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Sample records for acute traumatic rupture

  1. Aortography delays surgery of CT proven acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta; Case report

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    Munoz, A.; Moreno, R.; Martin, V.; Iniguez, A.; Alvarez, J. (Hospital Universitario de San Carlos, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Radiodiagnostico, Servicio de Cirurgia Vascular, Servicio de Exploracion Cardiopulmonar, and Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos)

    1991-09-01

    A case of acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta was diagnosed by dynamic CT. Angiographic confirmation was required, delaying surgical repair and contribution to the fatal outcome. If reliable findings of acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta are shown by CT, we question the usefulness of angiographic confirmation in such cases. (orig.).

  2. Case report: Acute peritonitis from non-traumatic rupture of the bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous bladder rupture (SBR) is rare. This entity occurs outside of any traumatic context. A 70 years-old man was admitted for acute peritonitis, acute urinary retention and hematuria. Laparotomy and exploration showed acute generalized peritonitis related to a centimeter hole in the bladder dome. Peritoneal lavage ...

  3. Acute Traumatic Patellar Tendon Rupture at the Tibial Tuberosity Attachment without Avulsion Fracture

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    Shuichi Miyamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patellar tendon rupture in children is especially rare. The fact that the area of traumatic rupture has wide variations makes surgical treatment difficult. We present an 11-year-old boy with acute traumatic patellar tendon rupture at the tibial tuberosity attachment without avulsion fracture. Primary end-to-end repair and reinforcement using 1.5 mm stainless steel wires as a surgical strategy were undertaken. Early range of motion began with a functional knee brace and the reinforced stainless wire was removed 3 months after surgery. Knee function at the final follow-up was satisfactory. We suggest that this strategy may provide a useful option for surgical treatment.

  4. [Management concept for acute traumatic aortic rupture based on a case report].

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    Heller, G; Schläpfer, R; Stirnemann, P; Stulz, P

    2000-01-01

    Acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta (ATRRA) is mainly a consequence of high-speed travel or fall from great altitude. Most of the victims die at the accident scene. Only 10-20% reach the hospital alive. Because of the extremely high mortality, emergency repair seems to be indicated. Taking into consideration that the hemorrhage into the mediastinum may remain constained and the patient usually suffers from a wide variety of life-threatening causes of injury the aforementioned option is probably not the best one. We report on a patient whose "stable" aortic rupture was surgically corrected after stablization of the circulation, coagulation and respiratory problems.

  5. Traumatic rupture of diaphragm.

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    Shah, R; Sabanathan, S; Mearns, A J; Choudhury, A K

    1995-11-01

    Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture remains a diagnostic challenge, and associated injuries determine the outcome in those diagnosed early, whereas that of latent cases is dependent on the consequence of the diaphragmatic rupture: namely, the diaphragmatic hernia. To analyze the clinical and radiologic features and the therapeutic implications, we reviewed 980 patients reported in the English-language literature. This injury affects predominantly males (male:female = 4:1) in the third decade of life, and is often caused by blunt trauma (75%). There were 1,000 injuries, of which 685 (68.5%) were left-sided, 242 (24.2%) right-sided, 15 (1.5%) bilateral, and 9 (0.9%) pericardial ruptures; 49 cases were unclassified. Chest (43.9%) and splenic (37.6%) trauma were the most common associated injuries. The diagnosis was made preoperatively in 43.5% of cases, whereas in 41.3% it was made at exploration or at autopsy and on the remaining 14.6% of the cases the diagnosis was delayed. The mortality was 17% in those in whom acute diagnosis was made, and the majority of the morbidity in the group that underwent operation was due to pulmonary complications. Uniform diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion, careful scrutiny of the chest roentgenogram in patients with thoracoabdominal or polytrauma, and meticulous inspection of the diaphragm when operating for concurrent injuries. Repeated evaluation for days after injury is necessary to discern injury in patients not requiring laparotomy. Acute diaphragmatic injuries are best approached through the abdomen, as more than 89% of patients with this injury have an associated intraabdominal injury. Patients with diaphragmatic rupture presenting in the latent phase have adhesion between the herniated abdominal and intrathoracic organs, and thus the rupture is best approached via a thoracotomy.

  6. Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture

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    Antonio Carlos Nogueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury of the diaphragm ranges from 0.6 to 1.2% and rise up to 5%among patients who were victims of blunt trauma and underwent laparotomy.Clinical suspicion associated with radiological assessment contributes to earlydiagnosis. Isolated diaphragmatic injury has a good prognosis. Generallyworse outcomes are associated with other trauma injuries. Bilateral andright diaphragmatic lesions have worse prognosis. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT scan of the chest and abdomen provides better diagnosticaccuracy using the possibility of image multiplanar reconstruction. Surgicalrepair via laparotomy and/ or thoracotomy in the acute phase of the injury hasa better outcome and avoids chronic complications of diaphragmatic hernia.The authors present the case of a young male patient, victim of blunt abdominaltrauma due to motor vehicle accident with rupture of the diaphragm, spleenand kidney injuries. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography of thethorax and abdomen and was confirmed during laparotomy.

  7. Traumatic aortic ruptures

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    Balm, R.; Hoornweg, L. L.

    2005-01-01

    Most patients with a traumatic aortic rupture (TAR) were involved in high velocity motor vehicle accidents. initial management of these patients should be according to the guidelines of the advanced trauma life support group (ATLS). Patients with a suspected TAR are preferably managed by controlled

  8. The electrocardiogram in traumatic right atrial rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuisen, DJ; van den Berg, MP

    1999-01-01

    We:report the case of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who had a traumatic rupture of the right atrium. On admission an electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded which is highly remarkable and, retrospectively, suggestive for the diagnosis. The patient died soon after the EGG, and the diagnosis was

  9. Closed traumatic rupture of finger flexor pulleys.

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    Bowers, W H; Kuzma, G R; Bynum, D K

    1994-09-01

    Nine patients are described with closed traumatic rupture of the digital flexor pulley system. All presented with significant flexion contractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint and bow-stringing of the flexor tendons. In seven patients, the pathology was verified at surgery and pulley reconstruction provided a good result. The diagnoses in the other patients, treated conservatively, were verified by tenogram and magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Bladder rupture causing pseudo acute renal failure

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    Luciana Andrea Avena Smeili

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder rupture is a rare condition associated with significant morbidityand mortality. It is classified into traumatic, nontraumatic or idiopathic andspontaneous. The nonspecific initial clinical presentation is followed bydiscomfort in the lower abdomen, oliguria, hematuria and ascitis. Laboratoryabnormalities simulate the picture of acute renal failure and occurs by amechanism called auto reverse dialysis, with absorption of excreta throughthe peritoneal membrane. The authors describe a case of bladder rupturein morphologically and functionally normal urinary bladder associated withalcohol intake in young healthy man, manifested by abdominal discomfort,pseudo renal failure and massive ascitis. The diagnosis was made by anabdominal multidetector computed tomography confirmed by the finding of7 cm laceration at laparotomy.

  11. Case report: Traumatic unilateral testicular rupture

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    Natasha J.G. Bauer

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Emergency assessment and diagnosis as well as scrotal exploration are important components of the management of acute testicular rupture. Analysis of the literature proves that timely surgical intervention is crucial; early intervention results in higher rates of preservation and avoids the need for an orchidectomy.

  12. Treatment of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta

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    Davidović Lazar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Interest for traumatic thoracic aorta rupture stems from the fact that its number continually increases, and it can be rapidly lethal. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to present early and long term results as well as experiences of our team in surgical treatment of traumatic thoracic aorta rupture. METHOD Our retrospective study includes 12 patients with traumatic thoracic aorta rupture treated between 1985 and 2007. There were 10 male and two female patients of average age 30.75 years (18-74. RESULTS In six cases, primary diagnosis was established during the first seven days days after trauma, while in 6 more than one month later. In 11 cases, classical open surgical procedure was performed, while endovascular treatment was used in one patient. Three (25% patients died, while two (16.6% had paraplegia. Nine patients (75% were treated without complications, and are in good condition after a mean follow-up period of 9.7 years (from one month to 22 years. CONCLUSION Surgical treatment requires spinal cord protection to prevent paraplegia, using cardiopulmonary by-pass (three of our cases or external heparin-bonded shunts (five of our cases. Cardiopulmonary by-pass is followed with lower incidence of paraplegia, however it is not such a good solution for patients with polytrauma because of hemorrhage. The endovascular repair is a safe and feasible procedure in the acute phase, especially because of traumatic shock and polytrauma which contributes to higher mortality rate after open surgery. On the other hand, in chronic postrauamatic aortic rupture, open surgical treatment is connected with a lower mortality rate and good long-term results. There have been no published data about long-term results of endovascular treatment in the chronic phase.

  13. [Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta].

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    Glock, Y; Roux, D; Soula, P; Cerene, A; Fournial, G

    1996-01-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of 50 postraumatic aortic rupture (1968-1996, 39 males, mean age: 34.5). Group A is composed of 35 patients with an acute aortic rupture and a prompt diagnosis. Group B includes 13 patients with a chronic rupture. All patients from group A had a severe politraumatism with abdominal, cranial, extremities or hip fractures. Mediastinal thickening with or without hemothorax indicated an angiography or a transesophageal echocardiography lately. In group A, 36 patients have been operated on urgently (12-24 hours); cardiopulmonary bypass was performed on 20 patients; an aorto-aortical bypass was done in 27 cases and a direct suture in the remaining 9. In group B, cardiopulmonary bypass was performed on 9 patients; a aorto-aortical bypass was done in 11 cases and a direct suture in 2. Overall hospital mortality was 16%; 19% in group A and 7.6% in group B. Ischemic paraplejia appeared in 5 patients (10%), all from group A. No false aneurysm developed after 4.5 years of follow-up (3-135 months) in the 38 survivors. The usefulness of transesophageal echocardiography, the importance of medular protection and the utility of several interventionist radiologic techniques are discussed.

  14. Uterine Rupture due to Traumatic Assisted Fundal Pressure

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    Shen-Chuan Wei

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion: Assisted fundal pressure during painful delivery can be traumatic and results in uterine rupture. In this article, we suggest that uterine rupture should be considered whenever a pregnant woman experiences a sudden onset of abdominal pain during the course of assisted uterine fundal pressure.

  15. Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm | Jamabo | Sahel Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those treated for traumatic rupture of the diaphragm were selected and analyzed for age, gender, cause of injury, associated injuries sustained and mode of treatment. ... There were associated injuries in all cases and they involved the spleen, rib fractures, liver and lungs. ... Keywords: blunt trauma, diaphragmatic rupture

  16. Unexpected traumatic rupture of left atrium mimicking aortic rupture

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    Abdallah K Alameddine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial (LA rupture is rare following blunt chest injury. We describe a case of blunt LA rupture that was treated surgically. This report is intended to alert practitioners for a need of a close multiple disciplinary collaborations among them for optimal management of patients with this type of trauma; because other non-cardiac injuries involving the head, abdomen, or extremities are considered covariates for in-hospital mortality. As in the present case, the patient eventually died from associated extrathoracic injuries. The diagnosis of LA rupture is by exclusion. However, the initial radiological reading may be misinterpreted, because this injury can easily be mistaking for an aortic rupture. The final reappraisal of the chest imaging studies should be interpreted by a skilled radiologist to avoid misdiagnosis. Subtle radiological features can help distinguish aortic thoracic injury as illustrated in this patient. These factors may be useful to the practicing surgeon in deciding surgical approach.

  17. Five-year follow-up of knee joint cartilage thickness changes after acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckstein, F; Wirth, W; Lohmander, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture involves increased risk of osteoarthritis. We explored cartilage thickness changes over five years after ACL rupture. Methods: 121 young active adults (26% women, age 18-35 years) with acute traumatic ACL rupture were studied (the KANON...

  18. Traumatic Rupture of the Symphysis Pubis and Posterior Fracture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I. M. was a 23 years old primipara referred to UBTH with traumatic rupture of the symphysis pubis and posterior fracture dislocation of the left femoral head, after a delay in the second stage of labour that lasted 3 hours and a crude manoeuvre to deliver the fetus. The baby suffered severe birth asphyxia and convulsive ...

  19. Complete semimembranosus rupture following therapeutic stretching after a traumatic brain injury.

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    Chua, S G Karen; Kong, K H

    2006-06-01

    Acute hamstring rupture is an uncommon event often occurring during high impact sports. Such events have not been previously reported during neurological rehabilitation. This case report describes a 30 year-old Chinese male presenting in a minimally responsive state 5 years after a severe traumatic brain injury. He was tetraplegic and bed-bound with spasticity involving all four limbs and flexion contracture of the right knee. During an episode of inpatient rehabilitation, he developed acute swelling and bruising of the posterior proximal thigh region associated with fever, tachycardia and diaphoresis. MRI showed a large soft tissue rim-enhancing mass in the right proximal hamstring muscle. During surgical exploration, complete rupture of the right semi-membranosus muscle was found without evidence of pus. The possible causative factors of hamstring rupture in this subject and a brief literature review are discussed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such reported case.

  20. Factors influencing mortality in traumatic ruptures of diaphragm.

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    Düzgün, Arife Polat; Ozmen, Mehmet Mahir; Saylam, Bariş; Coşkun, Faruk

    2008-04-01

    Diaphragmatic injuries are infrequent but severe injuries, associated with high morbidity and mortality. The hospital records of 58 patients with traumatic rupture of diaphragm which was diagnosed during surgery in emergency department during last five years were re-evaluated, in order to identify the factors on mortality. The mean age of patients was 33 years. The most common cause of diaphragmatic rupture was penetrating injury (52%). The overall mortality rate was 21%. Preoperative diagnoses were accurately made in only twelve (20%) patients and remaining 46 patients were diagnosed during surgery. Rupture was located on the left side in 42 patients. Intrathoracic herniation was seen in eleven cases. Presence of herniation has no effect on mortality (p=0.155). All cases with mortal course were blunt trauma and the most common cause of death was haemorrhagic shock. Associated injuries were present in 88% of the patients; 92% of the mortal cases had an associated injury. The diagnosis of diaphragmatic injury is important due to increased morbidity and mortality in traumatic victims. Blunt trauma, increased grade of injury, presence of shock, blood transfusions over three units and splenic injury are factors influencing mortality in traumatic ruptures of diaphragm.

  1. Spontaneous bladder rupture in acute alcohol intoxication

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    Bahjat Barakat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder rupture is a rare condition that can be followed by an acute alcohol intoxication and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case diagnosed in a alcoholic young male who was admitted to our emergency room for epigastric pain. The case demonstrates the difficulties with diagnosis and the need for physicians who work in an emergency room to be aware of this condition.

  2. Review Paper: Myocardial Rupture After Acute Myocardial Infarction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myocardial rupture complications after acute myocardial infarction are infrequent but lethal. They mainly involve rupture of the ventricular free wall, ventricular septum, papillary muscle, or combined. We compare features of different kinds of myocardial ruptures after acute myocardial infarction by reviewing the clinical ...

  3. [Endovascular treatment of 4 patients with a traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta

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    Dinkelman, M.K.; Leenen, L.P.H.; Verhagen, H.; Blankensteijn, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present our initial results with the endovascular treatment of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta. DESIGN: Retrospective. METHOD: Between April and October, 2002, 4 men between the ages of 22 and 46 were treated endovascularly for a traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta. The

  4. Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture: therapeutic options and outcomes.

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    Nan, Yu-Yun; Lu, Ming-Shian; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Yao-Kuang; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Chu, Jaw-Ji; Lin, Pyng Jing

    2009-09-01

    Cardiac rupture following blunt thoracic trauma is rarely encountered by clinicians, since it commonly causes death at the scene. With advances in traumatology, blunt cardiac rupture had been increasingly disclosed in various ways. This study reviews our experience of patients with suspected blunt traumatic cardiac rupture and proposes treatment protocols for the same. This is a 5-year retrospective study of trauma patients confirmed with blunt traumatic cardiac rupture admitted to a university-affiliated tertiary trauma referral centre. The following information was collected from the patients: age, sex, mechanism of injury, initial effective diagnostic tool used for diagnosing blunt cardiac rupture, location and size of the cardiac injury, associated injury and injury severity score (ISS), reversed trauma score (RTS), survival probability of trauma and injury severity scoring (TRISS), vital signs and biochemical lab data on arrival at the trauma centre, time elapsed from injury to diagnosis and surgery, surgical details, hospital course and final outcome. The study comprised 8 men and 3 women with a median age of 39 years (range: 24-73 years) and the median follow-up was 5.5 months (range: 1-35 months). The ISS, RTS, and TRISS scores of the patients were 32.18+/-5.7 (range: 25-43), 6.267+/-1.684 (range: 2.628-7.841), and 72.4+/-25.6% (range: 28.6-95.5%), respectively. Cardiac injuries were first detected using focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) in 4 (36.3%) patients, using transthoracic echocardiography in 3 (27.3%) patients, chest CT in 1 (9%) patient, and intra-operatively in 3 (27.3%) patients. The sites of cardiac injury comprised the superior vena cava/right atrium junction (n=4), right atrial auricle (n=1), right ventricle (n=4), left ventricular contusion (n=1), and diffuse endomyocardial dissection over the right and left ventricles (n=1). Notably, 2 had pericardial lacerations presenting as a massive haemothorax, which initially masked

  5. Traumatic diaphragmatic ruptures: clinical presentation, diagnosis and surgical approach in adults

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    Hofmann, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Traumatic diaphragmatic injuries are rare, but potentially life-threatening due to herniation of abdominal organs into the pleural cavities. They can be easily overlooked on initial diagnostics and a high index of suspicion is required. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical presentation, diagnostic methods and surgical management of patients with diaphragmatic rupture at our institution. Methods: A retrospective study was performed to analyze our experience with patients suffering from traumatic diaphragmatic rupture. Charts were reviewed for sex, age, side-location, concomitant injuries, time-to-diagnosis, diagnostic methods, surgical approach and outcome. Results: Fourteen patients (median age: 46 yrs, range 18–71, 9 male, 5 female with diaphragmatic injuries (left side: 10, right side: 4 were treated between July 2003 and September 2011. Mechanism of injury was a penetrating trauma (14%, blunt trauma (50% and others (36%. Associated abdominal injuries included spleen rupture (n=3, liver laceration (n=2, abdominal wall laceration (n=2 and gastric perforation (n=1. Computed tomography was the most sensitive diagnostic method. All patients underwent trans-abdominal repair of the diaphragmatic defect (direct suture: 10, prosthetic mesh insertion: 4. Associated abdominal procedures included splenectomy (n=3, liver packing (n=2, abdominal wall reconstruction (n=2 and partial gastric resection (n=1. Morbidity and hospital mortality rate were 36% and 0%, respectively. Median postoperative hospital stay was 17 days (range: 7–40 days. Conclusion: Morbidity and mortality of diaphragmatic ruptures are mainly determined by associated injuries or complications of diaphragmatic herniation like incarceration of viscera or lung failure. Early diagnosis helps to prevent severe complications. Spiral CT-scan is the most reliable tool for acute diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture and associated visceral lacerations

  6. Post-Traumatic Chordae Rupture of Tricuspid Valve

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    Kyomars Abbasi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Blunt injury to the chest can affect any one or all components of the chest wall and thoracic cavity. The clinical presentation of patients with blunt chest trauma varies widely and ranges from minor reports of pain to florid shock. Traumatic tricuspid valve regurgitation is a rare cardiovascular complication of blunt chest trauma. Tricuspid valve regurgitation is usually begotten by disorders that cause the right ventricle to enlarge. Diagnosis is made by physical examination findings and is confirmed by echocardiography. We report two cases of severe tricuspid regurgitation secondary to the rupture of the chordae tendineae of the anterior leaflet following non-penetrating chest trauma. Both patients had uneventful postoperative courses.

  7. Differential diagnosis between traumatic and nontraumatic rupture of the intracranial vertebral artery in medicolegal autopsy.

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    Ro, Ayako; Kageyama, Norimasa; Takatsu, Akihiro; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2009-04-01

    We attempted to establish histopathological identification between traumatic rupture and nontraumatic arterial dissection of the intracranial vertebral artery (IVA) resulting in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Step-serial observations of ruptured IVAs among four traumatic and 44 nontraumatic SAH patients were investigated. We found that the most specific characteristic for differentiation was the shape of the ruptured adventitia. Extension of the adventitia was clearly observed in nontraumatic cases. In contrast, traumatic cases showed transmural ruptures. Other specific characteristics were also detected. For traumatic cases, small incomplete tears of intima and media were frequently found; they formed oblique tears without adventitial extension. Fragmentized internal elastic lamina was also observed in traumatic cases. In contrast, previous arterial dissections were frequently confirmed in nontraumatic cases. Medial degenerations or defects were detected in all nontraumatic cases. In these cases, the peripheral lesion of the rupture was appeared as intimal tears at recessed vascular wall caused by medial defects. This suggested a relationship between medial lesions and pathogenesis of arterial dissections. These additional features were found in both ruptured and non-ruptured intracranial arteries. We concluded that histopathological investigation is a reliable method for differential diagnosis between traumatic and nontraumatic rupture of the IVA resulting in fatal SAH. These morphological differentiations could be valuable for medicolegal diagnosis.

  8. Blunt Traumatic Cardiac Rupture: Single-Institution Experiences over 14 Years

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    Jeong Hee Yun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture is rare. However, such cardiac ruptures carry a high mortality rate. This study reviews our experience treating blunt traumatic cardiac rupture. Methods: This retrospective study included 21 patients who experienced blunt traumatic cardiac rupture from 1999 to 2015. Every patient underwent surgery. Several variables were compared between survivors and fatalities. Results: Sixteen of the 21 patients survived, and 5 (24% died. No instances of intraoperative mortality occurred. The most common cause of injury was a traffic accident (81%. The right atrium was the most common location of injury (43%. Ten of the 21 patients were suspected to have cardiac tamponade. Significant differences were found in preoperative creatine kinase–myocardial band (CK-MB levels (p=0.042 and platelet counts (p= 0.004 between the survivors and fatalities. The patients who died had higher preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale scores (p=0.007, worse Trauma and Injury Severity Scores (p=0.007, and higher Injury Severity Scores (p=0.004 than those who survived. Conclusion: We found that elevated CK-MB levels, a low platelet count, and multi-organ traumatic injury were prognostic factors predicting poor outcomes of blunt cardiac rupture. If a patient with blunt traumatic cardiac rupture has these factors, clinicians should be especially attentive and respond promptly in order to save the patient’s life.

  9. Acute partial rupture of the common extensor tendon

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    Kachrimanis, G.; Papadopoulou, O.

    2010-01-01

    Rupture of the common extensor tendon is the most common acute tendon injury of the elbow. The authors describe a case of a patient with a clinical history of tendinopathy caused by functional overload of the common extensor tendon, treated also with infiltrations of steroids, and subsequent partial rupture of the tendon during sport activity. The diagnosis was made clinically and at ultrasound (US) examination; US follow-up after some time showed the healing of the lesion. This case confirms...

  10. Blunt traumatic rupture of the pericardium with cardiac herniation: two cases diagnosed using computed tomography

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    Schir, F.; Thony, F.; Coulomb, M. [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Michallon Hospital, Grenoble (France); Chavanon, O.; Perez-Moreira, I.; Blin, D. [Dept. of Cardiac Surgery, Michallon Hospital, Grenoble (France)

    2001-06-01

    Traumatic ruptures of the pericardium with cardiac herniation are infrequent, and their radiological pattern little familiar, so that they are often missed preoperatively. Few reports have emphasised the use of a CT scan as a tool for diagnosis and CT scan signs have not been well documented. We report on two cases of traumatic herniation of the heart for which a CT scan brought a major contribution for diagnosis. We describe the presence of an empty pericardial sac on CT slices which allowed us to diagnose the cardiac herniation. These observations demonstrate that CT scans can contribute to the diagnosis of pericardial rupture with cardiac herniation. (orig.)

  11. Pathologic rupture of the spleen in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia and leukostasis

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    Gil Cunha De Santis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of the spleen can be classified as spontaneous, traumatic, or pathologic. Pathologic rupture has been reported in infectious diseases such as infectious mononucleosis, and hematologic malignancies such as acute and chronic leukemias. Splenomegaly is considered the most relevant factor that predisposes to splenic rupture. A 66-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia evolved from an unclassified myeloproliferative neoplasm, complaining of fatigue and mild upper left abdominal pain. He was pale and presented fever and tachypnea. Laboratory analyses showed hemoglobin 8.3 g/dL, white blood cell count 278 × 109/L, platelet count 367 × 109/L, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT ratio 2.10, and international normalized ratio (INR 1.60. A blood smear showed 62% of myeloblasts. The immunophenotype of the blasts was positive for CD117, HLA-DR, CD13, CD56, CD64, CD11c and CD14. Lactate dehydrogenase was 2384 U/L and creatinine 2.4 mg/dL (normal range: 0.7-1.6 mg/dL. Two sessions of leukapheresis were performed. At the end of the second session, the patient presented hemodynamic instability that culminated in circulatory shock and death. The post-mortem examination revealed infiltration of the vessels of the lungs, heart, and liver, and massive infiltration of the spleen by leukemic blasts. Blood volume in the peritoneal cavity was 500 mL. Acute leukemia is a rare cause of splenic rupture. Male gender, old age and splenomegaly are factors associated with this condition. As the patient had leukostasis, we hypothesize that this, associated with other factors such as lung and heart leukemic infiltration, had a role in inducing splenic rupture. Finally, we do not believe that leukapheresis in itself contributed to splenic rupture, as it is essentially atraumatic.

  12. Blunt traumatic rupture of the diaphragm: sonographic diagnosis.

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    Kim, H H; Shin, Y R; Kim, K J; Hwang, S S; Ha, H K; Byun, J Y; Choi, K H; Shinn, K S

    1997-09-01

    Ultrasonographic features of seven patients with diaphragmatic rupture due to blunt trauma were analyzed. The ruptures occurred at the left hemidiaphragm in four patients and at the right in three. Direct ultrasonographic findings were as follows: disrupted diaphragm in four patients; nonvisualized diaphragm in three patients; floating diaphragm in two patients; and herniation of the liver or bowel loops through the diaphragmatic defect in three patients. Indirect sonographic findings included pleural effusion or subphrenic fluid collection in five patients and splenic laceration in one. Although the number of patients was limited, ultrasonography was very useful for the diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture.

  13. Bilateraly Diaphragmatic Traumatic Rupture with Delayed and Liver Herniation of Right Diaphragmatic Rupture

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    Hatice Öztürkmen Akay; Refik Ülkü

    2004-01-01

    Bilateraly diyafragmatic rupture is a rare pathology. The incidence isregarded 0.8-5%. Here we reported a bilateraly diyafragmatic rupture withdelayed right diyafragmatic liver herniation. We review the literature andwe mentioned the important radiologic findings of the patology withultrasonoghraphy, Computed tomography, and magnetic resonanceimaging.

  14. Bilateraly Diaphragmatic Traumatic Rupture with Delayed and Liver Herniation of Right Diaphragmatic Rupture

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    Hatice Öztürkmen Akay

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateraly diyafragmatic rupture is a rare pathology. The incidence isregarded 0.8-5%. Here we reported a bilateraly diyafragmatic rupture withdelayed right diyafragmatic liver herniation. We review the literature andwe mentioned the important radiologic findings of the patology withultrasonoghraphy, Computed tomography, and magnetic resonanceimaging.

  15. Bilateral spontaneous non-traumatic rupture of the Achilles tendon: a case report

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    Widdowson David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present an interesting case of spontaneous non-traumatic bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendons, which is a rare condition. Delayed or missed diagnosis of Achilles tendon ruptures by primary treating physicians is relatively common. Case report A 78-year-old Caucasian woman presented with spontaneous non-traumatic bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendons. Her symptoms started two days after she took ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily for a urinary tract infection and prednisolone 30 mg once daily for chronic obstructive airway disease. Conclusion This case report aims to increase the awareness of this rare condition, which should be borne in mind with regard to patients who are on steroid therapy and are concurrently started on fluoroquinolones.

  16. Spontaneous and traumatic hepatic rupture: imaging findings and minimally invasive treatment; Ruptura hepatica espontanea e traumatica: aspectos tomograficos e do tratamento minimamente invasivo

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    Palacio, Glaucia Andrade e Silva; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Disgnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: gl.palacio@bol.com.br; Farias, Andre P. [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Tomografia Computadorizada e Ressonancia Magnetica; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Radiologia Intervencionista; Salem, Marcelo Zindel [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Gastroenterologia Cirurgica; Ricca, Artur Berti [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-12-01

    Spontaneous hepatic bleeding is a rare condition. Our aim was to describe the imaging findings and minimally invasive treatment using transcatheter arterial embolization in patients with spontaneous and traumatic hepatic rupture. Three patients presented acute hemoperitoneum dur to hepatic rupture caused by spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma, HELLP syndrome and a blunt hepatic trauma. The patients were submitted to ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen and subsequently treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. All patients underwent helical computed tomography before and after treatments. Computed tomography played an important role in the evaluation and follow-up in the therapeutic intervention. Different types of liver injuries were identified. Transcatheter arterial embolization blocked arterial hemorrhage in the patients who were hemodynamically unstable. The conclusion was: transcatheter arterial embolization is an effective and well-tolerated treatment method for the management of hepatic rupture and computed tomography is an excellent method for the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (author)

  17. Acute traumatic abdominal wall hernia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. den Hartog (Dennis); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); P.P. Oprel (Pim); P. Patka (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAlthough blunt abdominal trauma is frequent, traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWH) are rare. We describe a large TAWH with associated intra-abdominal lesions that were caused by high-energy trauma. The diagnosis was missed by clinical examination but was subsequently revealed by a

  18. Pancreatic Pseudocyst Ruptured due to Acute Intracystic Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunishige Okamura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of pancreatic pseudocyst is one of the rare complications and usually results in high mortality. The present case was a rupture of pancreatic pseudocyst that could be treated by surgical intervention. A 74-year-old man developed abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea, and he was diagnosed with cholecystitis and pneumonia. Three days later, acute pancreatitis occurred and computed tomography (CT showed slight hemorrhage in the cyst of the pancreatic tail. After another 10 days, CT showed pancreatic cyst ruptured due to intracystic hemorrhage. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed leakage of contrast agent from pancreatic tail cyst to enclosed abdominal cavity. His left hypochondrial pain was increasing, and CT showed rupture of the cyst of the pancreatic tail into the peritoneal cavity was increased in 10 days. CT showed also two left renal tumors. Therefore we performed distal pancreatectomy with concomitant resection of transverse colon and left kidney. We histopathologically diagnosed pancreatic pseudocyst ruptured due to intracystic hemorrhage and renal cell carcinoma. Despite postoperative paralytic ileus and fluid collection at pancreatic stump, they improved by conservative management and he could be discharged on postoperative day 29. He has achieved relapse-free survival for 6 months postoperatively. The mortality of pancreatic pseudocyst rupture is very high if some effective medical interventions cannot be performed. It should be necessary to plan appropriate treatment strategy depending on each patient.

  19. Antifibrinolytic drugs for acute traumatic injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of antifibrinolytic drugs in patients with acute traumatic injury. Methods. The review authors conducted comprehen sive literature searches in January 2015. All randomised controlled trials comparing anti fibrinolytic agents (aprotinin, tranex amic acid. (TXA), epsilon aminocaproic acid and amino methylbenzoic acid) ...

  20. Gender Differences in Outcome After an Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Silbernagel, Karin Gravare; Nilsson-Helander, Katarin; Olsson, Nicklas; Brorsson, Annelie; Eriksson, Bengt I; Karlsson, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: There is an indication in the literature that there is a difference in tendon healing between genders. However comparisons in outcome are often not possible due to the small sample size of women with an acute Achilles tendon rupture. In most studies on patients with Achilles tendon rupture the women only account for less then 20% of the patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there are any differences in outcome between genders when combining the data from two lar...

  1. Acute traumatic abdominal wall hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartog, Dennis; Tuinebreijer, Wim; Oprel, Pim; Patka, Peter

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAlthough blunt abdominal trauma is frequent, traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWH) are rare. We describe a large TAWH with associated intra-abdominal lesions that were caused by high-energy trauma. The diagnosis was missed by clinical examination but was subsequently revealed by a computed tomography (CT) scan. Repair consisted of an open anatomical reconstruction of the abdominal wall layers with reinforcement by an intraperitoneal composite mesh. The patient recovered well and...

  2. Immediate endovascular stent-graft repair of an acute traumatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    tic ruptures include the lack of necessity for cardiopulmonary bypass and systemic heparinisation. The reported neurologi- cal complication rates are lower than with surgical repair. There are to date no reported cases of paraplegia following emergency or elective stent-graft repair for traumatic thoracic aortic rupture. Mitchell ...

  3. Traumatic rupture of the globe caused by cow horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, H; Iseli, H P

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the epidemiology, clinical findings and functional outcome of open-globe injuries caused by cow horns over a 50-year period in eastern Switzerland. We retrospectively evaluated the files of cases with ruptures of the globe caused by cow horns between 1950 and 1999. We found 59 cases with ruptures of the globe by cow horns, accounting for 5% of all open-globe injuries. The incidence of these accidents did not change during the observation period. Twenty-two eyes (37%) were enucleated. Only 7 eyes (12%) retained a vision of > or = 0.1. Between 1950 and 1989 only 2/43 eyes (5%) reached a vision of > or = 0.1. In the 1990's, with the introduction of vitreous surgery 5/16 eyes (31%) had a vision of > or = 0.1. Four patients (7%) had blinding eye disease in the partner eye, and three (5%) had a second open-globe trauma. In rural regions, with cattle breeding, open-globe injuries by cow horns are relatively common and the frequency is still the same as 50 years ago. The visual prognosis of these eyes is still guarded, but functional results have improved with the introduction of vitreous surgery. Patients who have had a rupture of the globe appear to have an increased risk for partner eye trauma. Therefore, all efforts are justified to preserve even limited vision in severely injured eyes.

  4. Nonoperative dynamic treatment of acute achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Bencke, Jesper; Bloch Lauridsen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dynamic rehabilitation has been suggested to be an important part of nonoperative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture that results in functional outcome and rerupture rates comparable with those of operative treatment. However, the optimal role of weight-bearing during early...... rehabilitation remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare immediate weight-bearing with non-weight-bearing in a nonoperative dynamic treatment protocol for Achilles tendon rupture. METHODS: The study was conducted as a blinded, randomized, controlled, parallel superiority trial. Patients eighteen...... to sixty years of age were eligible for inclusion. Both groups were treated nonoperatively with controlled early motion. The intervention group was allowed full weight-bearing from day one, and the control group was non-weight-bearing for six weeks. The primary outcome was the Achilles tendon Total Rupture...

  5. Traumatic rupture of a solitary splenic hydatid cyst: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Lakis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The rupture of an Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst in the spleen due to trauma is a rare event. In this case report we describe the case of a 39-year-old Lebanese male victim of a motor vehicle accident with a ruptured solitary splenic hydatid cyst discovered by CT scan and excised during exploratory laparotomy.Echinococcosis or hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation by the Echinococcus genus of tapeworm. The eggs of E. granulosus, a species of Echinococcus, are fecal-orally transmitted to human hosts, most often from dog feces, and manifest as cystic lesions termed hydatid. E. granulosus most commonly affects the liver (75%, lungs (15%, and rarely the spleen (2–5% [1,2]. E. granulosus is particularly endemic to cattle rearing areas of the Middle East. Infected patients most commonly present with vague abdominal pain, as a result of mass effect or spontaneous rupture of the cyst. Nevertheless, patient presentation may be due to traumatic rupture of a hydatid cyst; however, this is very rare. Herein we report a case of traumatic rupture of a solitary splenic hydatid cyst in a 39-year-old male following a motor vehicle crash, managed following the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS protocol. Keywords: Echinococcus, Hydatid, Trauma, Splenectomy, Cysts, Surgery

  6. Treatment of Hallux Varus After Traumatic Adductor Hallucis Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barp, Eric A; Temple, Eric W; Hall, Jennifer L; Smith, Hayden L

    2018-01-05

    Hallux varus is a deformity of acquired and less commonly congenital etiologies. It can present secondary to the release of the soft tissues surrounding the first metatarsophalangeal joint surfaces during bunion surgery. If the condition is left untreated, it can be debilitating, with progressive pain and destruction of joint surfaces. Many procedures have been described for the treatment of iatrogenic causes of hallux varus; however, little has been reported regarding the success of procedures when used for less typical traumatic causes. In the present report, a case is presented of surgical repair of a traumatic hallux varus using a suture and button fixation device and 3-year patient follow-up data. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Delayed Presentation of Traumatic Intraperitoneal Rupture of Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazim H. Alhamzawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blunt injury of the urinary bladder is well known and usually associates pelvic fractures. Isolated bladder injury is a rare condition and on the other hand, delayed bladder perforation is an extremely rare entity. Herein, we described an unusual case of isolated delayed intraperitoneal bladder rupture that occurred on the third post injury day in a young male in the absence of free intraperitoneal fluid and pelvic fracture. The diagnostic workup, course and the need for surgical repair of the injury is presented.

  8. Blunt traumatic left atrial appendage rupture and cardiac herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, Nguyen Huu; Anh, Pham Tho Tuan; Trung, Tran Minh; Pezzella, A Thomas

    2014-06-01

    A 42-year-old man sustained blunt thoracic trauma after a motor vehicle accident. He underwent an urgent operation. Operative findings included a large hematoma, a 4-cm tear in the left atrial appendage, and a long pleuropericardial rupture along the right phrenic nerve. We repaired the left atrial appendage without cardiopulmonary bypass, and closed the pericardial defect primarily. The patient recovered fully and was discharged on the 6th postoperative day. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Observation of silicone tube double-passage annular lacrimal intubation and epidural catheter for repairing the traumatic lacrimal rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Zhu; Zhen-Ping Huang

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the efficacy and characteristics of silicone tube double-passage annular lacrimal intubation and epidural catheter for repairing the traumatic lacrimal rupture. METHODS:Retrospective case study. Sixty-two cases(62 eyes)with traumatic lacrimal rupture were involved in the study from January 2009 to December 2013. Thirty-two cases(32 eyes)were treated with silicone tube double-passage annular lacrimal intubation, 30 cases(30 eyes)with epidural catheter. All cases were underwent ...

  10. [Diagnostic value of transesophageal echocardiography in traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignon, P; Guéret, P; Lagrange, P; Laskar, M

    1994-06-01

    Traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA) usually occurs at the isthmus. It is rapidly lethal without early surgery and, therefore, diagnosis must not be delayed. The reference diagnostic investigation is aortography but it is invasive in a patient with multiple trauma whose haemodynamic status is often precarious. Transoesophageal echocardiography, a non-invasive investigation which can be undertaken rapidly at the bedside has been proposed recently for the diagnosis of this condition because it gives excellent views of the aortic isthmus. The authors report their experience of transoesophageal echocardiography in 3 victims of severe road traffic accidents with thoracic trauma and who were operated for traumatic rupture of the aorta. Echocardiographic diagnosis of TRA is based on the recording of the association of a thick and mobile intraluminal echo corresponding to the torn intima and media and localised dilatation of the aorta, the wall of which is reduced to the adventitia under tension. On Doppler colour flow mapping the velocities are similar on both sides of the tear but turbulence at the site of rupture may give rise to aliasing. It is important to recognise the echocardiographic features of TRA to differentiate it from dissection of the aorta. Transoesophageal echocardiography also allows diagnosis of any associated traumatic cardiovascular lesions. Its limitations are due to the inability to visualise the proximal portion of the transverse aorta and the supra aortic vessels. Aortography remains essential when a lesion of these vessels is suspected and when the echocardiographic features of the aorta are atypical.

  11. Acute longitudinal ligament rupture following acute spinal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Hansom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a rare case of anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL rupture in a 47- year-old gentleman following a bicycle accident. The ALL is a continuous band of a variable thickness that acts as a primary spinal stabiliser. Stress, strain or rupture of the ALL usually occurs as a result of hyperextension, with the primary perpetrator being whiplash injuries. Such injuries have been shown to result in cervical spine instability during extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending modes. Spine radiographs of such patients may be routinely assessed as normal, therefore this specific type of injury does not lend itself to identification by traditional imaging methods. This account demonstrates the importance of having a high index of suspicion of a ligamentous neck injury in the setting of normal plain radiographs but abnormal clinical examination.

  12. Nonoperative, dynamic treatment of acute achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Bencke, Jesper; Lauridsen, Hanne Bloch

    2015-01-01

    ° dorsiflexion, the stiffness during slow stretching, and the maximal strength were measured in both limbs. The stiffness of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex in the terminal part of dorsiflexion was significantly increased (p = .024) in the non-weightbearing group at 12 months. The peak passive torque......Acute Achilles tendon rupture alters the biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex that can affect functional performance and the risk of repeat injury. The purpose of the present study was to compare the biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle......-tendon complex in patients randomized to early weightbearing or non-weightbearing in the nonoperative treatment of Achilles tendon rupture. A total of 60 patients were randomized to full weightbearing from day 1 of treatment or non-weightbearing for 6 weeks. After 6 and 12 months, the peak passive torque at 20...

  13. Functional rehabilitation of patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark-Christensen, Troels; Troelsen, Anders; Kallemose, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) is continuously debated. Recent studies have proposed that the choice of either operative or non-operative treatment may not be as important as rehabilitation, suggesting that functional rehabilitation should be preferred over...... traditional immobilization. The purpose of this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to compare functional rehabilitation to immobilization in the treatment of ATR. METHOD: This meta-analysis was conducted using the databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Source, AMED......, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PEDro using the search terms: "Achilles tendon," "rupture," "mobilization" and "immobilization". Seven RCTs involving 427 participants were eligible for inclusion, with a total of 211 participants treated with functional rehabilitation and 216 treated with immobilization...

  14. Acute Management of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Michael A; Crandall, Marie L; Patel, Mayur B

    2017-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in patients with trauma. Management strategies must focus on preventing secondary injury by avoiding hypotension and hypoxia and maintaining appropriate cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), which is a surrogate for cerebral blood flow. CPP can be maintained by increasing mean arterial pressure, decreasing intracranial pressure, or both. The goal should be euvolemia and avoidance of hypotension. Other factors that deserve important consideration in the acute management of patients with TBI are venous thromboembolism, stress ulcer, and seizure prophylaxis, as well as nutritional and metabolic optimization. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Surgical approach to acute pectoralis major tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, G; Campi, F; Paladini, P; Porcellini, G

    2009-01-01

    Pectoralis major rupture is a very uncommon injury first time described by Patissier in 1822. Tears are classified on the type (partial and complete) or on the site (tendinous, myotendinous junction, intramuscular). Ruptures are reported in young high-performance athletes as results of eccentric contractions of the musculotendinous unit. The most probable mechanism in elderly patients is a brisk tearing movement applied to stiff atrophic muscle. Injuries generally involve the sternal portion; the localization to the clavicular portion is rare and can be misdiagnosed as muscle sprain. Preoperative planning include MRI as gold standard regarding operative versus non operative treatment decisions. Surgical repair is recommended in cases of complete tears because of loss of strenght in adduction, flexion and internal rotation. Aim of the current study is to describe the surgical repair of acute pectoralis major tendon rupture in 5 patients. Surgery was performed through a modified delto-pectoral approach; pectoralis major tendon was attached at its anatomic insertion using two metallic anchors. The patient as been immobilized in a sling for 30 days and then assisted physiotherapy begun; strenght exercises were allowed at 90 days. At a mean follow-up of 24 months results were excellent in all cases with restoration of strenght and coming back to previously sports activity.

  16. A case of pathologic splenic rupture as the initial manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia M2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Sun; Oh, Sung Yong; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Hong, Sook Hee; Han, Jin Yeong; Park, Ki-Jae; Kim, Hyo-Jin

    2010-01-01

    A pathologic splenic rupture refers to a rupture without trauma. A splenic rupture as the initial manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia is extremely rare. In this study, we described a rare case of acute myeloid leukemia presenting principally as an acute abdomen due to a pathologic splenic rupture in a 35-year old male patient. We can assert that a pathologic splenic rupture in hematologic diseases is a potentially life-threatening complication, which necessitates immediate operative intervention. Any such patient complaining about left upper abdominal tenderness should be closely observed, and further diagnostic investigations (ultrasonograph of the abdomen, abdominal CT scan) should be initiated in order to rule out a splenic rupture. The oncologist should be aware of this rare initial presentation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M2, as the condition generally necessitates a prompt splenectomy.

  17. Aortic plaque rupture in the setting of acute lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2012-02-01

    Acute aortic plaque rupture is an uncommon cause of acute lower limb ischemia. The authors report sequence computed tomographic imaging of a distal aortic plaque rupture in a young man with bilateral lower limb complications. Clinical awareness, prompt recognition and imaging, and appropriate treatment of this uncommon condition are necessary to improve patient outcomes.

  18. Anterior Lens Capsule Rupture and Traumatic Cataract Due to Blunt Ocular Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer İlhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old female was struck in the right eye with a plastic toy. Two days after the trauma, she was admitted to the eye clinic with complaining of reduced vision. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was hand motion in the right eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a lightly swollen traumatic cataract with rupture of the anterior lens capsule, and mild inflammation was seen in the anterior chamber. The intraocular pressure was 16 mmHg. Ultrasonography of the posterior segment of the eye was normal. The surgery was performed using simcoe cannula through a clear corneal incision followed by implantation of a foldable, acrylic, posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL. One month postoperatively, BCVA in the right eye was 20/20. Blunt ocular trauma may rarely lead to anterior capsular rupture and traumatic cataract in the young. Although this complication is rare, ophthalmic examination and surgery have to be performed meticulously. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 477-8

  19. [The diagnosis of traumatic rupture of the aorta. 36 cases (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motin, J; Latarjet, J; Cognet, J B; Clermont, C; Mazoyer, B; Tran, M V; Juillard, F; Neidhardt, J H

    1980-10-18

    Thirty six cases of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta (TRA) were diagnosed during the hours following the accident responsible. Rupture was situated at the aortic isthmus in 32 cases, the ascending aortic in 2 cases, the arch of the aorta in 1 case and the descending sub-isthmic aorta in 1 case. Ten patients had no rib fractures. In 16 patients not undergoing surgery before 20th hour after the trauma, 10 died of secondary rupture. The course of a TRA is thus unpredictable and it is of fundamental importance to make the diagnosis and undertake appropriate surgical treatment immediately. The essential clinical sign is a difference in blood pressure between the upper and lower limbs (6 6%). Radiological signs suggestive of TRA are, in a plain PA chest film : widening of the mediastinum (92 %), poor visibility of the knuckle of the aorta (89 %), left haemothorax (67 %), deviation of the trachea to the right (55 %) and lowering of the left main bronchus (47 %). The slightest suspicion of a TRA should lead to aortic angiography preferably via an arterial approach (humeral or femoral), or intravenously. Surgical treatment should not be delayed.

  20. Biomarkers for the prediction of acute ongoing arterial plaque rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo YL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuan-Lin Guo, Jian-Jun Li Division of Dyslipidemia, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fu Wai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is the main cause of mortality for coronary artery disease (CAD. Accordingly, earlier detection and diagnosis might be a key point for reducing the mortality in patients with ACS. One promising strategy is biomarker measurement in patients with ACS. Biomarkers are generally considered to be plasma measurements of molecules, proteins, or enzymes that provide independent diagnostic and prognostic values that can reflect underlying disease state and condition, especially repeated measurements. Nowadays, the most widely used biomarkers to identify or predict ACS are high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and high sensitivity troponin T/I (hs-TnT/I. The aim of the present review was principally to summarize recent evidence regarding some new biomarkers by which we could directly predict acute ongoing arterial plaque rupture, which may help to identify at-risk patients earlier than hs-CRP or hs-TnT/I. Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase-9, lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2, myeloperoxidase, soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, placental growth factor, acute coronary syndrome

  1. Antifibrinolytic drugs for acute traumatic injury | McCaul | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifibrinolytic drugs for acute traumatic injury. ... risk of adverse events. TXA should be administered as early as possible, and within 3 hours of injury. There is still uncertainty with regard to the effect of TXA on patients with traumatic brain injury; however, ongoing randomised controlled trials should shed more light on this.

  2. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Yee Leong; Daniel Gheorghiu; Janardhan Rao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR) in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. Case Report: We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body bui...

  3. Simultaneous "traumatic Gerbode" and aortic rupture due to blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Anninos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gerbode defect is characterized by a perimembranous ventricular septal defect between the left ventricle and the right atrium. This intracardiac shunt is a congenital defect but may be iatrogenic after valve surgery or atrioventricular node ablation, may be the result of endocarditis or may be traumatic. It is really rarely encountered as sequelae of non-penetrating heart trauma, and their clinical manifestations may often be unrecognized in the multi-injured patient. However, they are serious complications, and their diagnostic approach is not always feasible. We hereby present a case of a young man with the left ventricle to the right atrium communication after blunt thoracic trauma due to a car accident and concomitant rupture of the thoracic aorta. We present also the case and the ways of treatment according to the international bibliography.

  4. Simultaneous "traumatic Gerbode" and aortic rupture due to blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anninos, Hector; Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Argiriou, Michalis; Politis, Panagiotis; Gounopoulos, Pantelis; Koroneos, Apostolos; Charitos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The Gerbode defect is characterized by a perimembranous ventricular septal defect between the left ventricle and the right atrium. This intracardiac shunt is a congenital defect but may be iatrogenic after valve surgery or atrioventricular node ablation, may be the result of endocarditis or may be traumatic. It is really rarely encountered as sequelae of non-penetrating heart trauma, and their clinical manifestations may often be unrecognized in the multi-injured patient. However, they are serious complications, and their diagnostic approach is not always feasible. We hereby present a case of a young man with the left ventricle to the right atrium communication after blunt thoracic trauma due to a car accident and concomitant rupture of the thoracic aorta. We present also the case and the ways of treatment according to the international bibliography.

  5. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Wei Yee; Gheorghiu, Daniel; Rao, Janardhan

    2013-01-01

    There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR) in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body builder taking anabolic steroids. To date bilateral QTR with additional TA rupture has only been reported once in the literature and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral QTR and simultaneous TA rupture in a young, fit and healthy individual. The diagnosis of bilateral QTR alone can sometimes be challenging and the possibility of even further tendon injuries should be carefully assessed. A delay in diagnosis could result in delay in treatment and potentially worse outcome for the patient.

  6. Acute Renal Failure due to Non-Traumatic Rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagehan Aslan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is a musculoskeletal clinical and biochemical syndrome which is seen associated with traumatic and non-traumatic causes and is known as muscular dystrophy. Rhabdomyolysis which develops following crush-type trauma (Crush syndrome is rarely seen but is a well-known clinical event in the etiology of acute renal failure. Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis is rare. The case is here presented of a patient who was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis on presentation with acute renal failure and to whom repeated dialysis was applied.

  7. Delayed rupture of traumatic aneurysm after civilian craniocerebral gunshot injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachemi, M; Jourdan, C; Di Roio, C; Turjman, F; Ricci-Franchi, A; Mottolese, C; Artru, F

    2007-03-01

    There are few published large series on civilian craniocerebral gunshot injuries in children. Traumatic intracranial aneurysms (TICAs) are rare and highly unstable lesions. They represent less than 1% of all aneurysms and can either rupture within minutes after formation or remain quiescent for several weeks or years, manifesting with delayed hemorrhage and neurologic deterioration. We report the case of a 10-year-old girl who was referred for coma after high-velocity craniocerebral gunshot wound and neurological deterioration 7 days after the initial injury. A massive right posterior occipital hematoma caused by the rupture of an unsuspected right posterior cerebral artery TICA was discovered. TICA was treated by coil embolization, with a good neurological recovery at 6-month follow-up. We discuss the pathogenesis and the management of TICA in a child after civilian craniocerebral gunshot injuries. TICAs should be suspected in patients with civilian craniocerebral gunshot injuries, presenting with secondary neurological deterioration, to carry out emergent CT scan and angiographic exploration before contemplating definitive endovascular treatment. Endovascular management may be a prompt safe-to-use technique and a valuable option, especially when surgery is highly risky.

  8. Higher rate of compensation after surgical treatment versus conservative treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveen, Thor-Magnus; Troelsen, Anders; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) can be treated either surgically or non-surgically. High-quality meta-analyses show a lower re-rupture rate, but a higher overall complication rate among surgically treated patients. No studies have evaluated the socio-economic impact of different...

  9. Targeting Dopamine in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, James W.; Kline, Anthony E.; Wagner, Amy K.; Dixon, C. Edward

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the initial mechanical damage, traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a series of secondary insults, such as, but not limited to, excitotoxicity, metabolic disruption, and oxidative stress. Neuroprotective strategies after TBI have traditionally focused on cellular preservation as the measurable endpoint although multiple lines of evidence indicate that even with significant neuronal sparing deficits remain at both the cellular and behavioral level. As such, the development of therapies that can effectively confer both neuronal sparing and post-injury functional benefit is critical to providing the best treatment options for clinical TBI. Targeting dopaminergic signaling pathways is a novel approach in TBI that provides benefits to both neuronal survival and functional outcomes. Dopamine, like glutamate, can cause oxidative stress and significant cellular dysfunction when either depleted or over-expressed, and also plays an important role in central nervous system inflammation. The purpose of this review is to discuss dopamine in acute TBI and the role that dopaminergic therapies have as neuroprotective strategies. PMID:22308176

  10. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yee Leong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. Case Report: We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body builder taking anabolic steroids. To date bilateral QTR with additional TA rupture has only been reported once in the literature and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral QTR and simultaneous TA rupture in a young, fit and healthy individual. Conclusion: The diagnosis of bilateral QTR alone can sometimes be challenging and the possibility of even further tendon injuries should be carefully assessed. A delay in diagnosis could result in delay in treatment and potentially worse outcome for the patient. Keywords: Quadriceps tendon rupture; Achilles tendon rupture; Bilateral.

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for treating acute surgical and traumatic wounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, Anne; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Lubbers, Maarten; Lucas, Cees; Vermeulen, Hester

    2010-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is used as a treatment for acute wounds (such as those arising from surgery and trauma) however the effects of HBOT on wound healing are unclear. To determine the effects of HBOT on the healing of acute surgical and traumatic wounds. We searched the Cochrane Wounds

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for treating acute surgical and traumatic wounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, Anne; Vermeulen, Hester; Lucas, Cees; Ubbink, Dirk T.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is used as a treatment for acute wounds (such as those arising from surgery and trauma). However, the effects of HBOT on wound healing are unclear. To determine the effects of HBOT on the healing of acute surgical and traumatic wounds. We searched the Cochrane Wounds

  13. Total knee replacement in acute and chronic traumatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzo, Francesco; Rossi, Stefano M P; Ghiara, Matteo; Zanardi, Alessandro; Perticarini, Loris; Combi, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is a widely used procedure for the treatment of post-traumatic arthritis. This type of solution has also been used recently for the treatment of acute fractures around the knee, particularly in joints that were already arthritic before the trauma. The purpose of this paper is to present our experience with TKR in both acute and chronic traumatic events, highlighting the main problems associated with these conditions and focussing on the indications, principles of technique, tips, tricks and pitfalls of this procedure. The main issues related to post-traumatic arthritis and the problem of TKR in acute fractures are discussed, and our case series of both groups of patients is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Blunt traumatic pericardial rupture and cardiac herniation with a penetrating twist: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galloway Robert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blunt Traumatic Pericardial Rupture (BTPR with resulting cardiac herniation following chest trauma is an unusual and often fatal condition. Although there has been a multitude of case reports of this condition in past literature, the recurring theme is that of a missed injury. Its occurrence in severe blunt trauma is in the order of 0.4%. It is an injury that frequently results in pre/early hospital death and diagnosis at autopsy, probably owing to a combination of diagnostic difficulties, lack of familiarity and associated polytrauma. Of the patients who survive to hospital attendance, the mortality rate is in the order of 57-64%. Methods We present two survivors of BTPR and cardiac herniation, one with a delayed penetrating cardiac injury secondary to rib fractures. With these two cases and literature review, we hope to provide a greater awareness of this injury Conclusion BTPR and cardiac herniation is a complex and often fatal injury that usually presents under the umbrella of polytrauma. Clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for BTPR but, even then, the diagnosis is fraught with difficulty. In blunt chest trauma, patients should be considered high risk for BTPR when presenting with: Cardiovascular instability with no obvious cause Prominent or displaced cardiac silhouette and asymmetrical large volume pneumopericardium Potentially, with increasing awareness of the injury and improved use and availability of imaging modalities, the survival rates will improve and cardiac Herniation could even be considered the 5th H of reversible causes of blunt traumatic PEA arrest.

  15. Sex Differences in Outcome After an Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Brorsson, Annelie; Olsson, Nicklas; Eriksson, Bengt I; Karlsson, Jon; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tendon healing differs between the sexes. Comparisons in outcome between the sexes after an Achilles tendon rupture are often not possible because of the small cohort (<20%) of women. Purpose...

  16. Rupture

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    Our Director-General is indifferent to the tradition of concertation foreseen in our statutes and is "culturally" unable to associate the Staff Association with problem-solving in staff matters. He drags his heels as long as possible before entering into negotiations, presents "often misleading" solutions at the last minute which he only accepts to change once a power struggle has been established. Faced with this rupture and despite its commitment to concertation between gentlemen. The results of the poll in which the staff is invited to participate this week. We therefore need your support to state our claims to the Governing Bodies. The Staff Association proposes a new medium of communication and thus hopes to show that it is ready for future negotiations. The pages devoted to the Staff Association are presented in a more informative, reactive and factual manner and in line with the evolution of the social situation at CERN. We want to establish strong and continuous ties between the members of CERN and ou...

  17. Papillary muscle rupture due to acute myocardial infarction followed by cardiogenic shock, pulmonary edema, and acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Radoje

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The case of successful surgical treatment of anterolateral papillary muscle rupture due to acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, pulmonary edema and acute renal failure. Case report. A 62-year old male from Belgrade with chest pain, hypotension and a new heart murmur refused hospitalization at the Military Medical Academy. On the third day of his illness he was readmitted to MMA as an emergency due to hemoptysis. Examination revealed mitral valve anterolateral papillary muscle rupture. The patient, with signs of cardiogenic shock and acute renal failure, was immediately operated on. The surgery was performed using extracorporeal circulation. An artificial mitral valve was implanted, and myocardial revascularization accomplished with one venous graft of the left anterior descending artery. On the second postoperative day, hemodialysis was carried out due to acute renal failure. On the 28th postoperative day, the patient was discharged from the hospital being hemodynamically stable with normal renal function and balanced anticoagulation. The case is interesting in terms of unrecognized papillary muscle rupture that led to the development of cardiogenic shock, hemoptysis and acute renal failure. Conclusion. Papillary muscle rupture is a fatal complication of acute myocardial infarction. Early recognition and urgent surgical intervention were lifesaving in the case of complete papillary muscle rupture. Surgical treatment, regardless of high risk, is the procedure of choice.

  18. [Traumatic wound dehiscence and corneal rupture 3 1/2 years after radial keratotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, M B; Busin, M; Koch, F; Sekundo, W

    1995-04-01

    Severe complications such as a traumatic wound dehiscence have been described very rarely after radial keratotomy. The following case demonstrates for the first time that wound healing is not completed even 31/2 years postoperatively and that therefore an ocular blunt trauma may still cause a dehiscence of the radial incisions. A 22-year-old patient presented in July 1993 to our emergency unit because of a corneal perforation in his right eye after a blunt trauma. His past medical history was significant for radial keratotomy surgery performed in January 1990 to correct a bilateral low-degree myopia (OD = -3.25 D; OS = -3.75 D). At surgery a horizontal rupture running through the entire cornea and including the two radial keratotomies at the 3 and 9 o'clock position was evident. The whole iris and lens were missing. The retina was completely detached. The corneal laceration was sutured. Twelve days later the retina was reattached with an encircling band, vitrectomy, endolaser and cryocoagulation, as well as silicone oil fill. Finally, a penetrating keratoplasty was performed 6 months after the accident. Thereafter, visual acuity improved to 0.1. The histologic examination of the corneal button showed that the wound healing of the incisions that had remained intact was not completed yet. Epithelial plugs of various size were still filling the somewhat dehiscent wound margins. Fibroblastic activity was detected in the surrounding stroma. Even several years after surgery, blunt traumas represent a definite risk for eyes undergoing radial keratotomy.

  19. Blunt traumatic aortic rupture of the proximal ascending aorta repaired by resection and direct anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmouche, Majid; Slimani, Eric Karim; Heraudeau, Adeline; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Traumatic aortic injury represents 15% of motor vehicle related deaths with death occurring at the scene in 85% of the cases. Aortic disruptions usually occur at the isthmus in a transverse fashion with all three of the aortic layers being involved. Herein, we report the case of a 68-year old man with no prior medical history who was struck by a vehicle while riding his bicycle. The ruptured segment of aorta was resected circumferentially and interrupted horizontal mattress pledgeted prolene sutures were used to ensure full thickness aortic integrity of the proximal and distal aortic segments. The aorta was closed with a single-layer technique using 4/0 prolene suture. There were no postoperative complications and patient was discharged on Day 44. The case here discussed demonstrates a rare presentation of blunt aortic injury. The proximal ascending aorta is an unusual site of transection following blunt trauma with few reports in the literature. We were able to repair the aorta with direct suture, thus avoiding the use of artificial material.

  20. Acute Associations between Outdoor Temperature and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sandie; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2017-10-30

    Extreme ambient temperatures have been linked to preterm birth. Preterm premature rupture of membranes is a common precursor to preterm birth but is rarely studied in relation to temperature. We linked 15 381 singleton pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes from a nationwide US obstetrics cohort (2002-2008) to local temperature. Case-crossover analyses compared daily temperature during the week preceding delivery and the day of delivery to two control periods, before and after the case period. Conditional logistic regression models calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of preterm and term premature rupture of membranes for a 1˚C increase in temperature during the warm (May-September) and cold (October-April) season separately after adjusting for humidity, barometric pressure, ozone and particulate matter. During the warm season, 1˚C increase during the week before delivery was associated with a 5% (95% CI: 3-6%) increased preterm premature rupture of membranes risk, and a 4% (95% CI: 3-5%) increased term premature rupture of membranes risk. During the cold season, 1˚C increase was associated with a 2% decreased risk for both preterm (95% CI: 1-3%) and term premature rupture of membranes (95% CI: 1-3%). The day-specific associations for the week before delivery were similar, but somewhat stronger for days closer to delivery. Relatively small ambient temperature changes were associated with the risk of both preterm and term premature of membranes. Given the adverse consequences of premature rupture of membranes and concerns over global climate change, these findings merit further investigation.

  1. Percutaneous repair followed by accelerated rehabilitation for acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mouazzen, Louay; Rajakulendran, Karthig; Najefi, Ali; Ahad, Nurul

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the outcome after percutaneous repair followed by accelerated rehabilitation for acute Achilles tendon ruptures. 21 men and 9 women (mean age, 41 years) underwent percutaneous repair by a single senior surgeon for acute Achilles tendon ruptures, followed by early weight bearing and accelerated rehabilitation. Outcome measures included the Achilles tendon re-rupture rate, the Achilles tendon total rupture score (ATRS) at 3 and 6 months, the incidence of sural nerve injury, wound infection, wound dehiscence, patient satisfaction, and the time to return to pre-rupture activity. The mean follow-up period was 12.5 months. The mean ATRS score improved from 57.65 at 3 months to 86.95 at 6 months (ptendon re-rupture, sural nerve injury, wound dehiscence, or deep infection. Two patients developed a superficial wound infection, which was resolved with oral flucloxacillin. Two patients had a mass at the transverse incision, but neither had any symptoms or functional restriction. All patients were able to bear full weight comfortably without the walker boot at 8 weeks, and return to their work by 3 months. The mean time to return to pre-rupture activity, including sports, was 10.4 months. The mean satisfaction rate was 87% at 6 months. Percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon followed by early weight bearing and accelerated rehabilitation achieves good functional outcome.

  2. Haemodialysis for post-traumatic acute renal failure – factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Post-traumatic acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy in an intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with high mortality. Objective. To assess indicators of improved survival. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study of 64 consecutive trauma patients (penetrating and blunt trauma and burns) ...

  3. Management of acute complex traumatic wound with a dermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute complex traumatic wounds of the lower limbs are usually managed by a combination of multiple debridements, dressing changes, and specialized surgical procedures which may include tissue transfers for the reconstruction of the soft tissue injury. The recovery is lengthy, and the outcome dependent on ...

  4. Ruptured Seminoma of Undescended Testis Presenting as Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiological and pre‑operative diagnosis of complications such as torsion or rupture is often difficult because, generally, the history of cryptorchidism is not provided and imaging findings can be non‑specific. In a male patient with undescended testis, and presence of a retroperitoneal mass on imaging, testicular malignancy.

  5. Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture with combined thoracoabdominal injuries: Difference between penetrating and blunt injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jinmou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture (TDR needs early diagnosis and operation. However, the early diagnosis is usually difficult, especially in the patients without diaphragmatic hernia. The objective of this study was to explore the early diagnosis and treatment of TDR. Methods: Data of 256 patients with TDR treated in our department between 1994 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively regarding to the diagnostic methods, percentage of preoperative judgment, incidence of diaphragmatic hernia, surgical procedures and outcome, etc. Two groups were set up according to the mechanism of injury (blunt or penetrating. Results: Of 256 patients with a mean age of 32.4 years (9e84, 218 were male. The average ISS was 26.9 (13e66; and shock rate was 62.9%. There were 104 blunt injuries and 152 penetrating injuries. Preoperatively diagnostic rate was 90.4% in blunt injuries and 80.3% in penetrating, respectively, P < 0.05. The incidence of diaphragmatic hernia was 94.2% in blunt and 15.1% in penetrating respectively, P < 0.005. Thoracotomy was performed in 62 cases, laparotomy in 153, thoracotomy plus laparotomy in 29, and combined thoraco-laparotomy in 12. Overall mortality rate was 12.5% with the average ISS of 41.8; and it was 21.2% in blunt injuries and 6.6% in penetrating, respectively, P < 0.005. The main causes of death were hemorrhage and sepsis. Conclusions: Diagnosis of blunt TDR can be easily obtained by radiograph or helical CT scan signs of diaphragmatic hernia. For penetrating TDR without hernia, “offside sign” is helpful as initial assessment. CT scan with coronal/sagittal reconstruction is an accurate technique for diagnosis. All TDR require operation. Penetrating injury has a relatively better prognosis.

  6. Clinical presentation of a traumatic cervical spine disc rupture in alpine sports: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinolli Luca

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Isolated non-skeletal injuries of the cervical spine are rare and frequently missed. Different evaluation algorithms for C-spine injuries, such as the Canadian C-spine Rule have been proposed, however with strong emphasis on excluding osseous lesions. Discoligamentary injuries may be masked by unique clinical situations presenting to the emergency physician. We report on the case of a 28-year-old patient being admitted to our emergency department after a snowboarding accident, with an assumed hyperflexion injury of the cervical spine. During the initial clinical encounter the only clinical finding the patient demonstrated, was a burning sensation in the palms bilaterally. No neck pain could be elicited and the patient was not intoxicated and did not have distracting injuries. Since the patient described a fall prevention attempt with both arms, a peripheral nerve contusion was considered as a differential diagnosis. However, a high level of suspicion and the use of sophisticated imaging (MRI and CT of the cervical spine, ultimately led to the diagnosis of a traumatic disc rupture at the C5/6 level. The patient was subsequently treated with a ventral microdiscectomy with cage interposition and ventral plate stabilization at the C5/C6 level and could be discharged home with clearly improving symptoms and without further complications. This case underlines how clinical presentation and extent of injury can differ and it furthermore points out, that injuries contracted during alpine snow sports need to be considered high velocity injuries, thus putting the patient at risk for cervical spine trauma. In these patients, especially when presenting with an unclear neurologic pattern, the emergency doctor needs to be alert and may have to interpret rigid guidelines according to the situation. The importance of correctly using CT and MRI according to both – standardized protocols and the patient's clinical presentation – is crucial for

  7. Double valve replacement for acute spontaneous left chordal rupture secondary to chronic aortic incompetence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLenachan Jim

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 54 years old male with undiagnosed chronic calcific degenerative aortic valve incompetence presented with acute left anterior chordae tendinae rupture resulting in severe left heart failure and cardiogenic shock. He was successfully treated with emergency double valve replacement using mechanical valves. The pathogenesis of acute rupture of the anterior chordae tendinae, without any evidence of infective endocarditis or ischemic heart disease seems to have been attrition of the subvalvular mitral apparatus by the chronic regurgitant jet of aortic incompetence with chronic volume overload. We review the literature with specific focus on the occurrence of this unusual event.

  8. Acute Achilles tendon rupture - Minimally invasive surgery versus nonoperative treatment with immediate full weightbearing - Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, Roderick; Verleisdonk, Egbert-Jan M. M.; van der Heijden, Geert J. -M. -G.; Clevers, Geert-Jan; Hammacher, Erik R.; Verhofstad, Michiel H. J.; van der Werken, Christiaan

    Background: Surgical repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures is considered superior to nonoperative treatment, but complications other than rerupture range up to 34%. Nonoperative treatment by functional bracing seems a promising alternative. Hypothesis: Nonoperative treatment of acute Achilles

  9. Case report: acute spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in a patient with giant cell arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T Jared; Welsh, Gail A; Miller, Dylan V; Santhi, V Swaroop

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of a 69-yr-old previously healthy man with acute spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture and severe tendonitis, which occurred after 2 weeks of steroid therapy for newly diagnosed giant cell arteritis. The Achilles tendon rupture was treated conservatively and the tendonitis resolved incrementally with steroid dose reduction. The patient made a complete recovery. In view of the widespread use of steroids in practice, this novel case presentation has important clinical implications. The tendon rupture early in the course of high-dose steroid therapy expands the understanding of this adverse reaction, which was previously reported only with long-term steroid therapy. The severe tendonitis responded to steroid therapy reduction suggesting a dose correlation. This report adds to a sole previous report of a spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture associated with giant cell arteritis.

  10. Do diabetes mellitus and systemic hypertension predispose to left ventricular free wall rupture in acute myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, T; Hildebrant, P; Køber, L

    1997-01-01

    Diabetes and systemic hypertension had no influence on left ventricular free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction. Age <65 years and a history of coronary artery disease offers some protection from protection.......Diabetes and systemic hypertension had no influence on left ventricular free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction. Age

  11. Pain and knee function in relation to degree of bone bruise after acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szkopek, K; Warming, Torsten; Neergaard, K

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether the bone bruise that occurs in connection with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is causing pain and dysfunction. We followed prospectively 17 patients [10 men, seven women, mean age 28 years (range 23-34)] with acute ACL rupture for 2 months. A magnetic resonance...

  12. Functional outcomes of conservatively managed acute ruptures of the Achilles tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J E; Nasr, P; Fountain, D M; Berman, L; Robinson, A H N

    2017-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aims to determine if the size of the tendon gap following acute rupture of the Achilles tendon shows an association with the functional outcome following non-operative treatment. All patients presenting within two weeks of an acute unilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon between July 2012 and July 2015 were considered for the study. In total, 38 patients (nine female, 29 male, mean age 52 years; 29 to 78) completed the study. Dynamic ultrasound examination was performed to confirm the diagnosis and measure the gap between ruptured tendon ends. Outcome was assessed using dynamometric testing of plantarflexion and the Achilles tendon Total Rupture score (ATRS) six months after the completion of a rehabilitation programme. Patients with a gap ≥ 10 mm with the ankle in the neutral position had significantly greater peak torque deficit than those with gaps tendon gap and functional outcome in acute rupture of the Achilles tendon. We have identified 10 mm as a gap size at which deficits in plantarflexion strength become significantly greater, however, the precise relationship between gap size and plantarflexion strength remains unclear. Large, multicentre studies will be needed to clarify this relationship and identify population subgroups in whom deficits in peak torque are reflected in patient-reported outcome measures. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:87-93. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  13. Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture in Scandinavia Does Not Adhere to Evidence-based Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer W; Nielsen, Fredrik; Helander, Katarina N

    2013-01-01

    recommended surgical treatment (p countries in the educational level......The best treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture has been discussed for decades. During the past half decade, evidence has increased in favor of nonoperative treatment and dynamic and weightbearing rehabilitation. We hypothesized that the treatment strategies would show great variation...

  14. Labyrinthine window rupture as a cause of acute sensorineural hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, Tomoyuki; Nagai, Midori

    2011-01-01

    Labyrinthine window rupture (LWR) is one cause of acute sensorineural hearing loss and need for early exploration is clear for good improved hearing. Acute sensorineural hearing loss of 60?dB or more treated from May 2006 to May 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 21 ears of severe deafness, 18 ears of profound deafness, and 10 ears of total deafness. All patients were examined with temporal bone CT. Space-occupying lesions around the labyrinthine windows were suggestive images of ...

  15. Treatment of acute achilles tendon rupture with the panda rope bridge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liangjun; Wu, Yahong; Ren, Changsong; Wang, Yizhong; Fu, Ting; Cheng, Xiangjun; Li, Ruidong; Nie, Mao; Mu, Yuan

    2018-01-16

    Although nonsurgical methods and many surgical techniques have been developed for repairing a ruptured Achilles tendon, there is no consensus on its best treatment. In this article, a novel minimally invasive technique called the Panda Rope Bridge Technique (PRBT) is described. Patient with acute Achilles tendon rupture was operated on in the prone position. The PRBT begin with making the proximal bridge anchor (Krackow sutures in the myotendinous junction), the distal bridge anchor (two suture anchors in the calcaneus bone) and the ropes (threads of the suture anchors) stretched between the anchor sites. Then a small incision was made to debride and reattach the stumps of ruptured tendon. After the surgery, no cast or splint fixation was applied. All patients performed enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), which included immediate ankle mobilisation from day 1, full weight-bearing walking from day 5 to 7, and gradually take part in athletic exercises from 8 weeks postoperatively. PBRT was performed in 11patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture between June 2012 and June 2015. No wound infection, fistula, skin necrosis, sural nerve damage, deep venous thrombosis or tendon re-rupture was found. One year after the surgery, all patients reported 100 AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score points and the mean ATRS was 96.6. The PRBT is a simple, effective and minimally invasive technique, with no need for immobilisation of the ankle, making possible immediate and aggressive postoperative rehabilitation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute Compartment Syndrome after Non-Contact Peroneus Longus Muscle Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Jarrad; Villacis, Diego; Kephart, Curtis; Yi, Anthony; Romano, Russ; Hatch, George F Rick

    2015-12-01

    This case demonstrates a rare variation in the pattern of injury and the presentation of acute lateral compartment syndrome of the leg. Although uncommon, lateral compartment syndrome of the leg after an ankle inversion leading to peroneus longus muscle rupture has been previously documented. This case was unusual because there was no overt ankle injury and the patient was able to continue physical activity, in spite of a significant rupture of the peroneus longus muscle that was determined later. This case highlights the necessary vigilance clinicians must maintain when assessing non-contact injuries in patients with possible compartment syndrome.

  17. Traumatic graft rupture after primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: retrospective analysis of incidence and risk factors in 2915 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, Michael; Schuster, Philipp; Schulz, Martin; Immendörfer, Micha; Mayer, Philipp; Bartholomä, Jochen; Richter, Jörg

    2017-05-01

    To determine incidence and risk factors for traumatic graft rupture following primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. All cases of isolated ACL reconstructions (primary or revision) performed at our institution between January 2007 and December 2010 were included. From this group of 2467 primary reconstructions (32.4 ± 12.2 years) and 448 revision reconstructions (33.0 ± 10.4 years), we identified all patients who underwent revision ACL reconstruction following traumatic graft rupture in further course and all patients who underwent contralateral primary ACL reconstruction until January 2014. Age, gender, time from index procedure and graft diameter (for hamstring autografts) were analysed in terms of being a potential risk factor for graft rupture. Within a follow-up period of 5.0 ± 1.1 years (3.0-7.0), a total of 82 traumatic graft ruptures were identified, resulting in an incidence of 2.8 %. Seventy-three cases were seen following primary reconstructions (3.0 %), and nine cases following revision reconstructions (2.0 %), respectively (n.s.). Age younger than 25 years was identified as a risk factor for both groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.008; odds ratio 6.0 and 6.4, respectively). In primary reconstruction, male patients had a higher risk of graft rupture compared with females (3.7 vs. 1.6 %; p = 0.005), and the first year after index procedure was associated with a higher risk of graft rupture compared with the following (p < 0.001). Graft diameter did not influence the risk of graft rupture. Incidence of contralateral ACL rupture was 3.1 %, which was not different to the incidence of graft rupture ipsilaterally (n.s.). No statistically significant differences were seen between graft rupture incidence of primary and revision ACL reconstructions. Young age (<25 years) and short time to the index procedure (especially within the first year) were confirmed as risk factors for graft rupture in both groups. Male

  18. Ruptura traumática do diafragma: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture: computed tomography findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Severo Alves de Melo

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A ruptura traumática do diafragma é uma condição incomum, porém cada vez mais freqüentemente diagnosticada pela tomografia computadorizada, especialmente pela técnica helicoidal associada às reconstruções multiplanares, possibilitando a adoção de conduta terapêutica cirúrgica rápida e eficiente. Os autores estudaram seis pacientes com ruptura traumática do diafragma submetidos a tomografia computadorizada, que demonstrou herniação de estruturas abdominais para o interior do tórax através de área de ruptura na hemicúpula frênica esquerda em quatro casos; os outros dois pacientes foram submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico por trauma abdominal associado, que demonstrou lesões diafragmáticas, sem evidência de herniação na tomografia computadorizada.Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture is an uncommon condition that has been diagnosed more frequently with the aid of computed tomography, particularly when using helical technique in association with multiplanar reconstructions. This technique allows adoption of an efficient and quick surgical therapeutic approach. The authors studied six patients with traumatic diaphragmatic rupture that were submitted to computed tomography. In four of the patients there was herniation of intraabdominal viscera through a site of rupture in the left diaphragm. The two other patients underwent surgery due to abdominal injuries, which revealed diaphragmatic lesions but no herniation of intraabdominal viscera.

  19. Severe Functional Debilitations After Complications Associated With Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture With 9 Years of Follow-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Sveen, Thor Magnus; Ganestam, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the long-term effect of deep infection, sural nerve injury, and repeat rupture in the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. A total of 324 patients had made a claim to the Danish Patient Insurance Association from 1992 to 2010...... for a complication after acute Achilles tendon rupture. Of the 324 patients, 119 (77 males and 42 females) returned the Achilles tendon total rupture score and the 36-item short-form survey questionnaires. Patients with deep infection (n = 10), sural nerve injury (n = 10), and repeat rupture (n = 16) participated...... in a follow-up investigation. The mean follow-up period was 8.9 years (range 3 to 21). The mean Achilles tendon total rupture score was 49 ± 27. The summary scores of the physical component and mental components scales of the 36-item Short Form Survey were 43 ± 11 and 52 ± 11, respectively. No significant...

  20. Effect of Complications After Minimally Invasive Surgical Repair of Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures Report on 211 Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, Roderik; van der Heijden, Geert J. M. G.; Verleisdonk, Egbert-Jan M. M.; Kolfschoten, Nicky; Verhofstad, Michiel H. J.; van der Werken, Christiaan

    Background: Complications of acute Achilles tendon rupture treatment are considered to negatively influence outcome, but the relevance of these effects is largely unknown. Purpose: The Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) was used to determine level of disability in patients with minimally

  1. Augmented Versus Nonaugmented Repair of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Quan; Lin, Xiang-Jin

    2017-04-01

    Although simple end-to-end repair of the Achilles tendon is common, many augmented repair protocols have been implemented for acute Achilles tendon rupture. However, whether augmented repair is better than nonaugmented repair of an acute Achilles tendon rupture is still unknown. To conduct a meta-analysis to determine whether augmented surgical repair of an acute Achilles tendon rupture improved subjective patient satisfaction without an increase in rerupture rates. Secondary outcomes assessed included infections, ankle range of motion, calf muscle strength, and minor complications. Meta-analysis. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed articles was conducted to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing augmented repair and nonaugmented repair for acute Achilles tendon rupture from January 1980 to August 2016 in the electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science (SCI-E/SSCI/A&HCI), and EMBASE. The keywords (Achilles tendon rupture) AND (surg* OR operat* OR repair* OR augment* OR non-augment* OR end-to-end OR sutur*) were combined, and results were limited to human RCTs and controlled clinical trials published in the English language. Four RCTs involving 169 participants were eligible for inclusion; 83 participants were treated with augmented repair and 86 were treated with nonaugmented repair. Augmented repair led to similar responses when compared with nonaugmented repair for acute Achilles tendon rupture (93% vs 90%, respectively; P = .53). The rerupture rates showed no significant difference for augmented versus nonaugmented repair (7.2% vs 9.3%, respectively; P = .69). No differences in superficial and deep infections occurred in augmented (7 infections) and nonaugmented (8 infections) repair groups during postoperative follow-up ( P = .89). The average incisional infection rate was 8.4% with augmented repair and 9.3% with nonaugmented repair. No significant differences in other complications were found between augmented (7.2%) and

  2. Observation of silicone tube double-passage annular lacrimal intubation and epidural catheter for repairing the traumatic lacrimal rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the efficacy and characteristics of silicone tube double-passage annular lacrimal intubation and epidural catheter for repairing the traumatic lacrimal rupture. METHODS:Retrospective case study. Sixty-two cases(62 eyeswith traumatic lacrimal rupture were involved in the study from January 2009 to December 2013. Thirty-two cases(32 eyeswere treated with silicone tube double-passage annular lacrimal intubation, 30 cases(30 eyeswith epidural catheter. All cases were underwent anastomosis surgery successfully after having searched for the broken ends of canaliculus by operation microscope. The operation time, postoperative reaction, efficacy, complications and so on were retrospectively analyzed between two methods.RESULTS:The operation time of silicone tube double-passage annular lacrimal intubation group was 55~120(85.17±15.05min and epidural catheter group was 30~70(49.83±10.71min. Four cases(12.5%in silicone tube double-passage annular lacrimal intubation group happened postoperative anastomotic inflammation in 1wk and 24 cases(80%happened in epidural catheter group. Thirty-one cases(97%in silicone tube double-passage annular lacrimal intubation group and 26 case(87%in epidural catheter group were anastomosed successfully 1wk after the stents was removed. At 6mo after surgeries, in silicone tube double-passage annular lacrimal intubation group, 2 cases(6%were accompanied by lower eyelid ectropion and 1 case(3%were accompanied by lacrimal puncta laceration. And in epidural catheter group, 10 cases(33%were accompanied by lower eyelid ectropion and 5 case(17%were accompanied by lacrimal puncta laceration. CONCLUSION:A good result can be obtained by using the silicone tube double-passage annular lacrimal intubation and epidural catheter for repairing the traumatic lacrimal rupture. But in silicone tube double-passage annular lacrimal intubation group, postoperative reaction is lighter and complications can be less. In epidural

  3. Percutaneous Repair Technique for Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture with Assistance of Kirschner Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ze-yang; Chai, Ming-xiang; Liu, Yue-ju; Zhang, Xiao-ran; Zhang, Tao; Song, Lian-xin; Ren, Zhi-xin; Wu, Xi-rui

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce a self-designed, minimally invasive technique for repairing an acute Achilles tendon rupture percutaneously. Comparing with the traditional open repair, the new technique provides obvious advantages of minimized operation-related lesions, fewer wound complications as well as a higher healing rate. However, a percutaneous technique without direct vision may be criticized by its insufficient anastomosis of Achilles tendon and may also lead to the lengthening of the Achilles tendon and a reduction in the strength of the gastrocnemius. To address the potential problems, we have improved our technique using a percutaneous Kirschner wire leverage process before suturing, which can effectively recover the length of the Achilles tendon and ensure the broken ends are in tight contact. With this improvement in technique, we have great confidence that it will become the treatment of choice for acute Achilles tendon ruptures. © 2015 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Acute elbow dislocation with arterial rupture. Analysis of nine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayel, J-E; Bonnevialle, N; Lafosse, J-M; Pidhorz, L; Al Homsy, M; Mansat, P; Chaufour, X; Rongieres, M; Bonnevialle, P

    2009-09-01

    Elbow dislocations are the most frequently encountered dislocations after shoulder dislocations. In their vast majority these injuries involve only the joint and carry a good prognosis. Close anatomic proximity to the joint of neurovascular structures put them at risk of concomitant injury but this occurrence remains, actually very rare. The objective of this study is to retrospectively analyze the results of nine cases of elbow dislocations with brachial artery complications and to propose coherent therapeutic guidelines derived from this experience. From 1999 to 2004, 357 elbow dislocations were treated by the traumatology team at the Purpan University Hospital and 340 at the Rangueil University Hospital in Toulouse, France. These two teaching institutions combined their series, contributing to seven dislocations associated with a brachial artery partial rupture, resulting in ischemia. Between 2001 and 2006 at the Le Mans Regional Hospital Center, 138 dislocations of the elbow were treated, and included two cases involving rupture of the brachial artery. In all these institutions' emergency departments, elbow dislocations were mainly treated on an outpatient basis: closed reduction under ultra short-acting products general anesthesia, with stability evaluation followed by cast immobilization. In the rare instances of ischemia, the artery was repaired in concert with the vascular surgery team. All the nine cases had a similar treatment protocol and were submitted to an identical outcome evaluation method. The patients were all males with a mean age of 37.3 years (range, 18-58 years). The combined injury occurred at sports in two cases, because of a fall in three cases and as a result of a traffic accident in four cases. Ischemia was complete in three cases (no radial or ulnar pulse and devascularized hand). In the six other cases, the clinical presentation was subacute. An arteriogram was obtained in five cases after reduction of the dislocation, confirming the

  5. Successfully repaired traumatic tracheal disruption and cardiac rupture with cardiopulmonary support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Sakai, Takehiro; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Tsushima, Takao; Koyama, Masayuki; Takaya, Shunichi

    2002-02-01

    A 19-year-old man suffering from dyspnea associated with tracheal and cardiac rupture from a traffic accident was found by bronchoscopy to have a 7.5 cm longitudinal tear in the membranous portion of the trachea. Right posterolateral thoracotomy was conducted and open ventilation through the left main bronchus initiated with standby cardiopulmonary bypass cannulation of the right femoral artery and vein. When oxygenation was poor, extracorporeal circulation was initiated through the cannulated artery and vein. Under the cardiopulmonary bypass, we safely repaired the tracheal laceration and cardiac rupture.

  6. Delayed presentation of post-traumatic diaphragm rupture repaired by laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, James; Jalil, Rozh; Isla, Alberto

    2012-11-11

    Diaphragmatic rupture is a serious but frequently missed condition that is potentially curable. While surgical management has classically been performed through open thoracotomy, a laparoscopic approach has been suggested as a preferable alternative. A man in his mid-50s presented with non-specific abdominal symptoms, 8 months after falling down some stairs. Diaphragmatic rupture was suspected after old rib fractures were noticed on an admitting chest radiograph. Further signs and symptoms presented following deterioration due to the unstable pathology. Prompt surgical treatment using laparoscopy was attempted with success and resulted in rapid and lasting improvement in symptoms.

  7. Lumbosacral interspinous ligament rupture associated with acute intrinsic spinal muscle degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinkins, Randy J. [Neuroimaging Research, Department of Radiologic Sciences, Medical College of Pennsylvania-Hahnemann, Drexel University, 245 North 15th Street-Mail Stop 206, Philadelphia, PA 19102-1192 (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate lumbosacral interspinous ligament rupture, with or without related acute intrinsic spinal muscle degeneration. This study consisted of a prospective imaging analysis of consecutive 100 MRI studies in adult patients (mean age 56 years) presenting with low back pain. Alterations from the normal in the inter- and perispinal structures of the spine and perispinal soft tissues (e.g., spinal ligaments, perispinal muscles) were sought based upon studies on young volunteers without low back pain (n=10; mean age 23 years). Compared with the group without low back pain, many index cases (n=71, 71%) demonstrated hyperintensity (i.e., sprain or frank ligamentous rupture) of the interspinous ligament(s) on T2-weighted, fat-suppressed MRI studies at one (20 of 71, 28%) or multiple (51 of 71, 72%) levels. Associated intrinsic spinal muscle (e.g., interspinalis, multifidus muscles) degeneration was observed in a minority of cases overall (n=7, 7%), but was only seen in association with cases also demonstrating interspinous ligament degeneration/rupture (7 of 71, 10%). Lumbosacral interspinous ligament sprain or frank rupture, as well as related acute-subacute autotraumatic intrinsic spinal muscle rupture/degeneration, may be overlooked by many observers if fat-suppressed, T2-weighted MRI is not acquired. These musculoligamentous alterations are on occasion the only abnormalities recognized on MRI of the lumbosacral spine and may theoretically be sources of low back morbidity that potentially may respond to specific therapy. Because this study was an observational one, based solely upon medical imaging, future research must focus upon the correlation of the relevance of these findings with an age-matched asymptomatic control group and longitudinal clinicoradiologic therapeutic trials. (orig.)

  8. Outcomes of acute Achilles tendon rupture repair with bone marrow aspirate concentrate augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Benjamin E; Stroh, David Alex; Schon, Lew C

    2015-05-01

    Optimal treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures remains controversial. Positive results using stem-cell-bearing concentrates have been reported with other soft-tissue repairs, but no studies exist on outcomes of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) augmentation in primary Achilles tendon repair. We reviewed patients with sport-related Achilles tendon ruptures treated via open repair augmented with BMAC injection from 2009 to 2011. Data on operative complications, strength, range of motion, rerupture, calf circumference and functional improvement through progressive return to sport and the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) were analysed. A total of 27 patients (28 tendons) treated with open repair and BMAC injection were identified (mean age 38.3 ± 9.6 years). At mean follow-up of 29.7 ± 6.1 months, there were no reruptures. Walking without a boot was at 1.8 ± 0.7 months, participation in light activity was at 3.4 ± 1.8 months and 92% (25 of 27) of patients returned to their sport at 5.9 ± 1.8 months. Mean ATRS at final follow-up was 91 (range 72-100) points. One case of superficial wound dehiscence healed with local wound care. No soft-tissue masses, bone formation or tumors were observed in the operative extremity. Excellent results, including no re-ruptures and early mobilisation, were observed in this small cohort with open Achilles tendon repair augmented by BMAC. No adverse outcomes of biologic treatment were observed with this protocol. The efficacy of BMAC in the operative repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures warrants further study. IV - Therapeutic.

  9. Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis: Background, laboratory features, and acute clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Comelli, Ivan; Benatti, Mario; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Bassi, Antonella; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a relatively rare condition, but its clinical consequences are frequently dramatic in terms of both morbidity and mortality. Although no consensus has been reached so far about the precise definition of this condition, the term rhabdomyolysis describes a rapid breakdown of striated, or skeletal, muscle. It is hence characterized by the rupture and necrosis of muscle fibers, resulting in release of cell degradation products and intracellular elements within the bloodstream and extracellular space. Notably, the percentage of patients with rhabdomyolysis who develop acute kidney injury, the most dramatic consequence, varies from 13% to over 50% according to both the cause and the clinical and organizational setting where they are diagnosed. Despite direct muscle injury (i.e., traumatic rhabdomyolysis) remains the most common cause, additional causes, frequently overlapping, include hypoxic, physical, chemical or biological factors. The conventional triad of symptoms includes muscle pain, weakness and dark urine. The laboratory diagnosis is essentially based on the measurement of biomarkers of muscle injury, being creatine kinase (CK) the biochemical "gold standard" for diagnosis, and myoglobin the "gold standard" for prognostication, especially in patients with non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis. The essential clinical management in the emergency department is based on a targeted intervention to manage the underlying cause, combined with infusion of fluids and eventually sodium bicarbonate. We will present and discuss in this article the pathophysiological and clinical features of non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis, focusing specifically on Emergency Department (ED) management. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Survival after Left Ventricular Free Wall Rupture in an Elderly Woman with Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated Only Medically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Roa-Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle is rare and may occur as a result of transmural myocardial infarction. The course of rupture after acute myocardial infarction varies from a catastrophic event, with an acute tear leading to immediate death (acute rupture, or slow and incomplete tear leading to a late rupture (subacute rupture. Incomplete rupture may occur when the thrombus and haematoma together with the pericardium seal the rupture of the left ventricle and may develop into a pseudoaneurysm. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential in this condition. Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography is the first-choice method for most patients with suspected left ventricular pseudoaneurysm (LVP and suggests left ventricular rupture in 85% to 90% of patients. We report the case of an 87-year-old woman presenting with symptoms and findings of myocardial infarction and left ventricular free wall rupture with a pseudoaneurysm formation diagnosed by echocardiography and confirmed on CT, MRI, and NM. She received only intense medical treatment, because she refused surgery with a favorable outcome. After 24-month followup, she is in NYHA functional class II. The survival of this patient is due to the contained pseudoaneurysm by dense pericardial adhesions, related to her previous coronary bypass surgery.

  11. A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, Leanne; Sorensen, Jens C; Pedersen, Preben U

    2010-01-01

    A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care......A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care...

  12. Definition and drivers of acute traumatic coagulopathy: clinical and experimental investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher Donald; Goslings, J C; Gaarder, C

    2010-01-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) is an impairment of hemostasis that occurs early after injury and is associated with a 4-fold higher mortality, increased transfusion requirements and organ failure.......Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) is an impairment of hemostasis that occurs early after injury and is associated with a 4-fold higher mortality, increased transfusion requirements and organ failure....

  13. [Arthroscopic refixation of acute proximal anterior cruciate ligament rupture using suture anchors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtnich, A; Rosslenbroich, S; Beitzel, K; Imhoff, A B; Petersen, W

    2017-04-01

    Arthroscopic assisted suture anchor refixation combined with microfracturing of the femoral ACL insertion zone in cases of acute proximal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture to restore anatomical and biomechanical properties of the native ACL. Acute proximal ACL rupture/avulsion, multiligament injury of the knee CONTRAINDICATIONS: Chronic (>6 weeks) proximal ACL rupture, intraligamentary rupture, as well as previous ACL surgery. Arthroscopic examination of the knee joint, debridement of the femoral insertion zone, examination of the ligament quality by a probe, insertion of a curved lasso through the ACL to place the sutures and use of a drill guide to place the anchor in the middle of the femoral ACL insertion. Microfracturing holes around the femoral footprint were made by an awl to enhance healing properties of the ACL. Partial weight bearing was permitted and crutches were used for 6 weeks, knee brace limited for the first 2 weeks 0‑0-0°, then 0‑0-90° for the following 4 weeks. A total of 20 patients who underwent acute proximal ACL suture anchor refixation were evaluated after a mean follow-up of 28 months. Regarding stability, mean values of the KT-1000 arthrometer indicated stable results (Knee Documentation Committee) score indicated that 17 cases were very good to good (12A, 4B) and in 3 cases the results were satisfactory (3C). Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the ALC was found to be intact in 17 cases. The total rate of revision was 15 % (3/20) because of recurrent instability.

  14. Realtime Achilles Ultrasound Thompson (RAUT) Test for the Evaluation and Diagnosis of Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matthew J; Olson, Kirstina; Heckmann, Nathanael; Charlton, Timothy P

    2017-01-01

    Acute complete Achilles tendon ruptures are commonly missed injuries. We propose the Realtime Achilles Ultrasound Thompson (RAUT) test, a Thompson test under ultrasound visualization, to aid in the diagnosis of these injuries. We hypothesized that RAUT testing would provide improved diagnostic characteristics compared with static ultrasound. Twenty-two consecutive patients with operatively confirmed acute Achilles tendon ruptures were prospectively evaluated with RAUT testing and static ultrasonography. RAUT video recordings and static ultrasound images from both ruptured and uninjured sides were randomized and graded by a group of novice reviewers and a group of expert attendings. From these observations, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for RAUT and static ultrasound were calculated. In addition, κ interobserver coefficients were computed. Forty-seven novice reviewers and 11 foot and ankle attendings made a total of 4136 and 528 observations, respectively. For static ultrasound, sensitivity and specificity were 76.8% and 74.8% for the novice reviewers and 79.6% and 86.4% for the attendings, respectively. For RAUT testing, sensitivity and specificity were 87.2% and 81.1% for the novice group and 86.4% and 91.7% for the attending group, respectively. The κ coefficient was 0.62 and 0.27 for novice and attending RAUT reviewers, indicating substantial and fair agreement, respectively, but only 0.46 and 0.12 for static ultrasonography, representing moderate and slight agreement, respectively. RAUT testing was a sensitive and specific test, providing a cost-effective adjunct to the clinical examination when diagnosing acute Achilles tendon ruptures. This test can be used by surgeons with minimal training in ultrasonography. Level II, diagnostic study.

  15. Augmented Repair of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture Using an Allograft Tendon Weaving Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Huang, Gan; Ji, Ying; Ao, Rong guang; Yu, Baoqing; Zhu, Ya Long

    2015-01-01

    Achilles tendon rupture is a common injury, especially in those who are physically active. Although open surgery is a widely used option for the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture, the optimal treatment is still disputed. In our study, 59 patients with unilateral, closed, acute rupture of the Achilles tendon were treated by open surgery using an allograft weave to augment the repair. All the surgeries were performed within 1 to 4 days after injury. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was recorded as 91.20 (range 88 to 95), 95.34 (range 92 to 98), and 98.27 (range 97 to 99) at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up visit, respectively. At the final follow-up visit, the mean difference between the mid-calf circumference of the injured and uninjured legs was 0.19 (range -0.03 to 1.50) cm (p = .43). At the final follow-up visit, the mean difference between the vertical distances from the plantar surface of the heel to the ground for the injured and uninjured lower extremities was 0.44 (range -0.03 to 0.5) cm (p = .17). Augmented repair using the allograft tendon weaving technique provided satisfactory tendon strength and functional outcomes and a timely return to the patients' activities. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO as salvage treatment for pulmonary Echinococcus granulosus infection with acute cyst rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören L. Becker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been used successfully for the treatment of patients with respiratory failure due to severe infections. Although rare, parasites can also cause severe pulmonary disease. Tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus give rise to the development of cystic structures in the liver, lungs, and other organs. Acute cyst rupture leads to potentially life-threatening infection, and affected patients may deteriorate rapidly. The case of a young woman from Bulgaria who was admitted to hospital with severe dyspnoea, progressive chest pain, and haemoptysis is described. Computed tomography of the chest was pathognomonic for cystic echinococcosis with acute cyst rupture. Following deterioration on mechanical ventilation, she was cannulated for veno-venous ECMO. The patient’s condition improved considerably, and she was weaned successfully from ECMO and mechanical ventilation. Following lobectomy of the affected left lower lobe, the patient was discharged home in good condition. This appears to be the first report of the successful use of ECMO as salvage treatment for a severe manifestation of a helminthic disease. Due to recent migration to Western Europe, the number of patients presenting with respiratory failure due to pulmonary echinococcosis with cyst rupture is likely to increase. Keywords: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, Infection, Echinococcosis, Echinococcus granulosus, Hydatid disease, Infection

  17. Spontaneous Spleen Rupture in a Teenager: An Uncommon Cause of Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verroiotou Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous spleen rupture is a rare complication of infectious diseases and it can become a potentially life-threatening condition if not diagnosed in time. A 17-year-old Greek female presented to the ER due to acute abdominal pain, mainly of the left upper quadrant. She had no recent report of trauma. The patient was pale, her blood pressure was 90/70 mmHg, and her pulse was 120 b/min. Clinical examination of the abdomen revealed muscle contraction and resistance. The patient was submitted to an ultrasound of the upper abdomen and to a CT scanning of the abdomen that revealed an extended intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to spleen rupture. Due to the patient’s hemodynamic instability, she was taken to the operation room and splenectomy was performed. Following a series of laboratory examinations, the patient was diagnosed to be positive for current cytomegalovirus infection. The postoperative course was uneventful, and in a two year follow-up the patient is symptom-free. Spontaneous spleen rupture due to Cytomegalovirus infection is a rare clinical entity, described in few case reports in the world literature and should always be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially in adolescents with no recent report of trauma.

  18. Traumatic rupture of adrenal pseudocyst leading to massive hemorrhage in retroperitoneum

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    Favorito Luciano A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a patient who had a large pseudocyst in the right adrenal gland, which was ruptured following blunt abdominal trauma, leading to a voluminous hemorrhage in retroperitoneum. A 29-year old female patient was admitted in the emergency room following a fall from stairs with trauma in right flank. She underwent a computerized tomography that evidenced a large retroperitoneal collection, with no apparent renal damage. She was submitted to surgery, where a large ruptured cyst was observed, originating from the upper portion of the right adrenal gland. Cystic diseases of adrenal gland are rare. Highly voluminous cysts can be damaged in cases of blunt trauma to the lumbar region leading to large hematomas in retroperitoneum.

  19. Clinical application of magnetic resonance in acute traumatic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Dionei F.; Gaia, Felipe F.P. [Hospital de Base de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Servico de Neurocirurgia]. E-mail: centro@cerebroecoluna.com.br; Spotti, Antonio R.; Tognola, Waldir A. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Neurologicas; Andrade, Almir F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Neurocirurgia da Emergencia

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI): to identify the type, quantity, severity; and improvement clinical-radiological correlation. Method: Assessment of 55 patients who were imaged using CT and MRI, 34 (61.8%) males and 21 (38.2%) females, with acute (0 to 5 days) and closed TBI. Results: Statistical significant differences (McNemar test): occurred fractures were detected by CT in 29.1% and by MRI in 3.6% of the patients; subdural hematoma by CT in 10.9% and MRI in 36.4 %; diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by CT in 1.8% and MRI in 50.9%; cortical contusions by CT in 9.1% and MRI in 41.8%; subarachnoid hemorrhage by CT in 18.2% and MRI in 41.8%. Conclusion: MRI was superior to the CT in the identification of DAI, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cortical contusions, and acute subdural hematoma; however it was inferior in diagnosing fractures. The detection of DAI was associated with the severity of acute TBI. (author)

  20. Acute Compartment Syndrome After Gastrocnemius Rupture (Tennis Leg) in a Nonathlete Without Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Jun, Huang; Muliang, Ding; Deye, Song; Jiangdong, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a serious emergency that warrants urgent decompression, and tennis leg (i.e., rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius) is a known clinical condition that is usually treated symptomatically, with good results overall. In rare cases, acute compartment syndrome is associated with tennis leg after severe direct muscle trauma or severe exercise in athletes or physically active individuals. We present an unusual case of acute compartment syndrome secondary to tennis leg after the patient, a nonathlete, had disembarked from a truck without any trauma. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for atraumatic compartment syndrome, and timely surgical fasciotomy must be undertaken to avoid complications resulting from delayed diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inflammation and Rupture of a Congenital Pericardial Cyst Manifesting Itself as an Acute Chest Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertker, Robert A; Cheong, Benjamin Y C; Lufschanowski, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with a remote history of supraventricular tachycardia and hyperlipidemia, who presented with recurrent episodes of acute-onset chest pain. An electrocardiogram showed no evidence of acute coronary syndrome. A chest radiograph revealed a prominent right-sided heart border. A suspected congenital pericardial cyst was identified on a computed tomographic chest scan, and stranding was noted around the cyst. The patient was treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and the pain initially abated. Another flare-up was treated similarly. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was then performed after symptoms had resolved, and no evidence of the cyst was seen. The suspected cause of the patient's chest pain was acute inflammation of a congenital pericardial cyst with subsequent rupture and resolution of symptoms.

  2. Ventricular septal rupture, right ventricular free wall rupture, hemopericardium, cardiac tamponade, cardiogenic shock, and death in a patient with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction during transthoracic echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A El Kady

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of mechanical complications related to myocardial infarction has decreased due to various factors over the last few decades. Patients admitted for acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI may respond well to thrombolytic therapy before being taken up for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention depending on the facilities available at the specific center. Unfortunately, some patients develop complications of myocardial infarction during hospital stay or postdischarge. We present a patient admitted with acute STEMI responding well to thrombolytic therapy. During transthoracic echocardiography of the patient in Intensive Care Unit, the patient developed ventricular septal rupture, right ventricular free wall rupture, hemopericardium, cardiac tamponade, and cardiogenic shock and expired.

  3. A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Surgical and Nonsurgical Treatments of Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantto, Iikka; Heikkinen, Juuso; Flinkkila, Tapio; Ohtonen, Pasi; Siira, Pertti; Laine, Vesa; Leppilahti, Juhana

    2016-09-01

    The optimal treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures for active patients is under debate. To compare clinical outcomes and calf muscle strength recovery after the nonsurgical treatment and open surgical repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures with identical accelerated rehabilitation programs. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. From 2009 to 2013, a total of 60 patients with an acute Achilles tendon rupture were randomized to surgery or nonsurgical treatment. Nonsurgical treatment included first a week of cast immobilization, followed by a functional orthosis for 6 weeks, allowing full weightbearing after week 1 and active plantar flexion after week 5. Surgery was simple end-to-end open repair, and postoperative treatment was identical to nonsurgical treatment. Outcome measures included the Leppilahti Achilles tendon performance score, isokinetic calf muscle strength, and RAND 36-Item Health Survey at 18-month follow-up. At 18-month follow-up, the mean Leppilahti score was 79.5 and 75.7 for the surgically and nonsurgically treated groups, respectively (mean difference, 3.8; 95% CI, -1.9 to 9.5; P = .19). Angle-specific peak torque results of affected legs showed that surgery resulted in faster and better recovery of calf muscle strength over the entire range of motion of the ankle joint: at 6 months, the difference varied from 16% to 24% (P = .016), favoring the surgically treated group, whereas at 18 months, surgically treated patients had 10% to 18% greater strength results (P = .037). At 18 months, a 14% difference in the peak torque of the affected leg favored the surgical group versus the nonsurgical group (mean peak torque, 110.3 vs 96.5 N·m, respectively; mean difference, 13.6 N·m; 95% CI, 2.0-25.1 N·m; P = .022). The RAND 36-Item Health Survey indicated better results in the domains of physical functioning (P = .006) and bodily pain (P = .037) for surgically treated patients. Surgical and nonsurgical treatments of acute Achilles tendon

  4. Acute traumatic coagulopathy: clinical characterization and mechanistic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mitchell Jay

    2014-05-01

    Trauma remains the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide and bleeding is the primary reason for this mortality. Over the past 11 years there has been a paradigm shift in our understanding of coagulopathy after trauma. Specifically its incidence, biological drivers, clinical sequelae have been elucidated. From this understanding a concurrent change in resuscitation practices has occurred. This manuscript will review the history of resuscitation after injury, the discovery and clinical and biological characterization of acute traumatic coagulopathy and the changes in resuscitation practices aimed at combating coagulopathy and inflammatory perturbation after trauma. Finally it will discuss the ongoing state of the science and suggest topics for continued biological and clinical study. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Achilles tendon total rupture score: a study of responsiveness, internal consistency and convergent validity on patients with acute Achilles tendon ruptures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kearney Rebecca S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score was developed by a research group in 2007 in response to the need for a patient reported outcome measure for this patient population. Beyond this original development paper, no further validation studies have been published. Consequently the purpose of this study was to evaluate internal consistency, convergent validity and responsiveness of this newly developed patient reported outcome measure within patients who have sustained an isolated acute Achilles tendon rupture. Methods Sixty-four eligible patients with an acute rupture of their Achilles tendon completed the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score alongside two further patient reported outcome measures (Disability Rating Index and EQ 5D. These were completed at baseline, six weeks, three months, six months and nine months post injury. The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score was evaluated for internal consistency, using Cronbach's alpha, convergent validity, through correlation analysis and responsiveness, by analysing floor and ceiling effects and calculating its relative efficiency in comparison to the Disability Rating Index and EQ 5D scores. Results The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha > 0.8 and correlated significantly (p Conclusions A universally accepted outcome measure is imperative to allow comparisons to be made across practice. This is the first study to evaluate aspects of validity of this newly developed outcome measure, outside of the developing centre. The ATRS demonstrated high internal consistency and responsiveness, with limited convergent validity. This research provides further support for the use of this outcome measure, however further research is required to advocate its universal use in patients with acute Achilles tendon ruptures. Such areas include inter-rater reliability and research to determine the minimally clinically important difference

  6. Is management of acute traumatic brain injury effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Jin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To evaluate all the possible therapeutic measures concerning the acute management of traumatic brain injury (TBI mentioned in Cochrane System-atic Reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Sys-tematic Reviews (CDSR. Methods: An exhausted literature search for all pub-lished Cochrane Systematic Reviews discussing therapeu-tic rather than prevention or rehabilitative interventions of TBI was conducted. We retrieved such databases as CDSR and Cochrane Injury Group, excluded the duplications, and eventually obtained 20 results, which stand for critical ap-praisal for as many as 20 different measures for TBI patients. The important data of each systematic review, including total population, intervention, outcome, etc, were collected and presented in a designed table. Besides, we also tried to find out the possible weakness of these clinical trials in-cluded in each review. Results: Analysis of these reviews yielded meanfuling observations: (1 The effectiveness of most ordinary treat-ments in TBI is inconclusive except that corticosteroids are likely to be ineffective or harmful, and tranexamic acid, nimodipine and progesterone show a promising effect in bleeding trauma, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, TBI or severe TBI. (2 A majority of the systematic reviews in-clude a small number of clinical trials and the modest num-bers of patients, largely due to the uncertainty of the effectiveness. (3 The quality of most trials reported in the systematic reviews is more or less questionable. (4 In addition, lots of other complex factors together may lead to the inconclusive results demonstrated in the Cochrane Sys-tematic Reviews. Conclusions: For clinical physicians, to translate these conclusions into practice with caution is essential. Basic medication and nursing care deserve additional attention as well and can be beneficial. For researchers, high quality trials with perfect design and comprehensive consideration of

  7. Minimally invasive flexor hallucis longus transfer in management of acute achilles tendon rupture associated with tendinosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2012-04-01

    Chronic tendinopathy is characterized by pain in the tendon, generally at the start and completion of exercise. However, tendinosis may lead to decreased blood flow, increased stiffness of the tendon and reduced tensile strength, and predispose to rupture. Operative treatment is indicated to restore the function of the Achilles tendon and alleviate the prerupture heel cord pain. A case of acute Achilles tendon rupture with extensive tendinosis that was successfully treated with minimally invasive flexor hallucis longus transfer is reported.

  8. Relation of left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm with acute myocardial infarction in patients with aortic stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Irtiza N.; Roberts, William C.

    2017-01-01

    This minireview describes 6 previously reported patients with left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with aortic stenosis. The findings suggest that left ventricular rupture and/or aneurysm is more frequent in patients with AMI associated with aortic stenosis than in patients with AMI unassociated with aortic stenosis, presumably because of retained elevation of the left ventricular peak systolic pressure after the appeara...

  9. Risk factors of pre-operational aortic rupture in acute and subacute Stanford type A aortic dissection patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo-Dong; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, Jun; Lu, Fang-Lin; Han, Lin; Xu, Zhi-Yun

    2017-12-01

    Aortic rupture is one of the main causes of early death in acute and subacute Stanford type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) patients. This study aimed to analyze potential risk factors for pre-operational aortic rupture in ATAAD patients. We retrospectively reviewed aortic dissection cases treated between May 2013 and May 2016 in Changhai Hospital, Shanghai. A total of 329 patients with ATAAD were included in the final analysis, and 31 patients died of aortic rupture before surgery. Clinical data on basic characteristics, clinical presentation, and biochemical measurements for all 329 patients were analyzed. The in-hospital aortic rupture rate was 9.4% (31/329), and the rupture accounted for 47% (31/66) of all in-hospital deaths of ATAAD patients. Patients who experienced rupture were significantly older (P0.7 ng/mL (OR: 9.28; 95% CI, 1.72-50.06; P=0.010), and D-dimer level ≥10 µg/mL (OR: 13.37; 95% CI, 2.18-81.97; P=0.005). Aortic rupture accounted for 47% of all in-hospital deaths among patient with ATAAD. Shock, pain requiring medication, a troponin level >0.7 ng/mL and a D-dimer level ≥10 µg/mL are independent risk factors for aortic rupture in these patients.

  10. Application of Computed Tomography Processed by Picture Archiving and Communication Systems in the Diagnosis of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Peng Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The applications of CT examination in the diagnosis of the acute Achilles tendon rupture (AATR were investigated. A total of 36 patients with suspected acute Achilles tendon rupture were tested using physical examination, ultrasound, and 3DCT scanning, respectively. Then, surgery was performed for the patients who showed positive result in at least two of the three tests for AATR. 3DVR, MPR, and the other CT scan image processing and diagnosis were conducted in PACS (picture archiving and communication system. PACS was also used to measure the length of distal broken ends of the Achilles tendon (AT to tendon calcaneal insertion. Our study indicated that CT has the highest accuracy in diagnosis of acute Achilles tendon complete rupture. The length measurement is matched between PACS and those actually measured in operation. CT not only demonstrates more details directly in three dimensions especially with the rupture involved calcaneal insertion flap but also locates the rupture region for percutaneous suture by measuring the length of distal stump in PACS without the effect of the position of ankle. The accuracy of CT diagnosis for Achilles tendon partial rupture is yet to be studied.

  11. Application of Computed Tomography Processed by Picture Archiving and Communication Systems in the Diagnosis of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Xie, Bing; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The applications of CT examination in the diagnosis of the acute Achilles tendon rupture (AATR) were investigated. A total of 36 patients with suspected acute Achilles tendon rupture were tested using physical examination, ultrasound, and 3DCT scanning, respectively. Then, surgery was performed for the patients who showed positive result in at least two of the three tests for AATR. 3DVR, MPR, and the other CT scan image processing and diagnosis were conducted in PACS (picture archiving and communication system). PACS was also used to measure the length of distal broken ends of the Achilles tendon (AT) to tendon calcaneal insertion. Our study indicated that CT has the highest accuracy in diagnosis of acute Achilles tendon complete rupture. The length measurement is matched between PACS and those actually measured in operation. CT not only demonstrates more details directly in three dimensions especially with the rupture involved calcaneal insertion flap but also locates the rupture region for percutaneous suture by measuring the length of distal stump in PACS without the effect of the position of ankle. The accuracy of CT diagnosis for Achilles tendon partial rupture is yet to be studied. PMID:28078295

  12. Isolated Crural Hematoma Mimicking Retroperitoneal Lymphadenopathy, A Unique Sign of Traumatic Diaphragmatic Rupture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Jha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic injury following blunt thoracoabdominal trauma is rare and is usually associated with key radiological features like dependent viscera sign, collar sign, diaphragmatic thickening and defects. It may also be associated with secondary signs like intrathoracic herniation of abdominal viscera. Diaphragmatic crura, which are attached to the upper lumbar vertebra represent prominently thickened folds along the posterior diaphragm, are usually inconspicuous on routine Computed Tomography (CT scans. We present a case of a young patient who sustained a motor vehicle accident and developed difficulty in breathing. CT scan of the patient revealed bilateral crural hematomas, with splenic and renal lacerations and no other sign of diaphragmatic injury. The patient was operated and blunt diaphragmatic rupture was confirmed at surgery.

  13. Isolated crural hematoma mimicking retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, a unique sign of traumatic diaphragmatic rupture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhishek; Ahmad, Ibne; Gupta, Prakhar; Gupta, Gagan; Ahmad, Mehtab; Said, Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Diaphragmatic injury following blunt thoracoabdominal trauma is rare and is usually associated with key radiological features like dependent viscera sign, collar sign, diaphragmatic thickening and defects. It may also be associated with secondary signs like intrathoracic herniation of abdominal viscera. Diaphragmatic crura, which are attached to the upper lumbar vertebra represent prominently thickened folds along the posterior diaphragm, are usually inconspicuous on routine Computed Tomography (CT) scans. We present a case of a young patient who sustained a motor vehicle accident and developed difficulty in breathing. CT scan of the patient revealed bilateral crural hematomas, with splenic and renal lacerations and no other sign of diaphragmatic injury. The patient was operated and blunt diaphragmatic rupture was confirmed at surgery.

  14. Blunt cardiac injury: case report of salvaged traumatic right atrial rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ayyan, Muna; Aziz, Tanim; El Sherif, Amgad; Bekdache, Omar

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of cardiac rupture following blunt trauma is rare, occurring in 0.3%-0.5% of all blunt trauma patients. It can be fatal at the trauma scene, and is frequently missed in the emergency room setting. The severity of a cardiac trauma is based on the mechanism and degree of the force applied. The objective of this study was to report the case of a 32-year-old male patient who was involved in a motor vehicle collision and presented to the emergency room with signs of hypovolemic shock. The patient was found to have severe chest trauma associated with massive hemothorax requiring immediate intervention. The patient had an emergent thoracotomy revealing a right atrial injury. Repair of the atrial injury reversed the state of shock. The patient was discharged after 35 days of hospitalization in good condition.

  15. Delayed Cardiac Rupture Induced by Traumatic Myocardial Infarction: Consequence of a 45-Magnum Blast Injury; A Comprehensive Case Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Holger; Gaab, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    A penetrating chest trauma, a myocardial contusion or a myocardial infarction can lead to a cardiac rupture, which is linked to an extreme high death rate. Only few cases with delayed perforation of the myocardium have been reported in literature. We report about a penetrating gunshot injury, which led to a myocardial contusion with secondary delayed rupture of the left ventricle and the left inferior lobe of the lung. The leakage of the lesion in the left ventricle could be sealed sufficiently with fibrin-coated collagen fleeces after adapting stitches with Prolene 2-0. For additional stabilization of the vulnerable myocardium area, a bovine patch has been placed on the damaged ventricle. Fibrin fleeces are used successfully in cardiac surgery, as in our case, to seal the leakage of the lesion in the left ventricle. The implantation of a bovine patch in the pericardium could prevent a cardiac compartment syndrome with a fatal pericardial tamponade. To prohibit a thoracic compartment syndrome a modified Bogota bag could be sewed in for temporarily closure of the chest. In most cases penetrating cardiac injuries can be treated without heart-lung-machines. An immediate transfer to a cardio-surgical center is, due to the acute situation, not possible. If a surgeon with thoraco-surgical expertise is present a transfer is not absolutely necessary. PMID:29379803

  16. Ruptured Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary as a Cause of Acute Abdomen in Postmenopausal Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Oge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute abdomen with hemoperitoneum is a very rare entity in postmenopausal women due to gynecologic conditions. A 54-year-old, postmenopausal woman was brought to emergency department with severe abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed acute abdomen findings with 15 cm pelvic mass on the right adnexal region. Immediate exploratory laparotomy was performed. During laparotomy 1000 cc of bloodstained fluid, ruptured and actively bleeding large mass arising from right ovary was observed. Right salpingo-oopherectomy was performed in emergency conditions, and pathology report revealed an adult type of granulosa cell tumor. After this result, staging surgery was performed and patient was diagnosed as granulosa cell tumor stage 1 c. Cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin chemotherapy was given. Clinicians should be aware of granulosa cell tumors which may occur at any age and prone to rupture. Frozen section will be helpful in order to avoid incomplete surgeries especially in postmenopausal women presented with intra-abdominal bleeding.

  17. A Prospective Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma as Biological Augmentation for Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Achilles tendon rupture is one of the most common tendon injuries in adults. We hypothesized that Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP can be used as biological augmentation for surgical treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Our study is a prospective randomized controlled trial. Patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture undergoing surgical repair were randomly assigned into either control group or PRP group. End-to-end modified Krackow suture was performed in both groups. In the PRP group, PRP was injected into the paratenon sheath and around the ruptured tissue after the tendon was repaired. Postoperatively we evaluated isokinetic muscle strength at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. In addition, ankle ROM, calf circumference, Leppilahti score, and the SF-36 score were evaluated at 6, 12, and 24 months after operation. At 3 months, the PRP group had better isokinetic muscle. The PRP group also achieved higher SF-36 and Leppilahti scores at 6 and 12 months. At 24 months, the PRP group had an improved ankle range of motion compared to the control group. Our study results suggest that PRP can serve as a biological augmentation to acute Achilles tendon rupture repair and improves both short and midterm functional outcomes.

  18. Exacerbation of Acute Traumatic Brain Injury by Circulating Extracellular Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, Isla; Yates, Abi; Dale, Ashley; Roodselaar, Jay; Akbar, Naveed; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Anthony, Daniel C; Couch, Yvonne

    2018-02-15

    Inflammatory lesions in the brain activate a systemic acute-phase response (APR), which is dependent on the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) into the circulation. The resulting APR is responsible for regulating leukocyte mobilization and subsequent recruitment to the brain. Factors that either exacerbate or inhibit the APR will also exacerbate or inhibit central nervous system (CNS) inflammation as a consequence and have the potential to influence ongoing secondary damage. Here, we were interested to discover how the circulating EV population changes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and how manipulation of the circulating EV pool impacts on the outcome of TBI. We found the number of circulating EVs increased rapidly post-TBI, and this was accompanied by an increase in CNS and hepatic leukocyte recruitment. In an adoptive transfer study, we then evaluated the outcomes of TBI after administering EVs derived from either in vitro macrophage or endothelial cell lines stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or from murine plasma from an LPS challenge using the air-pouch model. By manipulating the circulating EV population, we were able to demonstrate that each population of transferred EVs increased the APR. However, the characteristics of the response were dependent on the nature of the EVs; specifically, it was significantly increased when animals were challenged with macrophage-derived EVs, suggesting that the cellular origins of EVs may determine their function. Selectively targeting EVs from macrophage/monocyte populations is likely to be of value in reducing the impact of the systemic inflammatory response on the outcome of traumatic CNS injury.

  19. Acute post-traumatic stress symptoms and age predict outcome in military blast concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donald, Christine L; Adam, Octavian R; Johnson, Ann M; Nelson, Elliot C; Werner, Nicole J; Rivet, Dennis J; Brody, David L

    2015-05-01

    High rates of adverse outcomes have been reported following blast-related concussive traumatic brain injury in US military personnel, but the extent to which such adverse outcomes can be predicted acutely after injury is unknown. We performed a prospective, observational study of US military personnel with blast-related concussive traumatic brain injury (n = 38) and controls (n = 34) enrolled between March and September 2012. Importantly all subjects returned to duty and did not require evacuation. Subjects were evaluated acutely 0-7 days after injury at two sites in Afghanistan and again 6-12 months later in the United States. Acute assessments revealed heightened post-concussive, post-traumatic stress, and depressive symptoms along with worse cognitive performance in subjects with traumatic brain injury. At 6-12 months follow-up, 63% of subjects with traumatic brain injury and 20% of controls had moderate overall disability. Subjects with traumatic brain injury showed more severe neurobehavioural, post-traumatic stress and depression symptoms along with more frequent cognitive performance deficits and more substantial headache impairment than control subjects. Logistic regression modelling using only acute measures identified that a diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, older age, and more severe post-traumatic stress symptoms provided a good prediction of later adverse global outcomes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.84). Thus, US military personnel with concussive blast-related traumatic brain injury in Afghanistan who returned to duty still fared quite poorly on many clinical outcome measures 6-12 months after injury. Poor global outcome seems to be largely driven by psychological health measures, age, and traumatic brain injury status. The effects of early interventions and longer term implications of these findings are unknown. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All

  20. Novel Mechanism for Reducing Acute and Chronic Neurodegeneration After Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    chronic neuronal cell loss, glial activation, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) measure of β-amyloid and hyper-phosphorylated tau protein...Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0195 TITLE: Novel Mechanism for Reducing Acute and Chronic Neurodegeneration After Traumatic Brain Injury...30 Jun 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Novel Mechanism for Reducing Acute and Chronic Neurodegeneration After TBI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1

  1. Time-Dependent Alterations of MMPs, TIMPs and Tendon Structure in Human Achilles Tendons after Acute Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkwitz, Susann; Schmock, Aysha; Kurtoglu, Alper; Tsitsilonis, Serafeim; Manegold, Sebastian; Wildemann, Britt; Klatte-Schulz, Franka

    2017-10-20

    A balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) is required to maintain tendon homeostasis. Variation in this balance over time might impact on the success of tendon healing. This study aimed to analyze structural changes and the expression profile of MMPs and TIMPs in human Achilles tendons at different time-points after rupture. Biopsies from 37 patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture were taken at surgery and grouped according to time after rupture: early (2-4 days), middle (5-6 days), and late (≥7 days), and intact Achilles tendons served as control. The histological score increased from the early to the late time-point after rupture, indicating the progression towards a more degenerative status. In comparison to intact tendons, qRT-PCR analysis revealed a significantly increased expression of MMP-1, -2, -13, TIMP-1, COL1A1, and COL3A1 in ruptured tendons, whereas TIMP-3 decreased. Comparing the changes over time post rupture, the expression of MMP-9, -13, and COL1A1 significantly increased, whereas MMP-3 and -10 expression decreased. TIMP expression was not significantly altered over time. MMP staining by immunohistochemistry was positive in the ruptured tendons exemplarily analyzed from early and late time-points. The study demonstrates a pivotal contribution of all investigated MMPs and TIMP-1, but a minor role of TIMP-2, -3, and -4, in the early human tendon healing process.

  2. Time-Dependent Alterations of MMPs, TIMPs and Tendon Structure in Human Achilles Tendons after Acute Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkwitz, Susann; Schmock, Aysha; Kurtoglu, Alper; Tsitsilonis, Serafeim; Manegold, Sebastian; Klatte-Schulz, Franka

    2017-01-01

    A balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) is required to maintain tendon homeostasis. Variation in this balance over time might impact on the success of tendon healing. This study aimed to analyze structural changes and the expression profile of MMPs and TIMPs in human Achilles tendons at different time-points after rupture. Biopsies from 37 patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture were taken at surgery and grouped according to time after rupture: early (2–4 days), middle (5–6 days), and late (≥7 days), and intact Achilles tendons served as control. The histological score increased from the early to the late time-point after rupture, indicating the progression towards a more degenerative status. In comparison to intact tendons, qRT-PCR analysis revealed a significantly increased expression of MMP-1, -2, -13, TIMP-1, COL1A1, and COL3A1 in ruptured tendons, whereas TIMP-3 decreased. Comparing the changes over time post rupture, the expression of MMP-9, -13, and COL1A1 significantly increased, whereas MMP-3 and -10 expression decreased. TIMP expression was not significantly altered over time. MMP staining by immunohistochemistry was positive in the ruptured tendons exemplarily analyzed from early and late time-points. The study demonstrates a pivotal contribution of all investigated MMPs and TIMP-1, but a minor role of TIMP-2, -3, and -4, in the early human tendon healing process. PMID:29053586

  3. Clinical Outcomes and Complications of Percutaneous Achilles Repair System Versus Open Technique for Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Andrew R; Jones, Carroll P; Cohen, Bruce E; Davis, W Hodges; Ellington, J Kent; Anderson, Robert B

    2015-11-01

    Limited incision techniques for acute Achilles tendon ruptures have been developed in recent years to improve recovery and reduce postoperative complications compared with traditional open repair. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the clinical outcomes and postoperative complications between acute Achilles tendon ruptures treated using a percutaneous Achilles repair system (PARS [Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL]) versus open repair and evaluate the overall outcomes for operatively treated Achilles ruptures. Between 2005 and 2014, 270 consecutive cases of operatively treated acute Achilles tendon ruptures were reviewed (101 PARS, 169 open). Patients with Achilles tendinopathy, insertional ruptures, chronic tears, or less than 3-month follow-up were excluded. Operative treatment consisted of a percutaneous technique (PARS) using a 2-cm transverse incision with FiberWire (Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL) sutures or open repair using a 5- to 8-cm posteromedial incision with FiberWire in a Krackow fashion reinforced with absorbable sutures. Patient demographics were recorded along with medical comorbidities, activity at injury, time from injury to surgery, length of follow-up, return to baseline activities by 5 months, and postoperative complications. The most common activity during injury for both groups was basketball (PARS: 39%, open: 47%). A greater number of patients treated with PARS were able to return to baseline physical activities by 5 months compared with the open group (PARS: 98%, open: 82%; P = .0001). There were no significant differences (P > .05) between groups in rates of rerupture (P = 1.0), sural neuritis (P = .16), wound dehiscence (P = .74), superficial (P = .29) and/or deep infection (P = .29), or reoperation (P = .13). There were no deep vein thromboses (DVTs) or reruptures in either group. In the PARS group, there were no cases of sural neuritis, 3 cases (3%) of superficial wound dehiscence, and 2 reoperations (2%) for superficial

  4. Short-Term Results of a Ruptured Deltoid Ligament Repair During an Acute Ankle Fracture Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seung Hun; Bae, Su-Young; Chung, Hyung-Jin

    2018-01-01

    There is no consensus on the optimal treatment or preferred method of operation for the management of acute deltoid ligament injuries during an ankle fracture fixation. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of repairing the deltoid ligament during the fixation of an ankle fracture compared to conservative management. We retrospectively evaluated 78 consecutive cases of a ruptured deltoid ligament with an associated ankle fracture between 2001 and 2016. All of the ankle fractures were treated with a plate and screw fixation. Patients in the conservative treatment for ruptured deltoid ligament underwent management from 2001 to 2008 (37 fractures, group 1), while the operative treatment for ruptured deltoid ligament was included from 2009 to 2016 (41 fractures, group 2). The outcome measures included radiographic findings, the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scores, visual analog scale scores, and the Foot Function Index. All patients were followed for an average of 17 months. Radiologic findings in both groups were comparable, but the final follow-up of the medial clear space (MCS) was significantly smaller in the group 2 ( P .05). Comparing those who underwent syndesmotic fixation between both groups, group 2 showed a significantly smaller final follow-up MCS, and all clinical outcomes were better in group 2 ( P < .05). Linear regression analysis showed that the final follow-up MCS had a significant influence on clinical outcomes ( P < .05). Although the clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the 2 groups, we obtained a more favorable final follow-up MCS in the deltoid repair group. Particularly when accompanied by a syndesmotic injury, the final follow-up MCS and the clinical outcomes were better in the deltoid repair group. In the case of high-grade unstable fractures of the ankle with syndesmotic instability, a direct repair of the deltoid ligament was adequate for restoring medial stability. Level III

  5. Increasing incidence of acute Achilles tendon rupture and a noticeable decline in surgical treatment from 1994 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganestam, Ann; Kallemose, Thomas; Troelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    the number of acute Achilles tendon rupture in Denmark during the time period of 1994-2013. Regional population data were retrieved from the services of Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: During the 20-year period, 33,160 ruptures occurred revealing a statistically significant increase in the incidence (p ....001, range = 26.95-31.17/100,000/year). Male-to-female ratio was 3:1 and average age 45 years for men and 44 years for women. There was a statistically significant increasing incidence for people over 50 years. A higher incidence in rural compared with urban geographical areas was found......, but this was not statistically significant. There was a statistically significant decreasing incidence of patients treated with surgery from 16.9/10(5) in 1994 to 6.3/10(5) in 2013. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of acute Achilles tendon rupture increased from 1994 to 2013 based on increasing incidence in the older population...

  6. Use of aspirin as sole oral antiplatelet therapy in acute flow diversion for ruptured dissecting aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Albert Ho Yuen; Ramesh, Rajalakshmi; Wenderoth, Jason; Davies, Mark; Cheung, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to rupture of a circumferential dissecting aneurysm continues to be a treatment dilemma. Vessel sacrifice, when possible, continues to be the safest option but in certain cases this is not possible due to lack of collateral supply. In such cases, coil assisted endovascular flow diversion has become a potential option but the requirement for dual antiplatelet therapy in an unsecured intracranial aneurysm continues to raise concern.We present a 48-year-old man with a World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grade 5 subarachnoid hemorrhage, secondary to a ruptured intradural left vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm, who was treated successfully with a pipeline embolization device with Shield technology using aspirin and a single intravenous loading dose of abciximab. To our knowledge, this is the first case of an acute flow diversion performed using only aspirin as the sole oral antiplatelet agent. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Haploinsufficiency of Hand1 improves mice survival after acute myocardial infarction through preventing cardiac rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuangshuang; Du, Pan; Shan, Congjia; Wang, Yaohe; Ma, Changsheng; Dong, Jianzeng

    2016-09-30

    Previous studies have demonstrated a significantly lower level of Hand1 in ischemic cardiomyopathy than in normal heart tissue. The role of decreased Hand1 in myocardial infarction remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the effects of haploinsufficiency of Hand1 on mouse heart after myocardial infarction. 8-10 weeks old male heterozygous Hand1-deficient (Hand1(+/-)) mice and wild-type littermates (control) were subjected to sham operation or ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery to induce acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Hand1(+/-) mice have low incidence of left ventricular free wall rupture in the first week after operation than control mice. Then we found lower MMP9 activity and less cardiomyocytes apoptosis in Hand1(+/-) than in control mice. All of these contribute to the protection role of haploinsufficiency of Hand1 after AMI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Confusion after spine injury: cerebral fat embolism after traumatic rupture of a Tarlov cyst: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duja Corina M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute low back pain is a very common symptom and reason for many medical consultations. In some unusual circumstances it could be linked to a rare aetiology. Case presentation We report a 70-year-old man with an 8-month history of left posterior thigh and leg pain who had sudden confusion after a fall from standing. It was due to cerebral fat embolism suspected by computed tomography scan, later confirmed by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. A spinal MRI scan was then performed and revealed a sacral fracture which drained into an unknown perineurial cyst (Tarlov cyst. Under medical observation the patient fully recovered within three weeks. Conclusions Sacral perineurial cysts are rare, however they remain a potential cause of lumbosacral radiculopathy.

  9. Confusion after spine injury: cerebral fat embolism after traumatic rupture of a Tarlov cyst: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duja, Corina M; Berna, Christophe; Kremer, Stéphane; Géronimus, Claude; Kopferschmitt, Jacques; Bilbault, Pascal

    2010-08-15

    Acute low back pain is a very common symptom and reason for many medical consultations. In some unusual circumstances it could be linked to a rare aetiology. We report a 70-year-old man with an 8-month history of left posterior thigh and leg pain who had sudden confusion after a fall from standing. It was due to cerebral fat embolism suspected by computed tomography scan, later confirmed by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A spinal MRI scan was then performed and revealed a sacral fracture which drained into an unknown perineurial cyst (Tarlov cyst). Under medical observation the patient fully recovered within three weeks. Sacral perineurial cysts are rare, however they remain a potential cause of lumbosacral radiculopathy.

  10. Abnormal whole-brain functional networks in homogeneous acute mild traumatic brain injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shumskaya, E.; Andriessen, T.; Norris, David Gordon; Vos, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the whole-brain resting-state networks in a homogeneous group of patients with acute mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and to identify alterations in functional connectivity induced by MTBI. Methods: Thirty-five patients with acute MTBI and 35 healthy control subjects,

  11. Nonoperative treatment of acute traumatic spinal injuries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traumatic spinal injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is no agreed method of care. Neurological recovery in complete injury has been dismal. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the neurological recovery at discharge in traumatic spinal injury patients ...

  12. Nonoperative treatment of acute traumatic spinal injuries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-17

    Apr 17, 2014 ... Background: Traumatic spinal injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is no agreed method of care. Neurological recovery in complete injury has been dismal. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the neurological recovery at discharge in traumatic spinal.

  13. Clinical and mechanistic drivers of acute traumatic coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Kutcher, Matt; Redick, Britt; Nelson, Mary; Call, Mariah; Knudson, M Margaret; Schreiber, Martin A; Bulger, Eileen M; Muskat, Peter; Alarcon, Louis H; Myers, John G; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Brasel, Karen J; Phelan, Herb A; del Junco, Deborah J; Fox, Erin E; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A; Matijevic, Nena

    2013-07-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) occurs after severe injury and shock and is associated with increased bleeding, morbidity, and mortality. The effects of ATC and hemostatic resuscitation on outcome are not well-explored. The PRospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) study provided a unique opportunity to characterize coagulation and the effects of resuscitation on ATC after severe trauma. Blood samples were collected upon arrival on a subset of PROMMTT patients. Plasma clotting factor levels were prospectively assayed for coagulation factors. These data were analyzed with comprehensive PROMMTT clinical data. There were 1,198 patients with laboratory results, of whom 41.6% were coagulopathic. Using international normalized ratio of 1.3 or greater, 41.6% of patients (448) were coagulopathic, while 20.5% (214) were coagulopathic using partial thromboplastin time of 35 or greater. Coagulopathy was primarily associated with a combination of an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than 15 and a base deficit (BD) of less than -6 (p coagulopathy shows that prehospital crystalloid (odds ratio [OR], 1.05), ISS (OR, 1.03), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (OR, 0.93), heart rate (OR, 1.08), systolic blood pressure (OR, 0.96), BD (OR, 0.92), and temperature (OR, 0.84) were significant predictors of coagulopathy (all p coagulopathy. ATC is associated with the depletion of factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX, and X and is driven by the activation of the protein C system. These data provide additional mechanistic understanding of the drivers of coagulation abnormalities after injury. Further understanding of the drivers of ATC and the effects of resuscitation can guide factor-guided resuscitation and correction of coagulopathy after injury.

  14. Functional Definition and Characterisation of Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Ross; Manson, Joanna; De’Ath, Henry; Platton, Sean; Coates, Amy; Allard, Shubha; Hart, Daniel; Pearse, Rupert; Pasi, K. John; MacCallum, Peter; Stanworth, Simon; Brohi, Karim

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify an appropriate diagnostic tool for the early diagnosis of Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy (ATC) and validate this modality through prediction of transfusion requirements in trauma hemorrhage. Design Prospective observational cohort study Setting Level 1 trauma centre Patients Adult trauma patients who met the local criteria for full trauma team activation. Exclusion criteria included emergency department (ED) arrival >2 hours after injury, >2000ml of intravenous fluid before ED arrival or transfer from another hospital. Interventions None Measurements Blood was collected on arrival in ED and analysed with laboratory prothrombin time (PT), point of care (PoC) PT and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Prothrombin ratio (PTr) was calculated and ATC defined as laboratory PTr>1.2. Transfusion requirements were recorded for the first 12 hours following admission. Main Results 300 patients were included in the study. Laboratory PT results were available at median 78 (62-103) minutes. PoC PTr had reduced agreement with laboratory PTr in patients with ATC, with 29% false negative results. In ATC the ROTEM Clot Amplitude at 5 minutes (CA5) was diminished by 42% and this persisted throughout clot maturation. ROTEM clotting time was not significantly prolonged. A CA5 threshold ≤35mm had a detection rate of 77% for ATC with a false positive rate of 13%. Patients with CA5 ≤35mm were more likely to receive red cell (46% vs 17%, p1.2, ptrauma hemorrhage PTr is not rapidly available from the laboratory and PoC devices can be inaccurate. ATC is functionally characterised by a reduction in clot strength. With a threshold of CA5 ≤35mm ROTEM can identify ATC at 5 minutes and predict the need for massive transfusion. PMID:21765358

  15. A case of traumatic rupture of a giant omphalocele and liver injury associated with transverse lie and preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Linnaus

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal omphalocele rupture is a rare occurrence. We present a case of a baby delivered at 35 weeks with a known giant omphalocele, transverse lie, and the omphalocele downward in the birth canal who suffered rupture of the omphalocele and liver injury around the time of delivery. The pregnancy was complicated by one day of preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of the membranes, and the omphalocele was the presenting part. Despite pulmonary hypertension, rupture of the omphalocele, and a significant liver injury, individualized management with decompression of the liver hematoma allowed successful early closure with mesh followed by delayed reconstruction.

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for treating acute surgical and traumatic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Anne; Vermeulen, Hester; Lucas, Cees; Ubbink, Dirk T

    2013-12-16

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is used as a treatment for acute wounds (such as those arising from surgery and trauma). However, the effects of HBOT on wound healing are unclear.  To determine the effects of HBOT on the healing of acute surgical and traumatic wounds. We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 9 August 2013); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12); Ovid MEDLINE (2010 to July Week 5 2013); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, August 08, 2013); Ovid EMBASE (2010 to 2013 Week 31); EBSCO CINAHL (2010 to 8 August 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HBOT with other interventions such as dressings, steroids, or sham HOBT or comparisons between alternative HBOT regimens. Two review authors conducted selection of trials, risk of bias assessment, data extraction and data synthesis independently. Any disagreements were referred to a third review author.  Four trials involving 229 participants were included. The studies were clinically heterogeneous, which precluded a meta-analysis.One trial (48 participants with burn wounds undergoing split skin grafts) compared HBOT with usual care and reported a significantly higher complete graft survival associated with HBOT (95% healthy graft area risk ratio (RR) 3.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 9.11). A second trial (10 participants in free flap surgery) reported no significant difference between graft survival (no data available). A third trial (36 participants with crush injuries) reported significantly more wounds healed (RR 1.70; 95% CI 1.11 to 2.61), and significantly less tissue necrosis (RR 0.13; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.90) with HBOT compared to sham HBOT. The fourth trial (135 people undergoing flap grafting) reported no significant differences in complete graft survival with HBOT compared with dexamethasone (RR 1.14; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.38) or heparin (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.49).Many

  17. Risk factors for respiratory failure with tetraplegia after acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J; Shao, J; Qi, H-H; Song, D-W; Zhu, W

    2015-01-01

    To analyze risk factors for respiratory failure with tetraplegia after acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI). Total 180 tetraplegia cases after acute traumatic CSCI treated in Shanghai Changzheng Hospital from 2001 to 2011 were reviewed retrospectively and the frequency of respiratory failure in these patients were analyzed against the factors including age, gender, cause of injury, level/severity of injury, high-dose methylprednisolone (MP) therapy, and surgery intervention, using Chi-square test to look into the correlations of the prevalence of respiratory failure to those factors. Of the 180 tetraplegia with acute traumatic CSCI, 29 patients (16.11%) developed respiratory failure. The factors, including age, level and severity of injury, high-dose MP therapy, and surgery intervention, were found to significantly correlate with the appearance of respiratory failure in tetraplegia after acute traumatic CSCI (p < 0.05), while no significant correlation was found between the other factors: gender and cause of injury and the frequency of respiratory failure. Age, level/severity of injury, high-dose MP therapy, and surgery intervention are the four major relevant factors of respiratory failure in patients with acute traumatic CSCI. The appropriate and timing treatments involving high-dose MP therapy and surgical decompression and reconstruction can substantially increase the rates of clinical improvements and reduce the frequency of respiratory failure.

  18. Laparoscopic splenectomy for spontaneous rupture of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky M Thapar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy is a gold standard for management of planned benign splenic pathologies. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen (SRS leading to acute abdomen occurs in only 1% of all splenic ruptures. Laparoscopic splenectomy in traumatic and atraumatic rupture due to intra-splenic pathology is reported. We present the first reported case of laparoscopic splenectomy in a 23-year-old male who presented with hemoperitoneum due to idiopathic or SRS. The procedure was safely accomplished with slight modified technique and minimum usage of advanced gadgets.

  19. Traumatic acute posterior fossa subdural hematoma – A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Manish

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic subdural hematomas of the posterior fossa are rare but dangerous neurosurgical emergencies that require prompt diagnosis and management to avoid the uniformly poor outcome. We present a case of a teenager with severe TBI and acute subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa that deteriorated rapidly before surgery but eventually made a good recovery. We also the review the literature concerning traumatic posterior fossa subdural hematomas [PFSDH].

  20. Traumatic memories, post-traumatic stress disorder and serum cortisol levels in long-term survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauer, Daniela; Weis, Florian; Krauseneck, Till; Vogeser, Michael; Schelling, Gustav; Roozendaal, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often report traumatic memories from the intensive care unit (ICU) and display a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As it is known that subjects with PTSD often show sustained reductions in circulating cortisol

  1. Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture Treated by Double Side-Locking Loop Suture Technique With Early Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Wataru; Imade, Shinji; Innami, Ken; Kawano, Hirotaka; Takao, Masato

    2017-02-01

    Although early accelerated rehabilitation is recommended for the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture, most traditional rehabilitation techniques require some type of brace. We retrospectively analyzed 44 feet of 44 patients (25 male and 19 female) with a mean age of 31.8 years who had an acute Achilles tendon rupture related to athletic activity. Patients had been treated by a double side-locking loop suture (SLLS) technique using double antislip knots between stumps and had undergone early accelerated rehabilitation, including active and passive range of motion exercises on the day following the operation and full weight-bearing at 4 weeks. No brace was applied postoperatively. The evaluation criteria included the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS) score; active plantar flexion and dorsiflexion angles; and the intervals between surgery and the time when patients could walk normally without any support, perform double-leg heel raises, and perform 20 continuous single-leg heel raises of the operated foot. Despite postoperative early accelerated rehabilitation, the AOFAS score and active dorsiflexion angles improved over time (6, 12, and 24 weeks and 2 years). A mean of 4.3 ± 0.6 weeks was required for patients to be able to walk normally without any support. The mean period to perform double-leg heel raises and 20 continuous single-leg heel raises of the injured foot was 8.0 ± 1.3 weeks and 10.9 ± 2.1 weeks, respectively. All patients, except one who was engaged in classical ballet, could return to their preinjury level of athletic activities, and the interval between operation and return to athletic activities was 17.1 ± 3.7 weeks. The double SLLS technique with double antislip knots between stumps adjusted the tension of the sutured Achilles tendon at the ideal ankle position and provided good clinical outcomes following accelerated rehabilitation after surgery without the use of a brace. Level IV, retrospective case

  2. Repeat acute abdomen and hemoperitoneum during the same pregnancy due to a ruptured ectopic treated by salpingostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canelas, Caroline M; Shih, Richard D; Clayton, Lisa M; Giroski, Laura J; Alter, Scott M; Feinstein, Stacey; Learman, Lee A

    2017-06-01

    A leading cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester is hemorrhage due to a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. With the advent of tube salvage surgery, ectopic pregnancies can be removed while ensuring hemostasis and preserving the integrity of the fallopian tube. A major drawback of tube salvage surgery is the significant risk of persistent trophoblastic tissue being left behind. We report a case of a 30year old female who presented to the ED with acute abdomen and hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. She was treated with salpingostomy and the pathologic report confirmed removal of the ectopic pregnancy. After an initially uneventful post-operative recovery, she presented to the ED 27days later with signs of acute abdomen and hemoperitoneum. Surgical intervention confirmed a ruptured ectopic pregnancy in the same site as previous, and salpingectomy was performed, after which the patient recovered without complications. The increased risk of persistent trophoblastic tissue associated with tube salvage surgery can lead to subsequent reoperation for tubal rupture. Patients undergoing these procedures should be closely monitored in the following weeks and undergo serial β-hCG testing in order to confirm successful removal of the ectopic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Emergency room thoracotomy for acute traumatic cardiac tamponade caused by a blunt cardiac injury: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Ishida

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: A prompt diagnosis using FAST and treatment can be lifesaving in traumatic acute cardiac tamponade. A pericardiotomy via a thoracotomy is mandatory for lifesaving cardiac decompression in acute traumatic cardiac tamponade in cases of ineffective drainage due to clot formation within the pericardial space.

  4. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: Exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Donlon, Katharine A.; Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Winston,Flaura K.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children’s coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within ...

  5. Delayed endovascular treatment of descending aorta stent graft collapse in a patient treated for post- traumatic aortic rupture: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegher Silvia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report a case of delayed endovascular correction of graft collapse occurred after emergent Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair (TEVAR for traumatic aortic isthmus rupture. Case presentation In 7th post-operative day after emergent TEVAR for traumatic aortic isthmus rupture (Gore TAG® 28-150, a partial collapse of the endoprosthesis at the descending tract occurred, with no signs of visceral ischemia. Considering patient's clinical conditions, the graft collapse wasn't treated at that time. When general conditions allowed reintervention, the patient refused any new treatment, so he was discharged. Four months later the patient complainted for severe gluteal and sural claudication, erectile disfunction and abdominal angina; endovascular correction was performed. At 18 months the graft was still patent. Discussion and Conclusion Graft collapse after TEVAR is a rare event, which should be detected and treated as soon as possible. Delayed correction of this complication can be lethal due to the risk of visceral ischemia and limbs loss.

  6. Acute postoperative neurological deterioration associated with surgery for ruptured intracranial aneurysm: incidence, predictors, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, Kelly B; Todd, Michael M; Bayman, Emine O; Torner, James C

    2012-06-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in significant morbidity and mortality, even among patients who reach medical attention in good neurological condition. Many patients have neurological decline in the perioperative period, which contributes to long-term outcomes. The focus of this study is to characterize the incidence of, characteristics predictive of, and outcomes associated with acute postoperative neurological deterioration in patients undergoing surgery for ruptured intracranial aneurysm. The Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial (IHAST) was a multicenter randomized clinical trial that enrolled 1001 patients and assesssed the efficacy of hypothermia as neuroprotection during surgery to secure a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. All patients had a radiographically confirmed SAH, were classified as World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) Grade I-III immediately prior to surgery, and underwent surgery to secure the ruptured aneurysm within 14 days of SAH. Neurological assessment with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was performed preoperatively, at 24 and 72 hours postoperatively, and at time of discharge. The primary outcome variable was a dichotomized scoring based on an IHAST version of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) in which a score of 1 represents a good outcome and a score > 1 a poor outcome, as assessed at 90-days' follow-up. Data from IHAST were analyzed for occurrence of a postoperative neurological deterioration. Preoperative and intraoperative variables were assessed for associations with occurrence of postoperative neurological deterioration. Differences in baseline, intraoperative, and postoperative variables and in outcomes between patients with and without postoperative neurological deterioration were compared with Fisher exact tests. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare variables reported as means. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for covariates associated with occurrence

  7. Absorbable Polydioxanone (PDS) suture provides fewer wound complications than polyester (ethibond) suture in acute Tendo-Achilles rupture repair

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, M N

    2017-05-01

    We prospectively studied acute Achilles tendon rupture in patients over a two 2-year period and reviewed the causes, outcome and complications. There were 53 patients included with acute Achilles rupture with minimum follow up period of 6 months. We compared the outcomes including infection rate and Boyden score between the two groups repaired by Polydioxanone and Polyester respectively. All infected cases had a suture repair using the polyester suture. The difference in the infection rate was highly significant between the 2 groups (p=0.001). All 34 patients (100%) in the PDS group had good \\/ excellent results based on the Boyden clinical assessment. Conversely, only 16 patients 9(68.4%) had good or excellent results IN Polyester repair group. Patients treated with a non- absorbable suture (ethibond) material for repair had a higher incidence infection and worse Boyden scores than the absorbable PDS group.

  8. Donepezil, Anti-Alzheimer's Disease Drug, Prevents Cardiac Rupture during Acute Phase of Myocardial Infarction in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Mikihiko; Kakinuma, Yoshihiko; Handa, Takemi; Yamasaki, Fumiyasu; Sato, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that the chronic intervention in the cholinergic system by donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, plays a beneficial role in suppressing long-term cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). In comparison with such a chronic effect, however, the acute effect of donepezil during an acute phase of MI remains unclear. Noticing recent findings of a cholinergic mechanism for anti-inflammatory actions, we tested the hypothesis that donepezil attenuates an acute inflammatory tissue injury following MI. Methods and Results In isolated and activated macrophages, donepezil significantly reduced intra- and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). In mice with MI, despite the comparable values of heart rate and blood pressure, the donepezil-treated group showed a significantly lower incidence of cardiac rupture than the untreated group during the acute phase of MI. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MMP-9 was localized at the infarct area where a large number of inflammatory cells including macrophages infiltrated, and the expression and the enzymatic activity of MMP-9 at the left ventricular infarct area was significantly reduced in the donepezil-treated group. Conclusion The present study suggests that donepezil inhibits the MMP-9-related acute inflammatory tissue injury in the infarcted myocardium, thereby reduces the risk of left ventricular free wall rupture during the acute phase of MI. PMID:21750701

  9. Donepezil, anti-Alzheimer's disease drug, prevents cardiac rupture during acute phase of myocardial infarction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikihiko Arikawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that the chronic intervention in the cholinergic system by donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, plays a beneficial role in suppressing long-term cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI. In comparison with such a chronic effect, however, the acute effect of donepezil during an acute phase of MI remains unclear. Noticing recent findings of a cholinergic mechanism for anti-inflammatory actions, we tested the hypothesis that donepezil attenuates an acute inflammatory tissue injury following MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: In isolated and activated macrophages, donepezil significantly reduced intra- and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. In mice with MI, despite the comparable values of heart rate and blood pressure, the donepezil-treated group showed a significantly lower incidence of cardiac rupture than the untreated group during the acute phase of MI. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MMP-9 was localized at the infarct area where a large number of inflammatory cells including macrophages infiltrated, and the expression and the enzymatic activity of MMP-9 at the left ventricular infarct area was significantly reduced in the donepezil-treated group. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that donepezil inhibits the MMP-9-related acute inflammatory tissue injury in the infarcted myocardium, thereby reduces the risk of left ventricular free wall rupture during the acute phase of MI.

  10. Imaging of diaphragmatic rupture after trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eren, S. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail: suateren@atauni.edu.tr; Kantarci, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Okur, A. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm usually results from blunt or penetrating injuries, or iatrogenic causes. Most cases are initially overlooked in the acute phase because they present with variable clinical and radiological signs. An overlooked diaphragmatic injury presents as a hernia many years later with potentially serious complications, therefore selection of the most appropriate radiological technique and accurate diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (DH) on the first admission is important. Although the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries is problematic, various investigations may be used for diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of 19 traumatic DH cases with various imaging techniques. The patients were acute trauma cases or cases with prior trauma or thoraco-abdominal surgery with clinical suspicion of DH. An evaluation of the imaging techniques used in the diagnosis of DH is presented.

  11. Synthetic Augmented Suture Anchor Reconstruction for a Complete Traumatic Distal Triceps Tendon Rupture in a Male Professional Bodybuilder with Postoperative Biomechanical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elissavet Nikolaidou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bodybuilding is a high-risk sport for distal triceps tendon ruptures. Management, especially in high-demanding athletes, is operative with suture anchor refixation technique being frequently used. However, the rate of rerupture is high due to underlying poor tendon quality. Thus, additional augmentation could be useful. This case report presents a reconstruction technique for a complete traumatic distal triceps tendon rupture in a bodybuilder with postoperative biomechanical assessment. A 28-year-old male professional bodybuilder was treated with a synthetic augmented suture anchor reconstruction for a complete triceps tendon rupture of his right dominant elbow. Postoperative biomechanical assessment included isokinetic elbow strength and endurance testing by using multiple angular velocities to simulate the “off-season” and “precompetition” phases of training. Eighteen months postoperatively and after full return to training, the biomechanical assessment indicated that the strength and endurance of the operated elbow joint was fully restored with even higher ratings compared to the contralateral healthy arm. The described reconstruction technique can be considered as an advisable option in high-performance athletes with underlying poor tendon quality due to high tensile strength and lack of donor site morbidity, thus enabling them to restore preinjury status and achieve safe return to sports.

  12. Synthetic Augmented Suture Anchor Reconstruction for a Complete Traumatic Distal Triceps Tendon Rupture in a Male Professional Bodybuilder with Postoperative Biomechanical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Maria-Elissavet; Banke, Ingo J.; Laios, Thomas; Petsogiannis, Konstantinos; Mourikis, Anastasios

    2014-01-01

    Bodybuilding is a high-risk sport for distal triceps tendon ruptures. Management, especially in high-demanding athletes, is operative with suture anchor refixation technique being frequently used. However, the rate of rerupture is high due to underlying poor tendon quality. Thus, additional augmentation could be useful. This case report presents a reconstruction technique for a complete traumatic distal triceps tendon rupture in a bodybuilder with postoperative biomechanical assessment. A 28-year-old male professional bodybuilder was treated with a synthetic augmented suture anchor reconstruction for a complete triceps tendon rupture of his right dominant elbow. Postoperative biomechanical assessment included isokinetic elbow strength and endurance testing by using multiple angular velocities to simulate the “off-season” and “precompetition” phases of training. Eighteen months postoperatively and after full return to training, the biomechanical assessment indicated that the strength and endurance of the operated elbow joint was fully restored with even higher ratings compared to the contralateral healthy arm. The described reconstruction technique can be considered as an advisable option in high-performance athletes with underlying poor tendon quality due to high tensile strength and lack of donor site morbidity, thus enabling them to restore preinjury status and achieve safe return to sports. PMID:24711944

  13. Anterolateral ligament abnormalities in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture are associated with lateral meniscal and osseous injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, Pieter van; Smet, Eline de; Gielen, Jan L.; Parizel, Paul M. [Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Clockaerts, Stefan [University College Hospitals, Department of Orthopaedics, London (United Kingdom); Vanhoenacker, Filip M. [Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Ghent University Hospital and University of Ghent, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Lambrecht, Valerie [Ghent University Hospital and University of Ghent, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Wouters, Kristien [Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Department of Biostatistics, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2016-10-15

    To determine the frequency of anterolateral ligament (ALL) injury in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and to analyse its associated injury patterns. Ninety patients with acute ACL rupture for which MRI was obtained within 8 weeks after the initial trauma were retrospectively identified. Two radiologists assessed the status of the ALL on MRI by consensus. The presence or absence of an ALL abnormality was compared with the existence of medial and lateral meniscal tears diagnosed during arthroscopy. Associated collateral ligament and osseous injuries were documented with MRI. Forty-one of 90 knees (46 %) demonstrated ALL abnormalities on MRI. Of 49 knees with intact ALL, 15 (31 %) had a torn lateral meniscus as compared to 25 torn lateral menisci in 41 knees (61 %) with abnormal ALL (p = 0.008). Collateral ligament (p ≤ 0.05) and osseous injuries (p = 0.0037) were more frequent and severe in ALL-injured as compared with ALL-intact knees. ALL injuries are fairly common in patients with acute ACL rupture and are statistically significantly associated with lateral meniscal, collateral ligament and osseous injuries. (orig.)

  14. Two cases of cystic artery pseudoaneurysm rupture due to acute cholecystitis with gallstone impaction in the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Shogo; Arahata, Kyouko; Itou, Asako; Takarabe, Sakiko; Kimura, Kayoko; Kishikawa, Hiroshi; Nishida, Jiro; Fujiyama, Yoshiki; Takigawa, Yutaka; Matsui, Junichi

    2016-09-01

    A cystic artery aneurysm is a rare cause of hemobilia. Herein, we report two cases of acute cholecystitis with a ruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm. Two patients (a 69-year-old man and an 83-year-old man) were admitted to our hospital because of acute cholecystitis with gallstone impaction in the neck. Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) was performed for both patients. After a few days of PTGBD, gallbladder hemorrhage was observed. Abdominal angiography showed cystic artery aneurysm. A transcatheter arterial embolization was therefore performed, followed by an open cholecystectomy.

  15. deep venous thrombosis in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Deep vein thrombosis, Pulmonary embolism, Traumatic spinal cord injury, Wells score,. D-dimer assays ... Thromboembolic events are a major ..... and diet. Race alone may not be a strong factor. Blacks. (African Americans) who are living in the United States have the same or higher prevalence of DVT with the.

  16. Minimally invasive versus open surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture: a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Wang, Chuanying; Huo, Yanqing; Jia, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiqian

    2016-06-06

    A number of meta-analyses have been carried out to evaluate the effects of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) versus open surgery (OS) for acute Achilles tendon rupture. However, discordant findings were seen in these meta-analyses. The present study, performing a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses regarding MIS versus OS of acute Achilles tendon rupture, aimed to assist decision-makers interpret and choose among conflicting meta-analyses, as well as to offer treatment recommendations based on current best evidence. The literature search was performed to identify systematic reviews comparing MIS with OS for Achilles tendon rupture. Meta-analyses only comprising randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Two authors individually evaluated the quality of meta-analysis and extracted data. The Jadad decision algorithm was conducted to ascertain which meta-analysis offered the best evidence. A total of four meta-analyses was included. All these meta-analyses comprised RCTs or quasi-RCTs and were determined as Level-II evidence. The scores of the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) ranged from 7 to 10 (median 9.5). The Jadad algorithm indicated that the best meta-analysis should be chosen according to the search strategies and application of selection. A high-quality meta-analysis with more RCTs was chosen, which suggested that there was no statistically significant difference between MIS and OS regarding rerupture rate, tissue adhesion, sural nerve injury, deep infection, and deep vein thrombosis. However, MIS could decrease superficial infection rate, and had a better patient satisfaction for good to excellent outcomes in comparison to OS. Based on the best available evidence, MIS may be superior to OS for treating acute Achilles tendon rupture. However, due to some limitations, this should be cautiously interpreted, and further high-quality studies are needed.

  17. Acute Alcohol Intoxication in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Characteristics, Recovery and Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, Myrthe; de Koning, Myrthe; van der Horn, Harm; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of sustaining mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), describe the characteristics of this intoxicated subgroup, and evaluate recovery and outcome in comparison to sober mTBI patients. Methods. Multicenter cohort

  18. Investigating Metacognition, Cognition, and Behavioral Deficits of College Students with Acute Traumatic Brain Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Sarah; Davalos, Deana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Executive dysfunction in college students who have had an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) was investigated. The cognitive, behavioral, and metacognitive effects on college students who endorsed experiencing a brain injury were specifically explored. Participants: Participants were 121 college students who endorsed a mild TBI, and 121…

  19. Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy: Whole Blood Thrombelastography Measures the Tip of the Iceberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy: Whole blood thrombelastography measures the tip of the iceberg James Eric Campbell, PhD, James Keith Aden, PhD, and...measures the tip of the iceberg 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Campbell, J. E. Aden, J. K. Cap, A. P. 5d

  20. Acute Alcohol Intoxication in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury : Characteristics, Recovery, and Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, Myrthe E.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; van der Horn, Harm; Roks, Gerwin; Yilmaz, Tansel; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial number of patients (30% to 50%) sustains a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) while they are under the influence of alcohol. An acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of injury has been subject of research in severe TBI, but little is known about the relation between AAI and

  1. Acute non-traumatic hip pathology in children: incidence and presentation in family practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, M.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Schellevis, F.G.; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W.A.; Koes, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis of children with acute non-traumatic hip pathology varies from quite harmless conditions such as transient synovitis of the hip to more severe problems like Perthes' disease, slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) and life-threatening conditions such as

  2. Prognosis of patients in coma after acute subdural hematoma due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torné, Ramon; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Romero-Chala, Fabián; Arikan, Fuat; Vilalta, Jordi; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Acute subdural hematomas (aSDH) secondary to intracranial aneurysm rupture are rare. Most patients present with coma and their functional prognosis has been classically considered to be very poor. Previous studies mixed good-grade and poor-grade patients and reported variable outcomes. We reviewed our experience by focusing on patients in coma only and hypothesized that aSDH might worsen initial mortality but not long-term functional outcome. Between 2005 and 2013, 440 subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients were admitted to our center. Nineteen (4.3%) were found to have an associated aSDH and 13 (2.9%) of these presented with coma. Their prospectively collected clinical and outcome data were reviewed and compared with that of 104 SAH patients without aSDH who presented with coma during the same period. Median aSDH thickness was 10mm. Four patients presented with an associated aneurysmal cortical laceration and only one had good recovery. Overall, we observed good long-term outcomes in both SAH patients in coma with aSDH and those without aSDH (38.5% versus 26.4%). Associated aSDH does not appear to indicate a poorer long-term functional prognosis in SAH patients presenting with coma. Anisocoria and brain herniation are observed in patients with aSDH thicknesses that are smaller than those observed in trauma patients. Despite a high initial mortality, early surgery to remove the aSDH results in a good outcome in over 60% of survivors. Aneurysmal cortical laceration appears to be an independent entity which shows a poorer prognosis than other types of aneurysmal aSDH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coinfection with Mycoplasma Pneumoniae and Chlamydia Pneumoniae in ruptured plaques associated with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuchi Maria de Lourdes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study atheromas, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae. METHODS: C. pneumoniae was studied with immunohistochemistry and M. pneumoniae with in situ hybridization (ISH, in segments of coronary arteries (SCA as follows: group A - thrombosed ruptured plaques (TRP of 23 patients who died due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI; group B - 23 nonruptured plaques (NRP of group A patients; group C - NRP of 11 coronary patients who did not die due to AMI; and group D - 11 SCA from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy or Chagas' disease without atherosclerosis. RESULTS: The mean number of C. pneumoniae+ cells/400x in groups A, B, C, and D was, respectively, 3.3±3.6; 1.0±1.3; 1.2±2.4; and 0.4±0.3; and the percentage of M. pneumoniae area was, respectively, 3.9±3.5; 1.5± 1.6; 0.9±0.9; and 0.4±0.2. More M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae were found in of group A than in group B (P<0.01. Good correlation was seen between the area of the vessel and the M. pneumoniae area in the plaque (r = 0.46; P=0.001 and between C. pneumoniae+ cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes (r = 0.42; P<0.01. The number of C. pneumoniae+ cells correlated with CD20+ B cells (r=0.48; P<0.01. CONCLUSION: M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae are more frequently found in TRP correlate with the intensity of the inflammation and diameter of the vessel (positive remodeling.

  4. Case study of Physical Therapy approach of patient with Anterior. Cruciate Ligament rupture after traumatic injury in skiing

    OpenAIRE

    Tsichlakis, Emmanouil

    2013-01-01

    Title: Physical Therapy program in a patient with total rupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament and partial rupture of Medial Collateral Ligament of the right knee joint after ski accident. Název bakalářské práce: Author: Emmanouil Tsichlakis The current Bachelor Thesis is divided into two parts, theoritical and practical one. In the theoritical part an overview of the general anatomy of the knee joint and the biomechanics of the knee ligaments are presented. Also the mechanisms of the injury o...

  5. Nonculprit Plaque Characteristics in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Caused by Plaque Erosion vs Plaque Rupture: A 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Tomoyo; Yamamoto, Erika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Xing, Lei; Lee, Hang; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Libby, Peter; Jang, Ik-Kyung

    2018-02-07

    Patients with culprit plaque rupture are known to have pancoronary plaque vulnerability. However, the characteristics of nonculprit plaques in patients with acute coronary syndromes caused by plaque erosion are unknown. To investigate the nonculprit plaque phenotype in patients with acute coronary syndrome according to culprit plaque pathology (erosion vs rupture) by 3-vessel optical coherence tomography imaging. In this observational cohort study, between August 2010 and May 2014, 82 patients with ACS who underwent preintervention optical coherence tomography imaging of all 3 major epicardial coronary arteries were enrolled at the Massachusetts General Hospital Optical Coherence Tomography Registry database. Analysis of the data was conducted between November 2016 and July 2017. Patients were classified into 2 groups based on the culprit lesion pathology: 17 patients with culprit plaque erosion and 34 patients with culprit plaque rupture. Thirty-one patients with the absence of culprit rupture or erosion were excluded from further analysis. Preintervention 3-vessel optical coherence tomography imaging. Plaque characteristics at the culprit and nonculprit lesions evaluated by optical coherence tomography. In 51 patients (37 men; mean age, 58.7 years), the characteristics of 51 culprit plaques and 216 nonculprit plaques were analyzed. In patients with culprit erosion, the mean (SD) number of nonculprit plaques per patient was smaller (3.4 [1.9] in erosion vs 4.7 [2.1] in rupture, P = .05). Patient-based analysis showed that none of 17 patients with culprit plaque erosion had nonculprit plaque rupture, whereas 26% of the patients (9 of 34) with culprit plaque rupture had nonculprit plaque rupture (P = .02). Plaque-based analysis showed that, compared with the culprit rupture group (n = 158), the culprit erosion group (n = 58) had lower prevalence of plaque rupture (0% vs 8%; P erosion had a smaller number of nonculprit plaques and the lower levels

  6. [Peritoneal splenosis 26 years after traumatic splenic rupture--rare differential diagnosis of a subepithelial gastric mass--case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlipp, B; Zeh, M; Scheidbach, H; Kuester, D; Lippert, H

    2011-03-01

    Differential diagnoses of subepithelial gastric masses include benign (leiomyoma, lipoma, haemangioma, lymphangioma, neurogenic tumours, glomus tumour) and malignant (leiomyosarcoma, gastric Kaposi's sarcoma, metastases) neoplastic lesions, gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) and lesions of non-neoplastic origin (heterotopic pancreatic tissue, intramural pseudocysts, intramural haematoma). Occasionally, however, suspected gastric wall tumours are caused by extragastral lesions that are not always easily distinguished from genuine gastric wall lesions by endoscopy or radiological imaging. We report the case of a 77-year-old patient undergoing laparoscopy for suspected gastric GIST in our institution in whom splenectomy had been performed 26 years prior to presentation due to traumatic splenic rupture. The tumour revealed to be ectopic splenic tissue located at the parietal peritoneum of the ventral abdominal wall, thereby fulfilling the definition of splenosis. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and therapy of splenosis are discussed in the context of a review of the relevant literature. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Acute phase complications following traumatic spinal cord injury in Dutch level 1 trauma centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weert, Karin C M; Schouten, Evert J; Hofstede, José; van de Meent, Henk; Holtslag, Herman R; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G

    2014-10-01

    To assess the number and nature of complications during the acute phase following traumatic spinal cord injury and to explore the relationship between number of complications and length of hospital stay. Multi-centre prospective cohort study. A total of 54 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, referred to 3 level 1 trauma centres in The Netherlands. The number and nature of complications were registered weekly from September 2009 to December 2011. A total of 32 patients (59%) had 1 or more medical complications. The most common complications were pressure ulcers (17 patients, 31%) and pulmonary complications (15 patients, 28%). PATIENTS with 3 or 4 complications had significantly (p < 0.01) longer hospital stays (58.5 [32.5] days) compared with those with 1 or 2 complications (33.1 [14.8] days) or no complications (21.5 [15.6] days). Complications, particularly pressure ulcers and pulmonary complications, occurred frequently during the acute phase following traumatic spinal cord injury. More complications were associated with longer hospital stays. Despite the existence of protocols, more attention is needed to prevent pressure ulcers during the acute phase following traumatic spinal cord injury for patients in The Netherlands.

  8. [Prognostic significance of leukocyte count in the venous blood in the acute stage of cerebral aneurism rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinkin, A A; Petrikov, S S; Khamidova, L T; Krylov, V V

    To determine a prognostic role of leukocyte count in the venous blood in the acute stage of cerebral aneurysm (CA) rupture. Fifty-one patients with CA rupture, aged from 20 to 65 years, hospitalized in the first 72 h over the period from 01.10.12 to 01.02.16 were examined. The severity of disease and anatomical form of hemorrhage was corresponded to III-IV degree on the W. Hunt - R. Hess scale and Fisher scale. All patients underwent surgery. Outcomes after open and endovascular surgeries were similar. Normal leukocyte number in the venous blood at admission was identified in 12 (24%) of patients (on average 7.3±1.4·109/L), leukocytosis in 39 (76%) (14.3±3.1·109/L) (pLeukocyte number in the acute stage of CA rupture was correlated with the frequency and severity of the vessel spasm. In 28 (55%) of patients with ischemic lesions of the brain matter, mean leukocyte number in the first 72 h after hemorrhage was higher by 2-24% (3±4.8·109/L) compared to patients without ischemia (11.9±2.5·109/L) (p=0.06). The level of leukocytes in survivors was lower by 3 - 28% (122±3.4·109/L) compared to patients with fatal outcome and patients with severe neurological deficit after the surgery (14.5±3.9·109/L) (p>0.05). The increase in leukocyte number in the venous blood in the first 72 h after CA rupture ≥10,1·109/L is a reliable risk factor of marked vessel spasm. The level of leukocytes in patients with cerebral ischemia and poor prognosis in the first 72h after aneurysmal hemorrhage was higher by 2-28% compared to survivors without neurological impairment or mild neurological deficit.

  9. Acute traumatic central cord syndrome: analysis of clinical and radiological correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, P; Gomez, P; Alday, R

    2008-12-01

    In patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, several studies correlate neurological impairment and radiological findings. However, little information is available about this correspondence in the particular group of acute traumatic central cord syndrome. The object of the present work was to describe the clinical and radiological features of a series of patients presenting with acute traumatic central cord syndrome and to analyze clinical and radiological correlations on admission and at last follow-up. Retrospective review of 15 patients diagnosed of acute traumatic central cord syndrome between 1995 and 2005. Global motor score and motor score in upper extremities were determined on admission and at last follow-up (6 months-4 years, mean 16 months). Plain films, cervical computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) were performed in every patient and retrieved for the study. In seven patients, serial MR studies were performed during follow-up. Clinical and radiological correlations were statistically analyzed with non-parametric tests. Cervical spondylosis appeared associated with older age, falls, and absence of fracture. Spinal cord edema was the most common finding in MR studies but hemorrhage was also observed. The length of spinal cord edema significantly correlated with initial motor score. The decrease in T2-weighted hyperintensity in serial MR studies correlated with the gain of motor power in upper limbs at last follow-up. Elderly patients with more degenerated cervical spines commonly develop acute traumatic central cord syndrome after incidental falls. Length of spinal cord edema correlates with neurological impairment on admission and may provide significant prognostic information.

  10. The Acute Inflammatory Response in Trauma/Hemorrhage and Traumatic Brain Injury : Current State and Emerging Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namas, R.; Ghuma, A.; Hermus, L.; Zamora, R.; Okonkwo, D. O.; Billiar, T. R.; Vodovotz, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic injury/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) elicits an acute inflammatory response that may result in death. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseases including T/HS and traumatic brain injury

  11. Neurosensory Symptom Complexes after Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Hoffer

    Full Text Available Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI is a prominent public health issue. To date, subjective symptom complaints primarily dictate diagnostic and treatment approaches. As such, the description and qualification of these symptoms in the mTBI patient population is of great value. This manuscript describes the symptoms of mTBI patients as compared to controls in a larger study designed to examine the use of vestibular testing to diagnose mTBI. Five symptom clusters were identified: Post-Traumatic Headache/Migraine, Nausea, Emotional/Affective, Fatigue/Malaise, and Dizziness/Mild Cognitive Impairment. Our analysis indicates that individuals with mTBI have headache, dizziness, and cognitive dysfunction far out of proportion to those without mTBI. In addition, sleep disorders and emotional issues were significantly more common amongst mTBI patients than non-injured individuals. A simple set of questions inquiring about dizziness, headache, and cognitive issues may provide diagnostic accuracy. The consideration of other symptoms may be critical for providing prognostic value and treatment for best short-term outcomes or prevention of long-term complications.

  12. Acute and chronic traumatic encephalopathies: pathogenesis and biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKosky, Steven T; Blennow, Kaj; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Gandy, Sam

    2013-04-01

    Over the past decade, public awareness of the long-term pathological consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has increased. Such awareness has been stimulated mainly by reports of progressive neurological dysfunction in athletes exposed to repetitive concussions in high-impact sports such as boxing and American football, and by the rising number of TBIs in war veterans who are now more likely to survive explosive blasts owing to improved treatment. Moreover, the entity of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)--which is marked by prominent neuropsychiatric features including dementia, parkinsonism, depression, agitation, psychosis, and aggression--has become increasingly recognized as a potential late outcome of repetitive TBI. Annually, about 1% of the population in developed countries experiences a clinically relevant TBI. The goal of this Review is to provide an overview of the latest understanding of CTE pathophysiology, and to delineate the key issues that are challenging clinical and research communities, such as accurate quantification of the risk of CTE, and development of reliable biomarkers for single-incident TBI and CTE.

  13. Efficacy of early controlled motion of the ankle compared with no motion after non-operative treatment of an acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Hansen, Maria Swennergren; Hølmich, Per

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early controlled ankle motion is widely used in the non-operative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture, though its safety and efficacy have never been investigated in a randomized setup. The objectives of this study are to investigate if early controlled motion of the ankle......-injury. Secondary outcome measures are the heel-rise work test, Achilles tendon elongation, and the rate of re-rupture. The primary analysis will be conducted as intention-to-treat analyses. DISCUSSION: This trial is the first to investigate the safety and efficacy of early controlled motion in the treatment...... of acute Achilles tendon rupture in a randomized setup. The study uses the patient-reported outcome measure, the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score, as the primary endpoint, as it is believed to be the best surrogate measure for the tendon's actual capability to function in everyday life. TRIAL...

  14. Traumatic tibialis anterior tendon rupture: treatment with a two-stage silicone tube and an interposition hamstring tendons graft protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogeorgakos, Vasileios; Koutalos, Antonios; Hantes, Michael; Manoudis, Gregory; Badras, Leonidas; Malizos, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    A novel technique for managing ruptured tibialis anterior tendon complicated by infection and tendon substance loss in a young adult is described. A two-stage reconstruction technique with a silicon tube and tendon autograft was performed. At first, after local control of the infection, scar excision and placement of a silicone tube was performed. Ten weeks later, ipsilateral hamstrings tendons were harvested and bridged the 7 cm tendon gap. Eighteen months later, the patient has excellent clinical and functional outcome.

  15. Neural correlates and predictive power of trait resilience in an acutely traumatized sample: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Judith K; Hegadoren, Kathy M; Coupland, Nick J; Rowe, Brian H; Densmore, Maria; Neufeld, Richard W J; Lanius, Ruth A

    2012-03-01

    Resilience refers to the ability to thrive despite adversity and is defined as a multidimensional phenomenon, spanning internal locus of control, sense of meaning, social problem-solving skills, and self-esteem. We aimed to investigate the predictive value of resilience for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to examine the neural correlates mediating the relationship between resilience and recovery from a traumatic event in acutely traumatized subjects. We hypothesized that resilience would mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and posttraumatic recovery. We conducted a prospective study with 70 acutely traumatized subjects with DSM-IV PTSD recruited at the emergency department, assessing PTSD symptom severity at 3 time points within the first 3 months posttrauma. Scores for childhood trauma as assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and trait resilience as assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were used as predictors of symptom severity. A subsample of 12 subjects additionally underwent a functional 4 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan 2 to 4 months posttrauma. We employed the traumatic script-driven imagery paradigm to assess the correlations between trait resilience and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response. The study was conducted from 2003 to 2007. Resilience predicted PTSD symptom severity at 5 to 6 weeks (β = -0.326, P = .01) as well as at 3 months (β = -0.423, P = .003) posttrauma better than childhood trauma. Resilience essentially mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and posttraumatic adjustment. Resilience scores were positively correlated with BOLD signal strength in the right thalamus as well as the inferior and middle frontal gyri (Brodmann area 47). This pilot investigation revealed a significant relationship between resilience and emotion regulation areas during trauma recall in an acutely traumatized sample. Resilience was established as a significant predictor of

  16. Efficacy of early controlled motion of the ankle compared with no motion after non-operative treatment of an acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Hansen, Maria Swennergren; Hølmich, Per

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early controlled ankle motion is widely used in the non-operative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture, though its safety and efficacy have never been investigated in a randomized setup. The objectives of this study are to investigate if early controlled motion of the ankle...... controlled motion of the ankle in weeks 3-8 after rupture. The control group is immobilized. In total, 130 patients will be included from one big orthopedic center over a period of 2½ years. The primary outcome is the patient-reported Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score evaluated at 12 months post...

  17. Cognitive distortions in an acutely traumatized sample: an investigation of predictive power and neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, J K; Hegadoren, K; Coupland, N J; Rowe, B H; Neufeld, R W J; Lanius, R A

    2011-10-01

    Current theories of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) place considerable emphasis on the role cognitive distortions such as self-blame, hopelessness or preoccupation with danger play in the etiology and maintenance of the disorder. Previous studies have shown that cognitive distortions in the early aftermath of traumatic events can predict future PTSD severity but, to date, no studies have investigated the neural correlates of this association. We conducted a prospective study with 106 acutely traumatized subjects, assessing symptom severity at three time points within the first 3 months post-trauma. A subsample of 20 subjects additionally underwent a functional 4-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at 2 to 4 months post-trauma. Cognitive distortions proved to be a significant predictor of concurrent symptom severity in addition to diagnostic status, but did not predict future symptom severity or diagnostic status over and above the initial symptom severity. Cognitive distortions were correlated with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal strength in brain regions previously implicated in visual processing, imagery and autobiographic memory recall. Intrusion characteristics accounted for most of these correlations. This investigation revealed significant predictive value of cognitive distortions concerning concurrent PTSD severity and also established a significant relationship between cognitive distortions and neural activations during trauma recall in an acutely traumatized sample. These data indicate a direct link between the extent of cognitive distortions and the intrusive nature of trauma memories.

  18. Social communication assessment during post-traumatic amnesia and the post-acute period after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Joanne; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth; Togher, Leanne

    2017-01-01

    Social communication impairment is a persisting and debilitating consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there has been little empirical speech-language pathology (SLP) study focusing on the early stage of recovery after TBI, including during post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). This research reports on social communication presentation and recovery during late PTA and the post-acute period, assessed with standardized measures. Using mixed-methods case study research, four participants with severe TBI were assessed with social communication assessment measures over the later stages of PTA and/or at PTA emergence, and at follow-up three months later. Assessment tools included the Measure of Cognitive Linguistic Abilities Family Questionnaire, the La Trobe Communication Questionnaire and The Profile of Pragmatic Impairment in Communication and included patient and friend/family perspectives. It was possible to identify a profile of social communication disorder on SLP measures for participants during PTA that persisted at follow-up, but with decreased severity. Self and friend/family member ratings of social communication indicated an increased awareness of social difficulty at three months after PTA emergence. Findings provided information about presentation and course of recovery of social communication ability for participants in the early stage of rehabilitation after TBI. These findings have implications for timing and methods of SLP assessment during PTA.

  19. Spontaneous rupture of the right gastroepiploic artery: unusual cause of acute abdomen and shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounekar Ali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Spontaneous rupture of the right gastroepiploic artery is an extremely rare case which can be a cause of abdominal apoplexy. Case report We present a case of a 64-year old woman with a Spontaneous rupture of the right gastroepiploic artery with hemorrhagic shock that was successfully treated by emergency surgery. Conclusion Simultaneous restoration of circulating volume and rapid diagnosis are keys in determining the patient outcome in this situation. Though the mortality is high if untreated, the operation is relatively simple and carries a low risk.

  20. Coagulopathy as prognostic marker in acute traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Chhabra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Coagulopathy frequently occurs following traumatic brain injury (TBI and usually occurs 6-72 hour post-trauma. The incidence and the probable risk factors for development of coagulopathy and poor outcome following TBI are largely unknown and vary considerably. Aims: To assess the incidence and probable risk factors for development of coagulopathy and to identify the risk factors for poor outcome in terms of median survival time following TBI. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study over two years, patients of isolated moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (GCS≤12 admitted to trauma center had coagulation profile (PT, APTT, thrombin time, fibrinogen and D-dimer, arterial lactate and ABG analysis done on day of admission and on day three. Coagulopathy was defined as prothrombin time (PT or/and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT more than 1.5 times the normal control. Incidence of in-hospital mortality was assessed in all cases. Statistical Analysis: A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for coagulopathy and mortality in these patients. Results: A total of 208 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 32 ± 12 years and mean GCS was 7.1 ± 2.8. Coagulopathy was present in 46% ( n = 96 of patients. Risk factors for development of coagulopathy were found out to be severity of head injury (OR: 2.81, elevated D-dimer (OR: 3.43, low hemoglobin (OR: 3.13, and effaced cisterns in the CT scan (OR: 2.72. Presence of coagulopathy (OR: 2.97 and severity of head injury (OR: 5.70 strongly predicted poor outcome, and were associated with a decreased median survival time. Conclusions: There is a high incidence of coagulopathy following TBI. The presence of coagulopathy as well as of severity of TBI are strong predictors of in-hospital mortality in these patients.

  1. Novel Mechanism for Reducing Acute and Chronic Neurodegeneration After Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0195 TITLE: Novel Mechanism for Reducing Acute and Chronic Neurodegeneration after Traumatic Brain Injury...Purpose: The purpose of this project is to develop a radically different strategy to reduce brain glutamate excitotoxicity and treat TBI. We will...objective of reducing blood levels of glutamate. This will produce a brain -to-blood gradient of glutamate which will enhance the removal of excess

  2. Acute Non-Traumatic Abdominal Pain in Childhood at Kenyatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-14

    Jul 14, 2010 ... The assessment and diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in childhood is clinically challenging. The epidemiologic correlates differ for different paediatric age groups and settings. Objectives ... Of non surgical causes, upper respiratory tract infections. (21%), gastroenteritis (15.6%) and non-specific abdominal ...

  3. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment for Somatic Dysfunction After Acute Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallister, Adrienne; Brown, Christopher; Smith, Michael; Ettlinger, Hugh; Baltazar, Gerard A

    2016-12-01

    Somatic dysfunction caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be managed by osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT). In this case report, the authors describe 2 patients with severe TBI who were each treated with OMT in a level-1 regional trauma center. Both patients received OMT beginning in the acute care phase of injury. Somatic dysfunction improved during the course of treatment, and no adverse effects of OMT were noted. More comprehensive research may clarify the efficacy and adverse effects of OMT as part of multimodal acute care of patients with severe TBI.

  4. Unrecognised Acute Rupture of the Achilles Tendon in Severe Ankle Sprain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Wai Lam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inversion ankle sprain is a common sport injury. It commonly refers to the injury of lateral collateral ligaments of the ankle. Failure to detect the concomitant injuries would lead to inappropriate treatment and suboptimal result. A case of unrecognised rupture of the Achilles tendon in a patient with severe inversion ankle sprain is reported.

  5. Inhibition of the Renin-Angiotensin System Post Myocardial Infarction Prevents Inflammation-Associated Acute Cardiac Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Ming; Tsai, Alan; Al-Sharea, Annas; Su, Yidan; Moore, Shirley; Han, Li-Ping; Kiriazis, Helen; Dart, Anthony M; Murphy, Andrew J; Du, Xiao-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is beneficial in patient management after myocardial infarction (MI). However, whether RAS inhibition also provides cardiac protection in the acute phase of MI is unclear. Male 129sv mice underwent coronary artery occlusion to induce MI, followed by treatment with losartan (L, 20 and 60 mg/kg), perindopril (P, 2 and 6 mg/kg), amlodipine (20 mg/kg as a BP-lowering agent) or vehicle as control. Drug effects on hemodynamics were examined. Effects of treatments on incidence of cardiac rupture, haematological profile, monocyte and neutrophil population in the spleen and the heart, cardiac leukocyte density, expression of inflammatory genes and activity of MMPs were studied after MI. Incidence of cardiac rupture within 2 weeks was significantly and similarly reduced by both losartan (L) and perindopril (P) in a dose-dependent manner [75% (27/36) in vehicle, 40-45% in low-dose (L 10/22, P 8/20) and 16-20% (L 5/32, P 4/20) in high-dose groups, all P infarct tissue were attenuated by losartan and/or perindopril treatment (all P acute phase of MI through blockade of splenic release of monocytes and neutrophils and consequently attenuation of systemic and regional inflammatory responses.

  6. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in acute pancreatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procacci, Carlo; Mansueto, Giancarlo; D' Onofrio, Mirko; Gasparini, Anna; Ferrara, Rosa Maria [Department of Radiology, University Hospital ' ' G.B. Rossi' ' , Piazza L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona (Italy); Falconi, Massimo [Department of Surgery, University Hospital ' ' G.B. Rossi' ' , Piazza L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2002-10-01

    Pancreatic emergency, unrelated to traumatic events, can occur as a consequence of the more significant pancreatic pathologies (acute and chronic pancreatitis, tumors) or of the interventional or surgical treatment carried out as therapy for the above-mentioned lesions. Acute pancreatic conditions are represented by pancreatic infections, the involvement of organs, structures, and adjacent spaces within the pancreatic disease, and, lastly, vascular complications. Acute pancreatic conditions are common in pancreatic diseases and can be catastrophic; even if there is a gamut in the severity of clinical presentation, each can be potentially life threatening. Immediate radiological detection of the lesions together with a correct therapeutic percutaneous radiological approach whenever an interventional procedure is preferable to surgery or, when performed before surgery, whenever it can optimize its results, is of fundamental importance in the management of these patients. This article focuses on the essential role of radiology and the integration of imaging and intervention in acute pancreatic conditions. (orig.)

  7. Closed traumatic rupture of the flexor pulleys of a long finger associated with avulsion of the flexor digitorum superficialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, G; Dubert, T

    2001-06-01

    We report a closed rupture of the second, third and fourth annular pulleys associated with avulsion of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon in the ring finger of a healthy, 48-year-old patient. It was caused by sudden and violent flexion of the finger and led to a serious impairment of the proximal interphalangeal joint motion, despite physiotherapy and dynamic splinting. The patient was treated surgically, 3 months after the injury, with reconstruction of the second (A2) and fourth (A4) annular pulleys and excision of the distal portion of the superficialis tendon. The final functional result was satisfactory. Copyright 2001 The British Society for Surgery of the Hand.

  8. Right Median Nerve Electrical Stimulation for Acute Traumatic Coma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jin; Wang, Lei; Gao, Guoyi; Cooper, Edwin; Jiang, Jiyao

    2015-10-15

    The right median nerve as a peripheral portal to the central nervous system can be electrically stimulated to help coma arousal after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study set out to examine the efficacy and safety of right median nerve electrical stimulation (RMNS) in a cohort of 437 comatose patients after severe TBI from August 2005 to December 2011. The patients were enrolled 2 weeks after their injury and assigned to the RMNS group (n=221) receiving electrical stimulation for 2 weeks or the control group (n = 216) treated by standard management according to the date of birth in the month. The baseline data were similar. After the 2-week treatment, the RMNS-treated patients demonstrated a more rapid increase of the mean Glasgow Coma Score, although statistical significance was not reached (8.43 ± 4.98 vs. 7.47 ± 5.37, p = 0.0532). The follow-up data at 6-month post-injury showed a significantly higher proportion of patients who regained consciousness (59.8% vs. 46.2%, p = 0.0073). There was a lower proportion of vegetative persons in the RMNS group than in the control group (17.6% vs. 22.0%, p = 0.0012). For persons regaining consciousness, the functional independence measurement (FIM) score was higher among the RMNS group patients (91.45 ± 8.65 vs. 76.23 ± 11.02, p coma in the early phase.

  9. Imaging of non-cardiac, non-traumatic causes of acute chest pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzl, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.kienzl@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Prosch, Helmut; Töpker, Michael; Herold, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2012-12-15

    Non-traumatic chest pain is a common symptom in patients who present in the emergency department. From a clinical point of view, it is important to differentiate cardiac chest pain from non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). Among the plethora of potential causes of NCCP, life-threatening diseases, such as aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, tension pneumothorax, and esophageal rupture, must be differentiated from non-life threatening causes. The majority of NCCP, however, is reported to be benign in nature. The presentation of pain plays an important role in narrowing the differential diagnosis and initiating further diagnostic management and treatment. As the benign causes tend to recur, and may lead to patient anxiety and great costs, a meticulous evaluation of the patient is necessary to diagnose the underlying disorder or disease.

  10. Imaging of non-cardiac, non-traumatic causes of acute chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzl, Daniela; Prosch, Helmut; Töpker, Michael; Herold, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Non-traumatic chest pain is a common symptom in patients who present in the emergency department. From a clinical point of view, it is important to differentiate cardiac chest pain from non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). Among the plethora of potential causes of NCCP, life-threatening diseases, such as aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, tension pneumothorax, and esophageal rupture, must be differentiated from non-life threatening causes. The majority of NCCP, however, is reported to be benign in nature. The presentation of pain plays an important role in narrowing the differential diagnosis and initiating further diagnostic management and treatment. As the benign causes tend to recur, and may lead to patient anxiety and great costs, a meticulous evaluation of the patient is necessary to diagnose the underlying disorder or disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Management of acute Achilles tendon rupture with tendon-bundle technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Guang; Li, Bing; Yang, Yun-Feng

    2017-02-01

    Objective * These authors contributed equally to this work. To explore tendon-bundle technique for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects. Methods Patients with full unilateral Achilles tendon rupture with no defects were included. The Achilles tendon medial edge surgical repair approach was used, revealing horsetail-like rupture bundles. Tendon bundles were anatomically realigned and repaired end-to-end using 5-0 sutures. Patients were followed-up for 1 year, and assessed for differences between the repaired versus healthy limb. Results Out of 24 patients (18 male, 6 female; aged 19-56 years) at 1 year following surgery, mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 92.4 ± 5.9; mean differences between the surgically repaired versus contralateral side in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle were 3.5 ± 2.3° and 5.6 ± 3.2°, respectively; mean difference in calf circumference between the two sides was 0.9 ± 0.5 cm; and mean increase in Achilles tendon width versus the healthy side was 0.8 ± 0.2 cm. By 1 year post-surgery, there were no significant between-side differences in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle, or calf circumference. Conclusions Tendon-bundle surgery resulted in good ankle function restoration and low complication rates. Tendon-bundle surgery may reduce blood supply destruction and maximally preserve Achilles tendon length, and may be effective for treating Achilles tendon rupture with no defects.

  12. Traumatic basal subarachnoid haemorrhage or ruptured brain aneurysm in 16-year-old boy? – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Skowronek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic basal subarachnoid haemorrhage (TBSAH represents only 1.8% of all subarachnoid haemorrhage cases diagnosed during autopsy. This report presents such a case from the current practice of the authors. Sixteen-year-old boy was beaten by the aggressors. Suddenly he lost his consciousness and fall after he received a single blow in the neck. He was resuscitated immediately, but died at the scene. During the external examination we did not find any significant external injuries. Autopsy revealed large contusion of right sternocleidomastoid muscle. In the cranial cavity we found extensive subarachnoid haemorrhage, located mainly on brain basis, in the posterior cranial fossa and covering the subtentorial structures. During the preparation of blood vessels we noticed a slight change of morphology suggesting damaged vessel or aneurysm, or vascular malformation located in the basilar artery bifurcation, which was taken to detailed microscopic evaluation using the special stainings. Histological examination showed vital interruption of the basilar artery wall with massive haemorrhage, without the presence of general microscopic pathology. From the medico-legal viewpoint, to determine traumatic background of haemorrhage it is necessary to find the coexistence of the following circumstances: a sustained trauma, post-mortem findings consistent with a time of injury, the presence of temporal relationship between injury and death, and morphological vital injury of the brain vessel, as well as the absence of prior vascular malformations. For this purpose Verhoeff-van Gieson’s, Masson’s, Turnbull’s and Gomori’ histological stainings may be successfully used.

  13. A Prospective, Randomized Investigation of Plasma First Resuscitation for Traumatic Hemorrhage and Attenuation of Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Attenuation of Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma . PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ernest E. Moore, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Colorado Denver...Randomized Investigation of “Plasma First Resuscitation” for Traumatic Hemorrhage and Attenuation of Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma . 5b. GRANT NUMBER...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The COMBAT (Control of Major Bleeding After Trauma ) study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the early administration of

  14. Management and Outcome of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Caused by Plaque Rupture Versus Plaque Erosion: An Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sining; Zhu, Yinchun; Zhang, Yingying; Dai, Jiannan; Li, Lulu; Dauerman, Harold; Soeda, Tsunenari; Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hang; Wang, Chao; Zhe, Chunyang; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Gonghui; Zhang, Shaosong; Jia, Haibo; Yu, Bo; Jang, Ik-Kyung

    2017-02-24

    Plaque rupture and erosion are the 2 most common mechanisms for acute coronary syndromes. However, the outcome of these 2 distinct pathologies in patients with acute coronary syndromes has never been studied. We retrospectively studied 141 patients with acute coronary syndromes who underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the culprit lesion prior to stenting from the Massachusetts General Hospital OCT Registry. Management (stent versus no stent), poststent OCT findings, and outcomes were compared. Among the 141 culprit lesions, rupture was found in 79 (56%) patients and erosion in 62 (44%). Stent implantation was performed in 77 (97.5%) patients with rupture versus 49 (79.0%) in those with erosion ( P erosion group. Plaque rupture was associated with a higher incidence of no reflow or slow flow and distal embolization. Although cardiac event rates were comparable between the two groups at the 1-year follow-up, none of the erosion patients who were treated conservatively without stenting had adverse cardiac events. Unfavorable poststent OCT findings were more frequent in rupture patients compared with erosion patients. A subset of erosion patients who were treated conservatively without stenting remained free of adverse cardiac events for up to 1 year. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. Increasing incidence of acute Achilles tendon rupture and a noticeable decline in surgical treatment from 1994 to 2013. A nationwide registry study of 33,160 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganestam, Ann; Kallemose, Thomas; Troelsen, Anders; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of acute Achilles tendon rupture in Denmark from 1994 to 2013 with focus on sex, age, geographical areas, seasonal variation and choice of treatment. The National Patient Registry was retrospectively searched to find the number of acute Achilles tendon rupture in Denmark during the time period of 1994-2013. Regional population data were retrieved from the services of Statistics Denmark. During the 20-year period, 33,160 ruptures occurred revealing a statistically significant increase in the incidence (p Achilles tendon rupture increased from 1994 to 2013 based on increasing incidence in the older population. There was no difference in incidence of acute Achilles tendon rupture in the rural compared with urban geographical areas. A steady decline in surgical treatment was found over the whole period, with a noticeable decline from 2009 to 2013, possibly reflecting a rapid change in clinical practice following a range of high-quality randomized clinical trials (RCT). IV.

  16. Targeting lurking pathogens in acute traumatic and chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, L J

    1999-01-01

    The appropriate antimicrobial treatment for skin and soft tissue following acute trauma is determined by the mechanism of injury, time from injury to treatment, environmental wound contamination, pathogenicity of colonizing bacteria, and patient-specific issues. These factors can be used to predict the risk of secondary infection of wounds. Although common skin pathogens (such as Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus) cause most secondary wound infections, antibiotic therapy sometimes must be directed against unusual pathogens that are associated with atypical wounds, such as animal bites (amoxicillin with clavulanate for Pasteurella multocida) and plantar puncture wounds (ciprofloxacin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa). This customized treatment approach is also appropriate for chronic wounds, such as pressure and diabetic foot ulcers. In addition to antibiotic therapy, wound management may include surgical debridement. Active areas of investigation in wound management include the use of growth factors and hyperbaric oxygen.

  17. Physical therapists as first-line diagnosticians for traumatic acute rotator cuff tears: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Knut E; Hänninen, Jonas; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Lunsjö, Karl

    2017-11-29

    Early diagnosis of traumatic acute full-thickness rotator cuff tears (FTRCT) is important to offer early surgical repair. Late repairs following fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles have less favorable results. We think that physical therapists are valuable diagnosticians in a screening process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of physical therapists as first-line diagnosticians in detecting acute traumatic FTRCT. Between November 2010 and January 2014, 394 consecutive patients having an age between 18 and 75 years who sought medical care because of acute shoulder trauma with acute onset of pain, limited abduction and negative plain radiographs were included in the study. A clinical assessment was conducted by a physical therapist 1 week after the trauma. The patients were divided into three groups by the physical therapist according to the findings: FTRCT (Group I, n = 122); sprain (Group II, n = 62); or other specific diagnoses (Group III, n = 210). Group III patients were discharged and excluded from the study. Magnetic Resonance Imaging shoulder was performed for all Group I patients and for all patients with persistent symptoms in Group II. 79/184 patients had FTRCTs documented by MRI in groups I and II. The clinical assessment of the physical therapist had a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 68%, and usefulness index of 0.45 (> 0.35 considered useful) for diagnosing FTRCT. Physical therapists can be useful as first-line diagnosticians in detecting traumatic FTRCT.

  18. Acute Subdural Hematoma and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Caused by Ruptured Cortical Artery Aneurysm: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shekarchizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes an acute subdural hematoma (ASDH associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, due to ruptured cortical aneurysm. To our knowledge, extremely rare cases of this sort have been reported so far. A 23-year-old male patient without previous trauma presented with severe headache and rapidly decreasing level of consciousness to decerebrate status. Computed tomography (CT scan has demonstrated an ASDH together with SAH. Hematoma has immediately been evacuated without any evaluation by angiography. After evacuation of the thick subdural clot, a 10-mm aneurysm was revealed on a precentral artery of frontal cortex, which was ligated. However, after 35 days the patient discharged with left side hemiparesis and dysphasia, and just after several months of admission he got symptom free. Ruptured cortical aneurysm should be considered as one of the causes of spontaneous ASDH. Vascular anomaly investigations are suggested for these cases, thus CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography has to be considered if clinical condition allows.

  19. Numerical simulation of flows in a circular pipe transversely subjected to a localized impulsive body force with applications to blunt traumatic aortic rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Labbio, G.; Keshavarz-Motamed, Z.; Kadem, L.

    2017-06-01

    Much debate surrounds the mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of blunt traumatic aortic rupture in car accidents, particularly on the role of the inertial body force experienced by the blood due to the abrupt deceleration. The isolated influence of such body forces acting on even simple fluid flows is a fundamental problem in fluid dynamics that has not been thoroughly investigated. This study numerically investigates the fundamental physical problem, where the pulsatile flow in a straight circular pipe is subjected to a transverse body force on a localized volume of fluid. The body force is applied as a brief rectangular impulse in three distinct cases, namely during the accelerating, peak, and decelerating phases of the pulsatile flow. A dimensionless number, termed the degree of influence of the body force (Ψ), is devised to quantify the relative strength of the body force over the flow inertia. The impact induces counter-rotating cross-stream vortices at the boundaries of the forced section accompanied by complex secondary flow structures. This secondary flow is found to develop slowest for an impact occurring during an accelerating flow and fastest during a decelerating flow. The peak skewness of the velocity field, however, occurred at successively later times for the three respective cases. After the impact, these secondary flows act to restore the unforced state and such dominant spatial structures are revealed by proper orthogonal decomposition of the velocity field. This work presents a new class of problems that requires further theoretical and experimental investigation.

  20. [Acute traumatic spinal cord injuries: Epidemiology and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonjon, N; Perrin, F E; Lonjon, M; Fattal, C; Segnarbieux, F; Privat, A; Bauchet, L

    2012-10-01

    Specify the epidemiological data on the acute spinal cord injuries and define a group of patients that could benefit from cellular transplantation therapy designed with the aim of repair and regeneration of damaged spinal cord tissues. Five years monocentric (Gui-de-Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier, France) retrospective analysis of patients suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal cord injured-patients, defined as sensory-motor complete, underwent a clinical evaluation following American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and functional type 2 Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM2) scorings as well as radiological evaluation through spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). One hundred and fifty-seven medical records were reviewed and we selected and re-examined 20 patients with complete thoracic spinal cord lesion. Clinical and radiological evaluations of these patients demonstrated, in 75 % of the cases, an absence of clinical progression after a mean of 49months. Radiological abnormalities were constantly present in the initial (at the admission to hospital) and control (re-evaluation) MRI and no reliable predictive criteria of prognosis had been found. We compare our results to the literature and discuss advantages and limits of cellular transplantation strategies for these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [A case of rupture of the left ventricle free wall with papillary muscle dysfunction following acute myocardial infarction, operated on successfully].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, R; Perdigão, C; Neves, L; Cravino, J; Dantas, M; Bordalo, A; Pais, F; Diogo, A N; Ferreira, R; Ribeiro, C

    1990-09-01

    The authors present a case of left ventricular free wall rupture post acute myocardial infarction, associated with mitral papillary posterior muscle necrosis, operated by infartectomy and mitral valvular protesis replacement. They refer the various complications occurred during the hospital staying, and discuss its medical and surgical approach. The patient was discharged alive and six months after the infarction keeps a moderate activity.

  2. Acute kidney injury defined according to the 'Risk,' 'Injury,' 'Failure,' 'Loss,' and 'End-stage' (RIFLE) criteria after repair for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Sytse C.; Legemate, Dink A.; Vahl, Anco; Bouman, Catherine S. C.; Vogt, Liffert; Wisselink, Willem; Balm, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication after repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). In the present Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS)/International Society for CardioVascular Surgery (ISCVS) reporting standards patients are classified as no dialysis (grade I), as

  3. Operative versus nonoperative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture: An analysis of 12,570 patients in a large healthcare database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dean; Sandlin, M Isiah; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Lord, Elizabeth L; Petrigliano, Frank A; SooHoo, Nelson F

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the latest patient demographics and rerupture rates of operative versus nonoperative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture in the United States. Patients undergoing treatment of an acute Achilles tendon rupture from 2007 to 2011 were identified by cross-referencing ICD-9-CM and CPT codes through the PearlDiver Patient Record Database. In total, 12,570 patients were treated for an acute Achilles tendon rupture. The ratio of operative to nonoperative treatment increased from 1.41 to 1.65. Males were more likely to undergo surgery than females. There were no significant differences in short-term rerupture rate for operative (2.1%) versus nonoperative (2.4%) treatment. The proportion of patients who received operative treatment for an acute Achilles tendon rupture increased slightly during the 5 year period, suggesting that surgeons in the United States have been slower to adopt nonoperative treatment than their European counterparts. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intralesional hemorrhage and thrombosis without rupture in a pure spinal epidural cavernous angioma: a rare cause of acute lumbal radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeth, Frank; Riemenschneider, Markus; Herdmann, Jörg

    2010-07-01

    Pure spinal epidural cavernous angiomas are extremely rare lesions, and their normal shape is that of a fusiform mass in the dorsal aspects of the spinal canal. We report a case of a lumbo-sacral epidural cavernous vascular malformation presenting with acute onset of right-sided S1 radiculopathy. Clinical aspects, imaging, intraoperative findings, and histology are demonstrated. The patient, a 27-year-old man presented with acute onset of pain, paraesthesia, and numbness within the right leg corresponding to the S1 segment. An acute lumbosacral disc herniation was suspected, but MRI revealed a cystic lesion with the shape of a balloon, a fluid level and a thickened contrast-enhancing wall. Intraoperatively, a purple-blue tumor with fibrous adhesions was located between the right S1 and S2 nerve roots. Macroscopically, no signs of epidural bleedings could be denoted. After coagulation of a reticular venous feeder network and dissection of the adhesions the rubber ball-like lesion was resected in total. Histology revealed a prominent venous vessel with a pathologically thickened, amuscular wall surrounded by smaller, hyalinized, venous vessels arranged in a back-to-back position typical for the diagnosis of a cavernous angioma. Lumina were partially occluded by thrombi. The surrounding fibrotic tissue showed signs of recurrent bleedings. There was no obvious mass hemorrhage into the surrounding tissue. In this unique case, the pathologic mechanism was not the usual rupture of the cavernous angioma with subsequent intraspinal hemorrhage, but acute mass effect by intralesional bleedings and thrombosis with subsequent increase of volume leading to nerve root compression. Thus, even without a sudden intraspinal hemorrhage a spinal cavernous malformation can cause acute symptoms identical to the clinical features of a soft disc herniation.

  5. Neuroinflammation in traumatic brain injury: A chronic response to an acute injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Schimmel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, approximately 1.4 million US citizens visit emergency rooms for traumatic brain injuries. Formerly known as an acute injury, chronic neurodegenerative symptoms such as compromised motor skills, decreased cognitive abilities, and emotional and behavioral changes have caused the scientific community to consider chronic aspects of the disorder. The injury causing impact prompts multiple cell death processes, starting with neuronal necrosis, and progressing to various secondary cell death mechanisms. Secondary cell death mechanisms, including excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, blood–brain barrier disruption, and inflammation accompany chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI and often contribute to long-term disabilities. One hallmark of both acute and chronic TBI is neuroinflammation. In acute stages, neuroinflammation is beneficial and stimulates an anti-inflammatory response to the damage. Conversely, in chronic TBI, excessive inflammation stimulates the aforementioned secondary cell death. Converting inflammatory cells from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory may expand the therapeutic window for treating TBI, as inflammation plays a role in all stages of the injury. By expanding current research on the role of inflammation in TBI, treatment options and clinical outcomes for afflicted individuals may improve. This paper is a review article. Referred literature in this paper has been listed in the references section. The data sets supporting the conclusions of this article are available online by searching various databases, including PubMed. Some original points in this article come from the laboratory practice in our research center and the authors' experiences.

  6. A Case of a Chronic Pancreatic Pseudocyst Causing Atraumatic Splenic Rupture without Evidence of Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Moori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atraumatic splenic rupture is a rare complication of a pancreatic pseudocyst (PP, described in the setting of chronic pancreatitis. There is common understanding, within the literature, that an inflammatory process at the tail of the pancreas may disrupt the spleen and result in such splenic complications. The authors present a case report of a 29-year-old male with a PP, associated with chronic pancreatitis. The patient had a history of excessive alcohol intake and presented to the emergency department with a short history of abdominal pain and vomiting. He denied any significant history of trauma and serum amylase levels were normal. An admission computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen confirmed the presence of a PP in direct contact with the spleen. The CT also demonstrated a heterogenous hypodense area of the splenic hilum, along with perisplenic fluid. The patient was admitted for observation. His abdominal pain progressed, and he became haemodynamically unstable. An emergency ultrasound scan (USS at this time revealed intra-abdominal haemorrhage. A subsequent CT confirmed splenic rupture, which was managed surgically with a full recovery. Few such cases are documented within the literature and more understanding of preempting such events is needed.

  7. A Case of a Chronic Pancreatic Pseudocyst Causing Atraumatic Splenic Rupture without Evidence of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moori, P; Nevins, E J; Wright, T; Bromley, C; Rado, Y

    2016-01-01

    Atraumatic splenic rupture is a rare complication of a pancreatic pseudocyst (PP), described in the setting of chronic pancreatitis. There is common understanding, within the literature, that an inflammatory process at the tail of the pancreas may disrupt the spleen and result in such splenic complications. The authors present a case report of a 29-year-old male with a PP, associated with chronic pancreatitis. The patient had a history of excessive alcohol intake and presented to the emergency department with a short history of abdominal pain and vomiting. He denied any significant history of trauma and serum amylase levels were normal. An admission computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen confirmed the presence of a PP in direct contact with the spleen. The CT also demonstrated a heterogenous hypodense area of the splenic hilum, along with perisplenic fluid. The patient was admitted for observation. His abdominal pain progressed, and he became haemodynamically unstable. An emergency ultrasound scan (USS) at this time revealed intra-abdominal haemorrhage. A subsequent CT confirmed splenic rupture, which was managed surgically with a full recovery. Few such cases are documented within the literature and more understanding of preempting such events is needed.

  8. Acute traumatic stroke: a case of bow hunter's stroke in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, E L; Van Coster, R; Verstraeten, K

    1998-06-01

    Acute traumatic stroke of the cerebellum is rarely seen in children. In adults, chiropractical manipulation, yoga exercises, bow hunting and cervical trauma have all been associated with vertebrobasillar damage and subsequent stroke due to cerebellar infarction. We present a case of bow hunter's stroke in a child. An 11-year-old boy developed deep coma one day after minor occipital head injury due to an infarct in the left cerebellum and ipsilateral medulla oblongata. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed hypoperfusion of the left vertebral artery and occlusion of the posterior and anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (PICA and AICA respectively).

  9. Acute traumatic tear of latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mesut Çelebi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue injuries constitute 30-50% of all sports related injuries; however, injury to the latissimus dorsi muscle is quite rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we describe an acute traumatic tear of the latissimus dorsi muscle in an elite track athlete, which has not been reported in the track and field sports before. The injury was caused by forceful resisted arm adduction that took place at hurdling and starting from the block. A pseudotumor appearance in the axillary region was misdiagnosed as a mass. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound alone and the patient was managed conservatively.

  10. Detection of acute traumatic coagulopathy and massive transfusion requirements by means of rotational thromboelastometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemo, Jostein S; Christiaans, Sarah C; Stanworth, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate the findings of a smaller cohort study on the functional definition and characteristics of acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC). We also aimed to identify the threshold values for the most accurate identification of ATC and prediction...... of massive transfusion (MT) using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) assays. METHODS: In this prospective international multicentre cohort study, adult trauma patients who met the local criteria for full trauma team activation from four major trauma centres were included. Blood was collected on arrival...

  11. Effect of Early Versus Late Weightbearing in Conservatively Treated Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Akkawi, Ali Imad; Joanroy, Rajzan; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2018-01-01

    additional RCT study was included. The critical appraisal skills program checklist was applied for study appraisal. A statistician performed the data management and analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between the 2 treatment groups concerning rerupture (p = .796), return to sports......Achilles tendon ruptures can be either surgically or conservatively treated with either early functional mobilization or cast immobilization. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis comparing the effect of early versus late weightbearing in conservatively treated adult......Med, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials. A search was performed, and 2 reviewers independently screened the studies by title, abstract, and, finally, by reading the full text. Four studies met the inclusion criteria. The reference lists of the included studies were scanned and 1...

  12. Patients' and relatives' experience of difficulties following severe traumatic brain injury: the sub-acute stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sara; Schönberger, Michael; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    was low compared to other studies using the EBIQ. Furthermore, the effects of injury severity and general level of functioning had limited impact on the subjective experience of difficulties. Implications of these findings, specifically as they pertain to the sub-acute stage are discussed Udgivelsesdato......The present study aimed to (1) identify the difficulties most frequently reported by individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) at the time of discharge from a sub-acute rehabilitation brain injury unit as well as difficulties reported by their relatives, (2) compare patients......' and relatives' reports of patient difficulties, and (3) explore the role of injury severity, disability and other factors on subjective experience of difficulties. The primary measure was the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ) administered to patients and to one of their close relatives at discharge...

  13. Non-traumatic acute abdomen in the adult: a critical review of imaging modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Boos, S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Heinemann, F. [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Wenz, W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany)

    1992-06-01

    Two different series collected at the University Hospital of Freiburg are presented as a basis for the critical appraisal of available imaging tests and their correlation with anatomic pain sites. The first series comprises 284 patients of non-traumatic acute abdomen admitted to the emergency department during 1990. The radiological approach revealed an increased use of immediate ultrasound (58%) followed by plain film radiography (53%), contrast studies (15%), and computed tomography (9.8%). Five groups of entities were identified according to the diagnostic imaging procedure prior to surgery. In a second series, the clinical presentation, the distribution and the efficacy of imaging studies for the confirmation of acute mesenteric ischemia were evaluated in 55 patients over a period of 14 years. A reduced mortality rate emphasizes the value of early and agressive diagnosis and angiographic management. (orig.)

  14. Fatal deterioration of delayed acute subdural hematoma after mild traumatic brain injury: two cases with brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shiwen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Both delayed posttraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage and epidural hematoma have been well described in the neurosurgical literatures. However, delayed posttraumatic acute subdural hematoma which happens more than a week with a rapid progress after mild traumatic brain injury and causes death of patient is rarely after mild traumatic brain injury: two cases with brief review reported. We show two such cases and briefly review the literature and discuss the probable pathogenesis of their rapid progress. Key words: Hematoma, subdural, acute; Brain injuries; Delayed diagnosis

  15. Acute traumatic spinal cord injury induces glial activation in the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A D; Westmoreland, S V; Evangelous, N R; Graham, A; Sledge, J; Nesathurai, S

    2012-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury leads to direct myelin and axonal damage and leads to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to site of injury. Although rodent models have provided the greatest insight into the genesis of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), recent studies have attempted to develop an appropriate non-human primate model. We explored TSCI in a cynomolgus macaque model using a balloon catheter to mimic external trauma to further evaluate the underlying mechanisms of acute TSCI. Following 1hour of spinal cord trauma, there were focal areas of hemorrhage and necrosis at the site of trauma. Additionally, there was a marked increased expression of macrophage-related protein 8, MMP9, IBA-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages and microglia at the site of injury. This data indicate that acute TSCI in the cynomolgus macaque is an appropriate model and that the earliest immunohistochemical changes noted are within macrophage and microglia populations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Acute traumatic coagulopathy: The elephant in a room of blind scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meledeo, Michael A; Herzig, Maryanne C; Bynum, James A; Wu, Xiaowu; Ramasubramanian, Anand K; Darlington, Daniel N; Reddoch, Kristin M; Cap, Andrew P

    2017-06-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) is the failure of coagulation homeostasis that can rapidly arise following traumatic injury, hemorrhage, and shock; it is associated with higher injury severity, coagulation abnormalities, and increased blood transfusions. Acute traumatic coagulopathy has historically been defined by a prolonged prothrombin time, although newer, more informative measurements of hemostatic function have been used to improve diagnosis and support clinical decision making. The underlying biochemical mechanisms of and best practice therapeutics for ATC remain under active investigation because of its significant correlation to poor outcomes. The wide range of hypothesized mechanisms for ATC results from the large number of symptoms, phenotypes, and altered states in these patients as observed by multiple research groups. Much like the ancient fable of blind men describing an elephant from their limited perspectives, the limited nature of clinical and laboratory tools used to diagnose coagulopathy or evaluate hemostatic function has made finding causation difficult. The prolonged prothrombin time, degree of fibrinolysis, depletion of coagulation factors and inhibitors, and general failure of the blood have all been identified as being primary indicators for ATC. Therapeutic interventions including recombinant coagulation factors, antifibrinolytics, and blood products have been used with varying degrees of success as they are used to address specific symptoms. To truly understand the causes of ATC, research efforts must recognize the complexity of the hemostatic system and get to the heart of the matter by answering the question: "Is ATC a pathological condition that develops from the observed deficiencies in coagulation, fibrinolysis, and autoregulation, or is ATC an adaptive response generated as the body attempts to restore perfusion and avoid massive organ failure?" Because patient management must proceed without definitive answers regarding the

  17. Acute nonbacterial pleuritis caused by spontaneous rupture of metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takashi; Inoue, Kiyotoshi; Morita, Ryuhei; Tsukioka, Takuma; Yamoto, Masaya; Suehiro, Shigefumi

    2008-07-01

    Nonbacterial pleuritis caused by rupture of a metastatic adenocarcinoma is extremely rare and has not yet been reported. A 59-year-old man with a history of rectal cancer surgery 6 years earlier presented with a solitary lung mass in the periphery of the right lower lobe on computed tomography. Transbronchial biopsy disclosed a suspected metastatic adenocarcinoma, and he was admitted for pulmonary metastasectomy. He had been asymptomatic, but 4 weeks after the diagnostic bronchoscopy, the patient suddenly complained of a right back pain and dyspnea at rest; shortly after that, he developed a fever of 39 degrees C. A chest X-ray showed right pleural effusion, collapse of the right lower lobe, and elevation of the right diaphragmatic dome, but without pneumothorax. Emergent video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed a perforated tumor in the collapsed lower lobe, and a right lower lobectomy was carried out. The postoperative course was uneventful, and he was well without recurrent disease 2 years after pulmonary resection.

  18. Serial Serum Leukocyte Apoptosis Levels as Predictors of Outcome in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Apoptosis associates with secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI. This study posits that serum leukocyte apoptosis levels in acute TBI are predictive of outcome. Methods. Two hundred and twenty-nine blood samples from 88 patients after acute TBI were obtained on admission and on Days 4 and 7. Serial apoptosis levels of different leukocyte subsets were examined in 88 TBI patients and 27 control subjects. Results. The leukocyte apoptosis was significantly higher in TBI patients than in controls. Brief unconsciousness (P=0.009, motor deficits (P≤0.001, GCS (P≤0.001, ISS (P=0.001, WBC count (P=0.015, late apoptosis in lymphocytes and monocytes on Day 1 (P=0.004 and P=0.022, resp., subdural hemorrhage on initial brain CT (P=0.002, neurosurgical intervention (P≤0.001, and acute posttraumatic seizure (P=0.046 were significant risk factors of outcome. Only motor deficits (P=0.033 and late apoptosis in monocytes on Day 1 (P=0.037 were independently associated with outcome. A cutoff value of 5.72% of late apoptosis in monocytes was associated with poor outcome in acute TBI patients. Conclusion. There are varying degrees of apoptosis in patients following TBI and in healthy individuals. Such differential expression suggests that apoptosis in different leukocyte subsets plays an important role in outcome following injury.

  19. Systems biomarkers as acute diagnostics and chronic monitoring tools for traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kevin K. W.; Moghieb, Ahmed; Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Zhiqun

    2013-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant biomedical problem among military personnel and civilians. There exists an urgent need to develop and refine biological measures of acute brain injury and chronic recovery after brain injury. Such measures "biomarkers" can assist clinicians in helping to define and refine the recovery process and developing treatment paradigms for the acutely injured to reduce secondary injury processes. Recent biomarker studies in the acute phase of TBI have highlighted the importance and feasibilities of identifying clinically useful biomarkers. However, much less is known about the subacute and chronic phases of TBI. We propose here that for a complex biological problem such as TBI, multiple biomarker types might be needed to harness the wide range of pathological and systemic perturbations following injuries, including acute neuronal death, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration to systemic responses. In terms of biomarker types, they range from brain-specific proteins, microRNA, genetic polymorphism, inflammatory cytokines and autoimmune markers and neuro-endocrine hormones. Furthermore, systems biology-driven biomarkers integration can help present a holistic approach to understanding scenarios and complexity pathways involved in brain injury.

  20. Pain and depression in acute traumatic spinal cord injury: origins of chronic problematic pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, D M; Adkins, R H; Scott, M D

    1996-04-01

    To examine the relationship between pain and depression over time during acute phases of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Theoretical models of the pain-depression relationship provided the framework: (1) pain causes depression; (2) depression causes pain; (3) pain and depression are independent sequelae to SCI. Understanding the pain-depression relationship provides treatment implications and hypotheses for origins of chronic pain in SCI. A repeated measures design assessing subjects at admission and discharge from rehabilitation. Subjects were admitted to a large public hospital in Southern California which is a member of the Model Spinal Cord Injury System. Rehabilitation occurred on two 30-bed units. Complete admission and discharge data sets were collected from 68 acute traumatic SCI patients who served as subjects. One hundred twenty-one patients initially agreed to participate in a larger study of adjustments to SCI. Thirty-three did not have pain data at admission, 16 dropped out, and 4 had incomplete discharge data. Subjects volunteered and were paid a fee. A standard rehabilitation program for SCI. Pain assessment used a 101-point numerical rating scale. Depression assessment used the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale(CESD). Pain and depression were independent at admission. At discharge, they were significantly related. Changes in pain affected depression more than changes in depression affected pain. Relationships between pain and depression develop over time. Reduced pain will have a greater effect on reducing depression than reduced depression will have on pain. Pain described as "burning" during the acute phase does not represent difficult to treat dysesthetic pain, as it may in chronic SCI pain.

  1. Fatal deterioration of delayed acute subdural hematoma after mild traumatic brain injury: two cases with brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiwen; Xu, Chen; Yuan, Lutao; Tian, Hengli; Cao, Heli; Guo, Yan

    2014-04-01

    Both delayed posttraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage and epidural hematoma have been well described in the neurosurgical literatures. However, delayed posttraumatic acute subdural hematoma which happens more than a week with a rapid progress after mild traumatic brain injury and causes death of patient is rarely reported. We show two such cases and briefly review the literature and discuss the probable pathogenesis of their rapid progress.

  2. Anterolateral ligament abnormalities are associated with peripheral ligament and osseous injuries in acute ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Helito, Paulo Victor Partezani; Leão, Renata Vidal; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Bordalo-Rodrigues, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have used MRI to identify the ALL. As it was shown that it is not possible to precisely characterize this ligament in all examination, it is important to identify concomitant lesions that can help in diagnosing ALL abnormalities. It is important to characterise this injury due to its association with anterolateral knee instability. Thus, the present study was performed to determine the frequency of ALL injuries in patients with acute ACL rupture and to analyse its associated knee lesions. Patients with acute ACL injuries were evaluated by MRI. Among this population, the ALL was classified as non-visualised, injured or normal. The possible abnormalities of the meniscus, collateral ligaments, popliteus tendon, posterior cruciate ligament, Iliotibial band (ITB), anterolateral capsule and osseus injuries were evaluated. The association of an ALL injury with these other knee structures as well as sex and age was calculated. Among the 228 knees evaluated, the ALL could not be entirely identified in 61 (26.7%). Of the remaining 167, 66 (39.5%) presented an ALL abnormality and only four (6.1%) were Segond fractures. ALL abnormalities were associated with lesions of the lateral collateral ligament, medial collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, ITB, anterolateral capsule and osseous contusions of the femoral condyle and tibial plateau. No correlation was found with medial meniscus, lateral meniscus and posterior cruciate ligament injuries. There was no association between ALL injuries and gender, and older patients were more likely to present an ALL injury. ALL injuries are present in approximately 40% of ACL injuries, and a minority of these are Segond fractures. These injuries are associated with peripheral ligament injuries, anterolateral structures lesions and bone contusions, but there is no association with meniscal injuries. Surgeons must be aware of these associations to consider an ALL lesion even if it is not completely clear in imaging evaluation

  3. Long-Term Results of Mini-Open Repair Technique in the Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşatan, Ersin; Emre, Tuluhan Yunus; Demircioğlu, Demet Tekdöş; Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Kırdemir, Vecihi

    2016-01-01

    An ideal surgical treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture includes restoring the original length of the tendon, minimizing possible adhesions with the surrounding tissues, minimizing the risk of repeat rupture, alleviating wound problems, and providing an acceptable cosmetic outcome. In the mini-open repair technique, unlike the percutaneous repair technique, the quality of the tenodesis can be visualized without disturbing the healing potential of the surrounding tissues, thus minimizing wound problems. The purpose of the present study was to assess the long-term results of the mini-open repair technique in patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture. A total of 20 consecutive patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture, admitted to our inpatient clinic from October 2003 to March 2008, were included in the present study. The patients underwent Achilles tenodesis with the mini-open repair technique, and each patient was followed up for 5 years. The study was completed in April 2013. The surgical procedure was performed with the assistance of a device designed in our orthosis laboratories, similarly to that defined by Assal et al. Of the 20 patients, 18 were male and 2 were female. Their mean age was 39.3 (range 21 to 55) years. The Achilles tendon rupture was located on the left side in 15 patients (75%) and on the right side in 5 patients (25%). The mean follow-up duration was 58.5 (range 18 to 60) months and no complications occurred during the follow-up period, including repeat rupture, wound site infection, and sural nerve injury. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scale score for the patients was 99.2 (range 94 to 100) points at the final follow-up visit. All our patients were able to return to work and sporting activities. According to the Trillat scores, the outcome was excellent in 19 patients and good in 1 patient at the 18th postoperative month. No complaint, such as pain or loss of function, that might have a negative effect on the

  4. Emergency Use of Stent and rtPA with Mechanical Cloth Defragmentation for a Thromboembolic Complication during GDC Coil Treatment of an Acutely Ruptured Basilar Tip Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncyljusz, W; Falkowski, A; Kojder, I; Sagan, L

    2006-11-30

    Thrombotic occlusion of both posterior cerebral arteries occurred during embolization of an acutely ruptured basilar tip aneurysm. Intracranial stenting and continuous superselective infusion of rtPA was administered combined with mechanical clot fragmentation to reestablish normal vessel flow. DSA disclosed that normal vessel patency was achieved within 30 min. There were no adverse events related to rtPA administration and the patient recovered from the embolization with minor neurologic deficit as present before the procedure.

  5. Post-acute traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: effects on outcome measures and life care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, Grace S; Kreber, Lisa A; Harrington, David; Ashley, Mark J

    2015-05-15

    Rehabilitation is the predominant post-acute treatment for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of post-acute TBI rehabilitation by comparing outcome measures and life care cost with that of patients with cerebrovascular accident (CVA) who underwent a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program within the same facility. To better assess the effects of rehabilitation, we only included patients with no benefit limitations from the insurance carrier. Functional effectiveness was determined by comparing outcome scales, which included the Disability Rating Scale, Mayo Portland Inventory, Occupational Status Scale, Living Status Scale, and the Centre for Neuro Skills Scale. Cost-effectiveness was determined by having certified life care planners create separate cost projections from the admission and discharge patient files. This allowed us to compare cost projections with and without rehabilitation for each patient. Significant decreases in the cost projections, i.e., rehabilitation savings (RS), were found after rehabilitation for TBI. These RS were equivalent to those of patients with CVA. Likewise, equivalent improvements were found on all of the outcome scales for both brain injury groups. We also evaluated if the latency from TBI to admission in the rehabilitation program had an influence on outcome. Cost and functional effectiveness was more marked when rehabilitation was initiated within the first year after TBI. The effects of age of TBI were also evaluated. Although RS were most marked in younger patients, improvements in outcome measures were observed in all age groups after post-acute rehabilitation.

  6. Parallel recovery of consciousness and sleep in acute traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Catherine; Dumont, Marie; Arbour, Caroline; Paquet, Jean; Blais, Hélène; Menon, David K; De Beaumont, Louis; Bernard, Francis; Gosselin, Nadia

    2017-01-17

    To investigate whether the progressive recuperation of consciousness was associated with the reconsolidation of sleep and wake states in hospitalized patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study comprised 30 hospitalized patients (age 29.1 ± 13.5 years) in the acute phase of moderate or severe TBI. Testing started 21.0 ± 13.7 days postinjury. Consciousness level and cognitive functioning were assessed daily with the Rancho Los Amigos scale of cognitive functioning (RLA). Sleep and wake cycle characteristics were estimated with continuous wrist actigraphy. Mixed model analyses were performed on 233 days with the RLA (fixed effect) and sleep-wake variables (random effects). Linear contrast analyses were performed in order to verify if consolidation of the sleep and wake states improved linearly with increasing RLA score. Associations were found between scores on the consciousness/cognitive functioning scale and measures of sleep-wake cycle consolidation (p sleep duration (p = 0.018), and nighttime fragmentation index (p sleep-wake quality. Consolidated 24-hour sleep-wake cycle occurred when patients were able to give context-appropriate, goal-directed responses. Our results showed that when the brain has not sufficiently recovered a certain level of consciousness, it is also unable to generate a 24-hour sleep-wake cycle and consolidated nighttime sleep. This study contributes to elucidating the pathophysiology of severe sleep-wake cycle alterations in the acute phase of moderate to severe TBI. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Cardiac arrhythmias the first month after acute traumatic spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Kim; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Malmqvist, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    of this prospective observational study was to investigate the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrests in patients with acute traumatic SCI. METHODS: As early as possible after SCI 24-hour Holter monitoring was performed. Additional Holter recordings were performed 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after SCI....... Furthermore, 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were obtained shortly after SCI and at 4 weeks. RESULTS: Thirty patients were included. Bradycardia (heart rate (HR) ... both on 12-lead ECGs obtained shortly after SCI (P = 0.030) and at 4 weeks (P = 0.041). CONCLUSION: Many patients with cervical SCI experience arrhythmias such as bradycardia, sinus node arrest, supraventricular tachycardia, and more rarely cardiac arrest the first month after SCI. Apart from sinus...

  8. Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Achilles tendon, the largest and strongest tendon in the human body, is nevertheless one of the tendons which most commonly undergoes a complete subcutaneous tear. Achilles tendon ruptures are especially common in middle aged men who occasionally participate in sport. Even though Achilles tendon ruptures are frequent, up to 25% of acute injuries are misdiagnosed, and present as chronic injuries. Methods: This is a review article about diagnosis and management of chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. Minimally invasive Achilles tendon reconstruction is discussed. Results: The optimal surgical procedure is still debated, however, less invasive peroneus brevis reconstruction technique and free hamstring autograft provide good functional results. Conclusion: The management of chronic ruptures is more demanding than acute tears, because of the retraction of the tendon ends, and the gap makes primary repair impossible. Wound complications and infections are frequent after open procedures. Minimally invasive treatments provide good functional results and lower complications rate. PMID:29081863

  9. Acute traumatic coagulopathy: Whole blood thrombelastography measures the tip of the iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James Eric; Aden, James Keith; Cap, Andrew Peter

    2015-05-01

    Thrombelastography (TEG) is suggested as an optimal instrument for the identification of acute traumatic coagulopathy-induced alterations in coagulation status. Patient whole blood (WB) used in TEG analysis is generally collected from a large blood vessel containing representative systemic blood, often close to 40% hematocrit (Hct). Trauma patients often exhibit bleeding from the microvasculature. This study examines early coagulation function changes at the simulated microvascular level based on altered Hct and pH in vitro through TEG analyses of normal donor blood. Anticoagulated normophysiologic fresh human blood was centrifuged. Individual component effects on coagulation were investigated through variable recombination groups: platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and red blood cells (RBCs), which were compared with WB. Acute traumatic coagulopathy-induced acidic microvascular environment was simulated and investigated using tissue factor-activated TEG analysis of variable Hct (40%, 30%, 20%, and 0%) samples and variable [H]. Incremental replacement of RBC with either PPP or normal saline (NS) simulated resuscitation in vitro was also conducted under similar conditions. Only acidified PRP reflected loss of clot strength. Acidified PRP and PPP were delayed equally in clot time. In all groups, inclusion of RBCs normalized clot time. RBC replacement with PPP significantly delayed clot time when samples were acid-challenged, signifying greater acid effect in low Hct microvascular beds. NS simulated resuscitation incurred even greater clotting delays. Acidemia-induced coagulopathy at the level of the capillary Hct (1) is more severe than at higher Hct levels (larger blood vessels), (2) shows that simulated resuscitation with NS causes greater increases in clot time and decreases in clot strength beyond that which occurs with plasma replacement, and (3) may not accurately be portrayed through common TEG practice of testing systemic WB of greater

  10. Benztropine for the relief of acute non-traumatic neck pain (wry neck): a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Stephen Edward; Kerr, Andrew; Jones, Keryn; McAlpine, Ann

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intra-muscular benztropine on pain and range of motion in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute, non-traumatic neck pain (wry neck). In this two-centre randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group superiority trial, participants were allocated to receive 2 mg intramuscular benztropine or normal saline. Participants were aged 16-65 years, no history of neck disorders and no use of medication that cause dystonia. Randomisation was computer generated, with allocation concealment by opaque sequentially numbered sealed envelopes. Pain scores and neck range of motion were measured immediately before drug administration, and 30 min after. Pain scores, range of motion and adverse effects were compared between the groups. No funding was received. The trial was registered. Thirty participants were enrolled, 15 randomised to placebo and 15 to benztropine. Pain scores at 30 min were lower in those allocated to benztropine, but the difference was neither statistically nor clinically significant (0.6 points, 95% CI -0.8 to 1.8, p=0.40). The range of motion of the cervical spine was greater in those receiving benztropine, but the differences were very small and not statistically significant. Adverse events were more common in those receiving benztropine. Benztropine was ineffective for reducing pain or improving range of motion of the cervical spine in patients suffering from acute, non-traumatic neck pain, but frequently caused anticholinergic side effects. However, as the CI for the primary outcome included the minimum difference considered clinically significant, an important effect of benztropine cannot be ruled out. ANZCTR#12612000354886. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Cognitive Improvement after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Measured with Functional Neuroimaging during the Acute Period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Wylie

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI have been largely limited to patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, utilizing images obtained months to years after the actual head trauma. We sought to distinguish acute and delayed effects of mild traumatic brain injury on working memory functional brain activation patterns < 72 hours after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and again one-week later. We hypothesized that clinical and fMRI measures of working memory would be abnormal in symptomatic mTBI patients assessed < 72 hours after injury, with most patients showing clinical recovery (i.e., improvement in these measures within 1 week after the initial assessment. We also hypothesized that increased memory workload at 1 week following injury would expose different cortical activation patterns in mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, compared to those with full clinical recovery. We performed a prospective, cohort study of working memory in emergency department patients with isolated head injury and clinical diagnosis of concussion, compared to control subjects (both uninjured volunteers and emergency department patients with extremity injuries and no head trauma. The primary outcome of cognitive recovery was defined as resolution of reported cognitive impairment and quantified by scoring the subject's reported cognitive post-concussive symptoms at 1 week. Secondary outcomes included additional post-concussive symptoms and neurocognitive testing results. We enrolled 46 subjects: 27 with mild TBI and 19 controls. The time of initial neuroimaging was 48 (+22 S.D. hours after injury (time 1. At follow up (8.7, + 1.2 S.D., days after injury, time 2, 18 of mTBI subjects (64% reported moderate to complete cognitive recovery, 8 of whom fully recovered between initial and follow-up imaging. fMRI changes from time 1 to time 2 showed an increase in posterior cingulate activation in the mTBI subjects

  12. Age related outcome in acute subdural haematoma following traumatic head injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanif, S

    2009-09-01

    Acute subdural haematoma (ASDH) is one of the conditions most strongly associated with severe brain injury. Reports prior to 1980 describe overall mortality rates for acute subdural haematomas (SDH\\'s) ranging from 40% to 90% with poor outcomes observed in all age groups. Recently, improved results have been reported with rapid diagnosis and surgical treatment. The elderly are predisposed to bleeding due to normal cerebral atrophy related to aging, stretching the bridging veins from the dura. Prognosis in ASDH is associated with age, time from injury to treatment, presence of pupillary abnormalities, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) or motor score on admission, immediate coma or lucid interval, computerized tomography findings (haematoma volume, degree of midline shift, associated intradural lesion, compression of basal cisterns), post-operative intracranial pressure and type of surgery. Advancing age is known to be a determinant of outcome in head injury. We present the results of a retrospective study carried out in Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland\\'s national neurosurgical centre. The aim of our study was to examine the impact of age on outcome in patients with ASDH following severe head injury. Only cases with acute subdural haematoma requiring surgical evacuation were recruited. Mortality was significantly higher in older patients (50% above 70 years, 25.6% between 40 and 70 years and 26% below 40 years). Overall poor outcome (defined as Glasgow outcome scores 3-5) was also higher in older patients; 74.1% above 70 years, 48% between 40 and 70 years and 30% below 40 years. Poor outcome in traumatic acute subdural haematoma is higher in elderly patients even after surgical intervention.

  13. Executive function disorder in acute traumatic brain injury in Manado, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekplin A.S. Sekeon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is known as a major cause of death and chronic disability worldwide. It is one of the leading causes of economic and social problems for patient, family and community. Patients will have serious complication on physics, mental and personality aspect. Executive function disorder is one of the cognitive functions that could be affected by TBI. There is scarcity of data about executive function in acute TBI, especially from developing countries. Our study aimed to investigate the association between acute TBI and executive function disorder. This study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Samples consisted of 20 patients and 40 demographically matched controls that meet the inclusion criteria. For executive function measurement we applied TMT-A, TMT-B and Stroop Test. The result showed that mean score of TMT-A for case group was 1.06 minute (95% CI 0.70-1.06 which was longer than control group (0.32 minute. For TMT- B test, the mean score was 2.68 minute (95% CI 2.05-2.8 for case group and 0.77 minute for control group. On Stroop Test 3 we found that the mean score was 17 correct items (95% CI 13.52-20.48 which was lower than control group (52.5. For all of the tests, we detected that acute TBI significantly associate with executive function disorder (p > 0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant association between acute TBI and executive function disorder.

  14. Inducing Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy In Vitro: The Effects of Activated Protein C on Healthy Human Whole Blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Howard

    Full Text Available Acute traumatic coagulopathy has been associated with shock and tissue injury, and may be mediated via activation of the protein C pathway. Patients with acute traumatic coagulopathy have prolonged PT and PTT, and decreased activity of factors V and VIII; they are also hypocoagulable by thromboelastometry (ROTEM and other viscoelastic assays. To test the etiology of this phenomenon, we hypothesized that such coagulopathy could be induced in vitro in healthy human blood with the addition of activated protein C (aPC.Whole blood was collected from 20 healthy human subjects, and was "spiked" with increasing concentrations of purified human aPC (control, 75, 300, 2000 ng/mL. PT/PTT, factor activity assays, and ROTEM were performed on each sample. Mixed effect regression modeling was performed to assess the association of aPC concentration with PT/PTT, factor activity, and ROTEM parameters.In all subjects, increasing concentrations of aPC produced ROTEM tracings consistent with traumatic coagulopathy. ROTEM EXTEM parameters differed significantly by aPC concentration, with stepwise prolongation of clotting time (CT and clot formation time (CFT, decreased alpha angle (α, impaired early clot formation (a10 and a20, and reduced maximum clot firmness (MCF. PT and PTT were significantly prolonged at higher aPC concentrations, with corresponding significant decreases in factor V and VIII activity.A phenotype of acute traumatic coagulopathy can be induced in healthy blood by the in vitro addition of aPC alone, as evidenced by viscoelastic measures and confirmed by conventional coagulation assays and factor activity. This may lend further mechanistic insight to the etiology of coagulation abnormalities in trauma, supporting the central role of the protein C pathway. Our findings also represent a model for future investigations in the diagnosis and treatment of acute traumatic coagulopathy.

  15. Early detection of consciousness in patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Brian L; Chatelle, Camille; Spencer, Camille A; Chu, Catherine J; Bodien, Yelena G; O'Connor, Kathryn L; Hirschberg, Ronald E; Hochberg, Leigh R; Giacino, Joseph T; Rosenthal, Eric S; Wu, Ona

    2017-09-01

    See Schiff (doi:10.1093/awx209) for a scientific commentary on this article. Patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury may recover consciousness before self-expression. Without behavioural evidence of consciousness at the bedside, clinicians may render an inaccurate prognosis, increasing the likelihood of withholding life-sustaining therapies or denying rehabilitative services. Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography techniques have revealed covert consciousness in the chronic setting, but these techniques have not been tested in the intensive care unit. We prospectively enrolled 16 patients admitted to the intensive care unit for acute severe traumatic brain injury to test two hypotheses: (i) in patients who lack behavioural evidence of language expression and comprehension, functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography detect command-following during a motor imagery task (i.e. cognitive motor dissociation) and association cortex responses during language and music stimuli (i.e. higher-order cortex motor dissociation); and (ii) early responses to these paradigms are associated with better 6-month outcomes on the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. Patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging on post-injury Day 9.2 ± 5.0 and electroencephalography on Day 9.8 ± 4.6. At the time of imaging, behavioural evaluation with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised indicated coma (n = 2), vegetative state (n = 3), minimally conscious state without language (n = 3), minimally conscious state with language (n = 4) or post-traumatic confusional state (n = 4). Cognitive motor dissociation was identified in four patients, including three whose behavioural diagnosis suggested a vegetative state. Higher-order cortex motor dissociation was identified in two additional patients. Complete absence of responses to language, music and motor imagery was only observed in coma patients. In patients with behavioural evidence

  16. 4.7-T diffusion tensor imaging of acute traumatic peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Richard B; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Riley, D Colton; Sexton, Kevin W; Pollins, Alonda C; Shack, R Bruce; Dortch, Richard D; Nanney, Lillian B; Does, Mark D; Thayer, Wesley P

    2015-09-01

    Diagnosis and management of peripheral nerve injury is complicated by the inability to assess microstructural features of injured nerve fibers via clinical examination and electrophysiology. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been shown to accurately detect nerve injury and regeneration in crush models of peripheral nerve injury, but no prior studies have been conducted on nerve transection, a surgical emergency that can lead to permanent weakness or paralysis. Acute sciatic nerve injuries were performed microsurgically to produce multiple grades of nerve transection in rats that were harvested 1 hour after surgery. High-resolution diffusion tensor images from ex vivo sciatic nerves were obtained using diffusion-weighted spin-echo acquisitions at 4.7 T. Fractional anisotropy was significantly reduced at the injury sites of transected rats compared with sham rats. Additionally, minor eigenvalues and radial diffusivity were profoundly elevated at all injury sites and were negatively correlated to the degree of injury. Diffusion tensor tractography showed discontinuities at all injury sites and significantly reduced continuous tract counts. These findings demonstrate that high-resolution DTI is a promising tool for acute diagnosis and grading of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries.

  17. Acute minocycline treatment prevents neurobehavioral impairment in a rat model of mild blast traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsebet eKovesdi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild blast induced traumatic brain injury (mbTBI and its associated memory impairment and anxiety elevation currently represent one of the major military health challenges. Our earlier work using a rodent model of mbTBI indicated that the pathology underlying the observed neurobehavioral abnormalities includes neuroinflammation. The aim of our present study was to determine the effect of acute treatment with minocycline, an FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on the functional and molecular outcomes of mbTBI. Beginning four hours after a single exposure to mild blast overpressure, animals received a daily dose of minocycline (50 mg/kg or physiological saline intraperitoneally (i.p. for 4 days. Physiological parameters (arterial blood O2 saturation, heart and breath rates, and pulse distension and neurobehavior (locomotor activity, anxiety, and spatial memory were monitored at multiple time points. At the termination of the experiment (51 days post-injury, we analyzed sera and select brain regions for changes in protein markers of inflammation as well as vascular, neuronal, and glial integrity. We found that acute treatment with minocycline completely prevented memory impairment and anxiety development by ameliorating the inflammatory response to injury and substantially reducing neuronal and glial cell loss. Based on our findings, we urge testing the effect of minocycline treatment in human mbTBI.

  18. The focus of family members’ functioning in the acute phase of traumatic coma; Part One: the initial battle and protecting life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaeghe, S.T.L.; van Zuuren, F.J.; Grypdonck, M.H.F.; Duijnstee, M.S.H.; Defloor, T.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. The identification and description of the basic psychological process linked with the focus of family members’ functioning during the acute phase of traumatic coma. Background. Earlier research learned that hope is a core category in coping with traumatic coma. Hope seems to be the drive to

  19. The focus of family members' functioning in the acute phase of traumatic coma; Part Two: Protecting from suffering and protecting what remains to rebuild life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaeghe, S.T.L.; van Zuuren, F.J.; Defloor, T.; Duijnstee, M.S.H.; Grypdonck, M.H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Aims.  The identification and description of the basic psychological process linked with the focus of family members’ functioning during the acute phase of traumatic coma. Background.  Earlier research learned that hope is a core category in coping with traumatic coma. Hope seems to be the drive to

  20. Dynamic Intraligamentary Stabilization (DIS) for treatment of acute anterior cruciate ligament ruptures: case series experience of the first three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henle, Philipp; Röder, Christoph; Perler, Gosia; Heitkemper, Sven; Eggli, Stefan

    2015-02-13

    In recent years, the scientific discussion has focused on new strategies to enable a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) to heal into mechanically stable scar tissue. Dynamic intraligamentary stabilization (DIS) was first performed in a pilot study of 10 patients. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether DIS would lead to similarly sufficient stability and good clinical function in a larger case series. Acute ACL ruptures were treated by using an internal stabilizer, combined with anatomical repositioning of torn bundles and microfracturing to promote self-healing. Clinical assessment (Tegner, Lysholm, IKDC, and visual analogue scale [VAS] for patient satisfaction scores) and assessment of knee laxity was performed at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. A one-sample design with a non-inferiority margin was chosen to compare the preoperative and postoperative IKDS and Lysholm scores. 278 patients with a 6:4 male to female ratio were included. Average patient age was 31 years. Preoperative mean IKDC, Lysholm, and Tegner scores were 98.8, 99.3, and 5.1 points, respectively. The mean anteroposterior (AP) translation difference from the healthy contralateral knee was 4.7 mm preoperatively. After DIS treatment, the mean 12-month IKDC, Lysholm, and Tegner scores were 93.6, 96.2, and 4.9 points, respectively, and the mean AP translation difference was 2.3 mm. All these outcomes were significantly non-inferior to the preoperative or healthy contralateral values (p DIS and microfracturing, leads to clinically stable healing of the torn ACL in the large majority of patients. Most patients exhibited almost normal knee function, reported excellent satisfaction, and were able to return to their previous levels of sporting activity. Moreover, this strategy resulted in stable healing of all sutured menisci, which could lower the rate of osteoarthritic changes in future. The present findings support the discussion of a new paradigm in ACL treatment based on preservation and

  1. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A; Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Winston, Flaura K; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children's coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six-month assessment. Children used an average of five to six coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children's acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping.

  2. Tendon Length, Calf Muscle Atrophy, and Strength Deficit After Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: Long-Term Follow-up of Patients in a Previous Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Juuso; Lantto, Iikka; Piilonen, Juuso; Flinkkilä, Tapio; Ohtonen, Pasi; Siira, Pertti; Laine, Vesa; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Pajala, Ari; Leppilahti, Juhana

    2017-09-20

    In this prospective study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess long-term Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and muscle fatty degeneration after surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture. From 1998 to 2001, 60 patients at our center underwent surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture followed by early functional postoperative rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients were reexamined after a minimum duration of follow-up of 13 years (mean, 14 years), and 52 of them were included in the present study. Outcome measures included Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and fatty degeneration measured with MRI of both the affected and the uninjured leg. The isokinetic plantar flexion strength of both calves was measured and was correlated with the structural findings. The Achilles tendon was, on average, 12 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.6 to 15.6 mm; p Achilles tendon length correlated substantially with the strength deficit (ρ = 0.51, p Achilles tendon length is associated with smaller calf muscle volumes and persistent plantar flexion strength deficits after surgical repair of Achilles tendon rupture. Strength deficits and muscle volume deficits are partly compensated for by FHL hypertrophy, but 11% to 13% deficits in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle volumes and 12% to 18% deficits in plantar flexion strength persist even after long-term follow-up. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Effects of progesterone and vitamin D on outcome of patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury; a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aminmansour, Bahram; Asnaashari, Ali; Rezvani, Majid; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Amin Noorian, Seyed Mohammad; Saboori, Masih; Abdollahzadeh, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    ...) while the role of progesterone and vitamin D remain controversial. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of progesterone and vitamin D on functional outcome of patients with acute traumatic SCI...

  4. Clinical profile of non-traumatic acute abdominal pain presenting to an adult emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshay Chanana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal pain is one of the most common reasons for presenting to the emergency depatment (ED and the etiology is varied. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a large ED of a tertiary care center in India. All patients older than 15 years and presenting with non-traumatic abdominal pain to the ED from May 2012 to October 2012 were recruited and the demographic characteristics, diagnosis and outcome were analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 264 patients over a 6 month period. More than half (55.6% were aged between 15 and 40 years. There was a male predominance (56.8%. Majority of the patients (76.9% presented with abdominal pain of less than 72 hour duration. The pain was sudden in onset in 54.9% of patients. Dull type was the most common character of pain (36% followed by colicky type (22.3%. The most common site of pain was the lower abdomen (45.8%. Upper abdominal pain was seen in 26.9% and the pain was generalized in 27.3% of patients. The common causes were uretericcolic (16.3%, urinary tract infection (12.5%, acute pancreatitis (11%, acute appendicitis (10.6% and acute gastritis (8%. More than half (51.9% discharged from ED and 37% of cases were managed by the emergency physicians. Surgical intervention was required in 25.8% of patients. The mortality rate was 2.3%. Conclusions: Abdominal pain is a common ED symptom and clinicians must consider multiple diagnoses, especially those that require immediate intervention to limit morbidity and mortality.

  5. Acute and long-term pituitary insufficiency in traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, M; Juul, A; Struck, J

    2007-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI), describe the time-course and assess the association with trauma-related parameters and early post-traumatic hormone alterations.......To assess the prevalence of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI), describe the time-course and assess the association with trauma-related parameters and early post-traumatic hormone alterations....

  6. Acute Traumatic Aortic Disruption and Right Aortic Arch: A Fatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirvan Salaminia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute traumatic aortic disruption occurs after forceful deceleration and usually due to motor accidents. Only 10 % to 15 % reach a treatment facility alive and a highly suspicious state is needed for timely diagnosis. Most time they suffer multiple associated lethal injuries. Asymptomatic and isolated right aortic arch is a rare anomaly of the aorta with a prevalence of 0.5% [3]. Its diagnosis is by radiologic studies. We present this patient to remember that the incidental right aortic arch and disruption may interpreted as the left side mediastinal rotation in radiography and so inadvertently lead to late diagnosis and a futile outcome. A 24-year old man was brought to emergency room following a motor accident. He had Glascow Coma Scale Score: 14-15/15 but with stable vital signs. After primary survey chest radiography, emergency abdominal sonography (eFAST and brain CT scanning were requested. Spiral thoracoabdominal CT was also requested about seven hours after admission and when the patient entered an unstable hemodynamic phase. The primary survey was unremarkable. His chest radiography had left mediastinal rotation, which is opposite to what is seen pathologically in the condition of the traumatic aortic disruption, the right mediastinal rotation. His eFAST and brain CT were normal. The patient remained stable until seven hours after admission when the patient becomes unstable. Massive pleural effusion with aortic disruption and a right aortic arch was seen in thoracoabdominal CT. He transferred to the operation room but arrested during transfer. Massive hemothorax was seen during open cardiac massage. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was unsuccessful. This may raises that in any blunt trauma patient with highly suspicious history for the great vessel injury, it may be better to consider the spiral chest CT scanning as the primary radiologic test for evaluation of the chest trauma and not waste the time or resources with rely simply on a

  7. Abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging seen acutely following mild traumatic brain injury: correlation with neuropsychological tests and delayed recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, David G.; Jackson, Alan [Department of Neuroradiology, Hope Hospital, M6 8HD, Salford (United Kingdom); Mason, Damon L.; Berry, Elizabeth [Department of Behavioural Medicine, Hope Hospital, M6 8HD, Salford (United Kingdom); Hollis, Sally [Medical Statistics Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Yates, David W. [Department of Emergency Medicine, Hope Hospital, M6 8HD, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common reason for hospital attendance and is associated with significant delayed morbidity. We studied a series of 80 persons with MTBI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing were used in the acute phase and a questionnaire for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and return to work status at 6 months. In 26 subjects abnormalities were seen on MRI, of which 5 were definitely traumatic. There was weak correlation with abnormal neuropsychological tests for attention in the acute period. There was no significant correlation with a questionnaire for PCS and return to work status. Although non-specific abnormalities are frequently seen, standard MRI techniques are not helpful in identifying patients with MTBI who are likely to have delayed recovery. (orig.)

  8. Thromboelastographic evidence of inhibition of fibrinolysis after ε-aminocaproic acid administration in a dog with suspected acute traumatic coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung H; Venn, Emilee; Sullivan, Lauren A; Olver, Christine S

    2016-09-01

    To describe the thromboelastographic changes in fibrinolysis with ε-aminocaproic acid treatment in a dog with suspected acute traumatic coagulopathy. A 9-year-old female spayed Airedale Terrier was presented with multiple injuries consistent with motor vehicle trauma. After surgical repair of a diaphragmatic hernia and minor laceration of the right cranial lung lobe, the dog continued to produce copious volumes of hemorrhagic fluid from the thoracic cavity despite multiple plasma transfusions, autotransfusions, and failure to locate a definitive source of bleeding during 2 separate surgeries. ε-Aminocaproic acid treatment was initiated and was associated with rapid clinical improvement and diminished fibrinolysis based on a modified plasma-based thromboelastogram. This report describes thromboelastographic evidence of inhibition of fibrinolysis after ε-aminocaproic acid administration in a dog with suspected acute traumatic coagulopathy. Thromboelastrography may be useful in monitoring therapy with antifibrinolytic drugs. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  9. Cognitive activity limitations one year post-trauma in patients admitted to sub-acute rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Jens Bak; Norup, Anne; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    -acute rehabilitation in the Eastern part of Denmark during a 5-year period from 2005 to 2009. Methods: Level of consciousness was assessed consecutively during rehabilitation and at 1 year post-trauma. Severity of traumatic brain injury was classified according to duration of post-traumatic amnesia. The cognitive...... of consciousness during the first year post-trauma. At follow-up 33-58% of patients had achieved functional independence within the cognitive domains on the Cog-FIM. Socio-economic status, duration of acute care and post-traumatic amnesia were significant predictors of outcome. Conclusion: Substantial recovery...

  10. Is surgical intervention more effective than non-surgical treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture? A systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaohong; Lin, Linghan; Li, Hao; Zhao, Yachao; Liu, Longgang; Jia, Zhiwei; Wang, Deli; He, Qing; Ruan, Dike

    2016-12-01

    There is discordance in the results from meta-analyses on surgical versus non-surgical treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture. We systematically reviewed the overlapping meta-analyses on this topic to provide information that will be helpful to decision makers when selecting treatments based on the current best available evidence. We comprehensively searched multiple databases for systematic reviews that compared surgical and non-surgical treatments for acute Achilles tendon rupture. We only included meta-analyses that comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The methodological quality and extracted data were assessed. The meta-analysis that offered the best evidence was ascertained with the Jadad decision algorithm. Nine meta-analyses were included in our study and all of them included RCTs with Level-II evidence. Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scores ranged from 5 to 10 (median 7). The Jadad decision algorithm was used to select a high-quality meta-analysis with more RCTs. The results from this study showed that when functional rehabilitation was used, non-surgical intervention was similar to surgical treatment regarding the incidence of range of motion, rerupture, calf circumference and functional outcomes, and the incidence of other complications was reduced. Non-surgical intervention significantly increased the rerupture rate if functional rehabilitation was not considered. The findings of meta-analyses regarding surgical versus non-surgical treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture are inconsistent. According to this systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses, the current best available evidence suggests that centers offering functional rehabilitation may prefer non-surgical intervention. Surgical treatment may be preferred at centers that do not have functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pituitary dysfunction in traumatic brain injury: Is evaluation in the acute phase worthwhile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip P Dalwadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an under-recognized cause of hypopituitarism. According to recent data, it could be more frequent than previously known. However, there is a scarcity of data in Indian population. Aims: The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of pituitary hormone deficiencies in the acute phase of TBI. The secondary objectives were to correlate the severity of trauma with basal hormone levels and to determine whether initial hormone deficiencies predict mortality. Subjects and Methods: Forty-nine TBI patients (41 men and 8 women were included in this study. Pituitary functions were evaluated within 24 h of admission. Results: Gonadotropin deficiency was found in 65.3% patient while 46.9% had low insulin-like growth factor-1, 12.24% had cortisol level <7 mcg/dl. Cortisol and prolactin level were positively correlated with the severity of TBI suggestive of stress response. Free triiodothyronine (fT3 and free thyroxine were significantly lower in patients with increasing severity of tuberculosis. Logistic regression analysis revealed that mortality after TBI was unrelated to the basal pituitary hormone levels except low T3 level, which was found to be positively related to mortality. Conclusions: Pituitary dysfunction is common after TBI and the most commonly affected axes are growth hormone and gonadotropin axis. Low fT3 correlates best with mortality. During the acute phase of TBI, at least an assessment of cortisol is vital as undetected cortisol deficiency can be life-threatening

  12. Correlation of Computed Tomography findings with Glasgow Coma Scale in patients with acute traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Sah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To correlate Computed Tomography (CT findings with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS in patients with acute traumatic brain injury attending in Chitwan Medical College teaching hospital Chitwan, Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed among 50 patients of acute (less than24 hours cases of craniocerebral trauma over a period of four months. The patient’s level of consciousness (GCS was determined and a brain CT scan without contrast media was performed. A sixth generation General Electric (GE CT scan was utilized and 5mm and 10mm sections were obtained for infratentorial and supratentorial parts respectively. RESULT The age range of the patients was 1 to 75 years (mean age 35.6± 21.516 years and male: female ratio was 3.1:1. The most common causes of head injury were road traffic accident (RTA (60%, fall injury (20%, physical assault (12% and pedestrian injuries (8%. The distribution of patients in accordance with consciousness level was found to be 54% with mild TBI (GCS score 12 to 14, 28% with moderate TBI (GCS score 11 to 8 and 18% with severe TBI (GCS score less than 7. The presence of mixed lesions and midline shift regardless of the underlying lesion on CT scan was accompanied by lower GCS. CONCLUSION The presence of mixed lesions and midline shift regardless of the underlying lesion on CT scan were accompanied with lower GCS. Patients having single lesion had more GCS level than mixed level and mid line shift type of injury.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i2.12947 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 4-9

  13. A Case of Heel Cord Pain After Repair of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: Treated by Endoscopic Adhesiolysis of the Achilles Tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-10-01

    The causes of heel cord pain after repair of acute rupture of the Achilles tendon are unclear. The proposed etiologies include nonabsorbable suture granuloma formation, alteration of the pain receptors threshold in the tendon, and distension of the paratenon by the hypertrophied tendon, underlying tendinopathy, postrepair neovascularization, and peritendinous fibrous adhesion. We present an endoscopic technique of adhesiolysis of the Achilles tendon to deal with the various possible causes of postrepair heel cord pain. Therapeutic, Level 4: Case report. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Evaluation of acute phase proteins in cows affected by Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rezaei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis is one of the most important diseases of the bovine digestive system which if diagnosed in early stage and before severe adhesions develop, more effective treatments leading to better prognosis could be under taken. In the course of accurate and timely diagnosis                            of these diseases, acute phase proteins of the affected animals were evaluated. For this purpose,                       blood samples were taken form jugular vein of 25 Holstein cows in which the presence of disease         clinically and confirmed with laparatomy and their sera separated. Blood sample were also collected from 20 healthy cows as the control group. After preparing serum sample, total protein haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and ceruloplasmin were measured in both groups. Total protein was determined by the Biuret method, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A by ELISA and ceruloplasmin through determination of the oxidative activity. Statistical analysis indicated significant difference in the amounts of total protein, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A between the two groups (p

  15. Acute Traumatic Compartment Syndrome in Pediatric Foot: A Systematic Review and Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Kelly; Nguyen, Hienvu; Russell, Lindsay; Lee, Daniel K

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg and foot is a not widely reported, but serious, potential complication that can develop after fractures, crush injuries, or high-velocity trauma of the lower extremity. Early recognition and treatment are critical in preventing morbidity and permanent complications. Although compartment syndrome of the lower leg and foot has been well-studied and documented in adults, its occurrence in the pediatric population is rare. We performed a systematic review of the published data and present the case of the youngest patient with isolated ACS of the foot. A high index of suspicion is warranted in pediatric patients with a traumatic injury to the lower extremity for compartment syndrome. Inconclusive radiographic findings owing to skeletal immaturity and the inability to verbalize symptoms place young children at high risk of undiagnosed compartment syndrome. Clinicians should have a very low threshold for fasciotomy to prevent long-term sequelae associated with undiagnosed compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Erythropoietin-Derived Peptide Protects Against Acute Lung Injury After Rat Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI can be complicated by TBI-triggered acute lung injury (ALI, in which inflammation plays a central role. It has been reported that an Erythropoietin-derived peptide (pHBSP was able to ameliorate TBI; however, its function in TBI-caused ALI has not been reported yet. Methods: In this study, we studied the effect of pHBSP on TBI-caused ALI by using a weight-drop induced TBI model. At 8 h and 24 h post-TBI, pulmonary edema (PE and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF proteins were measured, and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining of lung sections was carried out. At 24 h following TBI, the lungs were harvested for immunofluorescence staining and qRT-PCR analysis. Results: At 8 h and 24 h post-TBI, pHBSP treatment significantly decreased wet/dry ratios, decreased total BALF protein, and attenuated the histological signs of pulmonary injury. At 24 h post-TBI, pHBSP treatment decreased the accumulation of CD68+ macrophages in the lung and reduced the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and iNOS in the lung. Conclusions: We identified the protective role that pHBSP played in TBI-caused ALI, suggesting that pHBSP is a potent candidate for systemic therapy in TBI patients.

  17. Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality following Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Propensity Score Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yun Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been widely studied and the effects of injury can be long term or even lifelong. This research aims to characterize the sleep problems of patients following acute mTBI. Methods. A total of 171 patients with mTBI within one month and 145 non-mTBI controls were recruited in this study. The questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, was used to evaluate seven aspects of sleep problems. A propensity score method was used to generate a quasirandomized design to account for the background information, including gender, age, Beck’s Anxiety Index, Beck’s Depression Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The effect was evaluated via cumulative logit regression including propensity scores as a covariate. Results. Before adjustment, about 60% mTBI patients and over three quarters of control subjects had mild sleep disturbance while one third mTBI patients had moderate sleep disturbance. After adjusting by the propensity scores, the scores of sleep quality and duration were significant between mTBI and control groups. Conclusion. Our study supports that sleep problem is common in mTBI group. After adjusting the confounders by propensity score, sleep duration and subjective sleep quality are the most frequently reported problems in mTBI patients within one month after the injury.

  18. Acute traumatic coagulopathy decreased actual survival rate when compared with predicted survival rate in severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Sung Woo; Han, Gap Su; Moon, Sung Woo; Choi, Sung Hyuck; Hong, Yun Sik

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) should be combined with the trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) to predict outcome in severe trauma patients and investigate effects of the change in coagulation state during early resuscitation on the actual survival rate. This was a retrospective study. Significant variables that affected 28-day mortality were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Study patients were classified into three groups: no coagulopathy, mild coagulopathy or severe coagulopathy. Concordance between actual and predicted survival rates were compared for each group. The predicted survival rate was calculated using the TRISS method. The study also determined whether changes in the coagulation state during inhospital resuscitation affected the relationship between actual and predicted survival in patients who had rechecked coagulation profile within 12 h after presentation. Data from a total of 336 patients were analysed. At presentation, 20.8% of the study patients had mild coagulopathy, whereas 7.7% had severe coagulopathy. Age, injury severity score, revised trauma score and presence of ATC at presentation were independently associated with 28-day mortality. Actual survival was significantly lower than predicted survival in the mild and severe coagulopathy groups. Aggravation of coagulation state from normal or mild to severe coagulopathy or persistent severe coagulopathy during inhospital resuscitation mainly contributed to the discrepancy between actual and predicted survival. ATC decreased actual survival more than expected. ATC should be combined with TRISS to predict trauma outcome in severely injured patients. Improvement in coagulopathy during resuscitation may reduce the incidence of preventable death after trauma.

  19. Radionuclide diagnosis of splenic rupture in infectious mononucleosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vezina, W.C.; Nicholson, R.L.; Cohen, P.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1984-06-01

    Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but serious complication of infectious mononucleosis. Although radionuclide spleen imaging is a well accepted method for diagnosis of traumatic rupture, interpretation can be difficult in the setting of mononucleosis, as tears may be ill-defined and diagnosis hampered by inhomogeneous splenic uptake. Four proven cases of spontaneous rupture are presented, three of which illustrate these diagnostic problems.

  20. Pilot Trial of Inpatient Cognitive Therapy for the Prevention of Suicide in Military Personnel with Acute Stress Disorder or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Psychopathology Course Lecture on Professional Burnout & Suicide – Medical Psychology Course Lecture on Suicide Risk Assessment & Management...TITLE: Pilot Trial of Inpatient Cognitive Therapy for the Prevention of Suicide in Military Personnel with Acute Stress Disorder or Post-Traumatic...Pilot Trial of Inpatient Cognitive Therapy for the Prevention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER of Suicide in Military Personnel with Acute Stress Disorder or

  1. Early altered resting-state functional connectivity predicts the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in acutely traumatized subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between resting-state functional connectivity and the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms in 15 people who developed PTSD following recent trauma. Fifteen participants who experienced acute traumatic events underwent a 7.3-min resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan within 2 days post-event. All the patients were diagnosed with PTSD within 1 to 6 months after trauma. Brain areas in which activity was correlated with that of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC were assessed. To assess the relationship between the severity of PTSD symptoms and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas positively correlated with the PCC were correlated with the subject's Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores (CAPS when they were diagnosed. Furthermore, the PCC, medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral amygdala were selected to assess the correlation of the strength of functional connectivity with the CAPS. Resting state connectivity with the PCC was negatively correlated with CAPS scores in the left superior temporal gyrus and right hippocampus/amygdala. Furthermore, the strength of connectivity between the PCC and bilateral amygdala, and even between the bilateral amygdala could predict the severity of PTSD symptoms later. These results suggest that early altered resting-state functional connectivity of the PCC with the left superior temporal gyrus, right hippocampus and amygdala could predict the severity of the disease and may be a major risk factor that predisposes patients to develop PTSD.

  2. Effect of an integrated reality orientation programme in acute care on post-traumatic amnesia in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guise, E; Leblanc, J; Feyz, M; Thomas, H; Gosselin, N

    2005-04-01

    To assess the effect of an integrated reality orientation programme (North Star Project) in acute care on the duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was hypothesized that those patients having participated in this programme would show a shorter PTA than those patients that did not. Duration of PTA for 12 patients with TBI who were part of the North Star Project was compared with that of 26 patients matched for initial GCS and age for whom this approach was not available (control group). Length of PTA was shorter by 5 days for the North Star patients. This result was not statistically significant (p = 0.19) but is clinically relevant. No between-group difference was found for Glasgow Coma Scale. Consequences of shorter PTA would include increased and more appropriate patient interaction and earlier transfer to rehabilitation. The North Star project also allows the family to become more actively involved in the treatment of their loved one. Further study is required to evaluate this intervention strategy to improve orientation for the patient with TBI.

  3. AN INTERESTING CASE OF LEFT DIAPHRAGM RUPTURE WITH INTRATHORACIC MIGRATION OF RUPTURE SPLEEN, STOMACH & SPLENIC FLEXOR COLON

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Diaphragmatic rupture is a tear of diaphragm. It results from blu nt or penetrating inj ury to trunk 1 . It occurs in 5% of cases of severe blunt trauma to trunk 2 . Mortality from traumatic rupture diaphragm is 14 - 5 0 % 3 . This increases to 77% when associated with shock & head injury 3 . Associated injury makes the outcome w orst. Here is a case with spleen tear associated with traumatic rupture of diaphragm . ...

  4. Cardiogenic shock due to cardiac free-wall rupture or tamponade after acute myocardial infarction: a report from the SHOCK Trial Registry. Should we emergently revascularize occluded coronaries for cardiogenic shock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, J; Brown, R J; Antonelli, T A; Menon, V; Boland, J; Col, J; Dzavik, V; Greenberg, M; Menegus, M; Connery, C; Hochman, J S

    2000-09-01

    We sought to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiogenic shock (CS) caused by rupture of the ventricular free wall or tamponade versus shock from other causes. Free-wall rupture is a recognized cause of mortality in patients with acute MI. Some of these patients present subacutely, which provides an opportunity for intervention. Recognition of factors that distinguish them from the overall shock cohort would be beneficial. The international SHOCK Trial Registry enrolled patients concurrently with the randomized SHOCK Trial. Thirty-six centers consecutively enrolled all patients with suspected CS after MI, regardless of trial eligibility. Of the 1,048 patients studied, 28 (2.7%) had free-wall rupture or tamponade. These patients had less pulmonary edema, less diabetes, less prior MI, and less prior congestive heart failure (all p < 0.05). They more often had new Q waves in two or more leads (51.9% vs. 31.5%, p < 0.04), but MI location and time to shock onset after MI did not differ. Of patients with rupture or tamponade, 75% had pericardial effusions. No hemodynamic characteristics identified patients with rupture/tamponade. Most patients with rupture/tamponade had surgery and/or pericardiocentesis (27/28); their in-hospital survival rate was identical to that of the group overall (39.3%). Women and older patients with rupture/tamponade tended to survive intervention less often. Free-wall rupture and tamponade may present as CS after MI, and survival after intervention is similar to that of the overall shock cohort. All patients with CS after MI should have echocardiography in order to detect subacute rupture or tamponade and initiate appropriate interventions.

  5. Acute traumatic coagulopathy in a critically injured pediatric population: Definition, trend over time, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Christine M; Kutcher, Matthew; Nasr, Isam; McKenna, Christine; Billiar, Timothy; Neal, Matthew; Sperry, Jason; Gaines, Barbara A

    2016-07-01

    While our understanding of acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) in adults is advancing, the pediatric literature on ATC is limited. Children have a unique injury profile and physiologic response to trauma; however, the impact of this phenomenon on ATC has not been fully elucidated. We performed a retrospective review of our trauma registry from 2005 to 2014. Level 1 trauma patients age 0 year to 17 years requiring admission to the intensive care unit were included. Variables included admission vital signs and laboratory studies, product transfusion, injuries, and mortality. Youden index was used to determine optimum cutoff point for admission international normalized ratio (INR) as a predictor of mortality. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine independent predictors of mortality adjusting for hypotension, hypothermia, acidosis, injury severity, hemorrhage, and head injury. χ tests were performed evaluating for association between mortality and 24-hour INR as well as between transfusion and INR correction. A total of 776 patients were analyzed: 29.2% (n = 227) had an admission INR of 1.3 or greater, and 13.3% (n = 103) had an admission INR of 1.5 or greater. Youden index demonstrated optimum cutoff at INR of 1.3 or greater to distinguish survivors and nonsurvivors. Overall mortality rate was 11.1% (n = 86). Elevated INR was independently associated with mortality (odds ratio, 3.77; p population; however, product transfusion did not influence the INR trend or clinical outcome. Further research is warranted to evaluate potential upstream mediators of ATC and targets for intervention in pediatric trauma patients. Prognostic and epidemiologic study, level III.

  6. Swirl sign in traumatic acute epidural hematoma: prognostic value and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng; Liu, Lin; Wang, Bing; Wang, Zhigang

    2017-12-01

    The swirl sign is identified as a small area of low attenuation within an intracranial hyperattenuating clot on non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans of the brain, which represents active bleeding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of the swirl sign among patients with acute epidural hematoma (AEDH) and to identify its prognostic value and impact on surgical treatment. A retrospective review was performed of patients with a diagnosis of traumatic EDH by CT scan who were surgically treated at the Department of Neurosurgery of the First People's Hospital of Jingmen between January 2010 and January 2014. Patients with combined or open craniocerebral injuries and those who did not undergo surgical treatment were excluded. Of the 147 patients evaluated, 21 (14%) exhibited the swirl sign on non-enhanced CT scans of the brain. Univariate analysis revealed a significant correlation between the occurrence of the swirl sign and preoperative Glasgow coma scale scores, preoperative mydriasis, time from injury to CT scan, and intraoperative hematoma volume. Compared with patients without this sign, those exhibiting the swirl sign had a higher mortality rate (24 vs. 6%, respectively; P = 0.028) and a worse outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score ≤ 3: 38 vs. 15%, respectively; P = 0.027) at 3 months. An adjusted analysis showed that the occurrence of the swirl sign was an independent predictor of poor outcome (death: odds ratio (OR) = 4.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-15.82; P sign on the head CT scan of patients with AEDH was found to be significantly associated with poor outcome. Therefore, early identification of this sign and aggressive management with early surgical evacuation is crucial for improving patient outcome.

  7. Acute traumatic coagulopathy among major trauma patients in an urban tertiary hospital in sub Saharan Africa

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    Mujuni Erick

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality from trauma remains a major public health issue as it is the leading cause of death in persons aged 5 to 44 years .Uncontrolled hemorrhage and coagulopathy is responsible for over 50% of all trauma related deaths within the first 48hrs of admission. Coagulation profiles are not routinely done among trauma patients in resource limited settings and there is a paucity of data on acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC in sub Saharan Africa. The study was conducted to evaluate the prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time (PT/PTT as predictors of mortality and morbidity among major trauma patients. Methods A prospective cohort study was carried out, in which major trauma patients admitted in A&E department between December 2011 to April 2012 were recruited. Five (5 mls of venous blood was drawn from a convenient vein within 10 minutes of the patient’s arrival at A&E for analysis of PT/PTT. Patients were stratified into two groups by the presence/absence of coagulopathy then followed up for a 2 week period for morbidity and mortality. Results A total of 182 major trauma patients were recruited; 149 (81.9% were males, the mean age was 29.5 years (SD 9.8. Prevalence of coagulopathy was 54% (98/182. The mean ISS for the ATC group was 36.9 and the non ATC group was 26.9 (p=0.001. Patients with ATC stayed longer in hospital 11.24 days than non ATC patients 8 days (p=0.001. ATC was strongly associated with ARI (p= 0.003. Mortality was more in the ATC group 29 deaths compared to 9 deaths in the non ATC group. PTT was a strong independent predictor of mortality. Conclusion A significant proportion of major trauma patients were coagulopathic. Initial coagulation profile is useful in predicting outcomes for major trauma patients.

  8. Cognitive Training for Post-Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Harry Hallock

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantitatively aggregate effects of cognitive training (CT on cognitive and functional outcome measures in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI more than 12-months post-injury.Design: We systematically searched six databases for non-randomized and randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CT in TBI patients at least 12-months post-injury reporting cognitive and/or functional outcomes. Main Measures: Efficacy was measured as standardized mean difference (Hedges’ g of post-training change. We investigated heterogeneity across studies using subgroup analyses and meta-regressions. Results: Fourteen studies encompassing 575 patients were included. The effect of CT on overall cognition was small and statistically significant (g=0.22, 95%CI 0.05 to 0.38; p=0.01, with low heterogeneity (I2=11.71% and no evidence of publication bias. A moderate effect size was found for overall functional outcomes (g=0.32, 95%CI 0.08 to 0.57, p=0.01 with low heterogeneity (I2=14.27% and possible publication bias. Statistically significant effects were also found only for executive function (g=0.20, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.39, p=0.03 and verbal memory (g=0.32, 95%CI 0.14 to 0.50, p<0.01. Conclusions: Despite limited studies in this field, this meta-analysis indicates that CT is modestly effective in improving cognitive and functional outcomes in patients with post-acute TBI and should therefore play a more significant role in TBI rehabilitation.

  9. Connectomic and surface-based morphometric correlates of acute mild traumatic brain injury

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    Patrizia eDall'Acqua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced integrity of white matter (WM pathways and subtle anomalies in gray matter (GM morphology have been hypothesized as mechanisms in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. However, findings on structural brain changes in early stages after mTBI are inconsistent and findings related to early symptoms severity are rare.Fifty-one patients were assessed with multimodal neuroimaging and clinical methods exclusively within 7 days following mTBI and compared to 53 controls. Whole-brain connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging was subjected to network-based statistics, whereas cortical surface area, thickness, and volume based on T1-weighted MRI scans were investigated using surface-based morphometric analysis. Reduced connectivity strength within a subnetwork of 59 edges located predominantly in bilateral frontal lobes was significantly associated with higher levels of self-reported symptoms. In addition, cortical surface area decreases were associated with stronger complaints in five clusters located in bilateral frontal and postcentral cortices, and in the right inferior temporal region. Alterations in WM and GM were localized in similar brain regions and moderately-to-strongly related to each other. Furthermore, the reduction of cortical surface area in the frontal regions was correlated with poorer attentive-executive performance in the mTBI group. Finally, group differences were detected in both the WM and GM, especially when focusing on a subgroup of patients with greater complaints, indicating the importance of classifying mTBI patients according to severity of symptoms. This study provides evidence that mTBI affects not only the integrity of WM networks by means of axonal damage but also the morphology of the cortex during the initial post-injury period. These anomalies might be greater in the acute period than previously believed and the involvement of frontal brain regions was consistently pronounced in both findings. The dysconnected

  10. Cerebral Hemodynamic Effects of Acute Hyperoxia and Hyperventilation after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Lara, Lucia Rivera; Gopinath, Shankar; Swank, Paul R.; Valadka, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hyperventilation or hyperoxia on cerebral hemodynamic parameters over time in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We prospectively studied 186 patients with severe TBI. CO2 and O2 reactivity tests were conducted twice a day on days 1–5 and once daily on days 6–10 after injury. During hyperventilation there was a significant decrease in intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), jugular venous oxygen saturation (Sjvo2), brain tissue Po2 (Pbto2), and flow velocity (FV). During hyperoxia there was an increase in Sjvo2 and Pbto2, and a small but consistent decrease in ICP, end-tidal carbon dioxide (etco2), partial arterial carbon dioxide pressure (Paco2), and FV. Brain tissue oxygen reactivity during the first 12 h after injury averaged 19.7 ± 3.0%, and slowly decreased over the next 7 days. The autoregulatory index (ARI; normal = 5.3 ± 1.3) averaged 2.2 ± 1.5 on day 1 post-injury, and gradually improved over the 10 days of monitoring. The ARI significantly improved during hyperoxia, by an average of 0.4 ± 1.8 on the left, and by 0.5 ± 1.8 on the right. However, the change in ARI with hyperoxia was much smaller than that observed with hyperventilation. Hyperventilation increased ARI by an average of 1.3 ± 1.9 on the left, and 1.5 ± 2.0 on the right. Pressure autoregulation, as assessed by dynamic testing, was impaired in these head-injured patients. Acute hyperoxia significantly improved pressure autoregulation, although the effect was smaller than that induced by hyperventilation. The very small change in Paco2 induced by hyperoxia does not appear to explain this finding. Rather, the vasoconstriction induced by acute hyperoxia may allow the cerebral vessels to respond better to transient hypotension. Further studies are needed to define the clinical significance of these observations. PMID:20684672

  11. Risk factors for laryngeal penetration-aspiration in patients with acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.

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    Ihalainen, Tiina; Rinta-Kiikka, Irina; Luoto, Teemu M; Thesleff, Tuomo; Helminen, Mika; Korpijaakko-Huuhka, Anna-Maija; Ronkainen, Antti

    2017-06-30

    Laryngeal penetration-aspiration, the entry of material into the airways, is considered the most severe subtype of dysphagia and is common among patients with acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for penetration-aspiration in patients with acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (TCSCI). This is a prospective cohort study. Thirty-seven patients with TCSCI were included in the study. The highest Rosenbek penetration-aspiration scale (PAS; range 1-8) score of each patient was the primary outcome measure. The risk factors consisted of patient characteristics, demographics, and clinical signs observed during a clinical swallowing trial. A clinical swallowing trial and videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) was performed on all patients within 28 days post injury. For group comparisons, the patients were divided into two groups: (1) penetrator-aspirators (PAS score ≥3) and (2) non-penetrator-aspirators (PAS score ≤2). Of the 37 patients, 83.8% were male. The mean age at the time of the injury was 61.2 years. Most patients had an incomplete TCSCI (78.4%) caused by a fall (75.7%). In the VFSS, 51.4% of the patients were penetrator-aspirators, and 71.4% had silent aspiration. The risk factors for predicting penetration-aspiration were (1) necessity of bronchoscopies, (2) lower level of anterior cervical operation, (3) coughing, throat clearing, choking related to swallowing, and (4) changes in voice quality related to swallowing. Binary logistic regression identified coughing, throat clearing, choking, and changes in voice quality related to swallowing as independent risk factors for penetration-aspiration. The necessity of bronchoscopies, postinjury lower cervical spine anterior surgery, coughing, throat clearing, choking, and changes in voice quality related to swallowing was a markedrisk factor for aspiration and penetration following a cervical SCI. These factors and signs should be used to suspect

  12. Blunt abdominal trauma with handlebar injury: A rare cause of traumatic amputation of the appendix associated with acute appendicitis

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    Amanda Jensen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe traumatic appendicitis in a 7-year-old boy who presented after sustaining blunt abdominal trauma to his right lower abdomen secondary to bicycle handlebar injury. With diffuse abdominal pain following injury, he was admitted for observation. Computed axial tomography (CT obtained at an outside hospital demonstrated moderate stranding of the abdomen in the right lower quadrant. The CT was non-contrasted and therefore significant appendiceal distention could not be confirmed. However, there was a calcified structure in the right pelvis with trace amount of free fluid. Patient was observed with conservative management and over the course of 15 h his abdominal pain continued to intensify. With his worsening symptoms, we elected to take him for diagnostic laparoscopy. In the operating room we found an inflamed traumatically amputated appendix with the mesoappendix intact. We therefore proceeded with laparoscopic appendectomy. Pathology demonstrated acute appendicitis with fecalith. It was unclear as to whether the patient's appendicitis and perforation were secondary to fecalith obstruction, his blunt abdominal trauma or if they concurrently caused his appendicitis. Acute appendicitis is a common acute surgical condition in the pediatric population and continues to be a rare and unique cause of operative intervention in the trauma population.

  13. The Evaluation Acute Traumatic Stress Level in Close Relatives of Stroke Patients.

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    Ünal, Yasemin; Ünal, Yes Im; Öztürk, Dilek A; Emir, Gülser K; Yılmaz, Mustafa; Kutlu, Gulnihal

    2017-09-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. Both stroke patients and their family can therefore experience increased traumatic stress level. The participants are close relatives of patients (n=65) who had a first time stroke (CRPWS) hospitalized. A control group (CG) (n=61), who had no history of chronic illness in their family and had at least one traumatic life event experience. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Modified Rankin Scale, Personal Information Form, Life Events Checklist, Traumatic Stress Symptom Scale, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, were used in the study. We found no significant association between NIHSS and MRS of patients and traumatic stress level of the family member. The traumatic stress level was significantly higher in the CRPWS group than in the CG group. Traumatic stress level was higher in women than men and was not associated with perceived social support in the CRPWS group. The traumatic stress level of the relatives was not associated with the clinical features of the stroke patients. In the early phase, after the diagnosis of stroke, psychological support may be important to prevent CRPWS from PTSD.

  14. Infrapatellar fat pad aggravates degeneration of acute traumatized cartilage: a possible role for interleukin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Jiang, Y; Alexander, P G; Ulici, V; Zhu, Y; Wu, S; Tuan, R S

    2017-01-01

    The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP), which is located underneath the patella, close to cartilage surfaces, functions in distributing mechanical load and has been shown to produce cytokines. This study aims to assess the involvement of the IPFP in the progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) through investigating the crosstalk between the IPFP and injured cartilage in vitro. A single blunt impact (36 MPa) on healthy bovine articular cartilage explants was used to generate traumatized cartilage. Conditioned media from IPFP and traumatized cartilage (FP-CM and TC-CM) were prepared separately. After culturing in FP-CM, the posttraumatic cartilage explants were analyzed for expression of cartilage degeneration associated genes and secretion of the interleukin (IL)-6, into the culture medium. The effect of traumatized cartilage on IPFP was studied by treating IPFP-derived adipocytes and IPFP adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSC) with TC-CM followed by analysis of cytokine expression. FP-CM aggravated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release in traumatized cartilage, but did not significantly affect healthy cartilage. FP-CM raised gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and IL-6 in traumatized cartilage explants, and lowered expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, 2, 3, compared to non-conditioned medium. Of particular significance is that medium IL-6 levels increased substantially in both FP-CM and FP-CM treated traumatized cartilage cultures. Extrinsic IL-6 treatment of traumatized cartilage simulated part of the effects of FP-CM. TC-CM elevated levels of IL-6 expression in IPFP derived adipocytes and ADSCs. IPFP aggravates post-traumatized cartilage degeneration, and IL-6 is a candidate tissue degeneration mediator. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Globe Rupture

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    Reid Honda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 46-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED with severe left eye pain and decreased vision after tripping and striking the left side of his head on the corner of his wooden nightstand. The patient arrived as an inter-facility transfer for a suspected globe rupture with a protective eye covering in place; thus, further physical examination of the eye was not performed by the emergency physician in order to avoid further leakage of aqueous humor. Significant findings: The patient’s computed tomography (CT head demonstrated a deformed left globe, concerning for ruptured globe. The patient had hyperdense material in the posterior segment (see green arrow, consistent with vitreous hemorrhage. CT findings that are consistent with globe rupture may include a collapsed globe, intraocular air, or foreign bodies. Discussion: A globe rupture is a full-thickness defect in the cornea, sclera, or both.1 It is an ophthalmologic emergency. Globe ruptures are almost always secondary to direct perforation via a penetrating mechanism; however, it can occur due to blunt injury if the force generated creates sufficient intraocular pressure to tear the sclera.2 Globes most commonly rupture at the insertions of the intraocular muscles or at the limbus. They are associated with a high rate of concomitant orbital floor fractures.2,3 Possible physical examination findings include a shallow anterior chamber on slit-lamp exam, hyphema, and an irregular “teardrop” pupil. Additionally, a positive Seidel sign, which is performed by instilling fluorescein in the eye and then examining for a dark stream of aqueous humor, is indicative of a globe rupture.4 CT is often used to assess for globe rupture; finds of a foreign body, intraocular air, abnormal contour or volume of the globe, or disruption of the sclera suggest globe rupture.2 The sensitivity of CT scan for diagnosis of globe rupture is only 75%; thus, high clinical

  16. Primary repair plus intra-articular iliotibial band augmentation in the treatment of an acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture. A follow-up study of 70 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natri, A; Järvinen, M; Kannus, P

    1996-01-01

    Between September 1987 and November 1989, we treated 90 consecutive patients with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture with the multiple suture technique and iliotibial band augmentation. Seventy of these patients were re-examined 2 to 5 years after the operation (mean 3.5 years), the examination consisting of a questionnaire, clinical examination, laxity tests with the KSS machine (Acufex), radiological examination and isokinetic muscle strength testing (Cybex 6000). There were 32 men and 38 women (mean age 34 years). The injury was sustained in sports in 44 (63%) cases, and the sports most frequently involved were downhill skiing (18 cases), soccer (9 cases) and volleyball (5 cases). Of the injuries, 38 were isolated ACL ruptures and 31, ACL ruptures combined with a medial CL rupture. In 9 cases, an additional meniscus injury and in one case an additional posterior CL - lateral CL rupture was found. At the follow-up, 55 patients (79%) were satisfied with the end result, and according to our objective functional criteria 55 (79%) had an excellent or good outcome. According to the Lysholm score, 53 (76%) patients were excellent or good (> or = 82 points). In the Lachman test, 29 knees (41%) were completely stable. The Lachman test was mildy positive in 40 knees (57%) (36 had 1+ laxity and 4, 2+ laxity), and one patient had 3+ laxity with a hard end-point. Similarly, the anterior drawer test was negative in 53 knees (76%), and the other 17 (24%) had mild laxity (16 had 1+ laxity and 1, 2+ laxity). The total anterior-posterior laxity measured with the KSS averaged 9.7 +/- 3.5 mm in the injured knee and 7.3 + 3.0 mm in the uninjured knee (the laxity measured at a knee angle of 20 degrees of flexion). Corresponding values at a knee angle of 90 degrees of flexion were 6.1 +/- 2.4 mm and 4.7 +/- 1.9 mm, respectively. The pivot shift test was negative in 62 patients (89%) and 1+ positive in the remaining 8 patients (11%). Fifty-eight patients (83%) had full

  17. Ruptured Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the left upper abdomen or the left lower chest, such as might happen during sporting mishaps, fistfights and car crashes. An injured spleen may rupture soon after the abdominal trauma or, in some cases, days or even weeks ...

  18. A retrospective study of ketamine administration and the development of acute or post-traumatic stress disorder in 274 war-wounded soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mion, G; Le Masson, J; Granier, C; Hoffmann, C

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether ketamine prevents or exacerbates acute or post-traumatic stress disorders in military trauma patients. We conducted a retrospective study of a database from the French Military Health Service, including all soldiers surviving a war injury in Afghanistan (2010-2012). The diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder was made by a psychiatrist and patients were analysed according to the presence or absence of this condition. Analysis included the following covariables: age; sex; acute stress disorder; blast injury; associated fatality; brain injury; traumatic amputation; Glasgow coma scale; injury severity score; administered drugs; number of surgical procedures; physical, neurosensory or aesthetic sequelae; and the development chronic pain. Covariables related to post-traumatic and acute stress disorders with a p ≤ 0.10 were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. The data from 450 soldiers were identified; 399 survived, of which 274 were analysed. Among these, 98 (36%) suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder and 89 (32%) had received ketamine. Fifty-four patients (55%) in the post-traumatic stress disorder group received ketamine vs. 35 (20%) in the no PTSD group (p stress disorder and total number of surgical procedures were independently associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. In this retrospective study, ketamine administration was not a risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in the military trauma setting. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

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    Jessica Andrusaitis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 69-year-old male with poorly controlled hypertension presented with 1 hour of severe low back pain that radiated to his abdomen. The patient was tachycardic and had an initial blood pressure of 70/40. He had a rigid and severely tender abdomen. The patient’s history of hypertension, abnormal vital signs, severity and location of his pain were suspicious for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. Therefore, a computed tomography angiogram (CTA was ordered. Significant findings: CTA demonstrated a ruptured 7.4 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm with a large left retroperitoneal hematoma. Discussion: True abdominal aortic aneurysm is defined as at least a 3cm dilatation of all three layers of the arterial wall of the abdominal aorta.1 An estimated 15,000 people die per year in the US of this condition.2 Risk factors for AAA include males older than 65, tobacco use, and hypertension.1,3,4 There are also congenital, mechanical, traumatic, inflammatory, and infectious causes of AAA.3 Rupture is often the first manifestation of the disease. The classic triad of abdominal pain, pulsatile mass, and hypotension is seen in only 50% of ruptured AAAs.5 Pain (abdominal, groin, or back is the most common symptom. The most common misdiagnoses of ruptured AAAs are renal colic, diverticulitis, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.6 Bedside ultrasonography is the fastest way to detect this condition and is nearly 100% sensitive.1 One study showed that bedside ultrasounds performed by emergency physicians had a sensitivity of .94 [95% CI = .86-1.0] and specificity of 1 [95% CI = .98-1.0] for detecting AAAs.7 CTA has excellent sensitivity (approximately 100% and yields the added benefit of facilitating surgical planning and management.1 Without surgical treatment, a ruptured AAA is almost uniformly fatal, and 50% of those who undergo surgery do not survive.1 Early resuscitation and coordination with vascular surgery should be

  20. Postmortem changes in lungs in severe closed traumatic brain injury complicated by acute respiratory failure

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    V. A. Tumanskiy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available V.А. Tumanskіy, S.І. Ternishniy, L.M. Tumanskaya Pathological changes in the lungs were studied in the work of 42 patiens who died from severe closed intracranial injury (SCII. It was complicated with acute respiratory insufficient (ARI. The most modified subpleural areas were selected from every lobe of the lungs for pathological studies. Prepared histological sections were stained by means of hemotoxylin and eosin and by Van Giеson for light microscopy. The results of the investigation have shown absence of the significant difference of pathological changes in the lungs of patients who died from ARI because of severe brain injury and traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. Pathognomic pathological changes in the lungs as a result of acute lung injury syndrome (ALIS were found in deceased patients on the third day since the SCII (n=8. There was a significant bilateral interstitial edema and mild alveolar edema with the presence of red and blood cells in the alveoli, vascular plethora of the septum interalveolar and stasis of blood in the capillaries, the slight pericapillary leukocyte infiltration, subpleural hemorrhage and laminar pulmonary atelectasis. In deceased patients on 4-6 days after SCII that was complicated with ARI (n=14, morphological changes had been detected in the lungs. It was pathognomic for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS with local pneumonic to be layered. A significant interstitial pulmonary edema was observed in the respiratory part of the lungs. The edema has spread from the walls of the alveoli into the interstitial spaces of the bronchioles and blood vessels, and also less marked serous-hemorrhagic alveolar edema with presence of the fibrin in the alveoli and macrophages. The ways of intrapleural lymphatic drainage were dilatated. Histopathological changes in the lungs of those who died on the 7-15th days after severe closed craniocerebral injury with ARI to be complicated (n=12 have been indicative of two

  1. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients' motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period.

  2. Synergistic impact of acute kidney injury and high level of cervical spinal cord injury on the weaning outcome of patients with acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Kuang; Ko, Hsin-Kuo; Ho, Li-Ing; Wang, Jia-Horng; Kou, Yu Ru

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory neuromuscular impairment severity is known to predict weaning outcome among patients with cervical spinal cord injury; however, the impact of non-neuromuscular complications remains unexplored. This study was to evaluate possible neuromuscular and non-neuromuscular factors that may negatively impact weaning outcome. From September 2002 to October 2012, acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury patients who had received mechanical ventilation for >48h were enrolled and divided into successful (n=54) and unsuccessful weaning groups (n=19). Various neuromuscular, non-neuromuscular factors and events during the intensive care unit stay were extracted from medical charts and electronic medical records. Variables presenting with a significant difference (pspinal cord injury (C1-3), lower pulse rates, and lower Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission, higher peak blood urea nitrogen, lower trough albumin, and lower trough blood leukocyte counts. Furthermore, unsuccessful weaning patients had a higher incidence of pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock and acute kidney injury during the intensive care unit stay. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed acute kidney injury and high level of cervical spinal cord injury were independent risk factors for failure of weaning. Importantly, patients with both risk factors showed a large increase in odds ratio for unsuccessful weaning from mechanical ventilation (pinjury during the intensive care unit stay and high level of cervical spinal injury are two independent risk factors that synergistically work together producing a negative impact on weaning outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Acute traumatic myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock in severe polytrauma--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohe, G; Feyerherd, F; Möx, B; Hachenberg, T

    2000-04-01

    A 41-year-old man suffered severe polytrauma and developed a traumatic myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. Thrombolysis as well as coronary bypass grafting was contraindicated due to accompanying injuries. An attempted early coronary revascularization by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) failed due to dissection of the left interventricular coronary artery. Treatment of cardiac insufficiency was complicated by intraabdominal haemorrhage enforcing emergency laparotomy. Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation proved to be efficient in supporting circulation in these circumstances. The case report documents the practicability and importance of treating both myocardial ischaemia and attending injuries in an equivalent and coordinated manner in traumatic myocardial infarction.

  4. Prehospital factors associated with an acute life-threatening condition in non-traumatic chest pain patients - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibring, Kristoffer; Herlitz, Johan; Christensson, Lennart; Lingman, Markus; Bång, Angela

    2016-09-15

    Chest pain is a common symptom among patients contacting the emergency medical services (EMS). Risk stratification of these patients is warranted before arrival in hospital, regarding likelihood of an acute life-threatening condition (LTC). To identify factors associated with an increased risk of acute LTC among patients who call the EMS due to non-traumatic chest pain. Several databases were searched for relevant articles. Identified articles were quality-assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network checklists. Extracted data was analysed using a semi-quantitative synthesis evaluating the level of evidence of each identified factor. In total, 10 of 1245 identified studies were included. These studies provided strong evidence for an increased risk of an acute LTC with increasing age, male gender, elevated heart rate, low systolic blood pressure and ST elevation or ST depression on a 12-lead ECG. The level of evidence regarding the history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris or presence of a Q wave or a Left Bundle Branch Block on the ECG was moderate. The evidence was inconclusive regarding dyspnoea, cold sweat/paleness, nausea/vomiting, history of chronic heart failure, smoking, Right Bundle Branch Block or T-inversions on the ECG. Factors reflecting age, gender, myocardial ischemia and a compromised cardiovascular system predicted an increased risk of an acute life-threatening condition in the prehospital setting in cases of acute chest pain. These factors may form the basis for prehospital risk stratification in acute chest pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Early Versus Late Weightbearing in Conservatively Treated Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Akkawi, Ali Imad; Joanroy, Rajzan; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Kallemose, Thomas; Kristensen, Søren Skydt; Viberg, Bjarke

    2017-09-30

    Achilles tendon ruptures can be either surgically or conservatively treated with either early functional mobilization or cast immobilization. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis comparing the effect of early versus late weightbearing in conservatively treated adult patients, including only randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The primary endpoint was rerupture, and the secondary endpoints were strength, quality of life during treatment, range of motion, deep venous thrombosis, return to sports, and return to work. The search for studies was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials. A search was performed, and 2 reviewers independently screened the studies by title, abstract, and, finally, by reading the full text. Four studies met the inclusion criteria. The reference lists of the included studies were scanned and 1 additional RCT study was included. The critical appraisal skills program checklist was applied for study appraisal. A statistician performed the data management and analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between the 2 treatment groups concerning rerupture (p = .796), return to sports (p = .455), or return to work (p = .888). One RCT found 1 case of deep venous thrombosis in the late weightbearing group. One RCT reported significant improvement in quality of life and one reported a significantly improved range of dorsiflexion in the early weightbearing group. No statistically significant difference was found between early and late weightbearing with conservative treatment regarding the rerupture rate. The results of the other outcomes were limited by the low number of studies included in the present meta-analysis. Larger randomized studies are needed to investigate these outcomes. From the results in the present study, we would recommend early weightbearing when an Achilles tendon rupture is treated conservatively. Copyright © 2017 American College of

  6. Anesthesia with topical lidocaine hydrochloride gauzes in acute traumatic wounds in triage, a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderikhof, Milan L.; Leenders, Noukje; Goddijn, Helma; Schep, Niels W.; Lirk, Philipp; Goslings, J. Carel; Hollmann, Markus W.

    2016-01-01

    Topical application of lidocaine in wounds has been studied in combination with vasoconstrictive additives, but the effect without these additives is unknown. The objective was to examine use of lidocaine-soaked gauzes without vasoconstrictive agents, in traumatic wounds in adult patients, applied

  7. Pathophysiological Concepts in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury : Diffusion Tensor Imaging Related to Acute Perfusion CT Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, Zwany; Cerliani, Leonardo; Rodiger, Lars A.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2013-01-01

    Background: A subgroup of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) experiences residual symptoms interfering with their return to work. The pathophysiological substrate of the suboptimal outcome in these patients is a source of debate. Objective: To provide greater insight into the

  8. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate clinically significant change in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation. Methods: Participants were 62 pairs of relatives and patients. Relatives completed the anxiety and depression scales from...

  9. Conservative Management of Azygous Vein Rupture in Blunt Thoracic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cian McDermott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of successful conservative management of acute traumatic rupture of the azygous vein. A 48-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle collision. Primary survey revealed acute right intrathoracic haemorrhage. He remained haemodynamically stable with rapid infusion of warmed crystalloid solution and blood. Computed tomographic imaging showed a contained haematoma of the azygous vein. The patient was managed conservatively in the intensive care. Azygous vein laceration resulting from blunt thoracic trauma is a rare condition that carries a universally poor prognosis unless the appropriate treatment is instituted. Clinical features include acute hypovolaemic shock, widened mediastinum on chest radiograph, and a right-sided haemothorax. Haemodynamic collapse necessitates immediate resuscitative thoracotomy. Interest in this injury stems from the severity of the clinical condition, difficulty in diagnosis, the onset of a rapidly deteriorating clinical course all of which can be promptly reversed by timely and appropriate treatment. Although it is a rare cause of intramediastinal haemorrhage, it is proposed that a ruptured azygous vein should be considered in every trauma case causing a right-sided haemothorax or widened mediastinum. All cases described in the literature to date involved operative management. We present a case of successful conservative management of this condition.

  10. Neurosurgical Treatment Variation of Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluation of Acute Subdural Hematoma Management in Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Essen, Thomas A; de Ruiter, Godard C W; Kho, Kuan H; Peul, Wilco C

    2017-02-15

    Several recent global traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiatives rely on practice variation in diagnostic and treatment methods to answer effectiveness questions. One of these scientific dilemmas, the surgical management of the traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) might be variable among countries, among centers within countries, and even among neurosurgeons within a center, and hence be amenable for a comparative effectiveness study. The aim of our questionnaire, therefore, was to explore variations in treatment for ASDH among neurosurgeons in similar centers in a densely populated geographical area. An online questionnaire, involving treatment decisions on six case vignettes of ASDH, was sent to 93 neurosurgeons in The Netherlands and Belgium. Clinical and radiological variables differed per case. Sixty neurosurgeons filled out the questionnaire (response rate 65%). For case vignettes with severe TBI and an ASDH, there was a modest variation in the decision to evacuate the hematoma and a large variation in the decision to combine the evacuation with a decompressive craniectomy. The main reasons for operating were "neurological condition" and "mass effect." For ASDH and mild/moderate TBI, there was large variation in the decision of whether to operate or not, whereas "hematoma size" was the predominant motivation for surgery. Significant inter-center variation for the decision to evacuate the hematoma was observed (p = 0.01). Most pronounced was that 1 out of 7 (14%) neurosurgeons in one region chose a surgical strategy compared with 9 out of 10 (90%) in another region for the same scenario. In conclusion, variation exists in the neurosurgical management of TBI within an otherwise homogeneous setting. This variation supports the methodology of the international Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) initiative, and shaped the Dutch Neurotraumatology Quality Registry (Net-QuRe) initiative.

  11. Bone bruise in acute traumatic patellar dislocation: volumetric magnetic resonance imaging analysis with follow-up mean of 12 months

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paakkala, Antti; Paakkala, Timo [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tampere (Finland); Sillanpaeae, Petri; Maeenpaeae, Heikki [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Tampere (Finland); Huhtala, Heini [University of Tampere, School of Public Health, Tampere (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    The aim of the study was to assess volumetric analysis of bone bruises in acute primary traumatic patellar dislocation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resolving resolution of bruises in follow-up MRI. MRI was performed in 23 cases. A follow-up examination was done at a mean of 12 months after dislocation. Volumes of patellar and femur bruises for every patient were evaluated separately by two musculoskeletal radiologists, and mean values of the bruises were assessed. Other MRI findings were evaluated, together with agreement by consensus. Bone bruise volumes were compared with other MR findings. In the acute study 100% of patients showed bruising of the lateral femoral condyle and 96% bruising of the patella. The bruise was located at the medial femoral condyle in 30% and at the patellar median ridge in 74% of patients. The median volume of the femoral bruise was 25,831 mm{sup 3} and of the patellar bruise 2,832 mm{sup 3}. At the follow-up study 22% of patients showed bruising of the lateral femoral condyle and 39% bruising of the patella, the median volumes of the bruises being 5,062 mm{sup 3} and 1,380 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Larger patellar bruise volume correlated with larger femur bruise volume in the acute (r=0.389, P=0.074) and the follow-up (r=1.000, P<0.01) studies. Other MRI findings did not correlate significantly with bone bruise volumes. Bone bruising is the commonest finding in cases of acute patellar dislocation, being seen even 1 year after trauma and indicating significant bone trabecular injury in the patellofemoral joint. A large bruise volume may be associated with subsequent chondral lesion progression at the patella. We concluded that the measurement of bone bruise volume in patients with acute patellar dislocation is a reproducible method but requires further studies to evaluate its clinical use. (orig.)

  12. Traumatic brain injury and post-acute decline: what role does environmental enrichment play? A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eFrasca

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. While a number of studies provide evidence of neural and cognitive decline in traumatic brain injury (TBI survivors during the post-acute stages of injury, there is a dearth of research on the possible mechanisms underlying this decline. The purposes of this paper, therefore, are to (1 examine evidence that environmental enrichment (EE can influence long-term outcome following TBI, and (2 examine the nature of post-acute environments, whether they vary in degree of EE, and what impact these variations have on outcomes.Methods. We conducted a scoping review to identify studies on EE in animals and humans, and post-discharge experiences that relate to barriers to recovery.Results. Ninety-six articles that met inclusion criteria demonstrated the benefits of EE on brain and behaviour in healthy and brain-injured animals and humans. Nineteen papers on post-discharge experiences provided evidence that variables such as insurance coverage, financial and social support, home therapy, and transition from hospital to home, also play a vital role in regaining independence. Conclusion. There is evidence to suggest that lack of EE, whether from lack of resources or limited ability to engage in such environments, may play a role in post-recovery cognitive and neural decline. Maximizing EE in the post-acute stages of TBI may improve long-term outcomes for the individual, their family and society.

  13. Multimodal Approach to Testing the Acute Effects of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients and five orthopedic controls, using power spectral density (PSD) analysis. We first estimated intracranial...because patients typically lack apparent external injuries and clear pathological findings in conventional computed tomography and magnetic...METHODS A. Subjects Six mTBI subjects (4 male, 2 female, average age 28.3±7.3) and five orthopedic controls (3 male, 2 female, average age 29.4±7.4

  14. Study of efficacy and tolerance of ketoprofen and diclofenac sodium in the treatment of acute rheumatic and traumatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, I A; Siddiqui, K A; Waraich, T; Abbas, M; Ali, A

    1998-12-01

    A comparative, multi-centre study, was conducted during June to December, 1996 to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of Ketoprofen 100 mg Enteric Coated (EC) tablet and 100 mg intra-muscular injection; with that of Diclofenac Sodium 50 mg tablet and 75 mg intra-muscular injection in acute rheumatic and traumatic disorders. Total of 180 patients (90 per drug), were studied, 82 men and 98 women, between the ages of 18 and 75 years. The symptoms and the number of patients were backache 50, arthritis 64, frozen shoulder 32 and sprains 34. Pain was qualitatively assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS), XY pain index, pain at mobilization and the level of pain handicap. For pain (VAS 75-100) the treatment was initiated with an injectable bid, followed by tablets bid or tid. If the pain score on VAS was less than 75, tablets were given in a bid dosage. The duration of treatment was 15 days in each case. The overall complete relief of symptoms occurred in 25% (23/90) patients with Ketoprofen and in 10% (9/90) diclofenac sodium. Moderate to mild relief was found in 75% (67/90) cases with Ketoprofen and 87% (78/90) with diclofenac sodium. No pain relief was seen in 3% (3/90) with diclofenac sodium, as against no failure in pain relief in the ketoprofen group. Tolerance was found as excellent-good for ketoprofen in 72% (65/90) with diclofenac sodium in 50%, moderate to poor for ketoprofen in 28% (35/90) and with diclofenac sodium in 50% (45/90). Our results indicate that ketoprofen compared to diclofenac sodium is efficacious in acute rheumatic and traumatic injuries. Ketoprofen injection, compared to diclofenac sodium was found to be more effective in providing analgesia.

  15. Anesthesia with topical lidocaine hydrochloride gauzes in acute traumatic wounds in triage, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderikhof, Milan L; Leenders, Noukje; Goddijn, Helma; Schep, Niels W; Lirk, Philipp; Goslings, J Carel; Hollmann, Markus W

    2016-09-01

    Topical application of lidocaine in wounds has been studied in combination with vasoconstrictive additives, but the effect without these additives is unknown. The objective was to examine use of lidocaine-soaked gauzes without vasoconstrictive agents, in traumatic wounds in adult patients, applied in triage. A prospective pilot study was performed during 6 weeks in the Emergency Department of a level 1 trauma center. Wounds of consecutive adult patients were treated with a nursing protocol, consisting of lidocaine hydrochloride administration directly into the wound and leaving a lidocaine-soaked gauze, until wound treatment. Primary outcome was need for infiltration anesthesia. Secondary outcomes were Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) pain scores, adverse events and patient and physician satisfaction. Forty patients with a traumatic wound were included, 85% male with a wound on the arm. Thirty-seven patients needed a painful procedure as wound treatment. When suturing was necessary, 77% required additional infiltration anesthesia. Mean NRS pain scores decreased from 3.3 to 2.2 after application of the lidocaine gauze. No adverse events were recorded. Of the patients, 60% were satisfied with use of the lidocaine gauzes, compared to 40% of physicians. Lidocaine hydrochloride (2%) gauzes without vasoconstrictive additives cannot replace infiltration anesthesia in traumatic wounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Hua-ding

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】There is a dearth of case reports de-scribing simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures in the medical literature. These ruptures are often associated with systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus or chronic steroid use. The author describes a case of a 24-year-old man who sustained traumatic bilateral patellar ten-don ruptures without any history of systemic disease or steroidal medication. We repaired and reattached the rup-tured tendons to the patella and augmented our procedure with allogeneic tendon followed by wire loop reinforcement. One year after operation, the patient regained a satisfactory range of motion of both knees with good quadriceps strength and no extensor lag. The recurrent microtrauma from a history of intense sports activity and a high body mass index may have played an important role in this trauma event. Key words: Patella; Patellar ligament; Rupture; Ten-don injuries; Knee

  17. How healthcare provider talk with parents of children following severe traumatic brain injury is perceived in early acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscigno, Cecelia I; Savage, Teresa A; Grant, Gerald; Philipsen, Gerry

    2013-08-01

    Healthcare provider talk with parents in early acute care following children's severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects parents' orientations to these locales, but this connection has been minimally studied. This lack of attention to this topic in previous research may reflect providers' and researchers' views that these locales are generally neutral or supportive to parents' subsequent needs. This secondary analysis used data from a larger descriptive phenomenological study (2005-2007) with parents of children following moderate to severe TBI recruited from across the United States. Parents of children with severe TBI consistently had strong negative responses to the early acute care talk processes they experienced with providers, while parents of children with moderate TBI did not. Transcript data were independently coded using discourse analysis in the framework of ethnography of speaking. The purpose was to understand the linguistic and paralinguistic talk factors parents used in their meta-communications that could give a preliminary understanding of their cultural expectations for early acute care talk in these settings. Final participants included 27 parents of children with severe TBI from 23 families. We found the human constructed talk factors that parents reacted to were: a) access to the child, which is where information was; b) regular discussions with key personnel; c) updated information that is explained; d) differing expectations for talk in this context; and, e) perceived parental involvement in decisions. We found that the organization and nature of providers' talk with parents was perceived by parents to positively or negatively shape their early acute care identities in these locales, which influenced how they viewed these locales as places that either supported them and decreased their workload or discounted them and increased their workload for getting what they needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Endovascular treatment of ruptured distal posterior inferior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and endovascular treatment of ruptured distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms. Methods: 11 consecutive patients (7 women, 4 men, mean age of 49.2 years) with ruptured distal PICA aneurysms were studied retrospectively. All had onset of acute ...

  19. Primary traumatic patellar dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chun-Hao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute traumatic patellar dislocation is a common injury in the active and young adult populations. MRI of the knee is recommended in all patients who present with acute patellar dislocation. Numerous operative and non-operative methods have been described to treat the injuries; however, the ideal management of the acute traumatic patellar dislocation in young adults is still in debate. This article is intended to review the studies to the subjects of epidemiology, initial examination and management.

  20. Fractured Ribs and the CT Funky Fat Sign of Diaphragmatic Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iclal Ocak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture remains a diagnostic challenge for both radiologists and surgeons. In recent years, multidetector CT has markedly improved the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injury in polytrauma patients. Herein, we describe two cases of subacute presentation of traumatic diaphragmatic rupture from a penetrating rib fracture and subsequent intrathoracic herniation of omental fat, representing the CT “funky fat” sign.

  1. Activin A and its regulatory molecules in placenta and fetal membranes of women with preterm premature rupture of the membranes associated with acute chorioamnionitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Michela; Voltolini, Chiara; Novembri, Romina; Bocchi, Caterina; Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Severi, Filiberto M; Petraglia, Felice

    2012-11-01

    LABELED PROBLEM: To investigate regulation of activin A and related molecules in placenta/fetal membranes from preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) associated with acute chorioamnionitis (ACA). Tissues were obtained from women with spontaneous preterm deliveries (PTD), pPROM without ACA, pPROM with ACA. Activin A, follistatin, and nodal and cripto mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. Activin A mRNA was up-regulated in tissues from pPROM, in presence or absence of HCA, respect to PTD and in pPROM with ACA respect to pPROM without ACA. Follistatin mRNA expression did not differ between the groups. In placenta, nodal mRNA showed the same trend of activin A, while cripto was down-regulated in pPROM with ACA than other groups. Nodal and cripto were not expressed by fetal membranes. The study shows the involvement of activin A pathway in pPROM with ACA. Further studies will focus on its role in placental immune functions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Infectious agents in coronary atheromas: a possible role in the pathogenesis of plaque rupture and acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HIGUCHI Maria de Lourdes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we report our recent findings of histopathological features of plaque instability and the association with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP infection, studying thrombosed coronary artery segments (CAS of patients who died due to acute myocardial infarction. Vulnerable plaques are known to be associated with fat atheromas and inflammation of the plaque. Here we demonstrated that vulnerability is also related with focal positive vessel remodeling that maintains relatively well preserved lumen even in the presence of large atheromatous plaques. This phenomena may explain why the cinecoronariography may not detect large and dangerous vulnerable plaques. Greater amount of these bacteria in vulnerable plaques is associated with adventitial inflammation and positive vessel remodeling: the mean numbers of lymphocytes were significantly higher in adventitia than in the plaque, good direct correlation was obtained between numbers of CD20 B cells and numbers of CP infected cells in adventitia, and between % area of MP-DNA in the plaque and cross sectional area of the vessel, suggesting a cause-effect relationship. Mycoplasma is a bacterium that needs cholesterol for proliferation and may increase virulence of other infectious agents. In conclusion, co-infection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae may represent an important co-factor for plaque instability, leading to coronary plaque thrombosis and acute myocardial infarction, since larger amount of these bacteria strongly correlated with histological signs of more vulnerability of the plaque. The search of CMV and Helicobacter pilori in these tissues resulted negative.

  3. Post-traumatic acute bilateral facial nerve palsy - a management dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rakesh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute bilateral facial nerve paralysis is a rare clinical entity, and its management remains very controversial (operative or conservative. Here we are presenting a case of acute onset bilateral facial nerve palsy following head injury with bilateral temporal bone fracture with clinico-radiographic contrary. Patient was managed conservatively with complete recovery. By this article, authors want to stress on combining clinical examination and radiological findings for decision making of this rare entity and tried to evaluate the management.

  4. Is the contribution of alcohol to fatal traumatic brain injuries being underestimated in the acute hospital setting?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Toole, O

    2011-04-05

    Alcohol consumption in Ireland has nearly doubled during the period 1989-2001. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol to fatal head injuries in the acute hospital setting we created a data base of all fatal traumatic brain injuries in the Department of Neuropathology at Beaumont Hospital over a ten year period (1997-2006 inclusive). 498 cases were identified (351 males: 147 females). Fatalities were highest in males aged 19-25 years (N=101) and 51-70 years (N=109). Falls (N=210) and road traffic accidents (N=183) were the commonest modes of presentation. 36\\/210 (17%) falls had positive blood alcohol testing, 9\\/210 (4.3%) had documentation of alcohol in notes but no testing, 35\\/210 (16.7%) tested negative for alcohol and 130\\/210 (61.9%) were not tested. The RTA group (N=183) comprised drivers (n=79), passengers (n=47) and pedestrians (n=57). 65\\/79 (82.2%) of drivers were males aged 19-25 years. Blood alcohol was only available in 27\\/79 (34.1%) drivers and was positive in 13\\/27 (48.1%). 14\\/75 (18.7%) pedestrians were tested for alcohol, 4\\/14 (28.6%) were positive. Overall 142\\/183 (77.6%) of the RTA group were not tested. The contribution of alcohol to fatal traumatic brain injuries is probably being underestimated due to omission of blood alcohol concentration testing on admission to hospital. Absence of national guidelines on blood alcohol testing in the emergency department compounds the problem.

  5. Age and Diet Affect Genetically Separable Secondary Injuries that Cause Acute Mortality Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeccah J. Katzenberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI vary because of differences in primary and secondary injuries. Primary injuries occur at the time of a traumatic event, whereas secondary injuries occur later as a result of cellular and molecular events activated in the brain and other tissues by primary injuries. We used a Drosophila melanogaster TBI model to investigate secondary injuries that cause acute mortality. By analyzing mortality percentage within 24 hr of primary injuries, we previously found that age at the time of primary injuries and diet afterward affect the severity of secondary injuries. Here, we show that secondary injuries peaked in activity 1–8 hr after primary injuries. Additionally, we demonstrate that age and diet activated distinct secondary injuries in a genotype-specific manner, and that concurrent activation of age- and diet-regulated secondary injuries synergistically increased mortality. To identify genes involved in secondary injuries that cause mortality, we compared genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of uninjured and injured flies under age and diet conditions that had different mortalities. During the peak period of secondary injuries, innate immune response genes were the predominant class of genes that changed expression. Furthermore, age and diet affected the magnitude of the change in expression of some innate immune response genes, suggesting roles for these genes in inhibiting secondary injuries that cause mortality. Our results indicate that the complexity of TBI outcomes is due in part to distinct, genetically controlled, age- and diet-regulated mechanisms that promote secondary injuries and that involve a subset of innate immune response genes.

  6. Age and Diet Affect Genetically Separable Secondary Injuries that Cause Acute Mortality Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenberger, Rebeccah J; Ganetzky, Barry; Wassarman, David A

    2016-12-07

    Outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) vary because of differences in primary and secondary injuries. Primary injuries occur at the time of a traumatic event, whereas secondary injuries occur later as a result of cellular and molecular events activated in the brain and other tissues by primary injuries. We used a Drosophila melanogaster TBI model to investigate secondary injuries that cause acute mortality. By analyzing mortality percentage within 24 hr of primary injuries, we previously found that age at the time of primary injuries and diet afterward affect the severity of secondary injuries. Here, we show that secondary injuries peaked in activity 1-8 hr after primary injuries. Additionally, we demonstrate that age and diet activated distinct secondary injuries in a genotype-specific manner, and that concurrent activation of age- and diet-regulated secondary injuries synergistically increased mortality. To identify genes involved in secondary injuries that cause mortality, we compared genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of uninjured and injured flies under age and diet conditions that had different mortalities. During the peak period of secondary injuries, innate immune response genes were the predominant class of genes that changed expression. Furthermore, age and diet affected the magnitude of the change in expression of some innate immune response genes, suggesting roles for these genes in inhibiting secondary injuries that cause mortality. Our results indicate that the complexity of TBI outcomes is due in part to distinct, genetically controlled, age- and diet-regulated mechanisms that promote secondary injuries and that involve a subset of innate immune response genes. Copyright © 2016 Katzenberger et al.

  7. The Effect of Paracetamol on Core Body Temperature in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomised, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Manoj K; Taylor, Colman; Billot, Laurent; Bompoint, Severine; Gowardman, John; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffery; Myburgh, John

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to prevent pyrexia in patients with acute neurological injury may reduce secondary neuronal damage. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of the routine administration of 6 grams/day of intravenous paracetamol in reducing body temperature following severe traumatic brain injury, compared to placebo. A multicentre, randomised, blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in adult patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients were randomised to receive an intravenous infusion of either 1g of paracetamol or 0.9% sodium chloride (saline) every 4 hours for 72 hours. The primary outcome was the mean difference in core temperature during the study intervention period. Forty-one patients were included in this study: 21 were allocated to paracetamol and 20 to saline. The median (interquartile range) number of doses of study drug was 18 (17-18) in the paracetamol group and 18 (16-18) in the saline group (P = 0.85). From randomisation until 4 hours after the last dose of study treatment, there were 2798 temperature measurements (median 73 [67-76] per patient). The mean ± standard deviation temperature was 37.4±0.5°C in the paracetamol group and 37.7±0.4°C in the saline group (absolute difference -0.3°C; 95% confidence interval -0.6 to 0.0; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences in the use of physical cooling, or episodes of hypotension or hepatic abnormalities, between the two groups. The routine administration of 6g/day of intravenous paracetamol did not significantly reduce core body temperature in patients with TBI. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000444280.

  8. The Effect of Paracetamol on Core Body Temperature in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomised, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Saxena

    Full Text Available Strategies to prevent pyrexia in patients with acute neurological injury may reduce secondary neuronal damage. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of the routine administration of 6 grams/day of intravenous paracetamol in reducing body temperature following severe traumatic brain injury, compared to placebo.A multicentre, randomised, blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in adult patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Patients were randomised to receive an intravenous infusion of either 1g of paracetamol or 0.9% sodium chloride (saline every 4 hours for 72 hours. The primary outcome was the mean difference in core temperature during the study intervention period.Forty-one patients were included in this study: 21 were allocated to paracetamol and 20 to saline. The median (interquartile range number of doses of study drug was 18 (17-18 in the paracetamol group and 18 (16-18 in the saline group (P = 0.85. From randomisation until 4 hours after the last dose of study treatment, there were 2798 temperature measurements (median 73 [67-76] per patient. The mean ± standard deviation temperature was 37.4±0.5°C in the paracetamol group and 37.7±0.4°C in the saline group (absolute difference -0.3°C; 95% confidence interval -0.6 to 0.0; P = 0.09. There were no significant differences in the use of physical cooling, or episodes of hypotension or hepatic abnormalities, between the two groups.The routine administration of 6g/day of intravenous paracetamol did not significantly reduce core body temperature in patients with TBI.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000444280.

  9. Acute, transient hemorrhagic hypotension does not aggravate structural damage or neurologic motor deficits but delays the long-term cognitive recovery following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Christian; Stover, John F.; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Hoover, Rachel C.; Morales, Diego M.; Schouten, Joost W.; McMillan, Asenia; Soltesz, Kristie; Motta, Melissa; Spangler, Zachery; Neugebauer, Edmund; McIntosh, Tracy K.

    2008-01-01

    . Conclusions A single, acute hypotensive event lasting 30 mins did not aggravate the short- and long-term structural and motor deficits but delayed the speed of recovery of cognitive function associated with experimental traumatic brain injury. PMID:16424733

  10. Ruptured Persistent Trigeminal Artery Causing Direct Cavernous Sinus Fistula Treated with Pipeline Embolization and Minimal Coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Nam K; Awad, Al-Wala; Gee, James M; Taussky, Philipp

    2018-01-01

    Rupture of a persistent trigeminal artery associated with development of a cavernous sinus fistula in a traumatic setting is rare. These arteries are typically treated with coil embolization of the cavernous sinus. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman who developed a direct cavernous carotid fistula after a motor vehicle accident. Angiographic imaging revealed a rupture point of a persistent trigeminal artery as it connected with the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery, causing a cavernous sinus fistula. Coiling of the cavernous sinus was abandoned after placement of 1 coil because of coil herniation into the internal carotid artery. A Pipeline embolization device was placed to oppose the coil against the intima and keep the lumen open. The combination of coil embolization and flow diversion acutely decreased the fistulous flow. Surprisingly, an angiographic follow-up at 6 months showed complete fistula occlusion despite placement of only 1 coil into the cavernous sinus. We report a rare case where undercoiling of the cavernous sinus occluded a cavernous sinus fistula because of the adjunct use of a Pipeline embolization device in the presence of a traumatic rupture of a persistent trigeminal artery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Challenging Friesian horse diseases : aortic rupture and megaesophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aortic rupture is quite rare in Warmblood horses and is best known as an acute and fatal rupture of the aortic root in older breeding stallions. It has now become clear that aortic rupture, which is diagnosed around an age of 4 years, is more frequent in the Friesian breed than in others. The high

  12. Acute monoplegia associated with non-traumatic intradural cervical disc herniation:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Menkü

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intradural disc herniation has been reported as a rare and particular type of intervertebral disc herniation. It occurs mostly in the lumbar spine, and rarely in the cervical or thoracic spine. Non-traumatic cervical intradural disc herniation is rare, with only 17 cases reported in English literature at the cervical region and can manifest itself by severe symptoms such as Brown-Sequard syndrome, transverse myelopathy and radiculopathy. We present a unique case of intradural cervical disc herniation only causing lower extremity monoplegia. To our knowledge, this is the first case described in the literature. The patient underwent microsurgical removal of the herniated disc via an anterior approach followed by interbody fixation using a cervical cage. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 112-114

  13. [Comparative study on animal model of acute Achilles tendon rupture with surgical treatment using platelet-rich plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, J C; Vásquez, C R; Ceja, C B; Fuentes, C C E; Sesma, J F; Benítez, A G

    2012-01-01

    To compare the functional and histologicalal course of two animal model groups with acute Achilles tendon tears using platelet rich plasma. An open clinical trial was conducted with dogs donated by the animal facility of the Autonomous University of Puebla (BUAP, for its acronym in Spanish). Dogs were divided into 2 groups: a control group and a problem group. Intentional surgical Achilles tendon tear was performed to them. The Krackow technique was used to repair the tendon and the control group received platelet rich plasma (PRP) as a clot; the other group did not receive PRP. The dogs were seen at 4 weeks to check functionality using the Farell and Schwarz scale to assess the degree of limping. They were sacrificed at week 5; the tendons were removed and sent to the histopathology lab. Functionality results according to the Farell and Schwarz scale showed grades I and II in the problem group, and grades IV and V in the control group. Histologically, the problem group showed moderate vascular proliferation and abundant fibroblastic proliferation. The control group had mild to moderate vascular proliferation and moderate fibroblastic proliferation. PRP improves tendon healing and this has repercussions on functional recovery.

  14. Acute non-traumatic marrow edema syndrome in the knee: MRI findings at presentation, correlation with spinal DEXA and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantanas, Apostolos H. [Department of Radiology, University of Crete, Heraklion 711 10 Greece (Greece)], E-mail: apolsen@yahoo.com; Drakonaki, Elena [Department of Radiology, University of Crete, Heraklion 711 10 Greece (Greece); Karachalios, Theophilos [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Thessaly, Larissa 411 10 Greece (Greece); Korompilias, Anastasios V. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 451 10 (Greece); Malizos, Konstantinos [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Thessaly, Larissa 411 10 Greece (Greece)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to present the MRI findings of non-traumatic edema-like lesions presented acutely in the adult knee and to correlate them with the 3-year outcome and the bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine. Materials and methods: Ninety-eight patients (40 men, 58 women, mean age 60.1 {+-} 11 years, age range 27-82 years), were followed up clinically as well as with MR imaging, when indicated, for at least 3 years. Patients were classified according to presentation in 3 groups (A: bone marrow edema (BME), B: BME and subchondral fracture, C: BME and articular collapse) and according to outcome in 2 groups (A: reversible BME, B: articular collapse). BMD measurements of the spine were carried out in males over 70 and females over 60 years old using DEXA. Results: The isolated BME pattern was observed in 64.3% (Group A), subchondral fractures without articular collapse in 11.2% (Group B) and articular collapse in 24.5% (Group C). Significant differences were found among the 3 groups at presentation, regarding the age, sex, BMD, affected area and duration of symptoms prior to imaging (p < 0.05). Localization of the lesions in the weight-bearing areas of the knee was shown in 100% of C, in 90.9% of B and in 50.8% of A. The duration of symptoms prior to imaging was longer in C (7.6 {+-} 2.8 m) than in A (2.5 {+-} 1.7 m) and B (4.0 {+-} 3.2 m) (p < 0.05). Group B progressed to articular collapse in 45.5%, the rest demonstrating a favourable outcome. Group C showed clinical improvement in 75% and persistent symptoms that required knee arthroplasty in 25% of cases. Articular collapse was the final outcome in 29.6% and transient BME in 70.4% of patients. These two groups showed significant differences regarding the age (p {approx} 0), sex (p = 0.002), low BMD (p = 0.004), affected area (p {approx} 0), presence of subchondral sparing (p {approx} 0), duration of symptoms prior to imaging (p {approx} 0), time from onset of symptoms to the final outcome (p

  15. A Late Presentation of Spontaneous Bladder Rupture During Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahzadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder rupture is usually due to bladder diseases. Bladder rupture during labor or postpartum is extremely rare. Acute abdomen is the usual presentation of spontaneous bladder rupture. Patients may complain of suprapubic pain, anuria and hematuria. Some patients with intraperitoneal bladder rupture may have no abdominal pain and can pass urine without any symptoms so the diagnosis of intraperitoneal rupture may be difficult in these situations. We report a nulliparous woman with abdominal pain and distension about 20 days after normal vaginal delivery. There was intraperitoneal rupture of bladder in dome of bladder which was sealed by jejunum.

  16. Prevalence and Impact of Admission Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy on Treatment Intensity, Resource Utilization, and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liras, Ioannis N; Caplan, Henry W; Stensballe, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute coagulopathy of trauma in children are of potential importance to clinical outcome, but knowledge is limited and has only been investigated using conventional coagulation testing (CCT). The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and impact of arrival coagulopathy...

  17. Noninvasive screening for intracranial hypertension in children with acute, severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Nicole F; Maa, Tensing; Reuter-Rice, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between transcranial Doppler (TCD) derived pulsatility index (PI), end diastolic flow velocity (Vd), and intracranial pressure (ICP). The subjects in this study were 36 children admitted after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) (postresuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8) undergoing invasive ICP monitoring. Subjects underwent a total of 148 TCD studies. TCD measurements of systolic flow velocity (Vs), Vd, and mean flow velocity (Vm) were performed on the middle cerebral artery (MCA) ipsilateral to the ICP monitor. The PI was calculated by the TCD software (Vs-Vd/Vm). ICP registrations were made in parallel with TCD measurements. Using a PI threshold of 1.3, postinjury Day 0-1 PI had 100% sensitivity and 82% specificity at predicting an ICP ≥ 20 mm Hg (n = 8). During this time frame, a moderately strong relationship was observed between the MCA PI and actual ICP (r = 0.611, p = 0.01). When using a threshold of 1.3 has good sensitivity and specificity at predicting an ICP ≥ 20 mm Hg. In those children with TBI who initially do not meet clear criteria for invasive ICP monitoring but who are at risk for development of intracranial hypertension, TCD may be used as a noninvasive tool to screen for the development of elevated ICP in the first 24 hours following injury.

  18. Service utilisation in a public post-acute rehabilitation unit following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta'eed, Gillian; Skilbeck, Clive; Slatyer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes disability in a proportion of survivors across the spectrum of injury severity. Previous research suggests physical changes are the primary focus of rehabilitation, although cognitive, emotional and behavioural difficulties cause greater concern in the long-term. There is little information about services accessed by those with mild injuries, who often have no physical disabilities. This study investigated factors determining service utilisation in a population-based sample which included 52% mild injuries (PTA ≤ 24 hours). Chi-squares and t-tests were used to examine the impact of demographic, clinical, psychological and physical variables on referral of 175 TBI patients to clinical disciplines in a public, community-based rehabilitation facility in Hobart, Tasmania. Increased service intensity (total disciplines referred to), was associated with greater injury severity (p = .006) and previous TBI (p = .041). Less traditional rehabilitation services (nursing, psychology) received more referrals than traditional disciplines (physiotherapy, occupational therapy, social work). Referral to physiotherapy and occupational therapy was associated with greater injury severity, functional dependence, hospitalisation and older age. Referral to nursing, psychology and social work was associated with more post-concussion symptoms, younger age, anxiety, depression and assault-related injury. The large number of referrals to psychology strengthens the case for including it as a core rehabilitation discipline.

  19. Influence of acute ethanol intoxication on neuronal apoptosis and Bcl-2 protein expression after severe traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Liu, Wei-Guo; Wen, Liang; Du, Hang-Gen; Yin, Li-Chun; Chen, Li

    2013-01-01

    To study the influence and mechanism of acute ethanol intoxication (AEI) on rat neuronal apoptosis after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, AEI-only, TBI-only and TBI+AEI (n equal to 24 for each). Severe TBI model was developed according to Feeney's method. Rats in TBI+AEI group were firstly subjected to AEI, and then suffered head trauma. In each group, animals were sacrificed at 6 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 168 h after TBI. The level of neuronal apoptosis and the expression of Bcl-2 protein were determined by TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical method, respectively. Apoptotic cells mainly distributed in the cortex and white matter around the damaged area. Neuronal apoptosis significantly increased at 6 h after trauma and peaked at 72 h. Both the level of neuronal apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 protein in TBI-only group and TBI+AEI group were higher than those in control group (P less than 0.05). Compared with TBI-only group, the two indexes were much higher in TBI+AEI group at all time points (P less than 0.05). Our findings suggest that AEI can increase neuronal apoptosis after severe TBI.

  20. Influence of acute ethanol intoxication on neuronal apoptosis and Bcl-2 protein expression after severe traumatic brain injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Min

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To study the influence and mechanism of acute ethanol intoxication (AEI on rat neu-ronal apoptosis after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods: Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were ran-domly divided into four groups: normal control, AEI-only, TBI-only and TBI+AEI (n=24 for each. Severe TBI model was developed according to Feeney’s method. Rats in TBI+AEI group were firstly subjected to AEI, and then suf-fered head trauma. In each group, animals were sacrificed at 6 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 168 h after TBI. The level of neuronal apoptosis and the expression of Bcl-2 protein were deter-mined by TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical method, respectively. Results: Apoptotic cells mainly distributed in the cortex and white matter around the damaged area. Neuronal apoptosis significantly increased at 6 h after trauma and peaked at 72 h. Both the level of neuronal apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 protein in TBI-only group and TBI+AEI group were higher than those in control group (P<0.05. Compared with TBI-only group, the two indexes were much higher in TBI+AEI group at all time points (P<0.05. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that AEI can increase neuronal apoptosis after severe TBI. Key words: Craniocerebral trauma; Apoptosis; Alcoholism

  1. Soleus Atrophy Is Common After the Nonsurgical Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures: A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Surgical and Nonsurgical Functional Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Juuso; Lantto, Iikka; Flinkkila, Tapio; Ohtonen, Pasi; Niinimaki, Jaakko; Siira, Pertti; Laine, Vesa; Leppilahti, Juhana

    2017-05-01

    It remains controversial whether nonsurgical or surgical treatment provides better calf muscle strength recovery after an acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). Recent evidence has suggested that surgery might surpass nonsurgical treatment in restoring strength after an ATR. To assess whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings could explain calf muscle strength deficits and the difference between nonsurgical and surgical treatments in restoring calf muscle strength. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. From 2009 to 2013, 60 patients with acute ATRs were randomized to surgery or nonsurgical treatment with an identical rehabilitation protocol. The primary outcome measure was the volume of calf muscles assessed using MRI at 3 and 18 months. The secondary outcome measures included fatty degeneration of the calf muscles and length of the affected Achilles tendon. Additionally, isokinetic plantarflexion strength was measured in both legs. At 3 months, the study groups showed no differences in muscle volumes or fatty degeneration. However, at 18 months, the mean differences between affected and healthy soleus muscle volumes were 83.2 cm(3) (17.7%) after surgery and 115.5 cm(3) (24.8%) after nonsurgical treatment (difference between means, 33.1 cm(3); 95% CI, 1.3-65.0; P = .042). The study groups were not substantially different in the volumes or fatty degeneration of other muscles. From 3 to 18 months, compensatory hypertrophy was detected in the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and deep flexors in both groups. In the nonsurgical treatment group, the mean difference between affected and healthy FHL muscle volumes was -9.3 cm(3) (12%) and in the surgical treatment group was -8.4 cm(3) (10%) ( P ≤ .001). At 18 months, Achilles tendons were, on average, 19 mm longer in patients treated nonsurgically compared with patients treated surgically ( P Achilles tendon length was 19 mm longer after nonsurgical treatment than after the surgical treatment of ATRs

  2. The Association Between Ventriculo-Peritoneal Shunt and Acute Appendicitis in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury: A 14-Year, Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sher-Wei; Ao, Kam-Hou; Ho, Chung-Han; Tseng, Chien-Jen; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chio, Chung-Ching; Kuo, Jinn-Rung

    2017-07-01

    The association between preexisting ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt and the risk of new-onset acute appendicitis in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not well established. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationships between VP shunt and acute appendicitis in patients with TBI. A longitudinal cohort study matched by a propensity score in patients with TBI with (4781 patients) or without (9562 patients) VP shunt was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan between January 1993 and December 2013. The main outcome studied was diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The cumulative probability of acute appendicitis was not different between these 2 groups (P = 0.6244). A Cox model showed central nervous system (CNS) infection to be an independent predictor of acute appendicitis with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.98. Patients with TBI with both a VP shunt and a CNS infection had a greater risk of developing new-onset acute appendicitis (hazard ratio 4.25; 95% confidence interval 1.84-9.81) compared patients with TBI without a VP shunt or CNS infection. We concluded that VP shunt is not a risk factor in the development of appendicitis in patients with TBI. Patients with TBI with a shunt and a CNS infection may have a greater risk of developing acute appendicitis. Therefore, care in avoiding CNS infection is a key for the prevention acute appendicitis in this patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolated Acute Traumatic Subtalar Dislocations: Review of 13 Cases at a Mean Follow-Up of 6 Years and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlmann, François; Poujardieu, Camille; Vernois, Joel; Gayet, Louis-Etienne

    Isolated acute traumatic subtalar dislocations are quite rare. They correspond to talotarsal dislocation, including the talonavicular and talocalcaneal joints. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the functional and radiologic outcomes of the treatment of acute traumatic isolated subtalar dislocations. The present retrospective study included 13 patients who had sustained isolated subtalar dislocations during a 10-year period. Of the 13 cases, 10 (76.9%) were medial dislocations and 3 (23.1%) were lateral dislocations. All the patients underwent immediate closed reduction under anesthesia followed by immobilization. No open reduction was required. The mean follow-up period was 72.6 (range 24.4 to 124.8) months. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was 80.1 of 100 (range 66 to 90). The score result was good in 69% of cases and poor in 31% of cases. The subtalar mobility was reduced for 8 (61.5%) patients and significantly affected the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score (p = .002). Subtalar osteoarthritis was present in 6 (46.1%) cases with talonavicular osteoarthritis in 3 (23.1%) cases. No cases of avascular necrosis of the talus were noted. In accordance with the published data, the prognosis of isolated acute traumatic subtalar dislocations is favorable. Medial dislocations are more frequent than lateral dislocations. Emergent closed reduction makes it possible to remove soft tissue injuries. The risk of post-traumatic subtalar osteoarthritis is significant, even without an initial subtalar lesion. A postreduction computed tomography scan will enable the diagnosis of osteochondral lesions. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prior CT imaging history for patients who undergo PAN CT for acute traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenter, Jeremy; Blow, Osbert; Krall, Scott P; Gest, Albert; Smith, Cynthia; Richman, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    Objective. A single PAN scan may provide more radiation to a patient than is felt to be safe within a one-year period. Our objective was to determine how many patients admitted to the trauma service following a PAN scan had prior CT imaging within our six-hospital system. Methods. We performed a secondary analysis of a prospectively collected trauma registry. The study was based at a level-two trauma center and five affiliated hospitals, which comprise 70.6% of all Emergency Department visits within a twelve county region of southern Texas. Electronic medical records were reviewed dating from the point of trauma evaluation back to December 5, 2005 to determine evidence of prior CT imaging. Results. There were 867 patients were admitted to the trauma service between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012. 460 (53%) received a PAN scan and were included in the study group. The mean age of the study group was 37.7 ± 1.54 years old, 24.8% were female, and the mean ISS score was 13.4 ± 1.07. The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle collision (47%). 65 (14%; 95% CI [11-18]%) of the patients had at least one prior CT. The most common prior studies performed were: CT head (29%; 19-42%), CT Face (29%; 19-42%) and CT Abdomen and Pelvis (18%; 11-30%). Conclusion. Within our trauma registry, 14% of patients had prior CT imaging within our hospital system before their traumatic event and PAN scan.

  5. Cerebral hemodynamic changes of mild traumatic brain injury at the acute stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik Doshi

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI is a significant public health care burden in the United States. However, we lack a detailed understanding of the pathophysiology following mTBI and its relation to symptoms and recovery. With advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, we can investigate brain perfusion and oxygenation in regions known to be implicated in symptoms, including cortical gray matter and subcortical structures. In this study, we assessed 14 mTBI patients and 18 controls with susceptibility weighted imaging and mapping (SWIM for blood oxygenation quantification. In addition to SWIM, 7 patients and 12 controls had cerebral perfusion measured with arterial spin labeling (ASL. We found increases in regional cerebral blood flow (CBF in the left striatum, and in frontal and occipital lobes in patients as compared to controls (p = 0.01, 0.03, 0.03 respectively. We also found decreases in venous susceptibility, indicating increases in venous oxygenation, in the left thalamostriate vein and right basal vein of Rosenthal (p = 0.04 in both. mTBI patients had significantly lower delayed recall scores on the standardized assessment of concussion, but neither susceptibility nor CBF measures were found to correlate with symptoms as assessed by neuropsychological testing. The increased CBF combined with increased venous oxygenation suggests an increase in cerebral blood flow that exceeds the oxygen demand of the tissue, in contrast to the regional hypoxia seen in more severe TBI. This may represent a neuroprotective response following mTBI, which warrants further investigation.

  6. Estimating rupture distances without a rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric; Worden, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Most ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) require distances that are defined relative to a rupture model, such as the distance to the surface projection of the rupture (RJB) or the closest distance to the rupture plane (RRUP). There are a number of situations in which GMPEs are used where it is either necessary or advantageous to derive rupture distances from point-source distance metrics, such as hypocentral (RHYP) or epicentral (REPI) distance. For ShakeMap, it is necessary to provide an estimate of the shaking levels for events without rupture models, and before rupture models are available for events that eventually do have rupture models. In probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, it is often convenient to use point-source distances for gridded seismicity sources, particularly if a preferred orientation is unknown. This avoids the computationally cumbersome task of computing rupture-based distances for virtual rupture planes across all strikes and dips for each source. We derive average rupture distances conditioned on REPI, magnitude, and (optionally) back azimuth, for a variety of assumed seismological constraints. Additionally, we derive adjustment factors for GMPE standard deviations that reflect the added uncertainty in the ground motion estimation when point-source distances are used to estimate rupture distances.

  7. The focus of family members' functioning in the acute phase of traumatic coma: part two: Protecting from suffering and protecting what remains to rebuild life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Sofie T L; van Zuuren, Florence J; Grypdonck, Mieke H F; Duijnstee, Mia S H; Defloor, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The identification and description of the basic psychological process linked with the focus of family members' functioning during the acute phase of traumatic coma. Earlier research learned that hope is a core category in coping with traumatic coma. Hope seems to be the drive to keep family members going and to enable them to fulfil their main task, namely protecting. In the two articles on the focus of family members functioning, this task is defined and the process linked with it is described. A qualitative approach according to the 'grounded theory' method. Twenty-four in-depth interviews with 22 family members of 16 patients with traumatic coma. Family members describe the period after the confrontation with traumatic coma as a battle. During this battle, they feel the urge to protect their relative in coma, other family members and themselves. They go through three phases: protecting life, protecting from suffering, protecting what remains to rebuild life. In this article (Part Two) we describe the phase of protecting from suffering and protecting what remains to rebuild life. All relatives go through the three phases. Family members who have already overcome previous set-backs get through the process slightly more quickly and experience less extreme emotions. Understanding the process of protecting in different phases may help health care professionals to do anything in their power to avoid unnecessary suffering, to ease the pain and to support family members in their task of protecting.

  8. The focus of family members' functioning in the acute phase of traumatic coma: part one: The initial battle and protecting life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Sofie T L; van Zuuren, Florence J; Grypdonck, Mieke H F; Duijnstee, Mia S H; Defloor, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The identification and description of the basic psychological process linked with the focus of family members' functioning during the acute phase of traumatic coma. Earlier research learned that hope is a core category in coping with traumatic coma. Hope seems to be the drive to keep family members going and to enable them to fulfil their main task namely protecting. In two articles on the focus of family members functioning, this task is defined and the process linked with it is described. A qualitative approach according to the grounded theory method with constant comparison. Twenty four in-depth interviews with 22 family members of 16 patients with traumatic coma. Family members describe the period after the confrontation with traumatic coma as a battle. During this battle, they feel the urge to protect their relative in coma, other family members and themselves. They go through three phases: protecting life, protecting from suffering, protecting what remains to rebuild live. In this article (Part One) we describe the initial battle and the phase of protecting life. All relatives go through the three phases. Family members who have already overcome previous set-backs get through the process slightly more quickly and experience less extreme emotions. Understanding the process of protecting in different phases may help health care professionals to do anything in their power to avoid unnecessary suffering, to ease the pain and to support family members in their task of protecting.

  9. [Spontaneous achilles tendon rupture in granulomatous vasculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthien, Jan Philipp; Delling, G; Rüther, W

    2003-08-01

    A 66-year old patient sustained a non-traumatic rupture of her left achilles tendon. She suffered from Sjögren's syndrome which occurred in conjunction with a systemic vasculitis, and recurrent episcleritis. The combination of Sjögren's syndrome and systemic vasculitis is well known. Subsequently, she was treated with high-dose systemic steroids over a period of 2 years. In order to reduce the amount of steroids due to preexisting severe osteoporosis and thoracic vertebral fractures, her medication was changed to cyclophosphamide shortly before her injury. Intraoperatively, a granuloma was discovered at the site of the rupture. This granuloma had infiltrated most of the achilles tendon at this site and virtually replaced viable tendon tissue. Originally, the rupture was supposedly due to the high dose steroids. This theory had to be revised according to the intraoperative findings. Following excision of the granuloma and operative treatment of the achilles tendon rupture, the continuity of the tendon could be completely restored. A MRI scan 3 months after the procedure demonstrated a completely healed Achilles tendon. Spontaneous achilles tendon rupture due to a granuloma in patients with vasculitis seems to be a rare event. However, tendon ruptures in combination with systemic lupus erythematodes have been described. Mostly, these events are attributed to long term application of steroids. Spontaneous rupture in combination with high dose treatment of steroids seems to be an underestimated problem.

  10. Psychobiology of the acute stress response and its relationship to the psychobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Randall D; Garakani, Amir

    2002-06-01

    The literature to date that examines the biology of the acute stress reactions suggests that relatively lower baseline cortisol is associated with the development of PTSD. This is particularly informative because of the ongoing controversy surrounding baseline cortisol in PTSD. Studies have found low baseline cortisol, normal range, and elevated baseline cortisol in chronic PTSD, and it has been unclear whether this reflects methodologic differences across studies or true heterogeneity within the disorder. Thus, the few studies to date support the finding of low-normal baseline cortisol in chronic PTSD and suggest that it is a pre-existing functional trait. Whether it plays an etiologic role or is an epiphenomenon of some other process is unclear. What does seem clear, however, is that this characteristic is relatively nonspecific to PTSD, given the fact that low cortisol has been observed in multiple subject populations, including normal individuals under chronic stress as well as chronic medical conditions (for review see [23]). For example, it is possible that reduced baseline cortisol reflects the net result of input to the hypothalamus from cortical and subcortical regions of the brain linked to increased vigilance, sensitization to trauma because of prior traumatic experiences, or genetic factors. For example, primate studies have demonstrated persistent alterations in HPA axis functioning in animals reared by mothers living in moderately stressful conditions [24]. The development of PTSD is associated with sensitization of the startle response. Because the neurobiology of startle is well characterized, this finding implicates a role for specific neurocircuitry in PTSD [25]. Non-habituation of the startle response in PTSD appears related to sensitization specifically to contextual cues (i.e., the environment) that signal the presence of potential threat of danger-related fears [26]. This may be the neurobiological correlate to the over-generalization seen in

  11. Air Medical Evacuations From the German North Sea Wind Farm Bard Offshore 1: Traumatic Injuries, Acute Diseases, and Rescue Process Times (2011-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethleff, Dirk; Weinrich, Nils; Kowald, Birgitt; Hory, Dorothea; Franz, Rüdiger; Nielsen, Maja Verena; Seide, Klaus; Jürgens, Christian; Stuhr, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose was 2-fold: 1) to show emergency-related traumatic injury and acute disease patterns and 2) to evaluate air rescue process times in a remotely located German offshore wind farm. Optimally, this will support methodologies to reduce offshore help time (time from the incoming emergency call until offshore arrival of the helicopter). The type and severity of traumatic injuries and acute diseases were retrospectively analyzed for 39 air medevacs from August 2011 to December 2013, and the process times of air rescue missions were evaluated in detail. Forty-nine percent of the medevacs were related to traumatic injuries, whereas 41% were associated with acute diseases and 10% remained unclear. Cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders accounted for 90% of internal medical cases. About 69% of the trauma was related to contusions, lacerations, and cuts. The main body regions injured were limbs (∼59%) and head (∼32%). The total rescue time until arrival at the destination facility averaged 175.3 minutes (standard deviation = 54.4 minutes). The mean helicopter offshore arrival time was 106.9 minutes (standard deviation = 57.4 minutes) after the incoming emergency call. In 64% of the medevacs, the helicopter arrived on scene within a help time of 90 minutes. A reduction of help time (≤ 60 minutes) for time-critical severe trauma and acute diseases may be anticipated through rapid and focused medical and logistic decision-making processes by the onshore dispatch center combined with professional, qualified, and well-trained flight and rescue personnel. Copyright © 2016 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

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    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  13. [Achilles tendon rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H

    2000-03-01

    The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon rupture experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of rupture morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-rupture (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques.

  14. Case report: Traumatic unilateral testicular rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Natasha J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Testicular trauma is classified aetiologically as blunt, penetrating or degloving. Blunt testicular trauma, caused by interpersonal violence, sporting injuries and RTAs account for the majority of cases, typically affecting males aged 15–40 [1]. Approximately 98.5% of blunt trauma resulted in unilateral testicular injury; about 12–15% involving cyclists or motorcyclists (Cass and Luxenberg, 1988) [2]. Presentation of case: A 48-year-old male motorcyclist presented to the acci...

  15. Traumatic rupture of the descending thoracic aorta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in man';ing this condition. In addition to the advantages discus· 'd above, it also allows for panial neutralisation and removal of 'time stress' during the operative procedure and, additionally, few surgeons can guarantee a shon cross-clamp time before starting the repair. The authors wish to thank the D~partments of ...

  16. Isolated traumatic rupture of the gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Yin Ming Kwan, MD

    2015-01-01

    Treatment for gallbladder injury is most commonly cholecystectomy. Mortality rates in patients with gallbladder injuries are related to associated injuries, including cardiac, thoracic or intra-abdominal hemorrhage, or multi-organ failure and/or brain damage. In isolated gallbladder injury, the prognosis is good.

  17. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate clinically significant change in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation. Methods: Participants were 62 pairs of relatives and patients. Relatives completed the anxiety and depression scales from.......2% and 58.1% of relatives had scores above cut-off values on the anxiety and depression scales, respectively. On the anxiety scale 69.7% of these experienced a reliable improvement according to the Reliable Change Index (RCI) and 45.5% also obtained CSC, as their end-point was below the cut-off value....... On the depression scale the corresponding figures were 44.4% and 41.7%, respectively. When comparing relatives with and without CSC, we found that CSC in symptoms of anxiety was associated with significantly better functional improvement during rehabilitation and a shorter period of post-traumatic amnesia...

  18. Acute Traumatic Endotheliopathy in Isolated Severe Brain Injury and Its Impact on Clinical Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venencia Albert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Study design: Prospective observational cohort. Objective: To investigate the difference in plasma levels of syndecan-1 (due to glycocalyx degradation and soluble thrombomodulin (due to endothelial damage in isolated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI patients with/without early coagulopathy. A secondary objective was to compare the effects of the degree of TBI endotheliopathy on hospital mortality among patients with TBI-associated coagulopathy (TBI-AC. Methods: Data was prospectively collected on isolated severe TBI (sTBI patients with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS ≤8 less than 12 h after injury admitted to a level I trauma centre. Isolated sTBI patients with samples withdrawn prior to blood transfusion were stratified by conventional coagulation tests as coagulopathic (prothrombin time (PT ≥ 16.7 s, international normalized ratio (INR ≥ 1.27, and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT ≥ 28.8 s and non-coagulopathic. Twenty healthy controls were also included. Plasma levels of thrombomodulin and syndecan-1 were estimated by ELISA. With receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis, we defined endotheliopathy as a syndecan-1 cut-off level that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity for predicting TBI-AC. Results: Inclusion criteria were met in 120 cases, with subjects aged 35.5 ± 12.6 years (88.3% males. TBI-AC was identified in 50 (41.6% patients, independent of age, gender, and GCS, but there was an association with acidosis (60%; p = 0.01. Following isolated sTBI, we found insignificant changes in soluble thrombomodulin (sTM levels between patients with isolated TBI and controls, and sTM levels were lower in coagulopathic compared to non-coagulopathic patients. Elevations in plasma syndecan-1 (ng/mL levels were seen compared to control (31.1(21.5–30.6 vs. 24.8(18.5–30.6; p = 0.08. Syndecan-1(ng/mL levels were significantly elevated in coagulopathic compared to non-coagulopathic patients (33.7(21.6–109.5 vs. 29

  19. Triple Achilles Tendon Rupture: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amol; Hofer, Deann

    2017-11-16

    We present a case report with 1-year follow-up data of a 57-year-old male soccer referee who had sustained an acute triple Achilles tendon rupture injury during a game. His triple Achilles tendon rupture consisted of a rupture of the proximal watershed region, a rupture of the main body (mid-watershed area), and an avulsion-type rupture of insertional calcific tendinosis. The patient was treated surgically with primary repair of the tendon, including tenodesis with anchors. Postoperative treatment included non-weightbearing for 4 weeks and protected weightbearing until 10 weeks postoperative, followed by formal physical therapy, which incorporated an "antigravity" treadmill. The patient was able to return to full activity after 26 weeks, including running and refereeing, without limitations. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms predict delay to hospital in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

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    Jonathan D Newman

    Full Text Available Increased delay to hospital presentation with acute coronary syndrome (ACS is associated with poor outcomes. While demographic factors associated with this delay have been well described, scarce data are available on the role of modifiable factors, such as psychosocial disorders, on pre-hospital delay. Patients with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD often avoid stressful situations and may delay presenting for care when they experience cardiac symptoms. It is unknown, however, whether PTSD symptoms negatively impact the time to presentation during an ACS.We assessed the relationship between PTSD symptoms and pre-hospital delay in 241 adults with an ACS in the ongoing Prescription Use, Lifestyle, Stress Evaluation (PULSE study.Overall, 66% of patients were male; 40% were Hispanic or Latino. The mean age was 61.9±11.6 years old. PTSD symptoms were present in 17.8% of patients. Pre-hospital delay was longer for patients with PTSD symptoms compared to those without [geometric mean: 25.8 hours (95% CI 13.8-44.8 vs. 10.7 hours (95% CI 8.3-13.8]; P = 0.005. After multivariable adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, depression, left ventricular ejection fraction and history of myocardial infarction, the mean pre-hospital delay was 173% (95% CI: 36%-450% longer for patients with versus without PTSD symptoms.Among patients presenting with an ACS, PTSD symptoms were independently associated with longer pre-hospital delays. Future studies of pre-hospital delay should examine the mechanisms underlying this association.

  1. Tactical Study of Care Originating in the Prehospital Environment (Tacscope): Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy on the Contemporary Battlefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Robert T; Glassberg, Elon; Holcomb, John B; Mabry, Robert L; Schreiber, Martin B; Spinella, Philip C

    2016-09-01

    Uncontrolled major hemorrhage and delayed evacuation remain substantial contributors to potentially survivable combat death, along with mission, environment, terrain, logistics, and hostile action. Life-saving interventions and the onset of acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) may also contribute. Analyze US casualty records from the DoD Trauma Registry, using International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 1.5 for onset of ATC. Retrospective cohort study from September 2007 to June 2011, inclusive. Independent variable was INR. Primary dependent variables were transfusion volume, massive transfusion (MT) defined as >10 units RBC/fresh whole blood in first 24 h, and 30-day survival. We used T test and chi-square analysis. Our IRB reviewed and exempted this study. In total, 8,913 cases were available. Fifty one percent had complete data with INR. Of excluded cases, 98.9% survived, average injury severity scales (ISS) was 7 (IQR 1-8), and less than 1% received MT. Among included cases, 98.5% survived, average ISS was 10 (IQR 2-14), average INR was 1.16 (CI95 1.14-1.17), and 2.7% received MT. There were 383 cases with ATC (8.4%). After stratification, we found that ATC cases were more likely to die (odds ratio (OR) 28, CI 16-48), receive MT (OR 9.6, CI 6.4-14.4), and were acidotic (pH 7.27 (7.24-7.31) vs. 7.38 (7.38-7.39)). Other significant differences included Injury Severity Score, Revised Trauma Score, blast mechanism, and penetrating injury. ATC is substantially associated with greater injury severity, MT, and mortality. Prehospital identification of MT casualties may expedite triage and evacuation, and enable remote damage control resuscitation to delay ATC onset and improve outcomes.

  2. Impact of β-Adrenoceptor Blockade on Systemic Inflammation and Coagulation Disturbances in Rats with Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Yu, Wen-kui; Lin, Zhi-liang; Tan, Shan-jun; Bai, Xiao-wu; Ding, Kai; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background Sympathetic hyperactivity occurs early in acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) and is closely related to its development. β-adrenoceptor antagonists are known to alleviate adverse sympathetic effects and improve outcome in various diseases. We investigated whether β-blockers have protective effects against inflammation and endothelial and hemostatic disorders in ATC. Material/Methods ATC was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by trauma and hemorrhagic shock. Rats were randomly assigned to the sham, ATCC (ATC control), and ATCB (ATC with beta-adrenoceptor blockade) groups. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with propranolol or vehicle at baseline. Heart rate variability (HRV) and markers of inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial activation were measured, and Western blotting analysis of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was done after shock. Separate ATCC and ATCB groups were observed to compare overall mortality. Results HRV showed enhanced sympathetic tone in the ATCC group, which was reversed by propranolol. Propranolol attenuated the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, as well as fibrinolysis markers plasmin antiplasmin complex and tissue-type plasminogen activator. The increased serum syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin were inhibited by propranolol, and the NF-κB expression was also decreased by propranolol pretreatment. But propranolol did not alter overall mortality in rats with ATC after shock. Conclusions Beta-adrenoceptor blockade can alleviate sympathetic hyperactivity and exert anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrinolysis, and endothelial protective effects, confirming its pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ATC. Its mechanism in ATC should be explored further. PMID:25676919

  3. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy resulting from acute traumatic tentorial subdural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Cui,1 Timur Kouliev2 1Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; 2Emergency Department, Beijing United Family Hospital, Beijing, China Abstract: Acute subdural hematoma (SDH resulting from head trauma is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires expedient diagnosis and intervention to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Rapidly expanding or large hematomas, elevated intracranial pressure, and associated complications of brain herniation are associated with high mortality rates and poor recovery of neurological function. However, smaller bleeds (clot thickness <10 mm or hematomas occurring in infrequent locations, such as the tentorium cerebelli, may be difficult to recognize and patients may present with unusual or subtle signs and symptoms, including isolated cranial nerve palsies. Knowledge of neuroanatomy supported by modern neuroimaging can greatly aid in recognition and diagnosis of such lesions. In this report, we present a case of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy resulting from compressive tentorial SDH following blunt head trauma, review the literature concerning similar cases, and make recommendations regarding the diagnosis of SDH in patients presenting with isolated cranial nerve palsies. Keywords: head injury, oculomotor, palsy, subdural hematoma, trauma, tentorium, cerebral herniation, intracranial hemorrhage

  4. Assessment of impairment in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Julio C; Noonan, Vanessa; Singh, Anoushka; Fehlings, Michael G

    2011-08-01

    The most common primary end-point of the trial on treatment of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is the degree of impairment. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Standards have been widely used to assess motor function and pin-prick and light-touch sensory function. In addition, pain assessment is another clinically relevant aspect of the impairment in individuals with SCI. Given this, we sought to systematically review the studies that focused on the psychometric properties of ASIA Standards and all previously used outcome measures of pain in the SCI population in the acute care setting. For the primary literature search strategy, the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were sought out. Subsequently, a secondary search strategy was carried out using the articles listed in the references of meta-analysis, systematic, and non-systematic review articles. Two reviewers (JCF and VN) independently selected the articles that fulfill the inclusion and exclusion, assessed the level of evidence of each article, and appraised the psychometric properties of each instrument. Divergences during those steps were solved by consensus between both reviewers. Of 400 abstracts captured in our primary search strategy on the ASIA Standards, 16 full articles fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. An additional 40 references were obtained from two prior systematic reviews on ASIA Standards. While 45 of 56 of the studies on ASIA Standards provided level 4 evidence, there were 11 level 2b evidence studies. Convergent construct validity (n = 34), reliability (n = 12), and responsiveness (n = 10) were the most commonly studied psychometric properties of the ASIA Standards, but two prior studies examined their content validity. Of the 267 abstracts yielded in our primary search on pain assessment, 24 articles with level 4 evidence fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. There was no study that examined pain assessment in the acute care

  5. Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen. In most cases, a correct and definite diagnosis can be made only by laparotomy. We report two cases of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforated pyometra. The first case is a 78-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of suspected incarcerated hernia. The second case is a 61-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of symptoms of peritonitis. At laparotomy of both cases, 1 liter of pus with the source of uterine was found in the abdominal cavity. The ruptured uterine is also detected. More investigations revealed no malignancy as the reason of the pyometra.

  6. Acute kidney injury defined according to the 'Risk,' 'Injury,' 'Failure,' 'Loss,' and 'End-stage' (RIFLE) criteria after repair for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Sytse C; Legemate, Dink A; Vahl, Anco; Bouman, Catherine S C; Vogt, Liffert; Wisselink, Willem; Balm, Ron

    2014-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication after repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). In the present Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS)/International Society for CardioVascular Surgery (ISCVS) reporting standards patients are classified as no dialysis (grade I), as temporary dialysis (grade II), and as permanent dialysis or fatal outcome (grade III). However, AKI is a broad clinical syndrome including more than the requirement for renal replacement therapy. The recently introduced 'Risk,' 'Injury,' 'Failure,' 'Loss,' and 'End-stage' (RIFLE) classification for AKI comprises three severity categories based on serum creatinine and urine output ('Risk,' 'Injury,' and 'Failure'). The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence of AKI using the RIFLE criteria (AKIRIFLE). Secondary objectives were to assess the incidence of AKI as defined using the SVS/ISCVS reporting standards (AKISVS/ISCVS) and the association between AKIRIFLE and death. This was an observational cohort study in 362 consecutive patients with an RAAA in three hospitals in Amsterdam (The Netherlands) between 2004 and 2011. The end points were the incidence of AKIRIFLE, of AKISVS/ISCVS, and the combined 30-day or in-hospital death rate. A multivariable logistic regression model was made to assess the association between AKIRIFLE and death after adjustment for preoperative shock profile (Glasgow Aneurysm Score) and postoperative shock profile (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, use of vasopressors, and fluid balance during the first 24 hours after intervention). AKIRIFLE occurred in 74% (267/362; 95% confidence interval [CI], 69%-78%), with 27% of these patients categorized as 'Risk' (71/267; 95% CI, 22%-32%), 39% categorized as 'Injury' (104/267, 95% CI, 33%-45%), and 34% categorized as 'Failure' (92/267; 95% CI, 29%-40%). AKISVS/ISCVS occurred in 48% (175/362; 95% CI, 43%-53%), with 53% of these categorized as 'grade I' (92/175; 95

  7. A case of splenic torsion and rupture presenting as ruptured ectopic pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somdatta Lahiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Splenic torsion with rupture of spleen is an extremely rare phenomenon. The clinical picture mimics several common conditions which are causes of acute abdomen and so it is seldom detected pre-operatively. An 18 year old female patient was admitted with an acute abdomen and shock. The provisional diagnosis was of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Peri-operatively we found a spontaneous rupture of the spleen following torsion along with early intrauterine pregnancy. Splenectomy was carried out and patient recovered well. Our report confirms that this rare entity can present as an acute abdomen which is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively and can masquerade as ruptured ectopic pregnancy in women of childbearing age group.

  8. Hemoperitoneum secondary to an spontaneous rupture of the spleen mimmicking a duodenal perforated ulcera: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Díaz, Gustavo; Alias, David; Jiménez-Fuertes, Montiel; Durán, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the spleen without traumatic cause is an unfrequent entity, usually related with pathologic spleens. We present a case of spontaneous rupture of an histologically normal spleen with splenomegalia secondary to smoking habit. The hemoperitoneum caused by the spontaneous rupture of the spleen mimmicked a hollow viscera perforation.

  9. Splenic rupture masquerading ruptured ectopic pregnancy | Kigbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pallor, abdominal tenderness, shifting dullness with positive pregnancy test gave a clinical diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy. At laparotomy, an intrauterine gestation with normal tubes and ovaries with complete splenic rupture were found. She had total splenectomy. Highland Medical Research Journal Vol.

  10. Impact of Plaque Rupture Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography on Transmural Extent of Infarction After Successful Stenting in ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satogami, Keisuke; Ino, Yasushi; Kubo, Takashi; Tanimoto, Takashi; Orii, Makoto; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Ota, Shingo; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Katayama, Yosuke; Aoki, Hiroshi; Nishiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ozaki, Yuichi; Yamano, Takashi; Kameyama, Takeyoshi; Kuroi, Akio; Kitabata, Hironori; Tanaka, Atsushi; Hozumi, Takeshi; Akasaka, Takashi

    2017-05-22

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between plaque rupture (PR) assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the transmural extent of infarction (TEI) assessed by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CE-CMR) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). PR is associated with larger infarct size as assessed by cardiac enzymes in STEMI patients. CE-CMR is a favorable method to assess TEI, which can predict the prognosis of STEMI patients. First, STEMI patients with primary PCI within 12 h after onset were enrolled and divided into 2 groups according to presence (n = 71) or absence (n = 32) of PR at the culprit lesion as assessed by pre-intervention OCT. CE-CMR was performed at 1 week after primary PCI. The frequency of no-reflow phenomenon (37% vs. 16%; p = 0.032) and distal embolization (24% vs. 6%; p = 0.032) was significantly higher in the rupture group compared with the non-rupture group. TEI grade was significantly greater in the rupture group (28% vs. 15% in grade 3 and 45% vs. 13% in grade 4; p < 0.001). Microvascular obstruction was more frequently seen in the rupture group (39% vs. 19%; p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis identified PR (odds ratio: 6.60, 95% confidence interval: 2.19 to 21.69; p < 0.001) and no statin use before admission (odds ratio: 3.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 11.19; p = 0.039) as independent predictors of TEI grade 3 or 4. PR as assessed by OCT is associated with greater TEI as assessed by CE-CMR in STEMI patients after primary PCI. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacopuncture and Autohemo-Seperated Regeneration Pharmacopuncture for Acute Traumatic Subdeltoid Bursitis with Patial Tear of Subscapularis Tendon After Bongchuna Treatment - A Case Report -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Kyo Oh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report about effect of soyeom pharmacopuncture, bee venom and autohemo-seperated regeneration pharmacopuncture(ASRP for acute traumatic subdeltoid bursitis with partial tear of subscapularis tendon, which was diagnosed by symptoms and MRI(Magnetic resonance imaging and caused by bongchuna treatment. We evaluated the patient using Visual Analogue Scale(VAS every two or four days and range of movement(ROM, physical examination of shoulder about one per ten days and observed improvement with reexamination by ultrasonography and MRI as well. Pharmacopuncture rapidly reduced pain and improved range of motion and function of shoulder in patients with acute sub-deltoid bursitis even though it was severe symptom. Our result suggest that autohemo-seperated regeneration pharmacopuncture might be effective in regenerating the tear of soft tissue such as subscapularis tendon.

  12. Assessing Metabolism and Injury in Acute Human Traumatic Brain Injury with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Current and Future Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Stovell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI triggers a series of complex pathophysiological processes. These include abnormalities in brain energy metabolism; consequent to reduced tissue pO2 arising from ischemia or abnormal tissue oxygen diffusion, or due to a failure of mitochondrial function. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS allows non-invasive interrogation of brain tissue metabolism in patients with acute brain injury. Nuclei with “spin,” e.g., 1H, 31P, and 13C, are detectable using MRS and are found in metabolites at various stages of energy metabolism, possessing unique signatures due to their chemical shift or spin–spin interactions (J-coupling. The most commonly used clinical MRS technique, 1H MRS, uses the great abundance of hydrogen atoms within molecules in brain tissue. Spectra acquired with longer echo-times include N-acetylaspartate (NAA, creatine, and choline. NAA, a marker of neuronal mitochondrial activity related to adenosine triphosphate (ATP, is reported to be lower in patients with TBI than healthy controls, and the ratio of NAA/creatine at early time points may correlate with clinical outcome. 1H MRS acquired with shorter echo times produces a more complex spectrum, allowing detection of a wider range of metabolites.31 P MRS detects high-energy phosphate species, which are the end products of cellular respiration: ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr. ATP is the principal form of chemical energy in living organisms, and PCr is regarded as a readily mobilized reserve for its replenishment during periods of high utilization. The ratios of high-energy phosphates are thought to represent a balance between energy generation, reserve and use in the brain. In addition, the chemical shift difference between inorganic phosphate and PCr enables calculation of intracellular pH.13 C MRS detects the 13C isotope of carbon in brain metabolites. As the natural abundance of 13C is low (1.1%, 13C MRS is typically performed following

  13. The course, prediction and treatment of acute and post-traumatic stress in trauma patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Eva; Gosens, Taco; Den Oudsten, Brenda Leontine; De Vries, Jolanda

    2017-03-23

    Trauma patients suffer from Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). It is unknown how these disorders develop over time and when treatment is effective. Our aim was to systematically review (i) the course and predictors of ASD and PTSD after trauma and (ii) which and when psychological treatments are effective. Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, Cinahl, Cochrane, Pubmed, and Google Scholar were searched up to September 14, 2015. Quality was assessed with STROBE and CONSORT checklists. Overall, 49 (69%) observational studies and 22 (31%) intervention studies were included. Fifty studies (70%) were of lower (Level of Evidence (LoE) 3) or poor quality (LoE 4). ASD was present during hospitalization (range 1%-37%) and about 30% experienced PTSD one month after trauma (LoE 3). The onset of PTSD was within three months up to 12 months after trauma (LoE 3). Especially in patients with ASD, patients showed PTSD symptoms after six years (LoE 3). ASD and PTSD were associated with socio-demographic factors (e.g. being female, younger age, financial problems and low income), reduced cognitive functioning, physical (e.g. pain), social (e.g. low social support), and psychological problems (e.g. hyper-arousal) or disorders (e.g. ASD). Early treatment in the first weeks after trauma can be preventive for PTSD, but effective treatment for ASD is still unclear. Compared to other psychological treatments, the most common examined treatment for PTSD was Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), which seems to be effective (LoE 2). A large number of poor qualitative studies present inconsistent findings on the course of ASD and PTSD. Predictors for ASD and PTSD were identified. Early treatment can prevent PTSD. CBT is effective, but mostly examined and it has limitations (e.g. engagement). Other intervention studies are necessary. Good qualitative observational and intervention studies are lacking and needed. III, study type: systematic review

  14. Globe rupture following penetrating keratoplasty: how often, why, and what can we do to prevent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Mark J; Stack, Rebecca R

    2004-11-01

    Traumatic globe rupture following penetrating keratoplasty is a life-long postoperative concern. We look at a series of penetrating keratoplasties in one institution and determine the rates of traumatic rupture and the outcomes following rupture. The reasons for persisting wound weakness are reviewed, and recommendations for eye protection based on wound strength are given. A case-control study compared the postsurgical rupture rates for all cases of penetrating keratoplasty to those cases of globe rupture after extracapsular cataract surgery and phacoemulsification. A literature review of corneal wound healing was completed. Over 10 years 139 penetrating keratoplasties were performed. The incidence of traumatic rupture following keratoplasty was 5.8%. Fifty percent of those with ruptured globes had a visual outcome of hand movement vision or worse. Of the traumatic ruptures, 37.5% occurred in the first postoperative month. The indication for initial keratoplasty did not influence the rupture rate. In comparison, the general rate of penetrating eye injuries in the population was 2.2/100,000 per annum. The rupture rate for extracapsular cataract surgery was 1/221 (0.45%) and 0/6450 for phacoemulsification. Both of these rates were significantly less than after penetrating keratoplasty (P=0.005, Pkeratoplasty cases have a higher rate of globe rupture than other ocular procedures. There are 5 important time periods of wound integrity after penetrating keratoplasty. The highest risk period is the month following surgery, when wound strength is derived almost entirely from sutures. The 18 months following surgery are moderately high risk. The month following removal of sutures is a second high-risk period. In the 6 months following this, the wound has a similar strength to the first postoperative year. Following penetrating keratoplasty the cornea never regains its preoperative strength and remains at risk for traumatic rupture for the remainder of the patient's life.

  15. Prevalence of acute and post-traumatic stress disorder and comorbid mental disorders in breast cancer patients during primary cancer care: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, Anja; Koch, Uwe

    2007-03-01

    This study aimed at the identification of acute and post-traumatic stress responses, and comorbid mental disorders in breast cancer patients. Structured clinical interviews for DSM-IV (SCID) were conducted post-surgery with 127 patients (t1). Screening measures were used to assess post-traumatic stress responses, anxiety, and depression at t1 and at 6 months follow-up (t2). Based on the SCID, prevalence rates were 2.4% for both, cancer-related ASD and PTSD. Experiences most frequently described as traumatic were the cancer diagnosis itself and subsequent feelings of uncertainty. Patients with lifetime PTSD (8.7%) were more likely to meet the criteria for cancer-related ASD or PTSD (OR=14.1). Prevalence estimates were 7.1% for Adjustment Disorder, 4.7% for Major Depression, 3.1% for Dysthymic Disorder and 6.3% for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Using the screening instruments, IES-R, PCL-C and HADS, we found PTSD in 18.5% at t1 and 11.2-16.3% at t2. The estimates of anxiety and depression reveal rates of 39.6% (t1) and 32.7% (t2) for anxiety, as well as 16.0% (t1) and 13.3% (t2) for depression (t1) (cut-off> or =8). The diagnosis of a life-threatening illness has been included as a potential trauma in the DSM-IV. However, it has to be critically evaluated whether subjective feelings of uncertainty like fears of treatment count among traumatic stressors, and thus, whether the diagnosis of PTSD is appropriate in this group of cancer patients. However, a large number of women with emotional distress illustrate the need for psychosocial counseling and support in this early treatment phase. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography in non-traumatic acute abdominal pain: prospective study and systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshamari, Muhammed; Geijer, Haakan [Oerebro University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Oerebro (Sweden); Norrman, Eva [Oerebro University, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Oerebro (Sweden); Geijer, Mats [Lund University and Skaane University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Lund (Sweden); Jansson, Kjell [Oerebro University, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Oerebro (Sweden)

    2016-06-15

    Abdominal radiography is frequently used in acute abdominal non-traumatic pain despite the availability of more advanced diagnostic modalities. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography, at similar radiation dose levels. Fifty-eight patients were imaged with both methods and were reviewed independently by three radiologists. The reference standard was obtained from the diagnosis in medical records. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated. A systematic review was performed after a literature search, finding a total of six relevant studies including the present. Overall sensitivity with 95 % CI for CT was 75 % (66-83 %) and 46 % (37-56 %) for radiography. Specificity was 87 % (77-94 %) for both methods. In the systematic review the overall sensitivity for CT varied between 75 and 96 % with specificity from 83 to 95 % while the overall sensitivity for abdominal radiography varied between 30 and 77 % with specificity 75 to 88 %. Based on the current study and available evidence, low-dose CT has higher diagnostic accuracy than abdominal radiography and it should, where logistically possible, replace abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain. (orig.)

  17. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of progesterone with or without hypothermia in patients with acute severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sumit; Raheja, Amol; Samson, Neha; Goyal, Keshav; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Selvi, Arul; Sharma, Pushpa; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2017-01-01

    Among newer neuroprotectant modalities, hypothermia and progesterone have shown a beneficial role in preliminary studies enrolling patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of progesterone with or without prophylactic hypothermia in acute sTBI patients. This is a prospective, outcome assessor, statistician blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled phase II trial of progesterone with or without hypothermia (factorial design). All adult patients (18-65 years) with acute sTBI (Glasgow coma score of 4-8) and presenting to trauma center within 8 h after injury were included in the trial. Computer-generated randomization was done after exclusion; sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelope technique was used for allocation concealment. The enrollment duration was from January 2012 to October 2014. The primary endpoint was dichotomized Glasgow outcome score (GOS) [poor recovery = GOS 1-3; good recovery = GOS 4-5], and secondary endpoints were functional independence measure (FIM) score and mortality rate at 6 and 12 months follow-up after recruitment. A total of 107 patients were randomized into four groups (placebo [n = 27], progesterone [n = 26], hypothermia alone [n = 27], and progesterone + hypothermia [n = 27]). The study groups were comparable in baseline parameters except for a higher incidence of decompressive craniectomy in the placebo group (P = 0.001). The analysis of GOS at 6 months revealed statistically significant better outcome in the hypothermia group (82%; P = 0.01) and a weaker evidence for progesterone group (74%; P = 0.07) as compared with the placebo group (44%). However, the outcome benefit was marginal at 1-year follow-up for the hypothermia group (82% vs. 58%, P = 0.17). The adjusted odds ratio of poor recovery at 6 months in the hypothermia group was 0.21 (confidence interval = 0.05-0.84, P = 0.03), as compared with the placebo group. Although mean FIM scores at 6 and

  18. Gravid med spontan ruptur af arteria uterina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jònsdòttir, Fjòla; Pinborg, Anja; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain are a clinical challenge. We present a rare but potential life-threatening condition of a pregnant woman with acute abdominal pain. The woman was in gestational week 37 with severe abdominal pain and was admitted to the labour ward. She became haemo-dynami......-dynamic instable 24 hours after vaginal delivery, and emergency laparotomi revealed a spontaneous rupture of the right uterine artery. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery is rare but should be considered as a possible cause of acute abdominal pain in pregnant women.......Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain are a clinical challenge. We present a rare but potential life-threatening condition of a pregnant woman with acute abdominal pain. The woman was in gestational week 37 with severe abdominal pain and was admitted to the labour ward. She became haemo...

  19. Preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes have a different pattern in the involved compartments of acute histologoic chorioamnionitis and/or funisitis: Patho-physiologic implication related to different clinical manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Moon, Kyung Chul; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether histo-topographic findings about the involved compartments (i.e., choriodecidua, amnion, chorionic-plate) of acute-histologic chorioamnionitis (acute-HCA) and/or funisitis according to the presence or absence of intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI) and/or fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) are different between preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (preterm-PROM). The involved compartments of acute-HCA and/or funisitis were examined in 161 singleton preterm-births ( 0.1). However, IAI(+)/FIRS(+) group had a significantly higher rate of inflammation in each compartment than IAI(+)/FIRS(-) group in both PTL and preterm-PROM (each-for P < 0.05). We first demonstrated that PTL and preterm-PROM had a different pattern in the involved compartments of acute-HCA and/or funisitis in the IAI(-)/FIRS(--) group and in the change of involved compartments from IAI(-)/FIRS(-) to IAI(+)/FIRS(-). © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Left atrial rupture due to blunt thoracic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, İlker; İnce, İlker; Aslan, Cemal; Çeber, Mehmet; Kaya, İlker

    2015-07-01

    Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture is rare and associated with high mortality. The most popular theory of cardiac rupture after blunt thoracic trauma is rapid deceleration with disruption of the atria from their connections to the vena cava and pulmonary veins. In cases with both massive hemothorax and hemopericardium, injury can usually originate from the heart and/or major vessels. Surgical approach through the median sternotomy can provide convenience to repair the defect. In this article, successful treatment with median sternotomy of a 33-year-old male case with a rupture of the left atrium after blunt thoracic trauma was reported.

  1. Postinfarction heart rupture of posterior wall repaired by covering patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Masashi; Okamura, Homare; Adachi, Hideo; Ino, Takashi

    2008-10-01

    A 46-year-old man underwent emergency surgery for heart rupture after acute infarction of the posterior wall. Echocardiography revealed limited myocardial thinning, so rather than sutureless repair, a covering patch was used in view of the risk of recurrent rupture. Postoperative echocardiography showed the myocardial thinning had progressed to a wide defect, and computed tomography demonstrated that the covering patch had prevented a repeat rupture.

  2. Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with psoriasis: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Senevirathna, Shanaka; Radha, Sarkell; Rajeev, Aysha

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is not common in the absence of systemic disease. Patients with chronic systemic diseases such as uremia and systemic lupus erythematosus and patients who are being treated with systemic steroids or local steroid injections are more prone to tendon rupture. The tendon can rupture spontaneously or as a result of trauma. We report an unusual case of simultaneous bilateral traumatic quadriceps tendon rupture in a patient with psoriasis wh...

  3. Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament in cases of acute traumatic dislocation of the patella: current perspectives and trends in Brazil1,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gonçalves Arliani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate the approaches and procedures used by knee surgeons in Brazil for treating medial patellofemoral lesions (MPFL of the knee in cases of acute traumatic dislocation of the patella.Materials and methods:A questionnaire comprising 15 closed questions on topics relating to treating MPFL of the knee following acute dislocation of the patella was used. It was applied to Brazilian knee surgeons during the three days of the 44th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in 2012.Results:106 knee surgeons completely filled out the questionnaire and formed part of the sample analyzed. Most of them were from the southeastern region of Brazil. The majority (57% reported that they perform fewer than five MPFL reconstruction procedures per year. Indication of non-surgical treatment after a first episode of acute dislocation of the patella was preferred and done by 93.4% of the sample. Only 9.1% of the participants reported that they had never observed postoperative complications. Intraoperative radioscopy was used routinely by 48%. The professionals who did not use this tool to determine the point of ligament fixation in the femur did not have a statistically greater number of postoperative complications than those who used it (p > 0.05.Conclusions:There are clear evolutionary trends in treatments and rehabilitation for acute dislocation of the patella due to MPFL, in Brazil. However, further prospective controlled studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefit of these trends.

  4. Delayed left traumatic diaphragmatic hernia repaired by laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakage, N

    2011-11-01

    A 77-year-old man injured himself when he fell heavily on the left side of his chest. He had massive subcutaneous emphysema, bleeding, and left hemopneumothorax. He also fractured his seventh through tenth ribs; a fragment of the ninth rib was displaced into the thoracic cavity. The severity of the damage and the patient's pain was assessed using the Abbreviated Injury Scale 1990 (1998 update) as level 3. He was treated with conservative therapy and discharged on the 16 days after the injury. However, the following day, he had acute upper abdominal pain, his blood pressure dropped to 40 s, and he was readmitted. A chest CT showed the transverse colon was prolapsed in the thoracic cavity. The patient was diagnosed as having a delayed traumatic diapharagmatic hernia. A laparoscopic repair was performed. The rupture was classified as a IIIb-type diaphragmatic injury according to the Japanese Association for the Surgery of Trauma's classification system. It is believed that a fragment of a fractured rib that had been displaced in the thoracic cavity ruptured the diaphragm sharply. Since traumatic diapharagmatic hernia rarely occurs, it is relatively difficult to diagnose at the first examination. This condition has a high mortality rate because of the associated injuries. Surgery is the only treatment, but it should only be considered after a second examination. Herein, I report my experience with a case of delayed diaphragmatic hernia repaired by laparoscopic surgery. © 2011 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Penile fracture: A rare case of simultaneous rupture of the one corpus cavernosum and complete urethral rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nale Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Penile fracture is a traumatic rupture of tunica albuginea and the tumescent corpora cavernosa due to the nonphysiological bending of the penile shaft, presenting with or without rupture of corpus spongiosum and urethra. The incidence of concomitant injury of the urethra is 0-38%. Complete urethral rupture is rare, but it is almost always associated with bilateral corporeal injury. Case report. We presented a patient with complete urethral rupture, and rupture of the right cavernous body. According to the available literature, this case is extremely rare. Conclusion. Fracture of the penis is relatively uncommon and is considered a urologic emergency. Prompt surgical exploration and repair can preserve erectile and voiding function.

  6. Animal models for plaque rupture: a biomechanical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heiden, Kim; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Daemen, Mat J.; Gijsen, Frank J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques is the main cause of acute cardiovascular events. Animal models of plaque rupture are rare but essential for testing new imaging modalities to enable diagnosis of the patient at risk. Moreover, they enable the design of new treatment strategies to prevent plaque

  7. Cerebral Blood Flow and Transcranial Doppler Sonography Measurements of CO(2)-Reactivity in Acute Traumatic Brain Injured Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinstrup, Peter; Ryding, Erik Hilmer; Asgeirsson, Bogi

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements are helpful in managing patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and testing the cerebrovascular reactivity to CO(2) provides information about injury severity and outcome. The complexity and potential hazard of performing CBF measurements lim...

  8. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen – a rare and potentially fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous (non-traumatic) rupture of the normal spleen in pregnancy is a rare clinical event that can endanger the lives of both mother and baby. The aetiology of the condition is unknown, but it occurs most commonly in multiple pregnancies and in the third trimester. We present a case of a spontaneous splenic rupture ...

  9. la rupture traumatique du corps caverneux a propos de 42 cas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orvis BR et McAninch JW(1989): Penile rupture. Urol Clin North Am, 16:369. 2. Ruckle CH, Hadley HR et Lui P0 (1992): Fracture of penis: diagnosis and management. Urology,. 40:33. 3. Redman JF et Miedema EB (1981): Traumatic rupture of the corpus cavernosum: a case report and survey of the incidence in Arkansas.

  10. Hematoma subdural agudo traumático: estudo de 110 pacientes Acute traumatic subdural haematomas: study of 110 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicandro de Figueiredo Neto

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma série consecutiva de 110 pacientes com hematoma subdural agudo traumático (HSDA admitidos no serviço de emergência do HBDF no período de 1°-janeiro a 1°-dezembro-1994. Todos os pacientes foram atendidos de acordo com o mesmo protocolo. Houve predominância do sexo masculino (79%, com idade variando entre 14 e 70 anos, sendo os atropelamentos (34% e os acidentes automobilísticos (20% as causas mais comuns. A maioria dos pacientes (85,7% foi admitida muito grave, com 8 pontos ou menos na Escala de Coma Glasgow (ECG, o que influenciou diretamente na mortalidade. A tomografia computadorizada de crânio foi o exame diagnóstico de escolha que mostrou serem as contusões e o inchaço cerebral ("swelling" as lesões intracranianas associadas mais freqüentes. A cirurgia foi realizada em 45,1% dos pacientes, e, em sua maioria, através de craniotomia fronto-têmporo-parietal ampla, com drenagem do hematoma, seguida de plástica da dura-mater. Em 54,9% as condições clínicas não permitiram a realização da cirurgia; neste grupo, cerca de 69,6% estavam em coma profundo à admissão, com 3 pontos na ECG. A letalidade cirúrgica foi de 61,2% e esteve diretamente relacionada à condição clínica inicial e à idade do paciente. A letalidade, incluindo todos os pacientes cirúrgicos e não cirúrgicos com HSDA, mesmo aqueles admitidos já com sinais de falência de tronco cerebral, foi de 79,5%. Além destes pacientes que faleceram, cerca de 7% evoluíram sem seqüelas ou com seqüelas mínimas; outros 11,4% com seqüelas de moderadas a paves e 2,1 % permaneceram em estado vegetativo persistente. Nossos dados estão de acordo com os da literatura no que se refere a elevada taxa de morbidade e mortalidade dos pacientes com HSDA.We report a series of 110 patients with acute traumatic subdural hematoma (ASDH admitted at HBDF emergency within 1994 (January Is1 to December PJ.All patients were treated according to the same protocol

  11. [Simultaneous bilateral rupture in both cruciate knee ligaments (about a case)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaoui, Mounir; Derfoufi, Abdelhafid; Abbassi, Najib; Daoudi, Abdelkarim; Agoumi, Omar; Yacoubi, Hicham; Najib, Abdeljaouad

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral cruciate ligament rupture is rare while simultaneous rupture in both anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) is exceptional; that's why post-traumatic simultaneous bilateral cruciate ligament rupture has never been described in the literature making this case study based on patient's observation, follow-up and therapeutic discussion very interesting. The procedure was performed in two surgical steps spaced in time and results were very satisfactory for both us and patient.

  12. Perceived clinician-patient communication in the emergency department and subsequent post-traumatic stress symptoms in patients evaluated for acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bernard P; Sumner, Jennifer A; Haerizadeh, Myrta; Carter, Eileen; Edmondson, Donald

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation for a potentially life-threatening cardiac event in the emergency department (ED) is a stressful experience that can result in symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, which are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in patients. No study has tested whether good clinician-patient communication in the ED is associated with better psychological outcomes in these individuals and whether it can mitigate other risk factors for post-traumatic stress symptoms (PSS) such as perception of life threat and vulnerability in the ED. Data were analysed from 474 participants in the Reactions to Acute Care and Hospitalization (REACH) study, an observational cohort study of ED predictors of medical and psychological outcomes after evaluation for suspected acute coronary syndrome. Participants were recruited from November 2013 to January 2015 at a single-site academic medical centre (New York-Presbyterian-Columbia University Medical Center). Participants reported threat perceptions in the ED and provided information on their perceptions of clinician-patient communication using the Interpersonal Process of Care Survey. PSS were assessed using the Acute Stress Disorder Scale during follow-up. 474 subjects were enrolled in the study. Median length of follow-up was 3 days after ED presentation, range 0-30 days, 80% within 8 days. Perceptions of good clinician-patient communication in the ED were associated with lower PSS, whereas increased threat perception was associated with higher PSS. A significant interaction between clinician-patient communication and threat perception on PSS suggested that patients with higher threat perception benefited most from good clinician-patient communication. Our study found an association between good clinician-patient communication in the ED during evaluation of potentially life-threatening cardiac events and decreased subsequent post-traumatic stress reactions. This association is particularly marked for patients

  13. Evaluation of the current treatment concepts in Germany, Austria and Switzerland for acute traumatic lesions to the prepatellar and olecranon bursa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, Sebastian F; Domaszewski, Florian; Wyen, Hendrick; Kalcher, Klaudius; Mutschler, Wolf; Kanz, Karl-Georg

    2013-11-01

    Although traumatic lacerations of the olecranon (OB) and praepatellar bursae (PB) are common entities often associated with complications, no study could be found on this injury. The aim of this study was to survey the current treatment concepts for acute traumatic laceration of the OB and PB in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. An international online survey was conducted among orthopaedic and trauma surgeons in Germany (TraumaNetwork DGU), Austria (Austrian Society of Trauma (ÖGU) and Orthopaedic (ÖGO) Surgeons) and Switzerland (Swiss Orthopaedic Surgeons and Swiss Society of Infectious Disease (CH)) (n=1967). The survey comprised of five demographical questions, the current treatment concepts were evaluated using a case study. The overall-response-rate was 16% (12-46%). 88% of the responding physicians were male, aged 47.5 ± 10.2 years with a mean working experience of 20.1 ± 10.6 years. 54% of the surveyed physicians were either senior or chief physicians. Treatment concepts varied significantly between DGU and ÖGO/CH (p=0.02/p=0.006), no significant differences could be found between DGU and ÖGU. Generally, German and Austrian trauma surgeons favoured bursectomy (86.7%/90.9%) and immobilisation (68.3%/77.3%). Austrian orthopaedic surgeons performed fewer bursectomies (69.3%) but had the highest proportion for administering antibiotics (73.9%). Less than 50% of Swiss physicians indicated bursectomy as a treatment option. Overall, this survey revealed a significant heterogeneity in treatment approaches in Central Europe. Further evidence is needed to identify the best treatment concepts for traumatic lacerations of the OB and PB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. StrataGraft skin substitute is well-tolerated and is not acutely immunogenic in patients with traumatic wounds: results from a prospective, randomized, controlled dose escalation trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, John M.; Straseski, Joely A.; Wicks, April; Hank, Jacquelyn A.; Rasmussen, Cathy A.; Lokuta, Mary A.; Schurr, Michael J.; Foster, Kevin N.; Faucher, Lee D.; Caruso, Daniel M.; Comer, Allen R.; Allen-Hoffmann, B. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to assess the immunogenicity and antigenicity of StrataGraft skin tissue in a randomized phase I/II clinical trial for the temporary management of full-thickness skin loss. Summary Background Data StrataGraft skin tissue consists of a dermal equivalent containing human dermal fibroblasts and a fully-stratified, biologically active epidermis derived from NIKS cells, a pathogen-free, long-lived, consistent, human keratinocyte progenitor. Methods Traumatic skin wounds often require temporary allograft coverage to stabilize the wound bed until autografting is possible. StrataGraft and cadaveric allograft were placed side-by-side on 15 patients with full-thickness skin defects for one week prior to autografting. Allografts were removed from the wound bed and examined for allogeneic immune responses. Immunohistochemistry and indirect immunofluorescence were used to assess tissue structure and cellular composition of allografts. In vitro lymphocyte proliferation assays, chromium-release assays, and development of antibodies were used to examine allogeneic responses. Results One week after patient exposure to allografts, there were no differences in the numbers of T or B lymphocytes or Langerhans cells present in StrataGraft skin substitute compared to cadaver allograft, the standard of care. Importantly, exposure to StrataGraft skin substitute did not induce the proliferation of patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells to NIKS keratinocytes or enhance cell-mediated lysis of NIKS keratinocytes in vitro. Similarly, no evidence of antibody generation targeted to the NIKS keratinocytes was seen. Conclusions These findings indicate that StrataGraft tissue is well-tolerated and not acutely immunogenic in patients with traumatic skin wounds. Notably, exposure to StrataGraft did not increase patient sensitivity toward or elicit immune responses against the NIKS keratinocytes. We envision this novel skin tissue technology will be widely used

  15. Medial ankle pain after lateral ligament rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C. N.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Marti, R. K.

    1996-01-01

    After a severe ankle sprain the incidence of residual complaints, particularly on the medial side of the joint, is high. We studied a consecutive series of 30 patients who had operative repair of acute ruptures of lateral ligaments. During operation, arthroscopy revealed a fresh injury to the

  16. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture: local or systemic process?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, Esther; van Suylen, Robert-Jan; Faber, Birgit C.; Gijbels, Marion J.; Eurlings, Petra M.; Bijnens, Ann-Pascale; Cleutjens, Kitty B.; Heeneman, Sylvia; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.

    2003-01-01

    It is generally established that the unstable plaque is the major cause of acute clinical sequelae of atherosclerosis. Unfortunately, terms indicating lesions prone to plaque instability, such as "vulnerable plaque," and the different phenotypes of unstable plaques, such as plaque rupture, plaque

  17. Parent Perceptions of How Nurse Encounters Can Provide Caring Support for the Family in Early Acute Care Following Children’s Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscigno, Cecelia I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A child’s severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) creates a family crisis requiring extensive cultural, informational, psychological, and environmental support. Nurses need to understand parents’ expectations of caring in early acute care so they can tailor their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors appropriately to accommodate the family’s needs. Methods In a previous qualitative study of 42 parents or caregivers from 37 families of children with moderate to severe TBI, parents of children with severe TBI (n = 25) described their appraisals of nurse caring and uncaring behaviors in early acute care. Swanson’s theory of caring was used to categorize parents’ descriptions in order to inform nursing early acute care practices and family-centered care. Results Caring nurse encounters included: (a) involving parents in the care of their child and reflecting on all socio-cultural factors shaping family resources and responses (knowing); (b) respecting that family grief can be co-mingled with resilience, and that parents are typically competent to be involved in decision-making (maintaining belief); (d) actively listening and engaging parents in order to fully understand family values and needs (being with); (e) decreasing parents’ workload to get information, emotional support, and providing a safe cultural, psychological, and physical environment for the family (doing for), and; (f) providing anticipatory guidance to navigate the early acute care system and giving assistance to learn and adjust to their situation (enabling). Conclusion Application of Swanson’s caring theory is prescriptive in helping individual nurses and early acute care systems to meet important family needs following children’s severe TBI. PMID:26871242

  18. Persistent effects of acute stress on fear and drug-seeking in a novel model of the comorbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzimenti, Christie L; Navis, Tom M; Lattal, K Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Even following long periods of abstinence, individuals with anxiety disorders have high rates of relapse to drugs of abuse. Although many current models of relapse demonstrate effects of acute stress on drug-seeking, most of these studies examine stressful experiences that occur in close temporal and physical proximity to the reinstatement test. Here, we assess the effects of a stressful experience in one context on fear and drug-seeking in a different context. We adapt the stress-enhanced fear learning procedure to examine impacts on drug-seeking long after the stressful experience occurred. We find massive footshock in a distinct environment produced an acute increase in corticosterone, long-term hyper-responsivity to a single shock in different contexts with extensive histories of drug-seeking behaviors, enhancements in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in mice, and persistent enhancements in cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in rats. Together, these experiments demonstrate that an acute trauma causes persistent changes in responsivity to mild stressors and drug-seeking behavior in other contexts, which mirrors aspects of the comorbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders. These behavioral approaches provide novel procedures for investigating basic mechanisms underlying this comorbidity and they provide powerful tools for testing preclinical pharmacological and behavioral interventions. © 2017 Pizzimenti et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Non-traumatic acute epidural spinal hematomas diagnosed by magnetic resonance; Hematomas espinales epidurales agudos no traumaticos: diagnostico por resonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, A.; Grive, E.; Pedraza, S.; Capellades, J.; Nos, C.; Alarcon, M.; Rovira, A. [Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron. Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The non-traumatic spinal epidural hematoma (NTSEH) is a rare entity that can be the cause of an acute spinal compression syndrome. the objective of this review is to identify the characteristics by MRI and NTSEH and to analyze the factors that influence in its prognosis. In the years 1994 and 1999, 12 patients with NTSEH have been diagnosed in our hospital, and a MRI was performed during the acute phase. the characteristics of the lesions have been analyzed by MRI, with special emphasis on the topographic data and resonance signal and the factors that can influence in the clinical prognosis of the patients. Initially, all of the patients presented pain in the cervical dorsal or interscapular site, followed by a sensitive-motor deficit picture. The MRI showed a lesion of expansive character and posterior epidural location in every case that would produce varying degrees of compression on the spinal cord. The NTSEH should be considered as one of the causes of acute spinal cord compression. The clinical association of intense cervical, dorsal or interscapular pain followed by a sensomotor deficit picture should lead to the suspicion of this entity, that would require an immediate examination with MRI to verify its diagnosis. Both the clinical manifestations as well as the characteristics observed by MRI of the NTSEH have a prognostic value and determine the therapeutic decision. (Author) 34 refs.

  20. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulstad, Mikkel Bak; Thomsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen (NRS) is a rare but serious complication to infectious mononucleosis (IM) and it is important to have in mind, when patients have IM. Although splenectomy has been advocated as the appropriate treatment for this problem, the trend goes towards conservative...

  1. The neuroprotective effect of acute moderate alcohol consumption on caspase-3 mediated neuroapoptosis in traumatic brain injury: the role of lysosomal cathepsin L and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbak, Gungor; Kartkaya, Kazım; Ozcelik, Eda; Guvenal, Ahmet Burak; Kabay, Sibel Canbaz; Arslan, Gul; Durmaz, Ramazan

    2013-01-10

    Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of moderate acute alcohol administration on cysteine protease mediated neuronal apoptosis and nitric oxide production in the traumatic brain injury. A total of 29 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The rats were allocated into four groups. The first group was the control (sham-operated) group in which only a craniotomy was performed, the others were alcohol, trauma and trauma+alcohol groups. Caspase-3 enzyme activity in the trauma group increased significantly in comparison with the control group. The alcohol given group showed a decreased caspase-3 enzyme activity compared to the trauma group. The level of caspase-3 enzyme activity in the alcohol+trauma group decreased in comparison to the trauma group. SF/FEL ratio of cathepsin-L enzyme activity in the trauma group was significantly higher than in the control group. Our results indicate that moderate alcohol consumption may have protective effects on apoptotic cell death after traumatic brain injury. Protective effects of moderate ethanol consumption might be related to inhibition of lysosomal protease release and nitric oxide production. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Modeling the patient journey from injury to community reintegration for persons with acute traumatic spinal cord injury in a Canadian centre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelio Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A patient's journey through the health care system is influenced by clinical and system processes across the continuum of care. METHODS: To inform optimized access to care and patient flow for individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI, we developed a simulation model that can examine the full impact of therapeutic or systems interventions across the care continuum for patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries. The objective of this paper is to describe the detailed development of this simulation model for a major trauma and a rehabilitation centre in British Columbia (BC, Canada, as part of the Access to Care and Timing (ACT project and is referred to as the BC ACT Model V1.0. FINDINGS: To demonstrate the utility of the simulation model in clinical and administrative decision-making we present three typical scenarios that illustrate how an investigator can track the indirect impact(s of medical and administrative interventions, both upstream and downstream along the continuum of care. For example, the model was used to estimate the theoretical impact of a practice that reduced the incidence of pressure ulcers by 70%. This led to a decrease in acute and rehabilitation length of stay of 4 and 2 days, respectively and a decrease in bed utilization of 9% and 3% in acute and rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: The scenario analysis using the BC ACT Model V1.0 demonstrates the flexibility and value of the simulation model as a decision-making tool by providing estimates of the effects of different interventions and allowing them to be objectively compared. Future work will involve developing a generalizable national Canadian ACT Model to examine differences in care delivery and identify the ideal attributes of SCI care delivery.

  3. Combined approach for spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Anna; Adani, Gian Luigi; Risaliti, Andrea; Baccarani, Umberto; Bresadola, Vittorio; Lorenzin, Dario; Terrosu, Giovanni

    2010-01-27

    Ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare, emergency occurrence in western countries with high mortality risk. A number of hypotheses have been formulated in order to explain the precise mechanism that leads to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rupture: sub-capsular location, dimensions, portal hypertension, tumour necrosis, local increase of venous pressure due to the outflow reduction caused by neoplastic invasion, and the presence of a previous vascular injury which might predispose to HCC rupture. There is still a debate in the literature concerning the best approach in cases of HCC rupture. Surgery is the first option for treatment of acute abdominal bleeding. However the advent of endovascular treatments widens the range of possible therapies for acute bleeding control and subsequent ablation purposes. We report a case of hemoperitoneum from spontaneous rupture of undiagnosed HCC, that was treated successfully by emergency surgical resection followed by transarterial chemo-embolization for local recurrence.

  4. Bleed caused by varicose veins rupture in a rare site in portal hypertension. Differential diagnosis with causes of acute hypovolemic shock in emergency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosarino Procopio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Portal hypertension is the increase in the pressure of the venous portal system, which receives around 1,500 mL/m of blood from the intestinum tenue, colon, spleen, and pancreas. A blocking of the flux or an increase in the resistance at any level of the portal tree results in an increase in the pressure in the system and the appearance of lateral circles between the portal vein and the inferior and superior, thus allowing for varicose veins to spread in the whole system. The present paper reports the case of a woman with liver cirrhosis, great ascites and bleeding out of varicose veins’ rupture at the spleen axis level, which presented the problem of differential diagnosis with other causes of hypovolemic shock. This cases resulted in the patient’s exitus.

  5. Adductor longus tendon rupture mistaken for incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Bas R J; Plaisier, Peter W; Jakma, Tijs S C

    2014-03-01

    An incarcerated inguinal hernia is a common diagnosis, since the risk of an inguinal hernia incarcerating or strangulating is around 0.3-3%. An acute rupture of the adductor longus tendon is rarely seen and mostly affects (semi-) professional sportsmen. We present a case of a patient with an assumed incarcerated inguinal hernia which turned out to be a proximal adductor longus tendon rupture. If patients without a history of inguinal hernia present themselves with acute groin pain after suddenly exorotating the upper leg, a rupture of the adductor longus tendon should be considered. Both surgical and non-surgical treatment can be performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distal rupture of the adductor longus in a skier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greditzer, Harry G; Nawabi, Danyal; Li, Angela Eh; Jawetz, Shari T

    Acute adductor longus ruptures occur infrequently and have been rarely described in the literature. Schlegel et al. reviewed a series of adductor longus tendon ruptures and found that all ruptured proximally. A 42-year-old man with right hip pain 3 weeks following a skiing injury underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which demonstrated a distal adductor longus avulsion. The diagnosis of acute adductor longus injury can be difficult on physical examination alone, but MRI can accurately depict the site of injury. Surgery may be indicated for a proximal avulsion, but a distal injury may heal with nonoperative treatment, as in our case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... When the water breaks early, it is called premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Most women will go into labor on ...

  8. POVRATAK SPORTSKIM AKTIVNOSTIMA POSLIJE RUPTURE AHILOVE TETIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kezunović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important goals of the treatment of sports injuries is athletes’ early return to normal sporting activities. Time when the athletes will return to normal sporting activities, after Achilles tendon acute rupture, depends on the level of sports involvement. Average time of return to sport is usually between 5-6 months after rupture. Patients, who are treated using postoperative functional cast, can expect an average return to their sport a month earlier than those who after surgery used solid cast immobilization. The most important signs that indicate possible slow rehabilitation process are the pain and swelling after activity and late recovery of the tissue.

  9. Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2014-01-01

    to be clarified, particularly the role of weight-bearing during early rehabilitation. Also, there is a need for a clinically applicable and accurate measurement to detect patients in risk of developing Achilles tendon elongation. PURPOSE: The aim of this PhD thesis was to evaluate non-operative treatment of acute......BACKGROUND: Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent and potentially disabling injury. Over the past decade a change in treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture away from operative towards non-operative treatment has taken place. However, the optimal non-operative treatment protocol remains.......3 mm), inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.97, SEM 3.3 mm and MDC 9.3 mm) and validity (measurement error 2%). CONCLUSION: Treatment algorithms across Scandinavia showed considerable variation, though operative treatment and controlled early weight-bearing was the preferred treatment in Denmark, Norway...

  10. Assessment of Cerebral Hemodynamics in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    haemorrhage, and 6 with subarach- noid hemorrhage from ruptured aneurysm . There were 4 cases of cerebral contusions and a single case of traumatic...B. Goldstein, 2003: Significance of Intracranial Pressure Pulse Morphology in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. IEEE, 2491-2494. Anile, C., H. D

  11. Coronary artery rupture in blunt thoracic trauma: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hmeidan, Jareer Heider; Arrowaili, Arief Ismael; Yousef, Raid Said; Alasmari, Sami; Kassim, Yasser M; Aldakhil Allah, Hamad Hamad; Aljenaidel, Abdullah Mohammed; Alabdulqader, Abdullah Abdulmohsen; Alrashed, Muath Hamad; Alkhinjar, Mulfi Ibrahim; Al-Shammari, Nawwaf Rahi

    2016-08-02

    Blunt thoracic trauma can rarely result in coronary artery injury. Blunt trauma can result in occlusion of any of the coronary arteries or can lead to its rupture and bleeding. Traumatic coronary artery occlusion can lead to myocardial infarction, while its rupture and bleeding can result in hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade, and can be rapidly fatal. Survival after coronary artery rupture in blunt thoracic trauma is exceedingly rare. We present a case of a young male who sustained a blunt thoracic trauma in a motor vehicle collision, that resulted in rupture of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and subsequent cardiac tamponade. Prompt surgical intervention with pericardiotomy and ligation of the artery has resulted in survival of the patient. In cases of traumatic coronary artery rupture, early surgical intervention is crucial to avoid mortality. Ligation of the injured coronary is a viable option in selected cases, and can be the most expeditious option in patients in extremis.

  12. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  13. Changes in the health status and functional outcomes in acute traumatic hand injury patients, during physical therapy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic hand injury causes chronic disability. A large number of studies have reported impairments in clinical parameters, but few studies have described their disability experience. Aims To examine the functional disability and quality of life in traumatic hand injured patients receiving physical therapy. Settings and Design: The physiotherapy department in a multi-specialty public sector hospital. Convenient sampling method was used. Materials and Methods: The 36-item short-form health survey-MOS (SF-36, v2 and disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand (DASH questionnaire were obtained and subjects were given physiotherapy, accordingly to their condition. Questionnaires were re-administered every month till discharge. Statistical Analysis Used: A One-way ANOVA test. Results: At end of 6 months, among eight subscales of SF-36, there is improvement in mean scores of physical functioning (39.1%. The bodily pain, general health, vitality, social function, and mental health had more than 100% improvement. DASH showed regression in disability (50.8%. Conclusions: Measuring quality of life (QOL can provide detailed assessment of physical disability and treatment effects as well as the global impact of those effects on the person′s daily life. Hence, the use of self-report questionnaires such as DASH and SF-36, combined with physical performance score, helps to achieve more comprehensive evaluation of outcome.

  14. Amputation - traumatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000006.htm Amputation - traumatic To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Traumatic amputation is the loss of a body part, usually ...

  15. Acute histologic chorioamnionitis is a risk factor for adverse neonatal outcome in late preterm birth after preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Mi Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in late preterm infants who were born after preterm PROM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relationship between the presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis and adverse neonatal outcome was examined in patients with preterm PROM who delivered singleton preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Nonparametric statistics were used for data analysis. The frequency of acute histologic chorioamnionitis was 24% in patients with preterm PROM who delivered preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Newborns born to mothers with histologic chorioamnionitis had significantly higher rates of adverse neonatal outcome (74% vs 51%; p<0.005 than those without histologic chorioamnionitis. This relationship remained significant after adjustment for gestational age at preterm PROM, gestational age at delivery, and exposure to antenatal corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcome in late preterm infants born to mothers with preterm PROM.

  16. Acute histologic chorioamnionitis is a risk factor for adverse neonatal outcome in late preterm birth after preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Mi; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, Byoung Jae; Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in late preterm infants who were born after preterm PROM. The relationship between the presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis and adverse neonatal outcome was examined in patients with preterm PROM who delivered singleton preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Nonparametric statistics were used for data analysis. The frequency of acute histologic chorioamnionitis was 24% in patients with preterm PROM who delivered preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Newborns born to mothers with histologic chorioamnionitis had significantly higher rates of adverse neonatal outcome (74% vs 51%; p<0.005) than those without histologic chorioamnionitis. This relationship remained significant after adjustment for gestational age at preterm PROM, gestational age at delivery, and exposure to antenatal corticosteroids. The presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcome in late preterm infants born to mothers with preterm PROM.

  17. Utility of the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation as a screening tool for mild traumatic brain injury in a civilian trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Melvin E; Safadjou, Saman; Farber, Benjamin; Velazco, Nerissa; Man, Jianliang; Reddy, Srinivas H; Todor, Roxanne; Teperman, Sheldon

    2015-07-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) constitutes 75% of more than 1.5 million traumatic brain injuries annually. There exists no consensus on point-of-care screening for mTBI. The Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE) is a quick and easy test used by the US Army to screen for mTBI; however, its utility in civilian trauma is unclear. It has two parts: a history section and the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) score (0-30) previously validated in sports injury. As a performance improvement project, our institution sought to evaluate the MACE as a concussion screening tool that could be used by housestaff in a general civilian trauma population. From June 2013 to May 2014, patients 18 years to 65 years old with suspected concussion were given the MACE within 72 hours of admission to our urban Level I trauma center. Patients with a positive head computed tomography were excluded. Demographic data and MACE scores were recorded in prospect. Concussion was defined as loss of consciousness and/or posttraumatic amnesia; concussed patients were compared with those nonconcussed. Sensitivity and specificity for each respective MACE score were used to plot a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. An ROC curve area of 0.8 was set as the benchmark for a good screening test to distinguish concussion from nonconcussion. There were 84 concussions and 30 nonconcussed patients. Both groups were similar; however, the concussion group had a lower mean MACE score than the nonconcussed patients. Data analysis demonstrated the sensitivity and specificity of a range of MACE scores used to generate an ROC curve area of only 0.65. The MACE showed a lower mean score for individuals with concussion, defined by loss of consciousness and/or posttraumatic amnesia. However, the ROC curve area of 0.65 highly suggests that MACE alone would be a poor screening test for mTBI in a general civilian trauma population. Diagnostic study, level II.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of capsulolabral tears after traumatic primary anterior shoulder dislocation. A prospective comparison with arthroscopy of 25 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suder, P.A.; Frich, Lars Henrik; Hougaard, K.

    1995-01-01

    joint side rotator cuff tear, 1 partial rupture of the biceps tendon, and 1 osseous Bankart lesion. Anterior capsulolabral tears and Hill-Sachs lesions appeared with a high incidence after acute anterior primary shoulder dislocation. Conventional MRI was only moderately reliable in the preoperative......The purpose of our study was to evaluate the use of static magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a preoperative diagnostic tool in young patients with a traumatic primary anterior shoulder dislocation. Twenty-five patients who had acute primary traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation were examined...... with MRI and arthroscopy. The patients (18 male and 7 female) were between 16 and 39 years old (mean age, 27 years). They had no previous shoulder dislocations. The dislocations were confirmed radiographically. Examination with MRI and arthroscopy was performed within 10 days after the trauma. The MRI...

  19. Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Achilles tendon rupture. Obesity. Excess weight puts more strain on the tendon. Prevention To reduce your chance of developing Achilles tendon problems, follow these tips: Stretch and strengthen calf muscles. Stretch your calf until you feel a noticeable ...

  20. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2014-03-01

    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  1. Sonography on injury of the medial patellofemoral ligament after acute traumatic lateral patellar dislocation: Injury patterns and correlation analysis with injury of articular cartilage of the inferomedial patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-Ying; Zheng, Lei; Shi, Hao; Qu, Su-Hui; Ding, Hong-Yu

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of high-frequency ultrasonography in the diagnosis of injuries of medial patellofemoral ligaments (MPFLs), analyse the characteristics of MPFL injury and correlations between injury of the MPFL and articular cartilage of the inferomedial patella in patients with acute traumatic lateral patellar dislocation. High-frequency sonographic images of 49 patients with acute traumatic lateral patellar dislocations treated surgically were reviewed. The χ(2) tests were performed for statistical analysis. Twenty-eight cases of complete MPFL tear and 21 cases of partial MPFL tear were identified in operation, with 27 cases of MPFL tear located at their femoral attachment, 21 cases of tear at the patellar attachment and one case of midsubstance tear. The diagnostic accuracy of sonography regarding partial MPFL tear and complete MPFL tear was 89.8% and 89.8%. Among the patients with MPFL tear at the patellar attachment, eight and six cases were concomitant with chondral and osteochondral lesions in the inferomedial patella, respectively, in contrast to nine and six cases in patients with MPFL tear at the femoral attachment, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two locations described above regarding the prevalence rates of chondral or osteochondral lesions of the inferomedial patella (P=0.732, P=0.614). Among the patients with complete MPFL tear, 12 and 10 cases were concomitant with chondral and osteochondral lesions in the inferomedial patella, respectively, while six and two cases were concomitant with partial MPFL tear. There was no significant difference between the two types of injuries discussed above on the prevalence rates of chondral lesions of the inferomedial patella (P=0.305), but the prevalence rate of osteochondral lesions between the two types of injuries discussed above was statistically different (P=0.035). The MPFL is most easily injured at the femoral attachment, secondly at

  2. Traumatic ventricular septal defect in a 4-year-old boy after blunt chest injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mi Kim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic ventricular septal defect (VSD resulting from blunt chest injury is a very rare event. The mechanisms of traumatic VSD have been of little concern to dateuntil now, but two dominant theories have been described. In one, the rupture occurs due to acute compression of the heart; in the other, it is due to myocardial infarction of the septum. The clinical symptoms and timing of presentation are variable, so appropriate diagnosis can be difficult or delayed. Closure of traumatic VSD has been based on a combination of heart failure symptoms, hemodynamics, and defect size. Here, we present a case of a 4-year-old boy who presented with a traumatic VSD following a car accident. He showed normal cardiac structure at the time of injury, but after 8 days, his repeated echocardiography revealed a VSD. He was successfully treated by surgical closure of the VSD, and has been doing well up to the present. This report suggests that the clinician should pay great close attention to the patients injured by blunt chest trauma, keeping in mind the possibility of cardiac injury.

  3. A pregnant woman with spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jònsdòttir, Fjòla; Pinborg, Anja; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain are a clinical challenge. We present a rare but potential life-threatening condition of a pregnant woman with acute abdominal pain. The woman was in gestational week 37 with severe abdominal pain and was admitted to the labour ward. She became haemo......-dynamic instable 24 hours after vaginal delivery, and emergency laparotomi revealed a spontaneous rupture of the right uterine artery. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery is rare but should be considered as a possible cause of acute abdominal pain in pregnant women....

  4. [Bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendons after treatment with ciprofloxacin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarzadeh, Amir Pasha; Ryge, Camilla

    2013-09-23

    We report a case of spontaneous non-traumatic bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendons following ciprofloxacin treatment. A 54-year-old man presented with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture on the left side, tendinitis and partial tear on the right side following few days of treatment with ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily and long-term treatment with prednisolon 10 mg once daily. This rare side effect caused by concurrent treatment with steroids and ciprofloxacin should be kept in mind. Any signs of tendinitis following this treatment should arouse the physicians' suspicion towards ciprofloxacin.

  5. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Mortality: Interrelationships Between Genetics and Acute Systemic and Central Nervous System BDNF Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, Michelle D; Conley, Yvette P; Wagner, Amy K

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have higher mortality rates after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to younger adults. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling is altered in aging and is important to TBI given its role in neuronal survival/plasticity and autonomic function. Following experimental TBI, acute BDNF administration has not been efficacious. Clinically, genetic variation in BDNF (reduced signaling alleles: rs6265, Met-carriers; rs7124442, C-carriers) can be protective against acute mortality. Postacutely, these genotypes carry lower mortality risk in older adults and greater mortality risk among younger adults. Investigate BDNF levels in mortality/outcome following severe TBI in the context of age and genetic risk. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum BDNF were assessed prospectively during the first week following severe TBI (n = 203) and in controls (n = 10). Age, BDNF genotype, and BDNF levels were assessed as mortality/outcome predictors. CSF BDNF levels tended to be higher post-TBI (P = .061) versus controls and were associated with time until death (P = .042). In contrast, serum BDNF levels were reduced post-TBI versus controls (P BDNF serum and gene * age interactions were mortality predictors post-TBI in the same multivariate model. CSF and serum BDNF tended to be negatively correlated post-TBI (P = .07). BDNF levels predicted mortality, in addition to gene * age interactions, suggesting levels capture additional mortality risk. Higher CSF BDNF post-TBI may be detrimental due to injury and age-related increases in pro-apoptotic BDNF target receptors. Negative CSF and serum BDNF correlations post-TBI suggest blood-brain barrier transit alterations. Understanding BDNF signaling in neuronal survival, plasticity, and autonomic function may inform treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. White matter microstructure in chronic moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury: Impact of acute-phase injury-related variables and associations with outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håberg, A K; Olsen, A; Moen, K G; Schirmer-Mikalsen, K; Visser, E; Finnanger, T G; Evensen, K A I; Skandsen, T; Vik, A; Eikenes, L

    2015-07-01

    This study examines how injury mechanisms and early neuroimaging and clinical measures impact white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and tract volumes in the chronic phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and how WM integrity in the chronic phase is associated with different outcome measures obtained at the same time. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T was acquired more than 1 year after TBI in 49 moderate-to-severe-TBI survivors and 50 matched controls. DTI data were analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics and automated tractography. Moderate-to-severe TBI led to widespread FA decreases, MD increases, and tract volume reductions. In severe TBI and in acceleration/deceleration injuries, a specific FA loss was detected. A particular loss of FA was also present in the thalamus and the brainstem in all grades of diffuse axonal injury. Acute-phase Glasgow Coma Scale scores, number of microhemorrhages on T2*, lesion volume on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and duration of posttraumatic amnesia were associated with more widespread FA loss and MD increases in chronic TBI. Episodes of cerebral perfusion pressure 20 mmHg nor acute-phase Rotterdam CT scores were associated with WM changes. Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended scores and performance-based cognitive control functioning were associated with FA and MD changes, but self-reported cognitive control functioning was not. In conclusion, FA loss specifically reflects the primary injury severity and mechanism, whereas FA and MD changes are associated with objective measures of general and cognitive control functioning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Neuroprotection of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in sub-acute traumatic brain injury: not by immediately improving cerebral oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-chun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy can promote the recovery of neural function in patients who have suffered traumatic brain injury (TBI, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygen treatment plays a neuroprotective role in TBI by increasing regional transcranial oxygen saturation (rSO2 and oxygen partial pressure (PaO2. To test this idea, we compared two groups: a control group with 20 healthy people and a treatment group with 40 TBI patients. The 40 patients were given 100% oxygen of HBO for 90 minutes. Changes in rSO2 were measured. The controls were also examined for rSO2 and PaO2 , but received no treatment. rSO2 levels in the patients did not differ significantly after treatment, but levels before and after treatment were significantly lower than those in the control group. PaO2 levels were significantly decreased after the 30-minute HBO treatment. Our findings suggest that there is a disorder of oxygen metabolism in patients with sub-acute TBI. HBO does not immediately affect cerebral oxygen metabolism, and the underlying mechanism still needs to be studied in depth.

  8. [Changes of EEG power spectrum in response to the emotional auditory stimuli in patients in acute and recovery stages of TBI (traumatic brain injury)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnova, G V; Gladun, K V; Sharova, E A; Ivanitskiĭ, A M

    2013-01-01

    We investigated variability of responses to emotionally important auditory stimulation in different groups of TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury) in acute state or recovery. The patients sampling consisted of three different groups: patients in coma or vegetative state, patients with Severe and Moderate TBI in recovery period. Subjects were stimulated with auditory stimuli containing important physiological sounds (coughing, vomiting), emotional sounds (laughing, crying), nature sounds (bird song, barking), unpleasant household sounds (nails scratching the glass), natural sounds (sea, rain, fire) and neutral sounds (white noise). The background encephalographic activity was registered during at least 7 minutes. EEG was recorded while using portable device "Entsefalan". Significant differences of power of the rhythmic activity registered during the presentation of different types of stimuli were analyzed using Mathlab and Statistica 6.0. Results showed that EEG-response to the emotional stimuli differed depending on consciousness level, stimuli type, severity of TBI. Most valuable changes in EEG spectrum power for a patient with TBI were found for unpleasant auditory stimulation. Responsiveness to the pleasant stimulation could be registered in later stages of coming out of coma than to unpleasant stimulation. Alpha-activity is reducing in patients with TBI: the alpha rhythm depression is most evident in the control group, less in group after moderate TBI, and even less in group after severe TBI. Patients in coma or vegetative state didn't show any response in rhythmic power in the frequency of alpha rhythm.

  9. Traumatic shock: the fifth shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Maighdlin W; Watson, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Although, historically, shock associated with traumatic injury has been evaluated through knowledge of the 4 recognized shock patterns--cardiogenic, obstructive, distributive, and hypovolemic--many trauma practitioners view traumatic shock as a unique fifth shock pattern. Although secondary to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome triggered by endogenous danger signals, traumatic shock represents a unique pathological condition that begins with multiple, usually blunt, trauma and may conclude with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. While varying mechanisms of injury may lead to different presentations of shock and cardiovascular decompensation, a unifying theme of traumatic shock is an overwhelming inflammatory response driven by proinflammatory cytokines, and the downstream results of this cytokine storm including, but not limited to, acute respiratory distress syndrome, coagulopathy, sepsis, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Treatment is primarily supportive; however, research into novel therapeutics for traumatic shock is ongoing and promises some direction for future care.

  10. Ruptured jejunal artery aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sílvia; Costa, Alexandre; Pereira, Tiago; Maciel, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs), unlike aortic aneurysms, are very rare, but are also a potentially lethal vascular disease. Jejunal artery aneurysms only account for less than 3% of VAAs, but have a 30% risk of rupture, with 20% death rate, presenting with only few and vague symptoms. We report the case of a 76-year-old man presenting at the emergency department (ED) with a crampy epigastric pain and vomiting. An ultrasound performed diagnosed free abdominal fluid and immediate CT scan diagnosed jejunal artery aneurysm spontaneously rupturing, followed by hypovolaemic shock. Emergent surgery was undertaken, and aneurysmectomy, followed by partial enterectomy with primary anastomosis were performed, because of segmentary jejunal ischaemia. The patient's recovery was unremarkable. High level of suspicion, rapid diagnosis capability and prompt surgical or endovascular intervention, as well as an effective teamwork in the ED are critical to avoid the devastating consequences of ruptured VAAs. PMID:23771962

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of a new ibuprofen 200mg plaster in patients with acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg; Giannetti, Bruno; Connolly, Mark P; Lewis, Fraser; Bhatt, Aomesh

    2018-01-01

    Ibuprofen is used for the treatment of non-serious pain. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of a new ibuprofen plaster for the treatment of pain associated with acute sports impact injuries/contusions. In this randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, placebo controlled, parallel group study, adults (n = 130; 18-58 years of age) diagnosed with acute sports-related blunt soft tissue injury/contusion were randomized to receive either ibuprofen 200 mg plaster or placebo plaster. Plasters were administered once daily for five consecutive days. The primary assessment was area under the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain on movement (POM) over 0 to three days (VAS AUC0-3d). Other endpoints included algometry AUC from 0 to three days (AUC0-3d) and 0 to five days (AUC0-5d), to evaluate improvement of sensitivity at the injured site, and patient and investigator global assessment of efficacy. Safety was monitored throughout the study. The ibuprofen plaster resulted in superior reduction in AUC0-3d compared with placebo; the Least Squares (LS) mean difference was 662.82 mm*h in favour of the ibuprofen 200mg plaster (P = 0.0011). The greater improvement in VAS AUC of POM was also observed after 12 h, 24 h, and five days of therapy. Tenderness also significantly improved with the ibuprofen plaster compared with placebo; LS mean difference in algometry/tenderness AUC0-3d was 1.87 N/cm2*d and AUC0-5d was 1.87 N/cm2*d (P values ≤0.0004). At all study timepoints, a greater percentage of patients and investigators rated the effectiveness of the ibuprofen 200 mg plaster as good/excellent than the placebo plaster. Treatment-emergent adverse events for the ibuprofen plaster were few (≤1.5%) and were mild in severity. The results of this study indicate 200 mg plaster is effective and safe for the treatment of pain due to acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion in adults.

  12. Placenta percreta with spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus in the second trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaire, W J; Louisy, C; Dalessandri, K; Muschenheim, F

    2001-11-01

    Rupture of a pregnant uterus occurs most often in a scarred uterus, and spontaneous rupture of a non-scarred uterus in the early second trimester is rare. A woman with two previous normal vaginal deliveries and no prior trauma to the uterus presented at 16 weeks' gestation with an acute abdomen due to intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A large rupture of the fundus of the uterus was found. A supracervical hysterectomy was carried out, with subsequent good recovery. The specimen showed placenta percreta. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus, due to placenta percreta, should be considered in cases of acute intraperitoneal hemorrhage, even in early pregnancy.

  13. [Application of spiral computerized tomography in the study of traumatic lesions of the thoracic aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengozzi, E; Burzi, M; Miceli, M; Lipparini, M; Sartoni Galloni, S

    2000-09-01

    Acute thoracic aortic injuries account for up to 10-20% of fatalities in high-speed deceleration road accidents and have an estimated immediate fatality rate of 80-90%. Untreated survivors to acute trauma (10-20%) have a dismal prognosis: 30% of them die within 6 hours, 40-50% die within 24 hours, and 90% within 4 months. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of Helical Computed Tomography (Helical CT) in acute traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta, and the role of this technique in the diagnostic management of trauma patients with a strong suspicion of aortic rupture. We compared retrospectively the chest Helical CT findings of 256 trauma patients examined June 1995 through August 1999. All patients underwent a plain chest radiograph in supine recumbency when admitted to the Emergency Room. Chest Helical CT examinations were performed according to trauma score, to associated traumatic lesions and to plain chest radiographic findings. All the examinations were performed with no intravenous contrast agent administration and the pitch 2 technique. After a previous baseline study, contrast-enhanced scans were acquired with pitch 1 in 87 patients. All examinations were assessed for the presence of mediastinal hematoma, periaortic hematoma, traumatic pseudodiverticulum, irregular aortic wall or contour and intimal flap as signs of aortic rupture. Helical CT showed thoracic aortic lesions in 9 of 256 patients examined. In all the 9 cases we found a mediastinal hematoma and all of them had positive plain chest radiographic findings of mediastinal enlargement. Moreover, in 6 cases aortic knob blurring was also evident on plain chest film and in 5 cases depressed left mainstem bronchus and trachea deviation rightwards were observed. All aortic lesions were identified on axial scans and located at the isthmus of level. Aortic rupture was always depicted as pseudodiverticulum of the proximal descending tract and intimal flap. We also found periaortic hematoma in 6 cases

  14. Endovascular Coil Occlusion of Traumatic Intradural Aneurysm with Presentation as Carotid Cavernous Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi S P Karanam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid cavernous fistulae (CCF are abnormal communication between cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery and cavernous sinus. These entities are usually encountered in 0.2-0.8% of patients with traumatic skull base fractures. Traumatic cerebral aneurysms are rare and account for less than 1% of intracranial aneurysms. CCF due to ruptured intradural traumatic aneurysm is very rare and difficult to treat by surgical methods. We present one such case of a 40-year-old man with post-traumatic CCF due to a ruptured intradural aneurysm successfully treated with endovascular embolization.

  15. Functional recovery in acute traumatic spinal cord injury after transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sheng-Li; Luo, Hai-Shui; Li, Jiang-Tao; Xia, Yong-Zhi; Li, Lan; Zhang, Li-Jun; Meng, Hui; Cui, Gao-Yu; Chen, Zhi; Wu, Nan; Lin, Jiang-Kai; Zhu, Gang; Feng, Hua

    2010-11-01

    human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells can facilitate functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury and may prove to be a useful therapeutic strategy to repair the injured spinal cord.

  16. Simulated activity but real trauma: a systematic review on Nintendo Wii injuries based on a case report of an acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sebastian A; Vavken, Patrick; Pagenstert, Geert

    2015-03-01

    Video gaming injuries are classically regarded as eccentric accidents and novelty diagnoses. A case of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear sustained during Wii boxing spurned us to review the literature for other Wii-related injuries and Wii-based posttraumatic rehabilitation. The English literature listed in PubMed was systematically reviewed by searching for "Wii (trauma or injury or fracture)." Full-text articles were included after duplicate, blinded review. The type and treatment of injury as well as the Wii-based rehabilitation programs found were analyzed. Additionally, a new case of an acute ACL tear-sustained playing, Wii boxing, is additionally presented. After exclusion of irrelevant articles, 13 articles describing Wii-related injuries were included reporting on 3 fractures, 6 nonosseous, 2 overuse injuries, and 2 rehabilitation programs using Wii for posttraumatic rehabilitation. Among the presented Wii-related injuries, only 12.5% were treated conservatively, whereas 87.5% underwent either surgical or interventional treatment. Because of the reported case, the literature search was limited to Wii-related injuries excluding other video games. Another limitation of this article lies in the fact that mainly case reports but no controlled trials exist on the topic. Assumingly, primarily the more severe injuries are reported in the literature with an unknown number of possibly minor injuries. Motion-controlled video games, such as Wii, are becoming increasingly popular as a recreational entertainment. Because of their wide acceptance and entertaining nature, they are also increasingly recognized as a tool in rehabilitation. However, although the activity is simulated, injuries are real. Our systematic review shows that Wii gaming can lead to severe injuries, sometimes with lasting limitations.

  17. Percutaneous augmentation of the superior pubic ramus with polymethyl methacrylate: treatment of acute traumatic and chronic insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, Douglas P. [University of Oklahoma, Clinical Radiology of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); D' Souza, Sharon L. [University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Costello, Richard F.; Stapp, Annette M. [Clinical Radiology of Oklahoma, Edmond, OK (United States); Prater, Scott D. [University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Edmond, OK (United States); Van Zandt, Bryan L. [University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Martin, Hal D. [Oklahoma Sports Science and Orthopaedics, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a minimally invasive image-guided procedure that is typically used to treat vertebral body fractures due to osteoporosis or neoplastic involvement. The injection of PMMA into various other locations including the sacrum, acetabulum, pedicles, femur and tibia has been reported previously, and these procedures have, overall, been highly effective at alleviating pain and discomfort. Although the injection of PMMA into the vertebral body is a very common procedure that has been performed for over 2 decades for the percutaneous treatment of vertebral body fractures, the percutaneous injection of PMMA has not been reported in the English literature as treatment for superior pubic ramus fractures. We report the percutaneous treatment of an acute superior pubic ramus fracture and of a chronic insufficiency fracture of the superior pubic ramus using a parasymphyseal approach to access the region of injury. (orig.)

  18. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had had hysteroscopy and repeated curettage7, but it happened during labor and not before labor as in our case. Diagnosis of spontaneous uterine rupture during pregnancy occuring on a scarred uterus can be made by ultrasound scan in which case there can be protrusion of membranes at the site of the scar8. If possible ...

  19. Ruptured Eardrum (Perforated Eardrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your eardrum when the air pressure in your middle ear and the air pressure in the environment are out of balance. If the pressure is ... ruptured, the skin debris can pass into your middle ear and form a cyst. A ... a friendly environment for bacteria and contains proteins that can damage ...

  20. Rupture, waves and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    UENISHI, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but “extraordinary” phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable. PMID:28077808

  1. Rupture, waves and earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Thrust Fault Rupture Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabuchian, Vahe

    Thrust fault earthquakes are investigated in the laboratory by generating dynamic shear ruptures along pre-existing frictional faults in rectangular plates. A considerable body of evidence suggests that dip-slip earthquakes exhibit enhanced ground motions in the acute hanging wall wedge as an outcome of broken symmetry between hanging and foot wall plates with respect to the earth surface. To understand the physical behavior of thrust fault earthquakes, particularly ground motions near the earth surface, ruptures are nucleated in analog laboratory experiments and guided up-dip towards the simulated earth surface. The transient slip event and emitted radiation mimic a natural thrust earthquake. High-speed photography and laser velocimeters capture the rupture evolution, outputting a full-field view of photo-elastic fringe contours proportional to maximum shearing stresses as well as continuous ground motion velocity records at discrete points on the specimen. Earth surface-normal measurements validate selective enhancement of hanging wall ground motions for both sub-Rayleigh and super-shear rupture speeds. The earth surface breaks upon rupture tip arrival to the fault trace, generating prominent Rayleigh surface waves. A rupture wave is sensed in the hanging wall but is, however, absent from the foot wall plate: a direct consequence of proximity from fault to seismometer. Signatures in earth surface-normal records attenuate with distance from the fault trace. Super-shear earthquakes feature greater amplitudes of ground shaking profiles, as expected from the increased tectonic pressures required to induce super-shear transition. Paired stations measure fault parallel and fault normal ground motions at various depths, which yield slip and opening rates through direct subtraction of like components. Peak fault slip and opening rates associated with the rupture tip increase with proximity to the fault trace, a result of selective ground motion amplification in the

  3. Comparative response of platelet fV and plasma fV to activated protein C and relevance to a model of acute traumatic coagulopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Campbell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC has been linked to an increase in activated protein C (aPC from 40 pM in healthy individuals to 175 pM. aPC exerts its activity primarily through cleavage of active coagulation factor Va (fVa. Platelets reportedly possess fVa which is more resistant to aPC cleavage than plasma fVa; this work examines the hypothesis that normal platelets are sufficient to maintain coagulation in the presence of elevated aPC. METHODS: Coagulation responses of normal plasma, fV deficient plasma (fVdp, and isolated normal platelets in fVdp were conducted: prothrombin (PT tests, turbidimetry, and thromboelastography (TEG, including the dose response of aPC on the samples. RESULTS: PT and turbidimetric assays demonstrate that normal plasma is resistant to aPC at doses much higher than those found in ATC. Additionally, an average physiological number of washed normal platelets (200,000 platelets/mm3 was sufficient to eliminate the anti-coagulant effects of aPC up to 10 nM, nearly two orders of magnitude above the ATC concentration and even the steady-state pharmacological concentration of human recombinant aPC, as measured by TEG. aPC also demonstrated no significant effect on clot lysis in normal plasma samples with or without platelets. CONCLUSIONS: Although platelet fVa shows slightly superior resistance to aPC's effects compared to plasma fVa in static models, neither fVa is sufficiently cleaved in simulations of ATC or pharmacologically-delivered aPC to diminish coagulation parameters. aPC is likely a correlative indicator of ATC or may play a cooperative role with other activity altering products generated in ATC.

  4. Design and testing of a controlled electromagnetic spinal cord impactor for use in large animal models of acute traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petteys, Rory J; Spitz, Steven M; Syed, Hasan; Rice, R Andrew; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Goodwin, C Rory; Sciubba, Daniel M; Freedman, Brett A

    2017-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes debilitating neurological dysfunction and has been observed in warfighters injured in IED blasts. Clinical benefit of SCI treatment remains elusive and better large animal models are needed to assess treatment options. Here, we describe a controlled electromagnetic spinal cord impactor for use in large animal models of SCI. A custom spinal cord impactor and platform were fabricated for large animals (e.g., pig, sheep, dog, etc.). Impacts were generated by a voice coil actuator; force and displacement were measured with a load cell and potentiometer respectively. Labview (National Instruments, Austin, TX) software was used to control the impact cycle and import force and displacement data. Software finite impulse response (FIR) filtering was employed for all input data. Silicon tubing was used a surrogate for spinal cord in order to test the device; repeated impacts were performed at 15, 25, and 40 Newtons. Repeated impacts demonstrated predictable results at each target force. The average duration of impact was 71.2 ±6.1ms. At a target force of 40N, the output force was 41.5 ±0.7N. With a target of 25N, the output force was 23.5 ±0.6N; a target of 15Newtons revealed an output force of 15.2 ±1.4N. The calculated acceleration range was 12.5-21.2m/s 2 . This custom spinal cord impactor reliably delivers precise impacts to the spinal cord and will be utilized in future research to study acute traumatic SCI in a large animal. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Possible Risk Factors for Acute Stress Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After an Industrial Explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymur, İbrahim; Sargin, A Emre; Özdel, Kadir; Türkçapar, Hakan M; Çalişgan, Lale; Zamki, Erkut; Demirel, Başak

    2014-03-01

    There have been deaths and injuries after an explosion which happened in an industrial region in Ankara in February 2011. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and to determine the variables which can be the risk factors for PTSD. In this study, we included a total of 197 subjects who were present at the factory building and at the four offices nearby when the disaster occurred. All the participants were assessed one month after the explosion and 157 of them were reassessed six months after the explosion. Socio-demographic information forms were given and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was administered to the participants one month after the explosion. Psychiatric assessments were done using the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis-I disorders (SCID-I). The CAPS was re-applied six month after the disaster. At the first-month assessments, ASD was detected in 37.1% of participants and PTSD in 13.7%, whereas PTSD was observed in 16.6% of subjects at the sixth month of the accident. According to the first month data, having any psychiatric disorder before the incident, physical injury, acquaintances among the dead and the injured people, being involved in the incident and seeing dead people were detected as the risk factors for PTSD. At the sixth month assessment, physical injury, acquaintances among the dead and the injured, being involved in the incident were seen as risk factors for PTSD. ASD and PTSD can be seen after an explosion. Having a previous psychiatric disorder and being directly affected by trauma and being injured are the risk factors for PTSD. This study implies that preventive mental health care services should include the management of current psychiatric condition and employee safety issues.

  6. Is respiration-induced variation in the photoplethysmogram associated with major hypovolemia in patients with acute traumatic injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangyou; Reisner, Andrew T; Gribok, Andrei; Reifman, Jaques

    2010-11-01

    It has been widely accepted that metrics related to respiration-induced waveform variation (RIWV) of the photoplethysmogram (PPG) have been associated with hypovolemia in mechanically ventilated patients and in controlled laboratory environments. In this retrospective study, we investigated if PPG RIWV metrics have diagnostic value for patients with acute hemorrhagic hypovolemia in the prehospital environment. Photoplethysmogram waveforms and basic vital signs were recorded in trauma patients during prehospital transport. Retrospectively, we used automated algorithms to select patient records with all five basic vital signs and 45 s or longer continuous, clean PPG segments. From these segments, we identified the onset and peak of individual heartbeats and computed waveform variations in the beats' peaks and amplitudes: (1) as the range between the maximum and the minimum (max-min) values and (2) as their interquartile range (IQR). We evaluated their receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for major hemorrhage. Separately, we tested whether RIWV metrics have potential independent information beyond basic vital signs by applying multivariate regression. In 344 patients, RIWV max-min yielded areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) not significantly better than a random AUC of 0.50. Respiration-induced waveform variation computed as IQR yielded ROC AUCs of 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.76) and of 0.64 (0.51-0.75), for peak and amplitude measures, respectively. The IQR metrics added independent information to basic vital signs (P < 0.05), but only moderately improved the overall AUC. Photoplethysmogram RIWV measured as IQR is preferable over max-min, and using PPG RIWV may enhance physiologic monitoring of spontaneously breathing patients outside strictly controlled laboratory environments.

  7. Trauma memory characteristics and the development of acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, A; Brewer, N; Meiser-Stedman, R; Nixon, R D V

    2017-03-01

    The present study addresses gaps in knowledge regarding the association between trauma memory processes and posttraumatic stress responses in youth. Our primary goal was to explore the relative contribution of perceptions of trauma memory quality versus narrative trauma memory characteristics to explain overall adjustment. Children (N = 67) were interviewed within four weeks (T1) of an injury leading to hospital treatment and then again eight weeks later (T2). In each interview, the child told a trauma narrative (which were later coded), and answered the Trauma Memory Quality Questionnaire (Meiser-Stedman, Smith, Yule, & Dalgleish, 2007a), a self-report measure indexing the sensory, fragmented, and disorganised characteristics of trauma memory. They then completed measures of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T1 and measures of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T2. Self-reported trauma memory characteristics predicted ASD symptoms cross-sectionally at T1 and PTS symptoms prospectively over time. At both time points, self-reported trauma memory characteristics accounted for all of the unique variance in symptoms initially explained by narrative characteristics. A reduction in self-report ratings, but not the hypothesised narrative features (e.g., disorganised or lexical elements of the narrative), significantly predicted a reduction in PTS symptoms over time. The small sample size and the absence of a within-subjects narrative control were the main limitations of the study. These findings underscore the importance of self-reported trauma memory characteristics to the aetiology of PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coronary artery dissection and acute myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tønnessen Theis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blunt chest trauma might lead to cardiac injury ranging from simple arrhythmias to lethal conditions such as cardiac rupture. We experienced a case of initially overlooked traumatic coronary artery dissection which resulted in acute myocardial infarction (AMI. A high degree of suspicion is needed to diagnose this condition. Based on our case, we will give an overview of relevant literature on this topic. ECG, echocardiography, coronary angiography and cardiac enzymes are valuable tools in diagnosing this rare condition. The time span from coronary artery occlusion to revascularisation must be short if AMI is to be avoided.

  9. Resuscitation and Transfusion Principles for Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    uth.tmc.edu a Associate Professor of Pediatrics , University of Connecticut, Pediatric Intensivist, Department of Pediatrics , Medical Director Surgical...traumatic injury, further study is appropriate in different patient populations, such as those massively bleeding from ruptured aortic aneurysms ,51...Author M anuscript N IH -PA Author M anuscript N IH -PA Author M anuscript to ruptured aortic aneurysms have improved survival with a 1:1 ratio of plasma

  10. A case of an elderly man who required repeated repair of a ventricular septal defect and tricuspid rupture after blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Shigefumi; Imazuru, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Kaori; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Harada, Tadanori; Ota, Hiroo; Ozawa, Naomi; Iida, Mitsuru; Shimokawa, Tomoki

    2017-11-25

    Several cases of traumatic ventricular septal defect (VSD) have been reported. However, traumatic VSD complicated by tricuspid rupture is rare. We report a case of traumatic VSD with tricuspid rupture who required repeated repair of both conditions. A 69-year-old man was transferred to our hospital for emergent surgical repair of traumatic VSD and tricuspid rupture. Although emergent repair was performed, a new left-to-right shunt and moderate tricuspid regurgitation appeared during his postoperative course. A reoperation was performed 4 months after the first operation. The borders of the defect were very fibrotic and strong compared with those in the first operation. Surgical treatment of traumatic VSD should be postponed in hemodynamically stable patients. When emergent repair is performed, careful follow-up is necessary to diagnose new VSD.

  11. Plasma Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Autoantibody Levels during the Acute and Chronic Phases of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, K.K.W. (Kevin K. W.); Yang, Z. (Zhihui); J.K. Yue (John); Zhang, Z. (Zhiqun); E.A. Winkler (Ethan A.); A.M. Puccio (Ava); R. Diaz-Arrastia (Ramon); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); E.L. Yuh (Esther); P. Mukherjee (Pratik); Valadka, A.B. (Alex B.); W.A. Gordon (Wayne A.); D. Okonkwo (David); G. Manley (Geoffrey); S.R. Cooper (Shelly); K. Dams-O'connor (Kristen); A.J. Hricik (Allison); T. Inoue (Tomoo); A.I.R. Maas (Andrew); D.K. Menon (David ); D.M. Schnyer (David); T.K. Sinha (Tuhin); M.J. Vassar (Mary)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe described recently a subacute serum autoantibody response toward glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and its breakdown products 5-10 days after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we expanded our anti-GFAP autoantibody (AutoAb[GFAP]) investigation to the multicenter

  12. Saved from a fatal flight: A ruptured splenic artery aneurysm in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke C. Heitkamp

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In case of pregnant women with acute abdomen and hypovolemia, emergency physicians, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and gynecologists should be aware of the possibility of a ruptured SAA, apart from more common causes like placental abruption, placenta percreta, or uterine rupture. Early recognition and prompt multidisciplinary treatment might save the life of mother and child.

  13. Treatment of ruptures of the lateral ankle ligaments: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenburg, A. C.; van Dijk, C. N.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Marti, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ruptures of the lateral ankle ligaments are very common; however, treatment remains controversial. The aim of the current study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials of existing treatment strategies for acute ruptures of the lateral ankle ligaments.

  14. [Clinical study on 67 cases with uterine rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoxia, Bai; Zhengping, Wang; Xiaofu, Yang

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the incidence, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of uterus rupture. From January 1999 to May 2013, clinical data of 67 cases with uterine rupture in Woman's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University were studied retrospectively. A total of 67 cases of uterine rupture with 21(+2)-39(+2) gestational weeks out of 128 599 deliveries were recorded giving an incidence of uterine rupture was 0.052 1% (67/128 599) . Cesarean scar rupture were found in 59 cases (88%, 59/67) and noncesarean scar rupture were found in 8 cases (12%, 8/67). The causes of uterine rupture include 60 cases of scar uterus (59 cesarean scar cases and 1 myomyectomy scar case), 2 cases of assisted delivery operation trauma, 2 cases of malformed uterus, 3 cases of unknown causes (all with artificial abortion history).Non obstructive dystocia and improper oxytocin use were found to be related with uterine rupture.Fifty-two cases of cesarean scar spontaneous incomplete rupture were found and repaired during repeated cesarean delivery without maternal and fetal complications. The remaining 15 cases need emergency rescue operation for fetal distress or dead fetus, severe acute abdomen, prepartum or postpartum vaginal bleeding even maternal hypovolemia; 6/15 uterine rupture cases were diagnosed with the history, clinical symptoms and signs, 3/15 cases with ultrasonic found dead fetus in the peritoneal cavity before exploratory laparotomy and 6 cases were diagnosed just during laparotomy.Hysterectomy was done in 10/15 cases and uterine repair in 5/15 cases; there was no maternal death and 12 perinatal fetal death (5 cases of mid-late pregnancy termination for deformed fetus) of the 15 uterine rupture cases.One case with hysterectomy was complicated with stress pancreatitis and dysfunction of liver and kidney and discharged 20 days after operation, the remaining 14 cases were discharged 5-7 days postpartum.One case with repaired malformed uterus got pregnancy 4 years later and

  15. A point of care test for interleukin-6 in amniotic fluid in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes: a step toward the early treatment of acute intra-amniotic inflammation/infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaemsaithong, Piya; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Martinez-Varea, Alicia; Dong, Zhong; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Yeo, Lami

    2017-01-01

    Objective Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (preterm PROM) accounts for 30–40% of spontaneous preterm deliveries and thus is a major contributor to perinatal morbidity and mortality. An amniotic fluid (AF) interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration is a key cytokine for the identification of intra-amniotic inflammation, patients at risk of impending preterm delivery, and adverse pregnancy complications. The conventional method to determine IL-6 concentrations in AF is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, this technique is not available in clinical settings, and the results may take several days. A lateral flow-based immunoassay, or point of care (POC) test, has been developed to address this issue. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of AF IL-6 determined by the POC test to that determined by ELISA for the identification of intra-amniotic inflammation in patients with preterm PROM. Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study includes 56 women with singleton pregnancies who presented with preterm PROM. Amniocentesis was performed at the time of diagnosis, and AF was analyzed using cultivation techniques for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as genital mycoplasmas. AF Gram stain and AF white blood cell counts were determined. AF IL-6 concentrations were measured using both lateral flow-based immunoassay and ELISA. The primary outcome was intra-amniotic inflammation defined as AF ELISA IL-6 ≥ 2,600 pg/ml. A previously determined cut-off of 745 pg/ml was used to define a positive POC test. Results 1) The POC test for AF IL-6 concentrations had 97% sensitivity and 96% specificity for the identification of intra-amniotic inflammation, as defined using ELISA among patients with preterm PROM; and 2) the diagnostic performance of the POC test for IL-6 was strongly correlated to that of an ELISA test for the identification of intra-amniotic inflammation and was equivalent for the identification of acute inflammatory

  16. Regional pulmonary edema caused by acute mitral insufficiency after rupture of chordae tendinae with prolaps of the posterior mitral valve; Regionales Lungenoedem bei akuter Mitralinsuffizienz nach Chordae-tendineae-Abriss mit Prolaps des posterioren Mitralsegels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauser, M.; Wiedemer, B.; Fleischmann, D. [Klinikum Lahr (Germany). Medizinische Klinik; Billmann, P. [Klinikum Lahr (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Ennker, J. [Herzzentrum Lahr/Baden (Germany). Abt. fuer Herzchirurgie

    2003-07-01

    An unilateral or predominantly lobar pulmonary edema is an unusual clinical or radiological finding, often misdiagnosed as one of the more common causes of focal lung disease. We report 2 cases of a regional pulmonary edema caused by the acute onset of a severe mitral insufficiency after the rupture of chordae tendinae resulting in a prolaps of the posterior mitral leaflet. In both cases the regional pulmonary edema was initially misdiagnosed as a pneumonic infiltration, which delayed the cardiological diagnostical procedures and the surgical intervention. The mechanism of the regional edema is an excentric regurgitation jet into the left atrium, which is usually directed to the orifice of the right upper lobe pulmonary vein which increases the hydrostatic vascular pressure in the corresponding lung segment. For the confirmation of the diagnosis, transesophageal echogradiographye is helpful in documenting the direction of the regurgitant flow and detecting differential gradients between the right and left pulmonary venous systems. The pulmonary infiltrations, which persisted for several weeks, dissappeared within a few days after surgical mitral-valve-reconstruction in both cases. (orig.) [German] Ein einseitiges oder ueberwiegend lobaeres Lungenoedem ist ein seltener klinischer und radiologischer Befund, der haeufig initial zur Fehldiagnose einer weitaus haeufigeren fokaleren Lungenerkrankung fuehrt. Wir berichten ueber 2 Faelle, bei denen nach Auftreten einer akuten Mitralinsuffizienz auf dem Boden eines Sehnenfadenabrisses am posterioren Mitralsegel ein regionales Lungenoedem zunaechst als pneumonisches Infiltrat fehlgedeutet wurde, was die weitere kardiologische Diagnostik und chirurgische Therapie verzoegerte. Wie in den wenigen in der Literatur beschriebenen Faellen findet sich hierbei ein exzentrischer Regurgitationsjet in den linken Vorhof, der ueblicherweise auf die Einmuendung der rechten oberen Pulmonalvene gerichtet ist und in dem dazugehoerigen

  17. Cardiogenic shock – a look at acute functional mitral incompetence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Functional causes of acute mitral incompetence. Leaflet perforation or chordae tendineae rupture from endocarditis. Dilated cardiomyopathy leads to leaflet tethering. Chordal rupture in myxomatous valvular disease. Acute ischaemic akinesis of wall segments and papillary muscle dysfunction. Papillary muscle rupture due ...

  18. Power Calculations to Select Instruments for Clinical Trial Secondary Endpoints. A Case Study of Instrument Selection for Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Subjects with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoding, Michael W; Schoenfeld, David A; Brown, Samuel M; Hough, Catherine L; Yealy, Donald M; Moss, Marc; Angus, Derek C; Iwashyna, Theodore J

    2017-01-01

    After the sample size of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) is set by the power requirement of its primary endpoint, investigators select secondary endpoints while unable to further adjust sample size. How the sensitivity and specificity of an instrument used to measure these outcomes, together with their expected underlying event rates, affect an RCT's power to measure significant differences in these outcomes is poorly understood. Motivated by the design of an RCT of neuromuscular blockade in acute respiratory distress syndrome, we examined how power to detect a difference in secondary endpoints varies with the sensitivity and specificity of the instrument used to measure such outcomes. We derived a general formula and Stata code for calculating an RCT's power to detect differences in binary outcomes when such outcomes are measured with imperfect sensitivity and specificity. The formula informed the choice of instrument for measuring post-traumatic stress-like symptoms in the Reevaluation of Systemic Early Neuromuscular Blockade RCT ( www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02509078). On the basis of published sensitivities and specificities, the Impact of Events Scale-Revised was predicted to measure a 36% symptom rate, whereas the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms instrument was predicted to measure a 23% rate, if the true underlying rate of post-traumatic stress symptoms were 25%. Despite its lower sensitivity, the briefer Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms instrument provided superior power to detect a difference in rates between trial arms, owing to its higher specificity. Examining instruments' power to detect differences in outcomes may guide their selection when multiple instruments exist, each with different sensitivities and specificities.

  19. Arterial damages in acute elbow dislocations: which diagnostic tests are required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Christoph; Pfefferkorn, Ronny; Schoeffl, Volker

    2016-07-19

    Blunt vessel injuries of peripheral arteries caused by a direct trauma are rare. Studies have described the frequency of arterial ruptures following closed elbow dislocations in 0.3-1.7% of all cases. However, arterial damage does not always necessarily appear as a complete rupture of the vessel with a loss of peripheral circulation and ischaemic symptoms; a relatively strong periarticular system of collaterals can maintain circulation. Furthermore, the traumatic dislocation can also cause intimal tears, arterial dissections and aneurysms or thrombosis. In all cases of vessel injury, including total disruption, a peripheral pulse might still be palpable. 3 weeks after an acute elbow dislocation, we have diagnosed a patient with a long-segment stenosis of the brachial artery and a thrombosis of the radial artery. Therefore, the close anatomic proximity to the neurovascular structures should always be considered in cases of elbow dislocations, even if peripheral pulses are traceable. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Spontaneous Intra-Peritoneal Urinary Bladder Rupture Complicating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pain and anuria of five days duration. He had initially gone into acute urinary retention (AUR) but the painful urge to micturate later abated. This was soon followed. Spontaneous Intra-Peritoneal Urinary. Bladder Rupture Complicating Benign. Prostate Hyperplasia: Case Report. Ajape AA 1 FWACS, Abdulkadir AY 2 FMCR, ...

  1. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    were evaluated. Comparisons were also made for self-reported breast symptoms occurring during the study period and for changes in serum values of antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, and cardiolipin antibodies immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M. The majority of the women with implant rupture...... that implant rupture is a relatively harmless condition, which only rarely progresses and gives rise to notable symptoms. Even so, because of a small risk of silicone spread, the authors suggest that women with implant ruptures be followed clinically, if not operated on. Because implant ruptures often occur...

  2. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten; Sletting, Susanne; Høier-Madsen, Mimi; Fryzek, Jon P; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Kjøller, Kim; Wiik, Allan; Friis, Søren

    2004-07-01

    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether untreated ruptures are associated with changes over time in magnetic resonance imaging findings, serologic markers, or self-reported breast symptoms. A baseline magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed in 1999 on 271 women who were randomly chosen from a larger cohort of women having cosmetic breast implants for a median period of 12 years (range, 3 to 25 years). A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging examination was carried out in 2001, excluding women who underwent explantation in the period between the two magnetic resonance imaging examinations (n = 44). On the basis of these examinations, the authors identified 64 women who had at least one ruptured implant at the first magnetic resonance imaging examination and, for comparison, all women who had intact implants at both examinations (n = 98). Magnetic resonance images from the two examinations were compared and changes in rupture configuration were evaluated. Comparisons were also made for self-reported breast symptoms occurring during the study period and for changes in serum values of antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, and cardiolipin antibodies immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M. The majority of the women with implant rupture had no visible magnetic resonance imaging changes of their ruptured implants. For 11 implants (11 percent) in 10 women, the authors observed progression of silicone seepage, either as a conversion from intracapsular into extracapsular rupture (n = 7), as progression of extra-capsular silicone (n = 3), or as increasing herniation of the silicone within the fibrous capsule (n = 1); however, in most cases, these changes were minor. Some changes could be ascribed to trauma, but

  3. Thompson Test in Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Albertson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available HPI: A 26-year old male presented to the emergency department after experiencing the acute onset of left ankle pain while playing basketball. Upon jumping, he felt a “pop” in his left posterior ankle, followed by pain and difficulty ambulating. His exam was notable for a defect at the left Achilles tendon on palpation. The practitioner performed a Thompson test, which was positive (abnormal on the left. Significant Findings: The left Achilles tendon had a defect on palpation, while the right Achilles tendon was intact. When squeezing the right (unaffected calf, the ankle spontaneously plantar flexed, indicating a negative (normal Thompson test. Upon squeeze of the left (affected calf, the ankle did not plantar flex, signifying a positive (abnormal Thompson test. The diagnosis of left Achilles tendon rupture was confirmed intraoperatively one week later. Discussion: The Achilles tendon (also: calcaneal tendon or heel cord is derived from the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as the soleus muscle. Rupture of the Achilles tendon most commonly occurs in the distal tendon, approximately 2-6 cm from its attachment to the calcaneal tuberosity, in an area of hypovascularity known as the “watershed” or “critical” zone.1-3 The Thompson test (also: Simmonds-Thompson test, described by Simmonds in 1957 and Thompson in 1962, is done while the patient is in the prone position, with feet hanging over the end of a table/gurney, or with the patient kneeling on a stool or chair.4-5 Squeezing the calf of an unaffected limb will cause the ankle to plantar flex, but squeezing the calf of a limb with an Achilles tendon rupture will cause no motion. The sensitivity of the Thompson’s test for the diagnosis of a complete Achilles tendon rupture is 96-100% and the specificity is 93-100%, but data is limited.6-8

  4. Post-traumatic syringomyelia.

    OpenAIRE

    浅野, 雅敏; アサノ, マサトシ

    1994-01-01

    Post-traumatic syringomyelia was previously thought to be an infrequent but serious sequel to spinal cord injury. Clinical and CT studies have shown an incidence of between 1% and 5%, but more recently MRI has suggested an incidence of up to 22%. Twenty spinal cords have been examined after death from two days to 43 years after injury. Four had syrinxes, 20% of the series, approaching the incidence found by MRI. The acute and chronic pathological changes after trauma are described. Post-traum...

  5. Frequência de rupturas agudas de placas e fibroateromas de capa fina em locais de estenose máxima Frecuencia de rupturas agudas de placas y fibroateromas de capa fina en locales de estenosis máxima Frequency of acute plaque ruptures and thin cap atheromas at sites of maximal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Tavora

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Poucos estudos de autópsia relacionam locais de fibroateromas de capa fina (FCF a locais de ruptura aguda de placas em artérias responsáveis, e locais de estreitamento máximo em artérias não responsáveis. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi quantificar e localizar a frequência de FCF em relação aos locais de estenose máxima em placas ateroscleróticas. MÉTODOS: Estudamos 88 corações em vítimas de morte súbita devido a um tromo coronariano sobreposta a ruptura aguda da placa. Fibroateromas de capa fina foram definidos como capa fibrosa FUNDAMENTO: Pocos estudios de autopsia relacionan locales de fibroateromas de capa fina (FCF a locales de ruptura aguda de placas en arterias responsables, y locales de estrechamiento máximo en arterias no responsables. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente estudio fue cuantificar y localizar la frecuencia de FCF con relación a los locales de estenosis máxima en placas ateroscleróticas. MÉTODOS: Estudiamos 88 corazones en víctimas de muerte súbita debido a un trombo coronario sobrepuesto a ruptura aguda de la placa. Fibroateromas de capa fina fueron definidos como capa fibrosa BACKGROUND: There have been few autopsy studies relating sites of thin cap atheroma (TCFA to sites of acute plaque rupture in culprit arteries, and sites of maximal narrowing in non-culprit arteries. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify and locate the frequency of TCFA related to the sites of maximal stenosis in atherosclerotic plaques. METHODS: We studied 88 hearts in victims of sudden death dying with coronary thrombus overlying acute plaque rupture. Thin cap atheromas were defined as fibrous cap < 65 microns overlying a necrotic core. Percent luminal narrowing was determined at the sites of plaque rupture and thin cap atheromas. RESULTS: There were 81 men and 7 women, mean age 50 years ± 9 SD. The plaque rupture was the site of maximal luminal narrowing in 47% of culprit arteries. TCFAs were present in

  6. Traumatic Pneumatocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ching Yang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic pneumatocele is a rare complication of blunt chest trauma with uncertain pathogenesis. It occurs primarily in pediatric patients and is characterized by single or multiple pulmonary cystic lesions concomitant with other type of injuries of the lung parenchyma. Herein we present a case of traumatic pneumatocele in a 3-year-old boy, together with a brief review of the literature. This rare entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions complicating blunt chest trauma, especially in young adults. The disease generally has a benign and self-limiting course.

  7. Total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver in to common bile duct: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robleh, Hassan; Yassine, Fahmi; Driss, Khaiz; Khalid, Elhattabi; Fatima-Zahra, Bensardi; Saad, Berrada; Rachid, Lefriyekh; Abdalaziz, Fadil; Najib, Zerouali Ouariti

    2014-01-01

    Rupture of hydatid liver cyst into biliary tree is frequent complications that involve the common hepatic duct, lobar biliary branches, the small intrahepatic bile ducts,but rarely rupture into common bile duct. The rupture of hydatid cyst is serious life threating event. The authors are reporting a case of total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct. A 50-year-old male patient who presented with acute cholangitis was diagnosed as a case of totally rupture of hydatid cyst on Abdominal CT Scan. Rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct and the gallbladder was confirmed on surgery. Treated by cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage of Common bile duct.

  8. The Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in the Surgical Repair of Bronchial Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been used successfully in critically ill patients with traumatic lung injury and offers an additional treatment modality. ECMO is mainly used as a bridge treatment to delayed surgical management; however, only a few case reports have presented the successful application of ECMO as intraoperative support during the surgical repair of traumatic bronchial injury. A 38-year-old man visited our hospital after a blunt chest trauma. His chest imaging showed hemopneumothorax in the left hemithorax and a finding suspicious for left main bronchus rupture. Bronchoscopy was performed and confirmed a tear in the left main bronchus and a congenital tracheal bronchus. We decided to provide venovenous ECMO support during surgery for bronchial repair. We successfully performed main bronchial repair in this traumatic patient with a congenital tracheal bronchus. We suggest that venovenous ECMO offers a good option for the treatment of bronchial rupture when adequate ventilation is not possible.

  9. Biceps Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Polvino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 55-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of right arm pain. Five days prior to arrival, he attempted to lift himself up on his van and experienced what he described as a “rubber band snapping” in his right arm. He reported severe pain at the time that persisted but lessened in severity. Additionally, he reported increasing bruising over the proximal right arm. He had no history of prior right arm or shoulder injury. Significant findings: Physical exam was significant for ecchymosis and mild swelling of the right bicep. When the right arm was flexed at the elbow, a prominent mass was visible and palpable over the right bicep. Right upper extremity strength was 4/5 with flexion at the elbow. Discussion: The biceps brachii muscle is comprised of a long and short head, which share a common attachment at the bicipital tuberosity on the radius. The short head originates from the coracoid process of the scapula and the long head originates from the supraglenoid tubercle.1 Biceps tendon rupture has been found to occur at a rate of 0.53/100,000 over five years, and is three times more likely to occur in men than women.2 Risk factors for biceps tendon rupture include male sex, old age, increased body mass index, smoking, and pre-existing shoulder pathology.3,4 Diagnosis of biceps tendon rupture is typically a clinical diagnosis utilizing inspection and palpation as well as special testing such as the Speed’s and/or Yergason’s tests. Ultrasound may be used to aid in diagnosis; in full-thickness tears, ultrasound was found to have a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 98%. However, in partial thickness tears ultrasound has a sensitivity of 27% and a specificity of 100%.5 Often considered the gold standard in diagnosis, MRI has been found to have a sensitivity of only 67% and specificity of 98% in detecting complete tears6. Treatment initially consists of rest, ice, compression

  10. Aetiology and pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in cats by histological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely, Marlis; Reese, Sven; Schnabl-Feichter, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine histologically intact and ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cats, in order to evaluate whether degeneration is a prerequisite for rupture. Methods We performed a histological examination of 50 intact and 19 ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cadaver or client-owned cats, respectively, using light microscopy. Cats with stifle pathology were further divided into five age groups in order to investigate the relationship of changes in the ligament with lifespan. Cats with ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments were divided into two groups according to medical history (with presumed history of trauma or without any known history of trauma) in order to investigate the relationship of ligament rupture with a traumatic event. Data from 200 healthy cats were selected randomly and reviewed to make a statistical comparison of cats with and without cranial cruciate ligament rupture (reference group). Results On histological examination, the intact cranial cruciate ligaments showed basic parallel arrangement of the collagen fibres, with no relation to age. While cats of a more advanced age showed fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament - a likely physiological reaction to compression forces over the lifespan - degenerative changes within the fibrocartilage were absent in all cases, regardless of age or rupture status. Cats suffering from cranial cruciate ligament rupture without history of trauma were significantly older than cats in the reference group. Conclusions and relevance This study showed that differentiation of fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament is likely a physiological reaction to compressive forces and not a degenerative change associated with greater risk of rupture in advanced age. This finding in cats is distinct from the known decrease in differentiation of fibrocartilage in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Furthermore, the histological examination

  11. Bilateral Achilles tendon rupture: a report on two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orava, S; Hurme, M; Leppilahti, J

    1996-10-01

    Two cases of traumatic bilateral Achilles tendon rupture are reported. One of the patients was a healthy middle-aged man, who had been an active national-level gymnast 20 years earlier. He had not suffered any complaints of Achilles tendons before. The ruptures occurred when, after a sauna, he showed his guests a vault forwards, which he had been able to perform easily. This time the landing took place on the toes, causing a high peak stretch to the calf muscles and Achilles tendons. The total rupture of both Achilles tendons was treated surgically, with an excellent result 2 days after the trauma. End-to-end suturation and a fascial flap plasty were made on both sides. No macroscopic degeneration could be detected on the rupture sites. He was allowed to walk freely 6 weeks after the surgery. The second case was a 54-year-old woman, who had suffered from Achilles tendinitis and peritendinitis for 2 years. Both tendons had been surgically treated, and severe adhesions and local degenerative changes had been found. The tendon rupture occurred when she injured her left ankle while getting out of the car. Two days later she fell at home, because of the weakness of the left side, and consequently the right Achilles tendon was injured. She was treated conservatively for 10 days, before the surgery was performed. Both tendons were ruptured and an extensive degeneration of the area was observed. The right side suffered from a rerupture, which was again treated surgically. After surgery the recovery was slow, but the final result 3 years later was moderate. Neither of the patients had any systemic diseases.

  12. Spontaneous rupture of pyometra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mallah, Fatemeh; Eftekhar, Tahere; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen...

  13. Repair of Chronic Achilles Ruptures Has a High Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Mark J; DeCarbo, William T; Hofbauer, Mark H; Thun, Joshua D

    2017-10-01

    Despite the low incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in foot and ankle surgery, some authors report a high incidence of symptomatic DVT following Achilles tendon rupture. The purpose of this study was to identify DVT risk factors inherent to Achilles tendon repair to determine which patients may benefit from prophylaxis. One hundred and thirteen patient charts were reviewed following elective and nonelective Achilles tendon repair. For elective repair of insertional or noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy, parameters examined included lateral versus prone positioning and the presence versus absence of a flexor hallucis longus transfer. For nonelective repair, acute Achilles tendon ruptures were compared to chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. Of 113 Achilles tendon repairs, 3 venous thromboembolism (VTE) events (2.65%) occurred including 2 pulmonary emboli (1.77%). Seventeen of these repairs were chronic Achilles tendon ruptures, and all 3 VTE events (17.6%) occurred within this subgroup. Elevated body mass index was associated with VTE in patients with chronic Achilles ruptures although this did not reach significance ( P = .064). No VTE events were reported after repair of 28 acute tendon ruptures or after 68 elective repairs of tendinopathy. Two patients with misdiagnosed partial Achilles tendon tears were excluded because they experienced a VTE event 3 weeks and 5 weeks after injury, prior to surgery. In our retrospective review, chronic Achilles ruptures had a statistically significant higher incidence of VTE compared with acute Achilles ruptures ( P = .048) or elective repair ( P = .0069). Pharmaceutical anticoagulation may be considered for repair of chronic ruptures. Repair of acute ruptures and elective repair may not warrant routine prophylaxis due to a lower incidence of VTE. Prognostic, Level III: Case Control Study.

  14. Traumatic rupture of the descending thoracic aorta | Von Oppell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 1 intra-operatively from cardiac arrhythmia and 2 postoperatively, where major peri-operative haemorrhage had occurred. In contrast, partial heparin-less bypass (N = 5) using a centrifugal vortex pump was used after September 1988, and there were no haemorrhagic or paraplegic complications or mortality in this group.

  15. Short-lived Supershear Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, E.; Xu, S.; Yamashita, F.; Mizoguchi, K.; Takizawa, S.; Kawakata, H.

    2015-12-01

    Fukuyama and Olsen (2002) computed the supershear rupture initiation, propagation and termination process due to a passage of high stress drop area (called asperity) using a boundary integral equation method. They found that supershear rupture continued to propagate after the passage through high stress drop area but it died after a certain propagation distance, which depends on the elastic energy released at the high stress drop area. Here, we could reproduce a similar phenomenon in the laboratory. We conducted large-scale biaxial friction experiments using a pair of meter-scaled metagabbro rock specimens (VP=6.9km/s, VS=3.6km/s) at the National Research institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). We observed several stick slip rupture events that initiated close to an asperity and immediately became supershear ruptures. But after propagating certain distance they died out and co-existing subshear ruptures became prominent. If we look into details, during the supershear rupture, we could see a sequence of rupture acceleration, its short rest and re-acceleration. This feature reminds us of a sequential breakage of small high stress patches as predicted by Fukuyama and Madariaga (2000). These observations might be interpreted under a concept of energy balance where the energy transmission from strain energy released by the asperity to fracture energy consumed at the crack tip was not instantaneously balanced in space. This could be related to the fact that earthquake rupture velocity is rather smooth reported from the finite fault analysis of large earthquakes with seismic waveforms. References Fukuyama, E. and R. Madariaga (2000) Dynamic propagation and interaction of a rupture front on a planar fault, PAGEOPH, 257, 1959-1979. Fukuyama, E. and K.B. Olsen (2002) A condition for super-shear rupture propagation in a heterogeneous stress field, PAGEOPH, 159, 2047-2056.

  16. Rule and rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Treating the ‘state’ as a finished product gets in the way of understanding it. The state is always in the making. This article, which acts as the Introduction to a special issue, argues that political authority is (re-)produced through the process of successfully defining and enforcing rights...... to community membership and rights of access to important resources. Claims to rights prompt the exercise of authority. Struggles over property and citizenship are therefore as much about the scope and constitution of political authority as they are about access to resources and membership of a political...... — is constitutive of state power. Thus this essay argues that various moments of rupture (following periods of conflict, of colonial domination, of socialist, liberal, or authoritarian regimes, et cetera) allow us to see that rights do not simply flow from authority but also constitute it. Authority and rights...

  17. Hemoperitoneum Secondary to Spontaneous Rupture of a Retroperitoneal Varix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick D. Eichele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured retroperitoneal varix is an exceedingly rare condition and a poor prognostic sign with catastrophic and life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. We present a unique case of a 56-year-old female with cirrhosis secondary to primary sclerosing cholangitis who presented with acute abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock prior to a cardiac arrest following a ruptured retroperitoneal varix without prior esophageal varices and a newly identified intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The clinical presentation with abdominal pain and hemorrhagic shock is consistently reported in the relevant literature. Early recognition affords appropriate management and urgent surgical intervention leading to survival.

  18. Pre-hospital and acute management of traumatic spinal cord injury in the Netherlands: survey results urge the need for standardisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, B.L.; Hosman, A.J.; Middendorp, J.J. van; Edwards, M.J.; Grunsven, P.M. van; Meent, H. van de

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Questionnaire survey. OBJECTIVES: Although a range of novel therapeutic approaches for traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) are being trialled in highly standardised, pre-clinical research models, little has been published about the extent of standardisation in health service delivery

  19. Traumatic ocular emergencies: the difficulties associated with their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In black Africa, the severity of traumatic ocular emergencies (TOE) is increased by a lack of ophthalmologists and often inadequate or even the inexistence of surgical ... These TOE were: corneoscleral rupture (63.2%), vitreoretinal iron foreign body (16.8%), retinal detachment (15%), and macula hole (5%).

  20. Subpatch roughness in earthquake rupture investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zielke, O; Mai, P. M

    2016-01-01

    ...) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault's roughness and its seismic characteristics...

  1. The Sentinel Clot Sign: a Useful CT Finding for the Evaluation of Intraperitoneal Bladder Rupture Following Blunt Trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Soo; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Chung, Tae Woong; Yoon, Woong; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kang, Taek Won; Shin, Hee Young [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate the frequency and relevance of the 'sentinel clot' sign on CT for patients with traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture in a retrospective study. During a recent 42-month period, 74 consecutive trauma patients (45 men, 29 women; age range, 12 84 years; mean age, 50.8 years) with gross hematuria were examined by the use of intravenous contrast enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis, followed by retrograde cystography. Contrast-enhanced CT scanning was performed by using a helical CT scanner. CT images were retrospectively reviewed in consensus by two radiologists. The CT findings including the sentinel clot sign, pelvic fracture, traumatic injury to other abdominal viscera, and the degree of intraperitoneal free fluid were assessed and statistically analyzed using the two-tailed x{sup 2} test. Twenty of the 74 patients had intraperitoneal bladder rupture. The sentinel clot sign was seen for 16 patients (80%) with intraperitoneal bladder rupture and for four patients (7%) without intraperitoneal bladder rupture (p < 0.001). Pelvic fracture was noted in five patients (25%) with intraperitoneal bladder rupture and in 39 patients (72%) without intraperitoneal bladder rupture (p < 0.001). Intraperitoneal free fluid was found in all patients (100%) with intraperitoneal bladder rupture, irrespective of an associated intraabdominal visceral injury, whereas 19 (35%) of the 54 patients without intraperitoneal bladder rupture had intraperitoneal free fluid (p < 0.001). Detection and localization of the sentinel clot sign abutting on the bladder dome may improve the accuracy of CT in the diagnosis of traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture, especially when the patients present with gross hematuria.

  2. The Economic Burden of Urinary Tract Infection and Pressure Ulceration in Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Admissions: Evidence for Comparative Economics and Decision Analytics from a Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Barry A B; Dea, Nicolas; Street, John T; Cheng, Christiana L; Rivers, Carly S; Attabib, Najmedden; Kwon, Brian K; Fisher, Charles G; Dvorak, Marcel F

    2017-10-15

    Secondary complications of spinal cord injury (SCI) are a burden to affected individuals and the rest of society. There is limited evidence of the economic burden or cost of complications in SCI populations in Canada, however, which is necessary for comparative economic analyses and decision analytic modeling of possible solutions to these common health problems. Comparative economic analyses can inform resource allocation decisions, but the outputs are only as good as the inputs. In this article, new evidence of the excess or incremental costs of urinary tract infection (UTI) and pressure ulceration (PU) in acute traumatic SCI from an exploratory case series analysis of admissions to a Level I specialized Canadian spine facility (2008-2013) is presented. Participants in a national SCI registry were case-control matched (1:1) on the predicted probability of experiencing UTI or PU during initial acute SCI admission. The excess costs of UTI and PU are estimated as the mean of the differences in total direct acute SCI admission costs (length of stay, accommodation, nursing, pharmacy) from the perspective of the admitting facility between participants matched or paired on demographic and SCI characteristics. Even relatively minor UTI and PU, respectively, added an average of $7,790 (standard deviation [SD] $6,267) and $18,758 (SD $27,574) to the direct cost of acute SCI admission in 2013 Canadian dollars (CAD). This case series analysis established evidence of the excess costs of UTI and PU in acute SCI admissions, which will support decision-informing analyses in SCI.

  3. Validity and Reliability of the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganestam, Ann; Barfod, Kristoffer; Klit, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The best treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture remains debated. Patient-reported outcome measures have become cornerstones in treatment evaluations. The Achilles tendon total rupture score (ATRS) has been developed for this purpose but requires additional validation. The purpose of the present...... study was to validate a Danish translation of the ATRS. The ATRS was translated into Danish according to internationally adopted standards. Of 142 patients, 90 with previous rupture of the Achilles tendon participated in the validity study and 52 in the reliability study. The ATRS showed moderately...... strong correlations with the physical subscores of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (r = .70 to .75; p Achilles questionnaire (r = .71; p

  4. Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method.

  5. Early or delayed limb lengthening after acute shortening in the treatment of traumatic below-knee amputations and Gustilo and Anderson type IIIC open tibial fractures: The results of a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmaksizoglu, F; Koprulu, A S; Unal, M B; Cansu, E

    2010-11-01

    We present the results of 13 patients who suffered severe injuries to the lower leg. Five sustained a traumatic amputation and eight a Gustilo-Anderson type IIIC open fracture. All were treated with debridement, acute shortening and stabilisation of the fracture and vascular reconstruction. Further treatment involved restoration of tibial length by callus distraction through the distal or proximal metaphysis, which was commenced soon after the soft tissues had healed (n = 8) or delayed until union of the fracture (n = 5). All patients were male with a mean age of 28.4 years (17 to 44), and had sustained injury to the leg only. Chen grade II functional status was achieved in all patients. Although the number of patients treated with each strategy was limited, there was no obvious disadvantage in the early lengthening programme, which was completed more quickly.

  6. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Post-Traumatic Stress Physical Injury Families & Friendships Military Sexual Trauma Depression mild Traumatic Brain Injury Life Stress Health & ... Traumatic Stress Physical Injury Anxiety Health & Wellness Military Sexual Trauma Tobacco Community About Depression Life Stress Alcohol & Drugs ...

  7. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Educators Resources for Kids and Teens Childhood Traumatic Grief What is Childhood Traumatic Grief? Children grieve in their own way ... functioning, the child may have a condition called Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG). Thinking about the person who ...

  8. Exposure to war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth among nurses in Gaza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamia, N A; Thabet, A A M; Vostanis, P

    2015-12-01

    What is known on the subject? This study builds on existing research on war-related factors that may affect health-care staff by particularly focusing on trauma exposure in both professional and everyday life, as well as on correlates of later positive psychological changes. What this paper adds to existing knowledge? It shows that one in five nursing staff working in Gaza experienced post-traumatic stress symptoms within the clinical range, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza and after being exposed to substantial trauma during this period. Participants appeared to develop a variety of post-traumatic growth responses following trauma exposure. Although nurses experienced traumatic events both as civilians and in their health-care capacity, personal exposure was strongly associated with PTSD symptoms. What are the implications for practice? Support to nursing and other health-care professionals in war situations should entail different levels, remain available well after an acute conflict, and take into consideration both personal and practice-related traumatic events. Mental health nursing practitioners can play a pivotal role in this. To establish the association between war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and post-traumatic growth among nurses in the Gaza Strip, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza, and during a period of ongoing trauma exposure. This study builds on existing evidence by considering exposure to personal and work-related traumatic events, and on factors associated with later positive psychological adaptation. The sample consisted of 274 randomly selected nurses in Gaza who completed the Gaza Traumatic Events Checklist, PTSD Checklist, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Of the nurses, 19.7% reported full PTSD. There was a significant relationship between traumatic events and PTSD scores; as well as between community-related traumatic events and post-traumatic growth. Participants reported a range of traumatic

  9. The Risk of Achilles Tendon Rupture in the Patients with Achilles Tendinopathy: Healthcare Database Analysis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Yasui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Disorders of the Achilles tendon can be broadly classified into acute and chronic entities. Few studies have established chronic Achilles tendinopathy as a precursor to acute Achilles ruptures. In this study, we assessed the relationship between Achilles tendinopathy and rupture, clarifying the incidence of rupture in the setting of underlying tendinopathy. Methods. The United Healthcare Orthopedic Dataset from the PearlDiver Patient Record Database was used to identify patients with ICD-9 codes for Achilles rupture and/or Achilles tendinopathy. The number of patients with acute rupture, chronic tendinopathy, and rupture following a prior diagnosis of tendinopathy was assessed. Results. Four percent of patients with an underlying diagnosis of Achilles tendinopathy went on to sustain a rupture (7,232 patients. Older patients with tendinopathy were most vulnerable to subsequent rupture. Conclusions. The current study demonstrates that 4.0% of patients who were previously diagnosed with Achilles tendinopathy sustained an Achilles tendon rupture. Additionally, older patients with Achilles tendinopathy were most vulnerable. These findings are important as they can help clinicians more objectively council patients with Achilles tendinopathy.

  10. Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahiyah Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis in women who presented with acute abdomen in pregnancy is highlighted. Early diagnosis and good supportive care by multidisciplinary team are crucial to ensure good maternal and fetal outcomes.

  11. [Tricuspidal valve rupture after blunt chest trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Nestorowicz, Andrzej; Wośko, Jarosław; Zadora, Przemysław; Tomaszewski, Adrzej; Jurko, Cezary

    2011-01-01

    Blunt chest trauma is frequently associated with cardiac contusion and structural damage, most cases only being recognized after death. We report a case of multiple organ trauma, where cardiac failure, caused by tricuspid valve rupture, was markedly delayed. A 21 yr old man was admitted to hospital after a car accident. He was suffering from cerebral contusion and oedema, pulmonary contusion, and a left pneumothorax. He also had multiple fractures of the facial bones, orbit, L4 vertebra and left tibia. He was tracheotomised, and a subdural sensor was inserted for continuous monitoring of intracranial pressure. He was sedated and ventilated for two weeks. On the 12th day, his jaw was reconstructed, and immediately after surgery, mild signs of cardiac failure were observed, which were attributed to cardiac contusion. Two weeks after admission, the patient was weaned from the ventilator, and three days later, his facial bones were reconstructed. Four days later, the signs of cardiac failure reappeared. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed rupture of a head of papillary muscle, with 4th degree tricuspid insufficiency and enlargement of the right ventricle. The ruptured muscle was reconstructed under extracorporeal circulation, and the patient made a satisfactory recovery. Acute tricuspid valve insufficiency, albeit rare, may occur in patients with blunt chest trauma. Sedation and lack of physical activity may delay the definite diagnosis, especially when only transthoracic echocardiography is used. Cardiac arrhythmias, diastolic murmur, or signs of congestive cardiac failure in a chest trauma patient may all suggest some structural damage; therefore, transoesophageal echocardiography should be performed as early as possible in such situations.

  12. Arch vessel injury: geometrical considerations. Implications for the mechanism of traumatic myocardial infarction II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismailov Rovshan M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various types of vascular injury have been reported in the medical literature; the isthmic part of the aorta is at particularly high risk of traumatic rupture. Early diagnosis results in better survival, justifying the search for potential risk factors and diagnostic tests. The aim of this research was to investigate the complex mechanism of blunt injury to the vascular wall with particular focus on the branching region of the vessels. Geometric peculiarities were investigated. Methods Multi-phase equations have been used. The system of equations with certain boundary conditions was solved numerically by applying the finite-difference method with order of approximation equal to 0.0001. Results The degree of curvature (the Dean number is highly informative about the shear stress on the external surface of the vessel. An important function of the blood flow on the external wall is to destroy rouleaux. The viscosity of phase 2 (f2 exceeds, by many times, the viscosity of phase 1 (f1. The major stress created by blood flow is expressed as the shear stress of f2. The volume fraction of rouleaux depends to a greater degree on the concentration of erythrocytes (expressed as the viscosity of the mixture than on the shear stress. The peculiarities of rouleaux formation were assessed and their impact on the local shear stress and, therefore, on the internal wall was determined in relation to the erythrocyte concentration. Conclusion The results of this research take into account certain geometrical peculiarities of the branching part of the vessel. The mathematical model created in this study will improve our understanding of the complex mechanism of blunt injury to the vascular wall and, therefore, conditions such as aortic rupture and traumatic acute myocardial infarction.

  13. Arch vessel injury: geometrical considerations. Implications for the mechanism of traumatic myocardial infarction II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailov, Rovshan M

    2006-09-08

    Various types of vascular injury have been reported in the medical literature; the isthmic part of the aorta is at particularly high risk of traumatic rupture. Early diagnosis results in better survival, justifying the search for potential risk factors and diagnostic tests. The aim of this research was to investigate the complex mechanism of blunt injury to the vascular wall with particular focus on the branching region of the vessels. Geometric peculiarities were investigated. Multi-phase equations have been used. The system of equations with certain boundary conditions was solved numerically by applying the finite-difference method with order of approximation equal to 0.0001. The degree of curvature (the Dean number) is highly informative about the shear stress on the external surface of the vessel. An important function of the blood flow on the external wall is to destroy rouleaux. The viscosity of phase 2 (f2) exceeds, by many times, the viscosity of phase 1 (f1). The major stress created by blood flow is expressed as the shear stress of f2. The volume fraction of rouleaux depends to a greater degree on the concentration of erythrocytes (expressed as the viscosity of the mixture) than on the shear stress. The peculiarities of rouleaux formation were assessed and their impact on the local shear stress and, therefore, on the internal wall was determined in relation to the erythrocyte concentration. The results of this research take into account certain geometrical peculiarities of the branching part of the vessel. The mathematical model created in this study will improve our understanding of the complex mechanism of blunt injury to the vascular wall and, therefore, conditions such as aortic rupture and traumatic acute myocardial infarction.

  14. Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 21-year-old female presented with sudden onset suprapubic abdominal pain associated with dysuria. The patient also experienced near syncope during bowel movements three times three days ago without falling or losing consciousness. She denied fever, nausea, and vomiting. She stated that she was five weeks pregnant by last menstrual period. She had an ultrasound a few weeks before that showed no intrauterine pregnancy, but she had not followed up for additional testing. Significant findings: The patient’s serum beta-hCG was 5,637 mIU/mL. The transvaginal ultrasound showed an empty uterus with free fluid posteriorly in the pelvis and Pouch of Douglas (00:00. A 4.5 cm heterogeneous mass was visible in the left adnexa concerning for an ectopic pregnancy (00:10. Discussion: Ectopic pregnancies are a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as decreased fertility.1,2 Differentiating between an ectopic pregnancy and a normal early pregnancy may be difficult, since ultrasound and quantitative beta-hCG may show inconclusive results.3,4 Patients who have used fertility treatment may further complicate the picture because they are at risk for heterotypic pregnancies.5 Ectopic pregnancies most commonly implant in the fallopian tube, but may alternatively implant in the ovary, cervix, abdomen, or uterine cornua.4 Ultrasonography may show an empty uterus, adnexal mass, pelvic free fluid, or an extra-uterine gestational sac, yolk sac, and/or embryo.6 Treatment options for ectopic pregnancy include surgery or methotrexate.2,4 Some patients may be candidates for close outpatient surveillance if the diagnosis is unclear or in very limited cases for early, non-ruptured ectopic pregnancies.2,4

  15. Cough induced rib fracture, rupture of the diaphragm and abdominal herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurl Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cough can be associated with many complications. In this article, we present a 59 year old male patient with a very rare combination of a cough related stress fracture of the ninth rib, a traumatic rupture of the diaphragm, and an abdominal wall herniation. The hernia was repaired through surgical treatment without bowel resection, the diaphragm and the internal and oblique abdominal muscle were adapted, and the abdomen was reinforced with a prolene net. Although each individual injury is well documented in the literature, the combination of rib fracture, abdominal herniation and diaphragm rupture has not been reported.

  16. A case of spontaneous gastric rupture in a 5 years girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Salerno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of spontaneous gastric rupture in a child of 5 years old. The patient reached us in a serious condition; the anamnesis was negative for traumatic events or gastrointestinal disorders. An abdominal X-ray and CT scan revealed free air and fluid in the abdominal cavity, leading to the diagnosis of gastro-intestinal perforation. Submitted to urgent surgery, a rupture of the posterior wall of the stomach was found that was treated with gastrectomy “à la demande”. The surgery follow-up was regular. Morphological and immunohistochemical study showed some muscular abnormalities of the muscular gastric wall.

  17. Management of extensor mechanism rupture after TKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, A G

    2012-11-01

    Disruption of the extensor mechanism in total knee arthroplasty may occur by tubercle avulsion, patellar or quadriceps tendon rupture, or patella fracture, and whether occurring intra-operatively or post-operatively can be difficult to manage and is associated with a significant rate of failure and associated complications. This surgery is frequently performed in compromised tissues, and repairs must frequently be protected with cerclage wiring and/or augmentation with local tendon (semi-tendinosis, gracilis) which may also be used to treat soft-tissue loss in the face of chronic disruption. Quadriceps rupture may be treated with conservative therapy if the patient retains active extension. Component loosening or loss of active extension of 20° or greater are clear indications for surgical treatment of patellar fracture. Acute patellar tendon disruption may be treated by primary repair. Chronic extensor failure is often complicated by tissue loss and retraction can be treated with medial gastrocnemius flaps, achilles tendon allografts, and complete extensor mechanism allografts. Attention to fixing the graft in full extension is mandatory to prevent severe extensor lag as the graft stretches out over time.

  18. Traumatic callosotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Cukiert

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available In a 33 years-old epileptic woman with a traumatic impact to the vertex, clinical and radiological studies (skull X-R, CT and MRI disclosed an extensive, callosal section under the topography of the falx, associated to frontonasal contusions. There was a significant improvement in the epileptic syndrome. No interhemispheric disconnection syndrome could be determined, which is compatible with the posterior regions of the corpus callosum having been spared. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the most extensive callosal injury documented by MRI to date.

  19. Spontaneous haemorrhage and rupture of third ventricular colloid cyst.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbodo, Elisha

    2012-01-01

    Acute bleeding within a colloid cyst of the third ventricle represents a rare event causing sudden increase in the cyst volume that may lead to acute hydrocephalus and rapid neurological deterioration. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of haemorrhagic third ventricular colloid cyst and its management. A 77-year-old ex-smoker presented with unsteady gait, incontinence and gradually worsening confusion over a 3-week period. Brain CT scan findings were highly suggestive of a third ventricular colloid cyst with intraventricular rupture. He underwent cyst excision and histopathology, which confirmed the radiological diagnosis with evidence of haemorrhage within the cyst. A ventriculo peritoneal shunt was performed for delayed hydrocephalus. Surgical management of these patients must include emergency ventriculostomy followed by prompt surgical removal of the haemorrhagic cyst.

  20. Manual for the psychotherapeutic treatment of acute and post-traumatic stress disorders following multiple shocks from implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jochen; Titscher, Georg; Peregrinova, Ludmila; Kirsch, Holger

    2013-01-01

    In view of the increasing number of implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), the number of people suffering from so-called "multiple ICD shocks" is also increasing. The delivery of more than five shocks (appropriate or inappropriate) in 12 months or three or more shocks (so called multiple shocks) in a short time period (24 hours) leads to an increasing number of patients suffering from severe psychological distress (anxiety disorder, panic disorder, adjustment disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder). Untreated persons show chronic disease processes and a low rate of spontaneous remission and have an increased morbidity and mortality. Few papers have been published concerning the psychotherapeutic treatment for these patients. The aim of this study is to develop a psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with a post-traumatic stress disorder or adjustment disorder after multiple ICD shocks. Explorative feasibility study: Treatment of 22 patients as a natural design without randomisation and without control group. The period of recruitment was three years, from March 2007 to March 2010. The study consisted of two phases: in the first phase (pilot study) we tested different components and dosages of psychotherapeutic treatments. The final intervention programme is presented in this paper. In the second phase (follow-up study) we assessed the residual post-traumatic stress symptoms in these ICD patients. The time between treatment and follow-up measurement was 12 to 30 months. Thirty-one patients were assigned to the Department of Psychocardiology after multiple shocks. The sample consisted of 22 patients who had a post-traumatic stress disorder or an adjustment disorder and were willing and able to participate. They were invited for psychological treatment. 18 of them could be included into the follow-up study. After the clinical assessment at the beginning and at the end of the inpatient treatment a post-treatment assessment with questionnaires followed. In