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Sample records for acute tubular necrosis

  1. Acute tubular necrosis in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

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    Eranga S Wijewickrama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a well-recognized complication of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH. The predominant mechanism is intravascular hemolysis resulting in massive hemoglobinuria ARF. We report a case of acute tubular necrosis (ATN developed in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis in a 21-year-old man with anemia, who was eventually diagnosed to have PNH. The patient presented with rapidly deteriorating renal functions in the background of iron deficiency anemia, which was attributed to reflux esophagitis. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of intravascular hemolysis. Renal biopsy revealed ATN with deposition of hemosiderin in the proximal tubular epithelial cells. Diagnosis of PNH was confirmed with a positive Ham′s test and flow cytometry. Our case emphasizes the need to consider ATN as a possible cause for ARF in patients suspected to have PNH even in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis.

  2. Differentiation between renal allograft rejection and acute tubular necrosis by renal scan

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    Delmonico, F.L.; McKusick, K.A.; Cosimi, A.B.; Russell, P.S.

    1977-04-01

    The usefulness of the renal scan in diagnosing technical complications in the transplant patient is well established. However, the ability of the renal scan to differentiate between acute rejection and acute tubular necrosis has remained uncertain. We have evaluated the effectiveness of the /sup 99m/Tc DTPA computer-derived time-activity curve of renal cortical perfusion, as well as data obtained from scintillation camera images, in making such diagnoses. Fifteen patients with a clinical diagnosis of either acute rejection or acute tubular necrosis, or both, were studied retrospectively. Technetium scan diagnoses did not agree with the clinical assessment in nine of the patients. Thus selection of a course of treatment should not be based on data obtained from the scan alone.

  3. Renal hyperconcentration of /sup 99m/Tc-HEDP in experimental acute tubular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of transient renal ischemia on renal concentration and distribution of /sup 99m/Tc-HEDP, /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA, and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was compared in rabbits with acute tubular necrosis. Scintigrams were obtained after injection in normal rabbits or ones with unilateral or bilateral ischemia. /sup 99m/Tc-HEDP concentration in ischemic tissue was 8 to 18 times normal 1 to 4 hrs after injection, and the resulting images delineated the morphological changes in the ischemic kidneys more accurately than those obtained with DMSA or DTPA. Calcium concentration in the ischemic kidneys increased sixfold. /sup 99m/Tc-HEDP may be useful in evaluation of renal failure secondary to tubular injury

  4. ApoSense: a novel technology for functional molecular imaging of cell death in models of acute renal tubular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute renal tubular necrosis (ATN), a common cause of acute renal failure, is a dynamic, rapidly evolving clinical condition associated with apoptotic and necrotic tubular cell death. Its early identification is critical, but current detection methods relying upon clinical assessment, such as kidney biopsy and functional assays, are insufficient. We have developed a family of small molecule compounds, ApoSense, that is capable, upon systemic administration, of selectively targeting and accumulating within apoptotic/necrotic cells and is suitable for attachment of different markers for clinical imaging. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of these molecules as a diagnostic imaging agent for the detection of renal tubular cell injury following renal ischemia. Using both fluorescent and radiolabeled derivatives of one of the ApoSense compounds, didansyl cystine, we evaluated cell death in three experimental, clinically relevant animal models of ATN: renal ischemia/reperfusion, radiocontrast-induced distal tubular necrosis, and cecal ligature and perforation-induced sepsis. ApoSense showed high sensitivity and specificity in targeting injured renal tubular epithelial cells in vivo in all three models used. Uptake of ApoSense in the ischemic kidney was higher than in the non-ischemic one, and the specificity of ApoSense targeting was demonstrated by its localization to regions of apoptotic/necrotic cell death, detected morphologically and by TUNEL staining. (orig.)

  5. ApoSense: a novel technology for functional molecular imaging of cell death in models of acute renal tubular necrosis

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    Damianovich, Maya; Ziv, Ilan; Aloya, Tali; Grimberg, Hagit; Levin, Galit; Reshef, Ayelet; Bentolila, Alfonso; Cohen, Avi; Shirvan, Anat [NeuroSurvival Technologies (NST) Ltd., Petah Tikva (Israel); Heyman, Samuel N.; Shina, Ahuva [Mt.Scopus and the Hebrew University Medical School, Department of Medicine, Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Rosen, Seymour [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Kidron, Dvora [Meir Hospital, Department of Pathology, Kfar-Saba (Israel)

    2006-03-15

    Acute renal tubular necrosis (ATN), a common cause of acute renal failure, is a dynamic, rapidly evolving clinical condition associated with apoptotic and necrotic tubular cell death. Its early identification is critical, but current detection methods relying upon clinical assessment, such as kidney biopsy and functional assays, are insufficient. We have developed a family of small molecule compounds, ApoSense, that is capable, upon systemic administration, of selectively targeting and accumulating within apoptotic/necrotic cells and is suitable for attachment of different markers for clinical imaging. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of these molecules as a diagnostic imaging agent for the detection of renal tubular cell injury following renal ischemia. Using both fluorescent and radiolabeled derivatives of one of the ApoSense compounds, didansyl cystine, we evaluated cell death in three experimental, clinically relevant animal models of ATN: renal ischemia/reperfusion, radiocontrast-induced distal tubular necrosis, and cecal ligature and perforation-induced sepsis. ApoSense showed high sensitivity and specificity in targeting injured renal tubular epithelial cells in vivo in all three models used. Uptake of ApoSense in the ischemic kidney was higher than in the non-ischemic one, and the specificity of ApoSense targeting was demonstrated by its localization to regions of apoptotic/necrotic cell death, detected morphologically and by TUNEL staining. (orig.)

  6. Power doppler sonography in early renal transplantation: Does it differentiate acute graft rejection from acute tubular necrosis?

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    Haytham M Shebel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of power Doppler in the identification and differentiation bet-ween acute renal transplant rejection and acute tubular necrosis (ATN, we studied 67 live donor renal transplant recipients. All patients were examined by spectral and power Doppler sono-graphy. Assessment of cortical perfusion (CP by power Doppler was subjective, using our grading score system: P0 (normal CP; homogenous cortical blush extending to the capsule, P1 (reduced CP; cortical vascular cut-off at interlobular level, P2 (markedly reduced CP; scattered cortical color flow at the interlobar level. Renal biopsies were performed during acute graft dysfunction. Pathological diagnoses were based on Banff classification 1997. The Mann- Whitney test was used to test the difference between CP grades with respect to serum creatinine (SCr, and resistive index (RI. For 38 episodes of acute graft rejection grade I, power Doppler showed that CP was P1 and RI ranging from 0.78 to 0.89. For 21 episodes of acute graft rejection grade II, power Doppler showed that CP was P1, with RI ranging from 0.88 to >1. Only one case of grade III rejection had a CP of P2. Twelve biopsies of ATN had CP of P0 and RI ranging from 0.80 to 0.89 There was a statistically significant correlation between CP grading and SCr (P <0.01 as well as between CP grading and RI (P <0.05. CP grading had a higher sensitivity in the detection of early acute rejection compared with RI and cross-sectional area measurements. We conclude that power Doppler is a non-invasive sensitive technique that may help in the detection and differentiation between acute renal transplant rejection and ATN, particularly in the early post-transplantation period.

  7. BIOPSY PROVEN ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS DUE TO RHABDOMYOLYSIS IN A DENGUE FEVER PATIENT: A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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    Liliany P. Repizo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal histology results are very scarce in dengue-associated rhabdomyolysis patients developing acute kidney injury (AKI. We report a case of dengue fever-induced AKI associated to rhabdomyolysis with a renal biopsy showing acute tubular necrosis (ATN and renal deposition of myoglobin. A 28-year-old patient who presented dengue fever (DF complicated by severe AKI and rhabdomyolysis is described. The patient required hemodialysis for three weeks. A renal biopsy revealed ATN with positive staining for myoglobin in the renal tubuli. The patient was discharged with recovered renal function. In conclusion, this case report described a biopsy proven ATN associated to DF-induced rhabdomyolysis, in which renal deposition of myoglobin was demonstrated. We suggest that serum creatine phosphokinase should be monitored in DF patients to allow for an early diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis and the institution of renal protective measures.

  8. Early segmental changes in ischemic acute tubular necrosis of the rat kidney

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    Faarup, Poul; Nørgaard, Tove; Hegedüs, Viktor;

    2004-01-01

    pentothal-anesthetized Wistar rats (body weight 200-250 g) ischemia of the right kidney was obtained by clamping (clamp diameter 0.15 mm) the ipsilateral renal artery for varying periods of time (10 min to 6 h) followed by removal and instant freezing of the kidney in isopentane at -165 degrees C...... and subsequent freeze-substitution in alcohol. The microscopic slides from the kidneys were silver methenamine-PAS stained. In the segments of the proximal convoluted tubules of the nephrons, presence of nuclear pyknosis, places of denuded basement membranes and presence of exfoliated tubular cells were counted...

  9. Poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 expression is related to cold ischemia, acute tubular necrosis, and delayed renal function in kidney transplantation.

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    Francisco O'Valle

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Cold ischemia time especially impacts on outcomes of expanded-criteria donor (ECD transplantation. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury produces excessive poly[ADP-Ribose] Polymerase-1 (PARP-1 activation. The present study explored the hypothesis that increased tubular expression of PARP-1 contributes to delayed renal function in suboptimal ECD kidney allografts and in non-ECD allografts that develop posttransplant acute tubular necrosis (ATN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nuclear PARP-1 immunohistochemical expression was studied in 326 paraffin-embedded renal allograft biopsies (193 with different degrees of ATN and 133 controls and in murine Parp-1 knockout model of IR injury. RESULTS: PARP-1 expression showed a significant relationship with cold ischemia time (r coefficient = 0.603, time to effective diuresis (r = 0.770, serum creatinine levels at biopsy (r = 0.649, and degree of ATN (r = 0.810 (p = 0.001, Pearson test. In the murine IR model, western blot showed an increase in PARP-1 that was blocked by Parp-1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemical study of PARP-1 in kidney allograft biopsies would allow early detection of possible delayed renal function, and the administration of PARP-1 inhibitors may offer a therapeutic option to reduce damage from IR in donor kidneys by preventing or minimizing ATN. In summary, these results suggest a pivotal role for PARP-1 in the ATN of renal transplantation. We propose the immunohistochemical assessment of PARP-1 in kidney allograft biopsies for early detection of a possible delayed renal function.

  10. Acute retinal necrosis

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    Hugo Hernán Ocampo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Clinical features in a case of acute retinal necrosis are described as well as its diagnostic approach and response to early treatment. Methods: This is a descriptive and retrospective study case report of a 26 year old male patient who arrived to the emergency room with a three day history of sudden visual loss in the right eye (RE. At initial evaluation a visual acuity of hand movements in the RE, 20/15 in the left eye (LE and a right relative afferent pupillary defect were found. Fundoscopy revealed profuse soft exudates and hemorrhages involving posterior pole, inferior hemiretina and superotemporal periphery. Infectious workup and fluoresceinic angiography were made and positive serologies for herpes virus types 1 and 2, without HIV, were found. A diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis was made and treatment with intravenous valgancyclovir for two weeks and intra-vitreous triamcinolone for severe vasculitis, was given. Then a 3 months treatment with oral antiviral agents was prescribed. Results: Patient’s evolution showed improvement with treatment and at two and a half months of follow up, visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye, normal slit lamp examination, tonometry of 12 mm Hg and fundoscopy improved when compared to initial pictures.Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is needed for diagnosing ARN taking into account clinical findings. Prompt intravenous and intra-vitreous treatments are needed to achieve good clinical and functional outcomes and to avoid central nervous system complications.

  11. 促红细胞生成素防治大鼠急性肾小管坏死的实验研究%Experimental study of the prevention and treatment of acute renal tubular necrosis with erythropoietin in rats

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    余堂宏; 胡宏; 梁伟; 刘金洪

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨促红细胞生成素对大鼠急性肾小管坏死的防治作用.方法 按10 mL·kg-1肌肉注射甘油建立大鼠急性肾小管坏死模型.30只Wistar大鼠随机(随机数字法)分为正常组、模型组、治疗组.治疗组予促红细胞生成素(1000 IU·kg-1)尾静脉注射,实验结束时检测各组大鼠血尿素氮(Bun)、血肌酐(Scr)、尿渗量、尿N-乙酰-β-D-氨基葡萄糖苷酶(NAG)、尿β2微球蛋白(β2-MG),肾组织匀浆丙二醇(MDA)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD),并进行肾脏组织学观察.结果 与模型组比较,治疗组大鼠Bun、Scr、尿NAG、尿β2-MG、肾组织匀浆MDA明显下降,而尿渗量、肾组织匀浆SOD升高,肾脏病理改变好转.结论 促红细胞生成素可能通过抗氧自由基损伤,提高内源性抗氧化能力达到对急性肾小管坏死大鼠肾脏的部分保护作用.%Objective To study the preventive effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on acute tubular necrosis of kidney in rats. Method The rat models of acute renal tubular necrosis were established with injecting glycerol in dose of 10 mL/kg. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly (random number) divided into control group, model group and EPO treatment group. EPO was administered intravenously into rats of treatment group in a dose of 1000IU/kg. Levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr), urine osmolality, urine N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), urine β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), tissue MDA and SOD of rats in the three groups were assayed after the experiment. Renal histological examination was also performed. Results Compared with model group, the levels of BUN and Scr, urine osmolality, NAG,β2-MG and tissue MDA in EPO treament group were significantly lower, but urine osmolality and tissue SOD of rats remarkably increased in comparison with model group. EPO also lessened the histological changes in treatment group. Conclusions EPO has some protective effects on acute renal tubular necrosis in rats, which

  12. Acute Retinal Necrosis in Childhood

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    Yoav Y. Pikkel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute retinal necrosis (ARN is a viral syndrome consisting of uveitis/vitritis, occlusive vasculitis and peripheral necrosis. Few incidents are reported in children. The etiology is reactivated herpes simplex virus (HSV or varicella-zoster virus (VZV. Treatment with acyclovir is often used. The administration of oral glucocorticosteroids is of unproven benefit. Prognosis is variable but poor. Methods: Three weeks after contracting mild chickenpox, a healthy 4-year-old girl developed blurred vision in her right eye. Severely reduced visual acuity was noted, together with anterior uveitis, ‘mutton-fat' precipitates and vitral flare. Retinal vasculitis with necrosis was present. Serology for toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus and HIV was negative, while HSV and VZV IgG antibodies were positive. She was treated with 30 mg/kg of intravenous methylprednisolone (3 days, 30 mg of oral prednisone (3 days, and tapering for 8 weeks. Intravenous acyclovir was given for 10 days, followed by oral acyclovir for 4 months. Aspirin (100 mg/day was given for 4 months. Results: At 12 months, the girl felt good. Her right eye acuity was 6/9, with an intraocular pressure of 17 mm Hg. The peripheral retina showed scarring but no detachment. Conclusions: This is the first report of a once-daily high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy in one of the youngest known ARN cases. Pulsed steroid therapy was based on its known effectiveness in vasculitis, which is the main pathophysiology in ARN. There was no evidence of steroid-related viral over-replication. Our case achieved an excellent clinical and ophthalmic recovery in spite of the poor prognosis. The positive result of this case report provides a basis for further evaluation of high-dose steroid pulse therapy in ARN.

  13. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

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    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  14. Acute esophageal necrosis caused by alcohol abuse

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    Tetsu Endo; Juichi Sakamoto; Ken Sato; Miyako Takimoto; Koji Shimaya; Tatsuya Mikami; Akihiro Munakata; Tadashi Shimoyama; Shinsaku Fukuda

    2005-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is extremely rare and the pathogenesis of this is still unknown. We report a case of AEN caused by alcohol abuse. In our case, the main pathogenesis could be accounted for low systemic perfusion caused by severe alcoholic lactic acidosis. After the healing of AEN, balloon dilatation was effective to manage the stricture.

  15. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: acute liquefaction necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromal tumors, together with leiomyomas and schwannomas, constitute the sol-called mesenchymal tumors of the intestinal wall. Stromal tumors are histologically differentiated from other mesenchymal tumors in that they are derived from the interstitial cell of Cajal. These tumors can be encountered at any point throughout the entire digestive tract, by usually develop in stomach or small bowel. the clinical presentation in anemia secondary to gastrointestinal bleeding. Acute abdomen due to perforation or necrosis is rare. We present a case of jejunal stromal tumors with massive liquefaction necrosis, a circumstance that resulted in the peculiar radiological features observed. (Author) 9 refs,

  16. Black esophagus: Acute esophageal necrosis syndrome

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    Grigoriy; E; Gurvits

    2010-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), commonly referred to as "black esophagus", is a rare clinical entity arising from a combination of ischemic insult seen in hemodynamic compromise and low-flow states, corrosive injury from gastric contents in the setting of esophago-gastroparesis and gastric outlet obstruction, and decreased function of mucosal barrier systems and reparative mechanisms present in malnourished and debilitated physical states. AEN may arise in the setting of multiorgan dysfunction, hypoperfusi...

  17. Black esophagus (acute esophageal necrosis) after spinal anesthesia.

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    Román Fernández, A; López Álvarez, A; Fossati Puertas, S; Areán González, I; Varela García, O; Viaño López, P M

    2014-01-01

    Acute esophagic necrosis or black esophagus is an uncommon clinical entity that owes its name to the endoscopic view of the necrotic esophageal mucosa. It is always related with a critical medical condition and usually has an ischemic etiology. We report the first case of acute esophageal necrosis after a spinal anesthetic for partial hip joint arthroplasty. We discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

  18. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

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    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  19. Lipasuria in acute pancreatitis: result of tubular dysfunction?

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    Muench, R; Buehler, H; Kehl, O; Ammann, R

    1987-01-01

    Lipase, in contrast to amylase, is completely reabsorbed by the proximal tubules after glomerular filtration. Therefore, no lipase is detectable in the unconcentrated urine according to the current opinion. The handling of lipase (detected with an enzyme-immunoassay) by the kidney was investigated in comparison with creatinine, amylase, and beta-2-microglobulin by clearance studies in acute pancreatitis (n = 10), burn injury (n = 4), glomerular proteinuria (n = 8), and controls without evidence of pancreatic or renal diseases (n = 5). In initial stages of acute pancreatitis a measurable clearance of lipase (mean: 49.6 microliters/min, range: 0.5-234) was found in association with corresponding increased clearances of beta-2-microglobulin (mean: 10.5 ml/min, range: 0.02-58.9) and of amylase (mean: 8.9 ml/min, range: 2.4-22.6) in nine of ten patients. This finding is consistent with a defect of tubular function. However, regression analysis failed to show a significant correlation between lipase and beta-2-microglobulin clearance. Repeated measurements during the course of pancreatitis in seven patients showed reversibility of tubular dysfunction. In patients with burn injury a similar elevation of clearances of beta-2-microglobulin and of amylase was found, but tubular dysfunction in this condition was not associated with lipasuria. In glomerular proteinuria a lipase clearance was found in two of five cases with moderate, and in the other three cases with severe impairment of creatinine clearance. beta-2-microglobulin clearance was normal in the former and only slightly elevated in the latter group. In conclusion lipase is measurable in the urine of most patients with acute pancreatitis as a result of a reversible tubular dysfunction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Acute esophageal necrosis and liver pathology, a rare combination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Maqbul Khan; Rangit Hundal; Vijaya Ramaswamy; Mark Korsten; Sunil Dhuper

    2004-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or "black esophagus" is a clinical condition found at endoscopy. It is a rare entity the exact etiology of which remains unknown. We describe of liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy.

  1. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio and tubular proteinuria in acute pancreatitis.

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    Lankisch, P G; Wolfrum, D I; Koop, H; Winckler, K

    1979-01-01

    Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (CAm/CCr), urinary protein concentration and urinary protein pattern were studied in 102 samples from 27 patients with acute pancreatitis and in 46 controls. Raised CAm/CCr, proteinuria and a tubular protein pattern were present in 74, 56 and 96% of the patients, respectively. However, CAm/CCr and proteinuria and CAm/CCr and tubular protein pattern were not correlated. These results do not support the suggestion that an elevated CAm/CCr in acute pancreatitis is due to generalized tubular protein reabsorption failure presenting with tubular proteinuria.

  2. Acute Tubuler Necrosis Related to Rhabdomyolysis

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    Fatma Sarı DOĞAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical and laboratory syndrome due to traumatic or non-traumatic injury that leads muscle cell contents participation into circulation. Dehydration and acidosis may cause myoglobinuric acute renal failure in patient with rhabdomyolysis. This case presents a 27-year-old male referred to emergency unit with weakness and abdominal ache who has a story of urine decrease and trauma exposure. Diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis in this case highlights the importance of anamnesis in early diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Contemporary management of infected necrosis complicating severe acute pancreatitis

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    Jamdar, Saurabh; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic necrosis complicating severe acute pancreatitis is a challenging scenario in contemporary critical care practice; it requires multidisciplinary care in a setting where there is a relatively limited evidence base to support decision making. This commentary provides a concise overview of current management of patients with infected necrosis, focusing on detection, the role of pharmacologic intervention, and the timing and nature of surgical interventions. Fine-needle aspiration of necrosis remains the mainstay for establishment of infection. Pharmacological intervention includes antibiotic therapy as an adjunct to surgical debridement/drainage and, more recently, drotrecogin alfa. Specific concerns remain regarding the suitability of drotrecogin alfa in this setting. Early surgical intervention is unhelpful; surgery is indicated when there is strong evidence for infection of necrotic tissue, with the current trend being toward 'less drastic' surgical interventions. PMID:16356213

  4. Renal Cortical Lactate Dehydrogenase: A Useful, Accurate, Quantitative Marker of In Vivo Tubular Injury and Acute Renal Failure.

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    Richard A Zager

    Full Text Available Studies of experimental acute kidney injury (AKI are critically dependent on having precise methods for assessing the extent of tubular cell death. However, the most widely used techniques either provide indirect assessments (e.g., BUN, creatinine, suffer from the need for semi-quantitative grading (renal histology, or reflect the status of residual viable, not the number of lost, renal tubular cells (e.g., NGAL content. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release is a highly reliable test for assessing degrees of in vitro cell death. However, its utility as an in vivo AKI marker has not been defined. Towards this end, CD-1 mice were subjected to graded renal ischemia (0, 15, 22, 30, 40, or 60 min or to nephrotoxic (glycerol; maleate AKI. Sham operated mice, or mice with AKI in the absence of acute tubular necrosis (ureteral obstruction; endotoxemia, served as negative controls. Renal cortical LDH or NGAL levels were assayed 2 or 24 hrs later. Ischemic, glycerol, and maleate-induced AKI were each associated with striking, steep, inverse correlations (r, -0.89 between renal injury severity and renal LDH content. With severe AKI, >65% LDH declines were observed. Corresponding prompt plasma and urinary LDH increases were observed. These observations, coupled with the maintenance of normal cortical LDH mRNA levels, indicated the renal LDH efflux, not decreased LDH synthesis, caused the falling cortical LDH levels. Renal LDH content was well maintained with sham surgery, ureteral obstruction or endotoxemic AKI. In contrast to LDH, renal cortical NGAL levels did not correlate with AKI severity. In sum, the above results indicate that renal cortical LDH assay is a highly accurate quantitative technique for gauging the extent of experimental acute ischemic and toxic renal injury. That it avoids the limitations of more traditional AKI markers implies great potential utility in experimental studies that require precise quantitation of tubule cell death.

  5. Acute retinal necrosis after Boston type I keratoprosthesis

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    Abdullah M Al-Amri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of a 68-year-old male who developed acute retinal necrosis (ARN after Boston type I keratoprosthesis is presented. The procedure was performed for multiple graft failure secondary to herpetic keratitis. Clinical data including visual acuity, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, laboratory tests findings, and management are presented. After exclusion of other causes by laboratory workup, the patient was diagnosed with ARN most likely secondary to herpetic infection. Intravenous acyclovir and oral prednisolone were administered to the patient resulting in marked improvement in visual acuity and regression in the size of the retinitis. The patient eventually developed a soft eye and choroidal detachment with light perception vision. In patients with a history of herpetic keratitis or keratouveitis, it is highly advisable to maintain prophylactic systemic antiviral treatment before and after any ocular procedure such as the Boston keratoprosthesis.

  6. The diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced CT in Acute bilateral renal cortical necrosis: a case report

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    Choi, Pil Youb; Lee, Su Han; Lee, Woo Dong [Masan Samsung General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    Acute renal cortical necrosis in which there is destruction of the renal cortex and sparing of the renal medulla, is a relatively rare cause of acute renal failure. A definitive diagnosis of acute renal cortical necrosis is based on renal biopsy, but on CT(computed tomography) the rather specific contrast-enhanced appearance of acute renal cortical necrosis has been described. As renal biopsy is not available, contrast-enhanced CT is a useful, noninvasive investigate modality for the early diagnosis of acute renal cortical necrosis. We report the characteristic CT findings of acute renal cortical necrosis in a patient with acute renal failure following an operation for abdominal trauma.

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles Protect Against Acute Tubular Injury

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    Bruno, Stefania; Grange, Cristina; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Calogero, Raffaele A.; Saviozzi, Silvia; Collino, Federica; Morando, Laura; Busca, Alessandro; Falda, Michele; Bussolati, Benedetta; Tetta, Ciro; Camussi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) improves the recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). The mechanism may involve paracrine factors promoting proliferation of surviving intrinsic epithelial cells, but these factors remain unknown. In the current study, we found that microvesicles derived from human bone marrow MSCs stimulated proliferation in vitro and conferred resistance of tubular epithelial cells to apoptosis. The biologic action of microvesicles required their CD44- and β1-...

  8. Coagulopathy and encephalopathy in a dog with acute hepatic necrosis.

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    Strombeck, D R; Krum, S; Rogers, Q

    1976-10-15

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation developed secondary to hepatic necrosis in a 5-year-old Saint Bernard. Although the coagulopathy responded to treatment with heparin, the dog died from the combined effects of gastric hemorrhage and encephalopathy, both of which are complications of hepatic necrosis. PMID:977448

  9. Infected pancreatic necrosis: Not necessarily a late event in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maxim S Petrov; Vincent Chong; John A Windsor

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that infection of pancreatic necrosis is a late event in the natural course of acute pancreatitis. This paper discusses the available data on the timing of pancreatic infection. It appears that infected pancreatic necrosis occurs early in almost a quarter of patients. This has practical implications for the type, timing and duration of preventive strategies used in these patients. There are also mplications for the classification of severity in patients with acute pancreatitis. Given that the main determinants of severity are both local and systemic complications and that they can occur both early and late in the course of acute pancreatitis, the classification of severity should be based on their presence or absence rather than on when they occur. To do otherwise, and in particular overlook early infected pancreatic necrosis, may lead to a misclassification error and fallacies of clinical studies in patients with acute pancreatitis.

  10. [Acute hemorrhagic necrosis of the breast following treatment with Cumarin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüchtrath, H; Walkowsky, A

    1983-08-01

    A case of hemorrhagic necrosis of the breast is reported in a thirty-four year old woman who received Cumarin treatment for deep leg vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. It was necessary to remove the breast. The microscopic examination showed complete blockage of the vessels by fibrin thrombi in almost all veins. The cause of this venous thrombosis was explained as a Shwartzman-Sanarelli-Phenomenon. PMID:6555120

  11. Colonic Necrosis in a 4-Year-Old with Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Patton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the case of a 4-year-old male with severe acute pancreatitis due to hyperlipidemia, who presented with abdominal pain, metabolic abnormalities, and colonic necrosis. This colonic complication was secondary to the extension of a large peripancreatic fluid collection causing direct serosal autodigestion by pancreatic enzymes. Two weeks following the initial presentation, the peripancreatic fluid collection developed into a mature pancreatic pseudocyst, which was percutaneously drained. To our knowledge, this is the youngest documented pediatric case of colonic necrosis due to severe pancreatitis and the first descriptive pediatric case of a colonic complication due to hyperlipidemia-induced acute pancreatitis.

  12. Ten years of experience with transgastric necrosectomy for walled-off necrosis in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busse, Malene Just; Ainsworth, Alan Patrick

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to report our results with open transgastric necrosectomy for walled-off necrosis in acute pancreatitis over a period of ten years. METHODS: Patients operated at the department from 2003 until 2012 were studied retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients......: Acute pancreatitis with walled-off necrosis has a high mortality rate. Need for additional therapy following necrosectomy was associated with fatal outcome. Endocrine and exocrine insufficiency was often seen at follow-up. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by the Danish Data...

  13. Acute hepatic encephalopathy presenting as cortical laminar necrosis: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Mun; Kim, Yoon Hee; Roh, Sook Young [Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Daejin Medical Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    We report on a 55-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis who presented with status epilepticus. Laboratory analysis showed markedly elevated blood ammonia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed widespread cortical signal changes with restricted diffusion, involving both temporo-fronto-parietal cortex, while the perirolandic regions and occipital cortex were uniquely spared. A follow-up brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cortical atrophy with increased signals on T1-weighted images in both the basal ganglia and temporal lobe cortex, representing cortical laminar necrosis. We suggest that the brain lesions, in our case, represent a consequence of toxic effect of ammonia.

  14. Esofagitis necrosante aguda: análisis retrospectivo Acute esophageal necrosis: a retrospective case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la esofagitis necrosante aguda es una entidad rara. Se reconoce por el aspecto negro difuso del esófago a la endoscopia. Su incidencia e patogénesis se desconoce. Pacientes y métodos: se analizaron retrospectivamente 11 pacientes con esofagitis necrosante aguda desde el punto de vista de los datos clínicos, de laboratorio y endoscopicos en 2 años. Resultados: se analizaron las endoscopias realizadas a 3.976 pacientes, observándose esofagitis necrosante aguda en 11 pacientes. El estado nutricional era malo en 6 pacientes. La resolución completa de la esofagitis se observó en cuatro pacientes. Durante el seguimiento se observó una estenosis en un paciente y un nuevo episodio de esofagitis necrosante aguda en otro paciente. Siete pacientes fallecieron, pero esta elevada mortalidad parece deberse a las enfermedades de base y no es atribuible a las lesiones de la esofagitis necrosante. Conclusiones: la incidencia de esofagitis necrosante aguda en nuestra serie fue 0,28%. La esofagitis necrosante aguda tiene una elevada mortalidad.Background: acute esophageal necrosis has been considered a rare event. It is defined as the presence of diffuse dark pigmentation of the esophagus on upper endoscopy. Its incidence has not yet been established. The pathogenesis remains unknown. Patients and methods: a retrospective analysis of clinical, laboratory, endoscopic, and histological data, and of the clinical course of 11 patients with acute necrotizing esophagitis was carried out over a 2-year period. Results: among 3,976 patients who underwent upper endoscopy, 11 (0.28% with acute esophageal necrosis were identified. Nutritional status was poor for 6 patients. Complete resolution of acute esophageal necrosis without further recurrence was observed in 4. One stricture appeared during follow-up and other patient developed new-onset acute esophageal necrosis. Seven patients died, but no death was directly related to acute esophageal necrosis

  15. Extensive Bone Marrow Necrosis in a Case of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Transformed from a Myeloproliferative Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Shapiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Extensive necrosis affecting more than 50% of the bone marrow is an extremely rare histopathological finding. Relatively little is known about its clinical significance because it is most commonly identified at autopsy - whether it is an independent prognostic marker or whether it is a surrogate marker of underlying disease burden remains unclear. We describe herein a case of a 66-year-old patient with acute myeloid leukemia who presented with acute bone marrow failure and was found to have extensive necrosis. We include presenting clinical features, pathology attained at biopsy, and the challenge of treatment. Bone marrow necrosis is a rare but important clinicopathological entity whose recognition may herald the way for more effective prognostication of underlying disease.

  16. INTRAOCULAR AND SERUM LEVELS OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR IN ACUTE RETINAL NECROSIS AND OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiertz, Karin; De Visser, Lenneke; Rijkers, Ger; De Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda; Los, Leonie; Rothova, Aniki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the intraocular and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) and compare those with VEGF levels found in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). Methods: Paired intraocular fluid and serum samples of 17 patients with

  17. Precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with bone marrow necrosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnaw Najmaddin SH

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bone marrow necrosis is a clinicopathological condition diagnosed most often at postmortem examination, but it is also seen during the course of malignancy and is not always associated with a poor prognosis. The morphological features of bone marrow necrosis are disruption of the normal marrow architecture and necrosis of myeloid tissue and medullary stroma. Non-malignant conditions associated with bone marrow necrosis are sickle cell anemia, infections, drugs (sulfasalazine, interferon α, all-trans retinoic acid, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and fludarabine, disseminated intravascular coagulation, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and acute graft versus host diseases. The malignant causes are leukemia, lymphoma and metastatic carcinomas. Herein we report the case of a patient with precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bone marrow necrosis at initial presentation. Case presentation A 10-year-old Kurdish boy was presented with generalized bone pain and fever of 1 month’s duration which was associated with sweating, easy fatigability, nose bleeding, breathlessness and severe weight loss. On examination, we observed pallor, tachypnea, tachycardia, low blood pressure, fever, petechial hemorrhage, ecchymoses, tortuous dilated veins over the chest and upper part of abdomen, multiple small cervical lymph node enlargements, mildly enlarged spleen, palpable liver and gross abdominal distention. Blood analysis revealed pancytopenia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Imaging results showed mediastinal widening on a planar chest X-ray and diffuse focal infiltration of the axial bone marrow on magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral vertebrae. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy examination showed extensive bone marrow necrosis. Immunophenotyping analysis of the bone marrow biopsy confirmed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, as CD3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl

  18. Role of procalcitonin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor in the early prediction of infected necrosis in severe acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, C.; Uhl, W.; Printzen, G; Gloor, B; Bischofberger, H; Tcholakov, O; Buchler, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is the main cause of death in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Therefore an early prediction of IPN is of utmost importance.
AIM—Analysis of new blood variables as potential early predictors to differentiate between IPN and sterile pancreatic necrosis (SPN).
PATIENTS—64 consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis were enrolled in this prospective study; 29 were suffering from acute oedematous pancreatitis (AIP), and 35 from necrotising di...

  19. Acute necrosis after Gamma Knife surgery in vestibular schwannoma leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitza, Sandra; Pangalu, Athina; Horstmann, Gerhard A; van Eck, Albert T; Regli, Luca; Tarnutzer, Alexander A

    2016-08-01

    We discuss a rare acute complication after Gamma Knife therapy (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) in a single patient. A 52-year-old woman presented with vertigo, facial weakness and hearing loss emerging 48hours following Gamma Knife radiosurgery for a right-sided vestibular schwannoma. Neurological examination 6days after symptom onset showed right-sided facial palsy, spontaneous left-beating nystagmus and pathologic head-impulse testing to the right. Pure-tone audiogram revealed right-sided sensorineural hearing loss. A diagnosis of acute vestibulocochlear and facial neuropathy was made. Brain MRI demonstrated focal contrast sparing within the schwannoma, likely related to acute radiation necrosis. Acute multiple cranial neuropathies of the cerebellopontine angle after Gamma Knife treatment should raise suspicion of acute tissue damage within the schwannoma and should result in urgent MRI. Treatment with steroids may be considered based on accompanying swelling and edema. PMID:26947104

  20. Lithium clearance and renal tubular sodium handling during acute and long-term nifedipine treatment in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, N E; Ibsen, H; Skøtt, P;

    1988-01-01

    1. In two separate studies the lithium clearance method was used to evaluate the influence of acute and long-term nifedipine treatment on renal tubular sodium reabsorption. 2. In the acute study, after a 4 week placebo period two doses of 20 mg of nifedipine decreased supine blood pressure from 155...... of nifedipine treatment. As compared with placebo, mean supine blood pressure decreased significantly. The glomerular filtration rate did not change but lithium clearance fell by 30%. Consequently, the absolute and the fractional proximal sodium reabsorption increased significantly. The fractional distal sodium...... reabsorption did not change. Sodium clearance, fractional sodium excretion, potassium clearance, plasma volume and extracellular fluid volume were also unchanged. 4. In conclusion, we found no changes of renal tubular sodium reabsorption during acute nifedipine treatment, whereas long-term nifedipine treatment...

  1. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis and other current concepts in the radiological assessment of acute pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Elen Freitas de Cerqueira [Image Memorial/DASA and Diagnoson Medicina Diagnostica, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Pereira, Fabio Payao; Blasbalg, Roberto; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USPU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2014-05-15

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition caused by intracellular activation and extravasation of inappropriate proteolytic enzymes determining destruction of pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissues. This is a fairly common clinical condition with two main presentations, namely, endematous pancreatitis - a less severe presentation - and necrotizing pancreatitis - the most severe presentation that affects a significant part of patients. The radiological evaluation, particularly by computed tomography, plays a fundamental role in the definition of the management of severe cases, especially regarding the characterization of local complications with implications in the prognosis and in the definition of the therapeutic approach. New concepts include the subdivision of necrotizing pancreatitis into the following presentations: pancreatic parenchymal necrosis with concomitant peripancreatic tissue necrosis, and necrosis restricted to peripancreatic tissues. Moreover, there was a systematization of the terms acute peripancreatic fluid collection, pseudocyst, post-necrotic pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collections and walled-off pancreatic necrosis. The knowledge about such terms is extremely relevant to standardize the terminology utilized by specialists involved in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. (author)

  2. Tumor necrosis factor α antibody prevents brain damage of rats with acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Ling Yang; Ji-Peng Li; Kai-Zong Li; Ke-Feng Dou

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the protective effects of tumor necrosis factor á (TNFα) antibody on pancreatic encephalopathy in rats.METHODS:One hundred and twenty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group,acute necrotizing pancreatitis group and TNFα antibody treated group.Acute hemorrhage necrotizing pancreatitis model in rats was induced by retrograde injection of 50 g/L sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct.Serum TNFα was detected and animals were killed 12 h after drug administration.Changes in content of brain water,MDA and SOD as well as leucocyte adhesion of brain microvessels were measured.RESULTS:In TNFα antibody treated group,serum TNFálevel was decreased.Content of brain water,MDA and SOD as well as leucocyte adhesion were decreased significantly in comparison with those of acute necrotizing pancreatitis group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:TNFα antibody can alleviate the brain damage of rats with acute hemorrhage necrotizing pancreatitis.

  3. Two sides of one coin: massive hepatic necrosis and progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hong-Lei; Cai, Xiaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liebe, Roman; Dooley, Steven; Li, Hai; Wang, Tai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Massive hepatic necrosis is a key event underlying acute liver failure, a serious clinical syndrome with high mortality. Massive hepatic necrosis in acute liver failure has unique pathophysiological characteristics including extremely rapid parenchymal cell death and removal. On the other hand, massive necrosis rapidly induces the activation of liver progenitor cells, the so-called "second pathway of liver regeneration." The final clinical outcome of acute liver failure depends on whether liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration can efficiently restore parenchymal mass and function within a short time. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding massive hepatic necrosis and liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in patients with acute liver failure, the two sides of one coin. PMID:26136687

  4. Two sides of one coin: massive hepatic necrosis and progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hong-Lei; Cai, Xiaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liebe, Roman; Dooley, Steven; Li, Hai; Wang, Tai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Massive hepatic necrosis is a key event underlying acute liver failure, a serious clinical syndrome with high mortality. Massive hepatic necrosis in acute liver failure has unique pathophysiological characteristics including extremely rapid parenchymal cell death and removal. On the other hand, massive necrosis rapidly induces the activation of liver progenitor cells, the so-called "second pathway of liver regeneration." The final clinical outcome of acute liver failure depends on whether liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration can efficiently restore parenchymal mass and function within a short time. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding massive hepatic necrosis and liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in patients with acute liver failure, the two sides of one coin.

  5. Autophagy Limits Endotoxemic Acute Kidney Injury and Alters Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Cytokine Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Jeremy S; Ni, Jie; Osmond, Morgan; Lee, Kyung; Gusella, G Luca; Salem, Fadi; Ross, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis related acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common in-hospital complication with a dismal prognosis. Our incomplete understanding of disease pathogenesis has prevented the identification of hypothesis-driven preventive or therapeutic interventions. Increasing evidence in ischemia-reperfusion and nephrotoxic mouse models of AKI support the theory that autophagy protects renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) from injury. However, the role of RTEC autophagy in septic AKI remains unclear. We observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a mediator of gram-negative bacterial sepsis, induces RTEC autophagy in vivo and in vitro through TLR4-initiated signaling. We modeled septic AKI through intraperitoneal LPS injection in mice in which autophagy-related protein 7 was specifically knocked out in the renal proximal tubules (ATG7KO). Compared to control littermates, ATG7KO mice developed more severe renal dysfunction (24hr BUN 100.1mg/dl +/- 14.8 vs 54.6mg/dl +/- 11.3) and parenchymal injury. After injection with LPS, analysis of kidney lysates identified higher IL-6 expression and increased STAT3 activation in kidney lysates from ATG7KO mice compared to controls. In vitro experiments confirmed an altered response to LPS in RTEC with genetic or pharmacological impairment of autophagy. In conclusion, RTEC autophagy protects against endotoxin induced injury and regulates downstream effects of RTEC TLR4 signaling.

  6. Autophagy Limits Endotoxemic Acute Kidney Injury and Alters Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Cytokine Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S Leventhal

    Full Text Available Sepsis related acute kidney injury (AKI is a common in-hospital complication with a dismal prognosis. Our incomplete understanding of disease pathogenesis has prevented the identification of hypothesis-driven preventive or therapeutic interventions. Increasing evidence in ischemia-reperfusion and nephrotoxic mouse models of AKI support the theory that autophagy protects renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC from injury. However, the role of RTEC autophagy in septic AKI remains unclear. We observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a mediator of gram-negative bacterial sepsis, induces RTEC autophagy in vivo and in vitro through TLR4-initiated signaling. We modeled septic AKI through intraperitoneal LPS injection in mice in which autophagy-related protein 7 was specifically knocked out in the renal proximal tubules (ATG7KO. Compared to control littermates, ATG7KO mice developed more severe renal dysfunction (24hr BUN 100.1mg/dl +/- 14.8 vs 54.6mg/dl +/- 11.3 and parenchymal injury. After injection with LPS, analysis of kidney lysates identified higher IL-6 expression and increased STAT3 activation in kidney lysates from ATG7KO mice compared to controls. In vitro experiments confirmed an altered response to LPS in RTEC with genetic or pharmacological impairment of autophagy. In conclusion, RTEC autophagy protects against endotoxin induced injury and regulates downstream effects of RTEC TLR4 signaling.

  7. Prognostic criteria in acute pancreatitis: importance of assessment of pancreatic necrosis by contrast-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the value of the clinical criteria of Ranson, the classical tomographic criteria of Balthzar and the severity of illness index according to CT in predicting the development of complications of acute pancreatitis. A retrospective study was performed in 100 patients with clinical and analytical evidence of acute pancreatitis. All patients were assessed according to Ranson score at admission and 48 hours later, and contrast-enhanced abdominal CT was carried out. The tomographic images were analyzed on the basis of the classical criteria of Balthazar and the new CT severity of illness index, which includes the assessment of pancreatic necrosis, identified as the areas of the pancreas that are not enhanced by the administration of the contrast material. These three criteria were then correlated with onset of medical and surgical implications. Our findings show that, of the three criteria analyzed, the CT severity of illness index presents the greatest specificity, sensitivity and positive and negative predictive values in the prediction of complications of acute pancreatitis. We conclude that the inclusion of pancreatic necrosis in the tomographic study improves the early assessment of the prognosis of acute pancreatitis. (Author) 20 refs

  8. Gallbladder Volvulus: A Rare Emergent Cause of Acute Cholecystitis, if Untreated, Progresses to Necrosis and Perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 86 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for abdominal hernia and Alzheimer dementia presented to the Emergency Department with a 24 hour history of acute right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and non-bilious emesis. Physical exam revealed right sided abdominal tenderness with associated mass. All laboratory values were within normal ranges. Both abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen/pelvis revealed a large distended gallbladder with wall thickening and gallstones. Based on presentation and radiologic findings, the emergency general surgery service was consulted for suspected acute cholecystitis. The patient was then admitted for intravenous antibiotics and scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy the following day. Intra-operative findings revealed volvulus with acute necrosis of the entire gallbladder. The gallbladder had a long pedunculated cystic duct and artery that was detorsed before proceeding with resection. Postoperatively, the patient did well and was discharged a few days later tolerating a regular diet

  9. Gallbladder Volvulus: A Rare Emergent Cause of Acute Cholecystitis, if Untreated, Progresses to Necrosis and Perforation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justin L, Regner, E-mail: Justin.Regner@BSWHealth.org; Angela, Lomas [Department of Surgery, Baylor Scott and White Health and Texas A& M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX (United States)

    2016-03-25

    An 86 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for abdominal hernia and Alzheimer dementia presented to the Emergency Department with a 24 hour history of acute right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and non-bilious emesis. Physical exam revealed right sided abdominal tenderness with associated mass. All laboratory values were within normal ranges. Both abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen/pelvis revealed a large distended gallbladder with wall thickening and gallstones. Based on presentation and radiologic findings, the emergency general surgery service was consulted for suspected acute cholecystitis. The patient was then admitted for intravenous antibiotics and scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy the following day. Intra-operative findings revealed volvulus with acute necrosis of the entire gallbladder. The gallbladder had a long pedunculated cystic duct and artery that was detorsed before proceeding with resection. Postoperatively, the patient did well and was discharged a few days later tolerating a regular diet.

  10. Kyrieleis plaques associated with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 acute retinal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Goel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with features typical of acute retinal necrosis (ARN. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous tap was positive for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV – 1. Following therapy with intravenous Acyclovir, followed by oral Acyclovir and steroids, there was marked improvement in the visual acuity and clinical picture. At one week after initiation of treatment, Kyrieleis plaques were observed in the retinal arteries. They became more prominent despite resolution of the vitritis, retinal necrosis and vasculitis and persisted till six weeks of follow-up, when fluorescein angiography was performed. The appearance of this segmental retinal periarteritis also known as Kyrieleis plaques has not been described in ARN due to HSV-1 earlier.

  11. Fulminant bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with viral encephalitis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunkui; Zhu, Lijun; Fang, Shaokuan

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common cause of acute viral encephalitis. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rapidly progressing and potentially blinding eye disease that may be induced by HSV. The present case study reports the very rare case of a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) combined with acute retinal necrosis (ARN). A 47-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with persistent high fever and somnolence for 5 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signals in the right medial temporal lobes, and HSV-1 was identified in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Five days later, despite treatment with intravenous acyclovir and partial improvement in consciousness, the patient suddenly developed blurred vision and bilateral visual pain. Fundus fluorescence angiography revealed bilateral vessel obstruction and flaky reduced fluorescence. ARN was diagnosed clinically. Dexamethasone was administered as an anti-inflammatory adjunct to intravenous acyclovir therapy. The visual acuity of the patient was reduced to mere light perception a further 4 days later. The present case indicates that HSE may be complicated with ARN, causing a reduction in visual acuity to mere light perception within a very short time. PMID:27698716

  12. Fulminant bilateral acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with viral encephalitis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunkui; Zhu, Lijun; Fang, Shaokuan

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common cause of acute viral encephalitis. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rapidly progressing and potentially blinding eye disease that may be induced by HSV. The present case study reports the very rare case of a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) combined with acute retinal necrosis (ARN). A 47-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with persistent high fever and somnolence for 5 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signals in the right medial temporal lobes, and HSV-1 was identified in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Five days later, despite treatment with intravenous acyclovir and partial improvement in consciousness, the patient suddenly developed blurred vision and bilateral visual pain. Fundus fluorescence angiography revealed bilateral vessel obstruction and flaky reduced fluorescence. ARN was diagnosed clinically. Dexamethasone was administered as an anti-inflammatory adjunct to intravenous acyclovir therapy. The visual acuity of the patient was reduced to mere light perception a further 4 days later. The present case indicates that HSE may be complicated with ARN, causing a reduction in visual acuity to mere light perception within a very short time.

  13. Toll-like receptor and tumour necrosis factor dependent endotoxin-induced acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togbe, Dieudonnée; Schnyder-Candrian, Silvia; Schnyder, Bruno; Doz, Emilie; Noulin, Nicolas; Janot, Laure; Secher, Thomas; Gasse, Pamela; Lima, Carla; Coelho, Fernando Rodrigues; Vasseur, Virginie; Erard, François; Ryffel, Bernhard; Couillin, Isabelle; Moser, Rene

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies on endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute inflammatory response in the lung are reviewed. The acute airway inflammatory response to inhaled endotoxin is mediated through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 signalling as mice deficient for TLR4 or CD14 are unresponsive to endotoxin. Acute bronchoconstriction, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-12 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) production, protein leak and neutrophil recruitment in the lung are abrogated in mice deficient for the adaptor molecules myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), but independent of TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF). In particular, LPS-induced TNF is required for bronchoconstriction, but dispensable for inflammatory cell recruitment. Lipopolysaccharide induces activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Inhibition of pulmonary MAPK activity abrogates LPS-induced TNF production, bronchoconstriction, neutrophil recruitment into the lungs and broncho-alveolar space. In conclusion, TLR4-mediated, bronchoconstriction and acute inflammatory lung pathology to inhaled endotoxin are dependent on TLR4/CD14/MD2 expression using the adapter proteins TIRAP and MyD88, while TRIF, IL-1R1 or IL-18R signalling pathways are dispensable. Further downstream in this axis of signalling, TNF blockade reduces only acute bronchoconstriction, while MAPK inhibition abrogates completely endotoxin-induced inflammation. PMID:18039275

  14. Necrosis and myelomalaic lesions in acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Noorulla

    2014-06-01

    Results: The histological observation revealed two stages of EAE; an initial inflammatory stage followed by demyelination. The inflammatory lesions were focal and invariably related to blood vessels. The inflammatory lesions consisted of perivascular cuffings with lymphocytes and mononuclear cells in the perivascular space and surrounding parenchyma. Perivascular demyelination was restricted to that part of the white matter which was infiltrated by mononuclear cells. The fibres in demyelinating lesions were demyelinated. Perivascular demyelination is followed by patchy demyelination and large plaques of demyelination. Neuronal and axonal damage, necrosis, tissue degeneration and cavity formation were seen in those animals which died during the acute phase of the disease. These changes were found in the spinal cord, brainstem and cerebellum. Conclusion: The changes observed in results lead to the conclusion that the acute EAE with severity of disease is no more a primary demyelinating disease. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 945-955

  15. Early magnetic resonance detection of cortical necrosis and acute network injury associated with neonatal and infantile cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, Tetsuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Nozawa, Kumiko [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Niwa, Tetsu [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isehara (Japan); Shibasaki, Jun [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Neonatology, Yokohama (Japan); Osaka, Hitoshi [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    Knowledge of MRI findings in pediatric cerebral infarction is limited. To determine whether cortical necrosis and network injury appear in the acute phase in post-stroke children and to identify anatomical location of acute network injury and the ages at which these phenomena are seen. Images from 12 children (age range: 0-9 years; neonates [<1 month], n=5; infants [1 month-12 months], n=3; others [≥1 year], n=4) with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) cortical infarction were retrospectively analyzed. Cortical necrosis was defined as hyperintense cortical lesions on T1-weighted imaging that lacked evidence of hemorrhage. Acute network injury was defined as hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging that were not in the MCA territory and had fiber connections with the affected cerebral cortex. MRI was performed within the first week after disease onset. Cortical necrosis was only found in three neonates. Acute network injury was seen in the corticospinal tract (CST), thalamus and corpus callosum. Acute network injury along the CST was found in five neonates and one 7-month-old infant. Acute network injury was evident in the thalamus of four neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months) and in the corpus callosum of five neonates and two infants (ages 4 and 7 months). The entire thalamus was involved in three children when infarction of MCA was complete. In acute MCA cortical infarction, MRI findings indicating cortical necrosis or acute network injury was frequently found in neonates and early infants. Response to injury in a developing brain may be faster than that in a mature one. (orig.)

  16. Neonatal herpes simplex virus type-1 central nervous system disease with acute retinal necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Choong Yi; Aye, Aye Mya Min; Peyman, Mohammadreza; Nor, Norazlin Kamal; Visvaraja, Subrayan; Tajunisah, Iqbal; Ong, Lai Choo

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 central nervous system disease with bilateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN). An infant was presented at 17 days of age with focal seizures. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction was positive for HSV-1 and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebritis. While receiving intravenous acyclovir therapy, the infant developed ARN with vitreous fluid polymerase chain reaction positive for HSV-1 necessitating intravitreal foscarnet therapy. This is the first reported neonatal ARN secondary to HSV-1 and the first ARN case presenting without external ocular or cutaneous signs. Our report highlights that infants with neonatal HSV central nervous system disease should undergo a thorough ophthalmological evaluation to facilitate prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment of this rapidly progressive sight-threatening disease. PMID:24378951

  17. Tumor Necrosis Factor, but Not Neutrophils, Alters the Metabolic Profile in Acute Experimental Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina C Oliveira

    Full Text Available Metabolic alterations are associated with arthritis apart from obesity. However, it is still unclear which is the underlying process behind these metabolic changes. Here, we investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF in this process in an acute model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA. Immunized male BALB/c mice received an intra-articular injection of PBS (control or methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA into their knees, and were also pre-treated with different drugs: Etanercept, an anti-TNF drug, DF2156A, a CXCR1/2 receptor antagonist, or a monoclonal antibody RB6-8C5 to deplete neutrophils. Local challenge with mBSA evoked an acute neutrophil influx into the knee joint, and enhanced the joint nociception, along with a transient systemic metabolic alteration (higher levels of glucose and lipids, and altered adipocytokines. Pre-treatment with the conventional biological Etanercept, an inhibitor of TNF action, ameliorated the nociception and the acute joint inflammation dominated by neutrophils, and markedly improved many of the altered systemic metabolites (glucose and lipids, adipocytokines and PTX3. However, the lessening of metabolic changes was not due to diminished accumulation of neutrophils in the joint by Etanercept. Reduction of neutrophil recruitment by pre-treating AIA mice with DF2156A, or even the depletion of these cells by using RB6-8C5 reduced all of the inflammatory parameters and hypernociception developed after AIA challenge, but could not prevent the metabolic changes. Therefore, the induction of joint inflammation provoked acute metabolic alterations which were involved with TNF. We suggest that the role of TNF in arthritis-associated metabolic changes is not due to local neutrophils, which are the major cells present in this model, but rather due to cytokines.

  18. Tumor Necrosis Factor, but Not Neutrophils, Alters the Metabolic Profile in Acute Experimental Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marina C.; Tavares, Luciana P.; Vago, Juliana P.; Batista, Nathália V.; Queiroz-Junior, Celso M.; Vieira, Angelica T.; Menezes, Gustavo B.; Sousa, Lirlândia P.; van de Loo, Fons A. J.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Amaral, Flávio A.; Ferreira, Adaliene V. M.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic alterations are associated with arthritis apart from obesity. However, it is still unclear which is the underlying process behind these metabolic changes. Here, we investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in this process in an acute model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Immunized male BALB/c mice received an intra-articular injection of PBS (control) or methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) into their knees, and were also pre-treated with different drugs: Etanercept, an anti-TNF drug, DF2156A, a CXCR1/2 receptor antagonist, or a monoclonal antibody RB6-8C5 to deplete neutrophils. Local challenge with mBSA evoked an acute neutrophil influx into the knee joint, and enhanced the joint nociception, along with a transient systemic metabolic alteration (higher levels of glucose and lipids, and altered adipocytokines). Pre-treatment with the conventional biological Etanercept, an inhibitor of TNF action, ameliorated the nociception and the acute joint inflammation dominated by neutrophils, and markedly improved many of the altered systemic metabolites (glucose and lipids), adipocytokines and PTX3. However, the lessening of metabolic changes was not due to diminished accumulation of neutrophils in the joint by Etanercept. Reduction of neutrophil recruitment by pre-treating AIA mice with DF2156A, or even the depletion of these cells by using RB6-8C5 reduced all of the inflammatory parameters and hypernociception developed after AIA challenge, but could not prevent the metabolic changes. Therefore, the induction of joint inflammation provoked acute metabolic alterations which were involved with TNF. We suggest that the role of TNF in arthritis-associated metabolic changes is not due to local neutrophils, which are the major cells present in this model, but rather due to cytokines. PMID:26742100

  19. The role of tumor necrosis factor in increased airspace epithelial permeability in acute lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Donaldson, K; Brown, D; MacNee, W

    1995-08-01

    Increased airspace epithelial permeability is an early event in lung inflammation and injury. In this study, we have developed a rat model to study the mechanisms of the epithelial permeability to 125iodine-labeled bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA), instilled intratracheally during acute lung inflammation. Epithelial permeability was measured as the percentage of instilled 125I-BSA appearing in the blood. The increase in epithelial permeability induced by intratracheal instillation of heat-killed Corynebacterium parvum produced a peak influx of neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar space at 16 h, which occurred after the peak increase in epithelial permeability (8 h). The increased epithelial permeability induced by C. parvum did not appear to be protease- or oxidant-mediated. Depletion of peripheral blood neutrophils was achieved by an intravenous injection of anti-neutrophil polyclonal antibody. The consequent profound reduction in neutrophil and macrophage influx into the airspaces 8 h after instillation of C. parvum reduced the epithelial permeability to control values. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) leukocytes from rats 8 h, but not 16 h, after treatment with C. parvum caused a modest increase in epithelial permeability when re-instilled intratracheally into control rat lungs. Separation of the leukocytes before re-instillation indicated that macrophages rather than neutrophils were predominantly responsible for the increased epithelial permeability. The presence of dramatically increased levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in BAL 8 h in contrast to a slight increase in BAL 16 h after C. parvum, the release of TNF from 8 h macrophages, the increased epithelial permeability induced by TNF in epithelial monolayers in vitro, and the inhibition of C. parvum-induced epithelial permeability by TNF antibody support the premise that TNF is a major player in the increased epithelial permeability that occurs during C. parvum-induced acute alveolitis. PMID:7626286

  20. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Leobert D; Cabillon, Nikko Alvin R; Catedral, Demy D; Amar, Edgar C; Usero, Roselyn C; Monotilla, Wilberto D; Calpe, Adelaida T; Fernandez, Dalisay Dg; Saloma, Cynthia P

    2015-10-27

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. It has also been described as early mortality syndrome (EMS) due to mass mortalities occurring within 20 to 30 d after stocking of ponds with postlarvae. Here, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon from shrimp farms in the Philippines were examined for the toxin-producing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus due to AHPND-like symptoms occurring in marketable size shrimp. In the P. vannamei, histology revealed typical AHPND pathology, such as sloughing of undifferentiated cells in the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium. Analysis using the IQ2000 AHPND/EMS Toxin 1 PCR test generated 218 bp and 432 bp amplicons confirmative of the toxin-producing strain of V. parahaemolyticus among shrimp sampled from 8 of 9 ponds. In the P. monodon, histology revealed massive sloughing of undifferentiated cells of the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium in the absence of basophilic bacterial cells. PCR testing generated the 2 amplicons confirmatory for AHPND among shrimp sampled from 5 of 7 ponds. This study confirms the presence of AHPND in P. vannamei and P. monodon farmed in the Philippines and suggests that the disease can also impact late-stage juvenile shrimp.

  1. Late Metabolic Acidosis Caused by Renal Tubular Acidosis in Acute Salicylate Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Norihiro; Hirose, Yasuo; Sato, Nobuhiro; Kondo, Daisuke; Shimada, Yuko; Hori, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old man was transferred to our emergency department seven hours after ingesting 486 aspirin tablets. His blood salicylate level was 83.7 mg/dL. He was treated with fluid resuscitation and sodium bicarbonate infusion, and his condition gradually improved, with a decline in the blood salicylate level. However, eight days after admission, he again reported nausea, a venous blood gas revealed metabolic acidosis with a normal anion gap. The blood salicylate level was undetectable, and a urinalysis showed glycosuria, proteinuria and elevated beta-2 microglobulin and n-acetyl glucosamine levels, with a normal urinary pH despite the acidosis. We diagnosed him with relapse of metabolic acidosis caused by renal tubular acidosis. PMID:27181539

  2. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided transmural drainage of infected pancreatic necrosis developing 2 years after acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Eliason, Kyle; Douglas G. Adler

    2015-01-01

    This is a case report of endoscopic ultrasound guided transmural drainage of a large infected pancreatic necrosis. The infected necrosis was treated by placement of a fully covered metal stent with subsequent endoscopic necrosectomy to remove solid debris. The case is notable for the fact that the patient developed infection of a long-standing and previously stable area of walled-off pancreatic necrosis 2 years after it formed. We believe this is the longest time ever reported between necroti...

  3. The relationship between tumor necrosis factor-α gene polymorphisms and acute severe pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佃良; 黎介寿; 江志伟; 于宝军; 唐星明; 李维勤

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the presence of the TNF2 allele and plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and soluble TNF receptor (Stnf-R) with the development of acute severe pancreatitis (ASP) and severe sepsis.Methods Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes. The TNF1 and TNF2 biallelic polymorphisms were identified by analyzing Ncol-digested DNA fragments obtained from PCR products. Plasma levels of TNFα and sTNF-R were measured by EASIA.Results The overall TNF2 allele frequency in ASP patients was comparable to that found in healthy volunteers (29. 2% vs. 29. 3%, P>0. 05). Severe sepsis occurred in 26 of 72 patients. Patients with severe sepsis showed a significantly higher prevalence of TNF2 than those without (46. 2% vs.19.6%, P<0.05). Plasma TNFα, sTNF-RI, and sTNF-RII levels were (36 ±31 ) pg/ml, (5.4 ±3.5) ng/ml, and (11.2 ±7. 8) ng/ml, respectively, in patients with severe sepsis, and (31 ±25)pg/ml, (4. 6 ± 3. 8) ng/ml, and (8. 8 ± 6.6) ng/ml in non-severe sepsis subjects. Differences in TNF levels were not statistically significant between patients with ASP and control group (P >0. 05).Moreover, there was no correlation between TNF2 allele frequency and TNFα levels [(37 ±31) pg/mlvs. (31 ±25) pg/ml in TNF2 group and TNF1 group, respectively, P>0. 05].Conclusions Our results suggest that there is no relationship between ASP and the TNF2 allele, but that the TNF2 allele is associated with a susceptibility to severe sepsis as a result of ASP.

  4. Gastrointestinal Fistulas in Acute Pancreatitis With Infected Pancreatic or Peripancreatic Necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Tong, Zhihui; Yang, Dongliang; Ke, Lu; Shen, Xiao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Gang; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) fistula is a well-recognized complication of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, it has been reported in limited literature. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and outcome of GI fistulas in AP patients complicated with infected pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis (IPN). Between 2010 and 2013 AP patients with IPN who diagnosed with GI fistula in our center were analyzed in this retrospective study. And we also conducted a comparison between patients with and without GI fistula regarding the baseline characteristics and outcomes. Over 4 years, a total of 928 AP patients were admitted into our center, of whom 119 patients with IPN were diagnosed with GI fistula and they developed 160 GI fistulas in total. Colonic fistula found in 72 patients was the most common form of GI fistula followed with duodenal fistula. All duodenal fistulas were managed by nonsurgical management. Ileostomy or colostomy was performed for 44 (61.1%) of 72 colonic fistulas. Twenty-one (29.2%) colonic fistulas were successfully treated by percutaneous drainage or continuous negative pressure irrigation. Mortality of patients with GI fistula did not differ significantly from those without GI fistula (28.6% vs 21.9%, P = 0.22). However, a significantly higher mortality (34.7%) was observed in those with colonic fistula. GI fistula is a common finding in patients of AP with IPN. Most of these fistulas can be successfully managed with different procedures depending on their sites of origin. Colonic fistula is related with higher mortality than those without GI fistula. PMID:27057908

  5. Acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis due to multiple wasp stings

    OpenAIRE

    Hemachandar Radhakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    In most patients, wasp stings cause local reactions and rarely anaphylaxis. Acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis are unusual complications of wasp stings. We report a case of acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis secondary to multiple wasp stings. A 55-year-old farmer developed multi organ dysfunction with acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis 3 days after he had sustained multiple wasp stings. The etiology of acute kidney injury is probably both rhabdomyolysis and acute tubular necrosis....

  6. Insulin's acute effects on glomerular filtration rate correlate with insulin sensitivity whereas insulin's acute effects on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption correlate with salt sensitivity in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; Bakker, SJL; Serne, EH; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    1999-01-01

    Background. Insulin induces increasing distal tubular sodium reabsorption. Opposite effects of insulin to offset insulin-induced sodium retention are supposedly increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and decreases in proximal tubular sodium reabsorption. Defects in these opposing effects coul

  7. Detecting Acute Myocardial Infarction by Diffusion-Weighted versus T2-Weighted Imaging and Myocardial Necrosis Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Li, Yongjun; Wang, YaLing; Zhang, Shijun; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Ju, Shenghong

    2016-01-01

    We used a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction to study the signal evolution of ischemic myocardium on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DWI). Eight Chinese miniature pigs underwent percutaneous left anterior descending or left circumflex coronary artery occlusion for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion, which induced acute myocardial infarction. We used DWI preprocedurally and hourly for 4 hours postprocedurally. We acquired turbo inversion recovery magnitude T2-weighted images (TIRM T2WI) and late gadolinium enhancement images from the DWI slices. We measured the serum myocardial necrosis markers myoglobin, creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme, and cardiac troponin I at the same time points as the magnetic resonance scanning. We used histochemical staining to confirm injury. All images were analyzed qualitatively. Contrast-to-noise ratio (the contrast between infarcted and healthy myocardium) and relative signal index were used in quantitative image analysis. We found that DWI identified myocardial signal abnormity early (clinical serologic biomarkers.

  8. Radiation-induced acute necrosis of the pancreatic islet and the diabetic syndrome in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubouchi, S.; Suzuki, H.; Ariyoshi, H. (Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan)); Matsuzawa, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer)

    1981-07-01

    Exposure of golden hamsters to 35 000 rad of X-rays induced acute and specific necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas within 4 hours, whereas no other tissue revealed any drastic changes which would lead to a critical illness until 36 hours. Animals began to show the characteristic signs of diabetes, that is, hyperglycaemia, hyperkalaemia, ketonemia, and acidosis at 12 hours and these continued until death, 56+-8 hours later. These were accompanied by the disappearance of ..beta..-cell granules and a decrease of plasma insulin. Treatment of irradiated animals with injections of insulin resulted in a reduction in high blood glucose and the prolongation of survival time up to 5 days, which is comparable to the survival time when the cause of death is gastrointestinal. It is concluded that this radiation-induced diabetic syndrome resulted from acute necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans, a previously unreported lethal effect of radiation in golden hamsters.

  9. Radiation-induced acute necrosis of the pancreatic islet and the diabetic syndrome in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of golden hamsters to 35 000 rad of X-rays induced acute and specific necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas within 4 hours, whereas no other tissue revealed any drastic changes which would lead to a critical illness until 36 hours. Animals began to show the characteristic signs of diabetes, that is, hyperglycaemia, hyperkalaemia, ketonemia, and acidosis at 12 hours and these continued until death, 56+-8 hours later. These were accompanied by the disappearance of β-cell granules and a decrease of plasma insulin. Treatment of irradiated animals with injections of insulin resulted in a reduction in high blood glucose and the prolongation of survival time up to 5 days, which is comparable to the survival time when the cause of death is gastrointestinal. It is concluded that this radiation-induced diabetic syndrome resulted from acute necrosis of the cells of the islets of Langerhans, a previously unreported lethal effect of radiation in golden hamsters. (author)

  10. Identification of pancreas necrosis in severe acute pancreatitis: imaging procedures versus clinical staging.

    OpenAIRE

    Block, S; Maier, W.; Bittner, R.; Büchler, M; Malfertheiner, P; Beger, H G

    1986-01-01

    One hundred and five of 395 patients with acute pancreatitis were surgically treated in our clinic from 1981 to 1984. Ninety three of these patients were examined with contrast enhanced computed tomography and/or ultrasound and were clinically assessed according to Ranson's objective criteria before operation. At operation, 77 patients showed necrotising pancreatitis and 16 showed biliary acute interstitial pancreatitis. Ninety per cent of the cases with extensive and 79% of those with minor ...

  11. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis and other current concepts in the radiological assessment of acute pancreatitis*

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Elen Freitas de Cerqueira; Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Pereira, Fábio Payão; Blasbalg, Roberto; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition caused by intracellular activation and extravasation of inappropriate proteolytic enzymes determining destruction of pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissues. This is a fairly common clinical condition with two main presentations, namely, endematous pancreatitis - a less severe presentation -, and necrotizing pancreatitis - the most severe presentation that affects a significant part of patients. The radiological evaluation, particularly...

  12. One compound of saponins from Disocorea zingiberensis protected against experimental acute pancreatitis by preventing mitochondria-mediated necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Wen, Li; Shen, Yan; Shi, Na; Xing, Zhihua; Xia, Qing; Niu, Hai; Huang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a painful inflammatory disorder of the exocrine pancreas, ranking as the most common gastrointestinal reasons for hospitalization with no specific therapy currently. Diosgenyl saponins extracted from natural products and diosgenin or its derivatives have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in various diseases. However, the therapeutic effects of diosgenyl saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright in AP have not yet been determined. Five compounds were extracted and screened for taurocholate-induced necrosis in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Particularly, 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3β, 22α, 26-trihydroxy-25(R)-furosta-5-en-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (compound 1) exhibited the best protective effects with no toxicity observed. Next, we showed compound 1 concentration-dependently inhibited necrotic cell death pathway activation and 2.5 mM compound 1 also prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, adenosine triphosphate production, and reactive oxygen species generation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Finally, we showed compound 1 protected against three clinically representative murine models of AP and significantly improved pancreatitis-associated acute lung injury. These data provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that one compound of diosgenyl saponins can be potential treatment for AP. This study suggests natural saponins may serve as fruitful sources for exploring/identifying potential therapies for inflammatory diseases. PMID:27779235

  13. Eugenol reduces acute pain in mice by modulating the glutamatergic and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bó, Wladmir; Luiz, Ana Paula; Martins, Daniel F; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Santos, Adair R S

    2013-10-01

    Eugenol is utilized together with zinc oxide in odontological clinical for the cementation of temporary prostheses and the temporary restoration of teeth and cavities. This work explored the antinociceptive effects of the eugenol in different models of acute pain in mice and investigated its possible modulation of the inhibitory (opioid) and excitatory (glutamatergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines) pathways of nociceptive signaling. The administration of eugenol (3-300 mg/kg, p.o., 60 min or i.p., 30 min) inhibited 82 ± 10% and 90 ± 6% of the acetic acid-induced nociception, with ID₅₀ values of 51.3 and 50.2 mg/kg, respectively. In the glutamate test, eugenol (0.3-100 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the response behavior by 62 ± 5% with an ID₅₀ of 5.6 mg/kg. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the glutamate test was prevented by the i.p. treatment for mice with naloxone. The pretreatment of mice with eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was able to inhibit the nociception induced by the intrathecal (i.t.) injection of glutamate (37 ± 9%), kainic (acid kainite) (41 ± 12%), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) (55 ± 5%), and substance P (SP) (39 ± 8%). Furthermore, eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) also inhibited biting induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, 65 ± 8%). These results extend our current knowledge of eugenol and confirm that it promotes significant antinociception against different mouse models of acute pain. The mechanism of action appears to involve the modulation of the opioid system and glutamatergic receptors (i.e., kainate and AMPA), and the inhibition of TNF-α. Thus, eugenol could represent an important compound in the treatment for acute pain.

  14. Eugenol reduces acute pain in mice by modulating the glutamatergic and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bó, Wladmir; Luiz, Ana Paula; Martins, Daniel F; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Santos, Adair R S

    2013-10-01

    Eugenol is utilized together with zinc oxide in odontological clinical for the cementation of temporary prostheses and the temporary restoration of teeth and cavities. This work explored the antinociceptive effects of the eugenol in different models of acute pain in mice and investigated its possible modulation of the inhibitory (opioid) and excitatory (glutamatergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines) pathways of nociceptive signaling. The administration of eugenol (3-300 mg/kg, p.o., 60 min or i.p., 30 min) inhibited 82 ± 10% and 90 ± 6% of the acetic acid-induced nociception, with ID₅₀ values of 51.3 and 50.2 mg/kg, respectively. In the glutamate test, eugenol (0.3-100 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the response behavior by 62 ± 5% with an ID₅₀ of 5.6 mg/kg. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the glutamate test was prevented by the i.p. treatment for mice with naloxone. The pretreatment of mice with eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was able to inhibit the nociception induced by the intrathecal (i.t.) injection of glutamate (37 ± 9%), kainic (acid kainite) (41 ± 12%), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) (55 ± 5%), and substance P (SP) (39 ± 8%). Furthermore, eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) also inhibited biting induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, 65 ± 8%). These results extend our current knowledge of eugenol and confirm that it promotes significant antinociception against different mouse models of acute pain. The mechanism of action appears to involve the modulation of the opioid system and glutamatergic receptors (i.e., kainate and AMPA), and the inhibition of TNF-α. Thus, eugenol could represent an important compound in the treatment for acute pain. PMID:22775297

  15. Role of interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor in leukocyte recruitment to acute dermal inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Issekutz

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytokines IL-1 and TNF-α are involved in inflammation and their production is stimulated by various agents, especially endotoxin (LPS. Here, using the human IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA and a new monoclonal antibody (mAb 7F11 to rabbit TNF, the role of endogenous IL-l and TNF production in acute (3h leukocyte (PMNL recruitment to dermal inflammation in rabbits has been studied. IL-1RA inhibited by 27% the PMNL accumulation in reactions induced by killed Escherichia coli (p < 0.05 but not by LPS. The monoclonal antibody to TNF inhibited by 27% and 38% (p < 0.002 the PMNL accumulation in LPS and E. coli reactions respectively, but a combination of the mAb with IL-1RA was not more effective. Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelium with LPS for 3 h activated endothelium to induce PMNL transendothelial migration in vitro, which was not inhibited by IL-1RA, antibody to TNF-α, IL-1 or to IL-8. In conclusion, TNF and IL-1 may partially mediate acute PMNL infiltration in vivo to LPS and Gram negative bacteria, but there is a major IL-1/TNF independent mechanism, at least in dermal inflammation, which may be due to direct LPS activation of the microvasculature or perhaps the generation of cytokines other than IL-1 and TNF.

  16. Clinical analysis of acute retinal necrosis%急性视网膜坏死的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范春晖; 穆凤平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cause and treatment of acute retinal necrosis.Methods Cases series presentation.Results Patient 1:Lost vision in his left eye at 1 day after antiglaucoma surgery and presented with posterior uveitis,retinal vascular occlusion and retinal detachment.B-scan of ultrasonography showed localized retinal detachment.Fundus fluorescein angiography suggested acute retinal necrosis.This patient was treated with antiviral medication and corticosteroid.Patient 2:Presented with fever,coma,stiff neck and positive signs of meningeal irritation.The diagnosis of viral meningitis was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid and MRI examination.This patient was also treated by antiviral medication and corticosteroid.After waking up,he complained of vision loss in both eyes and presented with retinal edema,retinal detachment and scattered yellow-white lesions on the retina.B-scan of ultrasonography showed retinal detachment.Conclusion Acute retinal necrosis should be diagnosed and treated early.Enough antiviral medication,prophylactic photocoagulation,timely vitreous surgery are the effective methods for avoiding the complications.%目的 探讨急性视网膜坏死病因及治疗.方法 就2例特殊类型急性视网膜坏死病例对本病进行分析.结果 病例1,左眼抗青光眼术后第1天视物不见,荧光素眼底血管造影提示急性视网膜坏死.B超显示:局限性视网膜隆起.给予抗病毒及糖皮质激素治疗.后葡萄膜炎症明显,血管闭塞,视网膜脱离.病例2,发热昏迷患者,颈项强直,脑膜刺激症阳性,行脑脊液检查,颅脑磁共振成像检查后考虑病毒性脑炎,经抗病毒、糖皮质激素治疗,意识逐渐好转后发现双眼视物不见,眼底屈光间质欠清,后极部视网膜水肿,似有隆起,并可见散在黄白色病灶,B超提示视网膜脱离.针对2例特殊急性视网膜坏死病例临床表现、不良预后,减少临床误诊及漏诊病例,认识该病治疗.结论 及时发

  17. Fever and acute phase response induced in dwarf goats by endotoxin and bovine and human recombinant tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Miert, A S; van Duin, C T; Wensing, T

    1992-12-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF), a polypeptide produced by mononuclear phagocytes, has been implicated as an important mediator of inflammatory processes and of clinical manifestations in acute infectious diseases. To study further the potential role of TNF in infectious diseases, recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) derived human (r.HuTNF-alpha) and bovine TNF (r.BoTNF-alpha) were intravenously (i.v.) administered in dwarf goats. Rectal temperature, heart rate, rumen motility, plasma zinc and iron concentrations, and certain other blood biochemical and haematological values were studied and compared with the changes seen after E. coli endotoxin (LPS) was administered (dose: 0.1 microgram/kg i.v.). Following a single injection of 4 micrograms/kg of r.BoTNF-alpha, shivering and biphasic febrile response were observed, accompanied by tachycardia, inhibition of rumen contractions, drop in plasma zinc and iron concentrations, lymphopenia, and neutropenia followed by neutrophilia. The i.v. administration of a single injection of 4 micrograms/kg r.HuTNF-alpha induced shivering and biphasic febrile responses, accompanied by anorexia and a similar drop in plasma trace metal concentrations when compared with r.BoTNF-alpha-treated goats. The TNF-alpha-induced symptoms were essentially the same as those that occurred after LPS administration. However, the time of onset of these changes after the injection of TNF-alpha was significantly shorter than after LPS. Moreover, the r.BoTNF-alpha induced a longer lasting neutrophilic leucopenia, less neutrophilia, and a more persistent lymphopenia than after LPS injection. Neither r.BoTNF-alpha nor LPS caused severe haemo-concentration. Furthermore, no cross-tolerance between r.BoTNF-alpha and LPS could be demonstrated. We conclude that both r.BoTNF-alpha and r.HuTNF-alpha induce many of the physiologic, haematologic and metabolic changes that characterize the acute phase response to LPS. The overlapping biological activities of r

  18. Review Study of Renal Tubular Injury Markers in the Acute Kidney Injury%急性肾损伤中肾小管损伤标志物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一飞; 姚广涛

    2011-01-01

    The reports concerned with renal injury markers in recent 10 years were consulted through Science Direct database, and literature related to specific markers of renal tubular injury were compiled and analyzed. Some biomarkers have been partially verified the good sensitivity and high specificity in experimental studies and clinical observations. For example, Kidney injury molecule-1 .which would over express in the kidney injury in renal tubular epithelial cells,is sensitive to the early diagnosis of kidney cancer, ischemic and renal toxic renal injury,and detected with high stability. Liver-type fatty acid binding protein involved in local lipid metabolism of renal,with high specificity to renal proximal tubule. Its content in urine were of great value for early evaluation of various types of acute kidney injury. As a diagnostic indicator,sensitivity and specificity of Interleukin-18 were more than 90%. It could distinguish acute tubular necrosis from other types of kidney diseases, also predict the renal injury occurrence and renal function recovery. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin was often detected as the first expressed product in the injury kidney,which changed earlier than creatinine and other markers, with obvious time advantage. All biomarkers have different characteristics and respective shortage. So joint detection were better to wider and sensitive evaluation of renal injury.%通过Science Direct数据库查阅了近10年有关肾损伤标志物的报道,对肾小管损伤特异性标志物方面的文献进行了整理和分析.一些敏感性好、特异性高的肾小管损伤标志物已在实验研究和临床观察得到了部分验证,如肾损伤分子-1,肾损伤时在肾小管上皮细胞过度表达,对肾肿瘤、缺血性和肾毒性肾损伤的早期诊断敏感性好,且检测稳定性高;肝型脂肪酸结合蛋白,参与肾局部的脂质代谢,对肾近端小管的特异性很高,其尿液含量变化在多种类型的急

  19. Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Its Upregulation by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Curtis, Leah A.; Shirvaikar, Neeta [Canadian Blood Services R& D, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R8 (Canada); Turner, A. Robert [Departments of Medicine and Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3 (Canada); Mirza, Imran [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2B7 (Canada); Surmawala, Amir; Larratt, Loree M. [Departments of Medicine and Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3 (Canada); Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna, E-mail: anna.janowska@blood.ca [Canadian Blood Services R& D, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R8 (Canada); Departments of Medicine and Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3 (Canada)

    2012-07-25

    Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) has been implicated in tumor invasion, as well as trafficking of normal hematopoietic cells, and acts as a physiologic activator of proMMP-2. In this study we examined MT1-MMP expression in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Because tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is known to be elevated in AML, we also investigated the effect of TNF-α on MT1-MMP expression. We found (i) MT1-MMP mRNA expression in 41 out of 43 primary AML samples tested; (ii) activation of proMMP-2 in co-cultures of AML cells with normal bone marrow stromal cells; and (iii) inhibition of proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration of AML cells by gene silencing using MT1-MMP siRNA. Moreover, recombinant human TNF-α upregulated MT1-MMP expression in AML cells resulting in enhanced proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration. Thus, AML cells express MT1-MMP and TNF-α enhances it leading to increased MMP-2 activation and most likely contributing to the invasive phenotype. We suggest that MT1-MMP, together with TNF-α, should be investigated as potential therapeutic targets in AML.

  20. Extensive Bone Marrow Necrosis and Osteolytic Lesions in a Case of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Transformed from Polycythemia Vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Isaac; Truong, Phu; Kallail, K James; Palko, William

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common leukemia in adults. In rare cases, bone marrow necrosis (BMN) and osteolytic lesions are presenting features of AML. The following case describes a patient with known polycythemia vera (PV) that presented with signs of multiple myeloma, including hypercalcemia, anemia, and lytic lesions of the thoracic spine and skull. Laboratory workup was not indicative of myeloma. A bone marrow biopsy was performed, which revealed extensive BMN and initial pathology was consistent with metastatic carcinoma. However, no immunohistochemical stains could be performed due to the extent of BMN; a repeat biopsy was therefore performed. Flow cytometry and CD45 staining were consistent with PV that had transformed to AML. Due to the patient's comorbidities, she was a poor candidate for stem cell transplant and did not wish to pursue chemotherapy. Ultimately, she pursued hospice care. Based on our literature review, both BMN and osteolytic lesions are rare manifestations of AML and have not been reported to occur simultaneously. These findings can lead to a diagnostic dilemma and suspicion of other malignancies. This case demonstrates that AML should remain in the differential diagnosis in those patients who present with BMN and osteolytic lesions. PMID:27433418

  1. Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Its Upregulation by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Janowska-Wieczorek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP has been implicated in tumor invasion, as well as trafficking of normal hematopoietic cells, and acts as a physiologic activator of proMMP-2. In this study we examined MT1-MMP expression in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells. Because tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α is known to be elevated in AML, we also investigated the effect of TNF-α on MT1-MMP expression. We found (i MT1-MMP mRNA expression in 41 out of 43 primary AML samples tested; (ii activation of proMMP-2 in co-cultures of AML cells with normal bone marrow stromal cells; and (iii inhibition of proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration of AML cells by gene silencing using MT1-MMP siRNA. Moreover, recombinant human TNF-α upregulated MT1-MMP expression in AML cells resulting in enhanced proMMP-2 activation and trans-Matrigel migration. Thus, AML cells express MT1-MMP and TNF-α enhances it leading to increased MMP-2 activation and most likely contributing to the invasive phenotype. We suggest that MT1-MMP, together with TNF-α, should be investigated as potential therapeutic targets in AML.

  2. Transcatheter thrombolysis combined with damage control surgery for treatment of acute mesenteric venous thrombosis associated with bowel necrosis: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kai; Meng, Jiaxiang; Yang, Shuofei; Liu, Baochen; Ding, Weiwei; Wu, Xingjiang; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes of transcatheter thrombolysis in acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (ASMVT) associated with bowel necrosis. Methods A retrospective study of six patients with ASMVT treated with catheter-directed thrombectomy/thrombolysis and damage control surgery at Jinling Hospital (Nanjing, China) between 2010 and 2013 was conducted. Demographics, past medical history, risk factors, therapeutic methods and effects, mortality, and follow-...

  3. Nebulized Pentamidine-Induced Acute Renal Allograft Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh Prabhavalkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a recognised complication of intravenous pentamidine therapy. A direct nephrotoxic effect leading to acute tubular necrosis has been postulated. We report a case of severe renal allograft dysfunction due to nebulised pentamidine. The patient presented with repeated episodes of AKI without obvious cause and acute tubular necrosis only on renal histology. Nebulised pentamidine was used monthly as prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and administration preceded the creatinine rise on each occasion. Graft function stabilised following discontinuation of the drug. This is the first report of nebulized pentamidine-induced reversible nephrotoxicity in a kidney allograft. This diagnosis should be considered in a case of unexplained acute renal allograft dysfunction.

  4. Acute Interstitial Nephritis induced by Intermittent use of Rifampicin in Patient with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute oliguric renal failure (ARF developed in a patient 2 days after she was started on intermittent anti-Brucella therapy including rifampicin. The clinical picture was compatible with acute allergic interstitial nephritis. Renal histology revealed mainly acute tubular necrosis with mild tubulo-intertitial mononuclear cellular infiltrate. Intermittent therapy, as in our patient, has been the major factor in the development of rifampicin induced ARF in cases reviewed in literature.

  5. A CMR study of the effects of tissue edema and necrosis on left ventricular dyssynchrony in acute myocardial infarction: implications for cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manka Robert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In acute myocardial infarction (AMI, both tissue necrosis and edema are present and both might be implicated in the development of intraventricular dyssynchrony. However, their relative contribution to transient dyssynchrony is not known. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR can detect necrosis and edema with high spatial resolution and it can quantify dyssynchrony by tagging techniques. Methods Patients with a first AMI underwent percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI of the infarct-related artery within 24 h of onset of chest pain. Within 5–7 days after the event and at 4 months, CMR was performed. The CMR protocol included the evaluation of intraventricular dyssynchrony by applying a novel 3D-tagging sequence to the left ventricle (LV yielding the CURE index (circumferential uniformity ratio estimate; 1 = complete synchrony. On T2-weighted images, edema was measured as high-signal (>2 SD above remote tissue along the LV mid-myocardial circumference on 3 short-axis images (% of circumference corresponding to the area-at-risk. In analogy, on late-gadolinium enhancement (LGE images, necrosis was quantified manually as percentage of LV mid-myocardial circumference on 3 short-axis images. Necrosis was also quantified on LGE images covering the entire LV (expressed as %LV mass. Finally, salvaged myocardium was calculated as the area-at-risk minus necrosis (expressed as % of LV circumference. Results After successful PCI (n = 22, 2 female, mean age: 57 ± 12y, peak troponin T was 20 ± 36ug/l and the LV ejection fraction on CMR was 41 ± 8%. Necrosis mass was 30 ± 10% and CURE was 0.91 ± 0.05. Edema was measured as 58 ± 14% of the LV circumference. In the acute phase, the extent of edema correlated with dyssynchrony (r2 = −0.63, p 2 = −0.19, p = 0.05. PCI resulted in salvaged myocardium of 27 ± 14%. LV dyssynchrony (=CURE decreased at 4 months from 0.91

  6. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... are neutralized by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate ...

  7. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA ... blood and excreting it into the urine. Distal renal tubular acidosis (Type I RTA) is caused by ...

  8. Acute Retinal Necrosis: A Report of 18 Cases%急性视网膜坏死18例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 曲新英

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the early diagnosis and treatment of acute retinal necrosis (ARN).Methods The clinical manifestations and therapeutic measures in 18 patients (21eyes) with ARN were studied retrospectively.Results Seventeen eyes of ARN patients were subjected to vitreetomy combined tamponade with silicone oil.Retinal reattachment achieved in 14 eyes (82.35%) after operation.The opposite eyes in single-eye involved patients were not suffered from the attack of acute retinal necrosis following early sufficient dose of antiviral therapy.Conelusions Earlier adminiswation of antiviral drugs in large dose coordinated with prophylactic vitrectomy can improve the therapeutic efficacy of ARN and simultaneously reduce the morbidity of opposite eyes.%目的 探讨急性视网膜坏死(acute retinal necrosis,ARN)的早期诊断和治疗方法.方法 回顾性研究18例21只眼急性视网膜坏死患者的临床表现和治疗方法.结果 17只眼玻璃体切除联合眼内硅油填充术,术后视网膜复位14只眼(82.35%),早期大剂量抗病毒药物治疗后单眼发病者未发现对侧眼发病.结论 尽早诊断和应用足量的抗病毒药物,结合预防性视网膜激光光凝和玻璃体切除术可提高急性视网膜坏死的治疗效果,同时减少对侧眼的发病率.

  9. Partial liquid ventilation decreases tissue and serum tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations in acute lung injury model of immature piglet induced by oleic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yao-bin; FAN Xiang-ming; LI Xiao-feng; LI Zhi-qiang; WANG Qiang; SUN Li-zhong; LIU Ying-long

    2012-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients are susceptible to lung injury.Acute lung injury in children often results in high mortality.Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) has been shown to markedly improve oxygenation and reduce histologic evidence of injury in a number of lung injury models.This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that PLV would attenuate the production of local and systemic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in an immature piglet model of acute lung injury induced by oleic acid (OA).Methods Twelve Chinese immature piglets were induced acute lung injury by OA.The animals were randomly assigned to two groups of six animals,(1) conventional mechanical ventilation (MV) group and (2) PLV with 10 ml/kg FC-77 group.Results Compared with MV group,the PLV group had better cardiopulmonary variables (P <0.05).These variables included heart rate,mean blood pressure,blood pH,partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2),PaO2/inspired O2 fraction (FiO2) and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2).PLV reduced TNF-α levels both in plasma and tissue compared with MV group (P <0.05).Conclusion PLV provides protective effects against TNF-a response in OA-induced acute lung injury in immature piglets.

  10. Tubular Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system for coupling a vascular overflow graft or cannula to a heart pump. A pump pipe outlet is provided with an external tapered surface which receives the end of a compressible connula. An annular compression ring with a tapered internal bore surface is arranged about the cannula with the tapered internal surface in a facing relationship to the external tapered surface. The angle of inclination of the tapered surfaces is converging such that the spacing between the tapered surfaces decreases from one end of the external tapered surface to the other end thereby providing a clamping action of the tapered surface on a cannula which increases as a function of the length of cannula segment between the tapered surfaces. The annular compression ring is disposed within a tubular locking nut which threadedly couples to the pump and provides a compression force for urging the annular ring onto the cannula between the tapered surfaces. The nut has a threaded connection to the pump body. The threaded coupling to the pump body provides a compression force for the annular ring. The annular ring has an annular enclosure space in which excess cannula material from the compression between the tapered surfaces to "bunch up" in the space and serve as an enlarged annular ring segment to assist holding the cannula in place. The clamped cannula provides a seamless joint connection to the pump pipe outlet where the clamping force is uniformly applied to the cannula because of self alignment of the tapered surfaces. The nut can be easily disconnected to replace the pump if necessary.

  11. Etiological study of acute retinal necrosis%急性视网膜坏死的病原学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海燕; 叶俊杰; 耿爽

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨急性视网膜坏死(ARN)病原学研究在临床治疗中的价值.方法 回顾性系列病例研究.总结分析1996年1月至2012年12月在北京协和医院眼科诊断为ARN的39例(45眼)患者(ARN组)的临床资料.所有患者均行常规眼部检查.39例患者均抽取静脉血行血清TORCH检测,其中22例患者行血清总IgG检测.15眼于玻璃体切除术中抽取玻璃体液,行玻璃体液总TORCH及IgG检测.对照组为2006年6月至2008年11月因非感染性视网膜疾病而行玻璃体切除手术的患者15例(15眼).15例患者术前均行血清总IgG检测,术中抽取玻璃体液,行玻璃体液总TORCH及IgG检测.数据采用独立样本t检验进行分析.结果 对照组患者血清总IgG含量为(10.02±2.69) g/L,ARN组为(10.10±2.38)g/L,2组差异无统计学意义.对照组玻璃体液总IgG为(135.3±178.0)mg/L;ARN患眼玻璃体液中检测出HSV-IgG、CMV-IgG,玻璃体液总IgG含量为(2 949.2±1 845.1)mg/L,2组患者的玻璃体液总IgG的差异有统计学意义(t=6.024,P<0.01).对照组血清HSV-IgG的几何平均滴度为86.10-62.02,ARN组为86.30-±-65.31,2组差异无统计学意义.ARN组患者7眼HSV的Goldmann-Witmer系数C值(CWC)>6,提示为HSV感染;1眼CMV的CWC值>6,提示CMV感染.结论 ARN患者玻璃体液的特异性病毒抗体检测可提示感染病原体,对因治疗可提高ARN的治疗效果.%Objective To investigate the importance of etiological research in clinical therapy of acute retinal necrosis (ARN).Methods Retrospective cases-series study.Analyzed the clinical data of 45 eyes (39 cases) of ARN patients who were diagnosised in the Department of Ophthalmology of PUMCH during January 1996 to December 2012.All patients underwent routine eye examination.Blood samples were taken from 39 patients for serum TORCH test,22 patients underwent total serum IgG detection.15 eyes underwent the TORCH and total IgG detection of vitreous humor.The control group:15 patients (15 eyes

  12. 急性胰周积液和胰腺坏死对急性胰腺炎预后的影响%Effect of acute peripancreatitc fluid collection and pancreatic necrosis to the prognosis of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李能平; 杨欣; 顾永峰; 王华; 丛建农; 施玲华

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨急性胰周积液和胰腺坏死对急性胰腺炎(AP)预后的影响.方法 回顾分析2003年1月至2007年12月收治的323例AP患者早期CT影像学表现,探讨急性胰周积液、胰腺坏死程度与全身炎症反应综合征(SIRS)、胰腺感染及病死率的关系.结果 发病5 d内出现SIRS并持续2 d或以上者97例(30%),12例(3.7%)在病程中、后期出现胰腺感染;病死14例(4.3%).有急性胰周积液者142例(44.0%).单个部位发生急性胰周积液者76例,其中31例发生SIRS,病死2例;多个部位急性胰周积液者66例,发生SIRS 62例,病死11例.急性胰周积液部位数量与早期SIRS发生及病死率显著相关(P<0.01).277例(85.8%)无胰腺坏死,均未继发胰腺感染,病死4例;46例(14.2%)有不同程度胰腺坏死.胰腺坏死面积≤30%32例,胰腺感染发生率12.5%,病死率15.6%;>30%~≤50%7例,感染发生率42.9%,病死率28.6%;>50%7例,感染发生率为71.4%,病死率42.9%,胰腺坏死的程度与胰腺感染的发生及病死率显著相关(P<0.05).结论 急性胰周积液和胰腺坏死对AP预后的影响不同.急性胰周积液与病程早期SIRS的发生及病死率相关;胰腺坏死与胰腺继发感染的发生及病死率有关,坏死面积越大,越容易发生胰腺感染,病死率越高.%Objective To study the Effect of acute peripancreatitc fluid collection and pancreatic necrosis to the prognosis of acute pancreatitis.Methods Retrospectively analyzing the prognostic effect of acute peripancreatitc fluid collection and pancreatic necrosis according to the early Computed-Tomograghy of 323 consecutive acute pancreatitis patients from Jan 2003 to Dec 2007,the end points are systemic inflammation response syndrome ( SIRS),pancreatic infection,and mortality.Results Within 5d after onset,97 of 323 cases (30%) presented with SIRS and lasted more than 2d,12 cases (3.7%) occurred pancreatic infection during middle or late phase,14 cases died,the mortality is 4

  13. Analysis of 9 Cases Misdiagnosed as Acute Retinal Necrosis Syndrome%急性视网膜坏死综合征九例误诊分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金绘祥; 黄宝玲; 吴昌凡; 郎平; 梅立新

    2012-01-01

    目的 提高对急性视网膜坏死综合征(acute retinal necrosis syndrome,ARNs)的认识,以避免或减少误诊.方法 对2007年6月-2011年10月在我院误诊的9例(9眼)ARNs的诊疗过程进行回顾性分析,内容包括主诉、眼部体征、检查项目和初始诊断.结果 本组分别误诊为虹膜睫状体炎4例,全葡萄膜炎2例,急性结膜炎、青光眼睫状体炎综合征及视网膜血管炎各1例.误诊时间为3 ~28 d,平均(15.0±9.5)d;就诊次数为2~6次,平均(3.7±1.2)次.本组9例中有7例眼压升高,范围在22~ 38 mmHg,6例系统应用了糖皮质激素,平均(8.2±2.4)d.确诊后所有病例均予抗病毒治疗,同时3例实施外路视网膜光凝术,5例行玻璃体切割术.随访3个月~2年,2例发生视网膜脱离,4例视力恢复,3例视力下降.结论 ARNs易误诊为葡萄膜炎等,临床接诊眼压增高、系统应用糖皮质激素治疗后眼部病情仍加重者,应警惕ARNs的可能.%Objective To improve cognitive level of acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARNs) in order to avoid misdiagnosis. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical data of 9 patients (9 eyes) with acute retinal necrosis syndrome admitted in our department during June 2007 and October 2011 , including analysis of complain, signs of ocular region , examination items and incipient diagnosis. Results There were misdiagnosed as iridocyclitis (4 cases) , panuveitis (2 cases), acute conjunctivitis (1 case) , glaucomato cyclitic syndrome (1 case) and retinal vasculitis (1 case). Misdiagnosed times were 3-28 days and the average times were (15 ±9.5)days. The patients paid 2 ~6 visits with an average of (3.7 ±1.2)visits. Elevated intraocular pressure (ranging from 22 to 38 mmHg) developed in 7 eyes out of 9 cases before final diagnosis, and 6 patients had been treated with glucocorti-coid (an average of 8.2 ±2.4 days). All the patients received systemic antiviral agents after final diagnosis, 3 eyes were treated

  14. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure following multiple hornet stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambery Pradeep

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hornet stings are generally associated with local and occasionally anaphylactic reactions. Rarely systemic complications like acute renal failure can occur following multiple stings. Renal failure is usually due to development of acute tubular necrosis as a result of intravascular haemolysis, rhabdomyolysis or shock. Rarely it can be following development of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis. Case presentation We describe a young male, who was stung on face, head, shoulders and upper limbs by multiple hornets (Vespa orientalis. He developed acute renal failure as a result of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis and responded to steroids. Conclusion Rare causes of acute renal failure like tubulo-interstitial nephritis should be considered in a patient with persistent oliguria and azotemia following multiple hornet stings. Renal biopsy should be undertaken early, as institution of steroid therapy may help in recovery of renal function

  15. Acute Portal Vein Thrombosis and Massive Necrosis of the Liver. An Unusual Complication After Stenting for Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velayutham Vimalraj

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Context ERCP can provide information which is invaluable in managing chronic pancreatitis but it is associated withinfrequent, although significant, complications and rare mortality. The complications uniquely associated withdiagnostic ERCP include pancreatitis and sepsis (primary cholangitis. Case report A 32-year-old man presented with severe upper abdominal pain radiating to the back, associated with vomiting and abdominal distension. The patient was diagnosed as having had chronic calcific pancreatitis recently and had undergone ERCP with pancreatic duct stenting elsewhere. Two days after the procedure, the patient developed severe abdominal pain, vomiting and abdominal distention, and patient was referred to our hospital 7 days after the procedure. Investigation revealed massive liver necrosis and portal vein thrombosis. This patient had a life-threatening complication following pancreatic duct stenting for chronic pancreatitis and was managed medically.Conclusion Therapeutic pancreatic endoscopy procedures are technically demanding and should be restricted to highvolume centers. There is a continuing need for evaluation and comparison with alternative strategies. In a good surgical candidate, it is better to avoid stenting.

  16. Inflammatory cascades driven by tumor necrosis factor-alpha play a major role in the progression of acute liver failure and its neurological complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Chastre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute liver failure (ALF due to ischemic or toxic liver injury is a clinical condition that results from massive loss of hepatocytes and may lead to hepatic encephalopathy (HE, a serious neuropsychiatric complication. Although increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in liver, plasma and brain has been observed, conflicting results exist concerning its roles in drug-induced liver injury and on the progression of HE. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic value of etanercept, a TNF-α neutralizing molecule, on the progression of liver injury and HE in mice with ALF resulting from azoxymethane (AOM hepatotoxicity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were administered saline or etanercept (10 mg/kg; i.p. 30 minutes prior to, or up to 6 h after AOM. Etanercept-treated ALF mice were sacrificed in parallel with vehicle-treated comatose ALF mice and controls. AOM induced severe hepatic necrosis, leading to HE, and etanercept administered prior or up to 3 h after AOM significantly delayed the onset of coma stages of HE. Etanercept pretreatment attenuated AOM-induced liver injury, as assessed by histological examination, plasma ammonia and transaminase levels, and by hepatic glutathione content. Peripheral inflammation was significantly reduced by etanercept as shown by decreased plasma IL-6 (4.1-fold; p<0.001 and CD40L levels (3.7-fold; p<0.001 compared to saline-treated ALF mice. Etanercept also decreased IL-6 levels in brain (1.2-fold; p<0.05, attenuated microglial activation (assessed by OX-42 immunoreactivity, and increased brain glutathione concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that systemic sequestration of TNF-α attenuates both peripheral and cerebral inflammation leading to delayed progression of liver disease and HE in mice with ALF due to toxic liver injury. These results suggest that etanercept may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the management of ALF patients awaiting

  17. The roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in colon tight junction protein expression and intestinal mucosa structure in a mouse model of acute liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Sa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP is a common clinical disease and one of the most severe complications of acute liver failure (ALF. Although the mechanism responsible for SBP is unclear, cytokines play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α on the structure of the intestinal mucosa and the expression of tight junction (Zona Occludens 1; ZO-1 protein in a mouse model of ALF. Methods We induced ALF using D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS or GalN/TNF-α and assessed the results using transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR. The effects of administration of anti-TNF-α IgG antibody or anti-TNF-α R1 antibody before administration of GalN/LPS or GalN/TNF-α, respectively, on TNF-α were also assessed. Results Morphological abnormalities in the intestinal mucosa of ALF mice were positively correlated with serum TNF-α level. Electron microscopic analysis revealed tight junction (TJ disruptions, epithelial cell swelling, and atrophy of intestinal villi. Gut bacteria invaded the body at sites where TJ disruptions occurred. Expression of ZO-1 mRNA was significantly decreased in both ALF models, as was the level of ZO-1 protein. Prophylactic treatment with either anti-TNF-α IgG antibody or anti-tumor necrosis factor-a receptor1 (anti-TNF-α R1 antibody prevented changes in intestinal tissue ultrastructure and ZO-1 expression. Conclusion TNF-α affects the structure of the intestinal mucosa, decreases expression of ZO-1, and affects the morphology of the colon in a mouse model of ALF. It also may participate in the pathophysiological mechanism of SBP complicated to ALF.

  18. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  19. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by tests on tubular joints are presented. The joints are T-joints and the loading is static. It is the intention in continuation of these tests to perform tests on other types of joints (e.g. Y-joints) and also with dynamic loading. The purpose...... of the test is partly to obtain empirical data for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of tubular T-joints and partly to obtain some experience in performing tests with tubular joints. It is well known that tubular joints are usually designed in offshore engineering on the basis of empirical formulas obtained...

  20. Clinical analysis of 27 cases of acute retinal necrosis syndrome%27例急性视网膜坏死综合征的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪静; 柯根杰

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the treatment effect of 27 cases ( 29 eyes ) of acute retinal necrosis syndrome ( ARNS ) with antivirus drugs, laser treatment, vitreous and retinal surgery retrospectively. Inflammations were all controlled, their visual acuity improved in 16 eyes ( 55. 2% ). The retinas of 28 eyes were successfully recovery except one refused the surgery. Although the prognosis of ARNS is poor, it is very important to get correct diagnosis and antivirus drugs, laser treatment, laser photocoagulation and vitrectomy in time can improve the prognosis obviously.%回顾性分析采用抗病毒药物、眼内激光光凝及玻璃体视网膜联合手术综合治疗27例急性视网膜坏死综合征(ARNS)的效果.29眼炎症均得到有效控制,视力提高16眼(55.2%),除1例拒绝手术外,视网膜均恢复良好.ARNS的预后较差,明确诊断后使用抗病毒药物,及时施行预防性眼内激光光凝和玻璃体视网膜手术可明显改善预后.

  1. Silencer of Death Domains Controls Cell Death through Tumour Necrosis Factor-Receptor 1 and Caspase-10 in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naveed I.; Welschinger, Robert; Basnett, Jordan; Fung, Carina; Rizos, Helen; Bradstock, Kenneth F.; Bendall, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to apoptosis remains a significant problem in drug resistance and treatment failure in malignant disease. NO-aspirin is a novel drug that has efficacy against a number of solid tumours, and can inhibit Wnt signaling, and although we have shown Wnt signaling to be important for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell proliferation and survival inhibition of Wnt signaling does not appear to be involved in the induction of ALL cell death. Treatment of B lineage ALL cell lines and patient ALL cells with NO-aspirin induced rapid apoptotic cell death mediated via the extrinsic death pathway. Apoptosis was dependent on caspase-10 in association with the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) incorporating pro-caspase-10 and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1). There was no measurable increase in TNF-R1 or TNF-α in response to NO-aspirin, suggesting that the process was ligand-independent. Consistent with this, expression of silencer of death domain (SODD) was reduced following NO-aspirin exposure and lentiviral mediated shRNA knockdown of SODD suppressed expansion of transduced cells confirming the importance of SODD for ALL cell survival. Considering that SODD and caspase-10 are frequently over-expressed in ALL, interfering with these proteins may provide a new strategy for the treatment of this and potentially other cancers. PMID:25061812

  2. Silencer of death domains controls cell death through tumour necrosis factor-receptor 1 and caspase-10 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Cisterne

    Full Text Available Resistance to apoptosis remains a significant problem in drug resistance and treatment failure in malignant disease. NO-aspirin is a novel drug that has efficacy against a number of solid tumours, and can inhibit Wnt signaling, and although we have shown Wnt signaling to be important for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL cell proliferation and survival inhibition of Wnt signaling does not appear to be involved in the induction of ALL cell death. Treatment of B lineage ALL cell lines and patient ALL cells with NO-aspirin induced rapid apoptotic cell death mediated via the extrinsic death pathway. Apoptosis was dependent on caspase-10 in association with the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC incorporating pro-caspase-10 and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1. There was no measurable increase in TNF-R1 or TNF-α in response to NO-aspirin, suggesting that the process was ligand-independent. Consistent with this, expression of silencer of death domain (SODD was reduced following NO-aspirin exposure and lentiviral mediated shRNA knockdown of SODD suppressed expansion of transduced cells confirming the importance of SODD for ALL cell survival. Considering that SODD and caspase-10 are frequently over-expressed in ALL, interfering with these proteins may provide a new strategy for the treatment of this and potentially other cancers.

  3. MRI Findings of Pericardial Fat Necrosis: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Hyeok; Ryu, Dae Shick; Jung, Sang Sig; Jung, Seung Mun; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dae Hee [Gangneung Asan Hospital, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Pericardial fat necrosis is an infrequent cause of acute chest pain and this can mimic acute myocardial infarction and acute pericarditis. We describe here a patient with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of pericardial fat necrosis and this was correlated with the computed tomography (CT) findings. The MRI findings may be helpful for distinguishing pericardial fat necrosis from other causes of acute chest pain and from the fat-containing tumors in the cardiophrenic space of the anterior mediastinum.

  4. Comparison of Ranson, Glasgow, MOSS, SIRS, BISAP, APACHE-II, CTSI Scores, IL-6, CRP, and Procalcitonin in Predicting Severity, Organ Failure, Pancreatic Necrosis, and Mortality in Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K. Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multifactorial scorings, radiological scores, and biochemical markers may help in early prediction of severity, pancreatic necrosis, and mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP. Methods. BISAP, APACHE-II, MOSS, and SIRS scores were calculated using data within 24 hrs of admission, whereas Ranson and Glasgow scores after 48 hrs of admission; CTSI was calculated on day 4 whereas IL-6 and CRP values at end of study. Predictive accuracy of scoring systems, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of various markers in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis, organ failure, pancreatic necrosis, admission to intensive care units and mortality were calculated. Results. Of 72 patients, 31 patients had organ failure and local complication classified as severe acute pancreatitis, 17 had pancreatic necrosis, and 9 died (12.5%. Area under curves for Ranson, Glasgow, MOSS, SIRS, APACHE-II, BISAP, CTSI, IL-6, and CRP in predicting SAP were 0.85, 0.75, 0.73, 0.73, 0.88, 0.80, 0.90, and 0.91, respectively, for pancreatic necrosis 0.70, 0.64, 0.61, 0.61, 0.68, 0.61, 0.75, 0.86, and 0.90, respectively, and for mortality 0.84, 0.83, 0.77, 0.76, 0.86, 0.83, 0.57, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively. Conclusion. CRP and IL-6 have shown a promising result in early detection of severity and pancreatic necrosis whereas APACHE-II and Ranson score in predicting AP related mortality in this study.

  5. Acute renal failure after treatment with sunitinib in a patient with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Nelson; Saucier, Nathan A; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Gunderson, Heidi D; Cornell, Lynn D

    2009-08-01

    Sunitinib is a multiple tyrosine kinase receptors inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Amongst its targets are fetal liver tyrosine kinase receptor 3 (FLT 3) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). Renal toxicity has not been reported from the trials, but several patients have been reported to develop a pre-eclampsia-like syndrome. We report the first case of acute tubular necrosis in a patient with multiple myeloma following treatment with sunitinib.

  6. 急性淋巴细胞白血病骨髓坏死1例报告并文献复习%Acute lymphocytic leukemia combined with marrow necrosis:a case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐西强; 吴华; 李贵振; 王海

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析急性淋巴细胞白血病骨髓坏死的临床特征包括流行病学、发病机制、诊断、治疗、预后.方法 对武汉同济医院确诊的1例急性淋巴细胞白血病骨髓坏死病例进行分析及相关文献资料复习.结果 病情诊断及时,为及时治疗并取得良好的预后赢得了时间.结论 为延长此类疾病患者生存期,关键在于早期发现、早期诊断和早期实行积极有效的治疗.%Objective The clinical features of acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( ALL) accompany with bone marrow necrosis were analysised, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Methods The confirmed case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia accompany with bone marrow necrosis was analysised in hospital and the relative literatures were reviewed. Results Patients were diagnosed in time; and there was more time to make further treatment and good prognosis. Conclusion In order to reduce the incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia accompanies with bone marrow necrosis and prolong survival lies, itis necessary to make early detection、early diagnosis and early active and effective treatment.

  7. 急性视网膜坏死综合征15例临床研究%The Clinical Analysis of Acute Retinal Necrosis in 15 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丹; 陈莲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the treatment of acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARNS). Methods The treatment experiences of 16 eyes with ARNS in 15 patients during January 2008 to December 2010 were reviewed. The preoperative vision was 0.01 ~0. 1 in 10 eyes(62. 50% ) , 0. 2 in 2 eyes( 12. 50% ) , 0. 3 in 1 eye (6.25%) , 0.4 in 2 eyes(12.50% ) , 0.5 in 1 eye(6.25%). Results Postoperative vision was improved by different degree in 15 cases of 16 eyes diagnosed ARNS- The vision was 0. 01 ~0. 1 in 5 eyes(31. 25% ) , 0. 2 in 1 eye(6.25%), 0.3 in 4 eyes(25.00%), 0.4 in 3 eyes(18.75%) , 0. 5 in 1 eyes(6. 25%), 0. 6 in 2 eyes( 12. 50% ). The condition of all patients was effectively controlled when discharged from hospital. The vision was corrected more than 0. 2 in 5 eyes (31. 25% ) , more than 0.1 in 6 eyes{37. 50% ), and was not obviously improved in 5 eyes(31. 25% ). The best vision was 0.6. Conclusion If necessary, vitrectomy is a useful treatment for ARNS in most cases and anti-virus medicine may be used at least 2 weeks before operation.%目的 探讨急性视网膜坏死综合征(acute retinal necrosis syndrome,ARNS)的有效治疗方法. 方法 研究15例(16眼)ARNS患者的临床表现和治疗方法.术前视力光感0.1以下者10眼(62.50%),0.2者2眼(12.50%),0.3者l眼(6.25%),0.4者2眼(12.50%),0.5者1眼(6.25%).结果 15例(16眼)ARNS术后视力均有不同程度提高,治疗3个月后视力0.01~0.1者5眼(31.25%);0.2者1眼(6.25%);0.3者4眼(25.00%);0.4者3跟(18.75%);0.5者1眼(6.25%);0.6者2眼(12.50%).其中矫正视力0.2以上者5眼(31.25%);矫正视力0.1以上者6眼(37.5%);5眼(31.25%)视力无明显改变;最好视力达0.6. 结论 所有病人出院时病情都得到有效控制,对大部分病例而言,术前至少需2周抗病毒治疗;必要时行玻璃体切除手术,效果较好.

  8. Characterization and PCR Detection Of Binary, Pir-Like Toxins from Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates that Cause Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND in Shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchanok Sirikharin

    Full Text Available Unique isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND have previously been identified as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND in shrimp. AHPND is characterized by massive sloughing of tubule epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas (HP, proposed to be induced by soluble toxins released from VPAHPND that colonize the shrimp stomach. Since these toxins (produced in broth culture have been reported to cause AHPND pathology in reverse gavage bioassays with shrimp, we used ammonium sulfate precipitation to prepare protein fractions from broth cultures of VPAHPND isolates for screening by reverse gavage assays. The dialyzed 60% ammonium sulfate fraction caused high mortality within 24-48 hours post-administration, and histological analysis of the moribund shrimp showed typical massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells characteristic of AHPND. Analysis of the active fraction by SDS-PAGE revealed two major bands at marker levels of approximately 16 kDa (ToxA and 50 kDa (ToxB. Mass spectrometry analysis followed by MASCOT analysis revealed that both proteins had similarity to hypothetical proteins of V. parahaemolyticus M0605 (contig034 GenBank accession no. JALL01000066.1 and similarity to known binary insecticidal toxins called 'Photorhabdus insect related' proteins A and B (Pir-A and Pir-B, respectively, produced by the symbiotic, nematode bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. In in vivo tests, it was shown that recombinant ToxA and ToxB were both required in a dose dependent manner to cause AHPND pathology, indicating further similarity to Pir-A and -B. A single-step PCR method was designed for detection of the ToxA gene and was validated using 104 bacterial isolates consisting of 51 VPAHPND isolates, 34 non-AHPND VP isolates and 19 other isolates of bacteria commonly found in shrimp ponds (including other species of Vibrio and Photobacterium. The results showed 100% specificity and sensitivity for

  9. 十九例急性视网膜坏死临床分析%Acute Retinal Necrosis:A Report of 19 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭梦翔; 易长贤

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨提高对急性视网膜坏死(acute retinal necrosis,ARN)的临床诊治水平的有效方法.方法:回顾性分析本院1996年1月至2003年11月以来19例ARN患者的临床表现、检查、诊治及预后.结果:19例患者中除1例元眼前段表现外,其余18例(23只眼)都表现为不同程度的眼前段炎症、玻璃体炎、坏死性视网膜炎和闭塞性视网膜血管炎.19例患者中5例(5只眼)HSV-1阳性.治疗后视力提高共11只眼(45.8%).最终视力≤0.05者11只眼(45.8%).随访期内21只眼(87.5%)病变控制.结论:ARN的诊断以临床表现为主.早期、足量的抗病毒、皮质类固醇激素的应用以及预防性视网膜光凝、必要时玻璃体手术是控制病变的关键.

  10. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; Stamatakos; Charikleia; Stefanaki; Konstantinos; Kontzoglou; Spyros; Stergiopoulos; Georgios; Giannopoulos; Michael; Safioleas

    2010-01-01

    Walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN), formerly known as pancreatic abscess is a late complication of acute pancreatitis. It can be lethal, even though it is rare. This critical review provides an overview of the continually expanding knowledge about WOPN, by review of current data from references identified in Medline and PubMed, to September 2009, using key words, such as WOPN, infected pseudocyst, severe pancreatitis, pancreatic abscess, acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP), pancreas, inflammation and al...

  11. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wroński, Marek; Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in t...

  12. A supramolecular tubular nanoreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Chen, Yong; Liu, Yu

    2014-07-01

    The extremely strong noncovalent complexation between the rigid host of phthalocyanine-bridged β-cyclodextrins and the amphiphilic guest carboxylated porphyrin is employed to construct a hollow tubular structure as a supramolecular nanoreactor. A representative coupling reaction occurs in the hydrophobic interlayers of the tubular walls in pure water at room temperature, leading to an enhancement of ten times higher reaction rate without any adverse effect on catalytic activity and conversion. PMID:24890802

  13. GATA1 mutation negative acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with acquired trisomy 21 presenting with extensive bone marrow necrosis in an adult: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd P. Williams

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an adult with AMKL with acquired trisomy 21 in which the GATA1 mutation was investigated and the second reported case of AMKL presenting with extensive bone marrow necrosis. We will present a diagnostic approach to AMKL in which extensive bone marrow necrosis renders examination of the bone marrow difficult. Furthermore, we will examine the absence of the GATA1 mutation in a case of AMKL with trisomy 21 in an adult.

  14. Research advance in mechanism of acute retinal necrosis%急性视网膜坏死发病机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫

    2014-01-01

    Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) syndrome is a kind of rare eye infectious disease caused by herpetic virus primarily.Visual prognosis of ARN patient is poor because of a high rate of complications including retinal detachment.The infection and antiinfection runs through the pathological process in ARN,such as invasion and dissemination of virus as well as the immunologic response of body.The multiple mechanisms are associated with the entry and spread of virus,including binding of viral surface protein and host receptor.Establishment of latency of the virus relies on access to related neuron,ganglion,ocular tissue which may occur after initial entry and replication.Activation of the immunologic system makes it possible to eliminate the virus and control infection.The relationship of viral invasion,dissemination and immune response with ARN pathogenesis and progression were reviewed.%急性视网膜坏死(ARN)是一种少见的病毒感染性疾病,其致病病毒主要是疱疹病毒,易引起视网膜脱离等并发症,故视力预后较差.ARN的发生和发展主要为感染与抗感染的过程,包括病毒入侵、播散、潜伏活化及机体免疫应答等方面.病毒进入宿主细胞是病毒表面蛋白与宿主细胞表面受体结合的过程,病毒感染后可潜伏于眼部相关的神经组织及眼内组织中.研究表明,病毒感染后可活化机体的免疫系统,诱发免疫细胞吞噬病毒、活化其他免疫细胞、产生细胞因子并介导炎症反应等,从而起到清除病毒、控制感染的目的,这些免疫细胞及细胞因子相互作用,共同参与ARN的发病过程.就病毒入侵、播散及机体免疫等与ARN发生和发展的关系进行综述.

  15. Clinical observation the effects of combination application of salvia miltiorrhiza and acyclovir (ACV) on acute retinal necrosis (ARN)%丹参、无环鸟苷联合治疗急性视网膜坏死

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋美峰; 方春庭

    2000-01-01

    目的:为了探讨急性视网膜坏死(acute retinal necrosis,ARN)的有效疗法.方法:对6例(8只眼)ARN患者采用丹参、无环鸟苷(acyclovir,ACV)联合治疗.结果:随访6~18个月,7只眼视力有不同程度提高,视力提高达88.8%.结论:丹参、ACV联合应用是治疗ARN的一种有效方法.

  16. 8102 and 7601 as antidotes for acute uranyl nitrate intoxication in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of phenolic chelating agents, 8102 and 7601, as antidotes for acute uranyl nitrate (100-500 mg/kg) intoxication was examined. The results show that after intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg of uranyl nitrate per kg, all the control rats died at 3rd and 4th days and exhibited acute renal tubular necrosis and protein casts. 8102 and 7601 could promote the animals survival and reduce the histologic lesion of kidneys in rats intoxicated with uranyl nitrate (100-350 mg/kg). 8102 is more effective than 7601

  17. Extrapancreatic necrosis without pancreatic parenchymal necrosis : a separate entity in necrotising pancreatitis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Olaf J.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar; Besselink, Marc G. H.; Boermeester, Marja A.; van Eijck, Casper; Dejong, Kees; van Goor, Harry; Hofker, Hendrik; Ali, Usama Ahmed; Gooszen, Hein G.; Bollen, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In the revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis, the term necrotising pancreatitis also refers to patients with only extrapancreatic fat necrosis without pancreatic parenchymal necrosis (EXPN), as determined on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT). Patients with EXPN are thought to have

  18. Acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia associated with metamizole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Redondo-Pachon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamizole or dipyrone is a pyrazolone derivative that belongs to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Its main side-effect is hematological toxicity. Thrombocytopenia due to metamizole is rare and is usually associated with the involvement of the two other blood series. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia is more frequently related to immune mechanisms, and the diag-nosis is still largely made by exclusion of other causes and by correlation of timing of thrombocytopenia with the administration of drug. Metamizole may cause acute renal failure due to hemodynamic renal failure/acute tubular necrosis and/or acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. We report a case of acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia after metamizole. As far as we know, this combination of adverse effects from this drug has not been reported previously.

  19. Tubular Secretion in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M; Laha, Thomas; Hoofnagle, Andrew; Newitt, Rick; Sirich, Tammy L; Meyer, Timothy W; Thummel, Ken E; Yanez, N David; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Weiss, Noel S; Kestenbaum, Bryan R

    2016-07-01

    Renal function generally is assessed by measurement of GFR and urinary albumin excretion. Other intrinsic kidney functions, such as proximal tubular secretion, typically are not quantified. Tubular secretion of solutes is more efficient than glomerular filtration and a major mechanism for renal drug elimination, suggesting important clinical consequences of secretion dysfunction. Measuring tubular secretion as an independent marker of kidney function may provide insight into kidney disease etiology and improve prediction of adverse outcomes. We estimated secretion function by measuring secreted solute (hippurate, cinnamoylglycine, p-cresol sulfate, and indoxyl sulfate) clearance using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assays of serum and timed urine samples in a prospective cohort study of 298 patients with kidney disease. We estimated GFR by mean clearance of creatinine and urea from the same samples and evaluated associations of renal secretion with participant characteristics, mortality, and CKD progression to dialysis. Tubular secretion rate modestly correlated with eGFR and associated with some participant characteristics, notably fractional excretion of electrolytes. Low clearance of hippurate or p-cresol sulfate associated with greater risk of death independent of eGFR (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 4.7; hazard ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1, respectively). Hazards models also suggested an association between low cinnamoylglycine clearance and risk of dialysis, but statistical analyses did not exclude the null hypothesis. Therefore, estimates of proximal tubular secretion function correlate with glomerular filtration, but substantial variability in net secretion remains. The observed associations of net secretion with mortality and progression of CKD require confirmation. PMID:26614381

  20. Clinical and CT imaging features of abdominal fat necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fat necrosis is a common pathological change at abdominal cross-sectional imaging, and it may cause abdominal pain, mimic pathological change of acute abdomen, or be asymptomatic and accompany other pathophysiologic processes. Fat necrosis is actually the result of steatosis by metabolism or mechanical injury. Common processes that are present in fat necrosis include epiploic appendagitis, infarction of the greater omentum, pancreatitis, and fat necrosis related to trauma or ischemia. As a common fat disease, fat necrosis should be known by clinicians and radiologists. Main content of this text is the clinical symptoms and CT findings of belly fat necrosis and related diseases. (authors)

  1. Fas Ligand Has a Greater Impact than TNF-α on Apoptosis and Inflammation in Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Furuichi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Fas ligand (FasL and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α are major pro-apoptotic molecules and also induce inflammation through cytokine and chemokine production. Although precise intracellular mechanisms of action have been reported for each molecule, the differential impact of these molecules on kidney injury in vivo still requires clarification. Methods: We explored the differential impact of FasL and TNF-α upon apoptosis and inflammation in ischemic acute kidney injury using neutralizing anti-FasL antibodies and TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1-deficient mice. Results: TNFR1 deficiency was associated with a lesser anti-inflammatory effect upon leukocyte infiltration and tubular necrosis than treatment with anti-FasL antibody. Furthermore, the number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly reduced in anti-FasL antibody-treated mice, whereas it was only partially diminished in TNFR1-deficient mice. In vitro studies confirmed these findings. FasL administration induced both apoptosis and cytokine/chemokine production from cultured tubular epithelial cells. However, TNF-α had a limited effect upon tubular epithelial cells. Conclusion: In ischemic acute kidney injury, FasL has a greater impact than TNF-α on the apoptosis and inflammatory reaction through cytokine/chemokine production from tubular epithelial cells.

  2. Clinical analysis on acute retinal necrosis syndrome%急性视网膜坏死综合征的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旻; 高巧云; 徐格致; 王文吉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical features of acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARN).Methods The clinical data of 84 patients (98 eyes) with ARN were retrospective analyzed.The patietns had undergone the examinations of best visual acuity,intraocular pressure,B-scanning,slit-lamp biomicroscope,preset lens,direct and (or) indirect ophthalmolscope,and trihedral reflector;fundus fluorecein angiography had been performed on the patients with clear refracting media.Some of the patients had undergone polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to dectet the types of the causative virus.Medication,laser photocoagulation,and vitreous surgery had been performed on the patients after the diagnosis was confirmed.The visual acuity and the change of ocular fundus had been followed up;the average follow-up was 24.1 months.Results The average age of the patients at the onset was 42.8 years with the bilateraleye rate of 16.6% and retinal-detachment rate of 57.1%.There were 53.5% and 35.5% patients had the final visual acuity of>0.02 after 6 and 12 months,respectively.Better prognosis was found in patients diagnosed within 2 weeks and second involved eye.Varicella zoster virus DNA was identified in 15 patients and herpes simplex virus 1 was found in 3.Conclusions ARN is an acute disease with high incidence of retinal detachment.Serious retinal vasculopathy always happens at the late stage,and the prognosis is poor.Diagnosis in early stage is important and application of PCR will do contribution to the right diagnosis.%目的 观察急性视网膜坏死综合征(ARN)的临床特征.方法 回顾性分析84例98只眼ARN患者的临床资料.患者进行了最佳矫正视力、眼压、B型超声检查、裂隙灯生物显微镜、前置镜、直接和(或)间接检眼镜结合三面镜检查,屈光间质清楚者行荧光素眼底血管造影.部分患者行聚合酶链反应(PCR)检查鉴定致病病毒种类,明确诊断ARN后抗病毒、选择性激光和玻璃体手术治疗.并对视力

  3. Tubular toxicity of proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Richard J; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2011-03-01

    Proteinuria is a prognostic indicator of progressive kidney disease and poor cardiovascular outcomes. Abnormally filtered bioactive macromolecules interact with proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs), which results in the development of proteinuric nephropathy. This condition is characterized by alterations in PTEC growth, apoptosis, gene transcription and inflammatory cytokine production as a consequence of dysregulated signaling pathways that are stimulated by proteinuric tubular fluid. The megalin-cubilin complex mediates the uptake of several proteins, including albumin, into PTECs. Megalin might also possess intrinsic signaling properties and the ability to regulate cell signaling pathways and gene transcription after processing regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Megalin could, therefore, link abnormal PTEC albumin exposure with altered growth factor receptor activation, proinflammatory and profibrotic signaling, and gene transcription. Evidence now suggests that other PTEC pathways for protein reabsorption of (patho)physiological importance might be mediated by the neonatal Fc receptor and CD36. PMID:21151210

  4. Acute kidney injury associated with androgenic steroids and nutritional supplements in bodybuilders†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almukhtar, Safa E.; Abbas, Alaa A.; Muhealdeen, Dana N.; Hughson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Four bodybuilders who injected anabolic steroids and ingested commercial protein (78–104 g/day) and creatine (15 g/day) products presented with serum creatinine levels between 229.84 and 335.92 µmol/L (2.6–3.8 mg/dL). Renal biopsies revealed acute tubular necrosis. Four weeks after discontinuing injections and supplements, serum creatinine was in the normal range and estimated glomerular filtration rate > 1.00 mL/s (60 mL/min), including two patients with biopsies showing >30% interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. The findings highlight a risk for acute and potentially chronic kidney injury among young men abusing anabolic steroids and using excessive amounts of nutritional supplements. PMID:26251708

  5. Acute kidney injury: A rare cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Satish; Barki, Satish; Mishra, Mayank; Kumar, R S V; Gupta, Devika; Gupta, Pooja

    2015-09-01

    We present a young lady who consumed hair dye, which contained paraphenylene diamine (PPD), as a means of deliberate self-harm. This resulted in severe angio-neurotic edema for which she had to be ventilated, and thereafter developed rhabdomyolysis leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). The unusual aspect was that the patient continued to have flaccid quadriparesis and inability to regain kidney function. Renal biopsy performed 10 weeks after the dye consumption revealed severe acute tubular necrosis with myoglobin pigment casts. This suggests that PPD has a long-term effect leading to ongoing myoglobinuria, causing flaccid paralysis to persist and preventing the recovery of AKI. In such instances, timely treatment to prevent AKI in the form alkalinization of urine should be initiated promptly. Secondly, because PPD is a nondialyzable toxin, and its long-term effect necessitates its speedy removal, hemoperfusion might be helpful and is worth considering. PMID:26354573

  6. Acute kidney injury: A rare cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Mendonca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a young lady who consumed hair dye, which contained paraphenylene diamine (PPD, as a means of deliberate self-harm. This resulted in severe angio-neurotic edema for which she had to be ventilated, and thereafter developed rhabdomyolysis leading to acute kidney injury (AKI. The unusual aspect was that the patient continued to have flaccid quadriparesis and inability to regain kidney function. Renal biopsy performed 10 weeks after the dye consumption revealed severe acute tubular necrosis with myoglobin pigment casts. This suggests that PPD has a long-term effect leading to ongoing myoglobinuria, causing flaccid paralysis to persist and preventing the recovery of AKI. In such instances, timely treatment to prevent AKI in the form alkalinization of urine should be initiated promptly. Secondly, because PPD is a nondialyzable toxin, and its long-term effect necessitates its speedy removal, hemoperfusion might be helpful and is worth considering

  7. Classifying Virtually Special Tubular Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    A group is tubular if it acts on a tree with $\\mathbb{Z}^2$ vertex stabilizers and $\\mathbb{Z}$ edge stabilizers. We prove that a tubular group is virtually special if and only if it acts freely on a locally finite CAT(0) cube complex. Furthermore, we prove that if a tubular group acts freely on a finite dimensional CAT(0) cube complex, then it virtually acts freely on a three dimensional CAT(0) cube complex.

  8. Renal papillary necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Ruggenenti P, Cravedi P, Remuzzi G. Microvascular and macrovascular diseases of the kidney. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, ...

  9. Phenazopyridine associated acute interstitial nephritis and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manisha; Shailesh, Fnu; Tiwari, Upasana; Sharma, Shree G; Malik, Bilal

    2014-06-01

    Phenazopyridine is a urinary analgesic; commonly seen side-effects of this drug include, orange discoloration of urine, methemoglobinemia, yellowish skin discoloration, hepatitis and acute renal failure. Various case reports with phenazopyridine associated acute renal failure secondary to acute tubular necrosis have been reported in the literature. Acute kidney injury in these patients is caused by either direct injury to renal tubular epithelial cells or secondary to pigment induced nephropathy from hemolytic anemia. Hypoxic injury from phenazopyridine-induced methemoglobinemia has been well documented. We report a case of biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis, associated with therapeutic doses of phenazopyridine without any evidence of methemoglobinemia or other mechanism of renal injury. Clinicians should be aware of the toxicity of this commonly used drug and should look closely for signs of renal insufficiency. Identifying and stopping the offending medication stays as the first step, but recent studies indicate that early steroid administration improves renal recovery, as well as decreasing the risk of progression to chronic kidney disease with fibrosis and consequent permanent renal damage. PMID:24575779

  10. Acute renal failure following binge drinking and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, S F; Parthasarathy, R; Iliopoulos, O; Oberley, T D

    1992-09-01

    Two college students who developed reversible acute deterioration in renal function following binge drinking of beer and the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are reported. Both patients presented with back and flank pain with muscle tenderness, but showed no evidence of overt rhabdomyolysis. The first case had marked renal failure, with a peak serum creatinine reaching 575 mumol/L (6.5 mg/dL), and acute tubular necrosis was documented by renal biopsy. The second case had only modest elevation in serum creatinine, and renal function rapidly improved on rehydration. The contribution of the potential muscle damage associated with alcohol ingestion to the changes in renal function in these two cases is not clear. However, the major mechanism for the acute renal failure was thought to be related to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis in the face of compromised renal hemodynamics secondary to alcohol-induced volume depletion. PMID:1519610

  11. [Digital necrosis in hand by uncommon mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Maria Bibiana; Lashak, Celina; Mazzurco, Martin

    2013-07-01

    A 43-year-old, non-smoking man presented with acute ischemic lesions of his left hand. He had been taking beta-blockers for his arterial hypertension. The day before the occurrence of these acute lesions, he self medicated with a drug containing ergotamine and caffeine because of a headache. About one hour after mild trauma to the hand, he noticed intense cyanosis accompanied by severe pain in the fingers that progressed to digital necrosis. Hematological tests, hand radiography, echo Doppler, and nailfold videocapillaroscopy were performed. Digital necrosis owing to an unusual combination of ischemic mechanisms is assumed. PMID:24010508

  12. The thalidomide analogue CC-3052 inhibits HIV-1 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression in acutely and chronically infected cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Maestra, L; Zaninoni, A; Marriott, J B; Lazzarin, A; Dalgleish, A G; Barcellini, W

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro effect of the water-soluble, highly stable thalidomide analogue CC-3052 on HIV-1 expression and TNF-α production in latently infected promonocytic U1 cells, acutely infected T cells and monocyte-derived human macrophages (MDM), and in mitogen-stimulated ex vivo cultures from patients with primary acute HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 expression was assessed by Northern blot analysis of RNAs, and ELISA for p24 antigen release and reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. TNF-α expression was evaluated by RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ELISA for mRNA and ELISA for protein secretion. We demonstrated that CC-3052 is able to inhibit HIV-1 expression, as evaluated by mRNA, p24 release and RT activity, in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)- and cytokine-stimulated U1 cells. Furthermore, CC-3052 inhibited HIV-1 expression, as evaluated by p24 and RT activity, in acutely infected MDM and T cells. As far as TNF-α is concerned, CC-3052 significantly reduced TNF-α mRNA and protein secretion in PMA-stimulated U937 and U1 cells, and in PMA-stimulated uninfected and acutely infected MDM. Consistently, the addition of CC-3052 reduced TNF-α production in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood cultures from patients during the primary acute phase of HIV-1 infection. Since TNF-α is among the most potent enhancers of HIV-1 expression, the effect of CC-3052 on TNF-α may account for its inhibitory activity on HIV-1 expression. Given the well documented immunopathological role of TNF-α and its correlation with viral load, advanced disease and poor prognosis, CC-3052 could be an interesting drug for the design of therapeutic strategies in association with anti-retroviral agents. PMID:10606973

  13. Pancreatic Necrosis Associated with Preeclampsia-Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar MS

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy is rare and commonly occurs in association with biliary disease. Preeclampsia is associated with microvascular abnormalities that may involve cerebral, placental, hepatic, renal and splanchnic circulation and rarely can cause acute pancreatitis. CASE REPORT: A case of acute pancreatitis in a patient with preeclampsia-eclampsia where the diagnosis was missed initially that resulted in a protracted course and development of organized pancreatic necrosis. The pancreatic necrosis resolved with conservative management over 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The development of severe hypoalbuminemia, out of proportion to proteinuria, hypocalcemia and findings of capillary leak should alert the physician to search for other inflammatory causes, including acute pancreatitis so that early and effective management be given to avoid complications.

  14. Autophagy, Innate Immunity and Tissue Repair in Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Duann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kidney is a vital organ with high energy demands to actively maintain plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis. Among the nephron segments, the renal tubular epithelium is endowed with high mitochondria density for their function in active transport. Acute kidney injury (AKI is an important clinical syndrome and a global public health issue with high mortality rate and socioeconomic burden due to lack of effective therapy. AKI results in acute cell death and necrosis of renal tubule epithelial cells accompanied with leakage of tubular fluid and inflammation. The inflammatory immune response triggered by the tubular cell death, mitochondrial damage, associative oxidative stress, and the release of many tissue damage factors have been identified as key elements driving the pathophysiology of AKI. Autophagy, the cellular mechanism that removes damaged organelles via lysosome-mediated degradation, had been proposed to be renoprotective. An in-depth understanding of the intricate interplay between autophagy and innate immune response, and their roles in AKI pathology could lead to novel therapies in AKI. This review addresses the current pathophysiology of AKI in aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, innate immunity, and molecular mechanisms of autophagy. Recent advances in renal tissue regeneration and potential therapeutic interventions are also discussed.

  15. Acute renal failure due to phenazopyridine (Pyridium) overdose: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Ali Mirza; Espinoza, Veronica; Berho, Mariana E; Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gaston; Abitbol, Carolyn

    2006-11-01

    Phenazopyridine (Pyridium) is a commonly used urinary tract analgesic. It has been associated with yellow skin discoloration, hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia, and acute renal failure, especially in patients with preexisting kidney disease. We report a 17-year-old female with vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, presenting with acute renal failure and methemoglobinemia following a suicidal attempt with a single 1,200 mg ingestion of Pyridium. She had no prior evidence of HIV nephropathy. The patient had a progressive nonoliguric renal failure on the 3rd day following the ingestion. She was treated with N-acetylcysteine, intravenous carnitine, and alkalinization of the urine. Her kidney biopsy revealed acute tubular necrosis with no glomerular changes. After 7 days of conservative management, she was discharged home with normal kidney function. To our knowledge, this is the second smallest amount of Pyridium overdose resulting in acute renal failure with no previous history of kidney disease. PMID:16897003

  16. Hypoplasia of exocrine pancreas with myocardial necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Sheng Zhang; Xin Xiu Xu; Yan Zhang; Sbu Hua Wu

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the clinical and pathological features of hypoplasia of exocrine pancreas with myocardialnecrosis.METHODS One ease of hypoplasia of exocrine pancreas with myocardial necrosis was autopsied. Theclinical signs and pathological changes were analyzed.RESULTS A 15-month-old boy with hypoplasia of exocrine pancreas was reported. The main clinicalfeatures were steatorrhea and marked underdevelopment. He died of acute heart failure afterhospitalization. Autopsy showed that there were aplasia of exocrine portion and fatty metaplasia ofpancreas, the myocardium revealed focal necrosis and sear formation.CONCLUSION Atrophy of exocrine pancreas and myocardial necrosis exist at the same time, suggestingthat there may be some relationship between them. It was likely that the damaged pancreatic tissue releasedsome active materials that may harm the myocardium or decrease pancreatic juice that results in lack ofnutrient and myocardial necrosis.

  17. Draft genome sequence of pathogenic bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain Ba94C2, associated with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease isolate from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Leda; Bayot, Bonny; Betancourt, Irma; Pinzón, Andres

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a pathogenic bacteria which has been associated to the early mortality syndrome (EMS) also known as hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) causing high mortality in shrimp farms. Pathogenic strains contain two homologous genes related to insecticidal toxin genes, PirA and PirB, these toxin genes are located on a plasmid contained within the bacteria. Genomic sequences have allowed the finding of two strains with a divergent structure related to the geographic region from where they were found. The isolates from the geographic collection of Southeast Asia and Mexico show variable regions on the plasmid genome, indicating that even though they are not alike they still conserve the toxin genes. In this paper, we report for the first time, a pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strain in shrimp from South America that showed symptoms of AHPND. The genomic analysis revealed that this strain of V. parahaemolyticus found in South America appears to be more related to the Southeast Asia as compared to the Mexican strains. This finding is of major importance for the shrimp industry, especially in regards to the urgent need for disease control strategies to avoid large EMS outbreaks and economic loss, and to determine its dispersion in South America. The whole-genome shotgun project of V. parahaemolyticus strain Ba94C2 have been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession PRJNA335761. PMID:27570736

  18. The use of synthetic analogues of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and soluble receptor of tumor necrosis factor to prevent acute and chronic experimental liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, R; Hershkoviz, R; Lider, O; Shirin, H; Aeed, H; Halpern, Z

    1997-01-01

    In chronic viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and some chronic cholestatic liver diseases, T-lymphocytes serve as effector cells of the immunostimulatory processes. Cellular interactions of immune cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) components are regulated primarily via the beta 1 subfamily of integrin receptors. The target epitope of several such integrin receptors is the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence, a cell adhesion motif shared by several matrix-associated adhesive glycoproteins. We review the use of synthetic nonpeptidic analogues of RGD and of soluble receptor of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in the prevention of immune-mediated, concanavalin A-induced liver damage in mice and of RGD analogues in inhibiting the development of liver cirrhosis in rats. The concanavalin A-induced elevation of serum transaminases and TNF-alpha, and the infiltration of liver tissue by inflammatory cells, were inhibited by pretreatment of the mice with the synthetic RGD mimetics and soluble TNF receptor. In rats, the progression of thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis was markedly inhibited by the coadministration of the RGD mimetic SF-6,5. The compounds described here may be examined therapeutically for pathological conditions in the liver, manifested as necroinflammation, cholestasis and fibrosis. PMID:9626759

  19. Draft genome sequence of pathogenic bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain Ba94C2, associated with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease isolate from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Leda; Bayot, Bonny; Betancourt, Irma; Pinzón, Andres

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a pathogenic bacteria which has been associated to the early mortality syndrome (EMS) also known as hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) causing high mortality in shrimp farms. Pathogenic strains contain two homologous genes related to insecticidal toxin genes, PirA and PirB, these toxin genes are located on a plasmid contained within the bacteria. Genomic sequences have allowed the finding of two strains with a divergent structure related to the geographic region from where they were found. The isolates from the geographic collection of Southeast Asia and Mexico show variable regions on the plasmid genome, indicating that even though they are not alike they still conserve the toxin genes. In this paper, we report for the first time, a pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strain in shrimp from South America that showed symptoms of AHPND. The genomic analysis revealed that this strain of V. parahaemolyticus found in South America appears to be more related to the Southeast Asia as compared to the Mexican strains. This finding is of major importance for the shrimp industry, especially in regards to the urgent need for disease control strategies to avoid large EMS outbreaks and economic loss, and to determine its dispersion in South America. The whole-genome shotgun project of V. parahaemolyticus strain Ba94C2 have been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession PRJNA335761.

  20. Peripancreatic fat necrosis mimicking pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurnher, M.M.; Schima, W.; Turetschek, K.; Thurnher, S.A. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Fuegger, R. [Dept. of Surgery, University of Vienna (Austria); Oberhuber, G. [Dept. of Pathology, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2001-06-01

    A case of peripancreatic fat necrosis, after an episode of acute pancreatitis, which mimicked pancreatic cancer with lymph node metastases, is presented. We describe the imaging findings with helical CT scanning and with unenhanced and mangafodipir-enhanced MR imaging, with special emphasis on the differential diagnoses. (orig.)

  1. Renal pathophysiologic role of cortical tubular inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Zaher A; Stewart, Zachary S; Grzemski, Felicity A; Bobrowski, Walter F

    2013-01-01

    Renal tubular inclusion bodies are rarely associated with drug administration. The authors describe the finding of renal cortical tubular intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with the oral administration of a norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor (NSRI) test article in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats were given an NSRI daily for 4 weeks, and kidney histopathologic, ultrastructural pathology, and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Round eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed histologically in the tubular epithelial cells of the renal cortex in male and female SD rats given the NSRI compound. No evidence of degeneration or necrosis was noted in the inclusion-containing renal cells. By ultrastructural pathology, inclusion bodies consisted of finely granular, amorphous, and uniformly stained nonmembrane-bound material. By immunohistochemistry, inclusion bodies stained positive for d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) protein. In addition, similar inclusion bodies were noted in the cytoplasmic tubular epithelial compartment by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examination.  This is the first description of these renal inclusion bodies after an NSRI test article administration in SD rats. Such drug-induced renal inclusion bodies are rat-specific, do not represent an expression of nephrotoxicity, represent altered metabolism of d-amino acids, and are not relevant to human safety risk assessment.

  2. The clinical effects and the selectiori of juncture for the integrated treatment of acute retinal necrosis%急性视网膜坏死综合治疗的时机选择及疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许立帅; 李文生; 吴荣瀚; 郑钦象; 赵立娟

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨急性视网膜坏死(acute retinal necrosis,ARN)综合治疗时机选择及疗效.方法 ARN患者15例(18只眼),病程1周至6月,初诊视力:光感、手动和数指各2只眼,0.02~0.1者4只眼,0.12~0.4者6只眼,0.5、0.6各1只眼.所有患者确诊后均全身使用抗病毒药物阿昔洛韦或更昔洛韦,并根据病情不同采用玻璃体腔注药、激光光凝及玻璃体切割术等治疗方法 ,随访3~26月,平均(14.3±6.5)月.结果 14只眼在单纯全身抗病毒治疗后5只眼视力提高,8只眼经玻璃体腔注药后视力提高4只眼,行玻璃体切割术9只眼,术后均视网膜在位,7只眼视力提高,2只眼无提高.结论 ARN患者早期诊断是治疗的关键,早期全身抗病毒治疗是基础,玻璃体腔注药联合预防性眼内激光光凝及适时的玻璃体切割术是治疗ARN的有效手段.%Objective To discuss the clinical effects and the selection of methods and juncture for thetreatment of acute retinal necrosis (ARN).Methods Fifteen cases (18eyes)of ARN.Course of disease was 1week to 6 months.Preoperative visual acuity were light perception (LP) ,hand movement (HM)and countingfingers(CF) ,each in 2 eyes,0.02~0.1 in 4 eyes,0.12~0.4 in 6 eyes,0.5 and 0.6 in each 1 eye.All of the patientstreated with antivirus drug by intervenous drop infusion,then they were treated with Ganciclovir which wasinjected into vitreous cavity, Endophotocoagulation or vitrectomy based on those eunditions.Followed up from3 to 26 months.Results After the treatment of antivirus drug intervenous drop infusion, 5 of the 14 eyes hadelevated visual acuity.4 eyes visual acuity increased after treated with Ganciclovir which was injected intovitreous cavity in 8 eyes.All of 9 eyes obtained anatomic success after vitreetomy,and 7 eyes of 9 eyes aftersurgery had up visual acuity.Conclusions Early diagnosis is the key of the treatment of ARN, antivirus drugby intervenous drop infusion in earlier period is basal therapy

  3. Establishment of a nested PCR for rapid detection of Chlamys farreri acute viral necrosis virus%栉孔扇贝急性病毒性坏死病毒巢式PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨; 王崇明; 曲朋; 黄倢

    2013-01-01

    为更好地实现对养殖海区栉孔扇贝急性病毒性坏死病毒(acute viral necrosis virus,AVNV)的快速诊断和分子流行病学的调查,以及AVNV的疫情监测,选择AVNV全基因组序列中的保守区段,应用Accelrys gene 2.5软件设计一对巢式引物,用于AVNV的检测.结果显示,引物的扩增片段分别为979和548 bp.实验优化了PCR体系中Mg2+和dNTPs浓度及扩增程序中的退火温度,并建立了完善的AVNV巢式PCR检测技术.研究表明,该PCR检测技术具有较高的敏感性,可稳定检测出5 pg扇贝样品组织总核酸中5×10 copies的病毒粒子.%The scallop Chlamys farreri is one of the major species cultured in North China, and its culture in commercial scale has been performed for more than 20 years. However, the great expansion and intensification have induced the occurrence of disease called " acute viral necrosis disease" ( AVND) since 1990's,and the cumulative mortality could be higher than 90%. This disease is caused by a virus called "acute viral necrosis virus"(AVNV),which is a spherical enveloped virus(130 to 170 nm in diameter) with spike-like surface protrusions and has been becoming the major limiting factor in the development of the scallop industry. In order to establish a rapid diagnosis method of AVNV parasitizing on scallop( C. farreri) , a pair of primers of nested-PCR were developed by Accelrys gene 2. 5 based on the conserved region of the AVNV genome ( GenBank accession number; GQ153938 ) in this study. The reactive conditions such as concentration of Mg2 + , dNTPs and annealing temperature were optimized for the PCR system, and the expected products of the external and internal primers were 979 and 548 bp respectively. The results showed that the primers were specific for AVNV and did not amplify marine aquaculture animals' s and bacteria' s genome DNA,and the method can be stably amplified 5 x 10 copies virus particles in 5 pg total nucleic acid of scallop tissue. Also this

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-α regulates glucocorticoid synthesis in the adrenal glands of Trypanosoma cruzi acutely-infected mice. the role of TNF-R1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina R Villar

    Full Text Available Adrenal steroidogenesis is under a complex regulation involving extrinsic and intrinsic adrenal factors. TNF-α is an inflammatory cytokine produced in response to tissue injury and several other stimuli. We have previously demonstrated that TNF-R1 knockout (TNF-R1(-/- mice have a dysregulated synthesis of glucocorticoids (GCs during Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection. Since TNF-α may influence GCs production, not only through the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, but also at the adrenal level, we now investigated the role of this cytokine on the adrenal GCs production. Wild type (WT and TNF-R1(-/- mice undergoing acute infection (Tc-WT and Tc-TNF-R1(-/- groups, displayed adrenal hyperplasia together with increased GCs levels. Notably, systemic ACTH remained unchanged in Tc-WT and Tc-TNF-R1(-/- compared with uninfected mice, suggesting some degree of ACTH-independence of GCs synthesis. TNF-α expression was increased within the adrenal gland from both infected mouse groups, with Tc-WT mice showing an augmented TNF-R1 expression. Tc-WT mice showed increased levels of P-p38 and P-ERK compared to uninfected WT animals, whereas Tc-TNF-R1(-/- mice had increased p38 and JNK phosphorylation respect to Tc-WT mice. Strikingly, adrenal NF-κB and AP-1 activation during infection was blunted in Tc-TNF-R1(-/- mice. The accumulation of mRNAs for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 were significantly increased in both Tc-WT and Tc-TNF-R1(-/- mice; being much more augmented in the latter group, which also had remarkably increased GCs levels. TNF-α emerges as a potent modulator of steroidogenesis in adrenocortical cells during T. cruzi infection in which MAPK pathways, NF-κB and AP-1 seem to play a role in the adrenal synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes regulating GCs synthesis. These results suggest the existence of an intrinsic immune-adrenal interaction involved in the dysregulated synthesis of GCs during murine Chagas

  5. Analysis of the misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis of Acute Retinal Necrosis syndrome in China%急性视网膜坏死综合征的误诊分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绍伟; 张少冲; 李梅; 曾骏文

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the present status in the diagnosis of Acute Retinal Necrosis syndrome in China.Methods Clinic data of 114 in-patients with ARN syndrome from January 1998 to October 2006 in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center were retrospectively analyzed,especially with respects to the former misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.Results Blindness occurred in 29.79% of these investigated patients.Misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis occurred in 87.14%,93.0% and 73.68% of these patients respectively in Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ-Ⅳ stage.The average duration between ARN onset and the time to make correct diagnosis was 46.16 days.Conclusions The misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis of ARN syndrome is very common in China.It is absolutely necessary to improve earlier diagnosis rate and recover some useful vision.%目的 分析急性视网膜坏死综合征(Acute retinal necrosis syndrome,ARN)临床诊断中存在的问题.方法 收集1998年1月至2006年10月中山眼科中心确诊住院治疗、以往资料完整的114例ARN病人的临床资料,重点分析初诊时误诊、漏诊原因,发病至确诊时间、确诊前诊断、治疗等情况.结果 114例(141眼)ARN病人的盲目率(42/141)为29.79%;初诊时,Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ-Ⅳ期误诊率分别为61/70(87.14%)、23/25(93.0%)、13/19(73.68%),发病至确诊时间最短为3 d,最长为420 d,平均为46.16 d.结论 ARN综合征漏诊、误诊率较高,急需提高ARN的早期确诊率使病人保存部分有用视力.

  6. General Construction of Tubular Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of locally describing tubular geometry around a submanifold embedded in a (pseudo)Riemannian manifold in its general form. Given the geometry of ambient space in an arbitrary coordinate system and equations determining the submanifold in the same system, we compute the tubular expansion coefficients in terms of this {\\it a priori data}. This is done by using an indirect method that crucially applies the tubular expansion theorem for vielbein previously derived. With an explicit construction involving the relevant coordinate and non-coordinate frames we verify consistency of the whole method up to quadratic order in vielbein expansion. Furthermore, we perform certain (long and tedious) higher order computation which verifies the first non-trivial spin connection term in the expansion for the first time. Earlier a similar method was used to compute tubular geometry in loop space. We explain this work in the light of our general construction.

  7. Effects of Schizolobium parahyba extract on experimental Bothrops venom-induced acute kidney injury.

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    Monique Silva Martines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venom-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite with relevant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Schizolobium parahyba (SP extract, a natural medicine with presumed anti-Bothrops venom effects, in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BV-induced AKI. METHODOLOGY: Groups of 8 to 10 rats received infusions of 0.9% saline (control, C, SP 2 mg/kg, BV 0.25 mg/kg and BV immediately followed by SP (treatment, T in the doses already described. After the respective infusions, animals were assessed for their glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance, renal blood flow (RBF, Doppler, blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial transducer, renal vascular resistance (RVR, urinary osmolality (UO, freezing point, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, kinetic method, hematocrit (Hct, microhematocrit, fibrinogen (Fi, Klauss modified and blinded renal histology (acute tubular necrosis score. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BV caused significant decreases in GFR, RBF, UO, HcT and Fi; significant increases in RVR, NGAL and LDH; and acute tubular necrosis. SP did not prevent these changes; instead, it caused a significant decrease in GFR when used alone. CONCLUSION: SP administered simultaneously with BV, in an approximate 10∶1 concentration, did not prevent BV-induced AKI, hemolysis and fibrinogen consumption. SP used alone caused a decrease in GFR.

  8. The significance of urine microscopy and urinary kidney injury molecular 1 and neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin in patients with primary kidney disease complicated with acute tubular interstitial lesion%尿沉渣联合尿KIM-1、NGAL在诊断原发性肾脏病合并急性肾小管间质病变中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚红; 苑丽华

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察原发性慢性肾脏病(CKD)合并急性肾小管间质病变(ATIL)时尿沉渣积分情况和尿肾损伤因子1(KIM-1)、中性粒细胞明胶酶相关脂质运载蛋白(NGAL)水平的变化,以期早期、准确发现ATIL.方法 经临床和病理确诊为CKD并发ATIL病例52例,对照组为无急性肾损伤(AKI)的原发性CKD患者33例,15例健康人为正常对照组.比较三组尿KIM-1、NGAL水平与尿沉渣积分的不同.结果 ①三组的尿KIM-1、NGAL水平和尿沉渣积分相比较,原发性CKD并发ATIL患者均高于其他两组(P<0.05),无AKI的CKD患者高于健康对照组(P<0.05);②尿KIM-1、NGAL水平与尿沉渣评分呈正相关(r=0.711,0.683,P<0.05),三者又均与CKD患者的ATIL严重程度呈正相关(r=0.892,0.735,0.745,P<0.05);③N-乙酰-β-D-氨基葡萄糖苷酶(NAG)、视黄醇结合蛋白(RBP)和α1-微球蛋白(α1-MG)尚在正常范围的患者尿KIM-1、NGAL水平已有升高,肾脏组织病理证实存在不同程度的ATIL;④尿KIM-1、NGAL、光抑素C(CysC)、NAG诊断ATIL的ROC曲线下面积大于尿RBP、α1-MG.尿沉渣诊断ATIL的受试者工作(ROC)曲线下面积为84%.尿KIM-1、NGAL联合尿沉渣积分诊断ATIL的准确性达100%.结论 尿沉渣联合尿KIM-1、NGAL可作为诊断原发性CKD并发ATIL的早期、无创、敏感的指标.%Objectives We explored urinary sediment scoring on the basis of the number of renal tubular epithelial cells and granular casts and the urinary level of KIM-1 and NGAL in patients with primary and chronic kidney disease (CKD) complicated with acute tubular interstitial lesion(ATIL),in order to find tubular interstitial injury early and accurately.Methods Data of 52 cases of primary CKD with ATIL and of 33 cases of CKD without acute kidney injury (AKI)admitted to Second Affiliated Hospital of Xingtai Medical College from February 2012 to February 2013 were analyzed.Urinary sediment scoring on the basis of the number of renal tubular epithelial

  9. Effects of increased human tumor necrosis factor-like molecule 1A expression in peripheral blood of children with acute Guillain-Barre syndrome on interferon-gamma secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin Yang; Shulei Li; Yan Tana; Shufen Xu; Xiumei Duan; Yanqiu Fang; Lihua Liu; Yuanyuan Che; Lei Liu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Human tumor necrosis factor-like molecule 1A (hTL1A) is a strong T helper cell type 1 (Th1) co-stimulator.Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disorder of the nervous system,which is mediated by Th1 cells.OBJECTIVE:To determine hTL1A expression in peripheral blood T lymphocytes of acute GBS children and the effects of hTL1A on secretion of interferon-γ.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized,controlled,neuroimmunological in vitro study was performed at the Central Laboratory of First Hospital of Jilin University,China from November 2005 to November 2007.MATERIALS:Venous blood samples were obtained from 6 healthy donors,aged 6-12 years (all routine blood examination items were normal),and 6 additional children with acute GBS,aged 6-12years.The GBS children fell itl within 1 week and were not treated with hormones or immunoglobulin.Purified recombinant human soluble tumor necrosis factor-like molecule 1A (rhsTL1A,1 mg/mL,relative molecular mass 22 000,6×His tag,soluble form) was supplied by the Central Laboratory of First Hospital of Jilin University,China.METHODS:Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from healthy donors using the standard Ficoll gradient centrifugation and were incubated in 96-well culture plates.The cells were assigned to the following groups:control (2 μg/mL phytohemagglutinin),2 μg/mL phytohemagglutinin+25,100 and 400 ng/mL rhsTL1A.T cell proliferation was quantified using the tritiated thymidine (~3H-TdR) method.Serum interferon-γ levels in acute GBS children were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The ratio of hTL1A-positive T cells to CD3-positive T cells in peripheral blood of acute GBS children was determined using flow cytometry.Following in vitro pre-activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by 2 μg/mL phytohemagglutinin,the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 400 ng/mL exogenous rhsTL1A.Finally,peripheral blood mononuclear cell-secreted interferon-γ levels were

  10. An Unusual Complication of Foam Sclerotherapy: Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge EREK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotherapy, in which an irritant solution is administered, is a method used to treat venous failure that results in complete venous destruction due to endothelial reaction and fibrosis. In recent years, foam sclerotherapy, in which a sclerosing agent (aethyl sclerole and air are mixed until they turn into foam and the resultant mixture is injected into noticeable veins directly and into other veins under ultrasonography in doses depending on the diameters of the varices, has been introduced. The drugs or gases used in foam sclerotherapy can cause local or systemic complications. Foam affects vessel endothelial cells and causes severe spasm in the vessel. It has been reported that endothelin-1 levels are high after foam sclerotherapy compared to the initial levels and that neurological complications vary with the endothelin levels. In this report, we present a case of acute kidney injury due to acute tubular necrosis probably caused by endothelin release following foam sclerotherapy.

  11. A 5-Case report of treating acute retinal necrosis syndrome with operation%手术治疗急性视网膜坏死5例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李达璟; 张皙; 李佩娟; 蔡文泉

    2004-01-01

    目的通过5例病例总结,探讨手术治疗急性视网膜坏死综合征(acute retinal necrosis,ARN)的临床效果.方法应用巩膜环扎联合玻璃体切除加气/硅油交换手术治疗ARN. 结果 5例患者(5只眼)均视网膜复位,裂孔封闭,视力提高至0.1~0.15.结论对急性视网膜坏死综合征(ARN)后期致视网膜裂孔、脱离者,应用巩膜环扎联合玻璃体切除加气/硅油交换手术治疗,可以解除玻璃体对视网膜的牵引,封闭视网膜裂孔,使脱离的视网膜复位,最大限度地挽救患眼视功能.

  12. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Granular cell tumors Fat necrosis and oil cysts Mastitis Duct ectasia Other non-cancerous breast conditions Summary ... References Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens ...

  13. Glutaric Aciduria type I and acute renal failure — Coincidence or causality?

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    Ben Pode-Shakked

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutaric Aciduria type I (GA-I is a rare organic acidemia, caused by mutations in the GCDH gene, and characterized by encephalopathic crises with neurological sequelae. We report herein a patient with GA-I who presented with severe acute renal failure requiring dialysis, following an acute diarrheal illness. Histopathological evaluation demonstrated acute tubular necrosis, and molecular diagnosis revealed the patient to be homozygous for a previously unreported mutation, p.E64D. As renal impairment is not part of the clinical spectrum typical to GA-I, possible associations of renal failure and the underlying inborn error of metabolism are discussed, including recent advancements made in the understanding of the renal transport of glutaric acid and its derivatives during metabolic disturbance in GA-I.

  14. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-02-01

    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis. PMID:26587777

  15. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-02-01

    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis.

  16. [APOPTOSIS AND NECROSIS OF CIRCULATING NEUTROPHILS IN PATIENTS WHILE HIGH RISK OF POSTOPERAIVE PERITONITIS OCCURRENCE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheyko, V D; Sytnik, D A; Shkurupiy, O O

    2015-11-01

    Processes of apoptosis and necrosis of peripheral neutrophils were investigated in 43 patients, operated on for an acute abdominal organs diseases on the first and fourth postoperative days. Changes of apoptosis and necrosis processes in peripheral neutrophils in dynamics were established. Unfavorable course of early postoperative period in patients with initial high and average risk of postoperative peritonitis occurrence was accompanied by shift in necrosis/apoptosis ratio towards necrosis of peripheral neutrophils.

  17. Comparison of two different drug therapies for acute retinal necrosis syndrome%对比两种给药方案治疗急性视网膜坏死综合征患者的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁菁; 胡维琨

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate clinical efficacy of two drug therapies ( acyclovir with prednisone acetate tablets, ganciclovir with prednisone acetate tablets and aspirin) for acute retinal necrosis syndrome. METHODS: Thirty patients (40 eyes) with acute retinal necrosis syndrome in our hospital were randomly divided into group A and B. Group A was treated with acyclovir with prednisone acetate tablets, and group B was given ganciclovir with prednisone acetate tablets and aspirin. Clinical effects in the two groups were observed and compared. RESULTS: After treatment, the overall response rate in group B (90%) was obviously higher than that in group A (70%), both of two regimens were effective, without significant difference (P>0. 05). There was no significant difference on the pre - treatment visual acuity between the two groups (P>0. 05). After different treatments, the visual acuity in group B was ≥0. 5 in 12 eyes, 0. 1≤and CONCLUSION: Two drug therapies ( acyclovir with prednisone acetate tablets, ganciclovir with prednisone acetate tablets and aspirin ) both have positive therapeutic effect, but the latter can better restore visual acuity and decrease the complications.%目的:探讨阿昔洛韦+醋酸泼尼松片、丙氧鸟苷+醋酸泼尼松片+阿司匹林两种给药方案治疗急性视网膜坏死综合征的临床疗效。  方法:采用随机数字表法将我院急性视网膜坏死综合征患者30例40眼分为 A、B 两组,其中 A 组采用阿昔洛韦+醋酸泼尼松片的给药方案,B 组采用丙氧鸟苷+醋酸泼尼松片+阿司匹林的给药方案,观察并比较两组患者治疗后的临床效果。  结果:经过治疗后,B 组总有效率(90%)明显高于 A 组(70%),两种给药方案均有效,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);两组患者在治疗前视力情况差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);经不同给药方案治疗后,A 组视力≥0.5者9眼,视力0.1~  结论:阿昔洛韦+醋酸泼尼松片、丙氧鸟苷+

  18. 晚期急性视网膜坏死玻璃体切割术疗效分析%The curative effect of vitrectomy for later stage acute retinal necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵祥荣; 赵秉水; 韩泉洪; 楚艳华; 刘蓓

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the curative effects ofvitrectomy combined with scleral buckingand intraocular silicone oil or perfluoroethane (C2F6)tamponade for later stage acute retinal necrosis (ARN).Methods The clinical data of 10 eyes with 10 patients of later stage acute retinal necrosis combined withretinal detachment, included clinical manifestation, auxiliary examination and management wereretrospectively analyzed.The following time was 2 to 32 months,averaged 15.20±10.84 months.Results Atthe end of our following up, the retina had been well reattached in 8 eyes,partly reattached in 1 eye, anddetachment recurrence occurred in 1 eye.Of all the 9 eyes tamponaded with silicone oil,6 eyes had beenperformed silicone oil removal,and the retina was well attached in 5 eyes.The vision:8 eyes had improvedvision, 1 eye kept the same vision,and only one eye decreased to hand movement before the eye.Hypotony hashappened in 2 eyes.Conclusion Retinal detachment caused by later stage ARN could be well re.attached byvitrectomy, and the vision could be improved at the same time.To prevent hypotony, it has been suggested thatif the patient has been performed retina dissection or excision in large area the silicone oil could not beremoved until the complication has occurred.%目的 探讨玻璃体切割术联合巩膜扣带、眼内填充硅油或惰性气体(C2>F6>),对晚期急性视网膜坏死所致的裂孔源性视网膜脱离的疗效.方法 回顾性分析10例(10只眼)晚期急性视网膜坏死合并视网膜脱离患者的临床资料,包括临床表现、辅助检查及治疗过程.随访2~32个月,平均(15.20±10.84)月.结果 至随访结束,8只眼视网膜复位,1只眼部分复位,1只眼视网膜脱离复发.9只硅油填充眼中6只行硅油取出,其中5只眼视网膜复位,1只眼视网膜脱离再发.视力情况:8只眼提高,1只眼无变化,1只跟减退.2只眼术后发生低眼压.结论 晚期急性视网膜坏死所致的视网膜脱离,通过

  19. Inhibition of γ-secretase activity synergistically enhances tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand induced apoptosis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells via upregulation of death receptor 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Lisa M.; Nathwani, Seema M.; Zisterer, Daniela M.

    2016-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a rare and aggressive hematopoietic malignancy prone to relapse and drug resistance. Half of all T-ALL patients exhibit mutations in Notch1, which leads to aberrant Notch1 associated signaling cascades. Notch1 activation is mediated by the γ-secretase cleavage of the Notch1 receptor into the active intracellular domain of Notch1 (NCID). Clinical trials of γ-secretase small molecule inhibitors (GSIs) as single agents for the treatment of T-ALL have been unsuccessful. The present study demonstrated, using immunofluorescence and western blotting, that blocking γ-secretase activity in T-ALL cells with N-[(3,5-difluorophenyl) acetyl]-L-alanyl-2-phenyl] glycine-1,1-dimethylethyl ester (DAPT) downregulated NCID and upregulated the tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor 5 (DR5). Upregulation of DR5 restored the sensitivity of T-ALL cells to TRAIL. Combination index revealed that the combined treatment of DAPT and TRAIL synergistically enhanced apoptosis compared with treatment with either drug alone. TRAIL combined with the clinically evaluated γ-secretase inhibitor 3-[(1r, 4s)-4-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-4-(2, 5-difluorophenyl) cyclohexyl] propanoic acid (MK-0752) also significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced cell death compared with either drug alone. DAPT/TRAIL apoptotic synergy was dependent on the extrinsic apoptotic pathway and was associated with a decrease in BH3 interacting-domain death agonist and x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis. In conclusion, γ-secretase inhibition represents a potential therapeutic strategy to overcome TRAIL resistance for the treatment of T-ALL.

  20. Acute kidney injury and hyperbilirubinemia in a young male after ingestion of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Margaret; Lazar, Ira; Nadasdy, Gyongyi M; Nadasdy, Tibor; Satoskar, Anjali A

    2015-03-01

    Acute tubular necrosis (ATN), especially from toxic injury is frequently accompanied by tubular casts and crystals. Myeloma casts, myoglobin, red blood cell and granular casts are well described. However, bile casts in tubules are rarely seen. We describe a case of Tribulus terrestris toxicity in a young healthy male, presenting with severe hyperbilirubinemia followed by acute renal failure and bile containing casts in the tubules. Tribulus terrestris is an herb often used by athletes as a nutritional supplement for performance enhancement. Although it is thought to be relatively safe, serious side effects have been reported before. Our aim is to increase awareness of the potential toxicities of performance enhancing herbal medications. These are often sold over-the-counter and therefore casually used, especially by young healthy individuals. Beneficial effects are controversial. Under-reporting by patients and infrequent documentation by health-care providers can delay diagnosis. We elaborately describe the kidney biopsy findings in Tribulus terrestris toxicity, and also provide a concise overview of the spectrum of tubular casts and their staining patterns, found in various kidney diseases. PMID:25295577

  1. Tubular cystourethroneostomy after total prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, H

    1975-01-01

    After radical prostatectomy cystourethroneostomy is done as a tubular cystourethroplasty. In the last 13 months 14 patients have been operated on in this manner. In 12 patients continence was achieved; 2 patients had a temporary stress incontinence. The stress incontinence could be treated successfully by temporary electrostimulation of the pelvic floor by an anal plug stimulator.

  2. Excitons in tubular molecular aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didraga, C; Knoester, J

    2004-01-01

    We present a brief overview of recent work on the optical properties of molecular aggregates with a tubular (cylindrical) shape. The exciton states responsible for these properties can be distinguished with regard to a transverse wave number, which directly relates to optical selection rules and pol

  3. Changes at the glomerulo-tubular junction in renal transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S J; Howie, A J

    1988-12-01

    We studied by microscopy 377 biopsies, nephrectomies, and necropsy kidneys from 123 human renal transplants. We discovered two common abnormalities of the renal corpuscle, both affecting the glomerulo-tubular junction. Adhesion of the tip of the glomerular tuft to the origin of the tubule, as reported in various non-transplant glomerulopathies, was seen in 197 specimens (52 per cent). This change was common in material showing acute or chronic vascular rejection and glomerulopathy, and was almost universal in transplants that had been in place for over 1 year. Another change at the glomerulo-tubular junction, not previously highlighted, consisted of an infiltrate of lymphocytes or neutrophil polymorphs into the epithelium at the tubular origin. This change was seen in 145 specimens (38 per cent) and was associated with cellular rejection and ascending infection. These changes are of importance because they show two responses of the kidney to injury that involve the glomerulo-tubular junction and thus suggest that this part of the kidney has some specific properties that have been largely neglected up to now.

  4. Acute interstitial nephritis in patients with viperine snake bite: Single center experience of a rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Golay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure following vasculotoxic viperine snake bites is very common in South Asia. Acute tubular necrosis and acute cortical necrosis are the common findings, with acute interstitial nephritis (AIN being a rare presentation. We conducted renal biopsies in all patients who were admitted in our institute with viperine snake bite-related acute kidney injury (AKI and who did not improve after three weeks of supportive care. Patients who had findings of AIN on renal histology were included for this study. Of a total of 42 patients, there were five patients (11.9% with AIN. Our series of five patients is the largest series of this rare presentation in the literature. All of these five patients had features of severe envenomation, severe AKI network stage of AKI and very high antivenom requirements. They had a very prolonged stay in the hospital, and four of the five patients developed chronic kidney disease on follow-up. The overall outcome in this group was worse as compared with those who did not have AIN. AIN following viperine snake bites is not a very rare presentation. The reason for the development of this pathology is unclear, but direct venom-related effects are possible. This presentation portends a poor overall long-term prognosis as demonstrated in our case series.

  5. Resveratrol attenuates acute kidney injury by inhibiting death receptor‑mediated apoptotic pathways in a cisplatin‑induced rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiufa; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Zhen, Junhui; Feng, Jinbo; Song, Chun; Jiang, Bei; Hu, Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Acute kidney injury is a clinical syndrome characterized by a loss of renal function and acute tubular necrosis. Resveratrol exerts a wide range of pharmacological effects based on its anti‑inflammatory, antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. The present study aimed to evaluate whether resveratrol attenuates acute kidney injury in a cisplatin‑induced rat model and to investigate the potential mechanisms involved. Rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: control, cisplatin, resveratrol, and cisplatin plus resveratrol. Rats exposed to cisplatin displayed acute kidney injury, identified by analysis of renal function and histopathological observation. Resveratrol significantly ameliorated the increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, renal index and histopathological damage induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, compared with untreated control animals, cisplatin lead to significantly increased expression of Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), caspase‑8 and Bcl‑2 associated protein X apoptosis regulator (Bax), and decreased expression of anti‑apoptosis regulators, BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID) and B cell lymphoma 2 apoptosis regulator (Bcl‑2). Administration of resveratrol significantly reversed the cisplatin‑induced alteration in these apoptosis‑associated proteins. In conclusion, these findings suggest that resveratrol attenuates cisplatin‑induced acute kidney injury through inactivation of the death receptor‑mediated apoptotic pathway, and may provide a new therapeutic strategy to ameliorate the process of acute kidney injury. PMID:27600998

  6. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of urinary protein in acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufi M Suhail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown the importance of urinary proteomics in acute kidney injury (AKI. We analyzed the protein in urine of patients with clinical AKI using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE for its diagnostic value, and followed them up for 40 months to evaluate prognosis. Urine from 31 consecutive cases of AKI was analyzed with SDS-PAGE to determine the low, middle and high molecular weight proteins. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa was estimated from serum and urine creatinine and sodium (Na. The cases were followed-up for 40 months from the end of the recruitment of study cases. Glomerular protein was higher in the hematuria group when compared with the non-hematuria group (P <0.04 and in the AKI group than in the acute on chronic renal failure (AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.002. Tubular protein was higher in the AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.003 than in the AKI group. Tubular protein correlated with FENa in groups with diabetes mellitus (DM, AKI-on-CRF, and without hematuria (P <0.03, P <0.02 and P <0.004, respectively. Pattern of protein did not differ between groups with and without DM and clinical acute tubular necrosis (ATN. At the end of 40 months follow-up, category with predominantly glomerular protein progressed to chronic renal failure (CRF or end-stage renal failure in higher proportion (P <0.05. In clinical AKI, we observed that glomerular protein dominated in cases with glomerular insult, as indicated by hematuria. Tubular protein was common in the study cases with CRF, DM and cases without hematuria. This indicates tubulo-interstitial injury for AKI in these cases. Patients with predominantly glomerular protein had an adverse outcome.

  7. (Toxic hepatitis and acute renal failure after inhalation of chloride solvents: report of one case (author's transl))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixido Planas, J.; Martinez-Castelao, A.; Romero Gonzalez, R.; Grino Boira, J.; Gonzalez Segura, C.; Caralps Riera, A.

    1981-06-25

    Due to a combination of ingested ethanol and inhaled trichloroethylene (Tri) a 28 year old man developed toxic hepatitis and acute oliguric renal failure, both of which had a favorable evolution. Tri has been described as a cause of hepatic disfunction and acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, although some of the cases described are controversial, because Tri was either contaminated by other dissolvents or could not be proven pure, with the exception of one case. In many there was ethanol ingestion. The Tri inhaled by our patient was found to contain less than 1% of carbon tetrachloride (C-Tchl). This would suggest the C-Tchl to be responsible for the clinical picture although the combination Tri/ethanol cannot be discarded as the causal agent, due to the small amount of contaminant present.

  8. 病毒性脑炎合并急性视网膜坏死10例的临床特征%The clinical features of 10 cases of acute retinal necrosis complicated by viral encephalitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙冉; 彭晓燕; 侯明勃

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features of acute retinal necrosis (ARN) complicated by viral encephalitis.Methods Ten cases of ARN complicated by viral encephalitis were treated in the Department of Ophthalmology,Beijing Tongren Hospital from November 2013 to August 2014.Clinical manifestation,especially the fundus characteristics,was summarized.Results In thel0 patients (19 eyes ;6 men and 4 women)with an age of (40.1 ± 13.44)years,1 patients had unilateral ARN,and 9 patients had bilateral ARN.The visual acuity was no light perception in 9 eyes,light perception to hand motion in 7 eyes,0.05 in 1 eye,0.2 in 1 eye,and 0.3 in 1 eye.Seven cases suffered ARN during the onset of viral encephalitis,and other cases suffered ARN at 2 to 3 months after the recovery of viral encephalitis.Seventeen eyes had mild to moderate vitreous opacity,and 2 eye shad severe vitreous opacity.Sixteen eyes had focal (1 or 2quadrants)retinal necrosis,and 2 eyes had massive(> 2 quadrants) retinal necrosis.Occlusive vasculitis obviously occurred in 18 eyes.Sixteen eyeshad retinal detachment.All affected eves had early optic nerve atrophy.Conclusion ARN can occur during the onset of viral encephalitis or after the recovery of viral encephalitis.The clinical features of ARN complicated by viral encephalitis may be generally mild to moderate vitreous opacity,small range retinal necrosis foci,early and severe optic atrophy,and occlusive retinal vasculitis.%目的 探讨病毒性脑炎合并急性视网膜坏死(ARN)的临床特征.方法 回顾2013年11月至2014年8月北京同仁眼科中心收治的10例病毒性脑炎合并ARN的患者,其中男性6例,女性4例,年龄(40±13)岁.总结其临床发病、眼底表现特点.结果 10例患者中单眼发病1例,双眼发病9例,共19只眼患病.视力检查:9只眼无光感,7只眼光感至手动,1只眼0.05,1只眼0.2,1只眼0.3;7例病毒性脑炎发病期间并发ARN,3例病毒性脑炎后2~3个月ARN发病;眼底表现:玻璃

  9. Acute renal failure in pregnancy, its causes and outcome, 1 year study at sheikh zayed hospital lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to deter-mine the frequency, etiology, clinical course and out-come of pregnancy related acute renal failure. Type of Study: Observational and prospective hospital based study. Place of Study: Department of Nephrology, Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore. Duration of Study: One year from November 2010 - October 2011. Patients and Methods: Total 210 patients of Acute renal failure (ARF) were admitted with 92 (44%) males and 118 (56%) females during this period of which 40 (19%) females were pregnancy related ARF that were included in this study. A Predesigned proforma was used. The clinical history and physical examination was carried out. Relevant laboratory tests were performed. Renal biopsy was done in few cases. The final outcome was recorded. Twenty four (24) patients were from rural community of Punjab province and remaining (16) were from urban areas. Results: Pregnancy related ARF occurred in forty (40) patients. Twenty two (55%) were multipara and 18 (45%) were primigravida. Their age was between 29 +- 4.5 years. Majority 32 (80%) patients had not received any antenatal care as compared to 8 (20%) patients who had adequate antenatal care. Twelve cases (15%) presented in their first and second trimester of pregnancy while 28 (70%) patients developed ARF in their third trimester or the puerperium. Twenty four (60%) patients were anuric. Antepartum haemorrhage (APH) in 2 (5%) cases, postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in 6 (15%) cases, Septic abortion in 6 (15%), puerperal sepsis in 8 (20%) and DIC in 4 (10%) cases, Intra-uterine fetal death (IUD) in 12 (30%) and HELLPS in 2 (5%) cases. Sepsis was the commonest cause of ARF. Thirty four (85%) patients received hemodialysis and 6 (15%) did not require any dialysis. Commonest clinical diagnosis was acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Complete recovery was seen in 8 (20%) cases .Acute renal cortical necrosis was seen in 14 (35%) cases and 18 (45%) patients had patchy cortical necrosis

  10. Bidirectional signalling between EphA2 and ephrinA1 increases tubular cell attachment, laminin secretion and modulates erythropoietin expression after renal hypoxic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Stéphane; Rudloff, Stefan; Koenig, Katrin Franziska; Karthik, Swapna; Hoogewijs, David; Huynh-Do, Uyen

    2016-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hospitalized patients and has a poor prognosis, the severity of AKI being linked to progression to chronic kidney disease. This stresses the need to search for protective mechanisms during the acute phase. We investigated kidney repair after hypoxic injury using a rat model of renal artery branch ligation, which led to an oxygen gradient vertical to the corticomedullary axis. Three distinct zones were observed: tubular necrosis, infarction border zone and preserved normal tissue. EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase with pivotal roles in cell architecture, migration and survival, upon juxtacrine contact with its membrane-bound ligand EphrinA1. Following hypoxia, EphA2 was up-regulated in cortical and medullary tubular cells, while EphrinA1 was up-regulated in interstitial cells adjacent to peritubular capillaries. Moreover, erythropoietin (EPO) messenger RNA (mRNA) was strongly expressed in the border zone of infarcted kidney within the first 6 h. To gain more insight into the biological impact of EphA2 and EphrinA1 up-regulation, we activated the signalling pathways in vitro using recombinant EphrinA1/Fc or EphA2/Fc proteins. Stimulation of EphA2 forward signalling in the proximal tubular cell line HK2 increased cell attachment and laminin secretion at the baso-lateral side. Conversely, activation of reverse signalling through EphrinA1 expressed by Hep3B cells promoted EPO production at both the transcriptional and protein level. Strikingly, in co-culture experiments, juxtacrine contact between EphA2 expressing MDCK and EphrinA1 expressing Hep3B was sufficient to induce a significant up-regulation of EPO mRNA production in the latter cells, even in the absence of hypoxic conditions. The synergistic effects of EphA2 and hypoxia led to a 15-20-fold increase of EPO expression. Collectively, our results suggest an important role of EphA2/EphrinA1 signalling in kidney repair after hypoxic injury through stimulation of (i) tubular

  11. Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on infectious haematopoietic necrosis. This disease is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Novirhabdoviridae. IHN is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  12. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  13. Robotic cystogastrostomy and debridement of walled-off pancreatic necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassour, Ibrahim; Ramzan, Zeeshan; Kukreja, Sachin

    2016-09-01

    Walled-off pancreatic necrosis is a known complication of acute pancreatitis and requires intervention if symptomatic or complicated. Laparoscopic cystogastrostomy as a minimally invasive surgical intervention has been well-described in surgical literature but data on a robotic approach is limited. Here we report a case of robotic cystogastrostomy and debridement of walled-off pancreatic necrosis in a patient with a history of severe biliary pancreatitis. PMID:27039191

  14. Chronic renal insufficiency from cortical necrosis induced by arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, R E; Hudson, J B; Rao, R N; Sobel, R E

    1978-08-01

    A 39-year-old man had anuria and azotemia and was found to be suffering from acute arsenic poisoning. After two peritoneal dialyses, partial renal function returned, and the patient has survived for five years without dialysis. Renal cortical necrosis was demonstrated by renal biopsy and renal calcification. We suggest that arsenic be added to the list of substances capable of causing renal cortical necrosis and recommend consideration of this complication in cases of arsenical poisoning.

  15. Analysis of causes of misdiagnosis and treatment effects of acute retinal necrosis syndrome%急性视网膜坏死综合征的误诊原因分析及治疗效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫焱; 沈玺; 张琼; 李娜

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨急性视网膜坏死综合征(ARN)的误诊原因及治疗效果.方法 回顾性分析7例(7眼)ARN患者的误诊原因及治疗效果.结果 7例患者中3例误诊为虹膜睫状体炎,2例误诊为全葡萄膜炎,1例误诊为青光眼-睫状体炎综合征,1例误诊为视网膜出血.确诊后,7眼中4眼给予抗病毒药物及玻璃体手术治疗,3眼予抗病毒药物及眼底激光治疗.随访3~39个月,6例治疗后视力比治疗前有明显改善,治疗后最佳矫正视力从眼前指数至0.6不等.2例玻璃体手术患者取硅油后,均出现低眼压,视力下降.结论 ARN的早期诊断至关重要,如误诊会失去最佳治疗机会.早期、足量药物治疗联合眼内激光,必要时行玻璃体手术,可挽救ARN患者的残存视力.%Objective To investigate the causes of misdiagnosis and treatment effects of acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARN). Methods The causes of misdiagnosis and treatment effects of 7 patients (7 eyes) with ARN were retrospectively analysed. Results Three patients were misdiagnosed as iridocyclitis, 2 as panuveitis, 1 as Posner-Schlossman Syndrome and 1 as retinal hemorrhage. After the diagnosis was confirmed, antiviral medications and vitrectomy were administered to 4 patients, and antiviral medications and prophylactic laser were performed in the other 3 cases. During the follow up, visual acuity significantly improved in 6 patients. Ocular hypotony and decreased visual acuity took place in 2 patients after oil removal in vitrectomy. Conclusion The early diagnosis of ARN is of great significance, and best treatment opportunity may be missed due to misdiagnosis. As soon as the diagnosis is confirmed, the early management with sufficient medications and prophylactic laser, with vitrectomy if necessary, may preserve the residual visual acuity of patients with ARN.

  16. Paraphenylene diamine ingestion: An uncommon cause of acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylene diamine (PPD is a major component of hair dyes. The aim is to study the renal manifestations and outcome of PPD consumption. During a four-year period from 2002 to February 2006, 10 persons were admitted to our Institute after consuming a hair dye in a suicidal bid. The percentage of ARF due to PPD at our Institute was 0.95%. Seven patients out of 10 (70% who consumed PPD developed ARF. All 10 patients, including the patients who had normal renal function had features of rhabdomyolysis. Two patients required ventilator support for respiratory distress and two more required tracheostomy due to upper airway tract edema. One patient has expired after two sessions of dialysis. Renal biopsy in two patients (one, postmortem showed acute tubular necrosis along with presence of casts in tubules due to myoglobin.

  17. Analysis of the causes of misdiagnosis of acute retinal necrosis syndrome and our measure in preventing it%急性视网膜坏死综合征误诊原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红云; 易长贤; 杨莎莎; 练苹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the causes of misdiagnosis of acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARN),and possible critical points in preventing misdiagnosis.Methods Clinical data of 81 cases (93 eyes) in-patients with ARN from May 2006 to May 2012 in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center,Sun Yat-sen University were retrospectively analyzed.Results The average time of first visit after appearance of ocular symptoms was 7.03 days (1 to 21 days),86 eyes (91.36%) was misdiagnosed in total.There were only 7 eyes that were correctly diagnosed at initial ophthalmic consultation.It took 31.11 days (ranging from 5 to 280 days) to reach the correct diagnose.Among the misdiagnosed eyes,22 eyes (29.73%) experienced one time misdiagnosis,35 eyes (47.3%) twice and 17 eyes (22.97%) had correctly diagnosis after three or even more time of ophthalmic examinations.Of the 86 misdiagnosed eye,55 eyes (63.95%) was labeled as uveitis,27 eyes (31.40.%) as kidocyclitis,28 eyes (32.55%) as other without explicit type of uveitis.Fifteen eyes (17.44%) were as conjunctivitis and 3 eyes (3.49%) as glaucoma and 13 eyes (15.12%) as others such as retinitis,Eales disease,retinal artery occlusion and retinal hemorrhage.Conclusions ARN is a easily misdiagnosed severe eye diseases.Ophthalmic professional have be alert when come across various uveitis and retinal diseases.%目的 分析急性视网膜坏死综合征(Acute retinal necrosis syndrom,ARN)误诊的原因,探讨防止误诊的对策.方法 收集2006年5月至2012年5月在中山大学中山眼科中心确诊并住院治疗81例(93只眼)ARN患者的临床病史资料,并对临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 81例患者发病至初诊时间1~21天不等,平均7.03天,发病至正确诊断为ARN的时间为5~280天不等,平均31.11天;初次就诊确诊病例7例7只眼,多次就诊后确诊病例74例86只眼,误诊率91.36%; 74例误诊病例中1次误诊后确诊病例22例,占29.73%,2次误诊后确诊病例35例,占47.30

  18. Possible role of mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain defects in aristolochic acid I-induced acute nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zhenzhou, E-mail: jiangcpu@yahoo.com.cn; Bao, Qingli, E-mail: bao_ql@126.com; Sun, Lixin, E-mail: slxcpu@126.com; Huang, Xin, E-mail: huangxinhx66@sohu.com; Wang, Tao, E-mail: wangtao1331@126.com; Zhang, Shuang, E-mail: cat921@sina.com; Li, Han, E-mail: hapo1101@163.com; Zhang, Luyong, E-mail: lyzhang@cpu.edu.cn

    2013-01-15

    This report describes an investigation of the pathological mechanism of acute renal failure caused by toxic tubular necrosis after treatment with aristolochic acid I (AAI) in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. The rats were gavaged with AAI at 0, 5, 20, or 80 mg/kg/day for 7 days. The pathologic examination of the kidneys showed severe acute tubular degenerative changes primarily affecting the proximal tubules. Supporting these results, we detected significantly increased concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) in the rats treated with AAI, indicating damage to the kidneys. Ultrastructural examination showed that proximal tubular mitochondria were extremely enlarged and dysmorphic with loss and disorientation of their cristae. Mitochondrial function analysis revealed that the two indicators for mitochondrial energy metabolism, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) and ATP content, were reduced in a dose-dependent manner after AAI treatment. The RCR in the presence of substrates for complex I was reduced more significantly than in the presence of substrates for complex II. In additional experiments, the activity of respiratory complex I, which is partly encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), was more significantly impaired than that of respiratory complex II, which is completely encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). A real-time PCR assay revealed a marked reduction of mtDNA in the kidneys treated with AAI. Taken together, these results suggested that mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain defects play critical roles in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by AAI, and that the same processes might contribute to aristolochic acid-induced nephrotoxicity in humans. -- Highlights: ► AAI-induced acute renal failure in rats and the proximal tubule was the target. ► Tubular mitochondria were morphologically aberrant in ultrastructural examination. ► AAI impair mitochondrial bioenergetic function and mtDNA replication.

  19. Possible role of mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain defects in aristolochic acid I-induced acute nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes an investigation of the pathological mechanism of acute renal failure caused by toxic tubular necrosis after treatment with aristolochic acid I (AAI) in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. The rats were gavaged with AAI at 0, 5, 20, or 80 mg/kg/day for 7 days. The pathologic examination of the kidneys showed severe acute tubular degenerative changes primarily affecting the proximal tubules. Supporting these results, we detected significantly increased concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) in the rats treated with AAI, indicating damage to the kidneys. Ultrastructural examination showed that proximal tubular mitochondria were extremely enlarged and dysmorphic with loss and disorientation of their cristae. Mitochondrial function analysis revealed that the two indicators for mitochondrial energy metabolism, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) and ATP content, were reduced in a dose-dependent manner after AAI treatment. The RCR in the presence of substrates for complex I was reduced more significantly than in the presence of substrates for complex II. In additional experiments, the activity of respiratory complex I, which is partly encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), was more significantly impaired than that of respiratory complex II, which is completely encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). A real-time PCR assay revealed a marked reduction of mtDNA in the kidneys treated with AAI. Taken together, these results suggested that mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain defects play critical roles in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by AAI, and that the same processes might contribute to aristolochic acid-induced nephrotoxicity in humans. -- Highlights: ► AAI-induced acute renal failure in rats and the proximal tubule was the target. ► Tubular mitochondria were morphologically aberrant in ultrastructural examination. ► AAI impair mitochondrial bioenergetic function and mtDNA replication.

  20. The Effects of Combination of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Acyclovir (ACV) and Corticosteroid on Acute Retinal Necrosis (ARN)%中药、无环鸟苷、皮质激素联合治疗急性视网膜坏死

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫玲; 杨志坤; 滕颖; 马晓萍

    2001-01-01

    目的:为了探讨急性视网膜坏死(acute retinal necrosis,ARN)的有效疗法.方法:对8例(11只眼)ARN患者用中药、无环鸟苷(acyclovir,ACV)、激素联合治疗.结果:随访3~36个月,10只眼视力有不同程度提高,视力提高达90.9%结论:中药、ACV、激素联合应用是治疗ARN的一种有效方法.

  1. Renal tubular acidosis type 4 in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, Adam Daniel; Baynes, Kevin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2016-03-17

    We describe the clinical course of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) type 4 in pregnancy, which has not been previously published. Renal tubular acidosis type 4 is a condition associated with increased urinary ammonia secondary to hypoaldosteronism or pseudohypoaldosteronism. Pregnancy may worsen the hyperkalaemia and acidosis of renal tubular acidosis type 4, possibly through an antialdosterone effect. We advise regular monitoring of potassium and pH throughout pregnancy to ensure safe levels are maintained.

  2. Acute kidney injury in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peco-Antić Amira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a clinical condition considered to be the consequence of a sudden decrease (>25% or discontinuation of renal function. The term AKI is used instead of the previous term acute renal failure, because it has been demonstrated that even minor renal lesions may cause far-reaching consequences on human health. Contemporary classifications of AKI (RIFLE and AKIN are based on the change of serum creatinine and urinary output. In the developed countries, AKI is most often caused by renal ischemia, nephrotoxins and sepsis, rather than a (primary diffuse renal disease, such as glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, renovascular disorder and thrombotic microangiopathy. The main risk factors for hospital AKI are mechanical ventilation, use of vasoactive drugs, stem cell transplantation and diuretic-resistant hypervolemia. Prerenal and parenchymal AKI (previously known as acute tubular necrosis jointly account for 2/3 of all AKI causes. Diuresis and serum creatinine concentration are not early diagnostic markers of AKI. Potential early biomarkers of AKI are neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, cystatin C, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, interleukins 6, 8 and 18, and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP. Early detection of kidney impairment, before the increase of serum creatinine, is important for timely initiated therapy and recovery. The goal of AKI treatment is to normalize the fluid and electrolyte status, as well as the correction of acidosis and blood pressure. Since a severe fluid overload resistant to diuretics and inotropic agents is associated with a poor outcome, the initiation of dialysis should not be delayed. The mortality rate of AKI is highest in critically ill children with multiple organ failure and hemodynamically unstable patients.

  3. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  4. Intestinal necrosis in young patient due to arterial tumour embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahle, Einar; Gögenur, Ismail; Nørgaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A patient in the thirties, currently undergoing chemotherapy for metastatic osteosarcoma diagnosed 3 years earlier, was admitted with in the emergency department with abdominal pain. Laparoscopic surgery revealed severe inflammation and an abscess. 18 cm of small intestine was removed because...... of intestinal necrosis. Histological examination showed several arterial tumour emboli, morphologically similar to the primary sarcoma. The patient died 1 year after successful surgery. Because of the improved survival of patients with osteosarcoma, acute mesenteric ischaemia should be considered in acute...

  5. Necrosis digital en la mano por mecanismo infrecuente

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Maria Bibiana; Lashak, Celina; Mazzurco, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A 43-year-old, non-smoking man presented with acute ischemic lesions of his left hand. He had been taking beta-blockers for his arterial hypertension. The day before the occurrence of these acute lesions, he self medicated with a drug containing ergotamine and caffeine because of a headache. About one hour after mild trauma to the hand, he noticed intense cyanosis accompanied by severe pain in the fingers that progressed to digital necrosis. Hematological tests, hand radiography, echo Doppler...

  6. Tubular stabilizer bars – calculations and construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam-Markus WITTEK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the calculation methods for tubular stabilizer bars. Modern technological and structural solutions in contemporary cars are reflected also in the construction, selection and manufacturing of tubular stabilizer bars. A proper construction and the selection of parameters influence the strength properties, the weight, durability and reliability as well as the selection of an appropriate production method.

  7. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  8. Doppler sonography in renal transplants; differential diagnosis of normal from acute rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Gyeh Yon; Lee, M. H.; Son, K. M.; Shin, K. S.; Park, Y. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    We undertook a combined retrospective and prospective analysis of duplex Doppler examinations performed over a perion of 10 months in order to assess the value of Doppler study(DS)in evaluating renal allograft dysfunction. A total of 110 DS on 82 transplant patients were performed including 79 normal transplants, 29 acute rejections and 2 acute tubular necrosis(ATN). Resistive Index(RI) in 79 normal transplants ranged from 0.44 to 0.7 (Mean;0.59+0.07) in the arcuate artery, and from 0.45 to 0.75(mean;0.61+0.08) in the interlobar artery. RI in 29 cases of acute rejection ranged from 0.61 to 1.0 (mean; 0.77+0.10) in the interlobar artery. In ATNRI ranged from 0.59 to 0.63 (mean 0.62) in the arcuate artery, and from 0.59 to 0.62(mean 0.61) in the interlobar artery. The RI in acute rejection is significantly higher than that of the normal transplants (p<0.001). With a resistive index greater than 0.8, 100% positive predictive value was obtained for the diagnosis of acute rejection. The value less than 0.7 was unlikely to suggest acute rejection(negative predictive value 92%)

  9. Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-07-01

    There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially

  10. Acute Pancreatitis: Surgery, Pathophysiology and Probiotic Prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, L.P. van

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a challenging disease with a clinical course that is often difficult to predict. In severe acute pancreatitis, mortality increases significantly if intestinal bacteria translocate from the intestine and infect pancreatic necrosis. Surgical and prophylactic treatment strategies

  11. Interferon-γ Reduces the Proliferation of Primed Human Renal Tubular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar García-Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a progressive deterioration of the kidney function, which may eventually lead to renal failure and the need for dialysis or kidney transplant. Whether initiated in the glomeruli or the tubuli, CKD is characterized by progressive nephron loss, for which the process of tubular deletion is of key importance. Tubular deletion results from tubular epithelial cell death and defective repair, leading to scarring of the renal parenchyma. Several cytokines and signaling pathways, including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β and the Fas pathway, have been shown to participate in vivo in tubular cell death. However, there is some controversy about their mode of action, since a direct effect on normal tubular cells has not been demonstrated. We hypothesized that epithelial cells would require specific priming to become sensitive to TGF-β or Fas stimulation and that this priming would be brought about by specific mediators found in the pathological scenario. Methods: Herein we studied whether the combined effect of several stimuli known to take part in CKD progression, namely TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ, and Fas stimulation, on primed resistant human tubular cells caused cell death or reduced proliferation. Results: We demonstrate that these cytokines have no synergistic effect on the proliferation or viability of human kidney (HK2 cells. We also demonstrate that IFN-γ, but not the other stimuli, reduces the proliferation of cycloheximide-primed HK2 cells without affecting their viability. Conclusion: Our results point at a potentially important role of IFN-γ in defective repair, leading to nephron loss during CKD.

  12. Tubular bioreactor and its application; Tubular bioreactor to sono tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, I.; Nagamune, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yuki, K. [Nikka Whisky Distilling Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, H. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-05

    The loop type tubular bioreactor (TBR) was developed where biocatalysts are trapped in the reactor by membrane module. A UF membrane or MF membrane and crossflow filtration were adopted for the membrane module, and the reactor loop was composed of four membrane modules. The reactor was operated at 2-4 m/s in membrane surface velocity and 300-400 kPa in filtration pressure. As the result of the high-density culture of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, a biomass concentration was more than 10 times that in batch culture, suggesting the remarkable enhancement of a production efficiency. As the result of the continuous fermentation of cider, the fast fermentation more than 60 times that in conventional ones was obtained together with the same quality as conventional ones. Such a fast fermentation was probably achieved by yeast suspended in the fermenter of TBR, by yeast hardly affected physico-chemically as compared with immobilized reactors, and by small effect of mass transfer on reaction systems. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Ileal bladder substitute: antireflux nipple or afferent tubular segment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, U E; Spiegel, T; Casanova, G A; Springer, J; Gerber, E; Ackermann, D K; Gurtner, F; Zingg, E J

    1991-01-01

    Spheroidal bladder substitutes made from double-folded ileal segments, similar to Goodwin's cup-patch technique, are devoid of major coordinated wall contractions. This, together with the reservoir's direct anastomosis to the membranous urethra, prevents major intraluminal pressure peaks and assures a residue-free voiding of sterile urine. In order to determine whether, under these conditions, an afferent tubular isoperistaltic ileal segment of 20-cm length protects the upper urinary tract as efficiently as an antireflux nipple, 60 male patients who were subjected to radical cystectomy were prospectively randomised to groups in which a bladder substitute was formed together with either of these 2 antireflux devices. An analysis of the results obtained in 20 patients from each group who could be followed for more than 1 year (median observation time 30 and 36 months) showed no differences between the groups in metabolic disturbances, kidney size, reservoir capacity, diurnal and nocturnal urinary continence, the incidence of urinary tract infection or episodes of acute pyelonephritis. Later than 1 year postoperatively, intravenous urograms of the renoureteral units of 25% of the patients with antireflux nipples showed persistent but generally slight dilatation of the upper urinary tracts. This observation was significantly more frequent than it was in patients with afferent tubular segments. Urodynamic and radiographic studies showed that the competence of the antireflux nipples was secured by the raised surrounding intravesical pressure. This, however, also resulted in a transient functional obstruction, and a gradual rise of the basal pressure in the upper urinary tracts was recorded. In patients with afferent ileal tubular segments, contrast medium could be forced upwards into the renal pelvis when the bladder substitutes were overfilled. However, despite raised intravesical pressures, peristalsis in the isoperistaltic afferent tubular segment gradually returned

  14. Analysis of 10 cases died from the acute infections disease with the severe adrenalitis, necrosis and hemorrhage%急性重症感染合并出血坏死性肾上腺炎死亡十例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李品玉; 于晓军; 徐小虎; 刘卯阳

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss the potential mechanisms and the role of adrenaliris with extensive hemorrhage and necrosis in acute critical infectious diseases.Methods Forensic autopsy cases from 1998 to 2007 were retrospectively analyzed.And 10 cases of them were involved in the primary and critical infecfion with acute infiammation,hemorrhage and necrosis of adrenal glands.Results Clinical diagnoses of 10 Cases were respiratory tract infection(n=6),septic shock(n=2),acute esophagitis(n=1),and undefined causes(n=1),and the quickly aggravatinng conditions resulted in death ultimately.However,systematic autopsy confirmed that 7 cages died of acute lymphocytic pancarditis,2 cases acute and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and 1 cKse epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis with septicemia.And severe complications of all cases included hemorrhagic necmtizing adrenalitis,systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ failure(MOF).Conclusions Hemorrhagic necrotizing adrenalitis should be considered as one of the important pathological changes in fatal MOF resulting from severe infection and trauma etc.More attention should be paid in clinical treatment.%目的 探讨出血坏死性肾上腺炎在急性生症感染性疾病死亡中的作用.方法 回顾性分析1998至2007年系统法医病理学解剖案例中10例原发性重症感染性疾病合并严重出血坏死性肾上腺炎案例的临床病理资料.结果 10例中临床诊断上呼吸道感染6例,感染性休克2例,急性食管炎1例,诊断不明1例.均病情迅速恶化而死亡.尸检7例为急性淋巴细胞性全心炎,2例为急性淋巴细胞性间质性肺炎,1例为暴发性脑膜炎球菌败血症,均合并严重的出血坏死性肾上腺炎、全身炎症反应综合征和多器官衰竭.结论 肾上腺炎性出血坏死应属于常见的致死性多器官功能衰竭的重要器官病变之一,临床应予重视.

  15. Complete Penile Necrosis in a Patient With Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia: A Case Report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Anne-Sophie; Deschênes Rompré, Marie-Pier; Lacombe, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Penile necrosis is a rare condition that has been mostly described in association with diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease. We report an unusual case of acute penile necrosis because of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. A 75-year-old man presented with acute renal failure and experienced cardiac complications during the hospitalization. The patient was treated twice with intravenous heparin. He developed symptoms of penile necrosis 4 days after the reintroduction of heparin. At that moment, the platelet count dropped by 61%, and the analysis of heparin-pf4 antibodies was positive for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The patient underwent a total penectomy and a perineal urethrostomy. PMID:26954936

  16. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  17. Involvement of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in tubular morphogenesis of human microvascular endothelial cells by oxidative stress.

    OpenAIRE

    Shono, T; Ono, M; H. Izumi; Jimi, S I; Matsushima, K; Okamoto, T.; Kohno, K.; Kuwano, M.

    1996-01-01

    Oxygen radicals are induced under various pathologic conditions associated with neovascularization. Oxygen radicals modulate angiogenesis in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells by an unknown mechanism. Treatment of human microvascular endothelial cells for 15 min with 0.1 to 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or 100 U of tumor necrosis factor alpha per ml induced tubular morphogenesis in type I collagen gels. Gel shift assays with nuclear extracts demonstrated that H2O2 increases the ...

  18. Iatrogenic Digital Compromise with Tubular Dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corre, Kenneth A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This case report describes a digit amputation resulting from an improperly applied tubular dressing. The safe application of digital tubular dressings, and the rationale behind it, is detailed to raise emergency physician (EP awareness.Methods: We present a case report of a recent iatrogenic-induced digit ischemia caused by improperly applied tube gauze. We review the literature on the subject and the likely sources of poor outcomes presented. The proper application of tubular gauze dressings is then outlined.Conclusion: EPs and emergency department personnel must be educated on the safe application of tubular gauze dressings to avoid dire outcomes associated with improper applications.[WestJEM. 2009;10:190-192.

  19. Thermal CFD Analysis of Tubular Light Guides

    OpenAIRE

    Ondřej Šikula; Jitka Mohelníková; Josef Plášek

    2013-01-01

    Tubular light guides are applicable for daylighting of windowless areas in buildings. Despite their many positive indoor climate aspects they can also present some problems with heat losses and condensation. A computer CFD model focused on the evaluation of temperature distribution and air flow inside tubular light guides of different dimensions was studied. The physical model of the tested light guides of lengths more than 0.60 m proves shows that Rayleigh numbers are adequate for a turbulen...

  20. Nonsurgical Treatment of Infected Pancreatic Necrosis: A Falling Myth or a Still Impassable Frontier?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Generoso Uomo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is a disease of increasing annual incidence associated with significant morbidity and mortality and with an increasing consumption of health care resources [1]. In particular, patients suffering from acute necrotizing pancreatitis who develop infected necrosis present a severe prognosis with mortality ranging from 20% to 70% [2, 3]. The diagnosis of infected pancreatic necrosis is usually based on Gram stain and cultures of material obtained from the necrotic area by fine-needle aspiration. On a clinical basis, infected pancreatic necrosis should be suspected in the presence of worsening abdominal pain, fever, and leukocytosis, usually 1-2 weeks after disease onset. In accordance with the current recommendations [4], sterile necrosis should be managed conservatively, whereas the occurrence of infected pancreatic necrosis requires immediate surgery. The standard approach to infected pancreatic necrosis has been open surgical debridement with a variety of drainage and closure techniques (multiple drainages, marsupialization of the lesser sac, continuous or intermittent lavage, unique o repeated necrosectomy, etc. [5]. So, the paradigm “infected pancreatic necrosis = surgery” seems to be an accepted principle in clinical pancreatology. However, over the last ten years some controversies have arisen regarding this topic. In fact, some reports have shown that early surgical intervention for pancreatic necrosis could result in a worse prognosis in comparison with patients who underwent surgery in a later phase of the disease [6, 7]. In addition, some reports have shown surprisingly enough, the efficacy of nonsurgical management for infected pancreatic necrosis [8, 9, 10, 11].

  1. 78 FR 37584 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, Pennsylvania; Notice of Amended... workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, a subsidiary of...

  2. Professor Eric G.L. Bywaters, Acute Kidney Injury and the "forgotten" letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The Bywaters seminal 1941 British Medical Journal paper on the crush syndrome was important both for its written content and for using a photomicrograph demonstrating pigmented casts in the renal tubules. He appeared to be reporting the first cases of renal failure secondary to crushing injuries. Most at this point would have been content yet Bywaters demonstrated both determination and humility by publishing a letter in the BMJ 4 months later. This letter, now almost forgotten and rarely referenced, significantly corrected his original paper. He identified that descriptions of the syndrome had been made before, not least by German pathologists in World War 1. The letter recognised various pathologists and surgeons, Colmers (1909) reporting on casualties from the Messina earthquake suffering from acute pressure necrosis and Frankenthal (1916) describing soldiers who had been buried in the trenches showing oedema, bloody urine and post mortem ischaemic muscle necrosis. Others were credited as describing similar cases in inaccessible journals or in "inaugural dissertations". Hackradt (1917) described injuries from burial with oedema of the leg and bloody urine containing albumin and casts, necropsy showed muscle necrosis and tubular degeneration in the kidneys with blood casts and Lewin (1919) described 3 similar cases. Bywaters subsequently credits Minami (1923) a Japanese dermatologist working in Germany for summarizing the literature and providing a description that tallied exactly with his own. Finally Bywaters puzzles why the standard textbooks on war surgery available in Great Britain and the U.S.A. in 1941 make no mention of this entity. PMID:26913877

  3. Professor Eric G.L. Bywaters, Acute Kidney Injury and the "forgotten" letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The Bywaters seminal 1941 British Medical Journal paper on the crush syndrome was important both for its written content and for using a photomicrograph demonstrating pigmented casts in the renal tubules. He appeared to be reporting the first cases of renal failure secondary to crushing injuries. Most at this point would have been content yet Bywaters demonstrated both determination and humility by publishing a letter in the BMJ 4 months later. This letter, now almost forgotten and rarely referenced, significantly corrected his original paper. He identified that descriptions of the syndrome had been made before, not least by German pathologists in World War 1. The letter recognised various pathologists and surgeons, Colmers (1909) reporting on casualties from the Messina earthquake suffering from acute pressure necrosis and Frankenthal (1916) describing soldiers who had been buried in the trenches showing oedema, bloody urine and post mortem ischaemic muscle necrosis. Others were credited as describing similar cases in inaccessible journals or in "inaugural dissertations". Hackradt (1917) described injuries from burial with oedema of the leg and bloody urine containing albumin and casts, necropsy showed muscle necrosis and tubular degeneration in the kidneys with blood casts and Lewin (1919) described 3 similar cases. Bywaters subsequently credits Minami (1923) a Japanese dermatologist working in Germany for summarizing the literature and providing a description that tallied exactly with his own. Finally Bywaters puzzles why the standard textbooks on war surgery available in Great Britain and the U.S.A. in 1941 make no mention of this entity.

  4. The US color Doppler in acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, G; Granata, A; Leonardi, G; Sicurezza, E; Spata, C

    2004-12-01

    Imaging techniques, especially ultrasonography and Doppler, can give an effective assistance in the differential diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF). An resistance Index (RI) value >0.75 is reported as optimal in attempting differential diagnosis between acute tubular necrosis (ANT) and prerenal ARF. In hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) RIs is very increased. In some renal vasculitis, as nodose panarteritis (PN), hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), parenchymal perfusion is reduced and RI increased. In lupus nephritis the RI values are correlated with creatinine level and normal RI are considered as a good prognostic tool. In acute primitive or secondary glomerulonephritis (GN), RI value is normal, with diffuse parenchymal hypervascularization. In acute crescentic and proliferative GN and tubulo-interstitial disease, color Doppler (CD) and power Doppler (PD) reveal a decreased renal parenchymal perfusion, which correlates with increased RI values. In acute thrombosis of renal artery, US color Doppler (DUS) reveals either an absence of Doppler signal or a tardus-parvus pulse distal to the vascular obstruction. In this situation it is possible to visualize hyperthropic perforating vessels that redirect their flow from the capsular plexus to the renal parenchyma. In acute thrombosis of the renal vein Doppler analysis of parenchymal vessels reveals remarkable RI values, sometimes with reversed diastolic flow. In postrenal ARF an adjunct to the differentiation between obstruction and non obstructive dilatation can be found through RIs. Diagnostic criteria of obstruction as reported by literature are: RI>0.70 in the obstructed kidney and, mostly, a difference in RI between the 2 kidneys >0.06-0.1.

  5. PHYSIOPATHOLOGY OF ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.NEW CLUES FOR AN OLD DILEMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Musso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is the term used to describe the sustained and abrupt reduction of the glomerular filtration, which causes the retention of waste products that come from the metabolism. Normally, the mechanisms potentially involved in ARF are divided into: pre-renal, parenchymatous, and post-renal. Regarding the etiology of the parenchymatous ARF, it would seem to be the sum of multiple pathogenic variables such as: tubular necrosis and apoptosis, alteration of the filtration barrier, retrodifusion of glomerular filtration, intrarenal vasoconstriction, contraction of the mesangium, intratubular obstruction, intersticial swelling, activation of proteolytic enzymes, and so on. Because of the above exposed data, only a multicausal perspective would seem to be adequate to understand and solve this syndrome.

  6. Sustained oxidative stress causes late acute renal failure via duplex regulation on p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation in severely burned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence indicates that late acute renal failure (ARF predicts high mortality in severely burned patients but the pathophysiology of late ARF remains undefined. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that sustained reactive oxygen species (ROS induced late ARF in a severely burned rat model and to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were exposed to 100°C bath for 15 s to induce severe burn injury (40% of total body surface area. Renal function, ROS generation, tubular necrosis and apoptosis, and phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt were measured during 72 hours after burn. RESULTS: Renal function as assessed by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen deteriorated significantly at 3 h after burn, alleviated at 6 h but worsened at 48 h and 72 h, indicating a late ARF was induced. Apoptotic cells and cleavage caspase-3 in the kidney went up slowly and turned into significant at 48 h and 72 h. Tubular cell ROS production shot up at 6 h and continuously rose during the 72-h experiment. Scavenging ROS with tempol markedly attenuated tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction at 72 h after burn. Interestingly, renal p38 MAPK phosphorylation elevated in a time dependent manner whereas Akt phosphorylation increased during the first 24 h but decreased at 48 h after burn. The p38 MAPK specific inhibitor SB203580 alleviated whereas Akt inhibitor exacerbated burn-induced tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction. Furthermore, tempol treatment exerted a duplex regulation through inhibiting p38 MAPK phosphorylation but further increasing Akt phosphorylation at 72 h postburn. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that sustained renal ROS overproduction induces continuous tubular cell apoptosis and thus a late ARF at 72 h after burn in severely burned rats, which may result from ROS-mediated activation of p38 MAPK but a late inhibition of Akt phosphorylation.

  7. Protection of Renal Tubular Cells by Antioxidants: Current Knowledge and New Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Baradaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal damage mainly develops following toxic or ischemic insults and is defined as acute. These damages have largely been attributed to oxidative stress. Recently much attention has been directed toward decreased renal tubular cell regeneration during tubular cell injury. Antioxidants have recently been the focus of researchers and scientists for prevention and treatment of various oxidative stress-related conditions, including renal toxicities. Although free radicals are known to contribute in kidney injury and abundant researches, particularly laboratory trials, have shown the beneficial effects of antioxidants against these complications, long term clinical trials do not uniformly confirm this matter,especially for single antioxidant consumption such as vitamin C. The aim of this paper is to discuss the possible explanation of this matter.

  8. Thermal CFD Analysis of Tubular Light Guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šikula

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tubular light guides are applicable for daylighting of windowless areas in buildings. Despite their many positive indoor climate aspects they can also present some problems with heat losses and condensation. A computer CFD model focused on the evaluation of temperature distribution and air flow inside tubular light guides of different dimensions was studied. The physical model of the tested light guides of lengths more than 0.60 m proves shows that Rayleigh numbers are adequate for a turbulent air flow. The turbulent model was applied despite the small heat flux differences between the turbulent and laminar model. The CFD simulations resulted into conclusions that the growing ratio of length/diameter increases the heat transmission loss/linear transmittance as much as by 50 percent. Tubular light guides of smaller diameters have lower heat transmission losses compared to the wider ones of the same lengths with the same outdoor temperature being taken into account. The simulation results confirmed the thermal bridge effect of the tubular light guide tube inside the insulated flat roof details. The thermal transmittance of the studied light guides in the whole roof area was substituted with the point thermal bridges. This substitution gives possibility for simple thermal evaluation of the tubular light pipes in roof constructions.

  9. Discussion Tumor necrosis factor-Alpha and Interleukin-6 in acute pancreatitis diagnosis and early severity appraisal%探讨肿瘤坏死因子-a和白细胞介素-6在急性胰腺炎诊断及早期严重度评估的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晃养

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore the value dynamic changes of serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-6(IL-6)and to determine their predictive value for severity and prognosis of acute pancreatitis(AP).Methods 81 patients with acute pancreatitis were divided into mild acute pancreatitis group(MAP,n=57) and severe acute pancreatitis group(SAP,n=24),SAP and MAP Group at post admission 1h,24h,3d,dedicated TNF-a and IL-6,then analysed and contrasted the results.Results The chang of TNF-a and IL-6 levels at post-admission 1h、24h、2d、3d、5d between SAP and MAP duringhospitalization in patients were statistically significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusion Dynamic changes of the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 are related to the occurance and development of acute pancreatitis,and the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 on 3rd day may be a predictive index for severity and prognosis of acute pancreatitis.%目的探讨肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)和白细胞介素6(IL-6)在急性胰腺炎(AP)患者中诊断及早期病情严重度评估中的价值.方法选取81例AP患者,分为轻症急性胰腺炎(MAP)组57例和重症急性胰腺炎(SAP)组24例,对SAP组和MAP组在入院后1h、24h、2d、3d、5d抽血测定TNF-α和IL-6,并对结果进行分析.结果 SAP组和MAP组在入院后1h、24h、3d检测TNF-α和IL-6的水平比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论血清TNF-α和IL-6水平变化与AP的发生发展密切相关,可作为AP病情变化和程度判断的参考指标,对AP早期严重度具有良好的预测作用.

  10. [A case report of progressive penile necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Tomomi; Koike, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The penis is provided with blood by multiple arteries. Penile necrosis is uncommon. Penile necrosis sporadically occurs in patients with progressive diabetes mellitus and/or end stage renal failure. Penile necrosis is often considered a poor prognostic feature. We present a case of penile necrosis in a patient with mild diabetes mellitus.

  11. Involvement of caspase-12-dependent apoptotic pathway in ionic radiocontrast urografin-induced renal tubular cell injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng Tien [Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Weng, Te I. [Department of Forensic Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Li Ping [Department of Dentistry, Chang Gang Memorial Hospital, Chang Gang University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Chih Kang [Department of Integrated Diagnostics and Therapeutics, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Shing Hwa, E-mail: shinghwaliu@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-01

    Contrast medium (CM) induces a direct toxic effect on renal tubular cells. This toxic effect subjects in the disorder of CM-induced nephropathy. Our previous work has demonstrated that CM shows to activate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related adaptive unfolding protein response (UPR) activators. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78)/eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α)-related pathways play a protective role during the urografin (an ionic CM)-induced renal tubular injury. However, the involvement of ER stress-related apoptotic signals in the urografin-induced renal tubular cell injury remains unclear. Here, we examined by the in vivo and in vitro experiments to explore whether ER stress-regulated pro-apoptotic activators participate in urografin-induced renal injury. Urografin induced renal tubular dilation, tubular cells detachment, and necrosis in the kidneys of rats. The tubular apoptosis, ER stress-related pro-apoptotic transcriptional factors, and kidney injury marker-1 (kim-1) were also conspicuously up-regulated in urografin-treated rats. Furthermore, treatment of normal rat kidney (NRK)-52E tubular cells with urografin augmented the expressions of activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), Bax, caspase-12, JNK, and inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE) 1 signals. Urografin-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis was not reversed by the inhibitors of ATF-6, JNK signals or CHOP siRNA transfection, but it could be partially reversed by the inhibitor of caspase-12. Taken together, the present results and our previous findings suggest that exposure of CM/urografin activates the ER stress-regulated survival- and apoptosis-related signaling pathways in renal tubular cells. Caspase-12-dependent apoptotic pathway may be partially involved in the urografin-induced nephropathy. -- Highlights: ► Ionic contrast medium-urografin induces renal tubular cell apoptosis. ► Urografin induces the ER stress-regulated survival and apoptosis

  12. Involvement of caspase-12-dependent apoptotic pathway in ionic radiocontrast urografin-induced renal tubular cell injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast medium (CM) induces a direct toxic effect on renal tubular cells. This toxic effect subjects in the disorder of CM-induced nephropathy. Our previous work has demonstrated that CM shows to activate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related adaptive unfolding protein response (UPR) activators. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78)/eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α)-related pathways play a protective role during the urografin (an ionic CM)-induced renal tubular injury. However, the involvement of ER stress-related apoptotic signals in the urografin-induced renal tubular cell injury remains unclear. Here, we examined by the in vivo and in vitro experiments to explore whether ER stress-regulated pro-apoptotic activators participate in urografin-induced renal injury. Urografin induced renal tubular dilation, tubular cells detachment, and necrosis in the kidneys of rats. The tubular apoptosis, ER stress-related pro-apoptotic transcriptional factors, and kidney injury marker-1 (kim-1) were also conspicuously up-regulated in urografin-treated rats. Furthermore, treatment of normal rat kidney (NRK)-52E tubular cells with urografin augmented the expressions of activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), Bax, caspase-12, JNK, and inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE) 1 signals. Urografin-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis was not reversed by the inhibitors of ATF-6, JNK signals or CHOP siRNA transfection, but it could be partially reversed by the inhibitor of caspase-12. Taken together, the present results and our previous findings suggest that exposure of CM/urografin activates the ER stress-regulated survival- and apoptosis-related signaling pathways in renal tubular cells. Caspase-12-dependent apoptotic pathway may be partially involved in the urografin-induced nephropathy. -- Highlights: ► Ionic contrast medium-urografin induces renal tubular cell apoptosis. ► Urografin induces the ER stress-regulated survival and apoptosis

  13. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to delayed radiation necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic pulmonary edema is oftten missed in the ICU setting as it is mistaken for pneumonia or ARDS. The case presented here illustrates how a high index of suspicion in the appropriate setting can lead to the diagnosis. The patient in this report developed acute-on-chronic cerebral edema due to radiation necrosis following gamma-knife radiation therapy for cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

  14. Plasma cytokines in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Boysen, Gudrun; Christensen, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    GOALS: The aim of this study was to test the relations between plasma cytokines and the clinical characteristics, course, and risk factors in acute stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The analysis was based on 179 patients with acute stroke included within 24 hours of stroke onset. On inclusion and 3...... months later plasma levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNF-R2) were...

  15. Spleen tyrosine kinase contributes to acute renal allograft rejection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramessur Chandran, Sharmila; Tesch, Greg H; Han, Yingjie; Woodman, Naomi; Mulley, William R; Kanellis, John; Blease, Kate; Ma, Frank Y; Nikolic-Paterson, David J

    2015-02-01

    Kidney allografts induce strong T-cell and antibody responses which mediate acute rejection. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is expressed by most leucocytes, except mature T cells, and is involved in intracellular signalling following activation of the Fcγ-receptor, B-cell receptor and some integrins. A role for Syk signalling has been established in antibody-dependent native kidney disease, but little is known of Syk in acute renal allograft rejection. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral nephrectomy and received an orthotopic Wistar renal allograft. Recipient rats were treated with a Syk inhibitor (CC0482417, 30 mg/kg/bid), or vehicle, from 1 h before surgery until being killed 5 days later. Vehicle-treated recipients developed severe allograft failure with marked histologic damage in association with dense leucocyte infiltration (T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and NK cells) and deposition of IgM, IgG and C3. Immunostaining identified Syk expression by many infiltrating leucocytes. CC0482417 treatment significantly improved allograft function and reduced histologic damage, although allograft injury was still clearly evident. CC0482417 failed to prevent T-cell infiltration and activation within the allograft. However, CC0482417 significantly attenuated acute tubular necrosis, infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils and thrombosis of peritubular capillaries. In conclusion, this study identifies a role for Syk in acute renal allograft rejection. Syk inhibition may be a useful addition to T-cell-based immunotherapy in renal transplantation.

  16. Tubular membrane bioreactors for biotechnological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Christoph; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here. PMID:23224587

  17. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Brian L.; Sutton, Theodore G.; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2010-07-20

    An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

  18. [Renal ultrasound in fat necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizki, S; Lasry, F; Elftoiki, F Z; Hadj Khalifa, H; Itri, M; Khadir, K; Benchikhi, H

    2013-07-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis is an uncommon disease that may be complicated with potentially fatal hypercalcemia or with nephrocalcinosis. We report on the case of a patient with a history of significant perinatal asphyxia, hospitalized for a urinary tract infection. Lesions of subcutaneous fat necrosis were noted, with asymptomatic hypercalcemia at 3.9mmol/L. A renal ultrasound was performed and showed echogenic medullary pyramids bilaterally, consistent with nephrocalcinosis and left nephrolithiasis. The treatment of hypercalcemia included hyperhydration, a diuretic and corticosteroids. Progression was characterized by the total regression of skin lesions and normalization of serum calcium. Hypercalcemia is a rare complication of subcutaneous fat necrosis. It develops within days to weeks after the appearance of skin lesions. Nephrocalcinosis appears after several weeks or months. Hypercalcemia must be treated in due time to avoid the impact on the kidney. PMID:23726682

  19. Significance of downregulation of renal organic cation transporter (SLC47A1 in cisplatin-induced proximal tubular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Mizuno,1–3 Waichi Sato,2,3 Kazuhiro Ishikawa,4 Yuki Terao,1 Kazuo Takahashi,2 Yukihiro Noda,5 Yukio Yuzawa,2 Tadashi Nagamatsu1 1Department of Analytical Pharmacology, Meijo University Faculty of Pharmacy, Nagoya, 2Department of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, 3Department of Nephrology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, 4Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, 5Division of Clinical Sciences and Neuropsychopharmacology, Meijo University Faculty of Pharmacy, Nagoya, Japan Background/aim: To elucidate the mechanism responsible for developing acute kidney injury in patients with diabetes mellitus, we also evaluated the issue of whether advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs influence the expressions of multi antimicrobial extrusion protein (MATE1/SLC47A1 in tubular cells. Materials and methods: To detect changing expression of MATE1/SLC47A1 in dose- and time-dependent manners, human proximal tubular epithelial cells were incubated with AGE-aggregated-human serum albumin. As a function assay for MATE1/SLC47A1, human proximal tubular epithelial cells were incubated with cisplatin or carboplatin. Results: On incubation with AGEs, the expressions of MATE1/SLC47A1 were decreased in tubular cells. In addition, the toxicities of cisplatin were increased in tubular cells that had been pretreated with AGEs. However, the toxicities of carboplatin were smaller than that of cisplatin in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Conclusion: The expression of the MATE1/SLC47A1 is decreased by AGEs, which increases the risk for proximal tubular injury. Keywords: advanced glycation endproducts, cisplatin, SLC47A1, diabetes mellitus, acute kidney injury

  20. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1989-01-24

    A seal adapted for use with a multi-conduit well tubular, or the like, is described which consists of: a plate with fluid passages, each passage corresponding to an opening of a conduit of the multiconduit tubular, and a groove on the plate around each passage; and elastomer means partially embeddable into each groove for sealing each conduit of a tubular to a corresponding conduit of another similar tubular.

  1. Work tool in a tubular element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stand, which is positioned in relation with the tubular element, has clutch disengagement means for a working rod in rotation, with at least two positioning regions on the rod. Application for laser welding a sleeve into PWR steam generator tubes

  2. Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls nutrient solution for growing crops in space. Pump draws nutrient solution along inside of tubular membrane in pipe from reservoir, maintaining negative pressure in pipe. Roots of plants in slot extract nutrient through membrane within pipe. Crop plants such as wheat, rice, lettuce, tomatoes, soybeans, and beans grown successfully with system.

  3. Reliability Analysis of Tubular Joints in Offshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1987-01-01

    Reliability analysis of single tubular joints and offshore platforms with tubular joints is" presented. The failure modes considered are yielding, punching, buckling and fatigue failure. Element reliability as well as systems reliability approaches are used and illustrated by several examples....... Finally, optimal design of tubular.joints with reliability constraints is discussed and illustrated by an example....

  4. Mesangial cell-derived tumor necrosis factor α up-regulates the expression of tubular liver type fatty acid binding-protein and its renoprotective role in IgA nephropathy%系膜细胞源性肿瘤坏死因子α上调IgA肾病肾小管肝型脂肪酸结合蛋白的表达及其肾脏保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佐楠; 栗霄立; 王力宁; 李子龙; 王均; 冯江敏; 马健飞; 范秋灵; 姚丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanism of up-regulation of tubular liver-type fatty acid binding-protein (L-FABP) in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and its renoprotective role.Methods Murine mesangial cells (MCs) from primary cell culture were cultured with aggregated IgA (AIgA) (10 to 250 mg/L) for 48 hours. The supernatant after culture was collected as AIgA-MC medium. Murine proximal tubular cell line (mProx) stably expressing human L-FABP (hL-FABP) by transfection (mProx-L) were cultured with AIgA, AIgA-MC medium and /or neutralizing anti-TNF-α antibody and recombinant murine TNF-α, respectively. AIgA-MC medium (AIgA final concentration was 25 mg/L) was cultured with mProx and mProx-L cells. The mRNA expressions of hL-FABP and MCP-1 of the cells were detected by real-time PCR. The protein expressions of hL-FABP and 4-HNE of the cells were detected by Western blotting. Results (1) The hL-FABP mRNA and protein expression stimulated by AIgA-MC medium was significantly higher as compared to AIgA (P<0.01). (2) Pre-incubation of neutralizing anti-TNF-α antibody (final concentration was 1 and 5 mg/L) with mProx-L cells could significantly suppress the up-regulation of hL-FABP protein expression induced by AlgA-MC medium (P<0.05 and P<0.01).(3) Recombinant murine TNF-α (final concentration was 50 and 250 ng/L) also induced a significant up-regulation of hL-FABP expression (P<0.01). (4) After the stimulation of AIgA-MC medium, both 4-HNE protein expression and MCP-1 mRNA expression were significantly suppressed in mProx-L cells compared to those of mProx cells (P <0.05 and P<0.01). Conclusion Mesangial cell-derived TNF-α can induce up-regulation of tubular L-FABP expression. Overexpression of tubular L-FABP may lessen the progression of IgAN by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators.%目的 探讨体外近曲小管肝型脂肪酸结合蛋白(L-FABP)在IgA肾病(IgAN)中的上调机制及其对肾脏的保护作用.方法 原代培养的小鼠系膜

  5. Efficacy of extracorporeal albumin dialysis for acute kidney injury due to cholestatic jaundice nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Florence; Bacchetta, Justine; Rabeyrin, Maud; Juillard, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 37-year-old man with Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Youth (MODY) type 5, admitted for an episode of cholestasis and a simultaneous acute kidney injury (AKI). Chronic liver disease was due to a mutation in the transcription factor 2 (TCF2) gene, thus highlighting the need for a close liver follow-up in these patients. AKI was attributed to a cholemic nephropathy based on the following rationale: (1) alternative diagnoses were actively ruled out; (2) the onset of AKI coincided with the onset of severe hyperbilirubinaemia; (3) renal pathology showed large bile tubular casts and a marked tubular necrosis and (4) creatinine serum dramatically decreased when bilirubin levels improved after the first sessions of extracorporeal albumin dialysis (ECAD), thus suggesting its role in renal recovery. Even though cholestasis can precipitate renal injury, the diagnosis of cholemic nephropathy could require a renal biopsy at times. Future studies should confirm the benefits of ECAD in cholemic nephropathy. PMID:27389722

  6. Vibration analysis of ultrasonic tubular resonators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhaofeng; MO Xiping; ZHOU Guangping

    2012-01-01

    The frequency equation of the axisymmetric coupled vibration of a ultrasonic tubular resonator with both ends free is derived by an exact solution method, based on classical Fliigge thin shell theory. The dependence of the dimensionless frequency Ω on the ratio of length to radius 1/a, the ratio of radius to thickness a/h and Poisson's ratio v is investigated, and the axisymmetric coupled vibration of the ultrasonic tubular resonator with both ends shear diaphragm is compared with that with both ends free. The accuracy of two-dimensional and three-dimensional apparent elasticity method is also assessed by the comparison with the exact solution method. Finally, the mode shapes of the ultrasonic tubular resonator are calculated by the exact solution method, and its transform efficient is analyzed. The results show that as for two boundary conditions of both ends free and both ends shear diaphragm, the difference of the effect of the boundary conditions on the dimensionless frequency of the axisymmetric coupled vibration of the ultrasonic tubular resonator becomes smaller as l/a increases, and the larger a/h, the smaller the difference. Moreover, for free-free boundary conditions, the change of a/h has nearly no effect on the dimensionless frequency of the thin tubular resonator usually considered to mean a/h 〉 10. Purthermore, the dimensionless frequency Ω decreases as v in- creases for a given l/a, and the impact of v on Ω is different for different l/a, and the maximum impact will appear when l/a = π. Finally, the study also shows the three-dimensional apparent elasticity method has very high accuracy.

  7. 急性视网膜坏死患者玻璃体MMP-2和MMP-9活性研究%Investigation of the activity of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in vitreous of patients with acute retinal necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾永昊; 石磊; 柯根杰

    2009-01-01

    目的 检测急性视网膜坏死(acute retinal necrosis,ARN)患者玻璃体内基质金属蛋白酶(matrix metallopreteinases,MMPs)2和9的活性.方法 6例ARN患者行玻璃体切割术抽取玻璃体液,6例单纯孔源性视网膜脱离(rhegmatogenous detachment,RD)患者作为对照.采用明胶酶谱法进行MMP-2和MMP-9活性检测.结果 RD患者玻璃体标本显示72kDaMMP-2酶原和62kDa MMP-2活性酶条带,无明显MMP-9条带成分,ARN患者标本可见到92kDaMMP-9酶原、82kDaMMP-9活性酶、72kDaMMP-2酶原和62kDa MMP-2活性酶条带,ARN组所有条带的表达都要显著高于RD组(P<0.01).结论 MMP-2和MMP-9可能在ARN的玻璃体视网膜炎症反应中起到非常重要的作用.%Objective To detect the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 in vitreous of patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN). Methods Vitreous samples from 6 cases with ARN were obtained in process of vitrectomy. Samples from 6 cases of rheg-matogenous detachment of retina (RD) without PVR were set as control. Activities of MMP-2 and-9 were detected by gelatin zymography. Re-stilts Only 72kDa zemogen and 62 active enzyme of MM-2 could be detected in control, while 92kDa zemogen and 82 active enzyme of MM-9 and 72kDa zemogen and 62 active enzyme of MM-2 could be detected in vitreous of ALAN. Concentrations of all four bands were significantly higher in ARN patients than that in control (P<0.01). Conclusion Gelatinase A (MMP-2) and B (MMP-9) might play important roles in in-flammatory responses of ALAN patients.

  8. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of...) filed on December 20, 2012 on behalf of workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport...

  9. Variation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha during acute rejection after liver transplantation in a rhesus monkey%恒河猴肝移植模型移植后急性排斥反应时肿瘤坏死因子α的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张熙冰; 冉江华; 刘静; 张升宁; 李来邦; 陈奕明; 高杨; 李望; 李立

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Tumor necrosis factor-αis an inflammatory cytokine involved in the immune response and increasing graft antigen expression. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between tumor necrosis factor-αin the liver tissue and acute rejection after liver transplantation in a rhesus monkey. METHODS:Liver transplant models in rhesus monkey were constructed by the improved vascular dual cuff, supporting tube of biliary tract and artery anastomosis method. The successful models were randomly divided into experimental group (no immunosuppressant treatment in perioperative period) and control group (treated by immunosuppressant in perioperative period). Then the blood samples and liver tissue were col ected at 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours after surgery. Al ograft rejections of liver transplantation were monitored by liver function tests, hematoxylin-eosin staining and Banff score. Final y, the expression level of tumor necrosis factor-αwas detected by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry technique. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The expression of tumor necrosis factor-αin the experimental group and control group began to increase at 6 hours, reached the peak at 12 hours, and then decreased at 24-72 hours. The changes of expression level were the most obvious in the experimental group. At 6, 12, 24 and 72 hours, the expression of tumor necrosis factor-αin the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). This change appeared earlier than pathological changes in the liver and liver function. Variations in the expression of tumor necrosis factor-αafter liver transplantation have important implications for early diagnosis of acute rejection after liver transplantation.%背景:肿瘤坏死因子α是一种炎性细胞因子,参与移植免疫反应并增加移植物抗原表达,并在其中发挥着重要作用。目的:分析恒河猴肝移植后肝组织中肿瘤坏死因子α的变化与急性排斥反应的关系。

  10. Apparatus for servicing tubular strings in subterranean wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahil, J.E.; Jaynes, M.S.; Harrell, K.R.

    1987-12-29

    This patent describes an apparatus for use in servicing a tubular string formed from a series of interconnected tubular sections used in subterranean oil or gas wells. The apparatus includes a substantially horizontal floor and a structure positionable over the well head for sequentially hoisting and lowering individual tubular sections of the tubular string through the floor relative to the well head. The improvement comprises: an annular defect detecting housing fixedly positioned on the well head below the floor in surrounding relation to the path of the sequentially removed tubular sections; insulating segments rotationally fixed with respect to the housing and mounted in the annular housing for radial movement between an inner detecting position and an outer position for clearing obstructions carried by the tubular sections; means for limiting radially inward movement of the insulating segments to the inner detecting position spaced outwardly from engagement with the tubular sections; means for detecting an approaching obstruction on any tubular section for concurrently shifting the insulating segments to the outer position; detecting means mounted on the insulating segments in surrounding relation to the path travelled by the sequentially removed tubular sections; and the detecting means comprising means for determining the existence of different defects in each tubular section as each tubular section is passed through the annular defect detecting housing.

  11. Acute kidney injury in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade hematological malignancies: impact on remission and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Canet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal chemotherapy with minimal toxicity is the main determinant of complete remission in patients with newly diagnosed hematological malignancies. Acute organ dysfunctions may impair the patient's ability to receive optimal chemotherapy. DESIGN AND METHODS: To compare 6-month complete remission rates in patients with and without acute kidney injury (AKI, we collected prospective data on 200 patients with newly diagnosed high-grade malignancies (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 53.5%; acute myeloid leukemia, 29%; acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 11.5%; and Hodgkin disease, 6%. RESULTS: According to RIFLE criteria, 137 (68.5% patients had AKI. Five causes of AKI accounted for 91.4% of cases: hypoperfusion, tumor lysis syndrome, tubular necrosis, nephrotoxic agents, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Half of the AKI patients received renal replacement therapy and 14.6% received suboptimal chemotherapy. AKI was associated with a lower 6-month complete remission rate (39.4% vs. 68.3%, P<0.01 and a higher mortality rate (47.4% vs. 30.2%, P<0.01 than patients without AKI. By multivariate analysis, independent determinants of 6-month complete remission were older age, poor performance status, number of organ dysfunctions, and AKI. CONCLUSION: AKI is common in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade malignancies and is associated with lower complete remission rates and higher mortality.

  12. RIP Kinases Initiate Programmed Necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lorenzo Galluzzi; Oliver Kepp; Guido Kroemer

    2009-01-01

    Some lethal stimuli can induce either apoptosis or necrosis, depending on the cell type and/or experimental setting. Until recently,the molecular bases of this phenomenon were largely unknown. Now, two members of the receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase (RIP) family, RIP1 and RIP3, have been demonstrated to control the switch between apoptotic and necrotic cell death.Some mechanistic details, however, remain controversial.

  13. Selenium intoxication with selenite broth resulting in acute renal failure and severe gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element in human and animal nutrition. It is also widely utilized in industrial processes. Reports of acute selenium toxicity in humans are rare. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who consumed about 100 mL of liquid selenite broth and presented with severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hematemesis and acute renal failure (ARF. The serum selenium level was significantly increased. Gastro-duodenoscopy revealed severe corrosive gastritis. Renal biopsy showed features of acute tubular necrosis (ATN, affecting primarily the proximal tubules. The patient was managed with gastric lavage, blood transfusions, infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP and platelet concentrates and hemo-dialysis. The patient was discharged five weeks after admission and her renal functions reco-vered completely by eight weeks after admission. She continues to be on regular follow-up for any possible sequelae of mucosal corrosive damage. This case highlights a case of selenium intoxication from selenite broth resulting in ARF and corrosive gastritis. The recovery was complete.

  14. Laboratory prediction of the requirement for renal replacement in acute falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Emran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute renal failure is a common complication of severe malaria in adults, and without renal replacement therapy (RRT, it carries a poor prognosis. Even when RRT is available, delaying its initiation may increase mortality. Earlier identification of patients who will need RRT may improve outcomes. Method Prospectively collected data from two intervention studies in adults with severe malaria were analysed focusing on laboratory features on presentation and their association with a later requirement for RRT. In particular, laboratory indices of acute tubular necrosis (ATN and acute kidney injury (AKI that are used in other settings were examined. Results Data from 163 patients were available for analysis. Whether or not the patients should have received RRT (a retrospective assessment determined by three independent reviewers was used as the reference. Forty-three (26.4% patients met criteria for dialysis, but only 19 (44.2% were able to receive this intervention due to the limited availability of RRT. Patients with impaired renal function on admission (creatinine clearance Conclusions In adult patients with severe malaria and impaired renal function on admission, none of the evaluated laboratory indices was superior to the plasma creatinine level when used to predict a later requirement for renal replacement therapy.

  15. STUDY OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN CHILDREN: ITS AETIOLOGY, CLINICAL PROFILE AND OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garuda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : To determine the incidence , age & sex ratio , analyse the spectrum of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI in its aetiopathology , complications including mortality , prognostic factors and the role of dialysis in the management. METHODS : This prospective observational study was conducted on serial cases of 30 patients a dmitted in Paediatrics department from Feb 2012 - Aug 2014 (30 months. RESULTS : The incidence of AKI was 0.44%. Children in age group of 0 - 4 yrs were affected most , predominantly males. Distribution of AKI according to aetiopathogenesis was Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN 50% , Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS 19.8% , Glomerulonephritis (GN 13.2% , Obstructive uropathy 9.9% and Acute on Chronic renal failure (CRF 6.6%. Dialysis was required in 53.3% of patients. Mortality was 57%. Patients with complications of sepsis , neurological & respiratory problems , hyperkalemia , metabolic acidosis and gastrointestinal bleeding were associated with high mortality. CONCLUSIONS : AKI is a common life threatening condition seen in childhood. Early referral , proper assessment , adequate & timely treatment and prompt institution of dialysis helps in decreasing mortality.

  16. [Talus necrosis and its treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth, J; Bläsius, K

    1988-08-01

    Aetiopathogenesis of the necrosis of the talus has not yet been definitely clarified, and neither has that of the other aseptic necroses. We were able to study the aetiopathogenesis, course of the disease and therapy in 20 of our own patients by follow-up; two of these developed necrosis of the talus in both feet. We definitely excluded patients suffering from osteochondrosis dissecans. Even though fracture of the talus is on the whole relatively rare, it remains the most frequent cause of necrosis of the talus. We also found talonecrosis after surgical correction of clubfoot, after Sudeck's disease (Sudeck-Leriche syndrome, Sudeck's atrophy or dystrophy), suppurative arthritis of the ankle joint, subtalar luxation and haematogenic osteomyelitis. Only few patients required surgery. In most cases a special boot constructed for arthrodesis patients proved sufficient. Each patient developed arthrodesis to a different degree. Depending upon the complaints and stiffening of the ankle joint or of the talo-calcanonavicular joint, the capacity of the patients to be gainfully employed was reduced by an amount between 20 and 30 per cent. PMID:2905578

  17. Tubular Heart Pumping Mechanisms in Ciona Intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Nicholas; Miller, Laura

    2015-11-01

    In vertebrate embryogenesis, the first organ to form is the heart, beginning as a primitive heart tube. However, many invertebrates have tubular hearts from infancy through adulthood. Heart tubes have been described as peristaltic and impedance pumps. Impedance pumping assumes a single actuation point of contraction, while traditional peristalsis assumes a traveling wave of actuation. In addition to differences in flow, this inherently implies differences in the conduction system. It is possible to transition from pumping mechanism to the other with a change in the diffusivity of the action potential. In this work we consider the coupling between the fluid dynamics and electrophysiology of both mechanisms, within a basal chordate, the tunicate. Using CFD with a neuro-mechanical model of tubular pumping, we discuss implications of the both mechanisms. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of the pumping mechanism on evolution and development.

  18. Glomerular tubular balance: mediation by luminal hypotonicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häberle, D A; Müller, U; Nagel, W

    1989-01-01

    Late proximal rat tubular segments were microperfused with slightly hypo- or hypertonic artificial late proximal tubular fluid (ATF) at low (11-13 nl/min) or high (30-38 nl/min) perfusion rates. Volume reabsorption, net chloride and solute reabsorption were measured as a function of length. In addition, the transepithelial resistance and voltage (Vte) were measured as a function of the applied osmotic gradient. Hypertonic solutions equilibrated to isotonicity by solute outflow rather than water influx. With hypertonic ATF the lumen positive Vte was decreased compared with free flow or with hypotonic ATF. The resistance was not significantly different between the different groups. In contrast to hypotonic ATF, hypertonic or isotonic ATF was not significantly reabsorbed. In addition, hypotonic ATF maintained its hypotonicity along the perfused segments. Its reabsorption was flow-dependent. Hypotonicity appeared to enhance solute reabsorption. PMID:2725432

  19. Pointlike Inclusion Interactions in Tubular Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid, Afshin; Idema, Timon

    2016-09-01

    Membrane tubes and tubular networks are ubiquitous in living cells. Inclusions like proteins are vital for both the stability and the dynamics of such networks. These inclusions interact via the curvature deformations they impose on the membrane. We analytically study the resulting membrane mediated interactions in strongly curved tubular membranes. We model inclusions as constraints coupled to the curvature tensor of the membrane tube. First, as special test cases, we analyze the interaction between ring- and rod-shaped inclusions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we further show how pointlike inclusions interact to form linear aggregates. To minimize the curvature energy of the membrane, inclusions self-assemble into either line- or ringlike patterns. Our results show that the global curvature of the membrane strongly affects the interactions between proteins embedded in it, and can lead to the spontaneous formation of biologically relevant structures.

  20. Acute pancreatitis : new frontiers in diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van Santvoort, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas mostly caused by gallstones and alcohol abuse. Around 15 to 20% of patients show a severe clinical course, which is characterised by multiple organ failure and necrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma and/ or peripancreatic fat tissue. In around 30% of patients with necrotising pancreatitis, secondary infection of necrosis occurs, probably due to bacterial translocation from the patient’s own gut. Infected necrosis is an indication for ...

  1. Tubular electric heater with a thermocouple assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent relates to a thermocouple or other instrumentation which is installed within the walls of a tubular sheath surrounding a process device such as an electric heater. The sheath comprises two concentric tubes, one or both of which have a longitudinal, concave crease facing the other tube. The thermocouple is fixedly positioned within the crease and the outer tube is mechanically reduced to form an interference fit onto the inner tube

  2. Inherited renal tubular defects with hypokalemia

    OpenAIRE

    Muthukrishnan J; Modi K; Kumar P; Jha Ratan

    2009-01-01

    Bartter′s and Gitelman′s syndrome are two ends of a spectrum of inherited renal tubular disorders that present with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis of varying severity. Clinical features and associated calcium and magnesium ion abnormalities are used to diagnose these cases after excluding other commoner causes. We report on two cases, the first being a young boy, born of pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios, who had classical dysmorphic features, polyuria, hypokalemia and hy...

  3. Energy production with a tubular propeller turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Samora, Irene; Hasmatuchi, Vlad; Münch-Alligné, C.; Franca, Mário J.; Schleiss, Anton; Helena M. Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Micro-hydropower is a way of improving the energetic efficiency of existent water systems. In the particular case of drinking water systems, several studies have showed that pressure reducing valves can be by-passed with turbines in order to recover the dissipated hydraulic energy to produce electricity. As conventional turbines are not always cost-effective for power under 20 kW, a new energy converter is studied. A five blade tubular propeller (5BTP), assessed through laboratorial tests on ...

  4. Distribution and chemotaxis of infused human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the dogs of acute tubular necrosis by different transplantation methods%不同方法移植的人脐带间充质干细胞在ATN模型犬的体内分布及趋化性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 胡祥; 贾丹兵; 赵红梅; 周燕妮; 党智杰

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察不同方法移植的人脐带间充质干细胞(HUC-MSCs)在家犬急性肾小管坏死的体内分布.方法: 健康家犬18只随机分为3组.模型1组:肌注0.2%二氯化汞溶液(7 mg/kg)建立急性肾小管坏死模型,采用经外周静脉注射法输注用DAPI标记的HUC-MSCs.模型2组:造模方法同1组,采用股动脉介入经左肾动脉直接注射体外分离培养并用DAPI标记的HUC-MSCs.对照组:健康家犬,细胞移植方法同2组.移植后48 h处死动物取肾脏、心脏、肝脏、胰腺,光镜及荧光显微镜观察.结果:①HUC-MSCs在1组及2组病变肾脏中均存在,且荧光强度无明显差异(P>0.05);②对照组肾脏中未发现HUC-MSCs存在;③1组及2组心脏、胰腺不存在或少量存在HUC-MSCs.结论:①HUC-MSCs可在病变肾脏内存活,两种移植方法无明显差异.②HUC-MSCs对正常肾脏无影响;③对于急性肾小管坏死家犬,HUC-MSCs在心脏、肝脏及胰腺内不存活.

  5. 更昔洛韦及水痘致血栓性微血管病并发急性肾小管坏死一例%One case of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) complicated with acute tubular necrosis induced by ganciclovir and chickenpox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连希艳; 黄胜华; 赵劲涛; 曾怡

    2010-01-01

    @@ 患者,女,20岁,学生,因反复皮肤紫癜、关节痛1个月,腹痛半个月,加重5 d入院.患者1个月前无明显诱因出现双下肢紫癜,四肢关节疼痛.半个月前以上症状再次出现,双下肢紫癜明显增多,呈片状、双侧对称,伴腹痛.5 d前腹痛加重,遂收住我院血液科.查体:BP 120/75mm Hg,躯干、双下肢、臀部皮肤新旧不一,点片状紫癜,浅表淋巴结未触及肿大,咽充血,心、肺、腹未见明显异常.

  6. Energy and Oxygen Metabolism Disorder During Septic Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-li Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Acute kidney injury (AKI during septic shock, which is one of the most common clinical syndromes in the intensive care unit (ICU, has a high mortality rate and poor prognosis, partly because of a poor understanding of the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction during septic shock. Although ischemic injury of the kidney has been reported to result from adenosine triphosphate (ATP depletion, increasing evidence has demonstrated that AKI occurs in the absence of renal hypoperfusion and even occurs during normal or increased renal blood flow (RBF; nevertheless, whether energy metabolism disorder is involved in septic AKI and whether it changes according to renal hemodynamics have not been established. Moreover, tubular cell apoptosis, which is closely related to ATP depletion, rather than necrosis, has been shown to be the major form of cell injury during AKI. Methods: We used canine endotoxin shock models to investigate the hemodynamics, renal energy metabolism, renal oxygen metabolism, and pathological changes during septic AKI and to explore the underlying mechanisms of septic AKI. Results: The present results revealed that the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ pool and the ATP/adenosine diphosphate (ADP ratio were significantly decreased during the early phase of septic AKI, which is accompanied by a decreased renal oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER% and decreased renal oxygen consumption (VO2. Furthermore, significant apoptosis was observed following renal dysfunction. RBF and renal oxygen delivery were not significantly altered. Conclusion: These results suggest that imbalanced energy metabolism, rather than tubular cell apoptosis, may be the initiator of renal dysfunction during septic shock.

  7. Atorvastatin ameliorates contrast medium-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis in diabetic rats via suppression of Rho-kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jinzi; Zou, Wenbo; Cai, Wenqin; Chen, Xiuping; Wang, Fangbing; Li, Shuizhu; Ma, Wenwen; Cao, Yangming

    2014-01-15

    Contrast medium-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) remains a leading cause of iatrogenic, drug-induced acute renal failure. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of atorvastatin against renal tubular cell apoptosis in diabetic rats and the related mechanisms. CI-AKI was induced by intravenous administration of iopromide (12ml/kg) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Atorvastatin (ATO) was administered intragastrically at the dose of 5, 10 and 30mg/kg/d in different groups, respectively, for 5 days before iopromide injection. Renal function parameters, kidney histology, renal tubular cell apoptosis, the expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins, caspase-3 and Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK-1), and the phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit -1 (MYPT-1), were determined. Atorvastatin was shown to notably ameliorate contrast medium induced medullary damage, restore renal function, and suppress renal tubular apoptosis. Meanwhile, atorvastatin up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, down-regulated the expression of Bax, caspase-3 and ROCK-1, restored the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and suppressed the phosphorylation of MYPT-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, atorvastatin pretreatment could dose-dependently ameliorate the development of CI-AKI, which was partly attributed to its suppression of renal tubular cell apoptosis by inhibiting the Rho/ROCK pathway.

  8. Acute pancreatitis; Pancreatite aigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi, M.; Deutsch, J.P.; Arrive, L.; Ayadi, K.; Ladeb, M.F.; Tubiana, J.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. The main role of sonography in acute pancreatitis is to evaluate gallstones and small fluid collections. However, sonography is frequently difficult due to intestinal ileus related to pancreatitis. CT is indicated early in the clinical course of acute severe pancreatitis when the diagnosis is uncertain or when complications such as abscess, hemorrhage, or necrosis, are suspected. In addition, CT may be used to assess the prognosis and follow-up of patients. (authors). 20 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mofleh Ibrahim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no specific treatment for acute pancreatitis. Majority of patients with acute pancreatitis respond to medical therapy. Supportive measures and close observations represent the cornerstone of the medical therapy. Failure to respond to medical treatment may indicate choledocholithiasis or infected necrosis. Endoscopic papillotomy with stone retrieval is beneficial in patients with severe biliary pancreatitis. Image-guided fine needle aspiration and bacteriological examination of aspirate is reliable in detecting infection and deliniating causative pathogen. Surgical debridement is the method of choice for treatment of infected necrosis. In contrast, in pancreatic abscess, surgery is preserved for those, who do not respond to percutaneous drainage combined with antibiotics. The benefit of antisecretory and antiproteolytic agents is debatable. A combination of antioxidants, calcium channel antagonists and antibiotics may play a major role in the treatment of acute pancreatitis in the future.

  10. Blocking TGF-β Signaling Pathway Preserves Mitochondrial Proteostasis and Reduces Early Activation of PDGFRβ+ Pericytes in Aristolochic Acid Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Wistar Male Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka A Pozdzik

    Full Text Available The platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ+ perivascular cell activation becomes increasingly recognized as a main source of scar-associated kidney myofibroblasts and recently emerged as a new cellular therapeutic target.In this regard, we first confirmed the presence of PDGFRβ+ perivascular cells in a human case of end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN and thereafter we focused on the early fibrosis events of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ inhibition in a rat model of AAN.Neutralizing anti-TGFβ antibody (1D11 and its control isotype (13C4 were administered (5 mg/kg, i.p. at Days -1, 0, 2 and 4; AA (15 mg/kg, sc was injected daily.At Day 5, 1D11 significantly suppressed p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improving renal function impairment, reduced the score of acute tubular necrosis, peritubular capillaritis, interstitial inflammation and neoangiogenesis. 1D11 markedly decreased interstitial edema, disruption of tubular basement membrane loss of brush border, cytoplasmic edema and organelle ultrastructure alterations (mitochondrial disruption and endoplasmic reticulum edema in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Moreover, 1D11 significantly inhibited p-PERK activation and attenuated dysregulation of unfolded protein response (UPR pathways, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial proteostasis in vivo and in vitro.The early inhibition of p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improved acute renal function impairment, partially prevented epithelial-endothelial axis activation by maintaining PTEC proteostasis and reduced early PDGFRβ+ pericytes-derived myofibroblasts accumulation.

  11. Blocking TGF-β Signaling Pathway Preserves Mitochondrial Proteostasis and Reduces Early Activation of PDGFRβ+ Pericytes in Aristolochic Acid Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Wistar Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdzik, Agnieszka A.; Giordano, Laetitia; Li, Gang; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Quellard, Nathalie; Godet, Julie; De Prez, Eric; Husson, Cécile; Declèves, Anne-Emilie; Arlt, Volker M.; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Brochériou-Spelle, Isabelle; Ledbetter, Steven R.; Caron, Nathalie; Nortier, Joëlle L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ)+ perivascular cell activation becomes increasingly recognized as a main source of scar-associated kidney myofibroblasts and recently emerged as a new cellular therapeutic target. Aims In this regard, we first confirmed the presence of PDGFRβ+ perivascular cells in a human case of end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and thereafter we focused on the early fibrosis events of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) inhibition in a rat model of AAN. Materials and Methods Neutralizing anti-TGFβ antibody (1D11) and its control isotype (13C4) were administered (5 mg/kg, i.p.) at Days -1, 0, 2 and 4; AA (15 mg/kg, sc) was injected daily. Results At Day 5, 1D11 significantly suppressed p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improving renal function impairment, reduced the score of acute tubular necrosis, peritubular capillaritis, interstitial inflammation and neoangiogenesis. 1D11 markedly decreased interstitial edema, disruption of tubular basement membrane loss of brush border, cytoplasmic edema and organelle ultrastructure alterations (mitochondrial disruption and endoplasmic reticulum edema) in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Moreover, 1D11 significantly inhibited p-PERK activation and attenuated dysregulation of unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial proteostasis in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions The early inhibition of p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improved acute renal function impairment, partially prevented epithelial-endothelial axis activation by maintaining PTEC proteostasis and reduced early PDGFRβ+ pericytes-derived myofibroblasts accumulation. PMID:27379382

  12. Metal Stents in Management of Pancreatic Pseudocyst and Walled Off Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Paramasivam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The science behind pancreatitis and its complications is an ever evolving and challenging field. More than two centuries after the first description of pancreatic pseudocyst by Eugene Opie, some clear consensus and guidelines have evolved. Atlanta Symposium in 1992 attempted to offer a global ‘consensus’ and a universally applicable classification system for acute pancreatitis, tough comprehensive; some of the definitions were confusing [1]. Recent data and deeper understanding of pathophysiology of organ failure and necrotising pancreatitis, and the advent of superior diagnostic imaging have propelled towards the formation of revised Atlanta classification in 2012. Local complications of acute pancreatitis among others are acute pancreatic fluid collection, pancreatic pseudocyst, acute necrotic collection and walled-off necrosis. Rarer complications are gastric outlet dysfunction, splenic and portal vein thrombosis, and colonic necrosis

  13. Non-invasive in vivo imaging of myocardial apoptosis and necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flotats, Albert; Carrio, Ignasi [Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-04-01

    Myocardial necrosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders and can result from different myocardial insults. Its non-invasive identification and localisation therefore may help in the diagnosis of these disorders, as well as in prognosis and assessment of treatment response. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is important in the spectrum of myocardial damage since it is gradually becoming more apparent that cell death may begin as apoptosis and not as necrosis. First attempts to directly visualise the area of myocardial necrosis were based on recognition of myocardial infarction with ''hot spot imaging agents'' in patients with chest pain. Since then, the study of myocardial necrosis with gamma imaging agents has gone beyond the detection of myocardial infarction, and attempts have been made to diagnose other cardiovascular disorders associated with cardiac cell death such as heart transplant rejection, myocarditis, cardiotoxicity and cardiomyopathies. Traditionally, two hot spot imaging agents have been used for the detection of myocardial necrosis, {sup 99m}Tc-pyrophosphate and {sup 111}In-antimyosin. In addition, preliminary studies have demonstrated promising results with {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate. Recently, {sup 99m}Tc-annexin V has been successfully used for non-invasive gamma imaging of apoptosis after acute myocardial infarction, acute myocardial ischaemia, acute cardiac allograft rejection and malignant intracardiac tumours. This review article focusses on the characteristics of these different myocardial necrotic and apoptotic markers and compares their role in the assessment of myocardial damage. (orig.)

  14. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient...... (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available...

  15. A simple auxetic tubular structure with tuneable mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xin; Shen, Jianhu; Ghaedizadeh, Arash; Tian, Hongqi; Xie, Yi Min

    2016-06-01

    Auxetic materials and structures are increasingly used in various fields because of their unusual properties. Auxetic tubular structures have been fabricated and studied due to their potential to be adopted as oesophageal stents where only tensile auxetic performance is required. However, studies on compressive mechanical properties of auxetic tubular structures are limited in the current literature. In this paper, we developed a simple tubular structure which exhibits auxetic behaviour in both compression and tension. This was achieved by extending a design concept recently proposed by the authors for generating 3D metallic auxetic metamaterials. Both compressive and tensile mechanical properties of the auxetic tubular structure were investigated. It was found that the methodology for generating 3D auxetic metamaterials could be effectively used to create auxetic tubular structures as well. By properly adjusting certain parameters, the mechanical properties of the designed auxetic tubular structure could be easily tuned.

  16. 一期行肠切除术及无张力疝修补术治疗急性绞窄性腹股沟疝合并肠坏死58例%Emergency one-stage intestinal resection and tension-free hernioplasty for acutely strangulated inguinal hernia complicating intestinal necrosis in 58 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆永; 陈立波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity and surgical outcome of emergency one-stage intestinal resection and tension-free hernioplasty for acutely strangulated inguinal hernia complicated with intestinal necrosis.Methods Clinical data of 58 patients diagnosed strangulated inguinal hernia and intestinal necrosis in our hospital from July 2011 to April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed.Of the 58 patients,33 were males and 25 were females,mean age of (64 ± 18) years (range 52-86).There were 28 strangulated inguinal and 30 femoral hernias undergoing emergency small bowel resection and tension-free mesh hernioplasty.Patients with intestinal perforations,preoperative peritonitis,inflammatory hernia and those who required colon resections were excluded from the study.Results The mean operative time was (92 ± 22) min (range,80-120 min).Average length of hospital stay was (8.6 ± 2.5) d (range,6-21 d).There were three postoperative c omplications (5.2%):one of subcutaneous hematoma,one of superficial surgical site infection and one of scrotal fluid collection,which were all cured by wound dressing,removal of infected prosthetic mesh,vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) and continuous irrigation,intravenous antibiotics and scrotal puncture.During a follow-up period of 6 to 32 months (mean 12 ± 6 months),there was no hernia recurrence.Conclusions Emergency one-stage intestinal resection and tension-free mesh hernioplasty for strangulated inguinal hernia complicated by intestinal necrosis is safe,feasible with a favourable outcome and low rate of postoperative complications.%目的 探讨急诊一期行肠切除术及无张力疝修补术治疗急性绞窄性腹股沟疝合并肠坏死的疗效.方法 回顾性分析华中科技大学同济医学院附属协和医院2011年7月至2014年4月58例成人急性绞窄性腹股沟疝合并肠坏死患者的临床资料,但除外合并肠穿孔、腹膜炎、炎性疝、嵌顿的内容物为结肠并需要做结肠

  17. Skin necrosis caused by prallethrin-A worldwide used insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botnariu, Gina; Birsan, Cristina; Podoleanu, Cristian; Moldovan, Cosmin; Stolnicu, Simona; Chiriac, Anca

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of necrosis caused by the use of prallethrin (mosquito repellent) on the skin in a 67-year-old diabetic female patient suffering from delusions of parasitosis. Cutaneous toxicity due to pyrethroids is less known or reported, despite well-documented pyrethroid poisoning involving the gastrointestinal, respiratory, cardiac, and nervous systems. Skin irritation has been described after acute accidental exposure but, as far as we know, no data have been published on the effects of pyrethroids when applied directly to the skin. PMID:26987111

  18. Hyaluronan in Tubular and Interstitial Nephrocalcinosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoelen, Carl F.

    2007-04-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is the major glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the renal medullary interstitium. HA is extremely large (up to 104 kDa) and composed of thousands repeating disaccharides of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs) and degraded by hyaluronidases (Hyals). The production of HA by renomedullary interstitial cells is mediated by local osmolality. When excess water needs to be excreted, increased interstitial HA seems to antagonize water reabsorption, while the opposite occurs during water conservation. Hence, papillary interstitial HA is low and Hyal high during anti-diuresis, whereas during diuresis HA is high and Hyal low. The polyanion HA plays a role in the reabsorption of hypotonic fluid by immobilizing cations (Na+) via the carboxylate (COO-) groups of GlcUA. The binding of Ca2+ to anionic HA is probably also responsible for the fact that the papilla does not become a stone despite the extremely high interstitial phosphate and oxalate. HA is also an excellent crystal binding molecule. The expression of HA at the luminal surface of renal tubular cells leads to tubular nephrocalcinosis (tubular NC). Calcium staining methods (Von Kossa, Yasue) demonstrated that crystallization inhibitors cannot avoid the occasional precipitation of calcium phosphate in the papillary interstitium (interstitial NC). These crystals are probably immediately immobilized by the gel-like HA matrix. After ulcerating through the pelvic wall the calcified matrix becomes a Randall's plaque. The attachment of calcium oxalate crystals from the primary urine to plaque may ultimately lead to the development of clinical stones in the renal calyces (nephrolithiasis).

  19. Discovery during Hydrogen Annealing: Formation of Nanoscale Fluorocarbon Tubular Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiuchun; Tanaka, Sinya; Masuda, Atsuhiko; Maenaka, Kazusuke; Higuchi, Kohei

    2013-09-01

    A novel fabrication method for nanoscale tubular structures is presented in this paper. The tubular structures can be obtained by heating single-crystal silicon trenches or pillars formed by the inductively coupled plasma reactive-ion etching (ICP-RIE) Bosch process in hydrogen ambient. The importance of initial vacuum in the reaction chamber for tube formation and the tube formation mechanism were discussed. The components and sidewall size of the tubular structure were also studied to verify that the tube is made of the fluorocarbon (CF) passivation layer deposited by the Bosch process. The CF tubular structure would be a promising structure for BioMEMS.

  20. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) development activities and current program status. The Westinghouse goal is to develop a cost effective cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 hours. Progress toward this goal will be discussed and test results presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 56,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Results of development efforts to reduce cost and increase power output of tubular SOFCs are described.

  1. Forming of Polymeric Tubular Micro-components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Yi; Zhao, Jie; Anyasodor, Gerald;

    2015-01-01

    platform for the production of functional polymeric tubular micro-components. The chapter gives background on the current market and process development trends, followed by description of materials, process configuration, tool design and machine development for each processing technology as well......This chapter is intended to provide an overview of three nontraditional shaping technologies for the forming of polymeric micro-tubes, which are hot embossing, blow molding, and cross rolling, as well as realization of a process chain and the integration of a modular machine-based manufacturing...

  2. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Calcium Nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Orson W.; Fuster, Daniel G.; Xie, Xiao-Song

    2008-09-01

    Calcium stones are commonly encountered in patients with congenital distal renal tubular acidosis, a disease of renal acidification caused by mutations in either the vacuolar H+-ATPase (B1 or a4 subunit), anion exchanger-1, or carbonic anhydrase II. Based on the existing database, we present two hypotheses. First, heterozygotes with mutations in B1 subunit of H+-ATPase are not normal but may harbor biochemical abnormalities such as renal acidification defects, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia which can predispose them to kidney stone formation. Second, we propose at least two mechanisms by which mutant B1 subunit can impair H+-ATPase: defective pump assembly and defective pump activity.

  3. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Härkki

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs) in a blast furnace (BF) coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N 2 and O 2 . The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallu...

  4. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs in a blast furnace (BF coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N2 and O2. The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallurgical site proves to be substantial, it could become a subject of environmental concern.

  5. TUBULAR PHOTOBIOREACTOR FOR MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Nkongolo Mulumba; Ihab H. Farag

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel production from algae is a promising technique. Microalgae have the potential to produce 5,000-15,000 gallons of biodiesel/(acre-year). However, there are challenges; these include high yieldof algae biomass with high lipid content and the effective technique to harvest the grown algae, extract the algal oil and transesterify the oil to biodiesel. In this project Tubular PhotoBioReactor (TPBR) was designed and achieved a ten times increase in algae concentration. It produced 1g of d...

  6. Complete Penile Necrosis in a Patient With Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Blais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile necrosis is a rare condition that has been mostly described in association with diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease. We report an unusual case of acute penile necrosis because of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. A 75-year-old man presented with acute renal failure and experienced cardiac complications during the hospitalization. The patient was treated twice with intravenous heparin. He developed symptoms of penile necrosis 4 days after the reintroduction of heparin. At that moment, the platelet count dropped by 61%, and the analysis of heparin-pf4 antibodies was positive for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The patient underwent a total penectomy and a perineal urethrostomy.

  7. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in epiretinal membranes of proliferative diabetic retinopathy,proliferative vitreoretinopathy and acute retinal necrosis patients%三种视网膜病视网膜前膜中基质金属蛋白酶及其天然抑制分子的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾永昊; 石磊; 柯根杰; 孙思勤

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)and tissueinhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)in epiretinal membranes of proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR),proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR)and acute retinal necrosis (ARN)patients.Methods Epiretinalmembranes were obtained from PVR, PDR and ARN patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy.Normal retinaobtained from donor eyes were used as control.Results MMP-1, MMP-3,TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were stainedin normal retina.For PVR, PDR and ARN specimens, the increase portion of all iMPs and TIMPs stainingwere observed,especially MMP-2,MMP-7 and MMP-9.Conelusions There are MMPs and TIMPs existed innormal retina to balance the integrity of extracellular matrix.lncreased expression of MMPs, such as MMP-2,iMP-7 and iMP-9, might play the important roles in pathologic processes of PVR, PDR and AKN.%目的 研究增殖性糖尿病视网膜病变(proliferative diabetic retinopathy,PDR)、增殖性玻璃体视网膜疾病(proliferative vitreoretinopathy,PVR)和急性视网膜坏死(acute retinalnecrosis,ARN)患者视网膜前膜中基质金属蛋白酶(matrixmetalloproteinases:MMPs)及其天然抑制物(tissueinhibitorsofmetalloproteinages,TIMPs)的表达情况.方法 玻璃体手术中剥取PVR、PDR和ARN患者的视网膜前膜,同供体眼视网膜作为正常对照,冰冻切片后进行免疫组织化学染色,包括:MMP-1,MMP-2,MMP-3,MMP-7,MMP-9,TIMP-1和TIMP-2.结果 正常视网膜中能够观察到MMP-1,MMP-3,TIMP-1和TIMP-2的表达,在PVR、PDR和ARN患者标本中各种分子的表达都增强,尤以MMP-2,MMP-3和MMP-7明显.结论 正常视网膜中存在MMPs和TIMPs分子维持着细胞外基质动态的平衡,在PVR,PDR和ARN患者中MMP-2,MMP-3和MMP-7等MMPs分子表达增强,在其病变过程中可能起重要作用.

  8. Prevention and Intervention Strategies in Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Besselink, M.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common, costly, potentially lethal, and poorly understood disease, mostly caused by gallstones. In the past decade the incidence of acute pancreatitis in the Netherlands increased by 50% to over 3400 admissions in 2006, most likely due to an increase of gallstone disease. About 20% of patients will develop severe acute pancreatitis, a disease characterized by organ failure and/or pancreatic necrosis, resulting in a high mortality rate. Because the incidence of acute pa...

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging for acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is characterized by acute chemical injury of the pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissue. The increased frequency of death in acute pancreatitis is directly correlated with the degree and progress of pancreatic necrosis. Moreover, the occurrence of some local complications in acute pancreatitis, such as pancreatic hemorrhage, peripancreatic abscess or large pseudocyst, and pseudoaneurysm, could influence the choice of treatment for these patients. Magnetic resonance...

  10. Necrosis and haemorrhage of the putamen in methanol poisoning shown on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanol, a highly toxic substance, is used as an industrial solvent and in automobile antifreeze. Acute methanol poisoning produces severe metabolic acidosis and serious neurologic sequelae. We describe a 50-year-old woman with accidental methanol intoxication who was in a vegetative state. MRI showed haemorrhagic necrosis of the putamina and oedema in the deep white matter. (orig.)

  11. Necrosis and haemorrhage of the putamen in methanol poisoning shown on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuteifan, K.; Gutbub, A.M.; Laplatte, G. [Service de Reanimation Medicale, Centre Hospitalier Louis Pasteur, Colmar (France); Oesterle, H.; Tajahmady, T. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Centre Hospitalier Louis Pasteur, Colmar (France)

    1998-03-01

    Methanol, a highly toxic substance, is used as an industrial solvent and in automobile antifreeze. Acute methanol poisoning produces severe metabolic acidosis and serious neurologic sequelae. We describe a 50-year-old woman with accidental methanol intoxication who was in a vegetative state. MRI showed haemorrhagic necrosis of the putamina and oedema in the deep white matter. (orig.) With 1 fig., 8 refs.

  12. Ultrasound Study of Femur Head Necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jinjiang; XIANG Jiabin; LIU Qiuying; WAN Ning; ZHAO Tong

    2002-01-01

    98 cases of femur head necrosis with age of 16 ~ 50 years underwent ultrasonography in this study. Through coronal and sagittal profiles, we analyzed the imaging characteristics of the structures of normal and abnormal hip joints and the blood flow of ischemic femur head necrosis. Doppler ultrasound could be used to undergo non - invasive and repeated observation on the structure of hip joints. So it has clinically applicable value for the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and follow - up of ischemic femur head necrosis.

  13. Optimizing Mouse Surgery with Online Rectal Temperature Monitoring and Preoperative Heat Supply. Effects on Post-Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, Julian A; Schäfer, Hannah; Holderied, Alexander; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature affects outcomes of tissue injury. We hypothesized that online body core temperature recording and selective interventions help to standardize peri-interventional temperature control and the reliability of outcomes in experimental renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). We recorded core temperature in up to seven mice in parallel using a Thermes USB recorder and ret-3-iso rectal probes with three different protocols. Setup A: Heating pad during ischemia time; Setup B: Heating pad from incision to wound closure; Setup C: A ventilated heating chamber before surgery and during ischemia time with surgeries performed on a heating pad. Temperature profile recording displayed significant declines upon installing anesthesia. The profile of the baseline experimental setup A revealed that temperature readings were within the target range of 36.5 to 38.5°C. Setup B and C increased the target range readings to 34.6 ± 28.0% and 99.3 ± 1.5%, respectively. Setup C significantly increased S3 tubular necrosis, neutrophil influx, and mRNA expression of kidney injury markers. In addition, using setup C different ischemia times generated a linear correlation with acute tubular necrosis parameters at a low variability, which further correlated with the degree of kidney atrophy 5 weeks after surgery. Changing temperature control setup A to C was equivalent to 10 minutes more ischemia time. We conclude that body temperature drops quickly in mice upon initiating anesthesia. Immediate heat supply, e.g. in a ventilated heating chamber, and online core temperature monitoring can help to standardize and optimize experimental outcomes.

  14. C-reactive protein promotes acute kidney injury via Smad3-dependent inhibition of CDK2/cyclin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Weiyan; Tang, Ying; Huang, Xiao R; Ming-Kuen Tang, Patrick; Xu, Anping; Szalai, Alexander J; Lou, Tan-Qi; Lan, Hui Y

    2016-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is exacerbated in C-reactive protein transgenic mice but alleviated in Smad3 knockout mice. Here we used C-reactive protein transgenic/Smad3 wild-type and C-reactive protein transgenic/Smad3 knockout mice to investigate the signaling mechanisms by which C-reactive protein promotes AKI. Serum creatinine was elevated, and the extent of tubular epithelial cell necrosis following ischemia/reperfusion-induced AKI was greater in C-reactive protein transgenics but was blunted when Smad3 was deleted. Exacerbation of AKI in C-reactive protein transgenics was associated with increased TGF-β/Smad3 signaling and expression of the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27, but decreased phosphorylated CDK2 and expression of cyclin E. Concomitantly, tubular epithelial cell proliferation was arrested at the G1 phase in C-reactive protein transgenics with fewer cells entering the S-phase cell cycle as evidenced by fewer bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells. In contrast, the protection from AKI in C-reactive protein transgenic/Smad3 knockout mice was associated with decreased expression of p27 and promotion of CDK2/cyclin E-dependent G1/S transition of tubular epithelial cells. In vitro studies using tubular epithelial cells showed that C-reactive protein activates Smad3 via both TGF-β-dependent and ERK/MAPK cross talk mechanisms, Smad3 bound directly to p27, and blockade of Smad3 or the Fc receptor CD32 prevented C-reactive protein-induced p27-dependent G1 cell cycle arrest. In vivo, treatment of C-reactive protein transgenics with a Smad3 inhibitor largely improved AKI outcomes. Thus, C-reactive protein may promote AKI by impairing tubular epithelial cell regeneration via the CD32-Smad3-p27-driven inhibition of the CDK2/cyclin E complex. Targeting Smad3 may offer a new treatment approach for AKI. PMID:27470679

  15. Strength of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Naseem Baig; FAN Jiansheng; NIE Jianguo

    2006-01-01

    Composite columns of steel and concrete have been used and studied world wide, but filled tubular columns need more attention. This paper presents an experimental study on the behavior of short concrete filled steel tubular columns (CFT) axially loaded in compression to failure. A total of 28 specimens (16 were filled with concrete and 12 were kept hollow) with different cross-sections were tested to investigate the load capacity. The length-to-diameter ratios of these columns were between 4 and 9. Parameters for the tests were tube shape and diameter-to-thickness ratio. Some of the concrete filled columns had internal bracing of #3 deformed bars. The test results are compared with the theoretical results and previous studies. The results show that the confinement effect on concrete does play a role in increasing the compressive strengths to almost 60% in some cases. Based on the test results, an equation to estimate the ultimate axial compressive loading capacities is also proposed for square CFT columns.

  16. Ultrasonographic findings of epipericardial fat necrosis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Yeong; Hwang, Hye Jeon; Lee, Kwan Seop; Lee, In Jae; Park, Kyoung Ha [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Epipericardial fat necrosis (EFN) is an infrequent cause of acute chest pain. In rare cases like these, conservative treatment is necessary. Clinically, EFN may mimic emergent cardiopulmonary conditions, such as acute myocardial infarction. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of EFN is well described as encapsulated fatty lesion with perilesional soft tissue strands and thickening of adjacent pericardium in the epipericardial area. For confirmation of the diagnosis, involution of this lesion on follow-up is important. We present a case of EFN observed with ultrasonography (USG). This lesion was shown as a well-defined ovoid shaped mass with heterogeneous echogenicity in the left side of cardiophrenic space on USG. There was no color flow on Doppler USG. Follow-up USG and CT revealed decrease in the size of the lesion.

  17. Effect of taurine on advanced glycation end products-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mounting evidence indicates that advanced glycation end products (AGE) play a major role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Taurine is a well documented antioxidant agent. To explore whether taurine was linked to altered AGE-mediated renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DN, we examined the molecular mechanisms of taurine responsible for inhibition of AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells. We found that AGE (but not non-glycated BSA) caused inhibition of cellular mitogenesis rather than cell death by either necrosis or apoptosis. There were no changes in caspase 3 activity, bcl-2 protein expression, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release in BSA, AGE, or the antioxidant taurine treatments in these cells. AGE-induced the Raf-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation was markedly blocked by taurine. Furthermore, taurine, the Raf-1 kinase inhibitor GW5074, and the ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 may have the ability to induce cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression from AGE-treated cells. The ability of taurine, GW5074, or PD98059 to inhibit AGE-induced hypertrophy was verified by the observation that it significantly decreased cell size, cellular hypertrophy index, and protein levels of RAGE, p27Kip1, collagen IV, and fibronectin. The results obtained in this study suggest that taurine may serve as the potential anti-fibrotic activity in DN through mechanism dependent of its Raf-1/ERK inactivation in AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells

  18. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support.

  19. Type IV renal tubular acidosis associated with Alport's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Tkácová, R.; Roland, R.; Böör, A.; Kovácová, A.; Lazúrová, I.; Tkác, I.; Hildebrand, T.; Sefara, P.

    1993-01-01

    A case of hereditary nephritis with mild reduction of renal function associated with renal tubular acidosis type IV is described. The patient was admitted with life-threatening hyperkalaemia. To our knowledge, type IV renal tubular acidosis has not been reported previously in association with Alport's syndrome in an adult patient.

  20. Theoretical and experimental investigations of Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    Four different marketed Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The advantages of the investigated solar collectors compared to normal flat plate collectors were elucidated.......Four different marketed Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The advantages of the investigated solar collectors compared to normal flat plate collectors were elucidated....

  1. Complement activation by tubular cells is mediated by properdin binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaarkeuken, E.M.; Siezenga, M.A.; Zuidwijk, K.; Kooten, C. van; Rabelink, T.J.; Daha, M.R.; Berger, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Activation of filtered complement products on the brush border of the tubular epithelium is thought to be a key factor underlying proteinuria-induced tubulointerstitial injury. However, the mechanism of tubular complement activation is still unclear. Recent studies on mechanisms of complement activa

  2. [Acute pancreas necrosis with biliary peritonitis in cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoldos, L; Hincová, M

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a hemorrhagic pancreatitis with non-perforating biliary peritonitis. The abdomen symptomatology was hidden by the beginning contractions and due to the dystocia the delivery was finished by caesarean section. The presence of choleperitoneum required a surgical revision of the abdominal cavity which enabled to make the right diagnosis. This thesis deals with aetiology and mechanism of choleperitoneum inception during hemorrhagic pancreatitis. PMID:3788337

  3. Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment model of Ferula assa-foetida gum in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Goudah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was performed to investigate acute and subchronic oral toxicity of Ferula assa-foetida gum (28 days in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral administration of F. assa-foetida was done as a single bolus dose up to 5 g/kg in mice and subchronic toxicity study for 28 days was done by oral administration at doses of 0 (control and 250 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. Results: The obtained data revealed that oral administration of F. assa-foetida extract in rats for 28 successive days had no significant changes on body weight, body weight gain, the hematological parameters in rats all over the period of the experiment, and there are no significant increases in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. Liver of treated rats showed mild changes as thrombosis and sinusoidal leukocytosis. It also showed portal infiltration with inflammatory cells, while kidney of treated rat showed an atrophy of glomerular tuft, thickening of parietal layer of Bowman capsule, and focal tubular necrosis. It also showed dilatation and congestion of renal blood vessels. Conclusion: We concluded that F. assa-foetida gum had broad safety and little toxicity for short term use in dose of 250 mg/kg.

  4. Overview of management of acute renal failure and its evaluation; a case analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Chaudhary Muhammad Junaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual incidence is about 150 per million in the UK, but this figure is six times greater in the >80 years old group. Prerenal azotemia is considered as the most serious reason in community or hospital acquired acute renal failure (ARF. A 67-year-old middle age male was admitted to the hospital with a chief complaint of generalized weakness, volume depletion and dysuria. He has treated with metronidazole for diarrhoea caused by Clostridium difficile considered as the precipitating factor for the ARF. The patient has severe osteoarthritis and takes high dose non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs from the last two years. He also complains for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and obesity. He has controlled hypertension was on lisinopril to control blood pressure. ARF is quite common, occurring in 80 million populations. Urinary obstruction should be excluded (a cause in around 5-10 of cases because this is readily reversible if it is diagnosed early. A renal US will be sufficient to identify obstruction in 95 of cases. Most cases of ARF are expected to pre renal failure/acute tubular necrosis (ATN 70-80%. Risk factor for development for at ATN are old age, drugs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, gentamicin, sepsis, and chronic kidney disease and must be considered.

  5. Modeling constrained sintering of bi-layered tubular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Ni, De Wei;

    2015-01-01

    Constrained sintering of tubular bi-layered structures is being used in the development of various technologies. Densification mismatch between the layers making the tubular bi-layer can generate stresses, which may create processing defects. An analytical model is presented to describe...... the densification and stress developments during sintering of tubular bi-layered samples. The correspondence between linear elastic and linear viscous theories is used as a basis for derivation of the model. The developed model is first verified by finite element simulation for sintering of tubular bi-layer system....... Furthermore, the model is validated using densification results from sintering of bi-layered tubular ceramic oxygen membrane based on porous MgO and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-d layers. Model input parameters, such as the shrinkage kinetics and viscous parameters are obtained experimentally using optical dilatometry...

  6. Luminal nucleotides are tonic inhibitors of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular ATP is an essential local signaling molecule in all organ systems. In the kidney, purinergic signaling is involved in an array of functions and this review highlights those of relevance for renal tubular transport. RECENT FINDINGS: Purinergic receptors are expressed...... in all renal tubular segments and their stimulation generally leads to transport inhibition. Recent evidence has identified the tubular lumen as a restricted space for purinergic signaling. The concentrations of ATP in the luminal fluids are sufficiently high to inflict a tonic inhibition of renal...... discovered as an important signaling compartment in which local purinergic signaling determines an inhibitory tone for renal tubular transport. Blocking components of this system leads to tubular hyper-absorption, volume retention and elevated blood pressure....

  7. Tacrolimus alleviates acute liver graft rejection by inhibiting glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-related protein ligand in rats%他克莫司通过抑制GITRL减轻大鼠肝移植排斥反应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏思东; 龚建平; 李金政; 黄中荣

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨他克莫司(FK506)抑制大鼠肝移植排除反应中的作用机制。方法建立大鼠原位肝移植模型,分为3组。耐受组为Brown Norway (BN)到Lewis肝移植;排斥组为Lewis到BN肝移植;他克莫司(FK506)组在建立排斥模型基础上于术后注射FK506。术后7d检测肝组织病理改变及糖皮质激素诱导的肿瘤坏死因子相关蛋白配体(GITRL)的表达、Kupffer细胞GITRL的表达及细胞因子的改变。结果与耐受组比较,排斥组肝脏及kupffer细胞中GITRL表达升高,采用FK506后,降低了GITRL表达(P<0.05)。与耐受组比较,排斥组血清及kupffer细胞中IFN-γ表达升高,IL-10降低(P<0.05),而在FK506组,与排斥组比较,血清及kupffer细胞中IFN-γ表达降低,IL-10表达升高(P<0.05)。结论FK506能减轻大鼠肝移植后的急性排斥反应,其机制与降低GITRL的表达有关。%Objective To investigate the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of tacrolimus (FK506) against acute liver graft rejection. Methods Rat models of orthotopic liver transplantation were divided into 3 groups, namely the tolerance group with Brown Norway (BN) rats as the donors and Lewis rats as the recipients, rejection group with Lewis rats as donors and BN rats as recipients, and FK506 group with the same donor-recipient pair as in the rejection group and FK506 treatment. The recipients were sacrificed 7 days after the transplantation, and the hepatic histology, cytokine levels, and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-related protein ligand (GITRL) expression in the liver and Kupffer cells were observed and detected. Results Compared with the tolerance group, the rejection group showed increased GITRL expressions in the liver and Kupffer cells (PO.05), which was significantly lowered by FK506 treatment (PO.05). Acute liver graft rejection caused significantly elevated interferon-y (IFN-y) levels and decreased interieukin-10 (IL-10) levels in the plasma

  8. Cortical necrosis secondary to trauma in a child: contrast-enhanced ultrasound comparable to magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortical necrosis is an uncommon cause of renal impairment and is rarely a consequence of blunt abdominal trauma. We present a case of unilateral traumatic acute cortical necrosis in a child demonstrated on contrast-enhanced US with confirmation on MRI. Contrast-enhanced US provides a rapid, accurate evaluation of renal parenchyma abnormalities in blunt abdominal trauma in children without exposure to ionising radiation or the risk of sedation. (orig.)

  9. Ritonavir-induced acute kidney injury: kidney biopsy findings and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Shafi, T.; Choi, M.J.; Racusen, L. C.; Spacek, L. A.; Berry, C; Atta, M.; Fine, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Ritonavir therapy is not generally considered nephrotoxic. We report a case of acute kidney injury secondary to ritonavir, with kidney biopsy demonstrating extensive acute tubular injury. This is the first report of a kidney biopsy and pathology in acute kidney injury associated with ritonavir. A review of published medical literature on the topic is also presented.

  10. Multiplicity features of nonadiabatic, autothermal tubular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovo, M.; Balakotaiah, V. (Houston Univ., TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Singularity theory is combined with asymptotic analysis to determine the exact uniqueness-multiplicity boundary and ignition and extinction locus for the non-adiabatic, autothermal tubular reactor model. It is found that the steady-state behavior of the nonadiabatic reactor is described by the two limiting cases of adiabatic and strongly cooled models. The adiabatic case has been examined in a previous study. In this paper, the authors develop limiting models to describe the strongly cooled asymptotes. The authors also classify the different types of bifurcation diagrams of conversion vs. residence time using the results of singularity theory with a distinguished parameter. Analytical criteria are developed for predicting the conditions under which autothermal operation is feasible when heat losses are significant.

  11. TUBULAR PHOTOBIOREACTOR FOR MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkongolo Mulumba

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production from algae is a promising technique. Microalgae have the potential to produce 5,000-15,000 gallons of biodiesel/(acre-year. However, there are challenges; these include high yieldof algae biomass with high lipid content and the effective technique to harvest the grown algae, extract the algal oil and transesterify the oil to biodiesel. In this project Tubular PhotoBioReactor (TPBR was designed and achieved a ten times increase in algae concentration. It produced 1g of dry algal biomass per liter of medium within 12 days, with a lipid content of 12% approximately. Healthy algal culture grew well in the TPBR reaching 56x106 cells/mL of culture medium. The 10 fold increase is higher than those reported for open ponds and helical photobioreactor.

  12. Inherited renal tubular defects with hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartter′s and Gitelman′s syndrome are two ends of a spectrum of inherited renal tubular disorders that present with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis of varying severity. Clinical features and associated calcium and magnesium ion abnormalities are used to diagnose these cases after excluding other commoner causes. We report on two cases, the first being a young boy, born of pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios, who had classical dysmorphic features, polyuria, hypokalemia and hypercalciuria and was diagnosed as having Bartter′s syndrome. The second patient is a lady who had recurrent tetany as the only manifestation of Gitelman′s syndrome, which is an unusual presentation. Potassium replacement with supplementation of other deficient ions led to satisfactory clinical and biochemical response.

  13. Tubular initial conditions and ridge formation

    CERN Document Server

    Borysova, M S; Karpenko, Iu A; Shapoval, V M; Sinyukov, Yu M

    2013-01-01

    The 2D azimuth & rapidity structure of the two-particle correlations in relativistic A+A collisions is altered significantly by the presence of sharp inhomogeneities in superdense matter formed in such processes. The causality constraints enforce one to associate the long-range longitudinal correlations observed in a narrow angular interval, the so-called (soft) ridge, with peculiarities of the initial conditions of collision process. This study's objective is to analyze whether multiform initial tubular structures, undergoing the subsequent hydrodynamic evolution and gradual decoupling, can form the soft ridges. Motivated by the flux-tube scenarios, the initial energy density distribution contains the different numbers of high density tube-like boost-invariant inclusions that form a bumpy structure in the transverse plane. The influence of various structures of such initial conditions in the most central A+A events on the collective evolution of matter, resulting spectra, angular particle correlations an...

  14. 奥曲肽联合乌司他丁对老年急性胰腺炎患者血清肿瘤坏死因子α及白细胞介素-2水平的影响分析%The impact analysis of Octreotide Combined Ulinastatin on Elderly Patients with Acute Pancreatitis, Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-αand Interleukin-2 levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyse the octreotide combined ulinastatin on elderly patients with acute pancreatitis serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 2 levels, for clinical reference. Methods:From August 2010 to July 2013 elderly patients with acute pancreatitis,65 cases included in this study,both on the basis of conventional treatment accepted Mr Octreotide combined ulinastatin treatment.Compared before and after treatment in patients with serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-2levels of change. Results:Compared with before treatment,we found that after treatment in patients with serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-2 levels have declined,after statistical analysis that the significant dif erence (p<0.05). Conclusion:In the treatment of senile acute pancreatitis by Mr Octreotide combined ulinastatin treatment,can ef ectively reduce the level of serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 2,by blocking the release of inflammatory mediators in serum and play the role of pancreas injury,control the condition.%目的:分析奥曲肽联合乌司他丁对老年急性胰腺炎患者血清肿瘤坏死因子α及白细胞介素-2水平的影响,以供临床参考。方法将我院2010年8月~2013年7月收治的老年急性胰腺炎患者65例纳入本研究,均在常规治疗基础上接受奥曲肽联合乌司他丁治疗。对比治疗前后患者血清肿瘤坏死因子α及白细胞介素-2水平的变化。结果与治疗前对比,我们发现患者治疗后血清肿瘤坏死因子α及白细胞介素-2水平均有所下降,差异经统计学分析后认为有意义(P<0.05)。结论在老年急性胰腺炎的治疗中采用奥曲肽联合乌司他丁治疗,可有效降低血清肿瘤坏死因子α及白细胞介素-2水平,通过阻断血清中炎症介质的释放而发挥减轻胰腺损伤、控制病情的作用。

  15. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Pitchumoni, Capecomorin S; Yegneswaran, Balaji

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a rare event in pregnancy, occurring in approximately 3 in 10 000 pregnancies. The spectrum of AP in pregnancy ranges from mild pancreatitis to serious pancreatitis associated with necrosis, abscesses, pseudocysts and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. Pregnancy related hematological and biochemical alterations influence the interpretation of diagnostic tests and assessment of severity of AP. As in any other disease associated with pregnancy, AP is associated wit...

  16. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Garcia Samir; Barreiro-Pinto Belis

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS) or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violen...

  17. Hepatic necrosis associated with drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS; also known as drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms [DRESS] is a life-threatening condition first described by Chaikenetal. in 1950. It is characterized by extensive mucocutaneous rash; fever; lymphadenopathy; hepatitis; hematological abnormalities; damage to several organs such as kidney, heart, lungs, and pancreas; and possible reactivation of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 or other herpes virus. Rare and severe cases may present hepatic necrosis, and about 15% of them result in death or liver transplantation. A hallmark of this syndrome is the late onset of symptoms after the drug exposure. The most common culprit drugs are the aromatic anticonvulsants (in almost 30% of the cases and the antibiotics (which in some series represent 20% of the cases. The authors report a case of a 41-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with erythroderma, acute hepatitis, acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure, and was then treated with corticosteroid after the diagnosis of DIHS/DRESS. A specific culprit drug could not confidently be determined due to the presence of multiple drugs used by the patient. The clinical and laboratory outcome was apparently satisfactory, but unexpectedly, on the sixth day of hospitalization, the patient complained of nonspecific malaise, drowsiness, which progressed in a few hours with signs and symptoms of hepatic failure, refractory shock, and death. The autopsy findings showed submassive hepatic necrosis, and the immediate cause of death was attributed to hepatic failure.

  18. [Acute myocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Alain

    2013-05-01

    Myocarditis is defined as inflammation of the myocardium accompanied by myocellular necrosis. Acute myocarditis must be considered in patients who present with recent onset of cardiac failure or arrhythmia. Fulminant myocarditis is a distinct entity characterized by sudden onset of severe congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock, usually following a flu-like illness, parvovirus B19, human herpesvirus 6, coxsackievirus and adenovirus being the most frequently viruses responsible for the disease. Treatment of myocarditis remains largely supportive, since immunosuppression has not been proven to be beneficial for acute lymphocytic myocarditis. Trials of antiviral therapies, or immunostimulants such as interferons, suggest a potential therapeutic role but require further investigation. Lastly, early recognition of patients rapidly progressing to refractory cardiac failure and their immediate transfer to a medical-surgical center experienced in mechanical circulatory support is warranted. In this setting, ECMO should be the first-line mechanical assistance. For highly unstable patients, a Mobile Cardiac Assistance Unit, that rapidly travels to primary care hospitals with a portable ECMO system and hooks it up before refractory multiorgan failure takes hold, is the preferred option. PMID:23789482

  19. Extent and distribution of skeletal muscle necrosis after graded periods of complete ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, R.; Lindsay, T.; Walker, P.M.

    1987-08-01

    The management of an acutely ischemic extremity requires knowledge of the response of skeletal muscle (the largest component of the lower limb) to prolonged periods of complete normothermic ischemia. We have used the canine gracilis muscle model to evaluate the extent and distribution of ischemic necrosis after 3 and 5 hours of ischemia and 48 hours of reperfusion. Each muscle was cut into six slices, and the extent and distribution of postischemic necrosis identified by means of nitroblue tetrazolium staining and 99mTc pyrophosphate uptake. After 3, 4, and 5 hours of ischemia the extent of necrosis was 2.0% +/- 0.9%, 30.3% +/- 6.0%, and 90.1% +/- 3.5% (mean +/- SEM), respectively. A statistically significant correlation exists between the extent of necrosis and the uptake of 99mTc pyrophosphate uptake per gram of tissue (y = 1574.9x - 8.4, r = 0.84, p less than 0.001). Most necrosis was centrally located and found in the thickest portion of the muscle. We conclude that there is a graded response in the extent of skeletal muscle necrosis related to the length of ischemic stress rather than an ''all-or-none'' phenomenon. This central distribution of necrosis makes the usual external evaluation of ischemic damage clinically unreliable. In addition, since there was no enveloping fascia in this model, a compartment release alone may not prevent the development of skeletal muscle necrosis. This knowledge of the response of skeletal muscle to ischemia may lead to an improved clinical approach to an extremity suffering a prolonged ischemic insult.

  20. ROLE OF THE MITOCHONDRION IN PROGRAMMED NECROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eBaines

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the programmed nature of apoptosis and autophagy, necrotic cell death has always been believed to be a random, uncontrolled process that leads to the accidental death of the cell. This dogma, however, is being challenged and the concept of necrosis also being programmed is gaining ground. In particular, mitochondria appear to play a pivotal role in the mediation of programmed necrosis. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to appraise the current concepts regarding the signaling mechanisms of programmed necrosis, with specific attention to the contribution of mitochondria to this process.

  1. Size effect of welded thin-walled tubular joints

    OpenAIRE

    Mashiri, Fidelis Rutendo; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Hirt, Manfred A.; NUSSBAUMER, Alain

    2007-01-01

    This paper clarifies the terminologies used to describe the size effect on fatigue behaviour of welded joints. It summarizes the existing research on size effect in the perspective of newly defined terminologies. It identifies knowledge gaps in designing tubular joints using the hot spot stress method, i.e. thin-walled tubular joints with wall thickness less than 4 mm and thick-walled tubular joints with wall thickness larger than 50 mm or diameter to thickness ratio less than 24. It is the t...

  2. Myoglobin inhibits proliferation of cultured human proximal tubular (HK-2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, M; Zager, R A

    1996-09-01

    Following nephrotoxic injury, renal repair is dependent on tubular regeneration. In the case of myoglobinuric acute renal failure (ARF), persistence of myoglobin within tubular cells, or sublethal injury sustained at the height of exposure to it, might retard this process. To test this hypothesis, a human proximal tubular cell line (HK-2) was cultured for 24 hours in the absence or presence of clinically relevant myoglobin concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, 4 mg/ml). Immediately following myoglobin removal, lethal cell injury (vital dye uptake), lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage (alkaline unwinding assay) were assessed. The extent of cell proliferation was estimated over the next four days by a tetrazolium based (MTT) assay and by determining total intracellular LDH. Myoglobin's effects on protein and DNA synthesis were also assessed (35S-methionine and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, respectively). Myoglobin induced dose-dependent lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde generation) and cell death (up to 80% vital dye uptake with the 4 mg/ml challenge). Although 1 mg/ml myoglobin caused no cell death, it induced nearly complete growth arrest. This lasted for approximately three days following myoglobin removal from the media. Neither of two control proteins (albumin; lysozyme) nor a second nephrotoxin (gentamicin; 1 mg/ml) reproduced this effect. The 1 mg/ml myoglobin challenge caused an 80 to 90% depression in protein and DNA synthesis. It also induced significant DNA damage, as assessed by the alkaline unwinding assay (P Iron chelation therapy (deferoxamine) mitigated myoglobin-induced cell killing. However, its addition following myoglobin loading worsened HK-2 outgrowth by exerting a direct anti-proliferative effect. These results indicate that: (1) sublethal myoglobin toxicity can induce transient proximal tubular cell growth arrest, potentially slowing recovery from ARF; (2) this effect correlates with, and could result from, heme-induced DNA damage and a blockade in

  3. [Palatal necrosis in children. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, M A; Parri, F J; Raigosa, J M; Lerena, J; Cacéres, F; Muñoz, M E

    2006-04-01

    Palate necrosis as a consequence of palate infection it's an exceptional condition about there's not too much references at literature. We present a case of a 6 months old child who present a palatal necrosis after a supurative medial otitis that involved hard and soft palate, with positive culture for Pseudomona aeruginosa causing a almost complete absence of the palate that simulate a bilateral palatal cleft. PMID:16846136

  4. Intracellular serpins, firewalls and tissue necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Stefan J; Lomas, David A

    2008-02-01

    Luke and colleagues have recently attributed a new role to a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. They have used Caenorhabditis elegans to show that an intracellular serpin is crucial for maintaining lysosomal integrity. We examine the role of this firewall in preventing necrosis and attempt to integrate this with current theories of stress-induced protein degradation. We discuss how mutant serpins cause disease either through polymerization or now, perhaps, by unleashing necrosis. PMID:18215520

  5. Acute Pancreatitis: Surgery, Pathophysiology and Probiotic Prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    van Minnen, L. P.

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a challenging disease with a clinical course that is often difficult to predict. In severe acute pancreatitis, mortality increases significantly if intestinal bacteria translocate from the intestine and infect pancreatic necrosis. Surgical and prophylactic treatment strategies are challenged by complex pathophysiology of the disease. This thesis addresses some key aspects of acute pancreatitis: surgical management, pathophysiology and probiotic prophylaxis. Outcome in pa...

  6. Administration of bone marrow-derived stem cells suppresses cellular necrosis and apoptosis induced by reperfusion of ischaemic kidneys in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ischaemic reperfusion injury (IRI) is a crucial element in the pathogenesis of acute ischaemic renal failure and influences the early functional recovery and even long term survival of a transplanted kidneyIt is generally thought that renal repair following IRI requires the replacement or regeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells that are detached or damaged.

  7. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aghighi

    high T1 signal in areas of tumor necrosis and low signal in areas of intracellularly compartmentalized iron.Differential T1- and T2-enhancement patterns of USPIO in tumors enable conclusions about their intracellular and extracellular location. This information can be used to characterize the composition of the tumor microenvironment.

  8. Effect of tamoxifen on spermatogenesis and tubular morphology in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    UrbanJ.A.D'Souza

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To observe the effect of tamoxifen citrate on spermatogenesis and tubular morphology in rats.Methods: The effect of tamoxifen citrate i.g. at doses of 400 and 800 mg·kg-1·day-1 in 0.1 mL olive oil for 30 days on seminiferous tubular morphology, seminiferous epithelial diameter (STD), epithelial height (SEH), epididymal sperm count and percent abnormal sperm were evaluated at day 1, 12 and 36 after treatment. Controls were given the vehicle. Results: The higher dose resulted in tubular atrophy on day 31. The STD, SEH and sperm count were decreased and the abnormal spermatozoa increased in a dose-dependent manner with the maximal effect on day 36.Conclusion: Tamoxifen citrate induces tubular shrinkage and atrophy and sperm abnormality at a dose-dependent manner. (Asian J Androl 2004 Sep; 6: 223-226)

  9. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...... carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors......, as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat...

  10. Device for internal laser welding of tubular elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the welding, the position of the returning mirror of the laser beam is on the order of a transducer in support on the tubular element to be welded. Application for sleeving PWR steam generator tubes

  11. Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS's innovative Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom will provide revolutionary performance when compared to conventional state-of-the-art...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: renal tubular acidosis with deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention: Hearing Loss in Children Centre for Genetics Education (Australia): Deafness and Hearing Loss Gallaudet University: Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center KidsHealth: What's Hearing Loss? MalaCards: renal tubular ...

  13. The Fourier transform of tubular densities

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, C B

    2012-05-18

    We consider the Fourier transform of tubular volume densities, with arbitrary axial geometry and (possibly) twisted internal structure. This density can be used to represent, among others, magnetic flux or the electron density of biopolymer molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one for which the radius of the tube is less than the curvature of the axis and one for which the radius is greater (which must have density overlap). This expression can accommodate an asymmetric density distribution and a tube structure which has non-uniform twisting. In addition we give several simpler expressions for isotropic densities, densities of finite radius, densities which decay at a rate sufficient to minimize local overlap and finally individual surfaces of the tube manifold. These simplified cases can often be expressed as arclength integrals and can be evaluated using a system of first-order ODEs. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Tubular heart valves from decellularized engineered tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syedain, Zeeshan H; Meier, Lee A; Reimer, Jay M; Tranquillo, Robert T

    2013-12-01

    A novel tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV) was fabricated from a decellularized tissue tube mounted on a frame with three struts, which upon back-pressure cause the tube to collapse into three coapting "leaflets." The tissue was completely biological, fabricated from ovine fibroblasts dispersed within a fibrin gel, compacted into a circumferentially aligned tube on a mandrel, and matured using a bioreactor system that applied cyclic distension. Following decellularization, the resulting tissue possessed tensile mechanical properties, mechanical anisotropy, and collagen content that were comparable to native pulmonary valve leaflets. When mounted on a custom frame and tested within a pulse duplicator system, the tubular TEHV displayed excellent function under both aortic and pulmonary conditions, with minimal regurgitant fractions and transvalvular pressure gradients at peak systole, as well as well as effective orifice areas exceeding those of current commercially available valve replacements. Short-term fatigue testing of one million cycles with pulmonary pressure gradients was conducted without significant change in mechanical properties and no observable macroscopic tissue deterioration. This study presents an attractive potential alternative to current tissue valve replacements due to its avoidance of chemical fixation and utilization of a tissue conducive to recellularization by host cell infiltration.

  15. Tubular Initial Conditions and Ridge Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Borysova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2D azimuth and rapidity structure of the two-particle correlations in relativistic A+A collisions is altered significantly by the presence of sharp inhomogeneities in superdense matter formed in such processes. The causality constraints enforce one to associate the long-range longitudinal correlations observed in a narrow angular interval, the so-called (soft ridge, with peculiarities of the initial conditions of collision process. This study's objective is to analyze whether multiform initial tubular structures, undergoing the subsequent hydrodynamic evolution and gradual decoupling, can form the soft ridges. Motivated by the flux-tube scenarios, the initial energy density distribution contains the different numbers of high density tube-like boost-invariant inclusions that form a bumpy structure in the transverse plane. The influence of various structures of such initial conditions in the most central A+A events on the collective evolution of matter, resulting spectra, angular particle correlations and vn-coefficients is studied in the framework of the hydrokinetic model (HKM.

  16. Tubular Steel Arch Stabilized by Textile Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Svoboda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tubular steel arch supporting textile membrane roofing is investigated experimentally and numerically. The stabilization effects of the textile membrane on in-plane and out-of-plane behavior of the arch is of primary interest. First a model of a large membrane structure tested in laboratory is described. Prestressed membranes of PVC coated polyester fabric Ferrari® Précontraint 702S were used as a currently standard and excellent material. The test arrangement, loading and resulting load/deflection values are presented. The supporting structure consisted of two steel arch tubes, outer at edge of the membrane and inner supporting interior of the membrane roofing. The stability and strength behavior of the inner tube under both symmetrical and asymmetrical loading was monitored and is shown in some details. Second the SOFiSTiK software was employed to analyze the structural behavior in 3D, using geometrically nonlinear analysis with imperfections (GNIA. The numerical analysis, FE mesh sensitivity, the membrane prestressing and common boundary conditions are validated by test results. Finally a parametrical study concerning stability of mid arch with various geometries in a membrane structure with several supporting arches is presented, with recommendations for a practical design.

  17. A tubular electrode for radiofrequency ablation therapy

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Carlos Lemos Lemos Lemos

    2012-07-06

    Purpose – Due to its good mechanical and biocompatibility characteristics, nitinol SEMS is a popular endoprothesis used for relieving stricture problems in hollow organs due to carcinomas. Besides its mechanical application, SEMS can be regarded as well as potential electrode for performing RF ablation therapy on the tumor. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical and experimental analyses in order to characterize the lesion volume induced in biological tissue using this kind of tubular electrode. Design/methodology/approach – Data concerning electrical conductivity and dimension of the damaged tissue after RF ablation procedure were obtained from ex vivo samples. Next, numerical models using 3D finite element method were obtained reassembling the conditions considered at experimentation setup and results were compared. Findings – Numerical and experimental results show that a regular volume of damaged tissue can be obtained considering this type of electrode. Also, results obtained from numerical simulation are close to those obtained by experimentation. Originality/value – SEMSs, commonly used as devices to minimize obstruction problems due to the growth of tumors, may still be considered as an active electrode for RF ablation procedures. A method considering this observation is presented in this paper. Also, numerical simulation can be regarded in this case as a tool for determining the lesion volume.

  18. A distal renal tubular acidosis showing hyperammonemia and hyperlactacidemia

    OpenAIRE

    C. Ripoli; Pinna, A.; Marras, S.; M.L. Fenu; Nurchi, A M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) presents itself with variable clinical manifestations and often with late expressions that impact on prognosis. Case report: A 45-day-old male infant was admitted with stopping growth, difficult feeding and vomiting after meals. Clinical tests and labs revealed a type 1 renal tubular acidosis, even if the first blood tests showed ammonium and lactate increase. We had to exclude metabolic diseases before having a certain diagnosis. Conclusions...

  19. Stresses at weld toes in tubular joints in offshore structures

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Kim S.

    1987-01-01

    The accurate prediction of stress concentration factors (SCF) at weld toes is recognised as one of the most important factors in the design, against fatigue failure, of welded tubular joints in offshore structures. The objectives of this work are i) to study the influence of some important tubular joint and weld profile geometric parameters on the elastic SCFs at weld toes, ii) compare these values with strains which could be measured by strain gauges, and iii) to determine plastic-elastic st...

  20. The origin of tubular lava stalactites and other related forms

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Allred; Carlene Allred

    1998-01-01

    Tubular lava stalactites are often found in lava tubes. Field observations, sample analysis, and comparative studies indicate that these are segregations extruded during cooling from partially crystallized lava al about 1,070 - 1,000 °C. Retrograde boiling (gas pressure) within the lava provides a mechanism to expel the interstitial liquid. In addition to tubular lava stalactites, a variety of other lava features can also result, such as lava helictites, lava coralloids, barnacle-like stretch...

  1. Behaviour of concrete filled steel tubular columns under fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查晓雄; 钟善桐

    2002-01-01

    A three dimensional nonlinear FE program is used to calculate the fire resistances of concrete filledsteel tubular columns under fire. The temperature distributions in the circular section fire are decided by solvingthe Fourier Transfer Equation , and the mechanical behaviour and failure of concrete filled steel tubular columnsunder fire are thus investigated, and the effects of several parameters on the fire resistance are analysed. Theresults obtained are in good agreement with the Eurocode.

  2. TWEAK activates the non-canonical NFkappaB pathway in murine renal tubular cells: modulation of CCL21.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Sanz

    Full Text Available TWEAK is a member of the TNF superfamily of cytokines that contribute to kidney tubulointerstitial injury. It has previously been reported that TWEAK induces transient nuclear translocation of RelA and expression of RelA-dependent cytokines in renal tubular cells. Additionally, TWEAK induced long-lasting NFkappaB activation suggestive of engagement of the non-canonical NFkappaB pathway. We now explore TWEAK-induced activation of NFkappaB2 and RelB, as well as expression of CCL21, a T-cell chemotactic factor, in cultured murine tubular epithelial cells and in healthy kidneys in vivo. In cultured tubular cells, TWEAK and TNFalpha activated different DNA-binding NFkappaB complexes. TWEAK-induced sustained NFkappaB activation was associated with NFkappaB2 p100 processing to p52 via proteasome and nuclear translocation and DNA-binding of p52 and RelB. TWEAK, but not TNFalpha used as control, induced a delayed increase in CCL21a mRNA (3.5+/-1.22-fold over control and CCL21 protein (2.5+/-0.8-fold over control, which was prevented by inhibition of the proteasome, or siRNA targeting of NIK or RelB, but not by RelA inhibition with parthenolide. A second NFkappaB2-dependent chemokine, CCL19, was upregulates by TWEAK, but not by TNFalpha. However, both cytokines promoted chemokine RANTES expression (3-fold mRNA at 24 h. In vivo, TWEAK induced nuclear NFkappaB2 and RelB translocation and CCL21a mRNA (1.5+/-0.3-fold over control and CCL21 protein (1.6+/-0.5-fold over control expression in normal kidney. Increased tubular nuclear RelB and tubular CCL21 expression in acute kidney injury were decreased by neutralization (2+/-0.9 vs 1.3+/-0.6-fold over healthy control or deficiency of TWEAK (2+/-0.9 vs 0.8+/-0.6-fold over healthy control. Moreover, anti-TWEAK treatment prevented the recruitment of T cells to the kidney in this model (4.1+/-1.4 vs 1.8+/-1-fold over healthy control. Our results thus identify TWEAK as a regulator of non-canonical NFkappa

  3. Can ultrasound predict the severity of acute pancreatitis early by observing acute fluid collection?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Luo; Chao Xin Yuan; Yu Lan Peng; Pei Lin Wei; Zhao Da Zhang; Jun Ming Jiang; Lin Dai; Yun Kai Hu

    2001-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION The spectrum of acute pancreatitis (AP) ranges from a mild spontaneously resolved disorder to severe disease with mortality up to 20%-48.4%[1-3]. sAP is defined as the AP with organ failure and /or local complications which developed form acute fluid collection (AFC) including necrosis ,abscess , pseudocyst formation into or around the pancreas [4].

  4. Tubular atrophy in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    The longstanding focus in chronic kidney disease (CKD) research has been on the glomerulus, which is sensible because this is where glomerular filtration occurs, and a large proportion of progressive CKD is associated with significant glomerular pathology. However, it has been known for decades that tubular atrophy is also a hallmark of CKD and that it is superior to glomerular pathology as a predictor of glomerular filtration rate decline in CKD. Nevertheless, there are vastly fewer studies that investigate the causes of tubular atrophy, and fewer still that identify potential therapeutic targets. The purpose of this review is to discuss plausible mechanisms of tubular atrophy, including tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, cell senescence, peritubular capillary rarefaction and downstream tubule ischemia, oxidative stress, atubular glomeruli, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, interstitial inflammation, lipotoxicity and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1 inactivation. Once a a better understanding of tubular atrophy (and interstitial fibrosis) pathophysiology has been obtained, it might then be possible to consider tandem glomerular and tubular therapeutic strategies, in a manner similar to cancer chemotherapy regimens, which employ multiple drugs to simultaneously target different mechanistic pathways.

  5. A cut-off tubular geometry of loop space

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the computation of loop space quantum mechanics as indicated in [7], here we seek a better understanding of the tubular geometry of loop space ${\\cal L}{\\cal M}$ corresponding to a Riemannian manifold ${\\cal M}$ around the submanifold of vanishing loops. Our approach is to first compute the tubular metric of $({\\cal M}^{2N+1})_{C}$ around the diagonal submanifold, where $({\\cal M}^N)_{C}$ is the Cartesian product of $N$ copies of ${\\cal M}$ with a cyclic ordering. This gives an infinite sequence of tubular metrics such that the one relevant to ${\\cal L}{\\cal M}$ can be obtained by taking the limit $N\\to \\infty$. Such metrics are computed by adopting an indirect method where the general tubular expansion theorem of [12] is crucially used. We discuss how the complete reparametrization isometry of loop space arises in the large-$N$ limit and verify that the corresponding Killing equation is satisfied to all orders in tubular expansion. These tubular metrics can alternatively be interpreted as some n...

  6. Straightening tubular flow for side-by-side visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelelli, Paolo; Hauser, Helwig

    2011-12-01

    Flows through tubular structures are common in many fields, including blood flow in medicine and tubular fluid flows in engineering. The analysis of such flows is often done with a strong reference to the main flow direction along the tubular boundary. In this paper we present an approach for straightening the visualization of tubular flow. By aligning the main reference direction of the flow, i.e., the center line of the bounding tubular structure, with one axis of the screen, we are able to natively juxtapose (1.) different visualizations of the same flow, either utilizing different flow visualization techniques, or by varying parameters of a chosen approach such as the choice of seeding locations for integration-based flow visualization, (2.) the different time steps of a time-dependent flow, (3.) different projections around the center line , and (4.) quantitative flow visualizations in immediate spatial relation to the more qualitative classical flow visualization. We describe how to utilize this approach for an informative interactive visual analysis. We demonstrate the potential of our approach by visualizing two datasets from two different fields: an arterial blood flow measurement and a tubular gas flow simulation from the automotive industry. PMID:22034324

  7. Reduction in toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms by vertical tubular biological reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Siyun; Watanabe, Haruna; Wei, Chang; Wang, Dongzhou; Zhou, Jiti; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Masunaga, Shigeki; Zhang, Ying

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a battery of toxicity tests using photo bacterium, algae, crustacean and fish to evaluate acute toxicity profile of coking wastewater, and to evaluate the performance of a novel wastewater treatment process, vertical tubular biological reactor (VTBR), in the removal of toxicity and certain chemical pollutants. A laboratory scale VTBR system was set up to treat industrial coking wastewater, and investigated both chemicals removal efficiency and acute bio-toxicity to aquatic organisms. The results showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol reductions by VTBR were approximately 93% and 100%, respectively. VTBR also reduced the acute toxicity of coking wastewater significantly: Toxicity Unit (TU) decreased from 21.2 to 0.4 for Photobacterium phosphoreum, from 9.5 to 0.6 for Isochrysis galbana, from 31.9 to 1.3 for Daphnia magna, and from 30.0 to nearly 0 for Danio rerio. VTBR is an efficient treatment method for the removal of chemical pollutants and acute bio-toxicity from coking wastewater.

  8. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Dialysis as a Result of Concomitant Use of Atypical Neuroleptics and Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyu Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs is associated with many severe adverse effects that are not observed with marijuana use. We report a unique case of a patient who developed rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI requiring dialysis after use of SCBs combined with quetiapine. Causes for the different adverse effects profile between SCBs and marijuana are not defined yet. Cases reported in literature with SCBs use have been associated with reversible AKI characterized by acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis. Recent studies have showed the involvement of cytochromes P450s (CYPs in biotransformation of SCBs. The use of quetiapine which is a substrate of the CYP3A4 and is excreted (73% as urine metabolites may worsen the side effect profiles of both quetiapine and K2. SCBs use should be included in the differential diagnosis of AKI and serum Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK level should be monitored. Further research is needed to identify the mechanism of SCBs nephrotoxicity.

  9. Oliguric and non-oliguric acute renal failure in malaria in west zone of rajasthan, India-A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bal Kishan Gupta; Kailash Chandra Nayak; Sunil Kumar; Surendra Kumar; Anjli Gupta; Parul Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To report a comparative clinical and histopathological study on oliguric and non-oliguric acute renal failure (ARF) in malaria. Method: 311 consecutive cases of malaria out of which 74 (23.79%) had ARF as per WHO criteria were conducted. Mean age was 32.58 (range 15-60 years) and male: female was 2:1. Result: Most of the cases developed ARF within 10 d of onset. 18 cases (11 falciparum, 2 mixed, 5 vivax) presented with oliguric and 56 (41 falciparum, 6 mixed, 9 vivax) with non-oliguric renal failure. Associated major manifestations were jaundice (75.68%), cerebral malaria (41.89%), bleeding manifestations (32.43%), severe anemia (27.03%), hypotension (25.68%), multi-organ failure (18.92%), severe thrombocytopenia (12.16%), and ARDS (8.11%). Kidney biopsy (n=20) showed acute tubular necrosis (n=7), Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (n=4) or both (n=9). Hemodialysis was done in 8 cases of oliguric renal failure out of which 4 survived (average no. of session 2.9). Conclusion: Most of the cases recovered within 3 weeks. Total mortality was 28.38% (n=21) and mortality was more in oliguric renal failure (72.22%) as compare to non-oliguric renal failure (14.29%).

  10. Toxicological significance of renal Bcrp: Another potential transporter in the elimination of mercuric ions from proximal tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, Christy C., E-mail: bridges_cc@mercer.edu; Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Joshee, Lucy

    2015-06-01

    Secretion of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) from proximal tubular cells into the tubular lumen has been shown to involve the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). Considering similarities in localization and substrate specificity between Mrp2 and the breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), we hypothesize that Bcrp may also play a role in the proximal tubular secretion of mercuric species. In order to test this hypothesis, the uptake of Hg{sup 2+} was examined initially using inside-out membrane vesicles containing Bcrp. The results of these studies suggest that Bcrp may be capable of transporting certain conjugates of Hg{sup 2+}. To further characterize the role of Bcrp in the handling of mercuric ions and in the induction of Hg{sup 2+}-induced nephropathy, Sprague–Dawley and Bcrp knockout (bcrp{sup −/−}) rats were exposed intravenously to a non-nephrotoxic (0.5 μmol·kg{sup −1}), a moderately nephrotoxic (1.5 μmol·kg{sup −1}) or a significantly nephrotoxic (2.0 μmol·kg{sup −1}) dose of HgCl{sub 2}. In general, the accumulation of Hg{sup 2+} was greater in organs of bcrp{sup −/−} rats than in Sprague–Dawley rats, suggesting that Bcrp may play a role in the export of Hg{sup 2+} from target cells. Within the kidney, cellular injury and necrosis was more severe in bcrp{sup −/−} rats than in controls. The pattern of necrosis, which was localized in the inner cortex and the outer stripe of the outer medulla, was significantly different from that observed in Mrp2-deficient animals. These findings suggest that Bcrp may be involved in the cellular export of select mercuric species and that its role in this export may differ from that of Mrp2. - Highlights: • Bcrp may mediate transport of mercury out of proximal tubular cells. • Hg-induced nephropathy was more severe in Bcrp knockout rats. • Bcrp and Mrp2 may differ in their ability to transport Hg.

  11. ERCP in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jijo V Cherian; Joye Varghese Selvaraj; Rajesh Natrayan; Jayanthi Venkataraman

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the management of acute pancreatitis has evolved over years since its introduction in 1968. Its importance in diagnosing the etiology of pancreatitis has steadily declined with the advent of less invasive diagnostic tools. The therapeutic implications of ERCP in acute pancreatitis are many fold and are directed towards management of known etiological factors or its related complications. This article highlights the current status of ERCP in acute pancreatitis. DATA SOURCES:An English literature search using PubMed database was conducted on ERCP in acute pancreatitis, the etiologies and complications of pancreatitis amenable to endotherapy and other related subjects, which were reviewed. RESULTS: ERCP serves as a primary therapeutic modality for management of biliary pancreatitis in speciifc situations, pancreatitis due to microlithiasis, speciifc types of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, pancreas divisum, ascariasis and malignancy. In recurrent acute pancreatitis and smoldering pancreatitis it has a deifnite therapeutic utility. Complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic-duct disruptions or leaks, benign pancreatic-lfuid collections and pancreatic necrosis can be beneifcially dealt with. Intraductal ultrasound and pancreatoscopy during ERCP are useful in detecting pancreatic malignancy. CONCLUSIONS:The role of ERCP in acute pancreatitis is predominantly therapeutic and occasionally diagnostic. Its role in the management continues to evolve and advanced invasive procedures should be undertaken only in centers dedicated to pancreatic care.

  12. Spontaneous necrosis of solid gallbladder adenocarcinoma accompanied with pancreaticobiliary maljunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomohide Hori; Takashi Wagata; Kenji Takemoto; Takanobu Shigeta; Haruko Takuwa; Koichiro Hata; Shinji Uemoto; Naoki Yokoo

    2008-01-01

    A 71-year-old Japanese man with acute cholecystitis and an incarcerated gallbladder (GB) stone was admitted. Plain ultrasonography (US) incidentally detected a mass-like lesion in the fundus. Doppler US revealed that this elevated lesion had no blood flow. Computed tomography showed a relatively low-density mass, measuring 5 cm×4 cm in diameter, with no positive enhancement. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass in the fundus with a slightly low intensity on T1-weighted images and a slightly high intensity on T2-weighted images. We were agonized in making the qualitative diagnosis of mass-like lesions of the fundus, such as a benign tumor, cancer, or debris. We performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy, because the incarcerated GB stone clearly caused acute cholecystitis. Intra-operative cholangiography clearly revealed pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Amylase levels in the common bile duct and gallbladder were quite high. The elevated lesion in the fundus clearly showed severe necrosis. Although this necrotic nodule included non-viable adenocarcinoma cells, viable cancer cell nests were located in the muscularis propria and subcutaneous layer. Histopathological examination confirmed a solid adenocarcinoma. Thus, we diagnosed it as a gallbladder cancer, based on histopathological analysis of the resected specimen. We therefore undertook radical surgery, including wedge resection of the liver, radical dissection of regional lymph nodes, and resection of the extrahepatic bile duct. Histopathological findings revealed no cancer, hyperplasia or dysplasia in the additionally resected specimens. The patient was finally staged as T2, NO, H0, P0, M(-), stage 11. We present the first case of spontaneous necrosis of solid gallbladder adenocarcinoma, with a review of previous studies.

  13. Toward high-torque electrostatic tubular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Philippe; Bourbon, Gilles; Minotti, Patrice; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    1999-10-01

    A new generation of electrostatic micro-motors is investigated using cooperation of arrayed direct-drive actuators. Electrostatic scratch-drive actuators (SDA), which combine active frictional contact mechanisms with electrostatic actuation, are particularly analyzed. Active polysilicon sheets of 2*3 mm2 that integrate up to several thousands of electrostatic scratch drive actuators are fabricated by silicon surface micro-machining process. Each elementary actuator provides its contribution according to the driving force superposition principle, with internal forces as high as 105uN are available from this sheet. According to their natural flexibility, active polysilicon sheets can be coated onto large surfaces. A new generation of self-assembled tubular electrostatic micromotors is developed using this concept. A prototype of a cylindrical micromotor, whose external diameter and length are 1 mm and 2 mm, respectively, has been realized through the insertion of a flexible active polysilicon sheet at the rotor/motor- frame interface. After final assembling, the sheet has to be jammed onto the chassis, in order to allow the rotor to be moved with respect to the motor frame. Thus, the sheet must be in close contact with both the rotor and the motor frame, whatever the gap, which separates the two macroscopic parts. The problem related to the micro/macro world interfacing is solved during the design of sheet in allowing an out-of- plane motion of SDA in order to provide a self gap compensation, whatever both the thermal expansion effects and the macroscopic machining tolerances. The expected driving characteristics show the interest of both cooperative arrayed microactuators and direct drive frictional mechanisms.

  14. Correlation of MRI Biomarkers with Tumor Necrosis in Hras5 Tumor Xenograft in Athymic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Bradley

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can measure the effects of therapies targeting the tumor vasculature and has demonstrated that vascular-damaging agents (VDA induce acute vascular shutdown in tumors in human and animal models. However, at subtherapeutic doses, blood flow may recover before the induction of significant levels of necrosis. We present the relationship between changes in MRI biomarkers and tumor necrosis. Multiple MRI measurements were taken at 4.7 T in athymic rats (n = 24 bearing 1.94 ± 0.2-cm3 subcutaneous Hras5 tumors (ATCC 41000 before and 24 hours after clinically relevant doses of the VDA, ZD6126 (0-10 mg/kg, i.v.. We measured effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*, initial area under the gadolinium concentration-time curve (IAUGC60/150, equivalent enhancing fractions (EHF60/150, time constant (Ktrans, proportion of hypoperfused voxels as estimated from fit failures in Ktrans analysis, and signal intensity (SI in T2-weighted MRI (T2W. ZD6126 treatment induced < 90% dose-dependent tumor necrosis at 10 mg/kg; correspondingly, SI changes were evident from T2W MRI. Although R2* did not correlate, other MRI biomarkers significantly correlated with necrosis at doses of ≥ 5 mg/kg ZD6126. These data on Hras5 tumors suggest that the quantification of hypoperfused voxels might provide a useful biomarker of tumor necrosis.

  15. IGF-1 protects tubular epithelial cells during injury via activation of ERK/MAPK signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zengbin; Yu, Yang; Niu, Lei; Fei, Aihua; Pan, Shuming

    2016-01-01

    Injury of renal tubular epithelial cells can induce acute renal failure and obstructive nephropathy. Previous studies have shown that administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) ameliorates the renal injury in a mouse unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model, whereas the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we addressed this question. We found that the administration of IGF-1 significantly reduced the severity of the renal fibrosis in UUO. By analyzing purified renal epithelial cells, we found that IGF-1 significantly reduced the apoptotic cell death of renal epithelial cells, seemingly through upregulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, at protein but not mRNA level. Bioinformatics analyses and luciferase-reporter assay showed that miR-429 targeted the 3′-UTR of Bcl-2 mRNA to inhibit its protein translation in renal epithelial cells. Moreover, IGF-1 suppressed miR-429 to increase Bcl-2 in renal epithelial cells to improve survival after UUO. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK/MAPK signaling pathway in renal epithelial cells abolished the suppressive effects of IGF-1 on miR-429 activation, and then the enhanced effects on Bcl-2 in UUO. Thus, our data suggest that IGF-1 may protect renal tubular epithelial cells via activation of ERK/MAPK signaling pathway during renal injury. PMID:27301852

  16. Immobilization increases interleukin-6, but not tumour necrosis factor-a, release from the leg during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reihmane, Dace; Hansen, Andreas Vigelsø; Jensen, Martin Gram;

    2013-01-01

    Data on interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) release during acute exercise are not conclusive, and information is lacking about the impact of physical inactivity. Some studies have shown an increase, but others report no changes in IL-6 and TNF-a release during exercise. We...

  17. Proximal tubular dysfunction as an indicator of chronic graft dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O.S. Câmara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available New strategies are being devised to limit the impact of renal sclerosis on graft function. Individualization of immunosuppression, specifically the interruption of calcineurin-inhibitors has been tried in order to promote better graft survival once chronic graft dysfunction has been established. However, the long-term impact of these approaches is still not totally clear. Nevertheless, patients at higher risk for tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (TA/IF development should be carefully monitored for tubular function as well as glomerular performance. Since tubular-interstitial impairment is an early event in TA/IF pathogenesis and associated with graft function, it seems reasonable that strategies directed at assessing tubular structural integrity and function would yield important functional and prognostic data. The measurement of small proteins in urine such as α-1-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha/pi S-glutathione transferases, β-2 microglobulin, and retinol binding protein is associated with proximal tubular cell dysfunction. Therefore, its straightforward assessment could provide a powerful tool in patient monitoring and ongoing clinical assessment of graft function, ultimately helping to facilitate longer patient and graft survival associated with good graft function.

  18. Fatigue Life of High-Strength Steel Offshore Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Ingomar; Agerskov, Henning; Lopez Martinez, Luis

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high-strength......In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high...... from Ø 324-610 mm tubes, and the joints were loaded in in-plane bending. Both fatigue tests under constant amplitude loading and tests with a stochastic loading that is realistic in relation to offshore structures, are included in the investigation.A comparison between constant amplitude and variable...... amplitude fatigue test results showed shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, the fatigue tests on high-strength steel tubular joints showed slightly longer fatigue lives than those obtained in...

  19. The effect of Artemisia annua on expression of tumor necrosis factor-αin rats with acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury%青蒿素对脑缺血/再灌注损伤大鼠肿瘤坏死因子-α表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗悦晨; 梁林; 臧照辉; 董化江; 杨徳慧; 李伯森; 单云官

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨青蒿素对脑缺血/再灌注(I/R)损伤大鼠肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)的影响.方法将40只Wistar大鼠按随机数字表法分为假手术组、模型组及青蒿素低、中、高浓度组,每组8只.采用大脑中动脉闭塞法(MCAO)复制局灶性脑I/R损伤大鼠模型.制模成功后,假手术组和模型组均灌胃30 ml生理盐水,青蒿素低、中、高浓度组分别由腹腔注射青蒿素200、300、400 mg/kg,均每日1次,连续60 d.采用放射免疫法(RIA)检测血清TNF-α含量,逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)和蛋白质免疫印迹法(Western blotting)检测关节软骨组织TNF-αmRNA和蛋白表达.结果与假手术组比较,模型组和青蒿素各浓度组血清TNF-α含量和组织TNF-αmRNA及蛋白表达均明显升高;与模型组比较,青蒿素各浓度组血清TNF-α含量及组织TNF-αmRNA和蛋白表达均明显下降(均P<0.05),以青蒿素高浓度组下降更显著〔血清TNF-α(μg/L):51.9±9.4比88.3±9.7,TNF-αmRNA:0.20±0.14比0.77±0.31,TNF-α蛋白:0.19±0.08比0.76±0.09,均P<0.05〕.结论青蒿素可降低脑I/R损伤大鼠TNF-α的表达,有效控制炎症反应进程.%Objective To detect the effect of Artemisia annua on tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)in rats with acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion(I/R)injury. Methods Forty Wistar rats were randomized into sham operation group,model group,Artemisia annua high-,middle-and low-dose groups,each n=8. The model of focal cerebral I/R injury was reproduced by middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO). In the sham operation group and model group,30 ml normal saline was administered intra-gastrically,while in Artemisia annua low-,middle-and high-dose groups,200,300 and 400 mg/kg Artemisia annua were intra-peritoneally injected,respectively,once a day for consecutive 60 days in all the groups. The serum content of TNF-αwas detected by radioimmunoassay,and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)and Western blotting

  20. Wnt4 is a novel biomarker for the early detection of kidney tubular injury after ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shi-Lei; Wei, Shi-Yao; Wang, Yu-Xiao; Diao, Tian-Tian; Li, Jian-Si; He, Yi-Xin; Yu, Jing; Jiang, Xi-Yue; Cao, Yang; Mao, Xin-Yue; Wei, Qiu-Ju; Wang, Yu; Li, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Earlier intervention after acute kidney injury would promote better outcomes. Our previous study found that Wnt proteins are promptly upregulated after ischemic kidney injury. Thus, we assessed whether Wnt4 could be an early and sensitive biomarker of tubular injury. We subjected mice to bilateral ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Kidney and urinary Wnt4 expression showed an early increase at 3 hours and increased further at 24 hours post-IRI and was closely correlated with histopathological alterations. Serum creatinine slightly increased at 6 hours, indicating that it was less sensitive than Wnt4 expression. These data were further confirmed by clinical study. Both kidney and urinary Wnt4 expression were significantly increased in patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD) with tubular injury, all of whom nevertheless had normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and serum creatinine. The increased Wnt4 expression also strongly correlated with histopathological alterations in these MCD patients. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that increases in both kidney and urinary Wnt4 expression can be detected more sensitively and earlier than serum creatinine after kidney injury. In particular, urinary Wnt4 could be a potential noninvasive biomarker for the early detection of tubular injury. PMID:27600466

  1. Lipopolysaccharide-induced acute renal failure in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Thomas E N; Graebe, Martin; Promeneur, Dominique;

    2002-01-01

    In conscious, chronically instrumented rats we examined 1) renal tubular functional changes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute renal failure; 2) the effects of LPS on the expression of selected renal tubular water and sodium transporters; and 3) effects of milrinone......, a phosphodiesterase type 3 (PDE3) inhibitor, and Ro-20-1724, a PDE4 inhibitor, on LPS-induced changes in renal function. Intravenous infusion of LPS (4 mg/kg b.wt. over 1 h) caused an immediate decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proximal tubular outflow without changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP......-alpha and lactate, inhibited the LPS-induced tachycardia, and exacerbated the acute LPS-induced fall in GFR. Furthermore, Ro-20-1724-treated rats were unable to maintain MAP. We conclude 1) PDE3 or PDE4 inhibition exacerbates LPS-induced renal failure in conscious rats; and 2) LPS treated rats develop an escape...

  2. Urinary granzyme A mRNA is a biomarker to diagnose subclinical and acute cellular rejection in kidney transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Ham; K.M. Heutinck; T. Jorritsma; F.J. Bemelman; M.C.M. Strik; W. Vos; J.J.F. Muris; S. Florquin; R.J.M. ten Berge; A.T. Rowshani

    2010-01-01

    The distinction between T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) and other causes of kidney transplant dysfunction such as tubular necrosis requires biopsy. Subclinical rejection (SCR), an established risk factor for chronic allograft dysfunction, can only be diagnosed by protocol biopsy. A specific non-inv

  3. The glomerulo-tubular junction: a target in renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindop, G B M; Gibson, I W; Downie, T T; Vass, D; Cohen, E P

    2002-05-01

    Both global and segmental glomerulopathies may damage specific areas of the renal glomerulus. Diseases associated with glomerular hyperperfusion cause lesions at the vascular pole, while diseases associated with proteinuria often damage the tubular pole. Atubular glomeruli are now known to be plentiful in a variety of common renal diseases. These glomeruli are disconnected from their tubule at the tubular pole and therefore cannot participate in the production of urine. It is widely believed that the disconnection is a result of external compression by periglomerular fibrosis. However, the variable anatomy and cell populations within both the glomerulus and the beginning of the proximal tubule at the glomerulo-tubular junction may also have important roles to play in the response to damage at this sensitive site of the nephron.

  4. Power generation characteristics of tubular type SOFC by wet process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajiri, H.; Nakayama, T. [Kyushu Electric Power Company, Inc., Fukuoka (Japan); Kuroishi, M. [TOTO Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The development of a practical solid oxide fuel cell requires improvement of a cell performance and a cell manufacturing technology suitable for the mass production. In particular tubular type SOFC is thought to be superior in its reliability because its configuration can avoid the high temperature sealing and reduce the thermal stress resulting from the contact between cells. The authors have fabricated a tubular cell with an air electrode support by a wet processing technique, which is suitable for mass production in improving a power density. To enhance the power output of the module, the Integrated Tubular-Type (ITT) cell has been developed. This paper reports the performance of the single cells with various active anode areas and the bundle with series-connected 9-ITT cells with an active anode area of 840 cm{sup 2}.

  5. The prognostic value of tumor necrosis in patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    significant if only smaller tumors with a volume below 3.5 cm3 (p = 0.03). Side effects were rare, only one patient suffered from serious acute side effects. Results of this retrospective study support that stereotactic radiotherapy is an effective treatment option for patients with metastatic brain lesions. The prognostic impact of visible tumor necrosis (ring-enhancement) on pretreatment MRI scans should be further investigated

  6. Renal histology and immunopathology in distal renal tubular acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feest, T G; Lockwood, C M; Morley, A R; Uff, J S

    1978-11-01

    Renal biospy studies are reported from 10 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (DRTA). On the biopsies from 6 patients who had associated immunological abnormalities immunofluorescent studies for immunoglobulins, complement, and fibrin were performed. Interstitial cellular infiltration and fibrosis were common findings in patients with and without immunological abnormalities, and were usually associated with nephrocalcinosis and/or recurrent urinary infection. No immune deposits were demonstrated in association with the renal tubules. This study shows that DRTA in immunologically abnormal patients is not caused by tubular deposition of antibody or immune complexes. The possibility of cell mediated immune damage is discussed.

  7. Study of Internal Ballistics of Hepta-Tubular Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gupta

    1959-04-01

    Full Text Available In thin paper a solution of the system of equations in Internal Ballistics of a, conventional gun has been discussed for the hepta-tubular powder. The shot-start pressure is taken diffe- rent from zero and the covolume correction also is taken I. into amount and thus some of the results of Tavernierl who has taken zero shot-start preasure and has neglected the . covolume~omtion, have been generalised. It has been. found out that the maximum pressure in the case of hepta-tubular powders always occurs before the all-burnt position.

  8. Amylase: creatinine clearance ratio and urinary excretion of lysozyme in acute pancreatitis and acute duodenal perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, G M; Cowlin, J; Turner, T J

    1976-09-18

    The amylase:creatinine clearance ratio in patients suffering from acute pancreatitis or acute duodenal perforation was higher than normal in both groups of patients. These findings cast doubt on the value of this parameter as a specific index of acute pancreatitis. The mechanism or mechanisms underlying the increased amylase excretion have not been determined. However, the markedly elevated urinary excretion of lysozyme observed in some patients suggests, by analogy, that diminished tubular reabsorption of amylase may contribute towards the elevated amylase:creatinine ratio.

  9. [Laparascopic cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokin, A N; Chistiakov, A A; Mamalygina, L A; Zheliabin, D G; Osokin, G Iu

    2008-01-01

    Experience of diagnostics and treatment of 758 patients with acute cholecystitis was summarized. Authors attach the main importance to evaluation of ultrasound data and functional condition of respiratory and cardio-vascular sistem choosing the method of surgical treatment. Sparse use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in treatment of acute cholecystitis compared with chronic may be explouned by presence of complications in patients which make problems in differentiation of tubular structures during the operation. Authors offered to use ultrasound dissection for clear identification of tubular structures and argon coagulation for hemostasis and safe mobilization of gall bladder. Stick to suggested tactics authors practically doubled the amount of performed laparoscopic cholecystectomies reducing at the same time the frequency of complications. PMID:19301492

  10. Mediators of Inflammation in Acute Kidney Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Akcay; Quocan Nguyen; Edelstein, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains to be an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity. Inflammation is now believed to play a major role in the pathopathophysiology of AKI. It is hypothesized that in ischemia, sepsis and nephrotoxic models that the initial insult results in morphological and/or functional changes in vascular endothelial cells and/or in tubular epithelium. Then, leukocytes including neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes infiltrate into the in...

  11. 重组人促红细胞生成素对脑缺血大鼠脑组织肿瘤坏死因子及白细胞介素6表达的影响%Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on expressions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inter ieukin-6 in rats with acute cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金; 郭军红; 严澎; 王慧芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin(rhEPO)on expressions of tumon necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) and inter leukin-6(IL-6) in rats after focal cerebral ischemia and to explore its neuroprotective mechanism.Methods A total of 36 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group (n=12),model group (n=12) and rhEPO treatment group (n=12).The suture method to make permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model was adopted.rhEPO treatment group was injected with rhEPO 5000 U/kg intraperitoneally after 2 h of ischemia,whereas model group and sham-operated group were given identical saline at the same time.All rats were decapitated after 24 h of ischemia.6 rats were randomly selected in each group and the infarct volume of groups were measured by Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC)staining method.The expressions of TNF-α,IL-6 in other rats were detected by immunohistochemistry.Results No infarction was found in sham-operated group.Percentage of infarct volume in model group and rhEPO group were (36.672.40)% and (27.49± 1.47)%,respectively.Compared with the model group,the volume of infarction in rhEPO group was significantly reduced.Cells stained by immunohistochemistry showed that The numbers of TNF-α-positive cells in the 3 groups were 9.001.41,27.83±2.48,17.50±1.87 and IL 6 positive cells were 8.94±2.31,20.33±3.53,14.83±1.70,respectively.Compared with sham operated group,the expressions of TNF-α and IL 6 in model group were significantly increased (q=16.1,19.6,P<0.01).Compared with the model group,the expressions of TNF α and IL-6 in rhEPO group were significantly decreased (q=8.19,3.44,all P<0.01).Conclusions rhEPO can decrease the infarct volume in SD rats after acute focal cerebral ischemic injure.rhEPO might exert its neuroprotective effect by reducing the expressions of TNF α and IL-6.%目的 观察重组人促红细胞生成素(rhEPO)对大鼠永久性脑缺血脑组织中肿瘤坏死因

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ agonist, HPP593, prevents renal necrosis under chronic ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa V Fedorova

    Full Text Available The Goldblatt's 2 kidney 1 clip (2K1C rat animal model of renovascular hypertension is characterized by ischemic nephropathy of the clipped kidney. 2K1C rats were treated with a specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ agonist, HPP593. Clipped kidneys from untreated rats developed tubular and glomerular necrosis and massive interstitial, periglomerular and perivascular fibrosis. HPP593 kidneys did not exhibit any histochemical features of necrosis; fibrotic lesions were present only in perivascular areas. Necrosis in the untreated clipped kidneys was associated with an increased oxidative stress, up regulation and mitochondrial translocation of the pro-death protein BNIP3 specifically in tubules. In the kidneys of HPP593-treated rats oxidative stress was attenuated and BNIP3 protein decreased notably in the mitochondrial fraction when compared to untreated animals. In untreated clipped kidneys, mitochondria were dysfunctional as revealed by perturbations in the levels of MCAD, COXIV, TFAM, and Parkin proteins and AMPK activation, while in HPP593-treated rats these proteins remained at the physiological levels. Nuclear amounts of oxidative stress-responsive proteins, NRF1 and NRF2 were below physiological levels in treated kidneys. Mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy were inhibited similarly in both treated and untreated 2K1C kidneys as indicated by a decrease in PGC1-α and deficiency of the autophagy-essential proteins LC3-II and ATG5. However, HPP593 treatment resulted in increased accumulation of p62 protein, an autophagic substrate and an enhancer of NRF2 activity. Therefore, inhibition of BNIP3 activation by the preservation of mitochondrial function and control of oxidative stress by PPARδ is the most likely mechanism to account for the prevention of necrotic death in the kidney under conditions of persistent ischemia.

  13. Muscle imaging in patients with tubular aggregate myopathy caused by mutations in STIM1

    OpenAIRE

    Tasca, Giorgio; D'Amico, Adele; Monforte, Mauro; Nadaj-Pakleza, Aleksandra; Vialle, Marc; Fattori, Fabiana; Vissing, John; Ricci, Enzo; Bertini, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Tubular aggregate myopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by tubular aggregates as the hallmark on muscle biopsy. Mutations in STIM1 have recently been identified as one genetic cause in a number of tubular aggregate myopathy cases. To characterize the pattern of muscle involvement in this disease, upper and lower girdles and lower limbs were imaged in five patients with mutations in STIM1, and the scans were compared with two patients with tubular aggregate myopathy not...

  14. Subanalytic Bundles and Tubular Neighbourhoods of Zero-Loci

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishwambhar Pati

    2003-08-01

    We introduce the natural and fairly general notion of a subanalytic bundle (with a finite dimensional vector space of sections) on a subanalytic subset of a real analytic manifold , and prove that when is compact, there is a Baire subset of sections in whose zero-loci in have tubular neighbourhoods, homeomorphic to the restriction of the given bundle to these zero-loci.

  15. Theoretical flow investigations of an all glass evacuated tubular collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Heat transfer and flow structures inside all glass evacuated tubular collectors for different operating conditions are investigated by means of computational fluid dynamics. The investigations are based on a collector design with horizontal tubes connected to a vertical 14 manifold channel. Three...

  16. Glutamatergic signaling maintains the epithelial phenotype of proximal tubular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozic, M.; de Rooij, J.; Parisi, E.; Ortega, M.R.; Fernandez, E.; Valdivielso, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to the progression of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), which is present in proximal tubular epithelium, is a glutamate receptor that acts as a calcium channel. Activation of NMDAR induces actin rearrange

  17. Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in Early Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiseha, Temesgen; Tamir, Zemenu

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common and serious complication of diabetes associated with adverse outcomes of renal failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Early and accurate identification of DN is therefore of critical importance to improve patient outcomes. Albuminuria, a marker of glomerular involvement in early renal damage, cannot always detect early DN. Thus, more sensitive and specific markers in addition to albuminuria are needed to predict the early onset and progression of DN. Tubular injury, as shown by the detection of tubular injury markers in the urine, is a critical component of the early course of DN. These urinary tubular markers may increase in diabetic patients, even before diagnosis of microalbuminuria representing early markers of normoalbuminuric DN. In this review we summarized some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury, such as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG), alpha-1 microglobulin (A1M), beta 2-microglobulin (B2-M), and retinol binding protein (RBP) associated with early DN. PMID:27293888

  18. Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiseha, Temesgen; Tamir, Zemenu

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common and serious complication of diabetes associated with adverse outcomes of renal failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Early and accurate identification of DN is therefore of critical importance to improve patient outcomes. Albuminuria, a marker of glomerular involvement in early renal damage, cannot always detect early DN. Thus, more sensitive and specific markers in addition to albuminuria are needed to predict the early onset and progression of DN. Tubular injury, as shown by the detection of tubular injury markers in the urine, is a critical component of the early course of DN. These urinary tubular markers may increase in diabetic patients, even before diagnosis of microalbuminuria representing early markers of normoalbuminuric DN. In this review we summarized some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury, such as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG), alpha-1 microglobulin (A1M), beta 2-microglobulin (B2-M), and retinol binding protein (RBP) associated with early DN. PMID:27293888

  19. Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Fiseha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a common and serious complication of diabetes associated with adverse outcomes of renal failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Early and accurate identification of DN is therefore of critical importance to improve patient outcomes. Albuminuria, a marker of glomerular involvement in early renal damage, cannot always detect early DN. Thus, more sensitive and specific markers in addition to albuminuria are needed to predict the early onset and progression of DN. Tubular injury, as shown by the detection of tubular injury markers in the urine, is a critical component of the early course of DN. These urinary tubular markers may increase in diabetic patients, even before diagnosis of microalbuminuria representing early markers of normoalbuminuric DN. In this review we summarized some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury, such as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG, alpha-1 microglobulin (A1M, beta 2-microglobulin (B2-M, and retinol binding protein (RBP associated with early DN.

  20. The role of AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors in the mechanism of apoptosis in renal tubular cells after physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhorska-Okołów, M; Dziegiel, P; Gomułkiewicz, A; Dolińska-Krajewska, B; Murawska-Ciałowicz, E; Jethon, Z; Zabel, M

    2004-01-01

    Intensive physical exercise disturbs the entire homeostasis in the body and leads to changes in haemodynamic and metabolic alterations not only in skeletal muscles but also in many distant organs. In response to acute physical exercise, a decrease of the glomerular filtration may occur, followed by stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Recent studies have shown that both AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors may play a role in mediating the apoptotic process in the kidney. Our previous studies have demonstrated an occurrence of apoptosis in rat renal tubular cells after an excessive exercise. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible mechanism of exercise-induced apoptosis in rat kidney. The analysis was performed on kidneys of rats, subjected to treadmill running until exhaustion. Apoptosis was detected in paraffin sections by the TUNEL technique. The expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors in renal tubular cells was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Our results confirmed that apoptosis after physical exercise is present in renal distal tubular cells. Moreover, there was an increased expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors in distal tubular cells. These studies suggest that physical exercise may induce apoptosis by a mechanism, involving the activation of angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors. PMID:15638358

  1. Geochemical characterization of tubular alteration features in subseafloor basalt glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Emily; Staudigel, Hubert; Templeton, Alexis

    2013-07-01

    There are numerous indications that subseafloor basalts may currently host a huge quantity of active microbial cells and contain biosignatures of ancient life in the form of physical and chemical basalt glass alteration. Unfortunately, technological challenges prevent us from observing the formation and mineralization of these alteration features in situ, or reproducing tubular basalt alteration processes in the laboratory. Therefore, comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical traces retained in mineralized tubules is currently the best approach for deciphering a record of glass alteration. We have used a number of high-resolution spectroscopic and microscopic methods to probe the geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of tubular alteration features in basalt glasses obtained from a suite of subseafloor drill cores that covers a range of different collection locations and ages. By combining three different synchrotron-based X-ray measurements - X-ray fluorescence microprobe mapping, XANES spectroscopy, and μ-XRD - with focused ion beam milling and transmission electron microscopy, we have spatially resolved the major and trace element distributions, as well as the oxidation state of Fe, determined the coordination chemistry of Fe, Mn and Ti at the micron-scale, and constrained the secondary minerals within these features. The tubular alteration features are characterized by strong losses of Fe2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+ compared to fresh glass, oxidation of the residual Fe, and the accumulation of Ti and Cu. The predominant phases infilling the alteration regions are Fe3+-bearing silicates dominated by 2:1 clays, with secondary Fe- and Ti-oxides, and a partially oxidized Mn-silicate phase. These geochemical patterns observed within the tubular alteration features are comparable across a diverse suite of samples formed over the past 5-100 Ma, which shows that the microscale mineralization processes are common and consistent throughout the ocean basins and

  2. Acute pancreatitis : new frontiers in diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santvoort, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas mostly caused by gallstones and alcohol abuse. Around 15 to 20% of patients show a severe clinical course, which is characterised by multiple organ failure and necrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma and/ or peripancreatic fat tissue. In arou

  3. INFLAMMATION AND ACUTE PHASE RESPONSE

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Aziz Khan; Mohd Fareed Khan

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infection takes place by the cooperative cascade of cytokines and leukocytes. Tumor necrosis factor, interlukin-1, and interlukin-6 play important roles as proinflammatory cytokines to mediate local inflammation and activate other inflammatory cells e.g. neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. At least 15 different low molecular weight cytokine are secreted by activated leukocytes and are responsible for triggering acute phase response in the form of fever, leukocytosi...

  4. An unreported complication of acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Muthukumarasamy, G; V. Shanmugam; Yule, SR; Ravindran, R

    2007-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis constitutes 3% of all admissions with abdominal pain. There are reports of osteal fat necrosis leading to periosteal reactions and osteolytic lesions following severe pancreatitis, particularly in long bones. A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with acute pancretitis, who later developed spinal discitis secondary to necrotizing pancreatitis. He was treated conservatively with antibiotics and after a month he recovered completely without any neurological deficit. ...

  5. Tracheal necrosis with surgical emphysema following thyroidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan A; Ganguly M; Saidha N; Gulia P

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis after thyroidectomy is an extremely rare event with only a few published reports. We present a case of a 65-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema of face and upper thorax on the seventh day following total thyroidectomy. Prompt surgical exploration of neck revealed a tracheal rent at the level of the second tracheal ring. This hole was then refashioned into a formal tracheostomy. Patient had an eventful recovery. Tracheostomy was closed by the 14...

  6. Tissue necrosis following intramuscular diclofenac injection

    OpenAIRE

    Baykan, Halit; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kapı, Emin; Çelik, Feyzi

    2010-01-01

    Following intramuscular drug injections, livedoid dermatitis (also known as embolia cutis medicamentosa or Nicolau Syndrome), characterized by pain, skin discoloration, and cutaneous necrosis, may rarely be observed. In the present study, we present a 32-year-old male patient who developed Nicolau Syndrome after intramuscular injection of single-dose diclofenac sodium 75 mg due to renal colic pain. The physical examination revealed skin discoloration in his left gluteal region, and a skin nec...

  7. Tissue necrosis following intramuscular diclofenac injection

    OpenAIRE

    Feyzi Çelik; Emin Kapı; Mehmet Bozkurt; Samet Vasfi Kuvat; Halit Baykan

    2010-01-01

    Following intramuscular drug injections, livedoid dermati-tis (also known as embolia cutis medicamentosa or NicolauSyndrome), characterized by pain, skin discoloration,and cutaneous necrosis, may rarely be observed. In thepresent study, we present a 32-year-old male patient whodeveloped Nicolau Syndrome after intramuscular injec-tion of single-dose diclofenac sodium 75 mg due to renalcolic pain. The physical examination revealed skin discol-oration in his left gluteal region, and a skin necro...

  8. Cytokines and Organ Failure in Acute Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Marie Louise; Hansen, Mark Berner; Andersen, Anders Møller;

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed at synchronously examining the early time course of 4 proinflammatory cytokines as predictive factors for development of organ failure in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods: Interleukin (IL) 6, IL-8, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor > were measured on admission...

  9. Acute cardiac failure in neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sparrow, Patrick

    2012-02-03

    We present a case of rapid onset acute cardiac failure developing as part of neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a 35-year-old woman following treatment with thioridazine and lithium. Post mortem histology of cardiac and skeletal muscle showed similar changes of focal cellular necrosis and vacuolation suggesting a common disease process.

  10. Vitamin C Attenuates Hemorrhagic Shock-induced Dendritic Cell-specific Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 3-grabbing Nonintegrin Expression in Tubular Epithelial Cells and Renal Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ma; Jian Fei; Ying Chen; Bing Zhao; Zhi-Tao Yang; Lu Wang; Hui-Qiu Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background:The expression of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) in renal tubular epithelial cells has been thought to be highly correlated with the occurrence of several kidney diseases,but whether it takes place in renal tissues during hemorrhagic shock (HS) is unknown.The present study aimed to investigate this phenomenon and the inhibitory effect of Vitamin C (VitC).Methods:A Sprague-Dawley rat HS model was established in vivo in this study.The expression level and location of DC-SIGN were observed in kidneys.Also,the degree of histological damage,the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in the renal tissues,and the serum concentration of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine at different times (2-24 h) after HS (six rats in each group),with or without VitC treatment before resuscitation,were evaluated.Results:HS induced DC-SIGN expression in rat tubular epithelial cells.The proinflammatory cytokine concentration,histological damage scores,and functional injury of kidneys had increased.All these phenomena induced by HS were relieved when the rats were treated with VitC before resuscitation.Conclusions:The results of the present study illustrated that HS could induce tubular epithelial cells expressing DC-SIGN,and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the kidney tissues improved correspondingly.The results also indicated that VitC could suppress the DC-SIGN expression in the tubular epithelial cells induced by HS and alleviate the inflammation and functional injury in the kidney.

  11. INFLAMMATION AND ACUTE PHASE RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Aziz Khan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infection takes place by the cooperative cascade of cytokines and leukocytes. Tumor necrosis factor, interlukin-1, and interlukin-6 play important roles as proinflammatory cytokines to mediate local inflammation and activate other inflammatory cells e.g. neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. At least 15 different low molecular weight cytokine are secreted by activated leukocytes and are responsible for triggering acute phase response in the form of fever, leukocytosis, increased secretion of adreno corticotropic hormones, and production of acute phase proteins. Acute phase proteins are produced in liver under the influence of cytokines, which through blood stream passes to the site of inflammation and kill the pathogens by opsonization and activating complement pathways. The changes in the concentrations of positive acute-phase proteins and negative acute-phase proteins are due to the changes in their production by liver. Three of the best known acute phase proteins are C-reactive protein, serum anyloid A, and haptoglobin. Some disease states are casually related to acute phase proteins. C-reactive protein mediated compliment activation has a key role in some forms of tissue alteration such as cardiac infarction. Elevated S amyloid A levels are seen in chronic arthritis and tuberculosis. Other acute phase proteins show more moderate rise, usually less than fivefold.

  12. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  13. Genetic and immunologic aspects of acute pancreatitis : An odyssey

    OpenAIRE

    Nijmeijer, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of acute hospitalization for gastrointestinal diseases. The course of acute pancreatitis is often mild and self-limiting, but in 15-25% of patients, pancreatitis is severe with an increased mortality risk. Infectious complications, and especially bacterial infection of pancreatic necrosis, are commonly accepted as the major cause of death for patients with this disease. The aim of the research described in this thesis was to gain more insight in some of...

  14. Luminous effectiveness of tubular light-guides in tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darula, Stanislav; Kittler, Richard; Kocifaj, Miroslav [ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 9, Dubravska Road, 845 03 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-11-15

    Novel tubular light-guides with a transparent hemispherical cupola placed on an unobstructed flat roof collect all sunlight and skylight available at ground level year round. This advantage is heightened in the dry and sunny tropical regions where the sun rises to very high altitudes and often the hours of sunshine last throughout the whole day. Hollow light-guides with very high inner specular reflectances can transport sunbeams downward into the windowless building core very effectively. Due to the tube's diameter and length and multiple reflections, complex illuminance patterns are produced on the underside of the tube, i.e. on top of the glazed ceiling aperture that illuminates the interior space or its working plane. This paper discusses several daylight conditions in tropical interiors illuminated by tubular light-guides. The recently published HOLIGILM calculation program and the user-friendly tool HOLIGILM 4.2 have facilitated the production of this paper. (author)

  15. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted......; 13 had incomplete and 1 had complete distal RTA. Distal RTA was found particularly in recurrent stone formers (17%), and especially in those with bilateral stone disease, where a distal renal tubular acidification defect was found in 50%. We have been unable to differentiate primary from secondary...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use...

  16. A Long Term Test of Differently Designed Evacuated Tubular Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    During three years seven differently designed evacuated tubular collectors (ETCs) utilizing solar radiation from all directions have been investigated experimentally. The evacuated tubular solar collectors investigated include one SLL all-glass ETC from Tshinghua Solar Co. Ltd, four heat pipe ETCs...... of the inlet fluid to the collectors have been the same for all collectors. The volume flow rate through each of the collectors is adjusted so that the mean solar collector fluid temperature has been the same for all collectors. Thus a direct performance comparison is possible. The side-by-side tests were...... carried out with different mean solar collector fluid temperatures and in different seasons of the year. The results of the measurements are presented in this paper. The influence of the mean solar collector fluid temperature on the thermal performance of the different collector designs will be discussed...

  17. Segmental tubular sodium reabsorption in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, H; Eshøj, O; Leyssac, P P;

    1993-01-01

    Segmental tubular sodium reabsorption in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes was measured in 36 patients in a cross-sectional study including one group (n = 13) without significant albuminuria (UalbV 1), one group (n = 16) with albuminuria in the range from 30 to 300 mg 24 h-1......, and a group (n = 7) with nephropathy (UalbV > 300 mg 24 h-1). Lithium clearance was used to measure end proximal delivery. From end proximal delivery, 51Cr-EDTA clearance (GFR) and sodium clearance, segmental tubular reabsorption was calculated. For all patients, GFR was directly correlated with end proximal...... delivery (r = 0.62, p 1, the direct correlation between GFR and end proximal delivery was also significant (r = 0.77, p

  18. [Primary distal renal tubular acidosis: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Jihene Ben; Charfeddine, Bassem; Braham, Imen; Neffati, Souhir; Othmen, Leila Ben; Letaief, Affef; Smach, Mohamed Ali; Bourfifa, Zoheier; Dridi, Hedi; Limem, Khalifa

    2011-01-01

    The primary distal renal tubular acidosis is characterized biochemically by the inability of the kidney to produce appropriately acid urine in the presence of systemic metabolic acidosis or after acid loading (e.g. ammonium chloride). It is secondary to defective excretion of H(+) by the cells of the collecting duct. We report the observation of the child MC, 4-year-old, for whom the association of polyuria-polydipsia syndrome, a failure to thrive, nephrolithiasis, hypercalciuria, and especially a high urine pH in the presence of metabolic acidosis did evoke diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis. An urine acidification test with ammonium chloride was performed, the urinary pH was always higher than 5.5, thus confirming the diagnosis. PMID:21464016

  19. Dynamic model of microalgal production in tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, I; Acién, F G; Fernández, J M; Guzmán, J L; Magán, J J; Berenguel, M

    2012-12-01

    A dynamic model for microalgal culture is presented. The model takes into account the fluid-dynamic and mass transfer, in addition to biological phenomena, it being based on fundamental principles. The model has been calibrated and validated using data from a pilot-scale tubular photobioreactor but it can be extended to other designs. It can be used to determine, from experimental measurements, the values of characteristic parameters. The model also allows a simulation of the system's dynamic behaviour in response to solar radiation, making it a useful tool for design and operation optimization of photobioreactors. Moreover, the model permits the identification of local pH gradients, dissolved oxygen and dissolved carbon dioxide; that can damage microalgae growth. In addition, the developed model can map the different characteristic time scales of phenomena inside microalgae cultures within tubular photobioreactors, meaning it is a valuable tool in the development of advanced control strategies for microalgae cultures. PMID:23073105

  20. Inner-tubular physicochemical processes of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Quanhong; LI Lixiang; CHENG Huiming; WANG Maozhang; BAI Jinbo

    2003-01-01

    Nanosized inner cavities of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) afford quasi-one-dimensional (1D) confined space, in which materials adsorbed or filled are of reactivity greatly different from the materials adsorbed on a planar surface and quite a number of curious physicochemical processes will possibly occur. In other words, 1D CNT nanochannels may serve as "nanosized test tubes". In this article, on the basis of the unique chemical and physical properties of CNTs, the latest progresses of the research on peculiar inner-tubular physicochemical processes of CNTs are briefly reviewed from several aspects. The extraordinary 1D adsorption, capillary filling and nanoscale-confined reaction are discussed in detail. Moreover, the characteristics of "nanosized test tubes" are summarized and many unfamiliar inner cavity chemical processes are expected. Finally, the future direction and challenges on basic researches and potential applications of inner-tubular chemistry of CNTs are discussed.

  1. A distal renal tubular acidosis showing hyperammonemia and hyperlactacidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ripoli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA presents itself with variable clinical manifestations and often with late expressions that impact on prognosis. Case report: A 45-day-old male infant was admitted with stopping growth, difficult feeding and vomiting after meals. Clinical tests and labs revealed a type 1 renal tubular acidosis, even if the first blood tests showed ammonium and lactate increase. We had to exclude metabolic diseases before having a certain diagnosis. Conclusions: blood and urine investigations and genetic tests are fundamental to formulate dRTA diagnosis and to plan follow-up, according to possible phenotypic expressions of recessive and dominant autosomal forms in patients with dRTA.

  2. Tubular separate first wall for ITER-EDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tubular solution first wall is the most suitable one to cope with the thermal stresses, the use of double wall reduces the risk of leaks inside the vacuum vessel by avoiding the growth of a crack through both walls: the soft brazing in between wall stops the growth of a crack from one tube to the other. The eddy currents induced in the tubes are low and the Halo current flowing poloidally in the tubes exert a radial pressure which is supported by the blanket box via ad hoc supporting points provided in between first wall and blanket. The tubes can be made of steel to resist a heat flux of up to 1 MW/m2. For higher heat loads copper or vanadium can be used. The tubular first wall can be replaced independently from the blanket. The thermo-hydraulic electro-magnetic and dynamic analysis confirm the viability of the solution proposed

  3. Tubular separate first wall for ITER-EDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuto, A.; Riccardi, B. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Salpietro, E.; Malavasi, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany). NET Design Team

    1994-11-01

    The tubular solution first wall is the most suitable one to cope with the thermal stresses, the use of double wall reduces the risk of leaks inside the vacuum vessel by avoiding the growth of a crack through both walls: the soft brazing in between wall stops the growth of a crack from one tube to the other. The eddy currents induced in the tubes are low and the Halo current flowing poloidally in the tubes exert a radial pressure which is supported by the blanket box via ad hoc supporting points provided in between first wall and blanket. The tubes can be made of steel to resist a heat flux of up to 1 MW/m{sup 2}. For higher heat loads copper or vanadium can be used. The tubular first wall can be replaced independently from the blanket. The thermo-hydraulic electro-magnetic and dynamic analysis confirm the viability of the solution proposed.

  4. Renal Papillary Necrosis Appearing as Bladder Cancer on Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagrosa, Lawrence M; Ghali, Fady; Gormley, Elizabeth Ann

    2016-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) presented with acute onset left lower quadrant pain, left-sided back pain, vomiting, and dysuria. Abdominopelvic CT scan revealed left hydroureteronephrosis to the level of the left ureterovesical junction (UVJ) where a bladder mass appeared to be obstructing the left ureteral orifice. The obstruction was ultimately found to be the result of a sloughed renal papilla lodged in the distal ureter, which created an inflammatory mass at the UVJ. Her history of diabetes and frequent UTIs likely predisposed her to the development of renal papillary necrosis (RPN) that resulted in sloughing of a renal papilla, distal ureteral obstruction with subsequent bladder inflammation that mimicked a bladder mass on imaging. RPN is a condition associated with many etiologies and likely represents a common final pathway of several diseases. Although several hypotheses exist, it is primarily thought to be ischemic in nature and is related to the underlying physiology of the renal papillae. We present a case of hydroureteronephrosis and bladder mass secondary to a sloughed renal papilla from RPN. PMID:27579408

  5. Effects of subtotal colectomy on bacterial translocation during experimental acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Minnen, LP; Nieuwenhuijs, VB; de Bruijn, MT; Verheem, A; Visser, MR; van Dijk, JE; Akkermans, LMA; Gooszen, HG

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The colon is considered a major source of bacteria causing infection of pancreatic necrosis in acute pancreatitis (AP). Subtotal colectomy before AP in rats reduces mortality, but its role in affecting small bowel flora, bacterial translocation, and infection of pancreatic necrosis is un

  6. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibits interleukin (IL)-1 and/or IL-6 stimulated synthesis of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in primary cultures of human hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yap, S.H.; Moshage, H.J.; Hazenberg, B.P.C.; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Bijzet, J.; Limburg, P.C.; Aarden, L.A.; Van Rijswijk, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are considered as important mediators for the modulation of liver synthesis of acute phase proteins. However, studies of the direct effect of individual or a combination of these cytokines on the synthesis of acute phase proteins in human hepa

  7. Intrarenal purinergic signaling in the control of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Helle; Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2010-01-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cells receive hormonal input that regulates volume and electrolyte homeostasis. In addition, numerous intrarenal, local signaling agonists have appeared on the stage of renal physiology. One such system is that of intrarenal purinergic signaling. This system involves all ...... of NaCl at the macula densa. This review describes the relevant aspects of local, intrarenal purinergic signaling and outlines its integrative concepts....

  8. ELECTROLYTIC-PLASMA TREATMENT OF INNER SURFACE OF TUBULAR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Alekseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While manufacturing a number of important tubular products stringent requirements have been imposed on quality of their inner surfaces. The well-known methods for inner surface treatment of pipes include sandblasting, chemical cleaning with acid reagents (oxalic, formic, sulfamic, orthophosphoric acids and electrochemical polishing. Disadvantages of the chemical method are cleaning-up irregularities, high metal removal, limited number of reagent application, complicated selection of reagent chemical composition and concentration, complicated and environmentally harmful recycling of waste chemicals, high cost of reagents. Low productivity at a high cost, as well as hazardous impact on personnel due to high dispersion of abrasive dust are considered as disadvantages of sandblasting. Electrochemical polishing is characterized by the following disadvantages: low processing productivity because supply of high currents is rather difficult due to electrolyte scattering capacity away from the main electrode action zone, limited length of the cavity to be treated due to heating of flexible current leads at operating current densities, application of expensive aggressive electrolytes and high costs of their recycling. A new method for polishing and cleaning of inner surfaces of tubular products based on electrolyte-plasma treatment has been developed. In comparison with the existing methods the proposed methods ensures quality processing with high intensity while applying non-toxic, environmentally friendly and cheap electrolytes. The paper presents results of investigations on technological specific features of electrolyte-plasma treatment for inner surfaces of tubular products: influence of slotted nozzle width, electrolyte flow and rate on stability of gas-vapor blanket, current density and productivity. Results of the research have made it possible to determine modes that provide stability and high productivity in the process of electrolyte

  9. Electrolytic-Plasma Treatment of Inner Surface of Tubular Products

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. G. Alekseev; A. Yu. Korolyov; V. S. Niss; A. E. Parshuta

    2016-01-01

    While manufacturing a number of important tubular products stringent requirements have been imposed on quality of their inner surfaces. The well-known methods for inner surface treatment of pipes include sandblasting, chemical cleaning with acid reagents (oxalic, formic, sulfamic, orthophosphoric acids) and electrochemical polishing. Disadvantages of the chemical method are cleaning-up irregularities, high metal removal, limited number of reagent application, complicated selection of reagent ...

  10. Stator iron loss of tubular permanent-magnet machines

    OpenAIRE

    Amara, Y; Wang, J B; Howe, D

    2005-01-01

    While methods of determining the iron loss in rotating permanent-magnet (PM) machines have been investigated extensively, the study of iron loss in linear machines is relatively poorly documented. This paper describes a simple analytical method to predict flux density waveforms in discrete regions of the laminated stator of a tubular PM machine, and employs an established iron loss model to determine the iron loss components, on both no load and on load. Analytical predictions are compared wi...

  11. Tissue cell assisted fabrication of tubular catalytic platinum microengines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Moo, James Guo Sheng; Pumera, Martin

    2014-09-01

    We report a facile platform for mass production of robust self-propelled tubular microengines. Tissue cells extracted from fruits of banana and apple, Musa acuminata and Malus domestica, are used as the support on which a thin platinum film is deposited by means of physical vapor deposition. Upon sonication of the cells/Pt-coated substrate in water, microscrolls of highly uniform sizes are spontaneously formed. Tubular microengines fabricated with the fruit cell assisted method exhibit a fast motion of ~100 bodylengths per s (~1 mm s-1). An extremely simple and affordable platform for mass production of the micromotors is crucial for the envisioned swarms of thousands and millions of autonomous micromotors performing biomedical and environmental remediation tasks.We report a facile platform for mass production of robust self-propelled tubular microengines. Tissue cells extracted from fruits of banana and apple, Musa acuminata and Malus domestica, are used as the support on which a thin platinum film is deposited by means of physical vapor deposition. Upon sonication of the cells/Pt-coated substrate in water, microscrolls of highly uniform sizes are spontaneously formed. Tubular microengines fabricated with the fruit cell assisted method exhibit a fast motion of ~100 bodylengths per s (~1 mm s-1). An extremely simple and affordable platform for mass production of the micromotors is crucial for the envisioned swarms of thousands and millions of autonomous micromotors performing biomedical and environmental remediation tasks. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Related video. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03720k

  12. Tubular biomarkers to assess progression of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonti, Gianfranco; Kanwar, Yashpal S

    2011-05-01

    Despite aggressive management, many patients with diabetic nephropathy still develop end-stage renal disease. Accompanying tubulointerstitial damage is important in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Markers of tubular damage, such as NGAL, KIM-1, and LFABP, have been proposed for monitoring the effectiveness of therapy. However, Nielsen et al. report a lack of an independent correlation between these biomarkers and glomerular filtration rate. Therefore, these markers seem to offer no improvement in the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:21527942

  13. Fatigue behaviour and detailing of slotted tubular connection

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Baptista, Claudio Alexandre; Borges, Luis; Yadav, Santosh; NUSSBAUMER, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Tubular elements are used in steel structures not only for bracing of other members but also as cross girders diaphragms. They are a competitive solution both due to the lightweight and structural efficiency. Slotted tube-to-plate connections are the natural and most common choice. However, fatigue design of the abrupt transition and differences in the stiffness corresponding to the welded connection, is a critical part of the design. Although such a fatigue connection is classified in differ...

  14. Load introduction into concrete-filled steel tubular columns

    OpenAIRE

    Mollazadeh, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular (CFST) columns are increasingly being used because of their many advantages, including high strength, high ductility, and higher fire resistance than conventional steel or concrete columns of the same size. In order to maximise the advantages of CFST column, composite action of the column should be ensured. In realistic structures, the load is not directly applied to the entire CFST column section and is introduced from the beam-column connection. Simple shear c...

  15. Tubular space truss structure for SKITTER 2 robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, Richard; Dejulio, Linda; Delorme, Paul; Eck, Eric; Levy, Avi; Lowery, Joel; Radack, Joe; Sheffield, Randy; Stevens, Scott

    1988-05-01

    The Skitter 2 is a three legged transport vehicle designed to demonstrate the principle of a tripod walker in a multitude of environments. The tubular truss model of Skitter 2 is a proof of principal design. The model will replicate the operational capabilities of Skitter 2 including its ability to self-right itself. The project's focus was on the use of light weight tubular members in the final structural design. A strong design for the body was required as it will undergo the most intense loading. Triangular geometry was used extensively in the body, providing the required structural integrity and eliminating the need for cumbersome shear panels. Both the basic femur and tibia designs also relied on the strong geometry of the triangle. An intense literature search aided in the development of the most suitable weld techniques, joints, linkages, and materials required for a durable design. The hinge design features the use of spherical rod end bearings. In order to obtain a greater range of mobility in the tibia, a four-bar linkage was designed which attaches both to the femur and the tibia. All component designs, specifically the body, femur, and the tibia were optimized using the software package IDEAS 3.8A Supertab. The package provided essential deformation and stress analysis information on each component's design. The final structure incurred only a 0.0544 inch deflection in a maximum (worst case) loading situation. The highest stress experienced by any AL6061-T6 tubular member was 1920 psi. The structural integrity of the final design facilitated the use of Aluminum 6061-T6 tubing. The tubular truss structure of Skitter 2 is an effective and highly durable design. All facets of the design are structurally sound and cost effective.

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF CORN STALK HEMICELLULOSE PYROLYSIS IN A TUBULAR REACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Jin Lv; Shu-Bin Wu; Rui Lou

    2010-01-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of corn stalk hemicellulose were investigated in a tubular reactor at different temperatures, with focus mainly on the releasing profiles and forming behaviors of pyrolysis products (gas, char, and tar). The products obtained were further identified using various approaches (including GC, SEM, and GC-MS) to understand the influence of temperature on product properties and compositions. It was found that the devolatilization of hemicellulose mainly occurred at low tem...

  17. EFFECTS OF RECOMBINANT TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR (RTNF-ALPHA) IN CANCER - OBSERVATIONS ON THE ACUTE-PHASE PROTEIN REACTION AND IMMUNOGLOBULIN-SYNTHESIS AFTER HIGH-DOSE RECOMBINANT TNF-ALPHA ADMINISTRATION IN ISOLATED LIMB PERFUSIONS IN CANCER-PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SWAAK, AJG; LIENARD, D; KOOPS, HS; LEJEUNE, FJ; EGGERMONT, AMM

    1993-01-01

    To obtain insight in the effect of TNF on the synthesis of acute phase proteins like CRP, alpha 1-antitrypsine, alpha 1-acidglycoprotein, C3 and C4 and the immunoglobulins (IgG-M-A), nine cancer patients who were treated with an isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with high dose recombinant TNF-alpha (rTN

  18. Plastic deformation of tubular crystals by dislocation glide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Daniel A.; Nelson, David R.

    2016-09-01

    Tubular crystals, two-dimensional lattices wrapped into cylindrical topologies, arise in many contexts, including botany and biofilaments, and in physical systems such as carbon nanotubes. The geometrical principles of botanical phyllotaxis, describing the spiral packings on cylinders commonly found in nature, have found application in all these systems. Several recent studies have examined defects in tubular crystals associated with crystalline packings that must accommodate a fixed tube radius. Here we study the mechanics of tubular crystals with variable tube radius, with dislocations interposed between regions of different phyllotactic packings. Unbinding and separation of dislocation pairs with equal and opposite Burgers vectors allow the growth of one phyllotactic domain at the expense of another. In particular, glide separation of dislocations offers a low-energy mode for plastic deformations of solid tubes in response to external stresses, reconfiguring the lattice step by step. Through theory and simulation, we examine how the tube's radius and helicity affects, and is in turn altered by, the mechanics of dislocation glide. We also discuss how a sufficiently strong bending rigidity can alter or arrest the deformations of tubes with small radii.

  19. The rebirth of interest in renal tubular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Jerome; Grantham, Jared J

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of glomerular filtration rate by the clearance of inulin or creatinine has evolved over the past 50 years into an estimated value based solely on plasma creatinine concentration. We have examined some of the misconceptions and misunderstandings of the classification of renal disease and its course, which have followed this evolution. Furthermore, renal plasma flow and tubular function, which in the past were estimated by the clearance of the exogenous aryl amine, para-aminohippurate, are no longer measured. Over the past decade, studies in experimental animals with reduced nephron mass and in patients with reduced renal function have identified small gut-derived, protein-bound uremic retention solutes ("uremic toxins") that are poorly filtered but are secreted into the lumen by organic anion transporters (OATs) in the proximal renal tubule. These are not effectively removed by conventional hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Residual renal function, urine produced in patients with advanced renal failure or undergoing dialysis treatment, may represent, at least in part, secretion of fluid and uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate, mediated by proximal tubule OATs and might serve as a useful survival function. In light of this new evidence of the physiological role of proximal tubule OATs, we suggest that measurement of renal tubular function and renal plasma flow may be of considerable value in understanding and managing chronic kidney disease. Data obtained in normal subjects indicate that renal plasma flow and renal tubular function might be measured by the clearance of the endogenous aryl amine, hippurate.

  20. Tubular transport and metabolism of cimetidine in chicken kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal tubular transport and renal metabolism of [14C]cimetidine (CIM) were investigated by unilateral infusion into the renal portal circulation in chickens (Sperber technique). [14C]CIM was actively transported at a rate 88% that of simultaneously infused p-aminohippuric acid, and its transport was saturable. The following organic cations competitively inhibited the tubular transport of [14C]CIM with decreasing potency: CIM, ranitidine, thiamine, procainamide, guanidine and choline. CIM inhibited the transport of [14C]thiamine, [14C]amiloride and [14C]tetraethylammonium. During CIM infusion, two renal metabolites, CIM sulfoxide and hydroxymethylcimetidine, were found in urine. When CIM sulfoxide was infused, its transport efficiency was 32% and not saturable. CIM sulfoxide did ot inhibit the simultaneous renal tubular transport of p-aminohippuric acid or tetraethylammonium. CIM is transported by the organic cation transport system and the kidney metabolizes CIM. Transport of CIM and other cationic drugs could produce a drug interaction to alter drug excretion

  1. The rebirth of interest in renal tubular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Jerome; Grantham, Jared J

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of glomerular filtration rate by the clearance of inulin or creatinine has evolved over the past 50 years into an estimated value based solely on plasma creatinine concentration. We have examined some of the misconceptions and misunderstandings of the classification of renal disease and its course, which have followed this evolution. Furthermore, renal plasma flow and tubular function, which in the past were estimated by the clearance of the exogenous aryl amine, para-aminohippurate, are no longer measured. Over the past decade, studies in experimental animals with reduced nephron mass and in patients with reduced renal function have identified small gut-derived, protein-bound uremic retention solutes ("uremic toxins") that are poorly filtered but are secreted into the lumen by organic anion transporters (OATs) in the proximal renal tubule. These are not effectively removed by conventional hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Residual renal function, urine produced in patients with advanced renal failure or undergoing dialysis treatment, may represent, at least in part, secretion of fluid and uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate, mediated by proximal tubule OATs and might serve as a useful survival function. In light of this new evidence of the physiological role of proximal tubule OATs, we suggest that measurement of renal tubular function and renal plasma flow may be of considerable value in understanding and managing chronic kidney disease. Data obtained in normal subjects indicate that renal plasma flow and renal tubular function might be measured by the clearance of the endogenous aryl amine, hippurate. PMID:26936872

  2. A Tubular Biomaterial Construct Exhibiting a Negative Poisson's Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Woo; Soman, Pranav; Park, Jeong Hun; Chen, Shaochen; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Developing functional small-diameter vascular grafts is an important objective in tissue engineering research. In this study, we address the problem of compliance mismatch by designing and developing a 3D tubular construct that has a negative Poisson's ratio νxy (NPR). NPR constructs have the unique ability to expand transversely when pulled axially, thereby resulting in a highly-compliant tubular construct. In this work, we used projection stereolithography to 3D-print a planar NPR sheet composed of photosensitive poly(ethylene) glycol diacrylate biomaterial. We used a step-lithography exposure and a stitch process to scale up the projection printing process, and used the cut-missing rib unit design to develop a centimeter-scale NPR sheet, which was rolled up to form a tubular construct. The constructs had Poisson's ratios of -0.6 ≤ νxy ≤ -0.1. The NPR construct also supports higher cellular adhesion than does the construct that has positive νxy. Our NPR design offers a significant advance in the development of highly-compliant vascular grafts. PMID:27232181

  3. Evaluation of stress concentration for planar tubular joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.F.GHANAMEH; D.THEVENET; A.ZEGHLOUL

    2006-01-01

    In offshore tubular structures,a typical tubular joint may be subjected to three different types of basic loadings: axial,in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending,through its brace members. Each type will cause a different stress distribution at the joint intersection of structures. Moreover,the actual load condition of a tubular joint can be any combination of the above three basic load cases,for this reason,a combined loading was investigated in addition to these three basic loadings. This load is composed of an axial loading combined with a continuation of rotational bending loading obtained while rotate center of the brace around a circle. Different types of planar joints such as T,Y,X,K,DT,DY,DX,TY,TK,DTX,DTDY,and DTDK,with braces subjected to combined loading,were numerically analyzed to study the effect of those different cases of loading and different types of joints,on the stress concentration zone and values.

  4. A Tubular Biomaterial Construct Exhibiting a Negative Poisson's Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Lee

    Full Text Available Developing functional small-diameter vascular grafts is an important objective in tissue engineering research. In this study, we address the problem of compliance mismatch by designing and developing a 3D tubular construct that has a negative Poisson's ratio νxy (NPR. NPR constructs have the unique ability to expand transversely when pulled axially, thereby resulting in a highly-compliant tubular construct. In this work, we used projection stereolithography to 3D-print a planar NPR sheet composed of photosensitive poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate biomaterial. We used a step-lithography exposure and a stitch process to scale up the projection printing process, and used the cut-missing rib unit design to develop a centimeter-scale NPR sheet, which was rolled up to form a tubular construct. The constructs had Poisson's ratios of -0.6 ≤ νxy ≤ -0.1. The NPR construct also supports higher cellular adhesion than does the construct that has positive νxy. Our NPR design offers a significant advance in the development of highly-compliant vascular grafts.

  5. Ulinastatin Protects against Acute Kidney Injury in Infant Piglets Model Undergoing Surgery on Hypothermic Low-Flow Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocou Wang

    Full Text Available Infants are more vulnerable to kidney injuries induced by inflammatory response syndrome and ischemia-reperfusion injury following cardiopulmonary bypass especially with prolonged hypothermic low-flow (HLF. This study aims to evaluate the protective role of ulinastatin, an anti-inflammatory agent, against acute kidney injuries in infant piglets model undergoing surgery on HLF cardiopulmonary bypass.Eighteen general-type infant piglets were randomly separated into the ulinastatin group (Group U, n = 6, the control group (Group C, n = 6, and the sham operation group (Group S, n = 6, and anaesthetized. The groups U and C received following experimental procedure: median thoracotomy, routine CPB and HLF, and finally weaned from CPB. The group S only underwent sham median thoracotomy. Ulinastatin at a dose of 5,000 units/kg body weight and a certain volume of saline were administrated to animals of the groups U and C at the beginning of CPB and at aortic declamping, respectively. Venous blood samples were collected at 3 different time points: after anesthesia induction in all experimental groups, 5 minutes, and 120 minutes after CPB in the Groups U and C. Markers for inflammation and acute kidney injury were tested in the collected plasma. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG from urine, markers of oxidative stress injury and TUNEL-positive cells in kidney tissues were also detected.The expressions of plasma inflammatory markers and acute kidney injury markers increased both in Group U and Group C at 5 min and 120 min after CPB. Also, numbers of TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney rose in both groups. At the time point of 120-min after CPB, compared with the Group C, some plasma inflammatory and acute kidney injury markers as well as TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney were significantly reduced in the Group U. Histologic analyses showed that HLF promoted acute tubular necrosis and dilatation

  6. Ulinastatin Protects against Acute Kidney Injury in Infant Piglets Model Undergoing Surgery on Hypothermic Low-Flow Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaocou; Xue, Qinghua; Yan, Fuxia; Liu, Jinping; Li, Shoujun; Hu, Shengshou

    2015-01-01

    Objective Infants are more vulnerable to kidney injuries induced by inflammatory response syndrome and ischemia-reperfusion injury following cardiopulmonary bypass especially with prolonged hypothermic low-flow (HLF). This study aims to evaluate the protective role of ulinastatin, an anti-inflammatory agent, against acute kidney injuries in infant piglets model undergoing surgery on HLF cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods Eighteen general-type infant piglets were randomly separated into the ulinastatin group (Group U, n = 6), the control group (Group C, n = 6), and the sham operation group (Group S, n = 6), and anaesthetized. The groups U and C received following experimental procedure: median thoracotomy, routine CPB and HLF, and finally weaned from CPB. The group S only underwent sham median thoracotomy. Ulinastatin at a dose of 5,000 units/kg body weight and a certain volume of saline were administrated to animals of the groups U and C at the beginning of CPB and at aortic declamping, respectively. Venous blood samples were collected at 3 different time points: after anesthesia induction in all experimental groups, 5 minutes, and 120 minutes after CPB in the Groups U and C. Markers for inflammation and acute kidney injury were tested in the collected plasma. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) from urine, markers of oxidative stress injury and TUNEL-positive cells in kidney tissues were also detected. Results The expressions of plasma inflammatory markers and acute kidney injury markers increased both in Group U and Group C at 5 min and 120 min after CPB. Also, numbers of TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney rose in both groups. At the time point of 120-min after CPB, compared with the Group C, some plasma inflammatory and acute kidney injury markers as well as TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney were significantly reduced in the Group U. Histologic analyses showed that HLF promoted acute tubular necrosis and dilatation

  7. Laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR analysis of proximal tubular epithelial cell signaling in human kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ray; Wang, Xiangju; Kassianos, Andrew J; Zuryn, Steven; Roper, Kathrein E; Osborne, Andrew; Sampangi, Sandeep; Francis, Leo; Raghunath, Vishwas; Healy, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial fibrosis, a histological process common to many kidney diseases, is the precursor state to end stage kidney disease, a devastating and costly outcome for the patient and the health system. Fibrosis is historically associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) but emerging evidence is now linking many forms of acute kidney disease (AKD) with the development of CKD. Indeed, we and others have observed at least some degree of fibrosis in up to 50% of clinically defined cases of AKD. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule (PTEC) are central in the development of kidney interstitial fibrosis. We combine the novel techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR to identify and quantitate "real time" gene transcription profiles of purified PTEC isolated from human kidney biopsies that describe signaling pathways associated with this pathological fibrotic process. Our results: (i) confirm previous in-vitro and animal model studies; kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in patients with acute tubular injury, inflammation, neutrophil infiltration and a range of chronic disease diagnoses, (ii) provide data to inform treatment; complement component 3 expression correlates with inflammation and acute tubular injury, (iii) identify potential new biomarkers; proline 4-hydroxylase transcription is down-regulated and vimentin is up-regulated across kidney diseases, (iv) describe previously unrecognized feedback mechanisms within PTEC; Smad-3 is down-regulated in many kidney diseases suggesting a possible negative feedback loop for TGF-β in the disease state, whilst tight junction protein-1 is up-regulated in many kidney diseases, suggesting feedback interactions with vimentin expression. These data demonstrate that the combined techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR have the power to study molecular signaling within single cell populations derived from clinically sourced tissue.

  8. Laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR analysis of proximal tubular epithelial cell signaling in human kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Interstitial fibrosis, a histological process common to many kidney diseases, is the precursor state to end stage kidney disease, a devastating and costly outcome for the patient and the health system. Fibrosis is historically associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD but emerging evidence is now linking many forms of acute kidney disease (AKD with the development of CKD. Indeed, we and others have observed at least some degree of fibrosis in up to 50% of clinically defined cases of AKD. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule (PTEC are central in the development of kidney interstitial fibrosis. We combine the novel techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR to identify and quantitate "real time" gene transcription profiles of purified PTEC isolated from human kidney biopsies that describe signaling pathways associated with this pathological fibrotic process. Our results: (i confirm previous in-vitro and animal model studies; kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in patients with acute tubular injury, inflammation, neutrophil infiltration and a range of chronic disease diagnoses, (ii provide data to inform treatment; complement component 3 expression correlates with inflammation and acute tubular injury, (iii identify potential new biomarkers; proline 4-hydroxylase transcription is down-regulated and vimentin is up-regulated across kidney diseases, (iv describe previously unrecognized feedback mechanisms within PTEC; Smad-3 is down-regulated in many kidney diseases suggesting a possible negative feedback loop for TGF-β in the disease state, whilst tight junction protein-1 is up-regulated in many kidney diseases, suggesting feedback interactions with vimentin expression. These data demonstrate that the combined techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR have the power to study molecular signaling within single cell populations derived from clinically sourced tissue.

  9. Intragraft Tubular Vimentin and CD44 Expression Correlate With Long-Term Renal Allograft Function and Interstitial Fibrosis and Tubular Atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kers; Y.C. Xu-Dubois; E. Rondeau; N. Claessen; M.M. Idu; J.J.T.H. Roelofs; F.J. Bemelman; R.J.M. ten Berge; S. Florquin

    2010-01-01

    Background. Development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) is the main histologic feature involved in renal allograft deterioration. The aim of this study was to validate whether de novo tubular expression of CD44 (transmembrane glycoprotein) and vimentin (mesenchymal cell marker),

  10. An unreported complication of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Muthukumarasamy; V Shanmugam; SR Yule; R Ravindran

    2007-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis constitutes 3% of all admissions with abdominal pain. There are reports of osteal fat necrosis leading to periosteal reactions and osteolytic lesions following severe pancreatitis, particularly in long bones.A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with acute pancretitis, who later developed spinal discitis secondary to necrotizing pancreatitis. He was treated conservatively with antibiotics and after a month he recovered completely without any neurological deficit.This case is reported for its unusual and unreported spinal complications after acute pancreatitis.

  11. Renal Papillary Necrosis Caused by Protein C Deficiency Leading to Recurrent Hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Rohit Kumar; Olorunnisomo, Vincent; Fowle, Evan James; Modica, Ippolito; Meisels, Ira; Gupta, Mantu

    2016-01-01

    A patient with history of a solitary functioning kidney and protein C deficiency (PCD) presented with recurrent severe hydronephrosis causing acute kidney injury upon chronic kidney disease. Work-up with endoscopic evaluation revealed renal papillary necrosis (RPN) and sloughed renal papillae to be the true cause of the recurrent obstruction. Pathologic evaluation of the sloughed tissue confirmed the diagnosis of RPN. This is the first case reported in the literature illustrating the unique presentation of RPN in the setting of PCD. PMID:27579411

  12. Minimally invasive treatment of pancreatic necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Bello; Jeffrey B Matthews

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To systematically review these minimally invasive approaches to infected pancreatic necrosis.METHODS:We used the MEDLINE database to investigate studies between 1996 and 2010 with greater than 10 patients that examined these techniques.Using a combination of Boolean operators,reports were retrieved addressing percutaneous therapy (341 studies),endoscopic necrosectomy (574 studies),laparoscopic necrosectomy via a transperitoneal approach (148 studies),and retroperitoneal necrosectomy (194 studies).Only cohorts with at least 10 or more patients were included.Non-English papers,letters,animal studies,duplicate series and reviews without original data were excluded,leaving a total of 27 studies for analysis.RESULTS:Twenty-seven studies with 947 patients total were examined (eight studies on percutaneous approach; ten studies on endoscopic necrosectomy;two studies on laparoscopic necrosectomy via a transperitoneal approach; five studies on retroperitoneal necrosectomy; and two studies on a combined percutaneous-retroperitoneal approach).Success rate,complications,mortality,and number of procedures were outcomes that were included in the review.We found that most published reports were retrospective in nature,and thus,susceptible to selection and publication bias.Few reports examined these techniques in a comparative,prospective manner.CONCLUSION:Each minimally invasive approach though was found to be safe and feasible in multiple reports.With these new techniques,treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis remains a challenge.We advocate a multidisciplinary approach to this complex problem with treatment individualized to each patient.

  13. Delayed radiation necrosis of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cases of six patients are presented to delineate the clinical profile of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain. In five the diagnosis was verified histologically. Symptoms most often begin 9 months to 2 years after radiotherapy. Progressive visual impairment and dementia are common following perisellar irradiation, while hemispheric signs predominate following irradiation of the cerebrum. Cerebrospinal fluid protein may be elevated. Focal delta slowing is usually present on electroencephalography. The necrotic brain may appear on radionuclide brain scan as an area of abnormal uptake and also act as an avascular space-occupying lesion. With computerized tomography, radiation necrosis appears as an intracerebral area with diminished absorption coefficient that is often enhanced with intravenous contrast medium. The syndrome may be sufficiently characteristic to eliminate the need for surgical exploration and biopsy in some cases. Cumulative experience suggests that the risk-to-benefit ratio of radiotherapy becomes increasingly unfavorable for most patients with benign intracranial neoplasms when the standard brain tumor dose of 5000 to 7000 rads is fractionated at greater than 200 rads per day

  14. Fat necrosis of the breast: Sonographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhim, Soo A; Kim, Hak Hee; Cha, Eun Suk; Kim, Bum Soo; Choi, Kyu Ho [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To describe the ultrasonographic (US) features of us necrosis of breast. The authors retrospectively reviewed US findings of 12 patients (all females, mean age: 54 years) with histopathologically (n=9) or clinically (n=3) proven fat necorsis of the breast. On US, size, depth/width (D/W) ratio, shape, margin, location, echogenicity and retrotumoral echo (enhancement/attenuation), pattern of the superficial fascia, and skin change were analyzed by two radiologists in agreement. On US, size of the lesion ranged between 0.9 and 4.0 cm in the greatest diameter (mean: 2.2 cm). The D/W ratio ranged between 0.4 and 0.7 (mean: 0.55). The shapes of the lesions were oval in all cases. The margins of the lesions were ill-defined in 9 cases. All lesions were located in the subcutaneous fat layer and the echogenicity was hyperechoic in all cases. Nine patients showed inhomogeneous internal echogenicity. Five cases demonstrated posterior acoustic shadowing. In all cases, the lesions displaced the superficial fascia without disruption. Mild-skin thickening was associated in 6 cases. Fat necrosis of the breast had characteristic US features of heterogeneously high echogenic mass in subcutaneous fat layer.

  15. Pancreatic panniculitis: a cutaneous manifestation of acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Laureano, A; Mestre, T; Ricardo, L; Rodrigues, AM; Cardoso, J.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic panniculitis is a rare disease in which necrosis of fat in the panniculus and other distant foci occurs in the setting of pancreatic diseases; these diseases include acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma, pseudocyst, and other pancreatic diseases. This malady is manifested as tender erythematous nodules on the legs, buttock, or trunk. Histopathologically, it shows the pathognomonic findings of focal subcutaneous fat necrosis and ghost-like anucleated cells with a thi...

  16. Fatal Pancreatic Panniculitis Associated with Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Woo Sun; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kim, Sang Woo; Paik, Chang Nyol; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic panniculitis is a rare disease in which necrosis of fat in the panniculus and other distant foci occurs in the setting of pancreatic diseases; these diseases include acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma, pseudocyst, and other pancreatic diseases. This malady is manifested as tender erythematous nodules on the legs, buttock, or trunk. Histopathologically, it shows the pathognomonic findings of focal subcutaneous fat necrosis and ghost-like anucleated cells with a thi...

  17. Single-dose tumor necrosis factor protection against endotoxin-induced shock and tissue injury in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, H R; Doherty, G M; Block, M. I.; Kragel, P J; Jensen, J C; Langstein, H N; Walker, E; Norton, J A

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a macrophage product released in response to endotoxin and other stimuli, has been shown to be a central mediator of endotoxin or septic shock. However, its highly conserved and wide-ranging physiological effects suggest that it may also be an essential cytokine in the host defense against acute bacterial infection or sepsis. A single nontoxic dose of human recombinant TNF administered intravenously 24 h prior to a lethal infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysacch...

  18. Surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, K.J.; Neher, M.; Kuhn, F.P.; Kuemmerle, F.; Thelen, M.

    1983-03-31

    The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based on anamnestic, clinical and chemical data. Ultrasound and computed tomography permit direct visualisation of the pancreas and establish the diagnosis. In cases of haemorrhagic-necrotising pancreatitis they demonstrate the extent of morphological changes and permit exclusion of other causes of an acute abdomen. The imaging methods support indications for operation in cases of subtotal or total parenchymatous necrosis and in pancreatic abscesses. Conservative expectant approaches in patients with severe clinical course and slight morphological changes as well as in agreement of clinical and morphological findings are facilitated. Complete demonstration of parenchymatous and peripancreatic necroses furnishes useful additional information for total extirpation. Gallstone disease can be demonstrated or excluded preoperatively. Since introduction of ultrasound and computed tomography for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis a marked diminution of early surgical intervention and delayed operation has been achieved.

  19. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head presenting as trochanteric bursitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, B F

    1990-01-01

    Five patients are described with avascular necrosis of the femoral head who presented with ipsilateral trochanteric bursitis, in the absence of clearcut hip joint disease. Avascular necrosis was indicated by magnetic resonance imaging. It is suggested that clinical trochanteric bursitis, especially when refractory to local corticosteroid treatment, may be the initial sign of hip disease. In the patient with risk factor(s) for avascular necrosis that diagnosis should be considered and evaluate...

  20. The Pathology of Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitch, Jay H

    2016-05-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare and severe liver disease that usually develops in 8 weeks or less in individuals without preexisting liver disease. Its chief causes worldwide are hepatitis virus infections (hepatitis A, B, and E) and drug hepatotoxicity (particularly intentional or unintentional acetaminophen toxicity). Massive hepatic necrosis is often seen in liver specimens in ALF and features marked loss of hepatocytes, variable degrees of inflammation, and a stereotypic proliferation of bile ductular structures (neocholangioles) derived from activated periportal hepatic progenitor cells. This paper reviews the liver pathology in ALF, including forms of zonal necrosis and their etiologies. PMID:27058243

  1. The molecular interactions between filtered proteins and proximal tubular cells in proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Richard J; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2008-01-01

    Proteinuria is associated with progressive chronic kidney disease and poor cardiovascular outcomes. Exposure of proximal tubular epithelial cells to excess proteins leads to the development of proteinuric nephropathy with tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation and scarring. Numerous signalling pathways are activated in proximal tubular epithelial cells under proteinuric conditions resulting in gene transcription, altered growth and the secretion of inflammatory and profibrotic mediators. Megalin, the proximal tubular scavenger receptor for filtered macromolecules, has intrinsic signalling functions and may also link albumin to growth factor receptor signalling via regulated intramembrane proteolysis. It now seems that endocytosis is not always a prerequisite for albumin-evoked alterations in proximal tubular cell phenotype. Recent evidence shows the presence of other potential receptors for proteins, such as the neonatal Fc receptor and CD36, in the proximal tubular epithelium. PMID:18849618

  2. Pretreatment by low-dose fibrates protects against acute free fatty acid-induced renal tubule toxicity by counteracting PPARα deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a preventive strategy against tubular damage associated with proteinuria is of great importance. Recently, free fatty acid (FFA) toxicities accompanying proteinuria were found to be a main cause of tubular damage, which was aggravated by insufficiency of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), suggesting the benefit of PPARα activation. However, an earlier study using a murine acute tubular injury model, FFA-overload nephropathy, demonstrated that high-dose treatment of PPARα agonist (0.5% clofibrate diet) aggravated the tubular damage as a consequence of excess serum accumulation of clofibrate metabolites due to decreased kidney elimination. To induce the renoprotective effects of PPARα agonists without drug accumulation, we tried a pretreatment study using low-dose clofibrate (0.1% clofibrate diet) using the same murine model. Low-dose clofibrate pretreatment prevented acute tubular injuries without accumulation of its metabolites. The tubular protective effects appeared to be associated with the counteraction of PPARα deterioration, resulting in the decrease of FFAs influx to the kidney, maintenance of fatty acid oxidation, diminution of intracellular accumulation of undigested FFAs, and attenuation of disease developmental factors including oxidative stress, apoptosis, and NFκB activation. These effects are common to other fibrates and dependent on PPARα function. Interestingly, however, clofibrate pretreatment also exerted PPARα-independent tubular toxicities in PPARα-null mice with FFA-overload nephropathy. The favorable properties of fibrates are evident when PPARα-dependent tubular protective effects outweigh their PPARα-independent tubular toxicities. This delicate balance seems to be easily affected by the drug dose. It will be important to establish the appropriate dosage of fibrates for treatment against kidney disease and to develop a novel PPARα activator that has a steady serum concentration regardless of

  3. A Case of Hemorrhagic Necrosis of Ectopic Liver Tissue within the Gallbladder Wall.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nagar, Sapna

    2012-02-01

    Ectopic liver tissue is a rare clinical entity that is mostly asymptomatic and found incidentally. In certain situations, however, patients may present with symptoms of abdominal pain secondary to torsion, compression, obstruction of adjacent organs, or rupture secondary to malignant transformation. Herein, we report a case of a 25-year-old female that presented with acute onset of epigastric pain found to have ectopic liver tissue near the gallbladder complicated by acute hemorrhage necessitating operative intervention in the way of laparoscopic excision and cholecystectomy. The patient\\'s postoperative course was uneventful. Gross pathology demonstrated a 1.2 x 2.8 x 4.5 cm firm purple ovoid structure that histologically revealed extensive hemorrhagic necrosis of benign ectopic liver tissue.

  4. Modulation of Endogenous Hormone Action by Recombinant Human Tumor Necrosis Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert S.; Donner, David B.; Fletcher Starnes, H.; Brennan, Murray F.

    1987-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been implicated in the toxic manifestations of overwhelming bacterial infection and in the tissue wasting that often accompanies prolonged infections and malignancy. We have examined a possible role of TNF in the early metabolic alterations following acute tissue injury or sepsis. Recombinant human TNF stimulated rat liver amino acid uptake up to 5-fold in vivo and there was a concomitant increase in plasma glucagon. In vitro TNF had no direct effect on hepatocyte amino acid uptake, but it markedly enhanced the stimulation of amino acid transport by glucagon, without an alteration in binding of glucagon to hepatocytes. This permissive effect of TNF on glucagon action represents an interrelationship between the immune and endocrine systems, and it may help to explain the mechanism of hormonal regulation of both the anabolic and catabolic responses to acute injury.

  5. [Endoscopic treatment of chemical burns to the stomach with mucosa ulceration and necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandova, D A; Sogreshilin, S S; Pinchuk, T P; Klokova, T V; Il'iashenko, K K

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of acute poisoning with caustic substances in Russia is higher than in other countries and is reported by different authors as accounting for 10-32% cases among the patients admitted to acute poisoning treatment centres. Especially unfavorable prognosis is considered for necrotizing burns to the stomach that increase the risk of severe complications leading to disability of patients. The study aimed at improving the treatment of necrotizing chemical burn to the stomach by the infusion of a 5% Mexidole solution into the edges of a burn lesion at different stages of the treatment course. The paper presents the outcomes of patients who sustained chemical burns to the stomach with mucosa ulceration and necrosis, and provides an assessment of early endoscopic treatment effect.

  6. Generation of Urinary Albumin Fragments Does Not Require Proximal Tubular Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Weyer, K.; Nielsen, R; Christensen, E.I.; Birn, H

    2012-01-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is an important diagnostic and prognostic marker of renal function. Both animal and human urine contain large amounts of albumin fragments, but whether these fragments originate from renal tubular degradation of filtered albumin is unknown. Here, we used mice with kidneys lacking megalin and cubilin, the coreceptors that mediate proximal tubular endocytosis of albumin, to determine whether proximal tubular degradation of albumin forms the detectable urinary albumin f...

  7. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubular; Flerkanals roerstreng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1997-04-23

    The invention relates to a multi-conduit tubular having fluid conduits and electrical conduits, with associated surface fluid and electrical commutators, and downhole sensors for providing surface monitors with instantaneous formation data. Each tubular includes a plurality of uniform linear conduits there through, with a gasket seal plate interposed between joined tubular for assuring a high pressure seal between joined conduits. the seal plate includes an intermediate electrical connector for connecting electrical conduit connectors of one tubular to another. A coupling collar with uniform diameter internal coarse and fine threads joins the tubular ends having similar threads by differential thread action without respective tubular rotation. Each tubular end includes an inter-engaging index recess and index lug, and drive recesses and lugs for maintaining angular registry of the tubular string and for driving one drill tubular with another. A fluid commutator includes a rotating shaft with passages connected to the tubular conduits, and rotating in a manifold having annular grooves in communication with the shaft passages and external fluid sources. An adaptor couples each commutator shaft passage to one or more tubular conduits. Slip rings on a quill shaft and stationary brush means provide electrical continuity from the electrical conduit wires to surface equipment. A cross-over sub includes formation parameter sensors and telemetry equipment in a blocked off portion of a fluid conduit. An annular accumulator connected with the well bore annulus applies a pressure thereto in response to downhole sensors to change the effective density of the drill mud. The multi-conduit tubular is further adapted for use as a well casing to provide downhole access of a plurality of fluids and electrical parameter sensors. 28 figs.

  8. Method and tool for contracting tubular members by electro-hydraulic forming before hydroforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich

    2011-03-15

    A tubular preform is contracted in an electro-hydraulic forming operation. The tubular preform is wrapped with one or more coils of wire and placed in a chamber of an electro-hydraulic forming tool. The electro-hydraulic forming tool is discharged to form a compressed area on a portion of the tube. The tube is then placed in a hydroforming tool that expands the tubular preform to form a part.

  9. Inverse Approach to Evaluate the Tubular Material Parameters Using the Bulging Test

    OpenAIRE

    Yulong Ge; Xiaoxing Li; Lihui Lang

    2015-01-01

    Tubular material parameters are required for both part manufactory process planning and finite element simulations. The bulging test is one of the most credible ways to detect the property parameters for tubular material. The inverse approach provides more effective access to the accurate material evaluation than with direct identifications. In this paper, a newly designed set of bulging test tools is introduced. An inverse procedure is adopted to determine the tubular material properties in ...

  10. Effects of specific interleukin-1β-converting enzyme inhibitor on ischemic acute renal failure in murine models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-feng LIU; Dong LIANG; Li-ming WANG; Nan ZHOU; Cui-wei YAO; Tao HONG; De-shen TANG; Xiao-wen CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of selective interleukin-1 β-converting enzyme (ICE,caspase-1) inhibitor on ischemic acute renal failure (ARF). Methods: Mouse models of ischemic ARF were treated with the specific ICE inhibitor AC-YVAD-CMK.A renal function assay and renal morphological studies were employed to estimate the renal protective effect of AC-YVAD-CMK. The survival rate of mouse models was also analyzed by a time series test. Furthermore, renal ICE activity,mature interleukin-18 (IL-18) protein expression and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression were also detected by fluorescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), ELISA, and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Results: The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr) increased remarkably in the model controls compared with the sham-operated groups (P<0.01). Typical renal tubular necrosis was found in the model controls. Renal ICE activity, mature IL-18 protein expression, and IFN-γmRNA expression were also increased significantly in the model controls compared with the sham-operated groups. The levels of BUN and Scr in the AC-YVAD-CMK therapy group were decreased significantly compared with the untreated model controls (P<0.01). Renal tubulointerstitial lesion was also attenuated significantly (P<0.05). AC-YVAD-CMK therapy alleviated the clinical features of ARF, and increased the survival rate (P<0.01). Furthermore, AC-YVADCMK therapy also decreased ICE activity, mature IL-18 protein expression, and IFN-γ mRNA expression in renal tissue (P<0.05). Conclusion: The selective ICEinhibitor AC-YVAD-CMK can effectively protect the kidney from acute ischemic lesions. This protective effect is associated with decreased renal ICE activity and suppressed IL- 18 maturation and IFN-γ mRNA transcription.

  11. Sildenafil citrate for prophylaxis of nephropathy in an animal model of contrast-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauver, D Adam; Carey, E Grant; Bergin, Ingrid L; Lucchesi, Benedict R; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is one of the commonest complications associated with contrast media (CM). Although the exact etiology of CIAKI remains unclear, one hypothesis involves vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles resulting in renal ischemia. Increased renal blood flow, therefore, might represent an attractive target for the treatment of CIAKI. In this study we evaluated the protective effects of the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, sildenafil citrate, in a rabbit model of CIAKI. New Zealand white rabbits were used due to their susceptibility to CIAKI. To evaluate the effects of sildenafil, the drug was administered before CM infusion and repeatedly throughout the remainder of the experiment (6 mg/kg, p.o.). Animals were sacrificed after 48 hours and kidneys were prepared for histological evaluation. Intravenous administration of CM produced marked kidney injury. Serum creatinine concentrations were elevated within two hours of the infusion and remained elevated for the duration of the experiment. Histological evaluation of the kidneys revealed significant tubular necrosis. The effects of the CM were dose dependent. Treatment with sildenafil was associated with lesser degree of histological injury, attenuation in markers of acute kidney injury (48 hour creatinine 1.54±0.21 versus 4.42±1.31 mg/dl, p<0.05) and reduction in electrolyte derangement (percent change in serum K+ at 48 hours 2.55±3.80% versus 15.53±4.47%, p<0.05; serum Na+ at 48 hours -0.14±0.26% versus -1.97±1.29%, p = 0.20). The results suggest a possible role for PDE5 inhibitors in the treatment of CIAKI and warrant further evaluation to determine the exact mechanism of protection.

  12. High temperature fatigue experiments on welded stainless steel tubular elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test rig has been designed to perform high temperature fatigue experiments on AISI 304 stainless steel tubular elements of 500 mm length, 60.3 mm outer diameter and 2 mm thickness; they are composed by two butt welded tubular elements with welded end flanges. During the experiments it is possible to control the axial strain range, the strain rate and the hold time; the specimen temperature is obtained by an inner heating device, controlled by a series of measuring thermocouples; until now the imposed temperature is 6500C. A preliminary series of experiments has been carried out, with the aim at getting informations for a proper development of the main experimental program, while in the meantime the adjustment of the specimen manufacturing process and its characterization have been performed. Each specimen is welded on the same TIG welding rig, which accounts both for a uniformly reliable welding process and for a proper alignment of the tubular elements. The specimens are then marked by a high precision grid which allows a measurement of the residual localized plastic strain along some generatrix of the specimen and on its thickness. The basic fatigue data have to be measured through a series of standard tests carried out on small size specimens obtained either from the base material and around the welded, heat affected zone. It is also planned to carry out a detailed study on the crack surfaces and to use acoustical emission techniques to properly assess the initial crack propagation. The first results show a marked reduction of the number of cycles at failure, if compared with existing data about small size specimens; the measurement of residual plastic strains shows clearly non-uniform distribution of the plastic zones

  13. High temperature helical tubular receiver for concentrating solar power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Nazmul

    In the field of conventional cleaner power generation technology, concentrating solar power systems have introduced remarkable opportunity. In a solar power tower, solar energy concentrated by the heliostats at a single point produces very high temperature. Falling solid particles or heat transfer fluid passing through that high temperature region absorbs heat to generate electricity. Increasing the residence time will result in more heat gain and increase efficiency. A novel design of solar receiver for both fluid and solid particle is approached in this paper which can increase residence time resulting in higher temperature gain in one cycle compared to conventional receivers. The helical tubular solar receiver placed at the focused sunlight region meets the higher outlet temperature and efficiency. A vertical tubular receiver is modeled and analyzed for single phase flow with molten salt as heat transfer fluid and alloy625 as heat transfer material. The result is compared to a journal paper of similar numerical and experimental setup for validating our modeling. New types of helical tubular solar receivers are modeled and analyzed with heat transfer fluid turbulent flow in single phase, and granular particle and air plug flow in multiphase to observe the temperature rise in one cyclic operation. The Discrete Ordinate radiation model is used for numerical analysis with simulation software Ansys Fluent 15.0. The Eulerian granular multiphase model is used for multiphase flow. Applying the same modeling parameters and boundary conditions, the results of vertical and helical receivers are compared. With a helical receiver, higher temperature gain of heat transfer fluid is achieved in one cycle for both single phase and multiphase flow compared to the vertical receiver. Performance is also observed by varying dimension of helical receiver.

  14. Stem cell factor expression after renal ischemia promotes tubular epithelial survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geurt Stokman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia leads to apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells and results in decreased renal function. Tissue repair involves re-epithelialization of the tubular basement membrane. Survival of the tubular epithelium following ischemia is therefore important in the successful regeneration of renal tissue. The cytokine stem cell factor (SCF has been shown to protect the tubular epithelium against apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a mouse model for renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, we studied how expression of c-KIT on tubular epithelium and its ligand SCF protect cells against apoptosis. Administration of SCF specific antisense oligonucleotides significantly decreased specific staining of SCF following ischemia. Reduced SCF expression resulted in impaired renal function, increased tubular damage and increased tubular epithelial apoptosis, independent of inflammation. In an in vitro hypoxia model, stimulation of tubular epithelial cells with SCF activated survival signaling and decreased apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate an important role for c-KIT and SCF in mediating tubular epithelial cell survival via an autocrine pathway.

  15. Tubular algebras and affine Kac-Moody algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-xin CHEN; Ya-nan LIN

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct quotient algebras L(A)C1/I(A) of complex degenerate composition Lie algebras L(A)C1 by some ideals, where L(A)C1 is defined via Hall algebras of tubular algebras A, and to prove that the quotient algebras L(A)C1/I(A) are isomorphic to the corresponding affine Kac-Moody algebras. Moreover, it is shown that the Lie algebra Lre(A)C1 generated by A-modules with a real root coincides with the degenerate composition Lie algebra L(A)C1 generated by simple A-modules.

  16. Tubular algebras and affine Kac-Moody algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct quotient algebras L(A)1C/I(A) of complex degenerate composition Lie algebras L(A)1C by some ideals, where L(A)1C is defined via Hall algebras of tubular algebras A, and to prove that the quotient algebras L(A)1C/I(A) are isomorphic to the corresponding affine Kac-Moody algebras. Moreover, it is shown that the Lie algebra Lre(A)1C generated by A-modules with a real root coincides with the degenerate composition Lie algebra L(A)1C generated by simple A-modules.

  17. Partial oxidation of methane to syngas in tubular oxygenpermeable reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A dense Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ membrane tube was prepared by the extruding method. Furthermore, a membrane reactor with this tubular membrane was successfully applied to partial oxidation of methane (POM) reaction,in which the separation of oxygen from air and the partial oxidation of methane are integrated in one process. At 875℃,94% of methane conversion, 98% of CO selectivity, 95% of H2 selectivity, and as high as 8.8 mL/(min @cm2) of oxygen flux were obtained. In POM reaction condition, the membrane tube shows a very good stability.

  18. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis in a kidney transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manjunath

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old diabetic patient who presented with muscle weakness 2 weeks after kidney transplantation. Her immunosuppressive regimen included tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. She was found to have hyperkalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Tacrolimus levels were in therapeutic range. All other drugs such as beta blockers and trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole were stopped. She did not respond to routine antikalemic measures. Further evaluation revealed type 4 renal tubular acidosis. Serum potassium levels returned to normal after starting sodium bicarbonate and fludrocortisone therapy. Though hyperkalemia is common in kidney transplant recipients, determining exact cause can guide specific treatment. PMID:27105603

  19. On the volume of tubular neighbourhoods of real algebraic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Lotz

    2012-01-01

    The problem of determining the volume of a tubular neighbourhood has a long and rich history. Bounds on the volume of neighbourhoods of algebraic sets have turned out to play an important role in the probabilistic analysis of condition numbers in numerical analysis. We present a self-contained derivation of bounds on the probability that a random point, chosen uniformly from a ball, lies within a given distance of a real algebraic variety of any codimension. The bounds are given in terms of t...

  20. A Tubular Ionizer as an Efficient Negative Fluorine Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to establish the optimal conditions of F- ion production by the tubular ionizer extensive studies of SF6 ionization using the mass separator were performed. The SF6, SF5, SF4, SF3 and F negative ions were observed, and the F- yields as a function of the source temperature, gas pressure and an amount of alkaline metal vapors (K, Na, Ca, Sr, Ba) were measured. The efficiency of F- production of about 40 obtained for the optimal conditions. The delay time and adsorption enthalpy of fluorine on the tantalum surface has been measured for the first time. (author)

  1. Superradiance at the localization-delocalization crossover in tubular chlorosomes

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, Rafael A; Somoza, Alejandro; Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of disorder on spectral properties of tubular chlorosomes in green sulfur bacteria Cf. aurantiacus. Employing a Frenkel-exciton Hamiltonian with diagonal and off-diagonal disorder consistent with spectral and structural studies, we analyze excitonic localization and spectral statistics of the chlorosomes. A size-dependent localization-delocalization crossover is found to occur as a function of the excitonic energy. The crossover energy region coincides with the more optically active states with maximized superradiance, and is, consequently, more conducive for energy transfer.

  2. Granuloma necrosis during Mycobacterium avium infection does not require tumor necrosis factor

    OpenAIRE

    Florido, M; Appelberg, R.

    2004-01-01

    The infection of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-deficient mice with low doses of the virulent Mycobacterium avium strain 25291 led to the appearance of necrotic granulomas at 93 days of infection, i.e., sooner than necrotic granulomas appeared in C57BL/6 animals. Additionally, TNF-deficient mice exhibited higher mycobacterial loads in the infected organs, had extremely exacerbated gamma interferon responses as evaluated in the sera of infected animals, and showed reduced survival. Thus, TNF is n...

  3. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute Pancreatitis > Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is ... of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for ...

  4. Changes of Apoptosis in Rats of Acute Ischemic Renal Injury under Treatment of Tetrandrine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱玲梅; 王笑云; 冷静

    2002-01-01

    ObjectiveTo elucidate the effect of tetrandrine on acute ischemic renal injury and its relation with apoptosis.MethodsA model for bilateral post-ischemic renal injury in rats was developed by clamping renal pedicles for 45 min.Renal tissular DNA fragmentation analysis and renal tissular HE staining were used.Also quantitative analysis of apoptosis in injured renal tubular epithelium was carried out by using TdT-mediated dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL).ResultsApoptosis of renal tubular epithelium increased in acute ischemic renal injury.Tetrandrine could remarkably decrease the level of apoptosis in injured renal tubule while protecting renal tissue against the ischemic injuries.ConclusionTetrandrine could adjust the level of apoptosis in renal tubular epithelium and alleviate renal tissular injury.``

  5. Changes of Apoptosis in Rats of Acute Ischemic Renal Injury under Treatment of Tetrandrine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱玲梅; 王笑云; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the effect of tetrandrine on acute ischemic renal injury and its relation with apoptosis.Methods A model for bilateral post-ischemic renal injury in rats was developed by clamping renal pedicles for 45 min.Renal tissular DNA fragmentation analysis and renal tissular HE staining were used.Also quantitative analysis of apoptosis in injured renal tubular epithelium was carried out by using TdT-mediated dUTP nick and labeling(TUNEL).Results Apoptosis of renal tubular epithelium increased in acute ischemic renal injury.Tetrandrine could remarkably decrease the level of apoptosis in injured renal tubule while protecting renal tissue against the ischemic injuries.Conclusion Tetrandrine could adjust the level of apoptosis in renal tubular epithelium and alleviate renal tissular injury.

  6. Change of Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha in Acute Pancreatitis and Their Relationship with Disease Condition%急性胰腺炎患者血清白细胞介素6及肿瘤坏死因子α的改变及与病情的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先坤; 王秉钧; 李培武; 晏波

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨急性胰腺炎患者血清白细胞介素6( IL-6)及肿瘤坏死因子α( TNF-α)的改变及与病情的关系。方法选择2010年2月至2012年2月兰州大学第二医院住院治疗的116例急性胰腺炎患者为研究对象,其中重症急性胰腺炎患者66例,轻型急性胰腺炎患者50例。采用酶联免疫吸附测定法检测患者血清IL-6及TNF-α水平,探讨两者与病情的关系。结果重症急性胰腺炎患者血清IL-6和TNF-α水平分别为(97.62±13.42)μg/L和(5.49±2.40)μg/L,显著高于轻型急性胰腺炎患者(42.17±8.72)μg/L和(2.46±1.37)μg/L(P<0.05);两组患者治疗后1周血清IL-6和TNF-α水平均显著下降,分别为(22.76±4.38)μg/L和(2.41±1.24)μg/L及(13.23±3.95)μg/L和(1.69±0.82)μg/L(P<0.05);重症急性胰腺炎存活患者的血清IL-6及TNF-α水平显著低于死亡患者(P<0.05)。结论血清IL-6及TNF-α水平与急性胰腺炎患者疾病严重程度密切相关,可作为临床评估病情、疗效及预后的指标。%Objective To explore the change of IL-6 and TNF-αin acute pancreatitis and their relationship with disease condition. Methods 116 patients with acute pancreatitis who treated in Second Hospital Affiliated to Lanzhou University from 2010 February to 2012 February were selected as research subjects, including 66 cases of severe acute pancreatitis and 50 cases of mild acute pancreatitis. Serum IL-6 and TNF-αlevel were detected by En-zyme linked immunosorbent assay, and their relationships with disease were studied. Results The serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with severe acute pancreatitis were (97. 62 ± 13. 42) μg/L and (5. 49 ± 2. 40) μg/L, sig-nificantly higher than those in patients with mild acute pancreatitis(42. 17 ± 8. 72) μg/L and (2. 46 ± 1. 37) μg/L (P<0. 05);After 1 weeks,the serum IL-6 and and TNF-levels were significantly decreased,respectively (22. 76 ± 4.38) μg/L and(2.41 ±1.24) μg/L,(13.23 ±3.95) μg/L and (1.69 ±0.82)

  7. In vitro anti-tumour activity of tumour necrosis serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloksma, N.; Schetters, Th.P.; Figdor, C.; Dijk, H. van; Willers, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method measuring 3H-thymidine incorporation in Meth A sarcoma cells was used to quantify in vitro anti-tumour activity of tumour necrosis serum and compared with a method using cell viability as a parameter. Tumour necrosis serum obtained from mice pretreated with Corynebacterium parvum and elicit

  8. 急性胰腺炎肺损伤大鼠肺组织肿瘤坏死因子受体-1与窖蛋白-1的表达及清胰汤的治疗作用%The expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 and caveolin-1 in the lung of acute pancreatitisassociated lung injury rats and the therapeutic role of Qingyitang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钢; 陈海龙; 唐颖; 任凤; 李洁; 姜妙娜

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and function of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR-1) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in the lung of acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury rats, and to determine the potential role of Qingyitang. Methods Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operation (SHAM) group, acute lung injury (ALI) group, dexamethasone (DEX) group and Qingyitang (QYT)group. ALI was induced by retrograde injection of deoxycholate into biliopancreatic duct of rats. Blood and lung tissues were drawn after 24 h. Serum amylase, lung wet/dry (W/D) ratio and pathological section were examined to evaluate the degree of lung injury. Immunoradioassay was used to detect serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were applied to detect the expression levels of TNFR-1 and Cav-1 mRNA and protein respectively. Results The concentration of serum amylase, the W/D ratio, TNF-α (4.82 ± 0.14 vs 2.96 ± 0. 30, P <0. 01 ) and the degree of pathological lung injury were obviously increased in ALI rats. The expression of TNFR-1 mRNA was increased in ALI rats (1.29 ±0. 15 vs 0.43 ±0.05,P<0.01), but Cav-1 mRNA expression was decreased ( 1.14 ±0. 10 vs 2.00 ±0. 10,P <0.01 ). The expression of TNFR-1 protein in both lipid rafts and non-lipid rafts was increased, but that of Cav-1 in both of the two fractions was decreased. As compared with ALI rats, the concentration of serum amylase, W/D ratio, TNF-αt ( DEX: 3.79 ± 0. 11,QYT: 3.66 ±0. 10, ALI: 4.82 ±0. 14,P <0.01 ) and the degree of pathological lung injury were obviously decreased in DEX and QYT rats. The expression of TNFR-1 mRNA was decreased in both DEX and QYT groups (DEX: 0.48±0.01, QYT: 0.49 ±0.02, ALI: 1.29 ±0. 15,P<0.01), but that of Cav-1 mRNA was up-regulated (DEX: 1.66 ±0.06, QYT: 1.52 ±0.04, ALI: 1.14 ±0. 10,P<0.01). The expression of TNFR-1 protein in both lipid rafts and non-lipid rafts was decreased, but

  9. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Capecomorin S Pitchumoni; Balaji Yegneswaran

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a rare event in pregnancy,occurring in approximately 3 in 10 000 pregnancies.The spectrum of AP in pregnancy ranges from mild pancreatitis to serious pancreatitis associated with necrosis, abscesses, pseudocysts and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. Pregnancy related hematological and biochemical alterations influence the interpretation of diagnostic tests and assessment of severity of AP. As in any other disease associated with pregnancy, AP is associated with greater concerns as it deals with two lives rather than just one as in the nonpregnant population. The recent advances in clinical gastroenterology have improved the early diagnosis and effective management of biliary pancreatitis. Diagnostic studies such as endoscopic ultrasound,magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and therapeutic modalities that include endoscopic sphincterotomy, biliary stenting, common bile duct stone extraction and laparoscopic cholecystectomy are major milestones in gastroenterology. When properly managed AP in pregnancy does not carry a dismal prognosis as in the past.

  10. Gentamicin-induced preconditioning of proximal tubular LLC-PK1 cells stimulates nitric oxide production but not the synthesis of heat shock protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Pessoa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is the main side effect of antibiotics such as gentamicin. Preconditioning has been reported to protect against injuries as ischemia/reperfusion. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of preconditioning with gentamicin on LLC-PK1 cells. Preconditioning was induced in LLC-PK1 cells by 24-h exposure to 2.0 mM gentamicin (G/IU. After 4 or 15 days of preconditioning, cells were again exposed to gentamicin (2.0 mM and compared to untreated control or G/IU cells. Necrosis and apoptosis were assessed by acridine orange and HOESCHT 33346. Nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 were assessed by the Griess method and available kit. Heat shock proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. After 15 days of preconditioning, LLC-PK1 cells exhibited a significant decrease in necrosis (23.5 ± 4.3 to 6.5 ± 0.3% and apoptosis (23.5 ± 4.3 to 6.5 ± 2.1% and an increase in cell proliferation compared to G/IU. NO (0.177 ± 0.05 to 0.368 ± 0.073 µg/mg protein and endothelin-1 (1.88 ± 0.47 to 2.75 ± 0.53 pg/mL production significantly increased after 15 days of preconditioning compared to G/IU. No difference in inducible HSP 70, constitutive HSC 70 or HSP 90 synthesis in tubular cells was observed after preconditioning with gentamicin. The present data suggest that preconditioning with gentamicin has protective effects on proximal tubular cells, that involved NO synthesis but not reduction of endothelin-1 or production of HSP 70, HSC 70, or HSP 90. We conclude that preconditioning could be a useful tool to prevent the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin.

  11. [Programmed necrosis: a new target for
ischemia reperfusion injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Ming, Yingzi; Niu, Ying; Liu, Qianwen; Ye, Qifa

    2016-07-01

    Recent years, the researchers have found a new type of cell death, referred to programmed necrosis or necroptosis, which involves the death receptor and the ligand binds and is initiated under the inhibition of apoptosis pathway. Programmed necrosis possesses the morphological features of typical necrosis accompanied by inflammation. The receptor interacting protein kinase 1/3(RIPK1/3) can be inhibited by the specific inhibitors, such as necrostatin-1. RIPK1/3 could regulate programmed necrosis and play a key role in the process. The significance of programmed necrosis in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has been attracted great attention at present. Simultaneously, a series of studies have found it also involves in the IRI of heart, kidney, brain and retina. PMID:27592584

  12. Bronchitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation in the main passages ... present only for a short time. Causes When acute bronchitis occurs, it almost always comes after having a ...

  13. Tubular dielectric elastomer actuator for active fluidic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoul, David; Pei, Qibing

    2015-10-01

    We report a novel low-profile, biomimetic dielectric elastomer tubular actuator capable of actively controlling hydraulic flow. The tubular actuator has been established as a reliable tunable valve, pinching a secondary silicone tube completely shut in the absence of a fluidic pressure bias or voltage, offering a high degree of resistance against fluidic flow, and able to open and completely remove this resistance to flow with an applied low power actuation voltage. The system demonstrates a rise in pressure of ∼3.0 kPa when the dielectric elastomer valve is in the passive, unactuated state, and there is a quadratic fall in this pressure with increasing actuation voltage, until ∼0 kPa is reached at 2.4 kV. The device is reliable for at least 2000 actuation cycles for voltages at or below 2.2 kV. Furthermore, modeling of the actuator and fluidic system yields results consistent with the observed experimental dependence of intrasystem pressure on input flow rate, actuator prestretch, and actuation voltage. To our knowledge, this is the first actuator of its type that can control fluid flow by directly actuating the walls of a tube. Potential applications may include an implantable artificial sphincter, part of a peristaltic pump, or a computerized valve for fluidic or pneumatic control.

  14. Surface and interfacial creases in a bilayer tubular soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Mir Jalil; Pidaparti, Ramana; Wang, Xianqiao

    2016-08-01

    Surface and interfacial creases induced by biological growth are common types of instability in soft biological tissues. This study focuses on the criteria for the onset of surface and interfacial creases as well as their morphological evolution in a growing bilayer soft tube within a confined environment. Critical growth ratios for triggering surface and interfacial creases are investigated both analytically and numerically. Analytical interpretations provide preliminary insights into critical stretches and growth ratios for the onset of instability and formation of both surface and interfacial creases. However, the analytical approach cannot predict the evolution pattern of the model after instability; therefore nonlinear finite element simulations are carried out to replicate the poststability morphological patterns of the structure. Analytical and computational simulation results demonstrate that the initial geometry, growth ratio, and shear modulus ratio of the layers are the most influential factors to control surface and interfacial crease formation in this soft tubular bilayer. The competition between the stretch ratios in the free and interfacial surfaces is one of the key driving factors to determine the location of the first crease initiation. These findings may provide some fundamental understanding in the growth modeling of tubular biological tissues such as esophagi and airways as well as offering useful clues into normal and pathological functions of these tissues.

  15. High temperature fatigue experiments on welded stainless steel tubular elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important problems concerning the design of advanced type reactors regards the high temperature low-cycle fatigue behaviour of structural elements. Design Guides and Codes report reference data, mainly based on strain range versus failure cycles results, which have been determined by various researchers. The data have been obtained through different test techniques applied to different types of specimens. As a consequence such data are not easily correlated; moreover at present an exhaustive series of results about high temperature low-cycle fatigue behaviour of structures is not available. A test rig has been designed to perform high temperature fatigue experiments on AISI 304 stainless steel tubular elements of 500 mm length, 60.3 mm outer diameter and 2 mm thickness, they are composed of two butt welded tubular elements with welded end flanges. During the experiments it is possible to control the axial strain range, the strain rate and the hold time; the specimen temperature is obtained by an inner heating device, controlled by a series of measuring thermocouples; until now the imposed temperature is 6500C. The first results show a marked reduction of the number of cycles at failure, if compared with existing data about small size specimens; the measurement of residual plastic strains shows clearly non-uniform distribution of the plastic zones. (Auth.)

  16. Understanding shape and morphology of unusual tubular starch nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bei; Liu, Wenxia; Tan, Hua; Yu, Dehai; Song, Zhaoping; Lucia, Lucian A

    2016-10-20

    Starch nanocrystals (SNC) are aptly described as the insoluble degradation byproducts of starch granules that purportedly display morphologies that are platelet-like, round, square, and oval-like. In this work, we reported the preparation of SNC with unprecedented tubular structures through sulfuric acid hydrolysis of normal maize starch, subsequent exposure to ammonia and relaxation at 4°C. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation clearly proved that the SNCs possess tubular nanostructures with polygonal cross-section. After further reviewing the transformations of SNC by acid hydrolysis, ammonia treatment, and curing time at 4°C, a mechanism for T-SNC formation is suggested. It is conjectured that T-SNC gradually self-assembles by combination of smaller platelet-like/square nanocrystals likely loosely aggregated by starch molecular chains from residual amorphous regions. This work paves the way for the pursuit of new approaches for the preparation of starch-based nanomaterials possessing unique morphologies. PMID:27474612

  17. Toward automated cochlear implant insertion using tubular manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granna, Josephine; Rau, Thomas S.; Nguyen, Thien-Dang; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    During manual cochlear implant electrode insertion the surgeon is at risk to damage the intracochlear fine-structure, as the electrode array is inserted through a small opening in the cochlea blindly with little force-feedback. This paper addresses a novel concept for cochlear electrode insertion using tubular manipulators to reduce risks of causing trauma during insertion and to automate the insertion process. We propose a tubular manipulator incorporated into the electrode array composed of an inner wire within a tube, both elastic and helically shaped. It is our vision to use this manipulator to actuate the initially straight electrode array during insertion into the cochlea by actuation of the wire and tube, i.e. translation and slight axial rotation. In this paper, we evaluate the geometry of the human cochlea in 22 patient datasets in order to derive design requirements for the manipulator. We propose an optimization algorithm to automatically determine the tube set parameters (curvature, torsion, diameter, length) for an ideal final position within the cochlea. To prove our concept, we demonstrate that insertion can be realized in a follow-the-leader fashion for 19 out of 22 cochleas. This is possible with only 4 different tube/wire sets.

  18. Numerical investigation of cavitation performance on bulb tubular turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. G.; Guo, P. C.; Zheng, X. B.; Luo, X. Q.

    2016-05-01

    The cavitation flow phenomena may occur in the bulb tubular turbine at some certain operation conditions, which even decrease the performance of units and causes insatiably noise and vibration when it goes worse. A steady cavitating flow numerical simulations study is carried out on the bulb tubular unit with the same blade pitch angle and different guide vane openings by using the commercial code ANSYS CFX in this paper. The phenomena of cavitation induction areas and development process are obtained and draws cavitation performance curves. The numerical results show that the travelling bubble cavity is the main types of cavitation development over a wide operating range of discharge and this type of cavitation begins to sensitive to the value of cavitation number when the discharge exceeding a certain valve, in this condition, it can lead to a severe free bubble formation with the gradually decrement of cavitation number. The reported cavitation performance curves results indicate that the flow blockage incident would happen because of a mount of free bubble formation in the flow passage when the cavity developed to certain extend, which caused head drop behavior and power broken dramatically and influenced the output power.

  19. Nano-tubular cellulose for bioprocess technology development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios A Koutinas

    Full Text Available Delignified cellulosic material has shown a significant promotional effect on the alcoholic fermentation as yeast immobilization support. However, its potential for further biotechnological development is unexploited. This study reports the characterization of this tubular/porous cellulosic material, which was done by SEM, porosimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The results showed that the structure of nano-tubular cellulose (NC justifies its suitability for use in "cold pasteurization" processes and its promoting activity in bioprocessing (fermentation. The last was explained by a glucose pump theory. Also, it was demonstrated that crystallization of viscous invert sugar solutions during freeze drying could not be otherwise achieved unless NC was present. This effect as well as the feasibility of extremely low temperature fermentation are due to reduction of the activation energy, and have facilitated the development of technologies such as wine fermentations at home scale (in a domestic refrigerator. Moreover, NC may lead to new perspectives in research such as the development of new composites, templates for cylindrical nano-particles, etc.

  20. Advances in tubular solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, S.C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The design, materials and fabrication processes for the earlier technology Westinghouse tubular geometry cell have been described in detail previously. In that design, the active cell components were deposited in the form of thin layers on a ceramic porous support tube (PST). The tubular design of these cells and the materials used therein have been validated by successful electrical testing for over 65,000 h (>7 years). In these early technology PST cells, the support tube, although sufficiently porous, presented an inherent impedance to air flow toward air electrode. In order to reduce such impedance to air flow, the wall thickness of the PST was first decreased from the original 2 mm (the thick-wall PST) to 1.2 mm (the thin-wall PST). The calcia-stabilized zirconia support tube has now been completely eliminated and replaced by a doped lanthanum manganite tube in state-of-the-art SOFCs. This doped lanthanum manganite tube is extruded and sintered to about 30 to 35 percent porosity, and serves as the air electrode onto which the other cell components are fabricated in thin layer form. These latest technology cells are designated as air electrode supported (AES) cells.

  1. Additive manufacturing of patient-specific tubular continuum manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanov, Ernar; Nguyen, Thien-Dang; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Tubular continuum robots, which are composed of multiple concentric, precurved, elastic tubes, provide more dexterity than traditional surgical instruments at the same diameter. The tubes can be precurved such that the resulting manipulator fulfills surgical task requirements. Up to now the only material used for the component tubes of those manipulators is NiTi, a super-elastic shape-memory alloy of nickel and titan. NiTi is a cost-intensive material and fabrication processes are complex, requiring (proprietary) technology, e.g. for shape setting. In this paper, we evaluate component tubes made of 3 different thermoplastic materials (PLA, PCL and nylon) using fused filament fabrication technology (3D printing). This enables quick and cost-effective production of custom, patient-specific continuum manipulators, produced on site on demand. Stress-strain and deformation characteristics are evaluated experimentally for 16 fabricated tubes of each thermoplastic with diameters and shapes equivalent to those of NiTi tubes. Tubes made of PCL and nylon exhibit properties comparable to those made of NiTi. We further demonstrate a tubular continuum manipulator composed of 3 nylon tubes in a transnasal, transsphenoidal skull base surgery scenario in vitro.

  2. Acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingest...

  3. Acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion....

  4. Tumor Necrosis Factor Induces Developmental Stage-Dependent Structural Changes in the Immature Small Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Premature infants are commonly subject to intestinal inflammation. Since the human small intestine does not reach maturity until term gestation, premature infants have a unique challenge, as either acute or chronic inflammation may alter the normal development of the intestinal tract. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF has been shown to acutely alter goblet cell numbers and villus length in adult mice. In this study we tested the effects of TNF on villus architecture and epithelial cells at different stages of development of the immature small intestine. Methods. To examine the effects of TNF-induced inflammation, we injected acute, brief, or chronic exposures of TNF in neonatal and juvenile mice. Results. TNF induced significant villus blunting through a TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1 mediated mechanism, leading to loss of villus area. This response to TNFR1 signaling was altered during intestinal development, despite constant TNFR1 protein expression. Acute TNF-mediated signaling also significantly decreased Paneth cells. Conclusions. Taken together, the morphologic changes caused by TNF provide insight as to the effects of inflammation on the developing intestinal tract. Additionally, they suggest a mechanism which, coupled with an immature immune system, may help to explain the unique susceptibility of the immature intestine to inflammatory diseases such as NEC.

  5. Percutaneous Access: Acute Effects on Renal Function and Structure in a Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Rajash K.; Willis, Lynn R.; Evan, Andrew P.; Connors, Bret A.; Ying, Jun; Fat-Anthony, William; Wind, Kelli R.; Johnson, Cynthia D.; Blomgren, Philip M.; Estrada, Mark C.; Paterson, Ryan F.; Kuo, Ramsay L.; Kim, Samuel C.; Matlaga, Brian R.; Miller, Nicole L.; Watkins, Stephanie L.; Handa, Shelly E.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-04-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) involves gaining access into the urinary collecting system to remove kidney stones. Animal studies demonstrated that a reduction in renal filtration and perfusion in both kidneys, and a decline in tubular organic anion transport in the treated kidney characterizes the acute (hours) functional response to unilateral percutaneous access. The acute morphologic and histological changes in the treated kidney were consistent with blunt trauma and ischemia. Only tubular organic anion transport remained depressed during the late (3-day) response to the access procedure. Human studies revealed an acute decline in glomerular function and bilateral renal vasoconstriction following unilateral PCNL. Therefore, percutaneous access is not a benign procedure, but is associated with acute functional and structural derangements.

  6. [Acute pancreatitis with hypertriglyceridemia--an underestimated disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Wolfgang; Tajjiou, Morad; Ferschke, Melanie; Bormann, Fabian; Dörr, Pius; Schwarzbach, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a rare, but since a long time well known etiology for acute pancreatitis. It could occure alone or coactive with other triggers like alcohlic excess. Nevertheless it found no approach to the current classifications and parameters of prognosis of the acute pancreatitis. We refer about two patients with hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis, whose initial disease was limited on the tail of the pancreas with just a circumscripted or--in the other case--no necrosis. However, in both cases and although a consequent treatment started immediately, a serious process developed including a life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome in one case, which necessitated an extracorporal membrane oxygenation. PMID:26710203

  7. Activation of SUR2B/Kir6.1-type KATP channels protects glomerular endothelial, mesangial and tubular epithelial cells against oleic acid renal damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying ZHAO; Hai WANG

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative evidence suggests that renal vascular endothelial injury play an important role in initiating and extending tubular epithelial injury and contribute to the development of ischemic acute renal failure.Our previous studies have demonstrated that iptakalim's endothelium protection is related to activation of SUR2B/Kir6.1 subtype of ATP sensitive potassium channel (KATP) in the endothelium.It has been reported that SUR2B/Kir6.1 channels are widely distributed in the tubular epithelium,glomerular mesangium,and the endothelium and the smooth muscle of blood vessels.Herein,we hypothesized that activating renal KATP channels with iptakalim might have directly neroprotective effects.In this study,glomerular endothelial,mesangial and tubular epithelial cells which are the main cell types to form nephron were exposed to oleic acid (OA) at various concentrations for 24 h.0.25 μl/ml OA could cause cellular damage of glomerular endothelium and mesangium,while 1.25μl/ml OA could lead to the injury of three types of renal cells.It was observed that pretreatment with iptakalim at concentrations of 0.1,1,10 or 100 μmol/L prevented cellular damage of glomerular endothelium and tubular epithelium,whereas iptakalim from 1 to 100 μmol/L prevented the injury of mesangial cells.Our data showed iptakalim significantly increased survived cell rates in a concentration-dependent manner,significantly antagonized by glibenclamide,a KATP blocker.Iptakalim played a protective role in the main cell types of kidney,which was consistent with natakalim,a highly selective SUR2B/Kir6.1 channel opener.Iptakalim exerted protective effects through activating SUR2B/Kir6.1 channels,suggesting a new strategy for renal injury by its endothelial and renal cell protection.

  8. The effects of the recommended dose of creatine monohydrate on kidney function

    OpenAIRE

    Taner, Basturk; Aysim, Ozagari; Abdulkadir, Unsal

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a heretofore healthy 18-year-old man who presented with a 2-day history of nausea, vomiting and stomach ache while taking creatine monohydrate for bodybuilding purposes. The patient had acute renal failure, and a renal biopsy was performed to determine the cause of increased creatinine and proteinuria. The biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis. In the literature, creatine monohydrate supplementation and acute tubular necrosis coexistence had not been reported previously. Tw...

  9. Stimulation of neutrophils by tumor necrosis factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was shown to be a weak direct stimulus of the neutrophil respiratory burst and degranulation. The stimulation, as measured by iodination, H2O2 production, and lysozyme release, was considerably increased by the presence of unopsonized zymosan in the reaction mixture, an effect which was associated with the increased ingestion of the zymosan. TNF does not act as an opsonin but, rather, reacts with the neutrophil to increase its phagocytic activity. TNF-dependent phagocytosis, as measured indirectly by iodination, is inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (Mab) 60.1 and 60.3, which recognize different epitopes on the C3bi receptor/adherence-promoting surface glycoprotein of neutrophils. Other neutrophil stimulants, namely N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristic acetate, also increase iodination in the presence of zymosan; as with TNF, the effect of these stimulants is inhibited by Mab 60.1 and 60.3, whereas, in contrast to that of TNF, their stimulation of iodination is unaffected by an Mab directed against TNF. TNF may be a natural stimulant of neutrophils which promotes adherence to endothelial cells and to particles, leading to increased phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and degranulation

  10. [An infected necrosis of the chin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, B S; van Goor, H F; Rosenberg, A J W P

    2016-07-01

    A 51-year-old man was referred by his dentist to a maxillofacial surgeon with complaints of illness and pain in the mandible, associated with a rapidly expanding area of black gingiva and mucosa surrounding the lower front teeth. Clinically and radiographically there was evidence of an infected necrosis of the chin and floor of mouth. Following debridement at the operating room, the patient was treated at the intensive care unit for septic shock leading to prolonged hospitalisation. Investigation of the bone marrow did not provide an explanation for pancytopenia or the severity of the illness. In addition, genetic investigation of thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene showed no mutations. This gene codes for an identically named protein enzyme that contributes in the metabolising of the medicine azathioprine, used daily for an autoimmune disease. A combination of the use of azathioprine, a folic acid deficiency and sepsis led to this exceptional course of illness. Therapeutic intervention consisted of surgical debridement and treatment of the bacteraemia. Afterwards several corrective surgeries were necessary to restore oral functions. PMID:27430038

  11. Effect of saline loading on uranium-induced acute renal failure in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishida, A.; Yonemura, K.; Ohishi, K.; Yamada, M.; Honda, N.

    1988-05-01

    Studies were performed to examine the effect of saline loading on uranium-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. Forty-eight hours after the i.v. injection of uranyl acetate (UA, 5 mg/kg), inulin clearance rate (Cin) decreased to approximately 43% of the control value in water drinking rats (P less than 0.005). Animals receiving continuous isotonic saline infusion following UA showed higher urine flow and Cin (60% of control, P less than 0.01), and lessened intratubular cast formation when compared with water-drinking ARF rats. A short-term saline infusion following UA did not attenuate the decline in Cin (43% of control). An inverse relationship was found between Cin and the number of casts (r = -0.75, P less than 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that standardized partial regression coefficient is statistically significant between Cin and cast formation (-0.69, P less than 0.05), but not between Cin and tubular necrosis (-0.07, P greater than 0.05). Renin depletion caused by DOCA plus saline drinking did not attenuate the decline in Cin in ARF (47% of control). No significant difference was found in urinary uranium excretion between water-drinking and saline-infused ARF rats. The findings suggest that continuous saline infusion following UA attenuates the decline in Cin in ARF rats; and that this beneficial effect of saline loading is associated with lessened cast formation rather than with suppressed renin-angiotensin activity or enhanced urinary-uranium excretion.

  12. Contribution of bone marrow-derived cells in renal repair after acute kidney injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masereeuw, R.

    2009-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent clinical problem with a high mortality rate, generally caused by ischemic insults. Nevertheless, the kidney has a remarkably high capacity to regenerate after ischemic injury. Tubular cells can restore renal function by proliferation and dedifferentiation into

  13. Necrosis, a regulated mechanism of cell death La necrosis, un mecanismo regulado de muerte celular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rojas López

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Three types of cellular death have been defined by morphological and biochemical criteria: apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Apoptosis is a regulated cell death, mainly mediated by caspases; autophagy induces degradation of intracellular damaged organelles through the formation of vesicles that fuse with hydrolytic vacuoles.

     

    Necrosis has been traditionally defined by the rupture the cytoplasmic membrane with subsequent release of intracellular material, triggering localized inflammatory Intrinsic cellular activities and the events preceding cellular collapse are critical to determine the type of tissue damage.

     

    The fact that all three types of cellular death can coexist in any organ and tissue with different availabilities of ATP, suggests that necrosis can be conceived as an active event and that to some extent it may be regulated. Alterations in the structure of proteins and in the

  14. Tubular Ectasia of the Rete testis: Echographic Findings in 43 Patients; Ectasia tubular de la rete testis: hallazgos ecograficos en 43 pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixandre, A.; Ruiz, F.; Cugat, A. [Hospital Malva-rosa. Valencia (Spain); Fuster, A. V. [Universidad de Valencia. (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Tubular ectasia of the retetestes is a benign lesion usually associated with epididymal abnormalities. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of intraparenchymatous cystic lesions. Its characteristic echographic image usually allows for a diagnosis without having to perform any other type of exploration. We present a review of 43 patients with tubular ectasia of the rete tests studied ultrasonically during a 7-year period. Intratesticular echographic findings are described, as well as associated extratesticular pathology. (Author) 24 refs.

  15. Spectrum of mutations in the renin-angiotensin system genes in autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribouval, Olivier; Morinière, Vincent; Pawtowski, Audrey;

    2012-01-01

    Autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a severe disorder of renal tubular development characterized by early onset and persistent fetal anuria leading to oligohydramnios and the Potter sequence, associated with skull ossification defects. Early death occurs in most cases from anuri...... and histological analyses and the characterization of the genetic defects allow genetic counseling and early prenatal diagnosis....

  16. Optimization of production conditions and material characteristics of tubular stabilizer bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhr, R.

    1983-08-01

    Weight reduction of car tubular stabilizer bars is studied. Optimization of prematerial, forming and tempering procedures, and surface treatment are discussed. Steel qualities and production conditions were examined for feasibility with sample stabilizer bars. It is concluded that tubular stabilizer bars can be manufactured and practically used in cars. Tube diameters must not be too small, otherwise the weight saving is minimal.

  17. Effects of receptor-mediated endocytosis and tubular protein composition on volume retention in experimental glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastner, Christian; Pohl, Marcus; Sendeski, Mauricio;

    2009-01-01

    and channels involved in volume regulation were altered in GN, and 2) proximal tubular endocytosis may influence locally as well as downstream expressed tubular transporters and channels. Effects of anti-glomerular basement membrane GN were studied in controls and megalin-deficient mice with blunted proximal...

  18. Distribution of common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen in nonhematopoietic tissues

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    The common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA), as defined by J-5 murine monoclonal antibodies, was detected on renal tubular and glomerular cells from fetal and adult donors by an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. CALLA could also be detected on epithelial cells of the fetal small intestine and on myoepithelial cells of adult breast but not on myoepithelial cells of the salivary gland. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of immunoprecipitated 125I-l...

  19. Genetic deficiency of adiponectin protects against acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xiaogao; Chen, Jiyuan; Hu, Zhaoyong; Chan, Lawrence; Wang, Yanlin

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is a multifunctional cytokine that has a role in regulating inflammation. Here we determined if adiponectin modulates ischemic acute kidney injury. Compared with wild-type mice, adiponectin knockout mice were found to have lower serum creatinine and less tubular damage or apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion injury. This latter process was associated with decreased Bax and reduced activation of p53 and caspase-3. Targeted disruption of adiponectin was also found to inhibit the...

  20. Andrographolide-induced apoptosis in human renal tubular epithelial cells: Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Li-Li; Zhang, Xin-Yue; Xing, Wen-Min; Xu, Jia-Dong; Lu, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Andrographolide sodium bisulfate as a kind of soluble derivative of andrographolide (AD), is obviously known to be nephrotoxicity, but AD has not been reported clearly. Our study aimed to investigate the induction of apoptosis in human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells by AD and its possible mechanism. Our results demonstrated that AD (0-250μmol/L) inhibited Hk-2 cells proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis, accompanied by decreased of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increased of malondialdehvde (MDA) content. Simultaneously, AD regulated the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/Bip) protein, elevated the expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and Caspase-4, indicating activation of ER stress signaling, and induced the alterative expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) proteins. It provided evidence that ER stress and inflammation would be significant mechanisms responsible for AD-induced apoptosis in addition to oxidative stress. PMID:27344125

  1. Hepatocyte growth factor prevents acute renal failure and accelerates renal regeneration in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaida, K; Matsumoto, K.; Shimazu, H.; Nakamura, T.(International Center for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)

    1994-01-01

    Although acute renal failure is encountered with administration of nephrotoxic drugs, ischemia, or unilateral nephrectomy, there has been no effective drug which can be used in case of acute renal failure. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent hepatotropic factor for liver regeneration and is known to have mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic activities for various epithelial cells, including renal tubular cells. Intravenous injection of recombinant human HGF into mice remarkably suppre...

  2. VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS FOR DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED HEAT-PIPE EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical work has included development of two TRNSYS [1] simulation models for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors utilizing solar radiation from all directions. One model...... is developed for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors with flat fins and one model is developed for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors with curved fins. The models are characterized by detailed calculations of the heat transfer processes in the fins, by detailed shadow modeling and by fins with selective...... coating on both sides. The input to the models is thus not a simple collector efficiency expression but the actual collector geometry. In this study, the TRNSYS models are validated with measurements for four differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors. The collectors are produced...

  3. Renal Function in Diabetic Disease Models: The Tubular System in the Pathophysiology of the Diabetic Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallon, Volker; Thomson, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects the kidney in stages. At the onset of diabetes mellitus, in a subset of diabetic patients the kidneys grow large, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) becomes supranormal, which are risk factors for developing diabetic nephropathy later in life. This review outlines a pathophysiological concept that focuses on the tubular system to explain these changes. The concept includes the tubular hypothesis of glomerular filtration, which states that early tubular growth and sodium-glucose cotransport enhance proximal tubule reabsorption and make the GFR supranormal through the physiology of tubuloglomerular feedback. The diabetic milieu triggers early tubular cell proliferation, but the induction of TGF-β and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors causes a cell cycle arrest and a switch to tubular hypertrophy and a senescence-like phenotype. Although this growth phenotype explains unusual responses like the salt paradox of the early diabetic kidney, the activated molecular pathways may set the stage for tubulointerstitial injury and diabetic nephropathy. PMID:22335797

  4. Dysfunctional tubular endoplasmic reticulum constitutes a pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharoar, M G; Shi, Q; Ge, Y; He, W; Hu, X; Perry, G; Zhu, X; Yan, R

    2016-09-01

    Pathological features in Alzheimer's brains include mitochondrial dysfunction and dystrophic neurites (DNs) in areas surrounding amyloid plaques. Using a mouse model that overexpresses reticulon 3 (RTN3) and spontaneously develops age-dependent hippocampal DNs, here we report that DNs contain both RTN3 and REEPs, topologically similar proteins that can shape tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Importantly, ultrastructural examinations of such DNs revealed gradual accumulation of tubular ER in axonal termini, and such abnormal tubular ER inclusion is found in areas surrounding amyloid plaques in biopsy samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Functionally, abnormally clustered tubular ER induces enhanced mitochondrial fission in the early stages of DN formation and eventual mitochondrial degeneration at later stages. Furthermore, such DNs are abrogated when RTN3 is ablated in aging and AD mouse models. Hence, abnormally clustered tubular ER can be pathogenic in brain regions: disrupting mitochondrial integrity, inducing DNs formation and impairing cognitive function in AD and aging brains. PMID:26619807

  5. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions : Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  6. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  7. MICAL-L1-related and unrelated mechanisms underlying elongated tubular endosomal network (ETEN) in human dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compeer, E.B.; Boes, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The endosomal pathway constitutes a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which is composed of vesicular and tubular compartments. Endosomal tubules enable geometry-based discrimination between membrane and luminal content. Extended tubular endosomes were suggested to deliver a steady strea

  8. Organ failure associated with severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Jun Zhu; Jing-Sen Shi; Xue-Jun Sun

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and organ failure.METHODS: Clinical data of 74 cases of SAP from Jan. 1993 to Dec. 2002 were retrospectively reviewed, and the relationship between organ failure and age, gender, etiology,extent of necrosis, infection of necrosis and mortality was analyzed.RESULTS: A total of 47 patients (63.5 %) showed organ failure, 20 patients (27.0 %) multiple organ failure, whereas 27 patients (36.5 %) with dysfunction of a single organ system. Pulmonary failure was the most common organ dysfunction (23.0 %) among single organ failures. There were no significant differences in age, gender and gallstone pancreatitis among patients with or without organ failure (P>0.05). The incidence of organ failure in infected necrosis was not higher compared with sterile necrosis, and patients with increased amount of necrosis did not have an increased prevalence of organ failure (P>0.05). Patients with organ failure had a higher mortality rate compared with those without organ failure (P<0.05). The death of SAP was associated with multiple organ failure (P<0.005), pulmonary failure (P<0.005), cardiovascular dysfunction (P<0.05) and gastrointestinal dysfunction (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Organ failure is common in patients with SAP, and patients with multiple organ failure and pulmonary failure have a higher mortality rate. Prevention and active treatment of organ failure can improve the outcome of patients with SAP.

  9. Characterization of hydrodynamics and mass transfer in two types of tubular electrochemical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •The flow field of novel vertical-flow tubular electrochemical reactor with mesh electrodes (VTER) and traditional concentric tubular electrochemical reactor with plate electrodes (CTER) were compared. •The relationship between mass transfer coefficients and tube flow velocity and pressure drop in VTER and CTER were obtained. -- Abstract: Electrochemical treatment is an environmentally friendly method of removing pollutants from industrial wastewater. The tubular electrochemical reactor is one kind of electrochemical reactor. The current density distribution on the electrode surface in a traditional concentric tubular reactor is not homogeneous and the working area of the anodes and cathodes is unequal. Therefore, a novel tubular electrochemical reactor based on plug flow fluid orthogonal with mesh plate electrodes is presented. In this work, fluid flow and hydrodynamics of the vertical-flow tubular electrochemical reactor, such as velocity distribution and turbulent intensity distribution using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, are studied by comparing them to the traditional one. The electro-oxidation of phenol simulation wastewater treatment was developed to analyze the mass transfer performance of the two types of electrochemical reactors. In the novel tubular electrochemical reactor, due to the presence of mesh electrodes, the velocity distribution tended to be more homogeneous. In fact, the turbulent intensity clearly increased by 200% around the electrode surface. The kinetics of organic compounds removal in the novel tubular electrochemical reactor was also improved. Under the same flow rate, the improvement of the mass transfer coefficient for the novel tubular electrochemical reactor was more than twice that of the traditional tubular electrochemical reactor

  10. Anti-necrosis potential of polyphenols against snake venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols from the extracts of Areca catechu L. and Quercus infectoria Oliv. inhibited phospholipase A(2), proteases, hyaluronidase and L-amino acid oxidase of Naja naja kaouthia Lesson (NK) and Calloselasma rhodostoma Kuhl (CR) venoms by in vitro tests. Both extracts inhibited the hemorrhagic activity of CR venom and the dermonecrotic activity of NK venom by in vivo tests. The inhibitory activity of plant polyphenols against local tissue necrosis induced by snake venoms may be caused by inhibition of inflammatory reactions, hemorrhage, and necrosis. The result implies the therapeutic potential of plant polyphenols against necrosis in snakebite victims. PMID:19874222

  11. Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Ahluwalia, Manmeet S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Barnett, Gene H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stevens, Glen H.J. [Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Murphy, Erin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stockham, Abigail L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Shiue, Kevin [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis.

  12. Incus and stapes necrosis associated with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüz, M; Doğru, H; Yasan, H; Döner, F; Yariktaş, M

    2006-07-01

    Chronic otitis media is often associated with ossicular defects, the most frequent being necrosis of the long process of incus. Except for infection and cholesteatoma; trauma and local pressure by chorda tympani are uncommon causes leading to incus erosion. In the literature, no case of incus necrosis has been reported associated with type II diabetes mellitus (DM). A patient is presented in this report with incus and stapes suprastructure necrosis and associated type II DM who was admitted to the out-patient clinic with complaints of conductive hearing loss. PMID:16834796

  13. FADD: an endogenous inhibitor of RIP3-driven regulated necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lorenzo Galluzzi; Oliver Kepp; Guido Kroemer

    2011-01-01

    Thanks to the work of multiple laboratories worldwide,the classical dichotomy postulating that apoptosis and necrosis would constitute diametrically opposed cell death subroutines has recently been dismissed [1].Thus,approximately in the same year when immunogenic instances of apoptosis were first characterized [2],the traditional belief that necrosis would represent a merely accidental,unregulated cell death modality has been definitely abandoned [3].This has fueled an intense wave of research,advancing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological implications of regulated necrosis [4,5].

  14. Acute copper toxicosis in the Canada goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B M; Winterfield, R W

    1975-01-01

    Acute copper toxicosis resulted in Canada geese, Branta canadensis, following ingestion of copper sulfate at about 600mg/kg from a small man-made pond on a game farm. The lesions were those associated with copper toxicosis in other avian species. The primary pathologic change was necrosis and sloughing of the proventriculus and gizzard. A greenish discoloration of the lungs also occurred. PMID:1156262

  15. [Diagnostic difficulties in a case of constricted tubular visual field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Oana-Mihaela; Rusu, Monica; Hâncu, Dacia; Horvath, Kárin

    2013-01-01

    In the paper below we present the clinical case of a 48 year old female with various symptoms associated with functional visual disturbance -constricted tubular visual fields, wich lasts from 6 years; the extensive clinical and paraclinical ophthalmological investigations ruled out the presence of an organic disorder. In the present, we suspect a diagnosis of hysteria, still uncertain, wich represented over time a big challenge in psychology and ophthalmology. The mechanisms and reasons for hysteria are still not clear and it could represent a fascinating research theme. The tunnel, spiral or star-shaped visual fields are specific findings in hysteria for patients who present visual disturbance. The question of whether or not a patient with hysterical visual impairment can or cannot "see" is still unresolved.

  16. Scalable Approach for Extrusion and Perfusion of Tubular, Heterotypic Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronimo, Mark David

    Soft material tubes are critical in the vasculature of mammalian tissues, forming networks of blood vessels and airways. Homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrogel tubes were extruded in a one-step process using a three layer microfluidic device. Co-axial cylindrical flow of crosslinking solutions and an alginate matrix is generated by a radial arrangement of microfluidic channels at the device's vertical extrusion outlet. The flow is confined and begins a sol-gel transition immediately as it extrudes at velocities upwards of 4 mm/s. This approach allows for predictive control over the dimensions of the rapidly formed tubular structures for outer diameters from 600 microm to 3 mm. A second microfluidic device hosts tube segments for controlled perfusion and pressurization using a reversible vacuum seal. On-chip tube deflection is observed and modeled as a measure of material compliance and circumferential elasticity. I anticipate applications of these devices for perfusion cell culture of cell-laden hydrogel tubes.

  17. Novel Method Used to Inspect Curved and Tubular Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Carney, Dorothy V.; Bodis, James R.; Rauser, Richard W.

    1999-01-01

    At the NASA Lewis Research Center, a technique for the ultrasonic characterization of plates has been extended to tubes and to curved structures in general. In this technique, one performs measurements that yield a thickness-independent value of the local through-the-thickness speed of sound in a specimen. From such measurements at numerous locations across the specimen, one can construct a map of velocity as a function of location. The gradients of velocity indicated by such a map indicate local through-the-thickness-averaged microstructural parameters that affect the speed of sound. Such parameters include the pore volume fraction, mass density, fiber volume fraction (in the case of a composite material), and chemical composition. Apparatus was designed to apply the technique to tubular and other curved specimens.

  18. Mechanical reliability of geometrically imperfect tubular oxygen transport membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Søgaard, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    operation. This paper investigates numerically the failure risk of tubular oxygen transport membranes under industrial operating conditions using finite element modeling and Weibull strength analysis. The effects of component manufacturing defects on fracture probability are elucidated by explicit modeling......Mixed ionic and electronic conductors have potential applications as oxygen transport membranes. Realization of the technology is challenged by mechanical reliability of the components which are subjected to stresses arising from oxygen stoichiometry gradients and external overpressure during...... of external pressure, ovality may lead to dramatic stress increase and flattening of oval cross sections. Oval membranes can fail in the long term even though the instantaneous fracture risk is tolerable. Based on industrial relevant conditions, the requirements to the material creep rate and component...

  19. Tubular colonic duplication - review of 1876-1981 literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four cases of tubular colonic duplication are reported and 53 more are reviewed from 1876-1981 literature. Eighty percent of these patients had other anomalies, most notably genital and bladder duplications. Females outnumbered the males 37 to 20. Fifty percent of patients of either sex had some form of fistulous communication. In no one was the anomaly incompatible with life. Based on the anatomy of distal ends of duplicated colon, the patients are divided in five groups, for each of which the incidence and nature of concomitant anomalies are tabulated. Because of their anatomic complexity, most patients with colonic duplication require clinical evaluation by multiple subspecialists. We have also suggested the sequence and extent to which they should be evaluated by radiologists. (orig.)

  20. [Diagnostic difficulties in a case of constricted tubular visual field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Oana-Mihaela; Rusu, Monica; Hâncu, Dacia; Horvath, Kárin

    2013-01-01

    In the paper below we present the clinical case of a 48 year old female with various symptoms associated with functional visual disturbance -constricted tubular visual fields, wich lasts from 6 years; the extensive clinical and paraclinical ophthalmological investigations ruled out the presence of an organic disorder. In the present, we suspect a diagnosis of hysteria, still uncertain, wich represented over time a big challenge in psychology and ophthalmology. The mechanisms and reasons for hysteria are still not clear and it could represent a fascinating research theme. The tunnel, spiral or star-shaped visual fields are specific findings in hysteria for patients who present visual disturbance. The question of whether or not a patient with hysterical visual impairment can or cannot "see" is still unresolved. PMID:24701812