressed significantly in comparison to the homing ability of uninfected foragers. The data provided evidence that IAPV infection in the heads may enable the virus to disorder foraging roles of honey bees and to interfere with brain functions that are responsible for learning, navigation, and orientation in the honey bees, thus, making honey bees have a lower response threshold to sucrose and lose their way back to the hive.

  9. Amiodarone and metabolite MDEA inhibit Ebola virus infection by interfering with the viral entry process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salata, Cristiano; Baritussio, Aldo; Munegato, Denis; Calistri, Arianna; Ha, Huy Riem; Bigler, Laurent; Fabris, Fabrizio; Parolin, Cristina; Palù, Giorgio; Mirazimi, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the most lethal transmissible infections characterized by a high fatality rate, and a treatment has not been developed yet. Recently, it has been shown that cationic amphiphiles, among them the antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone, inhibit filovirus infection. In the present work, we investigated how amiodarone interferes with Ebola virus infection. Wild-type Sudan ebolavirus and recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus, pseudotyped with the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein, were used to gain further insight into the ability of amiodarone to affect Ebola virus infection. We show that amiodarone decreases Ebola virus infection at concentrations close to those found in the sera of patients treated for arrhythmias. The drug acts by interfering with the fusion of the viral envelope with the endosomal membrane. We also show that MDEA, the main amiodarone metabolite, contributes to the antiviral activity. Finally, studies with amiodarone analogues indicate that the antiviral activity is correlated with drug ability to accumulate into and interfere with the endocytic pathway. Considering that it is well tolerated, especially in the acute setting, amiodarone appears to deserve consideration for clinical use in EVD. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF IBUPROFEN IN THERAPY FOR VIRAL UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Skugarevskaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of use of ibuprofen in cases of viral upper respiratory tract infections (Vuri in children of early childhood has proved its' safety and efficacy. This medical agent has not only terminate fever but also diminished some other symptoms of Vuri.Key words: ibuprofen, viral upper respiratory tract infections, children.

  11. Impact of viral infections on urea and creatinine levels in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has emerged as a world-wide public health problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. Chronic viral infection is associated with a higher risk of death in patients with CKD undergoing haemodialysis. Objective: To evaluate the impact of viral infections on urea and creatinine ...

  12. Alzheimer's disease gene signature says: beware of brain viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianni Manuela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings from a genome wide association investigation in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and non demented controls (CTR showed that a limited set of genes was in a strong association (p > l0-5 with the disease. Presentation of the hypothesis In this report we suggest that the polymorphism association in 8 of these genes is consistent with a non conventional interpretation of AD etiology. Nectin-2 (NC-2, apolipoprotein E (APOE, glycoprotein carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule- 16 (CEACAM-16, B-cell lymphoma-3 (Bcl-3, translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (T0MM-40, complement receptor-1 (CR-l, APOJ or clusterin and C-type lectin domain A family-16 member (CLEC-16A result in a genetic signature that might affect individual brain susceptibility to infection by herpes virus family during aging, leading to neuronal loss, inflammation and amyloid deposition. Implications of the hypothesis We hypothesized that such genetic trait may predispose to AD via complex and diverse mechanisms each contributing to an increase of individual susceptibility to brain viral infections

  13. [Neuropsychiatric sequelae of viral meningitis in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Jesper; Hjerrild, Simon; Renvillard, Signe Groth; Leutscher, Peter Derek Christian

    2011-10-10

    Viral meningitis is considered to be a benign illness with only mild symptoms. In contrast to viral encephalitis and bacterial meningitis, the prognosis is usually good. However, retrospective studies have demonstrated that patients suffering from viral meningitis may experience cognitive impairment following the acute course of infection. Larger controlled studies are needed to elucidate the potential neuropsychiatric adverse outcome of viral meningitis.

  14. Papanicolaou smears induce partial immunity against sexually transmitted viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Samuel; Hoffman, Margaret; Constant, Deborah; Rosenberg, Lynn; Carrara, Henri; Allan, Bruce Rider; Marais, Dianne Jean; Passmore, Jo-Ann Shelley; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2007-11-01

    In a case-control study of hormonal contraceptives and invasive cervical cancer, an unexpected finding was a substantial decline in the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection according to the lifetime number of Pap smears received. Here we assess the risk of 3 sexually transmitted viral infections -- herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), HPV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 and 2 -- in relation to the lifetime receipt of Pap smears. Stored sera taken from 1540 controls were tested for HSV2 and HIV; cervical scrapings were tested for HPV. Confounder-adjusted odds ratios for the lifetime receipt of Pap smears were estimated, relative to never having had a Papanicolau test. For ever-receipt of a Papanicolau test, the odds ratios for HSV2 and HPV were 0.7 (95% confidence interval = 0.5-0.9) and 0.5 (0.3-0.7), respectively, and there were dose-response trends according to the lifetime number of Pap smears received (test for trend P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). For HSV2 the odds ratios according to last receipt declined from 0.8 for 10 or more years previously to 0.4 for <1 year previously (trend P = 0.002). For HPV the ORs were 0.4 (0.3-0.7) for last receipt 5-9 years previously and 0.5 (0.4-0.8) for less than 5 years previously; for HIV the odds ratio for last receipt less than 5 years previously was 0.4 (0.3-0.9). For HSV2 and HIV the crude odds ratio estimates were systematically lower than the adjusted estimates, and residual confounding cannot be ruled out. In particular, the true number of sexual partners may have been under-reported, and there was no information on the sexual activity of the male partners, or on other health behaviors of the women or their partners. We hypothesize that Pap smears may provoke a short-term immune response against sexually transmitted viral infections.

  15. Compounds Derived from Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) as a Novel Approach to the Prevention of Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic viral infections pose major health risks to humans and livestock due to viral infection-associated illnesses such as chronic or acute inflammation in crucial organs and systems, malignant and benign lesions. These lead to large number of illnesses and deaths worldwide each year. Outbreaks of emerging lethal viruses, such as Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) virus, could lead to epidemics or even pandemics if they are not effectively controlled. Current strategies to prevent viral entry into the human body are focused on cleansing the surface of the skin that covers hands and fingers. Surface protection and disinfection against microorganisms, including viruses, is performed by sanitization of the skin surface through hand washing with soap and water, surface disinfectants, and hand sanitizers, particularly alcohol-based hand sanitizers. However, concerns about the overall ineffectiveness, toxicity of certain ingredients of disinfectants, pollution of the environment, and the short duration of antimicrobial activity of alcohol have not been addressed, and the epidemiology of certain major viral infections are not correlated inversely with the current measures of viral prevention. In addition to a short duration on the skin surface, alcohol is ineffective against certain viruses such as norovirus, rabies virus, and polio virus. There is a need for a novel approach to protect humans and livestock from infections of pathogenic viruses that is broadly effective, long-lasting (persistent), non-toxic, and environment-friendly. A strong candidate is a group of unique compounds found in Camellia sinensis (tea plant): the green tea polyphenols, in particular epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and its lipophilic derivatives. This review discussed the weaknesses of current hand sanitizers, gathered published results from many studies on the antiviral activities of EGCG and its lipophilic

  16. Neurologic signs and symptoms frequently manifest in acute HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Joanna; Fletcher, James L K; Valcour, Victor; Kroon, Eugène; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Intasan, Jintana; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Narvid, Jared; Pothisri, Mantana; Allen, Isabel; Krebs, Shelly J; Slike, Bonnie; Prueksakaew, Peeriya; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Spudich, Serena

    2016-07-12

    To determine the incidence, timing, and severity of neurologic findings in acute HIV infection (pre-antibody seroconversion), as well as persistence with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Participants identified with acute HIV were enrolled, underwent structured neurologic evaluations, immediately initiated cART, and were followed with neurologic evaluations at 4 and 12 weeks. Concurrent brain MRIs and both viral and inflammatory markers in plasma and CSF were obtained. Median estimated HIV infection duration was 19 days (range 3-56) at study entry for the 139 participants evaluated. Seventy-three participants (53%) experienced one or more neurologic findings in the 12 weeks after diagnosis, with one developing a fulminant neurologic manifestation (Guillain-Barré syndrome). A total of 245 neurologic findings were noted, reflecting cognitive symptoms (33%), motor findings (34%), and neuropathy (11%). Nearly half of the neurologic findings (n = 121, 49%) occurred at diagnosis, prior to cART initiation, and most of these (n = 110, 90%) remitted concurrent with 1 month on treatment. Only 9% of neurologic findings (n = 22) persisted at 24 weeks on cART. Nearly all neurologic findings (n = 236, 96%) were categorized as mild in severity. No structural neuroimaging abnormalities were observed. Participants with neurologic findings had a higher mean plasma log10 HIV RNA at diagnosis compared to those without neurologic findings (5.9 vs 5.4; p = 0.006). Acute HIV infection is commonly associated with mild neurologic findings that largely remit while on treatment, and may be mediated by direct viral factors. Severe neurologic manifestations are infrequent in treated acute HIV. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Global Analysis of Mouse Polyomavirus Infection Reveals Dynamic Regulation of Viral and Host Gene Expression and Promiscuous Viral RNA Editing.

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    Seth B Garren

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mouse polyomavirus (MPyV lytically infects mouse cells, transforms rat cells in culture, and is highly oncogenic in rodents. We have used deep sequencing to follow MPyV infection of mouse NIH3T6 cells at various times after infection and analyzed both the viral and cellular transcriptomes. Alignment of sequencing reads to the viral genome illustrated the transcriptional profile of the early-to-late switch with both early-strand and late-strand RNAs being transcribed at all time points. A number of novel insights into viral gene expression emerged from these studies, including the demonstration of widespread RNA editing of viral transcripts at late times in infection. By late times in infection, 359 host genes were seen to be significantly upregulated and 857 were downregulated. Gene ontology analysis indicated transcripts involved in translation, metabolism, RNA processing, DNA methylation, and protein turnover were upregulated while transcripts involved in extracellular adhesion, cytoskeleton, zinc finger binding, SH3 domain, and GTPase activation were downregulated. The levels of a number of long noncoding RNAs were also altered. The long noncoding RNA MALAT1, which is involved in splicing speckles and used as a marker in many late-stage cancers, was noticeably downregulated, while several other abundant noncoding RNAs were strongly upregulated. We discuss these results in light of what is currently known about the MPyV life cycle and its effects on host cell growth and metabolism.

  18. Clinical and laboratory description of a series of cases of acute viral myositis

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    Silvana Paula Cardin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Describe the clinical and laboratory profile, follow-up, and outcome of a series of cases of acute viral myositis. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of suspected cases under observation in the emergency department was performed, including outpatient follow-up with the recording of respiratory infection and musculoskeletal symptoms, measurement of muscle enzymes, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, transaminases (AST and ALT, blood count, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the acute phase and during follow-up until normalization. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2009, 42 suspected cases were identified and 35 (27 boys were included. The median age was 7 years and the diagnosis was reported in 89% in the first emergency visit. The observed respiratory symptoms were cough (31%, rhinorrhea (23%, and fever (63%, with a mean duration of 4.3 days. Musculoskeletal symptoms were localized pain in the calves (80%, limited ambulation (57%, gait abnormality (40%, and muscle weakness in the lower limbs (71%, with a mean duration of 3.6 days. There was significant increase in CPK enzymes (5507 ± 9180 U/L, LDH (827 ± 598 U/L, and AST (199 ± 245 U/L, with a tendency to leukopenia (4590 ± 1420 leukocytes/mm3. The complete recovery of laboratory parameters was observed in 30 days (median, and laboratory and clinical recurrence was documented in one case after 10 months. CONCLUSION: Typical symptoms with increased muscle enzymes after diagnosis of influenza and self-limited course of the disease were the clues to the diagnosis. The increase in muscle enzymes indicate transient myotropic activity related to seasonal influenza, which should be considered, regardless of the viral identification, possibly associated with influenza virus or other respiratory viruses.

  19. Clinical and laboratory description of a series of cases of acute viral myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Silvana Paula; Martin, Joelma Gonçalves; Saad-Magalhães, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Describe the clinical and laboratory profile, follow-up, and outcome of a series of cases of acute viral myositis. A retrospective analysis of suspected cases under observation in the emergency department was performed, including outpatient follow-up with the recording of respiratory infection and musculoskeletal symptoms, measurement of muscle enzymes, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), transaminases (AST and ALT), blood count, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the acute phase and during follow-up until normalization. Between 2000 and 2009, 42 suspected cases were identified and 35 (27 boys) were included. The median age was 7 years and the diagnosis was reported in 89% in the first emergency visit. The observed respiratory symptoms were cough (31%), rhinorrhea (23%), and fever (63%), with a mean duration of 4.3 days. Musculoskeletal symptoms were localized pain in the calves (80%), limited ambulation (57%), gait abnormality (40%), and muscle weakness in the lower limbs (71%), with a mean duration of 3.6 days. There was significant increase in CPK enzymes (5507±9180U/L), LDH (827±598U/L), and AST (199±245U/L), with a tendency to leukopenia (4590±1420) leukocytes/mm(3). The complete recovery of laboratory parameters was observed in 30 days (median), and laboratory and clinical recurrence was documented in one case after 10 months. Typical symptoms with increased muscle enzymes after diagnosis of influenza and self-limited course of the disease were the clues to the diagnosis. The increase in muscle enzymes indicate transient myotropic activity related to seasonal influenza, which should be considered, regardless of the viral identification, possibly associated with influenza virus or other respiratory viruses. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute respiratory infections at children

    OpenAIRE

    Delyagin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.

  1. Dietary Selenium in Adjuvant Therapy of Viral and Bacterial Infections12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrenner, Holger; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Wunderlich, Frank; Sies, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Viral and bacterial infections are often associated with deficiencies in macronutrients and micronutrients, including the essential trace element selenium. In selenium deficiency, benign strains of Coxsackie and influenza viruses can mutate to highly pathogenic strains. Dietary supplementation to provide adequate or supranutritional selenium supply has been proposed to confer health benefits for patients suffering from some viral diseases, most notably with respect to HIV and influenza A virus (IAV) infections. In addition, selenium-containing multimicronutrient supplements improved several clinical and lifestyle variables in patients coinfected with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Selenium status may affect the function of cells of both adaptive and innate immunity. Supranutritional selenium promotes proliferation and favors differentiation of naive CD4-positive T lymphocytes toward T helper 1 cells, thus supporting the acute cellular immune response, whereas excessive activation of the immune system and ensuing host tissue damage are counteracted through directing macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. This review provides an up-to-date overview on selenium in infectious diseases caused by viruses (e.g., HIV, IAV, hepatitis C virus, poliovirus, West Nile virus) and bacteria (e.g., M. tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori). Data from epidemiologic studies and intervention trials, with selenium alone or in combination with other micronutrients, and animal experiments are discussed against the background of dietary selenium requirements to alter immune functions. PMID:25593145

  2. Amino acid deprivation using enzymes as a targeted therapy for cancer and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, H S; Silva Teixeira, C S; Fernandes, P A; Ramos, M J; Cerqueira, N M F S A

    2017-03-01

    Amino acid depletion in the blood serum is currently being exploited and explored for therapies in tumors or viral infections that are auxotrophic for a certain amino acid or have a metabolic defect and cannot produce it. The success of these treatments is because normal cells remain unaltered since they are less demanding and/or can synthesize these compounds in sufficient amounts for their needs by other mechanisms. Areas covered: This review is focused on amino acid depriving enzymes and their formulations that have been successfully used in the treatment of several types of cancer and viral infections. Particular attention will be given to the enzymes L-asparaginase, L-arginase, L-arginine deiminase, and L-methionine-γ-lyase. Expert opinion: The immunogenicity and other toxic effects are perhaps the major limitations of these therapies, but they have been successfully decreased either through the expression of these enzymes from other organisms, recombination processes, pegylation of the selected enzymes or by specific mutations in the proteins. In 2006, FDA has already approved the use of L-asparaginase in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Other enzymes and in particular L-arginase, L-arginine deiminase, and L-methioninase have been showing promising results in vitro and in vivo studies.

  3. Blastoschizomyces capitatus infection in acute leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sanchez, I; Anguita, J; Martín-Rabadan, P; Muñoz, P; Serrano, D; Escudero, A; Pintado, T

    2000-09-01

    Blastoschizomyces capitatus (BC), a filamentous fungus of genus Trichosporum, is as an important opportunistic pathogen in the compromised host. Within the past 10 years, 47 cases of BC infection have been published. Most of the patients had acute leukemia (AL) or related disorders and had received chemotherapy treatment. Due to BC's resistance to currently used antifungal agents, this infection represents a therapeutic challenge and serious complication in the treatment of hematology malignancies. Here we report our experience with BC infection in four patients with acute leukemia or related disorders.

  4. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of viral lower respiratory tract infections in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berce, Vojko; Unuk, Sibila; Duh, Darja; Homšak, Matjaž; Vičič, Maja

    2015-12-01

    Viral lower respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of hospitalizations in preschool children. Clinical pictures of different viral causes are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to establish the differences in clinical and laboratory characteristics between the different viral causes of lower respiratory tract infections in preschool children. We included 278 preschool children hospitalized because of lower respiratory tract infection. White blood cell count and C-reactive protein values were determined and chest X-ray was performed in most patients. Polymerase chain reaction assay was used for the detection of viral pathogens from nasopharyngeal swab. Pneumonia was present in 71.4 % of all coronavirus infections, 35.1 % of all respiratory syncytial virus infections, and 13.0 % of all rhinovirus infections. Coronavirus (p = 0.03) and respiratory syncytial virus (p infections and in only 33.3 % of all adenovirus infections. Rhinovirus (p infections mean C-reactive protein value was 72.4 mg/L and white blood cell count 19.000/µl, both significantly higher than in other viruses (p respiratory tract infections significantly differ. With the advance of viral detection methods and increase of knowledge it becomes possible to characterize different respiratory viral infections and to improve the differential diagnosis.

  5. Hajj-associated viral respiratory infections: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, Phillipe; Benkouiten, Samir; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTI) are the most common infections transmitted between Hajj pilgrims. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the prevalence of virus carriage potentially responsible for RTI among pilgrims before and after participating in the Hajj. A systematic search for relevant literature was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. 31 studies were identified. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS) were never isolated in Hajj pilgrims. The viruses most commonly isolated from symptomatic patients during the Hajj by PCR were rhinovirus (5.9-48.8% prevalence), followed by influenza virus (4.5-13.9%) and non-MERS coronaviruses (2.7-13.2%) with most infections due to coronavirus 229E; other viruses were less frequently isolated. Several viruses including influenza A, rhinovirus, and non-MERS coronaviruses had low carriage rates among arriving pilgrims and a statistically significant increase in their carriage rate was observed, following participation in the Hajj. Further research is needed to assess the role of viruses in the pathogenesis of respiratory symptoms and their potential role in the severity of the symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. siRNA as an alternative therapy against viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana A. Pawestri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available siRNA (small interfering ribonucleic acid adalah sebuah metode yang dapat digunakan untuk mengatasi infeksi virus yang prinsip kerjanya berdasarkan metode komplementer dsRNA (double stranded RNA pada RNA virus sehingga menyebabkan kegagalan proses transkripsi (silencing.  Untuk lebih memahami bagaimana proses kerja dan ulasan penelitian siRNA yang terkini, di dalam tulisan ini ditinjau siRNA sebagai metoda yang dikembangkan untuk mengatasi infeksi dan meneliti efeknya pada replikasi beberapa virus seperti Hepatitis C, Influenza, Polio, dan HIV. Kami menemukan bahwa urutan basa nukleotida dari target siRNA sangat penting. Hal tersebut harus homolog dengan target RNA virus dan tidak menganggu RNA sel inang. Untuk mengurangi kegagalan terapi siRNA oleh adanya mutasi, digunakan beberapa siRNA yang sekaligus menjadi target RNA virus yang berbeda. Namun demikian, terapi siRNA masih menghadapi beberapa kesulitan seperti pengiriman (transfer khusus ke jaringan yang terinfeksi dan perlindungan siRNA dari perusakan oleh nuklease. Berdasarkan beberapa penelitian yang telah dilakukan, siRNA dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif untuk mengobati infeksi yang disebabkan oleh virus. Terapi tersebut direkomendasikan untuk dilakukan uji klinis dengan memperhatikan beberapa aspek seperti desain siRNA dan mekanisme transfer. (Health Science Indones 2010; 1: 58 - 65 Kata kunci: siRNA, infeksi virus, target virus, alternatif terapi Abstract SiRNA is a promising method to deal with viral infections. The principle of siRNA is based on the complementarily of (synthetic dsRNA to an RNA virus which, in consequence, will be silenced. Many studies are currently examining the effects of siRNA on replication of diverse virus types like Hepatitis C, polio and HIV. The choice of the siRNA target sequence is crucial. It has to be very homologous to the target RNA, but it cannot target RNA of the host cell. To reduce the possibility for the virus to escape from the siRNA therapy by

  7. The Clinical Significance of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Treatment of Acute Viral Hepatitis Accompanied by Cholestasis Syndrome in Children

    OpenAIRE

    S.O. Kramariov; I.V. Shpak; A.I. Markov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study. Іmproving the treatment of acute viral hepatitis in children accompanied by cholestasis. Material and methods. We observed 40 children with acute viral hepatitis type A and B aged from 4 months old to 18 years old. The patients were randomized into 2 groups: the first group of children (a control one, n = 27) received basic therapy of acute viral hepatitis, the children of the second group (a main one, n = 13) received basic therapy of acute viral hepatitis in combina...

  8. Exploitation of lipid components by viral and host proteins for hepatitis C virus infection

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    Kohji eMoriishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV, which is a major causative agent of blood-borne hepatitis, has chronically infected about 170 million individuals worldwide and leads to chronic infection, resulting in development of steatosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma associated with HCV infection is not only caused by chronic inflammation, but also by the biological activity of HCV proteins. HCV core protein is known as a main component of the viral nucleocapsid. It cooperates with host factors and possesses biological activity causing lipid alteration, oxidative stress and progression of cell growth, while other viral proteins also interact with host proteins including molecular chaperones, membrane-anchoring proteins and enzymes associated with lipid metabolism to maintain the efficiency of viral replication and production. HCV core protein is localized on the surface of lipid droplets in infected cells. However, the role of lipid droplets in HCV infection has not yet been elucidated. Several groups recently reported that other viral proteins also support viral infection by regulation of lipid droplets and core localization in infected cells. Furthermore, lipid components are required for modification of host factors and the intracellular membrane to maintain or up-regulate viral replication. In this review, we summarize the current status of knowledge regarding the exploitation of lipid components by viral and host proteins in HCV infection.

  9. Differential Diagnosis of Acute Stroke and Viral Encephalitis

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    I.V. Bogadelnikov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, there has been an increase in the frequency of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in children. The clinical picture of the disease has similar features to the one of viral encephalitis. Differential diagnosis is necessary to choose correct treatment tactics.

  10. DNA cleavage enzymes for treatment of persistent viral infections: Recent advances and the pathway forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Nicholas D., E-mail: nweber@fhcrc.org [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, E5-110, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Aubert, Martine, E-mail: maubert@fhcrc.org [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, E5-110, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Dang, Chung H., E-mail: cdang@fhcrc.org [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, E5-110, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Stone, Daniel, E-mail: dstone2@fhcrc.org [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, E5-110, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Jerome, Keith R., E-mail: kjerome@fhcrc.org [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, E5-110, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Treatment for most persistent viral infections consists of palliative drug options rather than curative approaches. This is often because long-lasting viral DNA in infected cells is not affected by current antivirals, providing a source for viral persistence and reactivation. Targeting latent viral DNA itself could therefore provide a basis for novel curative strategies. DNA cleavage enzymes can be used to induce targeted mutagenesis of specific genes, including those of exogenous viruses. Although initial in vitro and even in vivo studies have been carried out using DNA cleavage enzymes targeting various viruses, many questions still remain concerning the feasibility of these strategies as they transition into preclinical research. Here, we review the most recent findings on DNA cleavage enzymes for human viral infections, consider the most relevant animal models for several human viral infections, and address issues regarding safety and enzyme delivery. Results from well-designed in vivo studies will ideally provide answers to the most urgent remaining questions, and allow continued progress toward clinical application. - Highlights: • Recent in vitro and in vivo results for DNA cleavage enzymes targeting persistent viral infections. • Analysis of the best animal models for testing enzymes for HBV, HSV, HIV and HPV. • Challenges facing in vivo delivery of therapeutic enzymes for persistent viral infections. • Safety issues to be addressed with proper animal studies.

  11. IL-10: A Multifunctional Cytokine in Viral Infections

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    José M. Rojas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory master regulator IL-10 is critical to protect the host from tissue damage during acute phases of immune responses. This regulatory mechanism, central to T cell homeostasis, can be hijacked by viruses to evade immunity. IL-10 can be produced by virtually all immune cells, and it can also modulate the function of these cells. Understanding the effects of this multifunctional cytokine is therefore a complex task. In the present review we discuss the factors driving IL-10 production and the cellular sources of the cytokine during antiviral immune responses. We particularly focus on the IL-10 regulatory mechanisms that impact antiviral immune responses and how viruses can use this central regulatory pathway to evade immunity and establish chronic/latent infections.

  12. IL-10: A Multifunctional Cytokine in Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory master regulator IL-10 is critical to protect the host from tissue damage during acute phases of immune responses. This regulatory mechanism, central to T cell homeostasis, can be hijacked by viruses to evade immunity. IL-10 can be produced by virtually all immune cells, and it can also modulate the function of these cells. Understanding the effects of this multifunctional cytokine is therefore a complex task. In the present review we discuss the factors driving IL-10 production and the cellular sources of the cytokine during antiviral immune responses. We particularly focus on the IL-10 regulatory mechanisms that impact antiviral immune responses and how viruses can use this central regulatory pathway to evade immunity and establish chronic/latent infections. PMID:28316998

  13. Global Dynamics and Optimal Control of a Viral Infection Model with Generic Nonlinear Infection Rate

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    Chenquan Gan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to exploring the combined impact of a generic nonlinear infection rate and infected removable storage media on viral spread. For that purpose, a novel dynamical model with an external compartment is proposed, and the explanations of the main model assumptions (especially the generic nonlinear infection rate are also examined. The existence and global stability of the unique equilibrium of the model are fully investigated, from which it can be seen that computer virus would persist. On this basis, a next-best approach to controlling the level of infected computers is suggested, and the theoretical analysis of optimal control of the model is also performed. Additionally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the main results.

  14. CXCR2 is critical for dsRNA-induced lung injury: relevance to viral lung infection

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    Xue Ying

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory viral infections are characterized by the infiltration of leukocytes, including activated neutrophils into the lung that can lead to sustained lung injury and potentially contribute to chronic lung disease. Specific mechanisms recruiting neutrophils to the lung during virus-induced lung inflammation and injury have not been fully elucidated. Since CXCL1 and CXCL2/3, acting through CXCR2, are potent neutrophil chemoattractants, we investigated their role in dsRNA-induced lung injury, where dsRNA (Poly IC is a well-described synthetic agent mimicking acute viral infection. Methods We used 6–8 week old female BALB/c mice to intratracheally inject either single-stranded (ssRNA or double-stranded RNA (dsRNA into the airways. The lungs were then harvested at designated timepoints to characterize the elicited chemokine response and resultant lung injury following dsRNA exposure as demonstrated qualititatively by histopathologic analysis, and quantitatively by FACS, protein, and mRNA analysis of BAL fluid and tissue samples. We then repeated the experiments by first pretreating mice with an anti-PMN or corresponding control antibody, and then subsequently pretreating a separate cohort of mice with an anti-CXCR2 or corresponding control antibody prior to dsRNA exposure. Results Intratracheal dsRNA led to significant increases in neutrophil infiltration and lung injury in BALB/c mice at 72 h following dsRNA, but not in response to ssRNA (Poly C; control treatment. Expression of CXCR2 ligands and CXCR2 paralleled neutrophil recruitment to the lung. Neutrophil depletion studies significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration and lung injury in response to dsRNA when mice were pretreated with an anti-PMN monoclonal Ab. Furthermore, inhibition of CXCR2 ligands/CXCR2 interaction by pretreating dsRNA-exposed mice with an anti-CXCR2 neutralizing Ab also significantly attenuated neutrophil sequestration and lung injury. Conclusion

  15. Drug use study for acute respiratory infection in children under 10 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Dwiprahasto, Iwan Dwiprahasto

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the commonest illness in children and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. It comprises approximately 50 % of all illness in children under five years. Even though usually viral in origin and of a self-limiting nature, various study indicate that antibiotic prescribing for ARI is inappropriately high.Objective: This study was aimed to assess general practitioners' (GPs) prescribing pattern for acute respira...

  16. Acute viral bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in schoolchildren: analysis of a Brazilian newborn cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Heli V; Vieira, Graciete O; Vieira, Tatiana O; Cruz, Álvaro A; Guimarães, Armênio C; Teles, Carlos; Camargos, Paulo; Cruz, Constança M S

    To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Socioeconomic, environmental data, parental history of asthma, and data related to pregnancy were collected in the first 72h of life of the newborn and in prospective home visits by trained interviewers. The association between acute viral bronchiolitis and asthma was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and potential modifier effect of parental history was verified by introducing an interaction term into the adjusted logistic regression model. Prevalence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life was 68.6% (461). The occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis was a risk factor for asthma at 6 years of age in children with parental history of asthma OR: 2.66, 95% CI (1.10-6.40), modifier effect p=0.002. Parental history of asthma OR: 2.07, 95% CI (1.29-3.30) and male gender OR: 1.69, 95% CI, (1.06-2.69) were other identified risk factors for asthma. Acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life is a risk factor for asthma in children with parental history of asthma. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  17. Acute viral bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in schoolchildren: analysis of a Brazilian newborn cohort,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli V. Brandão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. Methods: Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Socioeconomic, environmental data, parental history of asthma, and data related to pregnancy were collected in the first 72 h of life of the newborn and in prospective home visits by trained interviewers. The association between acute viral bronchiolitis and asthma was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and potential modifier effect of parental history was verified by introducing an interaction term into the adjusted logistic regression model. Results: Prevalence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life was 68.6% (461. The occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis was a risk factor for asthma at 6 years of age in children with parental history of asthma OR: 2.66, 95% CI (1.10-6.40, modifier effect p = 0.002. Parental history of asthma OR: 2.07, 95% CI (1.29-3.30 and male gender OR: 1.69, 95% CI, (1.06-2.69 were other identified risk factors for asthma. Conclusion: Acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life is a risk factor for asthma in children with parental history of asthma.

  18. Extracellular vesicles are the Trojan horses of viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan-Bonnet, Nihal

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles have recently emerged as a novel mode of viral propagation exploited by both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. In particular non-enveloped viruses utilize the hosts' production of extracellular vesicles to exit from cells non-lytically and to hide and manipulate the immune system. Moreover, challenging the long held idea that viruses behave as independent genetic units, extracellular vesicles enable multiple viral particles and genomes to collectively traffic in and out of cells, which can promote genetic cooperativity among viral quasispecies and enhance the fitness of the overall viral population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Single- and multiple viral respiratory infections in children: disease and management cannot be related to a specific pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishaupt, Jérôme O; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; de Groot, Ronald; Versteegh, Florens G A; Hartwig, Nico G

    2017-01-11

    The number of viral pathogens associated with pediatric acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) has grown since the introduction of reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Multiple viruses are detected during a single ARI episode in approximately a quarter of all cases. The clinical relevance of these multiple detections is unclear, as is the role of the individual virus. We therefore investigated the correlation between clinical data and RT-PCR results in children with single- and multiple viral ARI. Data from children with ARI were prospectively collected during two winter seasons. RT-PCR testing for 15 viruses was performed in 560 ARI episodes. In the patients with a single-viral etiology, clinical data, laboratory findings, patient management- and outcome data were compared between the different viruses. With this information, we compared data from children of whom RT-PCR data were negative, with children with single- and multiple viral positive results. The viral detection rate was 457/560 (81.6%) of which 331/560 (59.1%) were single infections and 126/560 (22.5%) were multiple infections. In single viral infections, some statistically significant differences in demographics, clinical findings, disease severity and outcome were found between children with different viral etiologies. However, no clinically recognizable pattern was established to be virus-specific. In a multivariate analysis, the only variables that were correlated with longer hospital stay were the use of oxygen and nebulizer therapy, irrespective of the viral pathogen. Children with RT-PCR positive test results had a significant higher disease severity, fever, length of hospital stay, days of extra oxygen supply, and days of antibiotic treatment than children with a negative RT-PCR test result. For children with single- versus children with multiple positive RT-PCR test results, these differences were not significant. Disease (severity), management and

  20. Exogenous surfactant treatment for severe acute viral bronchiolitis: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vitola, Luciano S.; Piva, Jeferson P.; Garcia,Pedro C.R.; Francisco Bruno; Miranda,Ana P.; Martha, Vanessa F.

    2001-01-01

    OBJETIVO: descrever os possíveis efeitos clínicos e laboratoriais da instilação traqueal de surfactante exógeno a um lactente com bronquiolite viral aguda grave e submetido a ventilação mecânica. RELATO: menina de 2 meses de idade com diagnóstico clínico de bronquiolite viral aguda e submetida a ventilação mecânica, necessitando de altos picos de pressão inspiratória positiva (35 a 45 cmH2O) e elevada fração de oxigênio inspirado (FiO2= 0,9), sem resposta clínica favorável ou melhora na gasom...

  1. The current epidemiology and clinical decisions surrounding acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaas, Aimee K; Garner, Bronwen H; Tsalik, Ephraim L; Burke, Thomas; Woods, Christopher W; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2014-10-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a common diagnosis in outpatient and emergent care settings. Currently available diagnostics are limited, creating uncertainty in the use of antibacterial, antiviral, or supportive care. Up to 72% of ambulatory care patients with ARI are treated with an antibacterial, despite only a small fraction actually needing one. Antibiotic overuse is not restricted to ambulatory care: ARI accounts for approximately 5 million emergency department (ED) visits annually in the USA, where 52-61% of such patients receive antibiotics. Thus, an accurate test for the presence or absence of viral or bacterial infection is needed. In this review, we focus on recent research showing that the host-response (genomic, proteomic, or miRNA) can accomplish this task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hepatic immune regulation and its involvement in viral hepatitis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Percy A; Thimme, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The liver has unique immune regulatory functions that promote the induction of tolerance rather than responses to antigens encountered locally. These functions are mediated by local expression of coinhibitory receptors and immunosuppressive mediators that help prevent overwhelming tissue damage. Over the years, we have gained more insight into the local regulatory cues that determine the functional complexity of immune responses regulated locally in the liver. Both the unique hepatic microenvironment and the particular liver sinusoidal cell populations, in addition to hepatocytes, actively modulate immune responses locally in the liver and thereby determine the outcome of hepatic immune responses. This is of high biological and clinical relevance in hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections, which can cause acute and persistent infections associated with chronic inflammation in humans that eventually progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we review current knowledge about the balance between immunity and tolerance in the liver and how this may affect our understanding of the determinants of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus clearance, persistence, and virus-induced liver disease. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. DMPD: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: sensing nucleic acids in viral infection andautoimmune diseases. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18641647 Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: sensing nucleic acids in viral infection andautoimmune... (.csml) Show Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: sensing nucleic acids in viral infection andautoimmune diseases.... PubmedID 18641647 Title Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: sensing nucleic acids in viral infection andautoimm...une diseases. Authors Gilliet M, Cao W, Liu YJ. Publication Nat Rev Immunol. 2008 A

  4. Nef gene evolution from a single transmitted strain in acute SIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimber Benjamin N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acute phase of immunodeficiency virus infection plays a crucial role in determining steady-state virus load and subsequent progression of disease in both humans and nonhuman primates. The acute period is also the time when vaccine-mediated effects on host immunity are likely to exert their major effects on virus infection. Recently we developed a Monte-Carlo (MC simulation with mathematical analysis of viral evolution during primary HIV-1 infection that enables classification of new HIV-1 infections originating from multiple versus single transmitted viral strains and the estimation of time elapsed following infection. Results A total of 322 SIV nef SIV sequences, collected during the first 3 weeks following experimental infection of two rhesus macaques with the SIVmac239 clone, were analyzed and found to display a comparable level of genetic diversity, 0.015% to 0.052%, with that of env sequences from acute HIV-1 infection, 0.005% to 0.127%. We confirmed that the acute HIV-1 infection model correctly identified the experimental SIV infections in rhesus macaques as "homogenous" infections, initiated by a single founder strain. The consensus sequence of the sampled strains corresponded to the transmitted sequence as the model predicted. However, measured sequential decrease in diversity at day 7, 11, and 18 post infection violated the model assumption, neutral evolution without any selection. Conclusion While nef gene evolution over the first 3 weeks of SIV infection originating from a single transmitted strain showed a comparable rate of sequence evolution to that observed during acute HIV-1 infection, a purifying selection for the founder nef gene was observed during the early phase of experimental infection of a nonhuman primate.

  5. Quantitative profiling of innate immune activation by viral infection in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Andrea C; Warrick, Jay W; Yin, John

    2017-09-18

    Cells infected by viruses can exhibit diverse patterns of viral and cellular gene expression. The patterns arise in part from the stochastic or noisy reaction kinetics associated with the small number of genomes, enzymes, and other molecules that typically initiate virus replication and activate cellular anti-viral defenses. It is not known what features, if any, of the early viral or cellular gene expression correlate with later processes of viral replication or cell survival. Here we used two fluorescent reporters to visualize innate immune activation of human prostate cancer (PC3) cells against infection by vesicular stomatitis virus. The cells were engineered to express green-fluorescent protein under control of the promoter for IFIT2, an interferon-sensitive component of the anti-viral response, while red-fluorescent protein was expressed as a byproduct of virus infection. To isolate and quantitatively analyze single-cells, we used a unique microwell array device and open-source image processing software. Kinetic analysis of viral and cellular reporter profiles from hundreds of cells revealed novel relationships between gene expression and the outcome of infection. Specifically, the relative timing rather than the magnitude of the viral gene expression and innate immune activation correlated with the infection outcome. Earlier viral or anti-viral gene expression favored or hindered virus growth, respectively. Further, analysis of kinetic parameters estimated from these data suggests a trade-off between robust antiviral signaling and cell death, as indicated by a higher rate of detectable cell lysis in infected cells with a detectable immune response. In short, cells that activate an immune response lyse at a higher rate. More broadly, we demonstrate how the intrinsic heterogeneity of individual cell behaviors can be exploited to discover features of viral and host gene expression that correlate with single-cell outcomes, which will ultimately impact whether or

  6. [Update on the management of acute viral bronchiolitis: proposed guidelines of Grand Ouest University Hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, M; Cros, P; Gouin, M; Oillic, H; Bihouée, T; Denoual, H; Barzic, A; Duigou, A-L; Vrignaud, B; Levieux, K; Vabres, N; Fleurence, E; Darviot, E; Cardona, J; Guitteny, M-A; Marot, Y; Picherot, G; Gras-Le Guen, C

    2014-01-01

    While our European and North American colleagues have recently updated their recommendations, the 2000 Consensus Conference remains the main guideline on management of acute viral bronchiolitis in France. We aimed to establish an updated inter-regional protocol on management of acute viral bronchiolitis in infants. Pediatricians, pediatric pulmonologists, and emergency physicians of the Grand Ouest University Hospitals (France) gathered to analyze the recent data from the literature. Criteria to distinguish childhood asthma from acute viral bronchiolitis were established, then prescriptions of diagnostic tests, antibiotics, and chest physiotherapy were defined and reserved for very limited situations. Similarly, the modalities of oxygen therapy prescription and nutritional support were proposed. Finally, other therapeutics such as nebulized hypertonic saline seem promising, but their place in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in infants remains unclear. This work has provided new proposals for management of acute viral bronchiolitis and helped standardize practices within the Grand Ouest University Hospitals. This local organization could lay the keystone for working toward guidelines initiated by learned societies at the national level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Persistence of viral RNA in the brain of experimentally infected mice with coxsackievirus B5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobotova Z.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to follow the persistence of viral RNA in selected organs of experimentally infected with coxsackievirus (CV B5 strains from different sources such as a patient’s sample, an environmental sample and a prototype virus strain. Methods . CD-1 mice were infected with CVB5 strain Faulkner the prototype, CVB5 – isolate from treated sewage waste and isolate from patient’s stool sample both identified as CVB5. The viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR using enterovirus primers specific for the non-coding 5' region. Results . We observed presence of RNA in the brain and heart of mice infected with isolate from patient’s stool at day 45 post infection (p. i.. Conclusion. We conclude that CVB5 persists in the brain and heart after oral infection of CD1 mice. The relevance of viral persistence maybe related viral origin and the genetics

  8. Regulation of T cell migration during viral infection: role of adhesion molecules and chemokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Nansen, Anneline; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard

    2003-01-01

    T cell mediated immunity and in particular CD8+ T cells are pivotal for the control of most viral infections. T cells exclusively exert their antiviral effect through close cellular interaction with relevant virus-infected target cells in vivo. It is therefore imperative that efficient mechanisms...... exist, which will rapidly direct newly generated effector T cells to sites of viral replication. In the present report we have reviewed our present knowledge concerning the molecular interactions, which are important in targeting of effector CD8+ T cells to sites of viral infection....

  9. Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Edmond CH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Conclusion Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases.

  10. Surveillance of acute respiratory infections in Mumbai during 2011-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, R D; Kothari, S T; Zunjarrao, K; Chowdhary, A S

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals aged less than 5 years. ARI often leads to hospitalisation, and it has been indicated that causative viral and bacterial infections go undetermined and results in the occurrence of resistant strains. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of various viral and bacterial infections in patients with ARIs. Two hundred samples were collected from July 2011 to July 2012 with patients suffering from ARI. Viral and bacterial infections were determined by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Influenza-like illness (ILI) consisted of 109 patients and ARI consisted of 91 patients. Pandemic influenza A H1N1 was the major viral infection with 21 (19.2%) patients in ILI as compared with 16 (17.4%) patients in ARI. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was found to be 1 (0.9%) in ILI and ARI. Viral co-infections were 16 (14.4%) in ILI and 4 (4.37%) in ARI where pandemic influenza A H1N1 and influenza type B were major contributors. In bacterial infections, Streptococcus pneumoniae with 11 (10.9%) cases were predominant in both the groups. Bacterial co-infection accounted for only 1 (1.09%) case in both the groups but the most significant finding was the viral-bacterial co-infection in which Haemophilus influenzae was the major co-infecting bacteria with the influenza viruses with 4 (4.36%) cases as compared with Streptotoccus pneumoniae. This data indicate the need to undertake continued surveillance that will help to better define the circulation of respiratory viruses along with the bacterial infections.

  11. Immune and viral correlates of "secondary viral control" after treatment interruption in chronically HIV-1 infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Van Gulck

    Full Text Available Upon interruption of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients usually show viral load rebound to pre-treatment levels. Four patients, hereafter referred to as secondary controllers (SC, were identified who initiated therapy during chronic infection and, after stopping treatment, could control virus replication at undetectable levels for more than six months. In the present study we set out to unravel possible viral and immune parameters or mechanisms of this phenomenon by comparing secondary controllers with elite controllers and non-controllers, including patients under HAART. As candidate correlates of protection, virus growth kinetics, levels of intracellular viral markers, several aspects of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell function and HIV neutralizing antibodies were investigated. As expected all intracellular viral markers were lower in aviremic as compared to viremic subjects, but in addition both elite and secondary controllers had lower levels of viral unspliced RNA in PBMC as compared to patients on HAART. Ex vivo cultivation of the virus from CD4+ T cells of SC consistently failed in one patient and showed delayed kinetics in the three others. Formal in vitro replication studies of these three viruses showed low to absent growth in two cases and a virus with normal fitness in the third case. T cell responses toward HIV peptides, evaluated in IFN-γ ELISPOT, revealed no significant differences in breadth, magnitude or avidity between SC and all other patient groups. Neither was there a difference in polyfunctionality of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, as evaluated with intracellular cytokine staining. However, secondary and elite controllers showed higher proliferative responses to Gag and Pol peptides. SC also showed the highest level of autologous neutralizing antibodies. These data suggest that higher T cell proliferative responses and lower replication kinetics might be instrumental in secondary viral control in the absence of

  12. Rabies Virus Infection Induces the Formation of Stress Granules Closely Connected to the Viral Factories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Nikolic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are membrane-less dynamic structures consisting of mRNA and protein aggregates that form rapidly in response to a wide range of environmental cellular stresses and viral infections. They act as storage sites for translationally silenced mRNAs under stress conditions. During viral infection, SG formation results in the modulation of innate antiviral immune responses, and several viruses have the ability to either promote or prevent SG assembly. Here, we show that rabies virus (RABV induces SG formation in infected cells, as revealed by the detection of SG-marker proteins Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1, T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1 and poly(A-binding protein (PABP in the RNA granules formed during viral infection. As shown by live cell imaging, RABV-induced SGs are highly dynamic structures that increase in number, grow in size by fusion events, and undergo assembly/disassembly cycles. Some SGs localize in close proximity to cytoplasmic viral factories, known as Negri bodies (NBs. Three dimensional reconstructions reveal that both structures remain distinct even when they are in close contact. In addition, viral mRNAs synthesized in NBs accumulate in the SGs during viral infection, revealing material exchange between both compartments. Although RABV-induced SG formation is not affected in MEFs lacking TIA-1, TIA-1 depletion promotes viral translation which results in an increase of viral replication indicating that TIA-1 has an antiviral effect. Inhibition of PKR expression significantly prevents RABV-SG formation and favors viral replication by increasing viral translation. This is correlated with a drastic inhibition of IFN-B gene expression indicating that SGs likely mediate an antiviral response which is however not sufficient to fully counteract RABV infection.

  13. The importance of lytic and nonlytic immune responses in viral infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2002-01-01

    the disease, particularly if the virus replicates at a fast rate. By contrast, if viral cytopathicity is high relative to the replication rate of the virus, then lytic and nonlytic mechanisms can, in principle, resolve the infection independently. We discuss our findings in the context of specific viral...

  14. Replication Capacity of Viruses from Acute Infection Drives HIV-1 Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selhorst, Philippe; Combrinck, Carina; Ndabambi, Nonkululeko; Ismail, Sherazaan D; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose; Lacerda, Miguel; Samsunder, Natasha; Garrett, Nigel; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Williamson, Carolyn

    2017-04-15

    The viral genotype has been shown to play an important role in HIV pathogenesis following transmission. However, the viral phenotypic properties that contribute to disease progression remain unclear. Most studies have been limited to the evaluation of Gag function in the context of a recombinant virus backbone. Using this approach, important biological information may be lost, making the evaluation of viruses obtained during acute infection, representing the transmitted virus, a more biologically relevant model. Here, we evaluate the roles of viral infectivity and the replication capacity of viruses from acute infection in disease progression in women who seroconverted in the CAPRISA 004 tenofovir microbicide trial. We show that viral replication capacity, but not viral infectivity, correlates with the set point viral load (Spearman r = 0.346; P = 0.045) and that replication capacity (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.52; P = 0.01) can predict CD4 decline independently of the viral load (HR = 2.9; P = 0.004) or protective HLA alleles (HR = 0.61; P = 0.36). We further demonstrate that Gag-Pro is not the main driver of this association, suggesting that additional properties of the transmitted virus play a role in disease progression. Finally, we find that although viruses from the tenofovir arm were 2-fold less infectious, they replicated at rates similar to those of viruses from the placebo arm. This indicates that the use of tenofovir gel did not select for viral variants with higher replication capacity. Overall, this study supports a strong influence of the replication capacity in acute infection on disease progression, potentially driven by interaction of multiple genes rather than a dominant role of the major structural gene gagIMPORTANCE HIV disease progression is known to differ between individuals, and defining which fraction of this variation can be attributed to the virus is important both clinically and epidemiologically. In this study, we show that the replication

  15. The Clinical Significance of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Treatment of Acute Viral Hepatitis Accompanied by Cholestasis Syndrome in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Kramariov

    2015-09-01

    Results of the study. 82.5 % of children with acute viral hepatitis were found to have cholestasis syndrome. The treatment of diseases accompanied by cholestasis with ursodeoxycholic acid promotes to more rapid regression of the main symptoms of acute viral hepatitis and normalization of biochemical parameters of liver functioning (ALT, alkaline phosphatase, GGT.

  16. Acute exacerbation in chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Vieira Santos

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of an acute exacerbation of liver injury in a chronic HBV infected young male is reported. The correlation between the severe symptomatic hepatitis is done with the histopathologic findings of extense areas of bridging necrosis on the Iwer biopsy. The serological pattern for markers of HBV (HBsAg +, anti HBs g -, HBeAg -, anti HBe +, anti HBcIgG + and IgM - confirm a chronic infection, ana the authors propose that the episode of severe hepatitis relates to the recent spontaneous seroconvertion of HBe Ag to anti HBe. Other causes of hepatitis were excluded, and the control liver biopsy (6 months later showed normalization of hepatic architecture and absence of markers of viral replication in tissue and serum. A review of literature is done in an attempt to elucidate the diagnostic possibilities in this case, with emphasis on new immunoassays useful in differentiating between acute hepatitis B and acute exacerbation of a chronic hepatitis by the same virus.

  17. PREVENTION OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Karneeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of inflammatory diseases of the upper airways and eardrum remains relevant and associated both with high prevalence of this pathology and likelihood of developing complications. Inflammation of nasal cavity’s mucosal lining causes discomfort, while chronic dysfunction of nasal breathing significantly reduces the patient’s quality of life. Difficulty in nasal breathing of newborns and infants results in quite severe complications. Nearly 70% of acute respiratory infections cases in children are complicated with acute inflammation of eardrum, 90% of children under 3 years once develop secretory otitis media, 50% of them have several cases of eardrum inflammation.Key words: acute respiratory infections, otitis, treatment, children.

  18. Acute psychosis followed by fever: Malignant neuroleptic syndrome or viral encephalitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zvezdana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is rare, but potentially fatal idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotic medications. It is sometimes difficult to diagnose some clinical cases as neuroleptic malignant syndrome and differentiate it from the acute viral encephalitis. Case report. We reported a patient diagnosed with acute psychotic reaction which appeared for the first time. The treatment started with typical antipsychotic, which led to febrility. The clinical presentation of the patient was characterised by the signs and symptoms that might have indicated the neuroleptic malignant syndrome as well as central nervous system viral disease. In order to make a detailed diagnosis additional procedures were performed: electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging of the head, lumbar puncture and a serological test of the cerebrospinal fluid. Considering that after the tests viral encephalitis was ruled out and the diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome made, antipsychotic therapy was immediately stopped. The patient was initially treated with symptomatic therapy and after that with atypical antipsychotic and electroconvulsive therapy, which led to complete recovery. Conclusion. We present the difficulties of early diagnosis at the first episode of acute psychotic disorder associated with acute febrile condition. Concerning the differential diagnosis it is necessary to consider both neuroleptic malignant syndrome and viral encephalitis, i.e. it is necessary to make the neuroradiological diagnosis and conduct cerebrospinal fluid analysis and blood test. In neuroleptic malignant syndrome treatment a combined use of electroconvulsive therapy and low doses of atypical antipsychotic are confirmed to be successful.

  19. Molecular Signature of CD8 + T Cell Exhaustion during Chronic Viral Infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wherry, E. John; Ha, Sang-Jun; Kaech, Susan M; Haining, W. Nicholas; Sarkar, Surojit; Kalia, Vandana; Subramaniam, Shruti; Blattman, Joseph N; Barber, Daniel L; Ahmed, Rafi

    2007-01-01

    Chronic viral infections often result in T cell exhaustion. To determine the molecular signature of exhaustion, we compared the gene-expression profiles of dysfunctional lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-specific CD8...

  20. Alpha-Synuclein Expression Restricts RNA Viral Infections in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatman, Erica L; Massey, Aaron; Shives, Katherine D; Burrack, Kristina S; Chamanian, Mastooreh; Morrison, Thomas E; Beckham, J David

    2015-12-30

    We have discovered that native, neuronal expression of alpha-synuclein (Asyn) inhibits viral infection, injury, and disease in the central nervous system (CNS). Enveloped RNA viruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), invade the CNS and cause encephalitis, yet little is known about the innate neuron-specific inhibitors of viral infections in the CNS. Following WNV infection of primary neurons, we found that Asyn protein expression is increased. The infectious titer of WNV and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) TC83 in the brains of Asyn-knockout mice exhibited a mean increase of 10(4.5) infectious viral particles compared to the titers in wild-type and heterozygote littermates. Asyn-knockout mice also exhibited significantly increased virus-induced mortality compared to Asyn heterozygote or homozygote control mice. Virus-induced Asyn localized to perinuclear, neuronal regions expressing viral envelope protein and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated trafficking protein Rab1. In Asyn-knockout primary neuronal cultures, the levels of expression of ER signaling pathways, known to support WNV replication, were significantly elevated before and during viral infection compared to those in Asyn-expressing primary neuronal cultures. We propose a model in which virus-induced Asyn localizes to ER-derived membranes, modulates virus-induced ER stress signaling, and inhibits viral replication, growth, and injury in the CNS. These data provide a novel and important functional role for the expression of native alpha-synuclein, a protein that is closely associated with the development of Parkinson's disease. Neuroinvasive viruses such as West Nile virus are able to infect neurons and cause severe disease, such as encephalitis, or infection of brain tissue. Following viral infection in the central nervous system, only select neurons are infected, implying that neurons exhibit innate resistance to viral infections. We discovered that native neuronal expression of alpha

  1. CSF lactate level: a useful diagnostic tool to differentiate acute bacterial and viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abro, Ali Hassan; Abdou, Ahmed Saheh; Ustadi, Abdulla M; Saleh, Ahmed Alhaj; Younis, Nadeem Javeed; Doleh, Wafa F

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the potential role of CSF lactate level in the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis and in the differentiation between viral and bacterial meningitis. This was a hospital based observational study, conducted at Infectious Diseases Unit, Rashid Hospital Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from July 2004 to June 2007. The patients with clinical diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis and who had CSF Gram stain/culture positive, CSF analysis suggestive of bacterial meningitis with negative Gram stain and culture but blood culture positive for bacteria and patients with clinical diagnosis suggestive of viral meningitis supported by CSF chemical analysis with negative Gram stain and culture as well as negative blood culture for bacteria were included in the study. CT scan brain was done for all patients before lumber puncture and CSF and blood samples were collected immediately after admission. CSF chemical analysis including lactate level was done on first spinal tap. The CSF lactate level was tested by Enzymatic Colorimetric method. A total 95 adult patients of acute meningitis (53 bacterial and 42 viral) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among 53 bacterial meningitis patients, Neisseria meningitides were isolated in 29 (54.7%), Strept. Pneumoniae in 18 (33.96%), Staph. Aureus in 2 (3.77%), Klebsiell Pneumoniae in 2 (3.77%), Strept. Agalactiae in 1 (1.8%) and E. Coli in 1 (1.8%). All the patients with bacterial meningitis had CSF lactate > 3.8 mmol/l except one, whereas none of the patients with viral meningitis had lactate level > 3.8 mmol/l. The mean CSF lactate level in bacterial meningitis cases amounted to 16.51 +/- 6.14 mmol/l, whereas it was significantly lower in viral group 2.36 +/- 0.6 mmol/l, p viral meningitis and it can provide pertinent, rapid and reliable diagnostic information. Furthermore, CSF lactate level can also differentiate bacterial meningitis from viral one in a quick and better way.

  2. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  3. Impact of cell regeneration in human respiratory tract on simultaneous viral infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinky, Lubna Jahan Rashid; Dobrovolny, Hana

    2015-03-01

    Studies have found that ~ 40% of patients hospitalized with influenza-like illness are infected with at least two different viruses. In these longer infections, we need to consider the role of cell regeneration. Several mathematical models have been used to describe cell regeneration in infection models, though the effect of model choice on the predicted time course of simultaneous viral infections is not clear. We investigate a series of mathematical models of cell regeneration during simultaneous respiratory virus infections to determine the effect of cell regeneration on infection dynamics. We perform a nonlinear stability analysis for each model. The analysis suggests that coexistence of two viral species is not possible for any form of regeneration. We find that chronic illness is possible, but with only one viral species.

  4. Viral respiratory infections in patients with chronic non-specific lung disease (CNSLD)

    OpenAIRE

    Roldaan, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    textabstractIt is a well known clinical phenomenon that patients suffering from bronchial obstructive disorders, usually covered by the term chronic non-specific lung disease (CNSLD) tend to react with exacerbations of their disease in the course of respiratory infections, especially if a viral or mycoplasmal agent is involved. However, there is no uniform opinion about the relative importance of viral respiratory infections in this respect, and much of the background of the features observed...

  5. Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections, Study ... According to a recent study, exercising or practicing meditation may be effective in reducing acute respiratory infections. ...

  6. Effect of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline in the treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis in children.

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    Gisoo Hatami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is the most common viral respiratory infections in children under 2 years. No effective Short-term or long-term treatment for bronchiolitis has been approved yet. Treatment is still supportive with oxygen, fluid and mechanical ventilation as necessary. Several studies have shown that 3% hypertonic saline improve immediate and longterm cleaning of small airways in these patients. This study aimed to compare the effects of 3% hypertonic saline with 0.9% saline in 2-24 month children with bronchiolitis. Materials and Methods: In a non-randomized clinical trial, 60 children aged 2 to 24 months with diagnosis of acute viral bronchiolitis were enrolled. Thirty children recieved 3% hypertonic saline with nebulizer as the treatment group and 30 children treated with nebulized normal saline 0.9% as the control group. In entrance, oxygen saturation (by pulse oximetry, respiratory rate, pulse rate and severity of disease were measured using a combination score (sum of Clinical Score (YALE Observation Scale and RDAI (Respiratory Distress Assessment Index . The primary outcomes change in clinical score and hospitalization rate, and secondary outcomes were duration of hospitalization, need to oxygen therapy and recovery time from wheezing and cough. Results: Two groups were not different in terms of baseline variables, except age (8.9±4.9 months in the hypertonic saline group and 6.4 ± 4.6 months in normal saline group P=0.046. After the intervention, the difference in clinical severity between the hypertonic saline group (10.9±5.6 and normal saline (10.4±5.7 was not significant (adjusted for age P=0.77. The hospitalization rate was not significantly different in the two groups (60% vs 63.3%. Length of hospital stay, the need for oxygen therapy, number of days requiring intravenous fluid therapy and recovery time from cough and wheezing were not significantly different between two groups. Conclusion: It seems, 3% hypertonic

  7. Who Regulates Whom? An Overview of RNA Granules and Viral Infections

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    Natalia Poblete-Durán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After viral infection, host cells respond by mounting an anti-viral stress response in order to create a hostile atmosphere for viral replication, leading to the shut-off of mRNA translation (protein synthesis and the assembly of RNA granules. Two of these RNA granules have been well characterized in yeast and mammalian cells, stress granules (SGs, which are translationally silent sites of RNA triage and processing bodies (PBs, which are involved in mRNA degradation. This review discusses the role of these RNA granules in the evasion of anti-viral stress responses through virus-induced remodeling of cellular ribonucleoproteins (RNPs.

  8. Prophylaxis and therapy of viral infections in pediatric patients treated for malignancy

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    Anna Pegoraro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Infections are still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in pediatric cancer patients. Most of the febrile episodes in immunocompromised patients are classified as a fever of unknown origin (FUO while bacteria are the more frequent causes of documented infections. Viral infections are also feared during chemotherapy but less data are available on their incidence and morbidity. We reviewed the literature on incidence, morbidity, and mortality of viral infections in children undergoing chemotherapy and discussed the evidence concerning the prophylaxis and the therapy.

  9. MicroRNA Roles in the NF-κB Signaling Pathway during Viral Infections

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    Zeqian Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available NF-κB signaling network is a crucial component of innate immunity. miRNAs are a subtype of small noncoding RNAs, involved in regulation of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Increasing evidence has emerged that miRNAs play an important role in regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway during viral infections. Both host and viral miRNAs are attributed to modulation of NF-κB activity, thus affecting viral infection and clearance. Understandings of the mechanisms of these miRNAs will open a direction for development of novel antivirus drugs.

  10. Montelukast as an episodic modifier for acute viral bronchiolitis: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedan, Magdy; Gamil, Nareman; El-Assmy, Mohamed; Fayez, Engy; Nasef, Nehad; Fouda, Ashraf; Settin, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of once-daily montelukast therapy on the clinical progress and the cytokine profile of patients with acute viral bronchiolitis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 85 patients (mean age, 3.5 +/- 2.35 months), clinically diagnosed as first-episode acute bronchiolitis in addition to 10 healthy controls of matched age and sex. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either montelukast (4-mg sachets; n = 47) or placebo (n = 38) daily from the time of admission until discharge. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay (LOS), and clinical severity scores (CSs) and changes in plasma levels of interferon gamma and interleukin-4 were secondary outcomes. LOS for the montelukast group was found to be significantly lower than that of the placebo group (p first 24 hours (p episodic modifier in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis.

  11. Clinical definition of respiratory viral infections in young children and potential bronchiolitis misclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalaa, Rosemary; Perez, Geovanny F; Kilaikode-Cheruveettara, Sasikumar; Kotwal, Nidhi; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo

    2017-09-24

    Viral respiratory infections are often grouped as a single respiratory syndrome named 'viral bronchiolitis', independently of the viral etiology or individual risk factors. Clinical trials and guidelines have used a more stringent definition of viral bronchiolitis, including only the first episode of wheezing in children less than 12 months of age without concomitant respiratory comorbidities. There is increasing evidence suggesting that this definition is not being followed by pediatric care providers, but it is unclear to what extent viral respiratory infections are currently misclassified as viral bronchiolitis using standard definitions. We conducted a retrospective analysis of hospitalized young children (≤3 years) due to viral respiratory infections. Bronchiolitis was defined as the first wheezing episode less than 12 months of age. Demographic variables and comorbidities were obtained by electronic medical record review. The study comprised a total of 513 hospitalizations (n=453). Viral bronchiolitis was diagnosed in 144 admissions (28.1%). Notably, we identified that the majority of children diagnosed with bronchiolitis (63%) were misclassified as they had prior episodes of wheezing. Many children with bronchiolitis misclassification had significant comorbidities, including prematurity (51%), neuromuscular conditions (9.8%), and congenital heart disease (9.8%). Misclassification of bronchiolitis is a common problem that may lead to inappropriate management of viral respiratory infections in young children. A comprehensive approach that takes into consideration viral etiology and individual risk factors may lead to a more accurate clinical assessment of this condition and would potentially prevent bronchiolitis misclassification. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Association between viral hepatitis B infection and halitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-Hun; Lee, Sun-Mi; Lee, Jung-Gyu; Kim, Yun-Jin; Kim, Jin-Bom

    2014-05-01

    Oral malodor can be increased in breath of liver patients. However, no study has been performed for the association between volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) and viral hepatitis. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between viral hepatitis and VSCs. This study analyzed 182 subjects and measured hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and dimethyl sulfide [(CH3)2S] using the OralChroma(®). Hepatitis type B was evaluated. Periodontal health was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Tongue coating score (TCS) was evaluated. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship. Viral hepatitis had an elevated odds of dimethyl sulfide defined halitosis (OR = 9.22, 95% CI = 2.08-40.95) after controlling for age, gender, alcohol consumption, current smoking, periodontitis, BOP, TCS and tongue brushing habit. The magnitude of the association between viral hepatitis and VSCs defined halitosis attenuated with adjustment of mediators (alcohol consumption, periodontitis, BOP, TCS and tongue brushing habit for hydrogen sulfide defined halitosis; periodontitis, TCS and tongue brushing habit for methyl mercaptan defined halitosis; tongue brushing habit for dimethyl sulfide defined halitosis). Findings of this study suggest that viral hepatitis may be associated with methyl mercaptan defined halitosis.

  13. Human coronavirus and severe acute respiratory infection in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Hygor; Faggion, Heloisa Z; Leotte, Jaqueline; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R R; Raboni, Sonia M

    2016-05-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are an important cause of respiratory tract infection and are responsible for causing the common cold in the general population. Thus, adequate surveillance of HCoV is essential. This study aimed to analyze the impact of HCoV infections and their relation to severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in a hospitalized population in Southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital, and assessed inpatients under investigation for SARI by the hospital epidemiology department, and all patients who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from January 2012 to December 2013 to detect respiratory viruses (RVs). Viral infection was detected by multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with primers specific to the subtypes HCoV-229E/NL63 and OC43/HKU1. The overall positivity rate was 58.8% (444/755), and HCoVs were detected in 7.6% (n = 34) of positive samples. Children below two years of age were most frequently affected (62%). Comorbidities were more likely to be associated with HCoVs than with other RVs. Immunosuppression was an independent risk factor for HCoV infection (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.6). Dyspnea was less frequently associated with HCoV infection (p infected with HCoV (9%) died from respiratory infection. HCoVs are important respiratory pathogens, especially in hospitalized children under 2 years of age and in immunosuppressed patients. They may account for a small proportion of SARI diagnoses, increased need for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and death.

  14. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

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    Kwofie Theophilus B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  15. Chronic hepatitis C viral infection among SLE patients: the significance of coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahroum, Naim; Hejly, Ashraf; Tiosano, Shmuel; Gendelman, Omer; Comaneshter, Doron; Cohen, Arnon D; Amital, Howard

    2017-04-01

    The association between viral infection and autoimmune diseases is an established phenomenon in medicine. Hepatitis C viral infection is known to have such an association; however, its association with systemic lupus erythematosus has not been studied in a real life study driven from a large national database. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SLE and chronic hepatitis C viral infection. Patients with SLE were compared with age- and sex-matched controls regarding the proportion chronic HCV infection. Chi-square and t tests were used for univariate analysis, and a logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The study was performed utilizing the medical database of Clalit Health Services in Israel. There was a significant higher proportion of hepatitis C viral infection in SLE patients as compared to controls (1.06 and 0.39%, respectively; p SLE was significantly associated with hepatitis C viral infection (OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.46-2.90). To conclude, Patients with SLE have a greater proportion of chronic HCV infection than matched controls.

  16. Lipid profile in children with acute viral hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimoglu, Mukadder Ayse; Caner, Ibrahim; Yildiz, Leyla

    2007-04-01

    Most of the knowledge about lipid parameters in acute hepatitis is originated from adult studies. In this study, the authors investigated lipid profile of children with acute hepatitis A (AVH) at diagnosis and recovery in order to observe the behavior of lipid parameters in such children. A total of 28 children (mean age, 8.2 +/- 2.7 years) with AVH and 20 gender and age-matched healthy children were included. In addition to the routine tests, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plasma apo A-I and apo B were studied at diagnosis and recovery. Serum triglyceride and apo B level was higher, and apo A-I level was lower in patients compared to healthy children (P children had fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Serum lipid parameters were evaluated in respect with the presence of icterus and FHF, and found that apo A-I level was lower in icteric children and LDL and apo A-I were lower in FHF compared to others (P hepatic damage lowers both apo A-I and LDL. These parameters return to normal levels within 30 days. An interesting relationship between ammonia and apo A-I deserves further investigations, speculatively focused on hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha.

  17. Comparison of antibody repertoires produced by HIV-1 infection, other chronic and acute infections, and systemic autoimmune disease.

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    Felix Breden

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies (Abs produced during HIV-1 infection rarely neutralize a broad range of viral isolates; only eight broadly-neutralizing (bNt monoclonal (MAbs have been isolated. Yet, to be effective, an HIV-1 vaccine may have to elicit the essential features of these MAbs. The V genes of all of these bNt MAbs are highly somatically mutated, and the V(H genes of five of them encode a long (≥ 20 aa third complementarity-determining region (CDR-H3. This led us to question whether long CDR-H3s and high levels of somatic mutation (SM are a preferred feature of anti-HIV bNt MAbs, or if other adaptive immune responses elicit them in general.We assembled a V(H-gene sequence database from over 700 human MAbs of known antigen specificity isolated from chronic (viral infections (ChI, acute (bacterial and viral infections (AcI, and systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD, and compared their CDR-H3 length, number of SMs and germline V(H-gene usage. We found that anti-HIV Abs, regardless of their neutralization breadth, tended to have long CDR-H3s and high numbers of SMs. However, these features were also common among Abs associated with other chronic viral infections. In contrast, Abs from acute viral infections (but not bacterial infections tended to have relatively short CDR-H3s and a low number of SMs, whereas SAD Abs were generally intermediate in CDR-H3 length and number of SMs. Analysis of V(H gene usage showed that ChI Abs also tended to favor distal germline V(H-genes (particularly V(H1-69, especially in Abs bearing long CDR-H3s.The striking difference between the Abs produced during chronic vs. acute viral infection suggests that Abs bearing long CDR-H3s, high levels of SM and V(H1-69 gene usage may be preferentially selected during persistent infection.

  18. Translational Implication of Galectin-9 in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Viral Infection

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    Jenn-Haung Lai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between galectin-9 and its receptor, Tim-3, triggers a series of signaling events that regulate immune responses. The expression of galectin-9 has been shown to be increased in a variety of target cells of many different viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, herpes simplex virus (HSV, influenza virus, dengue virus (DENV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. This enhanced expression of galectin-9 following viral infection promotes significant changes in the behaviors of the virus-infected cells, and the resulting events tightly correlate with the immunopathogenesis of the viral disease. Because the human immune response to different viral infections can vary, and the lack of appropriate treatment can have potentially fatal consequences, understanding the implications of galectin-9 is crucial for developing better methods for monitoring and treating viral infections. This review seeks to address how we can apply the current understanding of galectin-9 function to better understand the pathogenesis of viral infection and better treat viral diseases.

  19. Sibling visitations and viral infections in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Yuho; Okazaki, Kaoru; Miyokawa, Shigeko; Kinoshita, Kazue; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Suwa, Junichi; Aizawa, Yuta; Fukuoka, Kahoru

    2017-12-05

    Sibling visitations to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are a part of family-centered care, which is now being increasingly endorsed as a positive development in patient care. However, sibling visitations pose a risk of viral infections such that many NICUs in Japan impose strict limits on the practice. The aim of our study was to assess whether sibling visitations to the NICU are related to an increase in the nosocomial viral infection rate. This retrospective study was conducted between April 2012 and March 2017 at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center in Japan. Sibling visitation was implemented after screening for symptoms of viral illness. Symptomatic patients in the NICU were tested for common viruses using rapid antigen tests and polymerase chain reaction. The number of sibling visitations and the rate of nosocomial viral infections were examined by Spearman's correlation test. The total number of sibling visitations and rate of nosocomial viral infections in the NICU was 102 and 0.068 per 1,000 patient-days during the study period, respectively. The number of enterovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, influenza virus A, and herpes simplex virus infections was 3, 2, 1, 1, 1, and 1, respectively. No infections were found following sibling visitation. The number of sibling visitations and the rate of nosocomial viral infections were not correlated (correlation coefficient -0.1, p=0.873). Sibling visitations to the NICU did not result in an increase in the nosocomial viral infection rate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating the impact of vaccination in acute SHIV-SIV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infects approxmately 0.5% of the world population, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A vaccine for HIV is urgently required, and a variety of vaccine modalities have been tested in animal models of infection. A number of these studies have shown protection in monkey models of infection, although the ability of the vaccine to protect appears to vary with the viral strain and animal model used. The recent failure of a large vaccine study in humans suggests that further understanding of the basic dynamics of infection and impact of vaccination are required, in order to understand the variable efficacy of vaccination in different infections. The dynamics of HIV infection have been studied in humans and in a variety of animal models. The standard model of infection has been used to estimate the basic reproductive ratio (R{sub 0}) of the virus, calculated from the growth rate of virus in acute infection. This method has not been useful in studying the effects of vaccination, since, in the vaccines developed so far, early growth rates of virus do not differ between control and vaccinated animals. Here, we use the standard model of viral dynamics to derive the reproductive ratio from the peak viral load and nadir of target cell numbers in acute infection. We apply this method to data from studies of vaccination in Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) infection and demonstrate that vaccination can reduce the reproductive ratio by 2.3 and 2 fold respectively. This method allows the comparison of vaccination efficacy amongst different viral strains and animal models in vivo.

  1. Viral pathogens including human metapneumovirus are the primary cause of febrile respiratory illness in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marina B; Yang, Hong; DelBalso, Lina; Carbonneau, Julie; Frost, Eric; Boivin, Guy

    2010-01-15

    To determine the spectrum of pathogens causing acute febrile respiratory illness in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we re-analyzed data from a prospective surveillance study involving 50 outpatients (90% of whom received highly active antiretroviral therapy). Nasopharyngeal samples were tested for 23 respiratory viruses by multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for atypical bacteria by PCR. Sputum cultures and serological testing were performed. Viruses accounted for 64% of infections. After influenza (22 cases), human metapneumovirus infection (6 cases) was most common and was associated with bronchospasm. Bacterial infections occurred in 6 patients (3 of whom had concurrent viral infection). Over 80% of patients received antibiotics. Rapid testing to identify specific viral pathogens could aid in patient management and reduce unnecessary antibiotic exposure.

  2. Acute Schistosoma mansoni infection increases susceptibility to systemic SHIV clade C infection in rhesus macaques after mucosal virus exposure.

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    Agnès-Laurence Chenine

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals living in sub-Saharan Africa represent 10% of the world's population but almost 2/3 of all HIV-1/AIDS cases. The disproportionate HIV-1 infection rates in this region may be linked to helminthic parasite infections that affect many individuals in the developing world. However, the hypothesis that parasite infection increases an individual's susceptibility to HIV-1 has never been prospectively tested in a relevant in vivo model.We measured whether pre-existing infection of rhesus monkeys with a parasitic worm would facilitate systemic infection after mucosal AIDS virus exposure. Two groups of animals, one consisting of normal monkeys and the other harboring Schistosoma mansoni, were challenged intrarectally with decreasing doses of R5-tropic clade C simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-C. Systemic infection occurred in parasitized monkeys at viral doses that remained sub-infectious in normal hosts. In fact, the 50% animal infectious (AID(50 SHIV-C dose was 17-fold lower in parasitized animals compared to controls (P<0.001. Coinfected animals also had significantly higher peak viral RNA loads than controls (P<0.001, as well as increased viral replication in CD4(+ central memory cells (P = 0.03.Our data provide the first direct evidence that acute schistosomiasis significantly increases the risk of de novo AIDS virus acquisition, and the magnitude of the effect suggests that control of helminth infections may be a useful public health intervention to help decrease the spread of HIV-1.

  3. Using experimental human influenza infections to validate a viral dynamic model and the implications for prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S C; You, S H; Liu, C Y; Chio, C P; Liao, C M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to use experimental infection data of human influenza to assess a simple viral dynamics model in epithelial cells and better understand the underlying complex factors governing the infection process. The developed study model expands on previous reports of a target cell-limited model with delayed virus production. Data from 10 published experimental infection studies of human influenza was used to validate the model. Our results elucidate, mechanistically, the associations between epithelial cells, human immune responses, and viral titres and were supported by the experimental infection data. We report that the maximum total number of free virions following infection is 10(3)-fold higher than the initial introduced titre. Our results indicated that the infection rates of unprotected epithelial cells probably play an important role in affecting viral dynamics. By simulating an advanced model of viral dynamics and applying it to experimental infection data of human influenza, we obtained important estimates of the infection rate. This work provides epidemiologically meaningful results, meriting further efforts to understand the causes and consequences of influenza A infection.

  4. Prospective Study of Acute HIV-1 Infection in Adults in East Africa and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Merlin L.; Eller, Leigh A.; Kibuuka, Hannah; Rono, Kathleen; Maganga, Lucas; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Kroon, Eugene; Sawe, Fred K.; Sinei, Samuel; Sriplienchan, Somchai; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Malia, Jennifer; Manak, Mark; de Souza, Mark S.; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Rolland, Morgane; Dorsey-Spitz, Julie; Eller, Michael A.; Milazzo, Mark; Li, Qun; Lewandowski, Andrew; Wu, Hao; Swann, Edith; O'Connell, Robert J.; Peel, Sheila; Dawson, Peter; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is a major contributor to transmission of HIV-1. An understanding of acute HIV-1 infection may be important in the development of treatment strategies to eradicate HIV-1 or achieve a functional cure. Methods We performed twice-weekly qualitative plasma HIV-1 RNA nucleic acid testing in 2276 volunteers who were at high risk for HIV-1 infection. For participants in whom acute HIV-1 infection was detected, clinical observations, quantitative measurements of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (to assess viremia) and HIV antibodies, and results of immunophenotyping of lymphocytes were obtained twice weekly. Results Fifty of 112 volunteers with acute HIV-1 infection had two or more blood samples collected before HIV-1 antibodies were detected. The median peak viremia (6.7 log10 copies per milliliter) occurred 13 days after the first sample showed reactivity on nucleic acid testing. Reactivity on an enzyme immunoassay occurred at a median of 14 days. The nadir of viremia (4.3 log10 copies per milliliter) occurred at a median of 31 days and was nearly equivalent to the viral-load set point, the steady-state viremia that persists durably after resolution of acute viremia (median plasma HIV-1 RNA level, 4.4 log10 copies per milliliter). The peak viremia and downslope were correlated with the viral-load set point. Clinical manifestations of acute HIV-1 infection were most common just before and at the time of peak viremia. A median of one symptom of acute HIV-1 infection was recorded at a median of two study visits, and a median of one sign of acute HIV-1 infection was recorded at a median of three visits. Conclusions The viral-load set point occurred at a median of 31 days after the first detection of plasma viremia and correlated with peak viremia. Few symptoms and signs were observed during acute HIV-1 infection, and they were most common before peak viremia. (Funded by the Department of Defense and the National

  5. Infections in acute leukemia in Indian Children

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    B Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In the present study acute leukemic children were studied to determine the incidence and principal site of infection, correlation with absolute neutrophil count, causative organisms and to standardize the initial empirical anti microbial therapy. Materials and methods: A total 40 children in the age group 6 month to 12 year with acute leukemia relapse were included in this study. A total 82 infectious episodes including 61 febrile episodes were investigated for infectious etiology. Results: We found that the frequency of infections increased significantly with the degree of immunocompromisation specially neutropenia (ANC < 500/cmm. The skin and soft tissue was the commonest site of infection (26.83%, followed by respiratory tract (21.95%. Staphylococcus nonhemolytic coagulase-negative (34%, followed by Klebsiella (17% were the most common organisms isolated from blood. Staphylococcus non-hemolytic coagulase-negative was also the commonest isolate (26% from other sites of infection. Most strains were sensitive to Cloxacillin, cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Conclusion: For the treatment of febrile episodes, empirical use of beta-lactamase resistant penicillin e.g. Cloxacillin or cephalosporin combined with an aminoglycosides with a broad spectrum antifungal like fluconazole in selective cases at the first sign of infection is recommended. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-1, 40-47 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i1.9672

  6. Potential Application of Viral Empty Capsids for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    harvested 24 hrs post insult; C. VLP-treated and 2CLP-operated harvested 24 hrs post insult; D1,2. VLPtreated and 2CLP-operated harvested 4 days post ...insult; E. VLP-treated and 2CLP-operated harvested 12 days post insult. Magnification x400. 11 12 Lungs of the sacrificed rats were...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0125 TITLE: "Potential Application of Viral Empty Capsids for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory

  7. Opioids and Viral Infections : A Double-Edged Sword

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahamtan, Alireza; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Teymoori-Rad, Majid; Bont, Louis; Shokri, Fazel; Salimi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Opioids and their receptors have received remarkable attention because they have the ability to alter immune function, which affects disease progression. In vitro and in vivo findings as well as observations in humans indicate that opioids and their receptors positively or negatively affect viral

  8. Role of PKR and Type I IFNs in viral control during primary and secondary infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Nakayama

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFNs are known to mediate viral control, and also promote survival and expansion of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. However, it is unclear whether signaling cascades involved in eliciting these diverse cellular effects are also distinct. One of the best-characterized anti-viral signaling mechanisms of Type I IFNs is mediated by the IFN-inducible dsRNA activated protein kinase, PKR. Here, we have investigated the role of PKR and Type I IFNs in regulating viral clearance and CD8+ T cell response during primary and secondary viral infections. Our studies demonstrate differential requirement for PKR, in viral control versus elicitation of CD8+ T cell responses during primary infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. PKR-deficient mice mounted potent CD8+ T cell responses, but failed to effectively control LCMV. The compromised LCMV control in the absence of PKR was multifactorial, and linked to less effective CD8+ T cell-mediated viral suppression, enhanced viral replication in cells, and lower steady state expression levels of IFN-responsive genes. Moreover, we show that despite normal expansion of memory CD8+ T cells and differentiation into effectors during a secondary response, effective clearance of LCMV but not vaccinia virus required PKR activity in infected cells. In the absence of Type I IFN signaling, secondary effector CD8+ T cells were ineffective in controlling both LCMV and vaccinia virus replication in vivo. These findings provide insight into cellular pathways of Type I IFN actions, and highlight the under-appreciated importance of innate immune mechanisms of viral control during secondary infections, despite the accelerated responses of memory CD8+ T cells. Additionally, the results presented here have furthered our understanding of the immune correlates of anti-viral protective immunity, which have implications in the rational design of vaccines.

  9. A method for quantifying mechanical properties of tissue following viral infection.

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    Vy Lam

    Full Text Available Viral infection and replication involves the reorganization of the actin network within the host cell. Actin plays a central role in the mechanical properties of cells. We have demonstrated a method to quantify changes in mechanical properties of fabricated model three-dimensional (3D connective tissue following viral infection. Using this method, we have characterized the impact of infection by the human herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus (HCMV. HCMV is a member of the herpesvirus family and infects a variety of cell types including fibroblasts. In the body, fibroblasts are necessary for maintaining connective tissue and function by creating mechanical force. Using this 3D connective tissue model, we observed that infection disrupted the cell's ability to generate force and reduced the cumulative contractile force of the tissue. The addition of HCMV viral particles in the absence of both viral gene expression and DNA replication was sufficient to disrupt tissue function. We observed that alterations of the mechanical properties are, in part, due to a disruption of the underlying complex actin microfilament network established by the embedded fibroblasts. Finally, we were able to prevent HCMV-mediated disruption of tissue function by the addition of human immune globulin against HCMV. This study demonstrates a method to quantify the impact of viral infection on mechanical properties which are not evident using conventional cell culture systems.

  10. PREVENTION OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

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    O.V. Karneeva

    2009-01-01

    The issue of inflammatory diseases of the upper airways and eardrum remains relevant and associated both with high prevalence of this pathology and likelihood of developing complications. Inflammation of nasal cavity’s mucosal lining causes discomfort, while chronic dysfunction of nasal breathing significantly reduces the patient’s quality of life. Difficulty in nasal breathing of newborns and infants results in quite severe complications. Nearly 70% of acute respiratory infections cases in c...

  11. Towards a Multiscale Model of Acute HIV Infection

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    Anass Bouchnita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection of humans represents a complex biological system and a great challenge to public health. Novel approaches for the analysis and prediction of the infection dynamics based on a multi-scale integration of virus ontogeny and immune reactions are needed to deal with the systems’ complexity. The aim of our study is: (1 to formulate a multi-scale mathematical model of HIV infection; (2 to implement the model computationally following a hybrid approach; and (3 to calibrate the model by estimating the parameter values enabling one to reproduce the “standard” observed dynamics of HIV infection in blood during the acute phase of primary infection. The modeling approach integrates the processes of infection spread and immune responses in Lymph Nodes (LN to that observed in blood. The spatio-temporal population dynamics of T lymphocytes in LN in response to HIV infection is governed by equations linking an intracellular regulation of the lymphocyte fate by intercellular cytokine fields. We describe the balance of proliferation, differentiation and death at a single cell level as a consequence of gene activation via multiple signaling pathways activated by IL-2, IFNa and FasL. Distinct activation thresholds are used in the model to relate different modes of cellular responses to the hierarchy of the relative levels of the cytokines. We specify a reference set of model parameter values for the fundamental processes in lymph nodes that ensures a reasonable agreement with viral load and CD4+ T cell dynamics in blood.

  12. NADPH oxidases (NOXes) and reactive oxygen in viral infections, with emphasis on influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    The body makes highly reactive molecules, at times as a by-product of other processes, but also sometimes intentionally. This book chapter reviews both the generation of these molecules and how the molecules can impact viral infections. There is a specific focus on influenza virus infections....

  13. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing over the past several years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report describes research performed to characterize the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected...

  14. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  15. Frequency of viral etiology in symptomatic adult upper respiratory tract infections

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    Raquel Cirlene da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Results presented in this report suggest that respiratory viral infections are largely under diagnosed in immunocompetent adults. Although the majority of young adult infections are not life-threatening they may impose a significant burden, especially in developing countries since these individuals represent a large fraction of the working force.

  16. [Investigation on HPV viral load and high risk HPV types infection among patients with infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-dong; Zhang, Hui-min; Pei, Jing; He, Gui-rong; Sun, Xiao-fang; Li, Bing

    2007-06-01

    High risk human papilomavirus (HPV) infection is often related to cervical cancer. This study investigated the infection of high risk HPV in cervical epithelia among infertile patients. Relative quantification and absolute quantification were applied for determination of "real" HPV viral load in the clinical setting. Adopting multi-channels real time PCR to genotype and quantify eight high risk HPV (HPV16, 18, 45, 31; intermediate risk types: HPV33, 52, 58, 67) DNA in cervical epithelia of the 130 infertile patients and the 150 controls. This study applied housekeeping gene (beta-globin) for the DNA quantification on secretions samples for clinical diagnosis. The infection rate of the infertility group was 25.38 percent (33/130) and that of the control group was 11.33 percent (17/150), the difference was statistically significant. Among the 33 positive cases in the infertility group, 24 cases showed a viral load no less than 106; in 9 of them, the viral load was less than 106. Among the 17 positive cases in the control group, 4 cases had a viral load no less than 106; in 13 of them, the viral load was less than 106. There is a statistically significant difference in viral load between the infertility group and the control group. The HPV infection rate of the infertility group was higher than that of the control group.

  17. Activating KIRs and NKG2C in Viral Infections: Toward NK Cell Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Chiesa, Mariella; Sivori, Simona; Carlomagno, Simona; Moretta, Lorenzo; Moretta, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are important players in the immune defense against viral infections. The contribution of activating killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and CD94/NKG2C in regulating anti-viral responses has recently emerged. Thus, in the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation setting, the presence of donor activating KIRs (aKIRs) may protect against viral infections, while in HIV-infected individuals, KIR3DS1, in combination with HLA-Bw4-I80, results in reduction of viral progression. Since, studies have been performed mainly at the genetic or transcriptional level, the effective size, the function, and the “licensing” status of NK cells expressing aKIRs, as well as the nature of their viral ligands, require further investigation. Certain viral infections, mainly due to Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), can deeply influence the NK cell development and function by inducing a marked expansion of mature NKG2C+ NK cells expressing self-activating KIRs. This suggests that NKG2C and/or aKIRs are involved in the selective proliferation of this subset. The persistent, HCMV-induced, imprinting suggests that NK cells may display unexpected adaptive immune traits. The role of aKIRs and NKG2C in regulating NK cell responses and promoting a memory-like response to certain viruses is discussed. PMID:26617607

  18. ACUTE BILATERAL VIRAL NECROTIZING RETINITIS : AN UNCOMMON CASE REPORT

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    Rajendra Ku.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 22 year old male with a history of high grade fever 2 days, diarrhea 3 times and vomiting 2 times presented with diminution of vision in right eye of 1 days duration. His best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was counting finger 1 meter with no pin hole im provement and 20/20 ( S nellen ’ s in the right and left eye respectively. Fundus examination RE revealed white lesion in geographic fashion with clear edge involving macula and in left eye small peanut size white lesion present at paramacular area. Clinicall y a diagnosis of acute necrotizing was made. We started treatment by intra venous antiviral and systemic steroid. ELISA (serum and PCR (aqueous were positive for herpes simplex virus ( I ndex above 1.1 i.e. 1.54 . 1,2 The lesions showed a good response to t he above treatment. At 2 months follow - up, lesion had resolved well with BCVA of 20/40 and 20/20 in right and left eye respectively

  19. Human bocavirus infection as a cause of severe acute respiratory tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesker, F M; van Kampen, J J A; van der Eijk, A A; van Rossum, A M C; de Hoog, M; Schutten, M; Smits, S L; Bodewes, R; Osterhaus, A D M E; Fraaij, P L A

    2015-10-01

    In 2005 human bocavirus (HBoV) was discovered in respiratory tract samples of children. The role of HBoV as the single causative agent for respiratory tract infections remains unclear. Detection of HBoV in children with respiratory disease is frequently in combination with other viruses or bacteria. We set up an algorithm to study whether HBoV alone can cause severe acute respiratory tract infection (SARI) in children. The algorithm was developed to exclude cases with no other likely cause than HBoV for the need for admission to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with SARI. We searched for other viruses by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in these cases and studied their HBoV viral loads. To benchmark our algorithm, the same was applied to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-positive patients. From our total group of 990 patients who tested positive for a respiratory virus by means of RT-PCR, HBoV and RSV were detected in 178 and 366 children admitted to our hospital. Forty-nine HBoV-positive patients and 72 RSV-positive patients were admitted to the PICU. We found seven single HBoV-infected cases with SARI admitted to PICU (7/49, 14%). They had no other detectable virus by NGS. They had much higher HBoV loads than other patients positive for HBoV. We identified 14 RSV-infected SARI patients with a single RSV infection (14/72, 19%). We conclude that our study provides strong support that HBoV can cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influenza and rhinovirus viral load and disease severity in upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Andrea; Peci, Adriana; McGeer, Allison; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2017-01-01

    The role of viral load in respiratory viral infection is unclear. It is proposed that the viral load of some, but not all respiratory viruses correlate with disease severity. We aimed to determine if an association exists between viral loads among patients in ambulatory settings, compared to those requiring hospitalization/intensive care unit (ICU) admission with influenza A/H3N2, influenza B, or human rhinovirus (HRV); we also explored the impact of age, gender and co-detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae on patient setting. We hypothesized that hospitalized/ICU patients have higher respiratory virus viral loads compared to ambulatory (e.g. walk-in clinics, family practices)/ER patients. We quantified viral load by in-house real-time RT-PCR in 774 nasopharyngeal swabs with influenza A/H3N2, or B or HRV viruses from various patient settings in Ontario, Canada. Mean viral load (log10 copies/ml) of influenza A/H3N2 (6.94) was higher than influenza B (4.96) and HRV (5.58) (p<0.0001). Influenza A/H3N2 viral loads were highest in infants and the elderly; however, increased A/H3N2 viral loads were not associated with hospitalization/ICU admission compared to swabs collected in ambulatory/ER settings. Influenza B viral loads were higher in patients in hospital/ICU settings compared to those in ambulatory settings (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.11-1.47). HRV viral loads did not differ by age (p=0.67) or setting (p=0.54); there was no association between S. pneumoniae colonization and setting for any virus. When compared to ambulatory/ER patients, viral load was higher in hospitalized/ICU patients with influenza B, but not influenza A or HRV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the patients presenting with acute viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joon, A; Rao, P; Shenoy, S M; Baliga, S

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both enterically transmitted, resulting in acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in developing countries. They pose major health problems in our country. This study was done to determine prevalence of HAV and HEV in patients presenting with AVH and the co-infection of HAV and HEV in these patients. A cross-sectional study of 2-years duration was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, KMC, Mangalore. A non-random sampling of 958 patients presenting with AVH was considered in the study. On the basis of history, serum samples were analysed for IgM anti-HAV and IgM anti-HEV for the detection of HAV and HEV, respectively using commercially available ELISA kits. Data collected was analysed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. The seroprevalence of HAV- and HEV-positive patients were 19.31% and 10.54%, respectively. The seroprevalence of both HAV and HEV in patients with acute viral hepatitis was 11.5%. The prevalence of HAV and HEV among males (68% and 31%) was higher than in females (31% and 20%) and was predominantly seen among young adults. These infections were predominantly seen during end of monsoons and beginning of winter. Though the prevalence of HAV is much higher than that of HEV, co-infection rate of 11.5% mandates the screening for HEV which will be of immense importance in pregnant women and improving levels of personal hygiene among higher socio-economic population. These data will be essential for planning of future vaccination strategies and for better sanitation programme in this part of the country.

  2. Investigation of Clinical Relevance of Bacterial Colonization in Patients With Suspected Viral Respiratory Tract Infection By Using Multiplex PCR Method

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    Vedat Turhan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous viral and bacterial pathogens have been reported causing acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI. Nasopharyngeal swab (NPS specimens from 351 patients (278 children, 73 adults with suspected upper and lower ARTI were submitted during the study period from Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2006. Organism-specific nucleic acids were detected using TemPlex technology (ResPlex I and II, Genaco Biomedical Products, Huntsville, AL. Amplified products were identified using a suspension array for multiplex detection performed on a Luminex 100 instrument (Luminex, Austin, TX. A total of 221 viral and bacterial respiratory agents were detected in 148 patients (135 [48.5%] of the 278 children and 13 [17.8%] of the 73 adults with suspected ARTI. A single respiratory pathogen was detected in 89 patients [25.35%], whereas mixed infection with two or three pathogens was found in 59 [16.8%] of 351 suspected patients. S. pneumonia was the most frequently isolated strain (54 [15.3%] of 351 patients, followed by H. influenzae (37 [10.5%], rhinoviruses (35 [9.9%], influenza A virus (23 [6.5%], enteroviruses (19 [5.4%], hMPV (14 [3.9%], PIV-1 (12 [3.4%], PIV-3 (11 [3.1%], RSV (10 [2.8%], and influenza B virus (6 [1.7%]. Mixed infections were more frequent in children (56 [20.1%] of 278 than adult patients (3 [4.1%] of 73 patients. The detection rate of the bacteria peaked in the spring season (37 [40.6%] of 91 bacteria, followed by winter (24 infections, autumn (18 infections and summer (12 infections. The prevalence of co-infection is ~40%, finding a much higher incidence of co-infection with more than one agent than that reported previously. [Dis Mol Med 2013; 1(1.000: 2-7

  3. Slc15a4, a gene required for pDC sensing of TLR ligands, is required to control persistent viral infection.

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    Amanda L Blasius

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs are the major producers of type I IFN in response to viral infection and have been shown to direct both innate and adaptive immune responses in vitro. However, in vivo evidence for their role in viral infection is lacking. We evaluated the contribution of pDCs to acute and chronic virus infection using the feeble mouse model of pDC functional deficiency. We have previously demonstrated that feeble mice have a defect in TLR ligand sensing. Although pDCs were found to influence early cytokine secretion, they were not required for control of viremia in the acute phase of the infection. However, T cell priming was deficient in the absence of functional pDCs and the virus-specific immune response was hampered. Ultimately, infection persisted in feeble mice. We conclude that pDCs are likely required for efficient T cell priming and subsequent viral clearance. Our data suggest that reduced pDC functionality may lead to chronic infection.

  4. Live Cell Imaging Reveals the Relocation of dsRNA Binding Proteins Upon Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Deborah A; Roovers, Elke F; Gouil, Quentin; da Fonseca, Guilherme C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Jackson, Craig; Overall, Robyn L; Fusaro, Adriana F; Waterhouse, Peter M

    2017-06-01

    Viral infection triggers a range of plant responses such as the activation of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The double-stranded RNA binding (DRB) proteins DRB3 and DRB4 are part of this pathway and aid in defending against DNA and RNA viruses, respectively. Using live cell imaging, we show that DRB2, DRB3, and DRB5 relocate from their uniform cytoplasmic distribution to concentrated accumulation in nascent viral replication complexes (VRC) that develop following cell invasion by viral RNA. Inactivation of the DRB3 gene in Arabidopsis by T-DNA insertion rendered these plants less able to repress RNA viral replication. We propose a model for the early stages of virus defense in which DRB2, DRB3, and DRB5 are invasion sensors that relocate to nascent VRC, where they bind to viral RNA and inhibit virus replication.

  5. Experimental infection of reindeer with bovine viral diarrhea virus

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    J.K. Morton

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Two 8-month reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and a 1-month-old Hereford-Holstein calf (Bos taurus were inoculated intranasally with the Singer (cytopathogenic strain of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD virus. Clinical signs in reindeer included loose stools containing blood and mucus, and transient laminitis or coronitis. Signs in the calf were limited to bloody mucus in the stool and lesions in the nasal mucosa. Antibody titers to BVD virus in the reindeer were intermittent, and titers in the calf persisted from days 14 to 63 post-inoculation (PI. Viremia was detected on PI day 4 in one reindeer, days 3-7 in the other, and days 2-7 in the calf. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from the lung of the calf at necropsy (PI day 63.

  6. Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing

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    Zar Heather J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs are important triggers of wheezing in young children. Wheezy illness has increasingly been recognised as an important cause of morbidity in African children, but there is little information on the contribution of HRV to this. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children. Methods Two hundred and twenty children presenting consecutively at a tertiary children's hospital with a wheezing illness from May 2004 to November 2005 were prospectively enrolled. A nasal swab was taken and reverse transcription PCR used to screen the samples for HRV. The presence of human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus and human coronavirus-NL63 was assessed in all samples using PCR-based assays. A general shell vial culture using a pool of monoclonal antibodies was used to detect other common respiratory viruses on 26% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis to determine circulating HRV species was performed on a portion of HRV-positive samples. Categorical characteristics were analysed using Fisher's Exact test. Results HRV was detected in 128 (58.2% of children, most (72% of whom were under 2 years of age. Presenting symptoms between the HRV-positive and negative groups were similar. Most illness was managed with ambulatory therapy, but 45 (35% were hospitalized for treatment and 3 (2% were admitted to intensive care. There were no in-hospital deaths. All 3 species of HRV were detected with HRV-C being the most common (52% followed by HRV-A (37% and HRV-B (11%. Infection with other respiratory viruses occurred in 20/128 (16% of HRV-positive children and in 26/92 (28% of HRV-negative samples. Conclusion HRV may be the commonest viral infection in young South African children with acute wheezing. Infection is associated with mild or moderate clinical disease.

  7. [Nebulized hypertonic saline and acute viral bronchiolitis in infants: current aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvaget, E; David, M; Bresson, V; Retornaz, K; Bosdure, E; Dubus, J-C

    2012-06-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis affects infants, is frequent, and can be severe. Its treatment is only based on symptoms. Hypertonic saline (HS) may act favorably in this situation by fighting virus-induced dehydration of the airway liquid surface. Because of an osmotic action, HS attracts the water from the epithelial cells and improves mucociliary clearance. Five double-blind placebo-controlled studies concerning hospitalized infants with acute viral bronchiolitis showed that repeated nebulizations of 3% HS induce a 20% improvement in the clinical severity score and reduced the hospital length of stay by 24h. Tolerance is excellent. On the other hand, a few questions remain unresolved: what is the optimal salt concentration? What is the recommended nebulizer? What is the best frequency for nebulizer use? Can nebulized HS be used at home? What are the results with systematic physiotherapy when HS is used? Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Information of the Center for Ecology and Epidemiology of Influenza, D. I. Ivanovsky Research Institute of Virology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, on the results of the 2009-2010 influenza and acute respiratory viral infection epidemic season (at week 40 of 2009 to week 22 of 2010) in the world and Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Burtseva, E I; Lavrishcheva, V V

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the specific features of the 2009-2010 epidemic season in Russia and the world, which are due to the wide spread of a new pandemic strain of influenza A(H1N1)v virus. There is an unusual early upsurge in the incidence of influenza and acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) (in October-November 2009) with its peak at weeks 45 to 48 of the year with a succeeding reduction to the seasonal values by its end. The circulation of influenza B virus strains was recorded in February-April 2010, which was responsible for the higher epidemic thresholds of morbidity in a number of Russia's regions. A study of the antigenic properties of the strains defined their relationship to the reference